September 22 – 24, 2009
MIT Campus, Cambridge, MA
The annual EmTech@MIT conference gives you access to the most innovative labs, companies, and entrepreneurs from around the world and shows you where to lead your organization in order to stay ahead of the curve.
EmTech@MIT brings Technology Review’s mission to life by showcasing the most important emerging technologies and explaining their impact on you, our audience. EmTech@MIT is packed with groundbreaking demos, thought-provoking keynotes, interactive breakout sessions, and opportunities for exclusive networking with our senior-level audience.
Join the most important leaders in technology as we spotlight the critical innovations that will drive our economy forward—many of which you have not yet seen or read about.
2009 Conference Highlights
- New! Lab to Market Workshop that explores technological innovation and tackles how to enter the marketplace in a tough economic climate
- Powerful keynotes and interactive breakout sessions
- New! Preview Sessions that give you a first look at powerful emerging technologies
- Unveiling of the 2009 TR35—the top 35 innovators under the age of 35
Why attend EmTech@MIT?
- To discover critical innovations across the technology spectrum, in industries including energy, biotechnology, IT, and the Web
- To understand how up-and-coming trends in these areas are going to impact your business
- To network with 1,000 innovators and leaders in business and technology, including CEOs, CTOs, CIOs, policy leaders, entrepreneurs, venture investors, and more
Who attends EmTech@MIT?
Senior Business and Technology Leaders. Each year, EmTech@MIT attracts top decision makers from the technology, engineering, investment, and management communities. Attendees include leaders (CXO or director level) from organizations such as
Adobe Systems • Alcatel-Lucent • Amazon Web Services • Bank of America • Bell South • BP • Cisco Systems • Columbia University • Department of Defense DTSA • Deutsche Telekom Group • ESPN • FedEx • Hewlett-Packard • IBM • Intel • Johnson & Johnson • JPMorgan Investment Management • Juniper Networks • Mayo Clinic • Microsoft • NSTAR • Office of Naval Research • PricewaterhouseCoopers • Samsung Electronics • Sun Microsystems • Toyota • United States Senate • and many more!
Register by June 1, 2009, and save $500 on any full-conference package!
Don’t miss the dynamic keynotes and thought-provoking breakout sessions from EmTech08. Click here
to register and view videos.
Special Information from – EurActiv
Mittelstand lobt Mehrwertsteuersenkungen [DE]
Der Vertreter von kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen haben die Entscheidung der EU-Finanzminister zu Mehrwertsteuerkürzungen in bestimmten Bereichen begrüßt und besonders die Sicherheit, die die Kürzungen für ihre Unternehmen bringen, gelobt.
Rumänien widersetzt sich Kommission und hebt Alkoholsteuern auf
Das Unterhaus des rumänischen Parlaments hat einstimmig für die Aufhebung der Verbrauchssteuern auf traditionelle, selbst gebrannte hochprozentige Getränke gestimmt, obwohl der EU-Beitrittsvertrag für Rumänien vorschreibt, Verbrauchssteuern auf selbst gebrannten Alkohol zu erheben.
In den neuen EU-Mitgliedstaaten wird derzeit viel über die Einführung von Einheitssteuern diskutiert und Rufe nach Steuersenkungen und -vereinfachungen sind auch anderswo in Europa zu hören. (mehr)
In ihrem Richtlinienentwurf vom Juli 2002 schlägt die Kommission vor, für Dieselkraftstoff für gewerbliche Zwecke eine gesonderte Steuerkategorie einzuführen. (mehr)
Analysen und Kommentare
[From – ]
The University of Kent’s Brussels School of International Studies is a specialised postgraduate school offering advanced international studies in Brussels, Belgium. Our students benefit from the unique advantages of a prestigious degree from a renowned British University, with excellent opportunities for networking and professional advancement offered by our location in the cosmopolitan and politically important “Capital of Europe”.
The Brussels School of International Studies offers the following advanced programmes:
[From – ]
BSIS, University of Kent, Boulevard de la Plaine 5, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
Electronic Textiles Being Made
Textiles coated with carbon nanotubes form electronic sensors that look and feel like ordinary cotton.
Nanotechnology X-Carbon Particles Coating for Cotton Thread and Fibers to use for Possible Electronics Applications
Jian Zhu pulls a cotton thread out of the nano¬tube solution, where it’s been soaking for about two minutes. Zhu will allow the thread to dry and then repeat the process about nine times to maximize the thread’s electrical properties.
Photo by: Fabrizio Costantini
Read the full article:
Nanotubes Come into Fashion
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- 6th Annual MITX Technology Awards
- June 16, 2009
- Boston, MA
- Produced by MITX, the 6th Annual Technology Awards is a regional competition that recognizes and celebrates the most innovative technologies and services developed in New England. The competition provides a powerful opportunity for start-ups and mature technology companies alike to showcase their technologies to the media, investment and general business community. Categories include: analytics, cloud computing, marketing/customer technologies, rich media and social collaboration. Enter by Friday, April 3rd at www.mitxawards.org/technology.
- Nanotech Europe 2009
- September 28-30, 2009
- Berlin, Germany
- Nanotech Europe is Europe’s largest annual nanotechnology conference and exhibition; a meeting place for the global nanotechnology community including researchers, industry, policymakers and investors. Nanotech Europe 2009 will be held 28 -30 September 2009 in Berlin, Germany. The fifth Nanotech Europe has a broad scope, covering leading-edge research, industrial applications and cross-cutting topics including: electronics, energy, transportation, healthcare, safety and investment.
To see the speaker line-up and more information, visit: www.nanotech.net
- 2009 Medical Innovation Summit
- October 5-7, 2009
- Cleveland, OH
- CEOs, leading venture capitalists, entrepreneurs, clinicians and top government officials join to learn about the latest innovations in cancer therapy, diagnostics and management. Get fresh intelligence from the most authoritative voices in business and science; hear and take part in smart, fast-moving debates on the hottest topics such as contemporary cancer treatments and the revolution in radiotherapy technology; network with people like yourself who are passionate about medical innovation and see live surgeries by renowned Cleveland Clinic specialists.
For details and to register: www.ClevelandClinic.org/innovations/summit
New on this site
Women in Peacekeeping: The Power to Empower
Over the past six decades, United Nations peacekeeping has evolved into one of the main tools used by the international community to manage complex crises that threaten international peace and security. Today, more than 110,000 men and women serve as peacekeepers – military, police and civilian – in 16 peacekeeping operations around the world, from the arid lands of Darfur, to the mountains of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the shores of Haiti. The number of countries that now contribute police and military personnel has reached 120, an all time high. This participation not only bolsters the strength of UN operations; it is also a clear demonstration of widespread respect for, dependence on and confidence in United Nations peacekeeping.
