May 20, 2013 – Novomer’s thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a … has the potential to cut greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously …
Aug 17, 2015 – Turning CO2 emissions into plastic with algae? It may not be as crazy as it sounds. Niina Heikkinen, E&E reporter. ClimateWire: Monday …
Mar 9, 2016 – Renewable plastic made from carbon dioxide and plants … CO2 required to make PEF could be obtained from fossil-fuel power plant emissions …
completely metabolize them to carbon dioxide (and water). … Life cycle analyses show that bioplastics can reduce CO2 emissions by 30-80 percent compared to …
A plastic tweaked to mimic cellular membranes can separate carbon dioxide from natural gas and could help reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, …
Sep 22, 2014 – Not only is carbon dioxide readily abundant, it is three to 10 times cheaper than other feedstocks used to make plastics and chemicals, according to Cole. … Eventually, it hopes to harness carbon emissions there and convert it …
Artificial photosynthesis breakthrough turns CO2 emissions into plastics and biofuel. Dario Borghino April 23, 2015. 3 pictures. Researchers have developed an …
http://www.theguardian.com › … › Sustainable design
Feb 26, 2014 – Could future clothes, bottles and chairs be made from carbonemissions? … The vast majority of plastic is produced from petroleum, which means that … By combining methane and carbon dioxide with a proprietary catalyst, …
Oct 26, 2015 – Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000- …plastics are subtracted from reported emissions for the states where they …
Oct 27, 2015 – Watch this video. Could plastic trees end air pollution? … As air flows over the plastic resin sails, they grab CO2 and hold on to it. CO2 binds to …
Converting Pollution Into Sustainable Polymers and Chemicals … proprietary catalyst system that transforms waste carbon dioxide (CO2) into high performance, …
Aug 19, 2014 – … a way to make plastic from carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. ….. Ocean Plastic Pollution Costs $13 Billion a Year, and Your Face …
Oct 28, 2015 – Pellets of urea fertilizer are made from carbon dioxide in a plant in … can convert CO2 emissions from coal and natural-gas power plants into useful … fuels and raw material for the manufacture of plastics and other chemicals.
The Link Between Plastic Use and Climate
Worldwide, we consume approximately 100 million tons of plastic each year. From the EPA’s more conservative estimate to the more liberal one, that’s anywhere from 100 million tons of carbon dioxide emitted to 500 million tons.
adaptive living products, adaptive living tools, calendar, calendars, Cricket House Studios, cricket house studios products, cricketdiane, organizing tools, right-brain tools, time, tools for right-brain people, tools to show time and when, visual, visual calendar, visual tools
I thought these were so wonderful when I made them several years ago – today, it occurs to me that they aren’t made for writing words because I made them appropriate to my needs and not thinking of others. They are visual calendars intended to show when it happens from now – and when now is.
This calendar is part of a visual calendar system I designed for me to understand the relationships visually between what is now and how far away an event, an appointment, a happening or the need to prepare those things for them, would occur. At the same time, I was making (on Zazzle’s print on demand site), magnets, stickers and small business card sized cards to go with it and work in conjunction with it.
I didn’t even think about the fact that it isn’t appropriate to words being written on the calendar until just now and that most people use a calendar differently by putting in those words to describe tasks, appointments, events and other nifty stuff.
Apparently, calendars are only appropriate to other people which have room for the words, which really doesn’t help me at all even though i can use calendars that way. It doesn’t fill a need for people who want to write on them, but I didn’t really know that.
The relationship between now and when something happens has been an ongoing difficulty for me and most left-brained, verbally based and written calendars are not much real help. I’ve colored in the columns of Mondays in pink, Tuesdays in green, Wednesdays in yellow, Thursdays in blue, Fridays in orange, Saturdays in red, Sundays in purple using my own color coding system. That helps a lot. I discovered in use, that these colors next to each other for the days have enough contrast from one another to be visually remarkable from one another rather than confused. And, I’ve used that on traditional calendars for years.
Then post-it notes, cards, magnets, stickers and other things can coordinate with those to say when it is, but they don’t have the capacity to effectively convey the “getting ready for an event” part. If something is happening on Wednesday, I can see to get ready for it a couple days in advance using the color coded calendars. But, for something that takes three months of preparation, like an art show, an industry trade show, a makers’ faire, a light art show that I want to show my work – not so much help from traditional calendars with big squares to write in.
So, one of the things I designed as the visual calendar system was being put on my zazzle store, were calendars that show the paradigm shift of today / now as well as its relationship to events in a style of calendar like those above with a place for magnets, pushtacks with colored tops, color paperclips hanging from them, stickers, post-it flags and avery round circle stickers in solid colors. But, it also shows a three month shifting calendar at the bottom of each poster to describe the get ready time for various shows, events, gallery things, light art shows, makers’ faires, trade shows and competitions.
Those kinds of visual calendars look like this –
This calendar shows a three month lead time to prepare for an event using the bottom calendar to express when now is in relation to getting ready for it. For me, pushtacks with colorful tops can work, but I also designed sets of different magnets, cards, stickers and something else to go with it. That was needed too, because there is often a need for those items to use as visual identifiers with this calendar system including post-it notes, things like that to make notes toward an event that can be color coded similarly.
It just isn’t made to write on it – which I didn’t realize, makes it less than useful for people who want to do that. Maybe I’ll go back and redesign it to work for both. In our house and business, calendars really must serve my needs but others need to read them in their way too – using words, I suppose, or they might not be helped by it. Could it be made to do both? Hmmmm……. I’m about to go find out.
- cricketdiane, 03-16-16
I have two collections on my store that show these visual calendar systems and the products that go with them. On my CricketDiane Zazzle store and its companion store, Adaptive Living Tools, there are more. This is one of the two collections –
90 degrees and above tips to keep cool, air conditioning, cricketdiane, fifteen ways to beat the heat of summertime, heat, heat stroke, heat tips, heat waves, keeping cool without air conditioning, solutions to beat the summer heat, staying cool without air conditioning, summer heat, sun stroke
Fifteen Ways to Beat the Heat if you don’t have air conditioning or can’t afford to run it –
1. Freeze water in soda bottles –
Take several empty 2 liter soda bottles and fill with water – leave some room for the water to expand when it becomes ice – don’t fill the water all the way to the top. Believe it or not – these are the best sleeping pals when it is hot, especially 95 degrees or more . . .
Children can sleep with them, but it is better to put the bottles in the child’s bed to cool it before bedtime and not put the ice bottles directly on the child’s skin. It can remove heat too fast if it is directly next to them for very long. These ice bottles can be placed on a table or chair in front of a fan to cool the stream of air as well. It helps some.
The other water trick that helps is to simply run a cool stream of water in the bathroom shower and then put the fan in front of the open bathroom door to the rest of the house or apartment. This cools the air, adds some moisture and brings the air temperature down several degrees inside the adjacent rooms. It also forces a volume of hot air from the other rooms to be exchanged in that room because as the fan sends air out through the apartment, hot air travels above it to fill in the “void” created which is then cooled as well. It is a very simplified gross form of a heat exchanger. Make sure the fan, its plug in and the floor of the bathroom are not standing in water nor getting any of the splash from the water stream of the shower – this is a cold water only stream for it to work. Also, keep all small children from getting into the shower or playing with the fan while using it this way. It is best to sit the fan in the door or just outside the open door rather than in the bathroom. It works really, really well, though.
2. Make some homemade cold packs –
Put a paper towel folded into a ziplock back with a tablespoon of water and two tablespoons of rubbing alcohol to make a cold pack. Make sure it is not a zipper type bag and that the closing seam is completely sealed and leak-proof. These lay flat in the freezer but don’t become frozen stiff. It is also possible to make these with unflavored gelatin mixed to be gelatin and put in the pouch such that it makes a quarter inch layer when it sets, so don’t fill the bag up very much with it. Making several and keeping them in the freezer allows a quick set to be used and traded for a cool set when they have done their work.
These cool packs are best used on the back of the neck and head or can be laid on the pillow before going to sleep to cool the back of the neck and head. They can be worn against the skin or put on the back of the chair where siting or working to lean back and remove excess body heat.
3. Popsicles, Ice Sticks and homemade ice drinks –
For $1.25, the cheapest answer to beat the heat during the worst of daytime heating is the flavor pop style ice sticks at 24 to a box in various flavors. They are sugar water and fruit flavoring, but limited on messiness, quickly cool the body, children and adults like them, and they can take the dangerous heat to a lower level of effects immediately. It is however, not a one a day thing for it to work when the air temperature is 95 to 100 degrees. Eating several can cool the body down by degrees immediately though and is probably not healthy in any other way – wouldn’t eat them every day or maybe ever, otherwise.
Homemade popsicle forms are in stores from groceries to dollar stores for around a dollar – they are much harder to eat and deal with as far as messiness, than the ice sticks – but they are cooling to the body, a bit slower to work because they are harder to eat, and they can be made with more healthy options from Powerade to juices or some combination.
There are wonderful products of fruit juice popsicles pre-made in grocery stores frozen foods sections that are completely fruit juice made by Edy’s and some store brands – some of these are pure fruit juice and already made without sugar or corn syrup. Be warned that any child under the age of eleven will probably be wearing some of it after eating one, along with the color that can end up as a permanent part of their clothing, shoes, your couch, or whatever else.
Young children, toddlers, babies and pre-schoolers are especially prone to harm from extreme heat – the popsicle and flavor pop style ice treats can be a real lifesaver for them to keep their body temperatures from skyrocketing throughout a really hot day, especially in a house or apartment without air conditioning.
4. Round floor fans –
The cheap group of fans available include a floor fan model that is round, sits on a plastic base and tilts – this delivers the most bang for the buck as far as moving air in the range of fans costing less than thirty dollars. Modern homes, apartments and condos are not made for airflow efficiency, so generally more than one fan is required to move air for cooling. Fans even make the air conditioning systems more effective so that the cooler air can be brought throughout the home or office and mix with the hot air created by activities, sunshine or hourly heating along one side of the house.
Where there is no air conditioning, several fans are moving air in a streams, by placing the fans in correlation to one another more of the night air can be brought in to cool the inside of the house or apartment and mixed to lower the air temperature inside and more of that night air cooling can be kept circulating throughout much of the day. To keep this night air cool inside, for the first of the day windows would be closed or nearly closed, with only the top, or upper half of windows open a pinch. That allows the cool night air to stay inside and move around the house and gives an exit to the hot air that will be near the ceiling level since hot air rises.
A fan at floor level tilted upwards brings the cool air at floor level into the mix where people are sitting, standing, working or moving. Thinking in terms of layers, the coolest air will always be at the floor level – the coolest floor in the house or apartment is probably the tile one, wherever that is and the coolest places will be either in front of the fan sitting on the floor or laying on the tile floor. If you have cats – watch where they will sit or lay stretched out because that is probably where it is cool – dogs, not so much. The worst part of summer with heat and no air conditioner and dogs is that the most likely place they will be, is in the open window tearing up the screen barking at people walking by, or pawing the screen to get the squirrel they see four miles away or slobbering on the window and curtains or all of the above . . . .
