What happens when our brilliant technologies and brilliant innovations get into the hands of business? Hmmm…… here’s one example with flexible thin film solar cell technology

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Well, I started here –

because it was still open from yesterday and I had intended to get the link and follow to find more information – and to see if anyone is going into the manufacturing of this –

Glitter-Sized Solar Panels Use 100 Times Less Silicon to Generate Electricity

by Jennifer Lance in Alternative Energy, Solar Energy/PV

As a preschool teacher, glitter is part of my world. These tiny, shiny flecks are loved by little children, yet are detested for the problem their tiny size makes clean-up. Solar energy used to have the opposite problem: the large size of photovoltaic panels needed to produce energy was considered prohibitive for many applications.  Such concerns are no longer, as scientists have successfully developed “tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic cells that could revolutionize the way solar energy is collected and used.”

Photo by Mykl RoventineImagine glitter-sized solar panels!Imagine glitter-sized solar panels!

Developed at Sandia National Laboratories in Washington, DC, researchers believe the glitter solar panels could be applied to our clothing and accessories.

The tiny cells could turn a person into a walking solar battery charger if they were fastened to flexible substrates molded around unusual shapes, such as clothing…

Sandia lead investigator Greg Nielson said the research team has identified more than 20 benefits of scale for its microphotovoltaic cells. These include new applications, improved performance, potential for reduced costs and higher efficiencies.

“Eventually units could be mass-produced and wrapped around unusual shapes for building-integrated solar, tents and maybe even clothing,” he said. This would make it possible for hunters, hikers or military personnel in the field to recharge batteries for phones, cameras and other electronic devices as they walk or rest.

Although I am not sure I want solar panels in my clothing, no matter what the size, it is exciting to think of the versatile applications of this tiny sized PV cell.

Another exciting development regarding these glitter-sized solar cells is that they use “100 times less silicon” to generate the same amount of electricity as conventional cells.  Silicon shortages have long been a concern of the solar industry, but relief is in site.  The Christian Science Monitor explains:

Quartz, the raw material for solar panels, is one of the most abundant minerals on earth. But for years, the solar industry has faced a bottleneck in processing quartz into polysilicon, a principal material used in most solar panels. The problem stalled a steady decline in prices for solar panels.

Now the silicon shortage may be coming to an end, predict some solar analysts, thanks to new factories coming online.

If true, the price for solar panel modules could start falling by as much as a third by 2010, says Travis Bradford, president of the Prometheus Institute for Sustainable Development in Cambridge, Mass. That’s good news for an industry that remains one of the most expensive power sources.

Although this shortage has eased up in recent years, using less silicon to generate the same amount of energy is a positive move from a conservation viewpoint.  All that glitters may not be gold, but it may produce energy from the sun!

http://greenlivingideas.com/topics/alternative-energy/glittersized-solar-panels-100-times-silicon-generates-electricity

***

My Note –

To be honest, I first had looked at the NOAA site where they list the current news which is found on the top right side of the opening page. And, I checked the placement of the oil spill projected – which might be yesterday’s idea of it – and the number of sea turtles and dolphins listed on this page –

http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/dwh.php?entry_id=809

Then I went to the –

Deepwater Horizon Joint Information Center

and clicked on the top bar link “Current Ops” and clicked on the Fish and Wildlife Report – picked yesterday’s pdf report from the list and looked at the number of birds, sea turtles, dolphins (and it doesn’t really list the others.)

Then, I went to the page about the glitter sized solar cells and clicked the link in the text – which goes here –

http://www.electroiq.com/index/display/photovoltaics-article-display/9981129920/articles/Photovoltaics-World/industry-news/2010/january/glitter-sized-solar.html

This article is from

Glitter-sized solar photovoltaics produce competitive results

by Neal Singer, Sandia National Labs
[From RenewableEnergyWorld.com]

Sandia National Laboratories scientists have developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic cells that could revolutionize the way solar energy is collected and used.

The tiny cells could turn a person into a walking solar battery charger if they were fastened to flexible substrates molded around unusual shapes, such as clothing.

The solar particles, fabricated of crystalline silicon, hold the potential for a variety of new applications. They are expected eventually to be less expensive and have greater efficiencies than current photovoltaic collectors that are pieced together with 6-inch- square solar wafers.

The cells are fabricated using microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques common to today’s electronic foundries.

Sandia lead investigator Greg Nielson said the research team has identified more than 20 benefits of scale for its microphotovoltaic cells. These include new applications, improved performance, potential for reduced costs and higher efficiencies.

“Eventually units could be mass-produced and wrapped around unusual shapes for building-integrated solar, tents and maybe even clothing,” he said. This would make it possible for hunters, hikers or military personnel in the field to recharge batteries for phones, cameras and other electronic devices as they walk or rest.

Even better, such microengineered panels could have circuits imprinted that would help perform other functions customarily left to large-scale construction with its attendant need for field construction design and permits.

Said Sandia field engineer Vipin Gupta, “Photovoltaic modules made from these microsized cells for the rooftops of homes and warehouses could have intelligent controls, inverters and even storage built in at the chip level. Such an integrated module could greatly simplify the cumbersome design, bid, permit and grid integration process that our solar technical assistance teams see in the field all the time.”

For large-scale power generation, said Sandia researcher Murat Okandan, “One of the biggest scale benefits is a significant reduction in manufacturing and installation costs compared with current PV techniques.”