In 2000, the UN Security Council adopted its landmark Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. For the first time in an omnibus resolution, the Council recognized that women bear the brunt of armed conflicts, and should have a commensurate role in their prevention and resolution.
The resolution stressed the importance of women’s equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security. Among its many recommendations, the resolution called for an expansion of the role and contribution of women in United Nations peacekeeping operations, including in military, police, and civilian roles, as well as in positions of leadership.
After the adoption of Resolution 1325, the United Nations Headquarters, peacekeeping operations and Member States have been working to meet these goals, but progress is far from satisfactory. On the civilian side, the percentage of women recruited, hired and deployed by the Secretariat to work in peacekeeping operations has reached 30 per cent, bringing gender parity well within reach. Progress has been much slower on the uniformed components of UN peacekeeping operations, which Member States contribute and now have less than 3 per cent women. This includes 8 per cent of the 10,000 police officers and 2 per cent of the 80,000 military personnel.
Peacekeeping has evolved from its traditional role of monitoring ceasefire agreements and borders between sovereign States to carrying out large scale multi-dimensional peacekeeping operations often addressing civil wars. These newer missions are mandated to facilitate political processes through the promotion of national dialogue and reconciliation; protect civilians; assist in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of combatants; support the organization of elections; protect and promote human rights; promote reform of the domestic security sector; and assist in restoring the rule of law.
These expanded responsibilities make the need for more women peacekeepers more pressing than ever. In all of these fields, women peacekeepers have proven that they can perform the same roles, to the same standards and under the same difficult conditions, as their male counterparts. In many cases, women are better-placed to carry out peacekeeping tasks, including interviewing victims of sexual and gender-based violence, working in women’s prisons, assisting female ex-combatants during the process of demobilizing and reintegration into civilian life, and mentoring female cadets at police academies.
Adding to the value of this contribution, female peacekeepers act as role models in the local environment, inspiring, by their very example, women and girls in the often male-dominated societies where they serve. Demonstrating to these women and girls that they can do anything – in the realm of politics, security, law and order, medicine, journalism and beyond – the female blue helmets truly embody the concept, “Power to Empower.”
United Nations Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Development (24 – 26 June 2009, UN Headquarters)
The United Nations is convening a three-day summit of world leaders from 24 to 26 June 2009 at its New York Headquarters to assess the worst global economic downturn since the Great Depression. The aim is to identify emergency and long-term responses to mitigate the impact of the crisis, especially on vulnerable populations, and initiate a needed dialogue on the transformation of the international financial architecture, taking into account the needs and concerns of all Member States.
The United Nations summit of world leaders in June was mandated at the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development, held in December 2008 in Doha, Qatar. Member States requested the General Assembly President Miguel d’Escoto Brockmann to organize the meeting “at the highest level”.
«We have an historic opportunity —and a collective responsibility— to bring new stability and sustainability to the international economic financial order.»
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Financial and economic crisis
The world economy is mired in the most severe economic and financial crisis since the Great Depression, which threatens the ability of countries to confront issues such as poverty, hunger and disease. As the crisis deepens, the impact on developing countries is rapidly worsening, particularly in terms of rising unemployment and a widening external financing gap. A sharp decline in international trade flows, a collapse in commodity prices, a drop in international tourism, and a moderation in remittances have contributed to a significant deterioration in the current account balances of many developing countries.
DESA plays a major convening role to support intergovernmental dialogue and coordinated courses of action to address the challenge. The Department serves as the Secretariat of the United Nations Conferences on Financing for Development and many of the functional commissions of the Economic and Social Council. All of these conferences play a key role in addressing the economic and social impact of the current crisis on developing countries.
The Doha Declaration on Financing for Development, adopted by consensus by the Member States on 2 December 2008 during the four-day Follow-up International Conference, calls for a United Nations Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Development. The conference will take place from 24-26 June 2009 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
The Commission for Social Development held experts panels on the financial crisis and its impact on development and stressed that countries must work together to ensure that the world’s most vulnerable do not bear the brunt of the turmoil.
The food crisis, climate crisis, financial crisis and a global recession are all interconnected and the Commission on Sustainable Development expressed concern on their impact on sustainable development, including trade financing for food and other essential imports as well as farmers’ access to credit.
The Commission on the Status of Women focused on the gender perspective of the financial crisis as an emerging issue where disproportionate burden on women was discussed.
The implications of statistics arising from the systemic aspects of the global financial crisis and economic downturn were the focus at the 2009 session of the Statistical Commission. Opportunities were explored how statisticians could accelerate the availability of macroeconomic estimates.
The Department serves with its analysis, research and publications as a think tank within the United Nations in the area of economic and social affairs. Key economic policies are spelled out in the flagship publication on the World Economic Situation and Prospects. This is seen as a point of reference for discussion on economic, social and related issues, becoming the analytical basis for agreement.
DESA focuses in particular on countries with vulnerable economies, including Africa and Small Island Developing States, and conducts analytical studies on the crisis to support the intergovernmental consultations. Research also addresses women’s control over economic resources and access to financial aid.
Generating high quality estimates of economic performance have become an essential output of DESA during the crisis and resulted in a need to develop additional indicators on the performance of the economy and the financial markets.
DESA’s capacity development interventions in the context of the crisis provides supplementary macroeconomic advisory capacity (SMAC) to the Financial Crisis Working Group, as well as through direct advice to developed countries. DESA also assists countries to understand and deal with the social and sustainable development dimension of the crisis and helps countries to enhance their statistical data gathering in general, and on the financial and social aspects of the crisis in particular. DESA draws on its extensive network of partners to provide capacity development services.
The department also focuses during the current crisis on the impact of external shocks on poverty and social vulnerability and assists countries in macroeconomic policy analysis, in particular for the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The availability of MDG indicators and data provides instruments for monitoring these trends for timely intervention and action.
Furthermore, DESA supports the 2010 Population Census to be conducted in most countries of the world and its outcome will also provide information on migration, housing and employment, affected by the current financial and economic crisis.
Europeans challenge Europe
- Emmanuel Morucci: Pourquoi les leaders politiques ne parlent pas d’Europe?