If there is one thing to do for community, it is to go out and buy one fan for someone that is elderly, disabled or any mother with young children and babies who have no air conditioning. The cost is less than thirty dollars and it is the best charitable thing that can be done to honor God and humanity as a member of the community. It saves lives.
5. Showers –
Showers are a great place to let young children play when it is too hot for anything else. When a walk to the park with its wonderful water features, is a walk in the sun – not going to work. But, a shower can run with a less than take a bath stream using cool water – not completely cold water – and any toddler, preschool child or young school aged children can be content for hours . . . . A few bowls, spoons, pouring pitchers, toys and a duck or two, and they are happily cool enough and content enough to stay out of trouble. Definitely check on them once every few minutes or so to make sure they’re alright, re-check the temperature of the water and to get the water up out of the bathroom floor. Or, throw an old towel on the floor in the first place, because that will become a pool of water otherwise.
Cool and lukewarm showers for everybody throughout the day adds to cooling the body when there is no ac and the temperatures soar. The effect of cooling does not last as long as might be guessed, however and other measures are certainly necessary. A day can be a long, long, long time when the temperatures are above 90 degrees and especially, when they are above 95 degrees. That is way too much time for a heat stroke to develop and drugs prescribed by doctors are going to make that heat stroke possibility even more likely. It just does.
6. Go put your head in the freezer –
When the feeling of body heat becomes nauseating, headachy, all over achy, horrible – go stick your head in the freezer for a few minutes. Make sure to turn around and get the back too for a minute or two before closing the door and grabbing a wet cloth or cold pack or an ice stick . . . It works. This can buy just enough time of cool down to get some other cooling measures to work. Trust that your body is telling you it is becoming critical. Those are the signs of heat stroke beginning.
For a child, the stream of water in the shower is the quickest way to get them cool, but not totally cold water – and even a child can be held up to the refrigerators freezer for a few minutes to get a cool down – do not put anyone in any freezer by the way. Just stand in front of the refrigerator, open the freezer door and let the cool air get to your head and back of the head by putting your head in the edge of the freezer compartment. This works quickly, it makes the sick feeling go away and allows you time to put some cooling measures into effect with two brain cells firing to remember what those are . . .
7. Close shades and blinds, curtains or put a temporary drape or blanket or towel or something over the place where the sun is coming in –
Even if windows are open, when the sun hits one part of the house or apartment, it heats up that area. That pretty stream of light coming in is heating up that entire room. Simple enough – go close the blinds there or put up a temporary cloth over that part of the window using some pushtacks to keep it in place. When the sun moves to stream in the other side of the apartment, go cover that area where it is now heating up those rooms. This can change the temperature by several degrees. It can be done even with the windows open. A loose cloth is all that is required; something to block the sunshine from those windows. Later for the evening, when it is desirable to have the cool night air, the blinds and curtains need to be open and any temporary covering removed to get full advantage of the cooling from it.
8. Wet hand towels and pat down with them –
If you are walking to the store, especially with young children, a wet paper towel or a soggy, very wet washcloth can be kept in a ziplock to go, that gives something to use for patting the skin and removing heat – it doesn’t work with a barely moist one. If nothing else, even baby wipes can be used to do the same thing in an emergency. They will cool the skin especially dabbed on the arms, stomach, back and legs, under the neck and around the head, behind the ears and at the back of the neck and back of the head.
At home, a wet hand towel works wonders placed in the back of the shirt, or inside the front of the shirt to cool down and providing it isn’t dripping wet, even working at a computer can continue. By the way, electronics don’t do well in heat – any fan flowing in the house should also be flowing across the electronics to help cool them or turn them off.
Draping a wet washcloth or hand towel across the back of the neck helps to stay cool when the temperatures are high regardless of whether the humidity is high or not. And, it requires nothing but getting up to go wet the cloth again to return its cooling effects. The freezer turned out to not be a good place to get these wet hand towels cooler even for short periods of time. Keeping some in the refrigerator folded, wet and ready to use does work. It is easy enough though, to simply re-wet the washcloth or hand towel. Note that given even a short period of time, that hand towel sitting on the counter not in use, but damp – will sour and need a white vinegar rinse with some water to get out the vinegar before using it again.
9. Milk and milk products can sour in the stomach when it is 95 degrees and higher –
This includes infant formulas, ice cream, milk in coffee, nice cold glasses of milk, and everything else with milk in it. As the body temperature rises to accommodate the higher air temperature, all of these milk products curdle in the stomach where the temperature there has increased as well. Simple things can be done to fix it – put ice cubes in coffee that has milk in it, put an ice cube into the bottle of formula baby is drinking and then go hang out at the grocery store or cooling center for awhile as it is being digested, stay clear of milk for the time when temperatures are hovering over 96 degrees, drink clear liquids with ice or cooled in the fridge after drinking milk, go take a shower or let children play in the shower after drinking milk while it is being digested, and/or go buy an air conditioner.
Usually this is a temporary thing, and chemically once the milk has curdled in the stomach or soured, there is little to fix it effectively – it feels bad, nauseating and is a very yukky addition to an otherwise sultry hot sickening day (or night.) It is easier to prevent it than to fix it.
10. Wear loose clothing – 100% cotton – make a caftan from a cotton bed sheet – wear large, x-large 100% cotton tshirts –
It is popular and trendy, fashionable even, to wear skin tight clothing right now. If the only place you go is from your car to the office that is air conditioned, or from the air conditioned car to the house that is air conditioned, then it probably doesn’t matter. But, if there are days when the temperature is soaring 90 and above, especially when it is hovering above 95 – those skin tight clothes do not work in your favor. The body’s systems of cooling that regulate internal temperatures are made to use circulating air, skin surface and even sweat to work properly. Restrictive and tight clothing, clothing not made to “breathe”, and man-made fabrics without built-in air circulating “breathability” can increase the likelihood of heat stroke and sun stroke.
The internal body temperature cannot convert the high temperatures to something cooler without air flow to do it. If you think about it, human beings are really a large jelly of water, 98% water or something near that, moving about in the heat during the summertime. As the temperatures rise, the body temperature rises and all that water becomes that same temperature plus the internal heat created by the body’s systems simply operating. The cooling design humans have is that the surface area of the skin provides a certain level of cooling as the hot air circulates across it and takes away a certain amount of the body heat in a thermal conversion zone. It cools the body and releases the excess heat from the body as air moves across it. With tight restrictive clothing worn across much of the skin’s cooling area – this cooling system can’t do its job.
Looking at people and cultures who live in desert areas of the world yields significant insight into what works and what doesn’t as they have survived temperatures that at many times are above the 90 degree mark. Their clothing, almost regardless of culture or part of the world – is loose and flowing, not tight and restrictive. That about sums it up. Their clothing is predominantly all cotton or natural fibers, often more loosely woven with more threads per square inch than modern “fashion”, trendy clothing has that is tight fitting and the style of garment is loose and flowing with plenty of air flow to circulate around the body’s surfaces. From caftans to saris and beyond, the clothing worn where temperatures are commonly high – are not skin tight.
In the US, there are often 100% cotton tshirts in x-large sizes available at drug stores for about $3, sometimes sold in the groceries as well, and in the men’s section of the discount stores like Wal-Mart. These big shirts let air flow, they are good cotton, even when they are found as irregulars and their cost is minimal. They are perfect. Sheets that are 100% cotton, especially the older ones that feel smooth and cool to the touch when running the hand over them, are found at thrift stores and can be made into saris and wraps, caftans and loose fitting garments for less than $5. Not all sheets are 100% cotton and newer cotton sheets are not as good as old ones for this because of variations that have been made in weaving and finishing that take some of the positive qualities away from the cotton. These are also the best to have for sleeping on during the summer heat because they move the heat away from the body and they “breathe”, allowing moisture to be exchanged for its cooling effects from sweat and humidity alike.
The loose clothing concept is for children as well. Fashionable or not, the desirable thing is to have survivors – not heat stroke. A baby wrapped up in a blanket when it is 90 degrees or above is stupid unless there is air conditioning making the place cold. It isn’t cute – its just stupid.
11. If you get sunburned, apple cider vinegar baths and real cream directly on the burn to keep from peeling and cool the skin –
After being in the sun and getting sunburned, there are a number of products on the market to supposedly help including creams and lotions made by the sun tanning products industry and the cosmetics industries – most of these have lanolin in them which can further damage the skin after a sun burn, dehydrating the skin and causing it to peel – it is put into the products to offer a smooth feeling to the product but it is water repelling, not water keeping which makes it dry out the skin more and not allow the cooling moisture it needs to soak into the damaged cells. The other thing commonly used is mineral oils which literally pull the minerals out of the skin and the body at the same time, are also water repelling, rather than moisture enhancing and are oily destroying clothing, bedding and almost everything else it touches.
There are cocoa butters which can help put moisture back into the skin and add moisture to it because they are not hydrophobic despite being oil type products and real whipping cream like the kind in a little carton sold in grocery’s dairy sections (the before it is whipped kind). Whipping cream or real dairy cream is the best to put on a sunburn to keep it from peeling because it adds cooling to the skin cells which are actually still heated up long after leaving the sun and still cooking actually even after getting out of the sun. It adds moisture and allows the heat within the cells to wick away from them and redistributed. The cream is simply patted on, not rubbed and can be repeated as often as necessary to cool down the skin that has been sunburned.
The other cooling technique which can cool the sunburn and take the toxins from the affected areas is to sit in a bath with a small bottle of apple cider vinegar poured into the water. It smells terrible but done just after coming in with a sunburn, it can remove the heat from the cells, cool down the body and remove the toxic chemicals caused by the cells becoming sunburned. It helps to keep the skin’s moisture while adding moisture to it quickly and a long soak in a lukewarm vinegar bath can give time away from the pain and discomfort of the sunburn in a way that a plain bath water does not do.
12. The number one cause of heat stroke and sun stroke and the illnesses that accompany them is an attitude of – “I am tough enough to handle it – the heat doesn’t bother me.” –
Heat stroke, heat exhaustion, sun stroke, sun poisoning and related heat and sun caused illnesses, injuries and life-threatening situations are not some little casual no-big-deal thing, not “much ado about nothing” and not a “grow a pair” and deal with it kind of thing –
Every year people who are used to working outdoors in the sunshine and heat, sports team members used to working out in the heat, young athletes and marathon runners are dropping over from heat stroke – some of them are dead because of it. The idea that it is no big deal – is a lie. It isn’t a “suck it up” thing – because those who did it that way are dead. Or they ended up in the hospital when they had much better things to do and sometimes it changed their lives in powerfully negative ways for the rest of their lives – or even permanently ended their lives when it didn’t have to be that way.
Anyone can look at the current statistics and see that heat related illnesses, sun stroke, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, sun poisoning and the lot – have taken lives this very year in numbers that are stunning and sad. A lot of the deaths and most of the injuries from sun and heat could have been prevented by a number of simple common sense actions and behaviors that reflected the seriousness, danger of and likelihood of it happening.