- viharg: Bulgarian Nuclear Plant Project Delayed by Elections
- Challenge for Europe: Publier les bilans environnementaux et sociaux des entreprises cotées en Bourse ?
- Challenge for Europe: Publishing the environmental and social assessments of stock exchange registered companies
[from – ]
( ALSO – )
[From – ]
Learn Physics in 24 Hours
Rich-Media Physics Video Tutorials, Breakthrough Rapid Learning System.
(My Noter – I don’t know about the above site – it looked interesting and was an ad on one of the pages I noticed. There was another one from the other day that turned out to be very good. It is here – )
* ICAM 2009
11th International Conference on Advanced Materials – VIII Encontro SBPMat
11th International Conference on Advanced Materials – VIII Encontro SBPMat Image
September 20 – 25, 2009
Rio de Janeiro
View Official Conference Web site
The International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM) is one of the prestigious conferences of the International Union of Materials Research Societies (IUMRS) and is held in alternate years. The earlier conferences in this series were held in Beijing, China (1999), Cancun, Mexico (2001), Yokohama, Japan (2003), Singapore (2005) and Bangalore (2007). The ICAM 2009 is organized together with the VIII Brazilian MRS Meeting — VIII Encontro SBPMat. This event will be held in the beautiful city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20 to 25 September 2009. Thirty technical symposia, four plenary lectures, an Energy Forum and an exhibition are envisaged. Each symposium will have invited talks, contributed oral and poster presentations.
A range of topics at the frontiers of material research of contemporary importance for science, technology and engineering will be highlighted. A galaxy of distinguished scientists will be present, delivering plenary and invited talks, among more than 2000 delegates.
The abstract submission deadline for this conference is May 30, 2009. Information regarding the topical symposia can be found in the links below. For complete information regarding this conference, we invite you to view the official conference Web site.
* View Visa Information
* A – Advances on Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Applications
* B – Mechanical Properties of Materials at the Nanometer Length Scales
* C – Carbon Nanostructures: From properties to Applications
* D – Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Inorganic Nanoparticles
* E – Magnetic Materials at the Nanoscale
* F – Solving Nanostructures through Electron Microscopy
* G – Medical Applications of Nanotechnology
* H – New Developments in Biomaterials
* I – New Materials and Processes for Sensing and Biosensing
* J – Materials for Portable Energy Sources
* K – Innovation in Fuel Cells: from Materials to Novel Devices
* L – Environmentally Benign Materials
* M – Frontiers in Photonic and Photovoltaic Materials and Processes
* N – Materials for Nuclear Power Generation
* O – Materials for Direct Energy Conversion Systems
* P – Designer Polymeric Nano and Micro-Structures
* Q – Materials and Processes for Large-Area Electronics
* R – Protective Coating: Advanced Surface Engineering
* S – Current Trends in Oxide Materials
* T – Functional Materials For Organic Electronic and Nanotechnology
* U – Advances in Structural Ceramics from Processing to Applications
* V – Structures and Properties of Metastable Materials
* W – New Developments in the Processing and Applications of Cu-ad Mo-Base Alloys
* X – Processing, structure and properties of advanced metallic materials
* Y – Computational Modeling and Data Driven Materials Discovery
* Z – Phase Transformation in Metallic Systems: Current issues
* AA – Materials Education: Resources, Opportunities and Challenges
* BB – From Theory to Experiment: Advances in engineering materials
Materials Research Society
506 Keystone Drive, Warrendale, PA, 15086-7573, USA
Phone: 724 779.3003, Fax: 724 779.8313,
(Something really interesting – check new information just coming out now)
The Organizers of the International Congress of Mathematicians 2010 in Hyderabad have issued the official “First Announcement of ICM 2010” and invited all mathematicians to preregister at the ICM 2010 Website.
ICM – International Congress of Mathematicians
General Information about ICMs
- Program Committees for ICMs
- Bids to Host an ICM
- List of all ICM plenary and invited speakers since 1950
A data base has been compiled from the proceedings volumes of the ICMs since 1950. The data base can be viewed in several versions:
The data base probably contains still some errors. Moreover, the section names have changed over the years considerably and are contained in the data base only in some abbreviated form. This means that the “section view” currently provides only a somewhat inconsistent picture.We encourage readers who found errors in the data base to send the observation (and if possible, the correction) to firstname.lastname@example.org so that the data can be updated.
ICM related Grants
The International Mathematical Union, in cooperation with other mathematical organizations and the local Organizing Committee of an ICM, provides Grants to Young Mathematicians as well as Grants to Senior Mathematicians from developing and economically disadvantaged countries. At each ICM, the local organizers usually offer further grant programs.
More information can be found here.
The IMU server runs under responsibility of the International Mathematical Union (IMU).
Please send suggestions and corrections to IMU Secretary
Martin Grötschel, Secretary
International Mathematical Union
Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB)
D-14195 Berlin, Germany
Fax: +49 30 84185 – 269
This server is hosted by Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB), Germany, Berlin, Germany.
Please send technical suggestions and corrections to
Iraqi teen tackles maths puzzle, but not the first: university
STOCKHOLM (AFP) — A 16-year-old Iraqi immigrant, who figured out a solution to a complex maths puzzle, was not the first person to come up with a successful formula, Sweden’s Uppsala University said in a statement Thursday.
Swedish media, including the website of the Dagens Nyheter daily, reported Thursday that Mohamed Altoumaimi had found a formula to explain and simplify the so-called Bernoulli numbers, a sequence of calculations named after the 17th century Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli.
“Senior lecturer Jan-Aake Lindhal verified the formula, but added that although correct, it was well known and readily available in several databases,” the statement said.
[ . . . ]
Teen figures out 300-year-old math problem
Published: May 28, 2009 at 12:11 PM
UPPSALA, Sweden, May 28 (UPI) — A 16-year-old in Sweden says when he first presented his solution to a 300-year-old mathematics formula, he was met with skepticism from his teachers.
Mohamed Altoumaimi, an Iraqi immigrant to Sweden, said undeterred, he presented the formula explaining the calculation of Bernoulli numbers to professors at Sweden’s Uppsala University, The Local said Thursday.
[ . . . ]
The Local said while the Bernoulli numbers formula had previously been solved, Altoumaimi’s work was praised as a result of his young age and educational level.
“It’s really exciting, now all the teachers have come and congratulated me,” the teen said of the response to his formula.
Bernoulli numbers are sequenced rational numbers connected to number theory.
“Right away they wanted to take a look at all my calculations and the documents where I show that the formula really works,” the teen added regarding Uppsala professors’ interest in his work.
[Quote from above article]
Predicting the unpredictable to assess the risk of a cataclysm
Analyses incorporating a ‘fat-tailed’ expected tail loss predicted last year’s market shock while other analysts were blissfully unaware, a statistician claims
By Jane Baird
Friday, May 29, 2009, Page 9
Professor Zari Rachev scorns the idea that market cataclysms cannot be forecast. He says his statistical models have predicted them, and his customers agree.
His daughter is now president of New York-based company FinAnalytica, which uses his models to provide investors and risk managers with a risk indicator that takes into account the worst-case scenarios.
As those who have so far survived the financial crisis pick over the wreckage to develop enhanced predictors of market risk, Rachev’s are among the offerings for people who believe statistical models can help.
[ . . . ]
Streams of financial commentators have over the past year reveled in a desire to present the crash as coming out of the blue to math whizzes paid a fortune to study the statistical stars and presage such events.
But Rachev is one of those who say they saw it coming — because his models took the worst possible events into account.
DEPARTING FROM VAR
In the case of the Dow Jones index, his fat-tailed expected tail loss — a measure of the potential daily average loss in the worst 1 percent of scenarios — gave investors notice of rising risk.
[ . . . ]
“You see some indications the market is starting to behave in a more volatile way before you see the largest negative shock,” he said.
Rachev first turned to the problem of calculating the probabilities of extreme events after the 1987 market crash.
No model then could explain the crash, the probability of which “was computed at slightly more than the life of the universe,” he said.
The FinAnalytica model now predicts a crash of that size can occur every 30 years on average.
The Bulgarian-born mathematician has tackled the problem from four different directions, including theories on fractals and clustering of volatility, and produced his models by 2002.
Racheva-Iotova said investors will still need to exercise judgment.
“Even with the best output, the model must be used properly in the decision-making process,” she said.
And the model needs data that give as full a risk picture as possible.
“The problem of data-entry implementation should not be underestimated,” Racheva-Iotova said.
The core of the analysis by the United Nations of the financial crisis is presented in the World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP), which provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues.
In addition, through its Monthly Briefing on the World Economic Situation and Prospects, DESA provides a regular update on the latest economic and social developments at the global and regional level. They are complemented by UN-DESA Policy Briefs on more specific policy issues and challenges. On the quantitative side, the Department generates crucial input for its macroeconomic reports through Project Link, which is a co-operative, non-governmental, international research activity.
In partnership with developing countries, development account projects aim at capacity-building to achieve a distinct development impact, including macroeconomic policy analysis on the impact of external shocks on poverty and social vulnerability. In addition, the MDG Gap Task Force represents more than 20 UN agencies and tracks commitments and their fulfillment in the areas of official development assistance, market access (trade) and debt relief.
A wide range of data is generated by DESA, including the global economic outlook data, LDC data and the WESP Annex tables.
DESA focus areas
(And another way to teach math – through art – Pythagoraen Theorem in Art)
World famous Ndebele artist Esther Mahlangu walks past a mural she and others started to paint at the Sci-Bono museum in Johannesburg Wednesday May 27, 2009. The art of the Ndebele _ panels of geometric shapes outlined in black and filled in in bright primary colors _ is known around the world. On Wednesday two world renowned Ndebele artists painted their vibrant, geometric designs on the walls of a science museum in a project that uses art and tradition to teach math. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay) (Jerome Delay – AP)
By CELEAN JACOBSON
The Associated Press
Thursday, May 28, 2009; 8:58 AM
JOHANNESBURG — Circles and squares. Rectangles and angles. Cones and cylinders and trapezoids.
A science museum is using art and tradition to teach math to poor children in some of South Africa’s most neglected schools, based on the exquisite artwork of Ndebele artists.
[ . . . ]
The science museum is trying to bridge that gap through South Africa’s rich cultural heritage of indigenous bead work, architecture and painting.
“We want to show where math applies in their lives,” said Thandi O’Hagan, the museum’s education officer. “We want to demonstrate that there is not an abstract connection between math and art but a real connection.”
[ . . . ]
Ndebele paintings help students understand squares, rectangles and angles. Exercises in measurements and volume have been devised from the shapes used in the stacked gateways and decorated pillars of Ndebele homesteads. Their round huts can show circles, the relationship between circumferences and diameters, and how to solve solid geometry problems like volume.
It is a knowledge that has been transferred from generation to generation without any textbooks _ just a sharp eye and a steady hand.
[etc. – there’s more]
My Noter – that is all great – from South Africa to Bulgaria to the recent prizes won by mathematicians around the World. Why can’t we have these innovative programs,innovative thinking and inventive applications of analysis based in reality within the United States and in our economic / financial industries? And, in our educational approaches?
Rapid Prototyping Process
Rapid Prototyping Primer
by William Palm (May 1998), revised 30 July 2002, Penn State Learning Factory
Table of Contents:
1. Overview of Rapid Prototyping
2. The Basic Process
3. Rapid Prototyping Techniques
* Stereo Lithography (SLA)
* Laminated Object Manufacture (LOM)
* Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
* Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
* Solid Ground Curing (SGC)
* 3-D Ink Jet Printing
4. Applications of Rapid Prototyping
5. Future Developments
Learning Factory Rapid Prototyping Home Page
1 Overview of Rapid Prototyping
The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data. These three dimensional printers allow designers to quickly create tangible prototypes of their designs, rather than just two-dimensional pictures. Such models have numerous uses. They make excellent visual aids for communicating ideas with co-workers or customers. In addition, prototypes can be used for design testing. For example, an aerospace engineer might mount a model airfoil in a wind tunnel to measure lift and drag forces. Designers have always utilized prototypes; RP allows them to be made faster and less expensively.
In addition to prototypes, RP techniques can also be used to make tooling (referred to as rapid tooling) and even production-quality parts (rapid manufacturing). For small production runs and complicated objects, rapid prototyping is often the best manufacturing process available. Of course, rapid is a relative term. Most prototypes require from three to seventy-two hours to build, depending on the size and complexity of the object. This may seem slow, but it is much faster than the weeks or months required to make a prototype by traditional means such as machining. These dramatic time savings allow manufacturers to bring products to market faster and more cheaply. In 1994, Pratt & Whitney achieved an order of magnitude [cost] reduction [and] . . . time savings of 70 to 90 percent by incorporating rapid prototyping into their investment casting process. 5
At least six different rapid prototyping techniques are commercially available, each with unique strengths. Because RP technologies are being increasingly used in non-prototyping applications, the techniques are often collectively referred to as solid free-form fabrication, computer automated manufacturing, or layered manufacturing. The latter term is particularly descriptive of the manufacturing process used by all commercial techniques. A software package slices the CAD model into a number of thin (~0.1 mm) layers, which are then built up one atop another. Rapid prototyping is an additive process, combining layers of paper, wax, or plastic to create a solid object. In contrast, most machining processes (milling, drilling, grinding, etc.) are subtractive processes that remove material from a solid block. RP’s additive nature allows it to create objects with complicated internal features that cannot be manufactured by other means.