13. Put an ice cube in the pet’s water dish –
Pets are susceptible to the high temperatures also – never leave children in cars – never leave pets in cars.
Putting an ice cube in the pets’ water dishes will help them cool down – make sure pet enclosures outside or pets kept outside in the yard have shady areas they can get to at all times of the day and that there are breezes where they can lay. This isn’t as hard as it sounds, usually cutting a few hedges where the breezes are known to commonly flow – makes an unhindered breeze for them when it is extremely hot.
If there isn’t shade, don’t stick up a dog house and expect that to help. Most dog houses do not have ventilation built in – they are built to protect from the elements and not to provide summer cooling. Many dogs stay away from them during the summer, likely for this very reason. Either restructure some ventilation into the dog house or create a shady area with a breeze for dogs to stay cool outside and make sure their water and food dishes are not in the direct sun.
14. Powerade, Pedialyte, some sports drinks and waters – quickly put back the electrolytes being lost – and eat salt –
Weather related injuries from heat stroke and sun stroke, sun poisoning and dehydration don’t just happen to athletes and people working out in the sun – and part of the cause of these heat-related illnesses can be resolved by putting the electrolytes back into the body that are lost through sweating and dehydration. The sports drink Powerade has these electrolytes as well as does Pedialyte and some of the other sports drinks and waters available. ALWAYS have at least one jug of Powerade or Pedialyte in the house cupboards in case of emergency for dehydration – ALWAYS. It can save a baby or child and it can save a 911 call, it can keep anyone of any age from falling over from the electrolytes becoming dangerously low and whether from heat or stomach illness, it can keep from having to end up in the hospital on an IV to get those life saving fluids to restore the electrolytes and body’s metabolism.
During a heat wave of temperatures above 90 degrees, whether inside or outdoors – these products made to help athletes overcome dehydration make sense to drink and have for everyone in the family throughout the day and even at the bedside at night when it is hot. They can restore electrolytes quickly, help cool the body and the brain, they work fast and they help remove the toxins created in the body by the heat and by the sunshine. Certainly one trick to beat the heat, is simply to drink more liquids – water, included. But in doing so, and by sweating, some things are being lost at the expense of hydrating. These electrolytes and this includes salt, believe it or not are absolutely required for staying alive. When they become critically low – which can happen during heat waves and sometimes during illnesses, stomach illnesses especially – these electrolytes have to be added back into the body as quickly as possible.
It isn’t rocket science – a little salt can be put on the hand and licked off – a child can be given a lemon with a little salt on it to squeeze it and lick it – and as much as it doesn’t take a huge amount to fix this – it does take some salt to do it – and not the kind that is fake salt made for people on restricted salt diets – it doesn’t work. Salt is required for living – there is a lot of it lost through sweat and the body doesn’t work well without it. In fact, an ancient form of torture and death was to remove the salt available from a person in captivity to cause the most cruel agonized suffering and grueling horrific death which is caused by a lack of salt. When there is too much salt lost by the body because of the heat or activity during hot days while sweating, there is no help from the fake salt products available on the market for people who use them. It has to actually be real table salt, or sea salt or basic out of the box iodized or non-iodized salt, even though it doesn’t take a lot to do it.
Elderly people and people with disabilities are particularly prone to having a problem during the summertime heat waves with salt and electrolytes becoming critically low because many are taking drugs which strip those out of the body anyway, and many are following a doctor’s orders to restrict the intake of things with the salt and electrolytes in them which at any other time, might not be life threatening. But, during the summertime heat waves without access to an air conditioned environment for daily living – these already low levels of salt and electrolytes become even lower . . . and, believe it or not – EMTs do not carry Gatorade, Powerade, Pedialyte, Ensure Clear or Lite or whatever its called, nor a simple salt box with a little bit of salt in it to fix things like this . . . oh no – it requires waiting for the meat wagon and then waiting for the emt team to figure out what to do and then the hospital to figure out what to do and put in an IV to get those things into their body two or three hours later . . . no wonder people die from it.
15. Use Common Sense – don’t use the oven to cook dinner when it is 90 degrees or more inside the house already – etc. –
If the dinner needs cooking, find some other way to do it. Don’t heat up the space by boiling a pot of water to make something, leave the oven off until winter. Nothing needs to be cooked in the oven that can’t be done some other way just as well. This is actually true even for people who have air conditioning. Also, to keep the house cooler even with air conditioning and definitely without it – turn off the drying cycle of the dishwasher and let the dishes air dry instead. The kitchen is the number one place in the house that generates heat from the normal everyday activities of cooking, food preparation and cleanup. Find ways to do those activities which can utilize cold foods, fruits, raw vegies, smoothies, protein drinks and microwave meals. Almost everything can be cooked in the microwave successfully – get a cookbook specifically about microwaving, (the older cookbooks made when microwaves were within their first ten years of being introduced are actually better with great charts, explanations, handy hints and pictures of step by step cooking methods for different foods.)
Many drugs / pharmaceuticals given to children and elderly and disabled people are toxic in the sunshine. Many drugs / pharmaceuticals given to anyone for anything are also toxic in the sunshine AND many of the pharmaceutical drugs make it more likely to have heat stroke, sun poisoning and sun stroke in a very, very short period of time. That includes getting sunstroke from sitting in the car with sun coming through the windows, especially in the front seats where there is little real shade from it. In these cases, the effects of the sun are cumulative, meaning that a few minutes in the sun and heat here and a few minutes later in the day, there – add together for a toxic effect that can come on suddenly even though, maybe that last little bit of time in the sunshine was only a few minutes. A pharmacist explained it like this – if you put the pills of some kinds of drugs in a window sill in the sunshine, they would literally change into a toxic poisonous substance in a short period of time. When this is in every cell of the body, in the sunshine, the same drug becomes a toxic poison in every cell throughout the body – it has to be taken seriously. These toxic effects and also the sun and heat stroke dangers when taking these drugs are life threatening. Don’t ask your doctor – ask your pharmacist and have them look it up. Not all drug containers with attached warnings will include the sun and heat toxicity nor do they always mention the likelihood of increased susceptibility to heat stroked, sun poisoning, sun stroke and other heat related illnesses.
If the daycare, kindergarten or elementary school doesn’t have a shaded play area and it is to be 90 degrees or more, either get a neighbor or relative to watch them those days, change daycare or school, or send a note that your child is not to be outside that day. And, talk to the school’s directors, principal, school board and other parents about getting some shade for the play area. This is too important an issue that is economically simple and cheap to fix for it to not be fixed. Every playground, play yard and area where children are engaged in sports activities need to have safe places to play where there is shade and it must also be acceptable for them to play there when the outdoor temperatures are high and for those children inclined to get sun poisoning, toxicity from the sun and heat stroke. This includes church playground areas, nursery schools, public and private elementary schools and kindergartens, sports clubs, sports facilities, junior and high school sports fields which at least need a cooling shade area near tennis courts and athletic fields, community fields for junior and adult co-ed athletics (although these seem to have the most shady pavilions near sports fields and be designed with the most common sense in most communities with shade nearby the athletic fields), and at community parks (which also seem to have the most common sense about this with many shady play areas available and sometimes with shade trees over the entire playground where kids can play without being in the direct sunshine.)
If walking in the sun to the store or to a bus stop or standing at a bus stop to catch a bus – use an umbrella. Even a rain umbrella provides some protection from the sun, although not as much as might be assumed. Any umbrella is failing to provide real protection from the sun or heat because it is allowing UV rays to come through mostly unhindered and indirect sunlight sources are still providing much of the sun’s light, heat and UV from sources at street level, from reflected surfaces and just bouncing around from everything. Therefore, an umbrella of any kind, unless it is made to hinder the UV and there are some companies making those – very expensive, is only a partial shade at best and heat from asphalt, sidewalk and building surfaces are still there as well.
Stroller clear front covers when it is hot – do not make it cooler for baby or toddler – they make it an oven with little way for the heat to escape or the air flow to help with cooling. It is cruel and wrong to have those in place during the summer heat – the overhead shade of a stroller should be extended and if the stroller is an umbrella style without a hood – one should be made with some coathangers and an old sheet or something to provide at least some barrier to the direct sunshine without hindering the air flow around the baby sitting in the seat. The sun and heat will not be changed if walking where the sun continues to hit the child at an angle that misses the hood of the stroller – so chasing the shade is the best answer or turning the stroller around to pull it backwards to provide the baby with shade during the walk makes better sense. Standing in the shade a few minutes where there are trees shading the sidewalk can help cool down both walker and child – and always walk on the side of the street where the shade of the trees provides the most shade.
Walking to stores, taking buses or going places in cars with children and elderly where there is no air conditioning in the car even when the air temperature is in the 80’s and certainly when it is anywhere above 85 degrees – every person needs something to drink along with them, several wet cloths to wet the face and back of the neck, cool loose clothing, shade when walking, umbrellas whether rain, sun, golf or beach umbrellas for some shade to cover everyone, and cooling snacks which can be carried in a small thermal lunch bag with a frozen blue pack. Again, NEVER leave children, or elderly, or disabled, or babies, or pets in the car – not even for a few minutes. Just don’t do it – every year there are deaths because of this each one of which was completely preventable and unintended and tragic and horrific.
And last, watch and use some common sense – find the shade to stand in while waiting for a bus even if it requires walking up to the next stop to wait, use the bus schedules to be there as close to the time for the bus as possible, don’t walk if it isn’t necessary, ask for help to get to the store or doctor’s appointments or whatever needs doing from someone with a car, and if anyone, child, baby, elderly, woman, young adult or big grown man looks like they feel bad from the heat or are about to pass out – start doing something to fix it immediately – don’t wait. Don’t wait till they pass out, don’t wait till they look any worse, don’t wait and ask them if they know who they are or where they are, don’t waste time – just get them something cool to drink, a washcloth that is wet with cool water for their face, an icepack from the freezer to put on the back of their head and neck, a wet hand towel to start wiping over their arms legs, shoulders back and front – and help them start cooling down immediately. From slightly sick because of the heat to very sick from the heat can happen very fast and much faster than calling 911 can do even one thing about it.
One quick note about drinking alcohol and that means beer as well – and the heat – being hot and in the sun and alcohol mixed is a strange easy way to get sun poisoning and heat stroke. The beer and alcohol is dehydrating the body even as drinking its cool soothing concoction. It is stripping salts and other body metabolytes out of the body at the same time that sweat from the sun and heat is also doing that – and it has the effect of hiding all that while it is doing it. It often isn’t obvious that it is happening until the situation has really progressed well into the area of sun and heat toxicity – and then it is also twice as far to go to rehydrate the body’s systems while the alcohol is still working its way out of the body at the same time. One small way to resolve this besides not going there in the first place, is to eat salty things like salted nuts and drink water along with the beer or alcohol but not mixed with it – but the best way is not to mix heat, sun and alcohol drinking in the same space and time. That may be why the drunk mechanic is often a shade tree mechanic as well – common sense has ensured their survival.