Of course, rapid prototyping is not perfect. Part volume is generally limited to 0.125 cubic meters or less, depending on the RP machine. Metal prototypes are difficult to make, though this should change in the near future. For metal parts, large production runs, or simple objects, conventional manufacturing techniques are usually more economical. These limitations aside, rapid prototyping is a remarkable technology that is revolutionizing the manufacturing process.
2 The Basic Process
Although several rapid prototyping techniques exist, all employ the same basic five-step process. The steps are:
1. Create a CAD model of the design
2. Convert the CAD model to STL format
3. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers
4. Construct the model one layer atop another
5. Clean and finish the model
CAD Model Creation: First, the object to be built is modeled using a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software package. Solid modelers, such as Pro/ENGINEER, tend to represent 3-D objects more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD, and will therefore yield better results. The designer can use a pre-existing CAD file or may wish to create one expressly for prototyping purposes. This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques.
Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a number of different algorithms to represent solid objects. To establish consistency, the STL (stereolithography, the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry. The second step, therefore, is to convert the CAD file into STL format. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles, like the facets of a cut jewel. 6 The file contains the coordinates of the vertices and the direction of the outward normal of each triangle. Because STL files use planar elements, they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation, but at the cost of bigger file size. Large, complicated files require more time to pre-process and build, so the designer must balance accuracy with manageablility to produce a useful STL file. Since the .stl format is universal, this process is identical for all of the RP build techniques.
Slice the STL File: In the third step, a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built. Several programs are available, and most allow the user to adjust the size, location and orientation of the model. Build orientation is important for several reasons. First, properties of rapid prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to another. For example, prototypes are usually weaker and less accurate in the z (vertical) direction than in the x-y plane. In addition, part orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model. Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction reduces the number of layers, thereby shortening build time. The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0.01 mm to 0.7 mm thick, depending on the build technique. The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs, internal cavities, and thin-walled sections. Each PR machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary pre-processing software.
Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual construction of the part. Using one of several techniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers, paper, or powdered metal. Most machines are fairly autonomous, needing little human intervention.
Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. This involves removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports. Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use. Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. Sanding, sealing, and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability.
3 Rapid Prototyping Techniques
Most commercially available rapid prototyping machines use one of six techniques. At present, trade restrictions severely limit the import/export of rapid prototyping machines, so this guide only covers systems available in the U.S.
Patented in 1986, stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution. The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when exposed to ultraviolet light. As shown in the figure below, the model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer, solidifying the model’s cross section while leaving excess areas liquid.
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of stereolithography. 7
Next, an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer. A sweeper re-coats the solidified layer with liquid, and the laser traces the second layer atop the first. This process is repeated until the prototype is complete. Afterwards, the solid part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid. Supports are broken off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing.
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machines have been made since 1988 by 3D Systems of Valencia, CA. To this day, 3D Systems is the industry leader, selling more RP machines than any other company. Because it was the first technique, stereolithography is regarded as a benchmark by which other technologies are judged. Early stereolithography prototypes were fairly brittle and prone to curing-induced warpage and distortion, but recent modifications have largely corrected these problems.
3.2 Laminated Object Manufacturing
In this technique, developed by Helisys of Torrance, CA, layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype. The original material consists of paper laminated with heat-activated glue and rolled up on spools. As shown in the figure below, a feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform, where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. Next, a heated roller applies pressure to bond the paper to the base. A focused laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper and then cross-hatches the excess area (the negative space in the prototype). Cross-hatching breaks up the extra material, making it easier to remove during post-processing. During the build, the excess material provides excellent support for overhangs and thin-walled sections. After the first layer is cut, the platform lowers out of the way and fresh material is advanced. The platform rises to slightly below the previous height, the roller bonds the second layer to the first, and the laser cuts the second layer. This process is repeated as needed to build the part, which will have a wood-like texture. Because the models are made of paper, they must be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage.
Figure 2: Schematic diagram of laminated object manufacturing. 8
Helisys developed several new sheet materials, including plastic, water-repellent paper, and ceramic and metal powder tapes. The powder tapes produce a green part that must be sintered for maximum strength. As of 2001, Helisys is no longer in business.
3.3 Selective Laser Sintering
Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis at the University of Texas, selective laser sintering was patented in 1989. The technique, shown in Figure 3, uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials, such as nylon, elastomer, and metal, into a solid object. Parts are built upon a platform which sits just below the surface in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. A laser traces the pattern of the first layer, sintering it together. The platform is lowered by the height of the next layer and powder is reapplied. This process continues until the part is complete. Excess powder in each layer helps to support the part during the build. SLS machines are produced by DTM of Austin, TX.
Figure 3: Schematic diagram of selective laser sintering. 9
3.4 Fused Deposition Modeling
In this technique, filaments of heated thermoplastic are extruded from a tip that moves in the x-y plane. Like a baker decorating a cake, the controlled extrusion head deposits very thin beads of material onto the build platform to form the first layer. The platform is maintained at a lower temperature, so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens. After the platform lowers, the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the first. Supports are built along the way, fastened to the part either with a second, weaker material or with a perforated junction.
Stratasys, of Eden Prairie, MN makes a variety of FDM machines ranging from fast concept modelers to slower, high-precision machines. Materials include ABS (standard and medical grade), elastomer (96 durometer), polycarbonate, polyphenolsulfone, and investment casting wax.
Figure 4: Schematic diagram of fused deposition modeling. 10
3.4 Solid Ground Curing
Developed by Cubital, solid ground curing (SGC) is somewhat similar to stereolithography (SLA) in that both use ultraviolet light to selectively harden photosensitive polymers. Unlike SLA, SGC cures an entire layer at a time. Figure 5 depicts solid ground curing, which is also known as the solider process. First, photosensitive resin is sprayed on the build platform. Next, the machine develops a photomask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built. This photomask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an electrostatic process similar to that found in photocopiers. The mask is then exposed to UV light, which only passes through the transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the shape of the current layer.