Some more ideas and tips for staying cool and beating the heat from around the web –
From Inhabitat –
6 Smart Ways to Escape the Summer Heat at Home –
From Gizmodo –
Ice Cube Vest
Tips To Stay Cool During The Heat Wave
June 22, 2012 9:51 AM
Operation Weather Survival
MY NOTES _
While I was making these pillows – which is a set of if, when, why, how, what, where and “if . . . , then . . ” with a set in black and white, then also in color – it occurred to me that numbers would be pretty nifty done the same way – and so I made the ones above along with the others in each of the languages above from one through five plus zero, and in English, from one through 12 plus zero.
The idea that is so nifty about it would be for all of the numbers in every language to be available at the same time on a couch, in a school, in a children’s room or play area. Then it is easy to see the differences in the languages and learn them – as well as to become acquainted with what a great, vast world it is with a multitude of cultures and languages – all of which are important. Together in a doctor’s or hospital waiting area for children, in school or home environments, in church nurseries – these colorful numbers pillows, if they were there in all of the languages rather than just one, or two – could awaken a creative intelligence and tolerance of others at the same time teaching the numbers in every language. It would be amazing.
More of MY NOTES ___
There are several languages that I did not get to use on these pillows because the zazzle site wouldn’t let me use the Cyrillic letters, it refused Arabic and Greek, Russian, Hindi, Thai, Hebrew, and most every other language with letters outside a few European and Asian languages. However, it did let me put Latin onto these pillows and Korean and Finnish and – well, it is obvious above . . .
Before going too much farther into making things with my other art and ideas and designs – I’m going to put the rest of the numbers through twelve into each language that I’ve started. So far, I’ve only made the pillows through five plus zero for everything except English (which, of course – is where I started.)
Although I like the what, where and when pillows (oops, just realized I forgot “who”) – etc. – I like the numbers pillows so much more, but only where they might be used as a set of a number in each of the languages to be played with side by side, exploring, questioning how to say it, and learning how to google it and ask others in order to learn how these number words sound . . .
(I guess it would be good to go back and add a “who” pillow to those sets that were supposed to be – if, then, when, why, where, what, how, and who – (and there is still another one, what was it?) Most people memorize that as, who, what, when, where and why – but having re-learned it another way later in life, I have a couple other words that belong to the set which were just as difficult to understand . . . (similar to “if . . . , then . . ” which is almost impossible to get without words.)
I’ll remember. It will pop into my head here in a little bit and I’ll know what the other two words were in the set and then I can add them along with the “who” – both in color and black and white. As much as I really didn’t like the way the, “if. . . , then . . ” pillow came out – I think it will have a value in the set for the thinking skills that it represents and inspires upon seeing it . . . so, I’m leaving it in the group.
Maybe I’ll think of another way to show it –
and, I so much want to do the Greek Alphabet on the pillows like I did the numbers, but the zazzle format probably won’t let me put them . . . I might have to make an artwork thing of each and then place them on the products – I’ll probably start with the pillows because I like them and they can be used in so many places.
On to the rest of the numbers . . .
(Now, I’ve added through number ten plus zero for each of the languages above in this collection of colorful numbers pillows – that is all I can do tonight. The rest will have to wait until tomorrow.)
This is a design for an iPad cover that I made tonight and it turned out so pretty. I like it.
Describes a bladeless turbine designed by Nikola Tesla.
List of Tesla Patents –
Explains the algorithms used in the stock market for trades that most people don’t know are running in the background for every exchange.
Lists guidelines for nuclear power to be operated more safely given the recent Fukushima meltdown and release of radioactive materials that has occurred. (from the Union of Concerned Scientists).
Just really nifty stuff.
Also very nifty.
X-ray scattering is one of the most effective methods for determining the structure of materials on the nanoscale. Scattering is favored because it can reveal both the structure and chemical composition of solids or liquids without destroying the sample. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) is a widely used variation of this technique that fires a monochromatic beam through a sample. Most of the x-rays pass through the sample, but some x-rays scatter as they encounter inhomogeneities in the material.
For porous materials, SAXS is especially useful because x-rays are scattered as they pass through interfaces of domains within the sample. These domains can be solid, another type of liquid, or even a gas within the sample.
Very nifty – but I suppose it can’t be taken out to a building, a bridge, a dam or a levee to check the integrity of those materials. But, it sure needs to – or something that is based on the same principles. (my note)
Absolutely stunning stuff.
About a teacher who taught Einstein –
Aurel Stodola From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aurel StodolaAurel StodolaBorn 10 May 18591859-05-10Liptovský Mikuláš, Austro-Hungarian EmpireDied 25 December 19421942-12-25 aged 83Zürich, SwitzerlandResting place Liptovský Mikuláš, SlovakiaResidence Slovakia, Switzerland
Known for technical thermodynamics gas turbine-powered electric generator
Awards Honorary degree of Leibniz University Hannover Grashof medal of Verein Deutscher Ingenieure Honorary degree of German Technical University of Brno Honorary degree of Charles University of Prague James Watt International MedalAurel Boleslav Stodola 10 May 1859 Liptovský Mikuláš, Austro-Hungarian Empire – 25 December 1942 Zürich, Switzerland
Aurel Stodola was an engineer, physicist, and inventor. He was an ethnic Slovak. He was a pioneer in the area of technical thermodynamics and its applications and published his book Die Dampfturbine the steam turbine in 1903. In addition to the thermodynamic issues involved in turbine design the book discussed aspects of fluid flow, vibration, stress analysis of plates, shells and rotating discs and stress concentrations at holes and fillets.
Stodola was a professor of mechanical engineering at the Swiss Polytechnical Institute now ETH in Zurich. One of his students was Albert Einstein. In 1892, Stodola founded the Laboratory for Energy Conversion.
Steam and Gas TurbinesStodola’s book Steam and Gas Turbines  was cited by Soviet rocket scientist Fridrikh Tsander in the 1920s. Published in English in 1927 and reprinted many times up to 1945, it was a basic reference for engineers working on the first generation of jet propulsion engines in the United States.
Stodola worked closely with industries on the development of the first practical gas turbines, in particular Brown, Boveri & Cie, who built the first gas turbine-powered electric generator in 1939.
Medical equipmentIn 1915-1916 Stodola collaborated with Ferdinand Sauerbruch a German surgeon to develop an advanced mechanically driven prosthetic arm. This collaboration marked one of the first documented examples of a surgeon and engineer merging efforts. Sauerbruch said, “Henceforth, surgeon, physiologist, and technician prosthetist/engineer will have to work together.”
Honors 1905 – Honorary degree of Leibniz University Hannover 1908 – Grashof medal of Verein Deutscher Ingenieure Honorary degree of German Technical University of Brno 1929 – Honorary degree of Charles University of Prague 1941 – James Watt International MedalCorresponding member of French Academy of Sciences.
See also Ellipse Law
References 1. ^ Rao, S., “Mechanical Vibrations”, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham, England, Third Edition, 1995. 2. ^ “Osobnosti Pýcha inžinierstva celého sveta Aurel Stodola: Moje city nikdy neochabli pre môj národ”. civil.gov.sk. http://www.civil.gov.sk/archiv/casopis/2001/1426mipr.html. Retrieved 23 September 2009 In Slovak. 3. ^ Aurel Stodola 1945, Steam and gas turbines, New York: P. Smith, OL18625767M 4. ^ Dawson, V.P., Engines and Innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American Propulsion Technology. NASA SP-4306, 1991. 5. ^ Early Gas Turbine History at web.mit.edu 6. ^ Childress, D.S., Development of rehabilitation engineering over the years: As I see it. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 2002, 396, Supplement:1-10. External links Virtual Exhibbition from the Library of the ETH Zürich German Fund of A. StodolaPersondataName Stodola, AurelAlternative names Short description Date of birth 10 May 1859Place of birth Liptovský Mikuláš, SlovakiaDate of death 25 December 1942Place of death Zürich, Switzerland
Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurel_Stodola”Categories: 1859 births | 1942 deaths | Slovak inventors | Slovak engineers | Hungarian engineers | Hungarian scientists | Austro-Hungarian scientists | ETH Zurich faculty | People from Liptovský Mikuláš | Turbines | Jet engines | Power engineering
Relativistic-runaway-electron avalanche – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This one is very important where fusion possibilities are concerned. Well worth studying this page at wikipedia.
Carbon nanotubes offer new way to produce electricity
This is the best one.
Breakthrough in Converting Heat Waste to Electricity : Northwestern University Newscenter
“It has been known for 100 years that semiconductors have this property that can harness electricity,” said Mercouri Kanatzidis, the Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor of Chemistry in The Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. “To make this an efficient process, all you need is the right material, and we have found a recipe or system to make this material.”
Well worth reading – my note.
Heat to electricity to heat to … « Texas A&M Engineering Works
Silicon Nanowires Turn Heat to Electricity – IEEE Spectrum
02.15.2007 – Researchers convert heat to electricity using organic molecules, could lead to new energy source
Generating ‘green’ electricity: Waste heat converted to electricity using new alloy
A Sound Way To Turn Heat Into Electricity
Turning heat to electricity – MIT News Office
Quantum Ferromagnet Using a Nine Ion Crystal Observed by Researchers
A brief and concise explanation of how the Fleischmann and Pons cold fusion experimental results came to be called quack science despite evidence to the contrary – (with sources) –
Source 9 does not mention “pathological science,” but is a report of the coming 2004 U.S. DoE review. It begins with: Cold fusion, briefly hailed as the silver-bullet solution to the world’s energy problems and since discarded to the same bin of quackery as paranormal phenomena and perpetual motion machines, will soon get a new hearing from Washington. This is a report in a reliable source, all right, but is fluff, general passing hyperbole, passive, with no attribution of who did the discarding.
Source 32 is not a reliable source, it appears to be a single individual’s private account of the meeting, attending with a group from General Electric Research, and does not mention “pathological science” either. It contains the following information about Morrison:
Lightwave electronics at sharp metal tips
Biography James Watt
Amazing. (my note)
Patent analysis and product survey on use of nanomaterials in lithium-ion batteries
Amazing – with a list toward the bottom of the article which describes the patents. Absolutely brilliant.
List of Tesla Patents –
A Fusion Thruster for Space Travel – IEEE Spectrum
This is AMAZING – although noted that it is ten years from being onboard – it is already at a very useful state of design.
Absolutely worth taking a look and reading through the explanation.
Truly amazing work.
Great design – very workable concept.
More fusion notes. Glad to have found it.
Evidence of a new phase in liquid hydrogen
February 25, 2010 By Miranda Marquit
One of the most significant things Tamblyn and Bonev discovered through their simulations, from an astrophysics standpoint, is that equations describing the properties of hydrogen might need to be updated. “This should change the modeling going forward,” Tamblyn insists. “What we found in the liquid suggests what the solid might look like, and that can help determine some of its thermal and electronic properties.”