Figure 5: Schematic diagram of solid ground curing. 11
After the layer is cured, the machine vacuums up the excess liquid resin and sprays wax in its place to support the model during the build. The top surface is milled flat, and then the process repeats to build the next layer. When the part is complete, it must be de-waxed by immersing it in a solvent bath. SGC machines are distributed in the U.S. by Cubital America Inc. of Troy, MI. The machines are quite big and can produce large models.
3.6 3-D Ink-Jet Printing
Ink-Jet Printing refers to an entire class of machines that employ ink-jet technology. The first was 3D Printing (3DP), developed at MIT and licensed to Soligen Corporation, Extrude Hone, and others. The ZCorp 3D printer, produced by Z Corporation of Burlington, MA (www.zcorp.com) is an example of this technology. As shown in Figure 6a, parts are built upon a platform situated in a bin full of powder material. An ink-jet printing head selectively deposits or prints a binder fluid to fuse the powder together in the desired areas. Unbound powder remains to support the part. The platform is lowered, more powder added and leveled, and the process repeated. When finished, the green part is then removed from the unbound powder, and excess unbound powder is blown off. Finished parts can be infiltrated with wax, CA glue, or other sealants to improve durability and surface finish. Typical layer thicknesses are on the order of 0.1 mm. This process is very fast, and produces parts with a slightly grainy surface. ZCorp uses two different materials, a starch based powder (not as strong, but can be burned out, for investment casting applications) and a ceramic powder. Machines with 4 color printing capability are available.
3D Systems’ (www.3dsystems.com) version of the ink-jet based system is called the Thermo-Jet or Multi-Jet Printer. It uses a linear array of print heads to rapidly produce thermoplastic models (Figure 6d). If the part is narrow enough, the print head can deposit an entire layer in one pass. Otherwise, the head makes several passes.
Sanders Prototype of Wilton, NH (www.solid-scape.com) uses a different ink-jet technique in its Model Maker line of concept modelers. The machines use two ink-jets (see Figure 6c). One dispenses low-melt thermoplastic to make the model, while the other prints wax to form supports. After each layer, a cutting tool mills the top surface to uniform height. This yields extremely good accuracy, allowing the machines to be used in the jewelry industry.
Ballistic particle manufacturing, depicted in Figure 6b, was developed by BPM Inc., which has since gone out of business.
Figure 6: Schematic diagrams of ink-jet techniques. 12
4 Applications of Rapid Prototyping
Rapid prototyping is widely used in the automotive, aerospace, medical, and consumer products industries. Although the possible applications are virtually limitless, nearly all fall into one of the following categories: prototyping, rapid tooling, or rapid manufacturing.
As its name suggests, the primary use of rapid prototyping is to quickly make prototypes for communication and testing purposes. Prototypes dramatically improve communication because most people, including engineers, find three-dimensional objects easier to understand than two-dimensional drawings. Such improved understanding leads to substantial cost and time savings. As Pratt & Whitney executive Robert P. DeLisle noted: We’ve seen an estimate on a complex product drop by $100,000 because people who had to figure out the nature of the object from 50 blueprints could now see it. 13 Effective communication is especially important in this era of concurrent engineering. By exchanging prototypes early in the design stage, manufacturing can start tooling up for production while the art division starts planning the packaging, all before the design is finalized.
Prototypes are also useful for testing a design, to see if it performs as desired or needs improvement. Engineers have always tested prototypes, but RP expands their capabilities. First, it is now easy to perform iterative testing: build a prototype, test it, redesign, build and test, etc. Such an approach would be far too time-consuming using traditional prototyping techniques, but it is easy using RP.
In addition to being fast, RP models can do a few things metal prototypes cannot. For example, Porsche used a transparent stereolithography model of the 911 GTI transmission housing to visually study oil flow. 14 Snecma, a French turbomachinery producer, performed photoelastic stress analysis on a SLA model of a fan wheel to determine stresses in the blades. 15
4.2 Rapid Tooling
A much-anticipated application of rapid prototyping is rapid tooling, the automatic fabrication of production quality machine tools. Tooling is one of the slowest and most expensive steps in the manufacturing process, because of the extremely high quality required. Tools often have complex geometries, yet must be dimensionally accurate to within a hundredth of a millimeter. In addition, tools must be hard, wear-resistant, and have very low surface roughness (about 0.5 micrometers root mean square). To meet these requirements, molds and dies are traditionally made by CNC-machining, electro-discharge machining, or by hand. All are expensive and time consuming, so manufacturers would like to incorporate rapid prototyping techniques to speed the process. Peter Hilton, president of Technology Strategy Consulting in Concord, MA, believes that tooling costs and development times can be reduced by 75 percent or more by using rapid tooling and related technologies. 16 Rapid tooling can be divided into two categories, indirect and direct.
4.2.1 Indirect Tooling
Most rapid tooling today is indirect: RP parts are used as patterns for making molds and dies. RP models can be indirectly used in a number of manufacturing processes:
* Vacuum Casting: In the simplest and oldest rapid tooling technique, a RP positive pattern is suspended in a vat of liquid silicone or room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) rubber. When the rubber hardens, it is cut into two halves and the RP pattern is removed. The resulting rubber mold can be used to cast up to 20 polyurethane replicas of the original RP pattern. A more useful variant, known as the Keltool powder metal sintering process, uses the rubber molds to produce metal tools. 17 Developed by 3M and now owned by 3D Systems, the Keltool process involves filling the rubber molds with powdered tool steel and epoxy binder. When the binder cures, the green metal tool is removed from the rubber mold and then sintered. At this stage the metal is only 70% dense, so it is infiltrated with copper to bring it close to its theoretical maximum density. The tools have fairly good accuracy, but their size is limited to under 25 centimeters.
* Sand Casting: A RP model is used as the positive pattern around which the sand mold is built. LOM models, which resemble the wooden models traditionally used for this purpose, are often used. If sealed and finished, a LOM pattern can produce about 100 sand molds.
* Investment Casting: Some RP prototypes can be used as investment casting patterns. The pattern must not expand when heated, or it will crack the ceramic shell during autoclaving. Both Stratasys and Cubital make investment casting wax for their machines. Paper LOM prototypes may also be used, as they are dimensionally stable with temperature. The paper shells burn out, leaving some ash to be removed.