After running the simulations, Tamblyn and Bonev then had to analyze them. “We discovered an ordering in the liquid that accounts for some of the interesting characteristics of hydrogen, such as the fact that under certain conditions, liquid hydrogen is more dense than the solid. We also found that highly ordered packing explains properties related to dissociation that were previously not well understood.”
Information on the simulation efforts, as well as results and conclusions, are presented in Physical Review Letters: “Structure and Phase Boundaries of Compressed Liquid Hydrogen.”
Therefore, we are all agreed that new ways of developing and harnessing energy resources are desirable and much needed. The idea that the concept of fusion promises viable solutions to these energy needs has been around for a long, long time. The first such candidate for inclusion in this article is Sergei –
I did a google search right quick rather than trying to find anything in my documents which takes forever –
using the search terms –
sergei 1827 engineering fusion
Very interesting results – but especially this one –
That is the google translation page to see it in English – it is a 2005 paper.
And this one – also from those search results –
A quote from the text linked above –
By early August Kapitza, at Rutherford’s suggestion, was studying how the energy of the alpha particle falls off at the end of its range. This project was brought to a successful conclusion with amazing rapidity. (etc.)
And this one –
He had to convince the authorities that his work lay primarily in pure rather than applied physics and that he could do nothing useful unless he had equipment and other facilities comparable with those he had enjoyed in Cambridge. Negotiations were begun to bring him what he required.
So Kapitza settled down to research again and within a year made his greatest discovery, the superﬂuidity of liquid helium. However, he lacked the freedom he had enjoyed in Cambridge. From the mid 1930s Soviet scientists found themselves increasingly cut off from their colleagues in other countries.
( . . . )
Although he was no longer head of the Institute of Physical Problems, Kapitza retained his position and salary as a full academician and went to live at his country house at Nikolina Gora, where he managed to carry on scientific work while virtually under house arrest. Most of his effort went into building up a laboratory in various outhouses where, aided by his sons, particularly Sergei, he could continue experimental work, albeit only on relatively unexciting projects. While atomic physics elsewhere was moving rapidly ahead using particle accelerators and other new equipment, he was unable to contribute to this. Even after he had been reinstated in 1954 and could return to Moscow,he was still without the facilities he needed for the kind of experimental work at which he excelled. Nevertheless, he began to think about the possibility of developing a defence against atomic bombs using extremely powerful microwave emissions. Later he transferred his attention to the problem of generating energy through nuclear fusion.
Also – this note from the article above – (about who Sergei is – one of two children born to Piotr and his wife, Anna) –
Two children were born in their Cambridge period: in 1928 Sergei, who became a distinguished physicist and successful popularizer of science for Soviet television, and three years later Andrei, who became a well-known Antarctic explorer and geographer.
From the other linked document –
(for which there is a google translated document link above the article about Piotr Kapitza,)
Liquid Helium Research from above (my note – and check out the equations he used)
To describe the contributions made by Piotr Kapitza in physics as it pertains to this discussion of fusion –
(from a biographical sketch about him online)
In 1934 he returned to Moscow where he organized the Institute for Physical Problems at which he continued his research on strong magnetic fields, low temperature physics and cryogenics.
In 1939 he developed a new method for liquefaction of air with a lowpressure cycle using a special high-efficiency expansion turbine. In low temperature physics, Kapitsa began a series of experiments to study the properties of liquid helium that led to discovery of the superfluidity of helium in 1937 and in a series of papers investigated this new state of matter.
During the World War II Kapitsa was engaged in applied research on the production and use of oxygen that was produced using his low pressure expansion turbines, and organized and headed the Department of Oxygen Industry attached to the USSR Council of Ministers. Late in the 1940′s Kapitsa turned his attention to a totally new range of physical problems.
He invented high power microwave generators – planotron and nigotron (1950- 1955) and discovered a new kind of continuous high pressure plasma discharge with electron temperatures over a million K. Kapitsa is director of the Institute for Physical Problems.
Since 1957 he is a member of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He was one of the founders of the Moscow Physico-Technical Institute (MFTI), and is now head of the department of low temperature physics and cryogenics of MFTI and chairman of the Coordination Council of this teaching Institute. He is the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics and member of the Soviet National Committee of the Pugwash movement of scientists for peace and disarmament.
And this –
(from the CERN materials found on this page link below it)
HEAVY ION PROGRAM AT BNL: AGS, RHIC*
AGS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Associated Universities, Inc.
Upton, New York 11973
(from the CERN materials found on this page – despite it being an early document among them)
Oh yes, and do be sure and read this –
which explains a lot of it – in about the most current understanding of it with very clear explanations that are easy to follow –
And from this page -pg 25 of the document
Extreme-Circumstances StructuraI Materials
教授 吉田 直亮，助教授 渡邉 英雄，助手 岩切 宏友
Professor Naoaki Yoshida, Associate Professor Hideo Watanabe,
Research Associate Hirotomo lwakiri
Xu, Qiu, N. Yoshida, T. Yoshiie : Dynamic Simulation of Multiplier Effects of
Helium Plasma and Neutron Irradiation on Microstructural Evolution in
Tungsten, Materials Transactions, Vol. 46, No. 6, pp.1255-1260, 2005.
Nishijima, D., H. Iwakiri, K. Amano, M.Y. Ye, N. Ohno, K. Tokunaga, N. Yoshida,
S. Takamura : Suppression of blister formation and deuterium retention on
tungsten surface due to mechanical polishing and helium pre-exposure, Nuclear
Fusion 45, pp. 669-674, 2005.
From the other linked document –
(for which there is a google translated document link above the article about Piotr Kapitza,)
page 22 – along with some of the non-linear dynamic system materials
High Energy Plasma Physics
教授 伊藤 早苗，助教授 矢木 雅敏
Professor Sanae-I. Itoh, Associate Professor Masatoshi Yagi
Zonal flows in plasma –a review,
Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion Vol.47, No.5 (2005), R35-R161,
P. H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K. Itoh and T. S. Hahm
Two decades of plasma physics – Turbulence and structure formation – (in
Parity Vol.20, No.11 (2005) 36-38
K. Itoh and S.-I. Itoh
Progress of the theory of zonal flow (in Japanese)
J. Plasma and Fusion Research Vol.81 No.12 (2005) 972-977
K. Itoh and S.-I. Itoh
Very interesting results – but especially this one –
That is the google translation page to see it in English – it is a 2005 paper.
(from the “obscurity assured” post I made on 6-27-11)
Japan nano-tech team creates palladium-like alloy: report – Latest news around the world and developments close to home – MSN Philippines News
from Agence France-Presse, 12-30-10
using rhodium-silver nanoparticles with alcohol stabilization – wowsa. and it works . . .
CERN unveils Open Hardware initiative
The CERN OHL was created to govern the use, copying, modification and distribution of hardware design documentation and the manufacture and distribution of products. Hardware design documentation includes schematic diagrams, designs, circuit or circuit board layouts, mechanical drawings, flow charts and descriptive texts, as well as other explanatory material.
That is truly amazing. What it means is that their research is available for anyone to study and understand better, among other things. It can be appropriately incorporated into different things following their guidelines. Truly amazing. And, wondrous news.
Collections of scientific and technical information from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a distributed searching capability.
(Note – this was the page that I was talking about earlier in this post with the most wonderful archives of information from the DOE and it is really easy to figure out and use it – cricketdiane)
Johnson Thermo-Electrochemical Converter System
The JTEC is an all solid-state engine that operates on the Ericsson cycle. Equivalent to Carnot, the Ericsson cycle offers the maximum theoretical efficiency available from an engine operating between two temperatures. The JTEC system utilizes the electro-chemical potential of hydrogen pressure applied across a proton conductive membrane (PCM). The membrane and a pair of electrodes form a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) similar to those used in fuel cells.
On the high-pressure side of the MEA, hydrogen gas is oxidized resulting in the creation of protons and electrons. The pressure differential forces protons through the membrane causing the electrodes to conduct electrons through an external load. On the low-pressure side, the protons are reduced with the electrons to reform hydrogen gas. This process can also operate in reverse. If current is passed through the MEA a low-pressure gas can be “pumped” to a higher pressure.
The JTEC uses two membrane electrode assembly (MEA) stacks. One stack is coupled to a high temperature heat source and the other to a low temperature heat sink. Hydrogen circulates within the engine between the two MEA stacks via a counter flow regenerative heat exchanger. The engine does not require oxygen or a continuous fuel supply, only heat.
(from a post I made July 7, 2010 during the BP oil spill debacle of the Deepwater Horizon as it spewed zillions of cubic meters of crude oil and dispersants into the Gulf of Mexico – damn ridiculous mess they created.)
Nuclear Reactors are classified by several methods; a brief outline of these classification schemes is provided.
Classification by type of nuclear reaction
- Nuclear fission. All commercial power reactors are based on nuclear fission. They generally use uranium and its product plutonium as nuclear fuel, though a thorium fuel cycle is also possible. Fission reactors can be divided roughly into two classes, depending on the energy of the neutrons that sustain the fission chain reaction:
- Thermal reactors use slowed or thermal neutrons. Almost all current reactors are of this type. These contain neutron moderator materials that slow neutrons until their neutron temperature is thermalized, that is, until their kinetic energy approaches the average kinetic energy of the surrounding particles. Thermal neutrons have a far higher cross section (probability) of fissioning the fissile nuclei uranium-235, plutonium-239, and plutonium-241, and a relatively lower probability of neutron capture by uranium-238 (U-238) compared to the faster neutrons that originally result from fission, allowing use of low-enriched uranium or even natural uranium fuel. The moderator is often also the coolant, usually water under high pressure to increase the boiling point. These are surrounded by reactor vessel, instrumentation to monitor and control the reactor, radiation shielding, and a containment building.
- Fast neutron reactors use fast neutrons to cause fission in their fuel. They do not have a neutron moderator, and use less-moderating coolants. Maintaining a chain reaction requires the fuel to be more highly enriched in fissile material (about 20% or more) due to the relatively lower probability of fission versus capture by U-238. Fast reactors have the potential to produce less transuranic waste because all actinides are fissionable with fast neutrons, but they are more difficult to build and more expensive to operate. Overall, fast reactors are less common than thermal reactors in most applications. Some early power stations were fast reactors, as are some Russian naval propulsion units. Construction of prototypes is continuing (see fast breeder or generation IV reactors).
- Nuclear fusion. Fusion power is an experimental technology, generally with hydrogen as fuel. While not suitable for power production, Farnsworth-Hirsch fusors are used to produce neutron radiation.
- Radioactive decay. Examples include radioisotope thermoelectric generators as well as other types of atomic batteries, which generate heat and power by exploiting passive radioactive decay.
In nuclear physics, an energy amplifier is a novel type of nuclear power reactor, a subcritical reactor, in which an energetic particle beam is used to stimulate a reaction, which in turn releases enough energy to power the particle accelerator and leave an energy profit for power generation. The concept has more recently been referred to as an accelerator-driven system (ADS).