To counter thermal expansion in stereolithography parts, 3D Systems introduced QuickCast, a build style featuring a solid outer skin and mostly hollow inner structure. The part collapses inward when heated. Likewise, DTM sells Trueform polymer, a porous substance that expands little with temperature rise, for use in its SLS machines.
* Injection molding: CEMCOM Research Associates, Inc. has developed the NCC Tooling System to make metal/ceramic composite molds for the injection molding of plastics. 18 First, a stereolithography machine is used to make a match-plate positive pattern of the desired molding. To form the mold, the SLA pattern is plated with nickel, which is then reinforced with a stiff ceramic material. The two mold halves are separated to remove the pattern, leaving a matched die set that can produce tens of thousands of injection moldings.
4.2.2 Direct Tooling
To directly make hard tooling from CAD data is the Holy Grail of rapid tooling. Realization of this objective is still several years away, but some strong strides are being made:
* RapidTool: A DTM process that selectively sinters polymer-coated steel pellets together to produce a metal mold. The mold is then placed in a furnace where the polymer binder is burned off and the part is infiltrated with copper (as in the Keltool process). The resulting mold can produce up to 50,000 injection moldings.
In 1996 Rubbermaid produced 30,000 plastic desk organizers from a SLS-built mold. This was the first widely sold consumer product to be produced from direct rapid tooling. 19 Extrude Hone, in Irwin PA, will soon sell a machine, based on MIT’s 3D Printing process, that produces bronze-infiltrated PM tools and products. 20
* Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories and Stanford University that can create metal tools from CAD data. 21 Materials include 316 stainless steel, Inconel 625, H13 tool steel, tungsten, and titanium carbide cermets. A laser beam melts the top layer of the part in areas where material is to be added. Powder metal is injected into the molten pool, which then solidifies. Layer after layer is added until the part is complete. Unlike traditional powder metal processing, LENS produces fully dense parts, since the metal is melted, not merely sintered. The resulting parts have exceptional mechanical properties, but the process currently works only for parts with simple, uniform cross sections. The system has been commercialized by MTS corporation (www.mts.com)
* Direct AIM (ACES Injection Molding): A technique from 3D Systems in which stereolithography-produced cores are used with traditional metal molds for injection molding of high and low density polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene and ABS plastic. 22 Very good accuracy is achieved for fewer than 200 moldings. Long cycle times (~ five minutes) are required to allow the molding to cool enough that it will not stick to the SLA core.
In another variation, cores are made from thin SLA shells filled with epoxy and aluminum shot. Aluminum’s high conductivity helps the molding cool faster, thus shortening cycle time. The outer surface can also be plated with metal to improve wear resistance. Production runs of 1000-5000 moldings are envisioned to make the process economically viable.
* LOMComposite: Helysis and the University of Dayton are working to develop ceramic composite materials for Laminated Object Manufacturing. LOMComposite parts would be very strong and durable, and could be used as tooling in a variety of manufacturing processes.
* Sand Molding: At least two RP techniques can construct sand molds directly from CAD data. DTM sells sand-like material that can be sintered into molds. Soligen (www.3dprinting.com) uses 3DP to produce ceramic molds and cores for investment casting, (Direct Shell Production Casting).
4.3 Rapid Manufacturing
A natural extension of RP is rapid manufacturing (RM), the automated production of salable products directly from CAD data. Currently only a few final products are produced by RP machines, but the number will increase as metals and other materials become more widely available. RM will never completely replace other manufacturing techniques, especially in large production runs where mass-production is more economical.
For short production runs, however, RM is much cheaper, since it does not require tooling. RM is also ideal for producing custom parts tailored to the user’s exact specifications. A University of Delaware research project uses a digitized 3-D model of a person’s head to construct a custom-fitted helmet. 23 NASA is experimenting with using RP machines to produce spacesuit gloves fitted to each astronaut’s hands. 24 From tailored golf club grips to custom dinnerware, the possibilities are endless.
The other major use of RM is for products that simply cannot be made by subtractive (machining, grinding) or compressive (forging, etc.) processes. This includes objects with complex features, internal voids, and layered structures. Specific Surface of Franklin, MA uses RP to manufacture complicated ceramic filters that have eight times the interior surface area of older types. The filters remove particles from the gas emissions of coal-fired power plants. 25 Therics, Inc. of NYC is using RP’s layered build style to develop pills that release measured drug doses at specified times during the day and other medical products. 26
5 Future Developments
Rapid prototyping is starting to change the way companies design and build products. On the horizon, though, are several developments that will help to revolutionize manufacturing as we know it.
One such improvement is increased speed. Rapid prototyping machines are still slow by some standards. By using faster computers, more complex control systems, and improved materials, RP manufacturers are dramatically reducing build time. For example, Stratasys recently (January 1998) introduced its FDM Quantum machine, which can produce ABS plastic models 2.5-5 times faster than previous FDM machines. 27 Continued reductions in build time will make rapid manufacturing economical for a wider variety of products.
Another future development is improved accuracy and surface finish. Today’s commercially available machines are accurate to ~0.08 millimeters in the x-y plane, but less in the z (vertical) direction. Improvements in laser optics and motor control should increase accuracy in all three directions. In addition, RP companies are developing new polymers that will be less prone to curing and temperature-induced warpage.
The introduction of non-polymeric materials, including metals, ceramics, and composites, represents another much anticipated development. These materials would allow RP users to produce functional parts. Today’s plastic prototypes work well for visualization and fit tests, but they are often too weak for function testing. More rugged materials would yield prototypes that could be subjected to actual service conditions. In addition, metal and composite materials will greatly expand the range of products that can be made by rapid manufacturing.
Many RP companies and research labs are working to develop new materials. For example, the University of Dayton is working with Helisys to produce ceramic matrix composites by laminated object manufacturing. 28 An Advanced Research Projects Agency / Office of Naval Research sponsored project is investigating ways to make ceramics using fused deposition modeling. 29 As mentioned earlier, Sandia/Stanford’s LENS system can create solid metal parts. These three groups are just a few of the many working on new RP materials.
Another important development is increased size capacity. Currently most RP machines are limited to objects 0.125 cubic meters or less. Larger parts must be built in sections and joined by hand. To remedy this situation, several large prototype techniques are in the works. The most fully developed is Topographic Shell Fabrication from Formus in San Jose, CA. In this process, a temporary mold is built from layers of silica powder (high quality sand) bound together with paraffin wax. The mold is then used to produce fiberglass, epoxy, foam, or concrete models up to 3.3 m x 2 m x 1.2 m in size. 30
At the University of Utah, Professor Charles Thomas is developing systems to cut intricate shapes into 1.2 m x 2.4 m sections of foam or paper. 31 Researchers at Penn State’s Applied Research Lab (ARL) are aiming even higher: to directly build large metal parts such as tank turrets using robotically guided lasers. Group leader Henry Watson states that product size is limited only by the size of the robot holding the laser. 32
All the above improvements will help the rapid prototyping industry continue to grow, both worldwide and at home. The United States currently dominates the field, but Germany, Japan, and Israel are making inroads. In time RP will spread to less technologically developed countries as well. With more people and countries in the field, RP’s growth will accelerate further.
One future application is Distance Manufacturing on Demand, a combination of RP and the Internet that will allow designers to remotely submit designs for immediate manufacture. Researchers at UC-Berkeley, among others, are developing such a
system. 33 RP enthusiasts believe that RP will even spread to the home, lending new meaning to the term cottage industry. Three-dimensional home printers may seem far-fetched, but the same could be said for color laser printing just fifteen years ago.
Finally, the rise of rapid prototyping has spurred progress in traditional subtractive methods as well. Advances in computerized path planning, numeric control, and machine dynamics are increasing the speed and accuracy of machining. Modern CNC machining centers can have spindle speeds of up to 100,000 RPM, with correspondingly fast feed rates. 34 Such high material removal rates translate into short build times. For certain applications, particularly metals, machining will continue to be a useful manufacturing process. Rapid prototyping will not make machining obsolete, but rather complement it.
5 Steven Ashley, Rapid Prototyping is Coming of Age, Mechanical Engineering July 1995: 63.
6 Pamela J. Waterman, Rapid Prototyping, DE March 1997: 30.
7 Michelle Griffith and John S. Lamancusa, Rapid Prototyping Technologies, Rapid Prototyping. 1998. http://www.me.psu.edu/lamancusa/me415/rpintro2.pdf (Accessed 4/20/98).
11 Lee E. Weiss, SFF Processes, JTEC/WTEC Panel Report on Rapid Prototyping in Europe and Japan. March 1997. http://itri.loyola.edu/rp/02_02.htm (Accessed 4/18/98).
13 Gene Bylinsky, Industry’s Amazing New Instant Prototypes, Fortune Features. January 1998. http://www.pathfinder.com/fortune/1998/980112/imt.html (Accessed 3/29/98).
14 Ray Langdon, A Decade of Rapid Prototyping, Automotive Engineer May 1997: 44-45.
15 Ashley, Coming of Age, 64.
16 Peter Hilton, Making the Leap to Rapid Tool Making, Mechanical Engineering July 1995: 75.
17 Ashley, From CAD Art to Rapid Metal Tools, Mechanical Engineering March 1997: 82.
18 Ashley 83.
21 Ashley, From CAD Art, 86.
22 Langdon 55.
23 Matthew Wieckowski, Alternative Helmet Design, Rehabilitation Robotics Research Program. 10/25/96. http://www.asel.udel.edu/rapid/helmet/ (Accessed 4/21/98).
26 Ashley, Coming of Age, 64.
27 Stratasys Announces New High Speed ‘FDM Quantum’ Rapid Prototyping System, Stratasys Press Release. 1/26/98. http://ltk.hut.fi/archives/rp-ml/0212.html (Accessed 4/21/98).
28 Freeform Fabrication of Structural Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites by Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), Dayton University Rapid Prototyping. 1998. http://www.udri.udayton.edu/rpdl/sff2.htm (Accessed 4/21/98).
29 Laboratory for Freeform Fabrication of Advanced Ceramics at Rutgers University. 1998. http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/sff/ (Accessed 4/21/98).
30 What is TSF? Formus Home Page. 1998. http://www.formus.com/acls.htm (Accessed 4/21/98).
31 Waterman 34.
33 CyberCut: A Network Manufacturing Service http://CyberCut.berkeley.edu/ (Accessed 4/27/98).
34 Langdon 59.
35 Glenn Hartwig, Rapid 3D Modelers, DE March 1997: 38-39.
[from – The Learning Factory]
Is that the most awesome thing you’ve ever seen? There are great diagrams on this page – go there and see them – It’s perfect. – my note
Taiwanese mathematician wins Italy’s Agostinelli Award
Central News Agency
2009-05-25 04:08 PM
Taipei, May 25 (CNA) Academia Sinica academician Liu Ta-ping has won an award from the Italian national academic institute, the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, in recognition of his excellent scientific achievements, according to a statement released Monday by Academia Sinica, Taiwan’s top academic research institute.The statement said that Liu, who also serves as director of Academia Sinica’s Institute of Mathematics, will receive the Cataldo e Angiola Agostinelli international prize June 11 in Rome.
[ . . . ]
He has been a faculty member at the University of Maryland, New York University and Stanford University, and became a distinguished research fellow at Academia Sinica in 2000. He was made an academician at Academia Sinica in 1992.
Liu’s research interests center on nonlinear partial differential equations, shock wave theory and kinetic theory, according to the statement.
(By Elizabeth Hsu)
E3 – Expo
June 2 – 4, 2009
L.A. Convention Center,
Los Angeles, California
About E3 Expo
E3 Expo is the world’s premiere trade show for computer and video games and related products. The show is owned by the Entertainment Software Association (ESA), the U.S. association dedicated to serving the business and public affairs needs of the companies, publishing interactive games for video game consoles, handheld devices, personal computers and the Internet. For more information, please visit www.E3Expo.com or www.theESA.com.
June 16 – 17, 2009
Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, NY
GreenBuildingsNY is the place to source green solutions and materials for the design, construction, restoration, renovation and historical preservation of existing commercial, residential and industrial buildings. See how eco-friendly can be economy friendly. Discover how a smart investment on environmental and sustainability improvements can deliver up to 20–40% risk free return on investment. NY Metro focused, convenient, and ever evolving, GreenBuildingsNY provides easy access to more of the green sustainable products and services that building professionals need:
- Restoration products
- Water conservation
- Low-impact building materials
- Recycling products and services
- Green design and construction services
- Energy conservation
- And MORE
MAY 28 – 29, 2009
(Today and Tomorrow)
Can you measure creativity?
Can you compare creativity across countries and regions or across different fields of human activity? If yes, in what way? An international conference organised by the European Commission and its Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL) addresses these questions in Brussels on 28 and 29 May 2009.
My Note – now that would be fun – it is happening right now – will have to go see what they’ve generated . . .