And I wanted to put this one other reactor type which is amazing –
(But, those aren’t it. Does have interesting insight into the nuclear fission stuff underway, though.)
This is the best little search for some good images of some of it – still not what I was trying to find –
Its this nifty experimental fission powered reactor – seems like the pictures from it I’ve seen are from somewhere not in America – Switzerland, Denmark, France or Russia maybe –
I’ll look through my docs to decipher where it is from and what it is called – very, very nifty, though. You just gotta see it and what it does. Really amazing.
The whole approach is different. Yep, really amazing. And, the results are spectacular, at least I think so.
Later . . .
In the past few days, I’ve heard things from family members and friends that are very disturbing about the tornadoes that have devastated the nation over the weeks of April this year.
It is unacceptable. The ideas presented to me were plainly wrong. There were over 300 people whose lives were lost in the tornadoes that blasted across Alabama, and other states of the South just two days ago. The days and weeks before that have shown all of us, homes that were leveled, towns decimated and lives lost and shattered. There is no excuse for it to be that way. It is 2011.
One of the excuses I heard is that it is “2012 when the world ends that is here early in 2011” and to fight it would be senseless. Another idea repeated to me from three different people, is that there is no way to control winds, storms, things like the jet stream and tornadoes – that to do so we would have to be God. Other ideas explained to me were repeated from various broadcasts of the am radio talk shows and other online information sources who say there is no way that anyone can do anything about any of these things since it is part of the “end times” and can be expected to get worse, not better. And, along with explanations on many business shows, business journals, business and financial blogs and tv broadcasts – there are a multitude of quotes to explain how America is falling and that we cannot expect to stand up again as number one in the world. Now, wait a minute . . .
Just hold the gd phone.
Back it up and rewind that entire set of conversations. I don’t know who told these family members and friends that to do something is to not accept our place as human beings and try to do what only God can do. I don’t know exactly, although I have a pretty good idea, where these people in my life got these lines of thinking which say there is nothing that anyone can do about all this and nor should we make the effort to do so. I don’t know how the excuse that “it is the end of the world anyway,” means we are all supposed to throw up our hands and tend to our own momentary satisfactions without seeking to do much else about anything. And, I don’t care, either – where these people got these ideas. I do know they are wrong.
When it rains, we put an umbrella over our heads. We don’t just stand out there in the rain without doing anything about it simply because “God” sent rain. We make lightning rods to go on our homes and businesses, which were designed by a brilliant man in our nation’s history who saw a problem and found a way to provide a naturally based principled solution. It has saved lives, homes, families, businesses and communities where people at one time in history believed that there was no way to stop lightning – that it was what amounted to an “act of God” which no human could expect to change, alter or do anything to provide safety against. Those people were not considering even finding a way to do something about it, but one man did and now we have lightning rods on damn near every single building, structure, skyscraper, and everything else that is built to withstand the natural elements.
The building industry has known for well over a thousand years, that the basic protection for people’s lives during storms with tornadoes forming and reeking havoc, is for structures, homes, buildings, restaurants, malls, schools, hospitals, and living spaces to have a basement or storm cellar. It is not rocket science. It is a known quantity which works. At some point, the building industry, cities and towns policy makers, developers and other decision makers decided to not require basements and storm cellars for every single home and every single structure built in their communities. Well, that was wrong.
We put dams and levees up to control flooding. We don’t just sit back and say – well, if the place floods, then it was meant to be. That is called, “engineering” and is why we have those multitudes of engineering disciplines to this day. We have architectural and structural engineering disciplines that create to a better standard than throwing up a few sticks and calling it a house. And, the homes in these recent tornadoes yielded NO real harbor or safety from the storms. They acted as what they’ve become, pasteboard and brittle sticks rather than a reinforced, flexible and safe structure to protect the families and lives housed within them. That is unacceptable.
And, I don’t know what we’ll have to do – if it is to incorporate some type of polymer dip for the framing wood to give them more strength and flexibility, add re-bar to the core of brick facades which are held together by unreinforced masonry, create better building methods generally to withstand these types of extreme events, or find a way to cut those tornadoes in half and dissipate them in some manner before they get on the ground tearing up the place – but I do know that requiring basements and storm cellars to be built into every single structure is a known successful defense against loss of life.
I do know that we could do that everywhere in short order – retrofitting existing structures with storm cellars and below ground level basements – including homes, businesses, county buildings, schools, industrial plants, everything. And, I do know it isn’t just required in Kansas anymore – which has been evidenced for a long, long, long time. Why these 300 lives were lost a couple days ago, within seconds as their homes were obliterated – is no longer an acceptable excuse. And, the world has ended at least 8 or 9 thousands times according to various religious predictions across history. It isn’t an excuse to sit idly by while solutions could be applied to save lives, communities and families from known dangers with known outcomes by using either known solutions or engineering new ones that work.
And, there is no excuse whatsoever for anyone living in a mobile home or trailer staying in it believing there is some protection from a severe storm, extreme or damaging winds, and tornadoes. Especially in these housing types and their mobile home parks, on their individual private property where mobile home owners have set up housekeeping, and in mobile home communities – there absolutely has to be an enforceable code by every town, city and county requiring a storm cellar be added on site. For mobile home parks and communities, central community storm shelters in an underground basement at their community clubhouse or something must be required of those community owners with enough storm cellar or basement space to protect all of the people with all of their family members who live there. It has to be close enough to walk to it and get into it within a couple minutes – not sitting hundreds of yards away from significant portions of the residents’ homes.
The attitudes expressed to me over the past few days demanding that none of us give a damn about all this and insisting that no one can or should try to do anything about this – are attitudes commonly repeated and still wrong. They are based in someone not thinking through what they were saying – we do have homes because they were engineered solutions to our need as humans for protection from the elements. We did not – “just not give a damn about it” and sit out in the fields and woods never making something of a solution to protect ourselves as a species. We did, in fact – create many solutions to it and meshed solutions from many different people to have more than nature gave us in the first place. Or else we would all still be standing out in the rain without an umbrella or house in existence at all.
AND – people need to vote with their dollars by NOT BUYING any house or business structure that doesn’t have a basement, cellar or storm cellar in it.
When that happens, builders will start adding basements to protect people’s lives and building inspectors / county codes will require either basements or storm cellars in every structure and home in America as it should’ve been in the first place knowing what we know about tornadoes, storms, hurricanes and extreme wind events.
From what I can tell, the homeowners’ associations in many communities could have made a central storm safe space available – most have expensive clubhouses that are rarely used by anybody. They’ve paid for swimming pools – they’ve charge association fees. Surely they could add something more useful along with it – like public announcements throughout the neighborhood when tornado spawning storms are coming – or at the very least, provide a basement for people in the neighborhood to come and have some protection from those events.
But, sooner or later – there are still two parts which need serious workable solutions – one is to stop the tornadoes from spawning in the first place or after the conditions have developed to make them likely. And, as much as I appreciate the magnitude of these forces – we, as a people have changed all kinds of things in the landscape – which could just as easily also be changed to provide “wind breaks,” special heating or cooling zones in the landscape to help dissipate the storms’ power or alter them, some kind of lateral slicing through the tornado kind of thing that would act the same way as sticking a hand laterally through a whirlpool in the bathtub when the drain makes one, and/or sculptured land planning in the same manner as the buildings and heat zones of and altered air foils of cities with their skyscrapers, parking lots, freeways, streets and buildings change the likelihood of storms producing tornadoes.
Although cities are hit with tornadoes from time to time, it is far less frequently and with less running distance of damage that is somehow changed by virtue of the ways cities are constructed and contain heat or alter wind patterns and wind shear. Maybe the tall buildings force eddies in the air currents which change the dynamic or push them down or around in dividing ways – that principle which is working around cities could be used and applied for tornado development zones. But, not just in Kansas – the dust bowl thinking of people stuck in 1930 something has got to stop. The Southern States have suffered inordinately high numbers of tornadoes for many years with the recent outbreaks of weather patterns differing in the severity and multiple development fronts. There is no reason that any state of the South should have any homes without basements in this day and age. There is no reason they couldn’t apply the massive knowledge our scientists and universities have discovered into tangible solutions – whether wind breaks or satellite looks at re-interpreting some parts of the landscape to dissipate these damaging winds when they do get started.
These things could be done.
The second thing that needs to be done – is to make our houses into safe harbors for human lives. They are not that now. It is inexcusable that our homes have become (and that includes apartments, condos, workplaces, some buildings, shopping areas, and large industrial workspaces under thin metal sheeting, etc.) – nothing but pasteboard and brittle sticks – no matter what they seem to look like on the outside. That is unacceptable.
Every structure needs to be retrofit in some way to be substantially safer along with adding basements or storm shelters/ storm cellars to all of them.
There are Geotextiles now and polymer / carbon nano fiber based fabrics that never existed before. There is a man who designed homes for hurricane prone areas which are glued and screwed rather than to allow the wind getting up into the structure tearing it apart as it goes. There are new types of cement and retrofitting systems to make unreinforced masonry into reinforced, strong but flexible structures. There are building materials, knowledge, science, engineering, materials science, structural engineering knowledge and research which 30 years ago, didn’t even exist.
Strides have been made in collecting data and information, analyzing the data and understanding the results. It has been public information available to everyone. Out of all that – it is far past the time to take it and weave new practical solutions from it to apply throughout our nation for the safety of families, children, people, young lives and old – there is no excuse for what has just happened to take these lives from all of us and from our communities by tornadoes damaging structures which weren’t much more protection than a cardboard box would’ve been. It is not acceptable for it to keep being that way.
And, where building techniques were known a hundred years ago or in 1930 something which worked to keep lives safe, but in our modern world were abandoned – those need to be brought forward and used as well.
That includes – if a house doesn’t have a basement or storm cellar – don’t buy it. Life is too precious to put up with it – there are no savings financially by getting a house or business without a basement. Dead or maimed from a tornado because there was nowhere in the house safe from it – is not a financial advantage no matter how good that house looks on the outside.
President Obama visits Alabama’s storm ravaged areas today – (CNN)
Tuscaloosa, Alabama (CNN) — President Barack Obama arrived in Alabama on Friday, the hardest-hit of six states ravaged by a series of storms and tornadoes that killed nearly 300 people and left entire neighborhoods in ruins.
Obama was scheduled to meet with families affected by the storms as well as government officials.(etc.)
Photos: Nightmare scenes in Alabama after deadly storms sweep South – (CNN)
Janet Pucket surveys the damage outside her home in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, on Thursday, April 28, after a tornado hit the area Wednesday. (etc.)
. . . the Chancellor cut corporation tax by two percentage points to 26pc from next month. By 2014, corporation tax will be reduced to 23pc.
They cut education budgets, raised tuitions, cut social programs that people had given into and then gave tax breaks to big corporations – but, if those rich corporations were going to bring jobs in – they would’ve already done it. That has nothing to do with the taxes – it has to be profitable and make business sense or they aren’t going to do it. All they’ve done by cutting the corporate taxes is to make themselves vulnerable to greater losses within their society and subjected their present and future employment pools to decimated educational opportunities that could have made them competitive in the world market.
My comment added to facebook a little while ago – and I mean it too. If those damn corporations were going to do business there, or here – they would already be doing it. Hell, they’ve gotten every last subsidy anyone could be conned into designing for them in both our countries and at the first sign of cheap labor – they went high-tailing it off.
The first sign of there being difficulties with their losses from betting with their corporate funds – they hit both our governments up to cover them and then they took their employment needs elsewhere with our money under their hats and stuffed into their back pockets. And, you really think some more corporate tax breaks will get these companies to do something different? Please, think that through again and see if history doesn’t explain what will happen next.
I swear – as soon as some nuclear scientist or finance geek comes around – everybody’s eyes glaze over, but then they want to know what those specialists were talking about the moment they need the information . . .
Damn, damn, damn.
There are no other words for it.
While I’m thinking about it – I’ll say it again – if the UK and the USA want to completely pay off their debt and then not have to pay the interest on it which would balance their collective and individual budgets – all they have to do is to place a sales tax on each and every dollar of stocks, bonds, credit default swaps, funky exotic financial products, financial derivatives, re-insurance and commodities trades. Then there wouldn’t be a budget crunch, no budget deficit, no interest on it to be paying for the next 500 years at rates that continuously increase and having to make these supposedly necessary massive cuts to everything.
So, either they want to fix the problem or they don’t. Looks like – they don’t.
Nuclear Official Sees No Urgent Changes Needed for American Plants
By MATTHEW L. WALD
Published: March 21, 2011
ROCKVILLE, Md. — A top official with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission said Monday that the nuclear crisis in Japan did not warrant any immediate changes in American nuclear plants. The commission’s inspectors at each nuclear site have been told to double-check that emergency precautions mandated years ago were still in place, including temporary hoses and fittings and other last-ditch backup equipment, said the official, William Borchardt, the executive director for operations.
the commission is not indicating a rush to act; officials say they are confident with preparations already in place, but open to improvements. In the course of a 90-minute session, two of the commissioners used the phrase “systematic and methodical” to describe the approach they wanted to take to applying lessons from Japan to the American fleet
The commission dispatched 11 staff members to Tokyo, where they are helping American Embassy officials understand what is happening [ . . . ] Two more groups of staff members will leave for Japan this week, officials said. (etc.)
Now on CNN – a nuclear regulatory guy – Jeffrey Merrifield –
He just said that elevated radiation levels have not been reported from the event now which shows from several hours ago – the smoke rising from reactors no. 2 & 3 – at Fukushima – HE IS WRONG – that is why they pulled the workers out of the area – high radiation readings were recorded and reported.
Now damn it – either he is lying because he knows these high readings were made or he doesn’t know and damn well should.
Maybe we better start finding out who these people are at our US Nuclear Regulatory Commission – and see where they’ve come from and who they actually are working for – it could be the nuclear industry they are supposed to be regulating and overseeing –
They don’t get to say that there is no changes to be considered for the US reactors – we don’t have some problems in our plants similar to the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant – we have many.
And, when I look around the internet news stories – the only things that our US nuclear regulatory commission members can do is say there is no reason to look at it or consider where the backup generators are placed right now – or anything – they told the operations managers of our nuclear plants to go check to see if extra hoses are still sitting around somewhere? That’s it? That’s all? Are they doing drugs or something? There can be lessons taken right now from what has already happened at the Daiichi plant – including –
- people had to be sent into the facility with pump trucks rather than having a robotic, remote-controlled option
- pictures and sensors from inside the reactor and the containment vessels in each of the reactors are not indicating whether there has been breech, compromise or meltdown – nor showing some of the chemical concentrations that have to exist there. That must be fixed.
- fire suppression equipment wasn’t available or didn’t work at the point where the fire occurred in the fourth floor of the reactor no. 4 – which should certainly have been available in the plant as a part of its design
- Control room protection wasn’t adequate because on the first day after the earthquake and tsunami, readings inside the control room were reported to be 1,000 times normal – that is not acceptable
- The earthquake did damage the plant because now the defense forces are going to be utilized using their tanks to remove debris from the plant complex as reported in UPI article “Smoke suspends work on Japan Reactor” published today
- It is night in Japan right now – there is a noticeable lack of lighting outside that plant which means anything that can possibly be occurring right now can’t be seen – those kinds of emergency lighting systems operating exclusive of main power systems need to be there and they aren’t.
- The backup power generators were placed, according to one of the early reports – in the basement. Wherever they were – these were subject to flooding – by design “at sea level” – is not acceptable when they could’ve been placed in the berm behind the plant and been safe from flooding and isolated from the complex in case the diesel fuel that fuels them ever caught fire
- The containment vessels do not have indicators to show from any remote location whether they are compromised or not. That is unacceptable.
- There was not enough backup battery power to give operators a chance to fix much of anything – two 8-hour battery systems or packs as backup is not enough at a nuclear plant facility for anything besides a very, very minute problem to be satisfied
- Every nuclear power plant facility has its reactors built above ground – there is nowhere for the nuclear radioactive fallout – burst off – releases of radioactive steam or air or hydrogen or smoke or whatever the hell else it might be – to go except up and out to be carried by the winds on the surface and in the upper levels across vast populations, goods, foods, water sources, food sources, other plants and equipments which would otherwise be uncontaminated – and homes and businesses and communities and other nations, as a matter of fact
- Backup water systems were not available at the Daiichi plant but neither are they available at other plants in the US and around the world. In fact, most every problem listed above exists at the other plants and facilities around the world.
- The spent fuel pools did not have their own extraneous cooling water systems – they were being kept with water over them as an open pit within the same buildings as the reactors. When the water was gone, there was not another option of taking water to them. That is not acceptable. There were not sensors and cameras that effectively conveyed what was happening in the spent fuel rod systems – there was not external containment systems around them specifically except for the building itself. That is not acceptable either.
- There were not robotics on site specifically for taking a remote camera into areas for viewing it – not for fire suppression – not for sensors to be remotely taken wherever needed and not to check any of a thousand other things from pressure to chemical makeup and radiation readings – every other industry, manufacturer and plant in Japan and around the world has these – but they weren’t available at Daiichi and they aren’t available in any of the US nuclear plants either
- The last time a design change was considered for the equipment, the turbine system, the cooling system, the protective garb for employees to wear, the control room configuration, the sensor and types of sensors used, the cameras available to use, the robotics available to use and the general layout of these plants – WAS WHEN? What year was that – and did anything get changed or incorporated into the plants which has been available in the last ten years, five years, two years or now available?
- The construction plans and graphics that show how these reactors and containment systems work – show that the steel clad 13 ft thick concrete containment vessel and secondary containment vessels have a weak point which is not 13 ft thick nor steel clad at the point where the water system brings coolant into the containment vessel and then takes the steam out again to the turbines. That could be a significant problem during an earthquake, during a hurricane, during a tornado – and during the event of a meltdown or evaporation of water in the reactor when the pressures exceed those it was designed to consider.
- There have been a number of accidents involving nuclear materials, nuclear plants of different types, nuclear radiation, nuclear fallout, nuclear materials handling, nuclear reactors, and nuclear materials in a vast array of applications. The attitudes of the TEPCO and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission members (other than the director) are useless – they do not serve the seriousness and massive damage that is inherent in this industry and the materials it uses.
- The addition of seawater which has a number of constituents along with the boron compounds added to stop the reactivity and slow neutron actions created a situation chemically which increased the concentration of those materials within the containment vessel and within the reactor itself. This concentration causes the steam, the evaporation of water into steam and the overall compromise of the reactor to happen faster. The fuel rods when they achieved a higher heat state would’ve melted making the control rods and other control features virtually useless as well. There is a situation in that which is not covered in the field manuals for nuclear reactors both in the US and in Japan where GE’s design is in use.
(and there’s more)
Don’t tell me there have been no accidents involving nuclear materials when you have a job that is paying your salary at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission anywhere – that is nothing but a lie and if you don’t know it – then you need to go work at McDonald’s or Wal-Mart or somewhere that your info isn’t going to be anything but an annoyance – Mr. Jeffrey Merrifield and Mr.William Borchardt, the executive director for operations.
This obviously isn’t the only list – but if these people at the IAEA and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and at TEPCO don’t know about it – they damn well should. And, they should have a much better understanding of what is missing, fallible or in dire need of fixing in all of these plants than they seem to have. That is absolutely unacceptable.
Don’t tell me there isn’t anything to be fixed in these plants – not only are they using a turbine design created 150 years ago – but they are wearing protective suits that haven’t been redesigned in about 75 years despite all the new materials and technologies available. That is bullshit. There is not one other word for it.
In an industry that gets us to pay for everything, and then becomes a private profit-making industry, where we clean up the damage when things go wrong and we bear the brunt of the costs to get it back online when something happens – there is no way that nuclear plants making $2 million in profits every day do not have enough to buy a few cameras and build a secondary backup generator system above the damn flood plain where the plant has been built. That is just plain wrong thinking on the part of these nuclear regulatory commission members to say to operators – go check to see if the backup hoses are still around somewhere in case there is an accident – and that is all we need to do about this.
That is way, way way, wrong.
If those are the best of our brightest minds with college degrees operating in our interest as a nation – then we are screwed and everytime something is needed we will continue to get screwed, lied to – put in danger unnecessarily and otherwise brought to harm. That is not acceptable.
Our nuclear plants sit in highly populated areas. We, the people are not acceptable collateral losses. My family, my children and my grandchildren and the communities where they live are not to be ever considered acceptably tolerated collateral losses in emergency planning scenarios. Get that idea into the minds of our designers, nuclear physicists, plant managers, nuclear plant managers, chemical industry facilities owners and managers, to our local nuclear regulators and oversight agencies and every other elected or appointed official. This is not okay and intolerably so, when a few reasonable additions to these plants could make such an important difference to the possibilities of surviving catastrophic failures that can happen in them.
I have seen the TEPCO reports that they are giving to the government which can be found online – these look foolish – not because of the translation of language – they look foolish for what they are excluding from their reports which either isn’t known and should be or is being left out intentionally. Go read them, I’m not kidding. Its like they’ve filled out a form. And, if that is the case, then the form needs to change – and it needs to be changed all around the world. I sure don’t want to be sitting here in Georgia and my children in their communities around this country and hear there has been a nuclear accident of some kind – then get reports about it like those in Japan from TEPCO right now.
And, I don’t ever want to hear that there was no plan for how to get all of the people evacuated from a fifty-mile radius from the plant where the danger is occurring and radioactive releases are happening in real time. It would be an unnecessary tragedy knowing what we do now – to have no realistic and practical plan in place for moving / evacuating all of the people from a fifty-mile radius of our nuclear power plants within hours of a meltdown event or containment breech – not days later as somebody is figuring out how to do it or why or whether it is necessary or not – and not while “poplitics” from the nuclear industry and their lobbyists try to dissuade our officials from reacting at all lest they cause public “panic”. That would not be an acceptable option and it looks like right now – it is the only one on the list for what would happen after a crisis event begins to unfold in a nuclear plant or industrial accident or nuclear reactor core meltdown or release of radioactive materials from a nuclear power plant or some other industry using them.
So, right now –
- We know there is not an effective and orderly plan for moving the millions of people out of the fifty-mile radius of our nuclear plants or any of numerous other dangerous chemical industry facilities’ nearby areas – and to get it done in a timely way without public panic. In many of these areas – the population numbers are greater than they were when the plant’s were built and their emergency plans created.
- In Japan right now, as of early this morning our time, they told people to not drink the tapwater because higher levels of radioactive isotopes than safe had been found in it – but the 20km – 30km “shelter in place” communities – have no other water source. They are supposed to stay inside – with no air, no windows open, not go outside, no ventilation systems going – it still is very cold, they have no heat – probably no electricity and now – besides no food handy nearby which is contaminated anyway – no water.
- Since we know, the same thing could happen in the US – we could make a plan for what can be done in that instance and enact that plan with the coordinating agencies who would be involved were an event to happen. – UPDATE those plans and playbooks. The time for that is now.
- The things that are listed in the bullet list above in this post are now known to be resolvable issues that can be fixed at our nuclear plants and at those around the world. It doesn’t take three years and thirty billion dollars to study it – jolts to our perception of nuclear safety have happened right now – why not fix those things right now in the nuclear industry rather than waiting for the regulations to require it?
- And, anybody who is not serving the public interest and the public good who is found to be on the nuclear regulatory commission right now – sure doesn’t need to stay there and be the decision-makers when an accident or disastrous event does happen. They need to go work somewhere else.
And, I just noted –
The Kansas City Star article by Matthew Daly from 20 minutes ago titled – “NRC: Japan nuke crisis does not warrant US changes”, that says Borchardt also defended the commission’s recommendation that US citizens stay at least 50 miles away from the troubled Fukushima plant. Current US guidelines call for a 10-mile evacuation zone around all US nuclear plants. (etc.)
from Deutsche Welle 17 minutes ago –
“Seawater Sample Feeds Japanese Radiation Fears”
A sample of water taken from the Pacific Ocean near Japan’s stricken Fukushima nuclear power plant has raised fears over the danger posed by heightened radiation levels –
The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) said the level of radioactive iodine found in the sample was 126.7 times higher than the government-set limit, while the level of caesium (cesium137) was 24.8 times higher. The sample was taken on Monday about 100 meters (320 feet) south of the Fuhkushima No. 1 plant.
There isn’t anybody using the fish from those waters for food is there? Well, of course there is – nobody told the fish not to drink that water, not to breath it in, not to swim in those waters in it, not to feed themselves to other fish that might end up consuming lots of fish with those radioactive isotopes along with other petroleum products and chemicals stirred up by the tsunami in them, or to stay out of those areas.
Nuclear | 21.03.2011
Seawater sample feeds Japanese radition fears
(also says – )
At 3:55 p.m. local time (6:55 p.m. GMT), a “light gray plume of smoke” rose from the fuel storage pool of reactor No. 3, a TEPCO spokesman told reporters.
“Due to this problem, the operator temporarily pulled out the workers, while checking on the condition of the site,” the spokesman said.
The smoke ceased shortly afterwards, but smoke was then observed rising from reactor No. 2.
The workers are repeatedly enduring high doses of radiation as they continue to try to avert a nuclear disaster which could harm millions of people. An earthquake and resulting tsunami on March 11 knocked out the reactor’s power supply and cooling systems, threatening a nuclear meltdown.
The failure of backup generators used to pump cooling water helped cause explosions in at least three of the buildings surrounding Fukushima’s six reactors.
A power board distributing electricity to a reactor’s temperature control valves was not examined for 11 years, and inspectors faked records, pretending to make thorough inspections when in fact they were only cursory, TEPCO said.
It also said that inspections, which are voluntary, did not cover other devices related to cooling systems including water pump motors and diesel generators.
- 1959, 1964, 1969 – Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Los Angeles, California. Partial meltdowns.
- September 1957 – Mayak nuclear waste storage tank explosion at Chelyabinsk. Two hundred plus fatalities, believed to be a conservative estimate; 270,000 people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels. Over thirty small communities had been removed from Soviet maps between 1958 and 1991. (INES level 6).
27 July 1972
Two workers at the Surry Unit 2 facility in Virginia were fatally scalded after a routine valve adjustment led to a steam release in a gap in a vent line. [See also 9 December 1986]
Another list –
or a list of lists on wikipedia about nuclear accidents – check civilian nuclear accidents, civilian nuclear incidents – and this page – (also the discussions pages behind the entries found on the tab above, know that the nuclear industry and their lobbyists are trying to influence what can be found or not about these particular subjects that reflect negatively on them.) –
Note – that some lists are made of nuclear accidents which concern commercial applications of nuclear materials, some have military uses of nuclear materials or experimental research accidents – and some have the civilian nuclear accidents and incidents (such as the civilian nuclear power plants that make up the greatest number of nuclear power reactors now around the world for scope, scale, proximity to human life, and to amount and degree of nuclear materials on site – compared with research facilities which are more numerous but have lower supplies of actual materials kept on site or within the confines of their labs) –
However, some other massive errors are made at those numerous and scattered research and university facilities by the cavalier handling of the materials and waste products because the facility designers of the school around it can accommodate those materials without the added care of engineering specialists, such as putting a cask for radioactive materials on the floor of the lab above the school cafeteria that exists on the floor below it, etc.)
Somebody really needs to check on some of those kinds of things – both in the chemistry labs and the radioactive materials handling along with the waste products of both at universities, research facilities and medical facilities that use them.
Surely we don’t have to wait for a disaster in order to do something now . . .
Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents
These are lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents.
- List of articles about Three Mile Island
- List of articles about the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents
- List of Chernobyl-related articles
- List of civilian nuclear accidents
- List of civilian nuclear incidents
- List of civilian radiation accidents
- List of crimes involving radioactive substances
- List of military nuclear accidents
- List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll
- List of nuclear tests
- List of sunken nuclear submarines
- List of books about nuclear issues
- List of films about nuclear issues
- List of inquiries into uranium mining in Australia
- List of nuclear whistleblowers
- List of states with nuclear weapons
- Nuclear and radiation accidents
- Nuclear and radiation accidents by country
- Nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll
- Nuclear power accidents by country
- United States military nuclear incident terminology
- International Nuclear Event Scale
From the World Health Organization and IAEA website –
Although the likelihood of a major accident at a nuclear facility is low, should such an accident occur, protective actions near the facility and monitoring of radiation at longer distances would need to be taken to protect the public. Other radiation emergencies (for example, a radiation source appears in the human environment, patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment are accidentally overexposed) normally affect only a few individuals, but they occur much more frequently (several times each year). More recently the threat of possible terrorist attacks using radioactive materials or nuclear warheads has become prominent.
UN Agency Contact and Response
For major nuclear and radiation emergencies the international organizations with relevant responsibilities have a Joint Plan for a co-ordinated response. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the prime coordinating agency for an international response to radiation accidents. Functional links have been established between agencies to ensure continuous communication and activation of the plan of action.
In addition to the IAEA and WHO, the key international partners cooperating in this response are: the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization on Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
WHO is a full party to the Conventions on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (Early Notification Convention) and Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), for which the IAEA is the focal point. These Conventions provide the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of radiation accidents, with the aim of minimizing the health consequences.
WHO works closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to prepare for and respond to nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies, principally to provide, coordinate and consult medical assistance to victims of such events where severe radiation exposure has occurred. Advice can also be provided to national authorities on how to prepare and respond to such radiation accidents, or what kind of public health actions may be needed.
Emergency medical support for radiation exposed individuals is provided through WHO’s Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN). This is activated following notification about a radiaion accident with causalties (but even in case of a single victim with severe overexposure) from the IAEA or directly to WHO.
- Radiation Emergency Guidelines (English)
- International Health Regulations – Radionuclear Emergencies
Link to WHO IHR Resource Centre web site
My Note –
Then why is there radiation and radioactive isotopes in the food supply and in the drinking water as far away as Tokyo in Japan right now? Why is there fish and food supply from the Pacific Ocean in danger from radioactive fallout?
Why were the simple measures that could have been done at the very beginning of the nuclear crisis at Fukushima Daiichi – which would have prevented the exposure of thousands of people (and maybe millions of people now) – not taken, not done, not activated effectively and immediately? If they knew obviously ahead of time what was involved, why didn’t they act and react with immediacy and appropriateness to the level of seriousness involved? Why didn’t the international community consider it to be of the degree of seriousness that is actually involved which was known as a possible scenario ahead of time according to the information above from the website?
The playbook in use at the actual disaster events is out of date apparently. (my note).
The World Health Organization (WHO) on Monday said that the risk of radiation in food had so far been underestimated – according to the article in Deutsce Welle about the Seawater Samples (noted above in this post)
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by P Ortiz – Cited by 6 – Related articles
accidents is IAEA’s international reporting system of unusual radiation events (
RADEV), which is currently being finalised prior to world-wide release. …
Radiation accidents include radiological and nuclear accidents (IAEA, 2000a). The latter are caused by nuclear chain reaction. …
http://www.omfi.hu/cejoem/Volume7/Vol7No1/CE01_1-01.html – Cached – Similar
What we need is “dimensional displacement” per volume of air – energy of atoms is at a rate of speed plus radiation displaces ordinary chemistry composition and ordinary atomic distributions by virtue of its radioactive isotopes entering the chain of possible reactions and combinations within that volume of air. Wind further distributes, however, these are extraordinary changes to the normal constituents of air – it is not the same as when smoke of no radioactive nature or soot enters the air – or other types of chemical compounds and constituents or impurities. This makes changes to the surrounding air molecules and at the molecular level of these normal compounds and does so in the entire volume of air where they enter and then interact. (my note)
Surely we have software now that can model these things – this isn’t a flat reading at some plant gate once radioactive releases have occurred. It is scalar – and dimensional as the volume of air is acted upon by the radioactive isotopes being thrust with heat into it.That is more than a “fluid dynamics” kind of thing.
Radioactive substances detected in tap water in Japan’s 9 prefectures
English.news.cn 2011-03-21 17:14:24
According to a nationwide survey by the science and technology ministry, radioactive iodine was detected in tap water of the six prefectures of Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Niigata and Yamanashi while iodine and cesium were detected in Tochigi and Gunma prefectures.
In Fukushima Prefecture, where the nuclear plant is located, iodine was detected in a sample collected at 8 a.m. Monday.
In Tokyo cesium was detected on Saturday but was not found Sunday.
The safety intake limit set by the Nuclear Safety Commission is 300 becquerels per kiloliter of water for iodine and 200 becquerels for cesium. (etc.)