Part of the potential cost reduction comes about because microcells require relatively little material to form well-controlled and highly efficient devices.

From 14-20µm thick (a human hair is approximately 70µm thick), they are 10× thinner than conventional 6-inch-by-6-inch brick-sized cells, yet perform at about the same efficiency.


Representative thin crystalline-silicon photovoltaic cells, 14-20µm thick and 0.25-1mm across. (Source: Sandia Labs, image by Murat Okanadan)

100 times less silicon generates same amount of electricity“So, they use 100× less silicon to generate the same amount of electricity,” said Okandan. “Since they are much smaller and have fewer mechanical deformations for a given environment than the conventional cells, they may also be more reliable over the long term.”

Another manufacturing convenience is that the cells, because they are only hundreds of micrometers in diameter, can be fabricated from commercial wafers of any size, including today’s 300mm (12-inch) diameter wafers and future 450mm (18-inch) wafers. Further, if one cell proves defective in manufacture, the rest still can be harvested, while if a brick-sized unit goes bad, the entire wafer may be unusable. Also, brick-sized units fabricated larger than the conventional 6-inch-by-6-inch cross section to take advantage of larger wafer size would require thicker power lines to harvest the increased power, creating more cost and possibly shading the wafer. That problem does not exist with the small-cell approach and its individualized wiring.

Other unique features are available because the cells are so small. “The shade tolerance of our units to overhead obstructions is better than conventional PV panels,” said Nielson, “because portions of our units not in shade will keep sending out electricity where a partially shaded conventional panel may turn off entirely.”

Because flexible substrates can be easily fabricated, high-efficiency PV for ubiquitous solar power becomes more feasible, said Okandan.

A commercial move to microscale PV cells would be a dramatic change from conventional silicon PV modules composed of arrays of 6-inch-by-6-inch wafers. However, by bringing in techniques normally used in MEMS, electronics and the light-emitting diode (LED) industries (for additional work involving gallium arsenide instead of silicon), the change to small cells should be relatively straightforward, Gupta said.

Each cell is formed on silicon wafers, etched and then released inexpensively in hexagonal shapes, with electrical contacts prefabricated on each piece, by borrowing techniques from integrated circuits and MEMS.

Offering a run for their money to conventional large wafers of crystalline silicon, electricity presently can be harvested from the Sandia-created cells with 14.9%efficiency. Off-the-shelf commercial modules range from 13% to 20% efficient.

A widely used commercial tool called a pick-and-place machine — the current standard for the mass assembly of electronics — can place up to 130,000 pieces of glitter per hour at electrical contact points preestablished on the substrate; the placement takes place at cooler temperatures. The cost is approximately one-tenth of a cent per piece with the number of cells per module determined by the level of optical concentration and the size of the die, likely to be in the 10,000 to 50,000 cell per square meter range. An alternate technology, still at the lab-bench stage, involves self-assembly of the parts at even lower costs.

Solar concentrators — low-cost, prefabricated, optically efficient microlens arrays — can be placed directly over each glitter-sized cell to increase the number of photons arriving to be converted via the photovoltaic effect into electrons. The small cell size means that cheaper and more efficient short focal length microlens arrays can be fabricated for this purpose.

High-voltage output is possible directly from the modules because of the large number of cells in the array. This should reduce costs associated with wiring, due to reduced resistive losses at higher voltages.

Other possible applications for the technology include satellites and remote sensing.

The project combines expertise from Sandia’s Microsystems Center; Photovoltaics and Grid Integration Group; the Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies Group; and the National Renewable Energy Lab’s Concentrating Photovoltaics Group.

Involved in the process, in addition to Nielson, Okandan and Gupta, are Jose Luis Cruz-Campa, Paul Resnick, Tammy Pluym, Peggy Clews, Carlos Sanchez, Bill Sweatt, Tony Lentine, Anton Filatov, Mike Sinclair, Mark Overberg, Jeff Nelson, Jennifer Granata, Craig Carmignani, Rick Kemp, Connie Stewart, Jonathan Wierer, George Wang, Jerry Simmons, Jason Strauch, Judith Lavin and Mark Wanlass (NREL).

The work is supported by DOE’s Solar Energy Technology Program and Sandia’s Laboratory Directed Research & Development program, and has been presented at four technical conferences this year.

The ability of light to produce electrons, and thus electricity, has been known for more than a hundred years.

The article was written by Neal Singer, a science writer at Sandia National Laboratories.  His freelance articles have appeared in Science, Smithsonian, Scientific American, the World and I, and other magazines.

***

And then, I went here through a link at the bottom of that page among the newsy stuff from the solar voltaics world –


which took me to this page –

http://www.electroiq.com/index/display/article-display/9347379372/articles/Photovoltaics-World/thin-film_solar_cells/amorphous-silicon/2010/may/analyst_-why_amat.html

This article is from

Analyst: Why AMAT’s thin-film Si fears are exaggerated

May 11, 2010 – Recent bad news surrounding Applied Materials’ SunFab turnkey solar technology and some of its customers have put industry watchers in a bearish mind about thin-film silicon solar technology in general — but that’s a bad rap, says one analyst.

The news hasn’t been good lately about AMAT’s SunFab line: new orders have plummeted, existing deals have been scaled back, clients are pulling back in the face of module oversupplies. Rumors have been circulating that the company may be heading for the exits in the TF Si business — including comments from none other than CEO Mike Splinter suggesting it’s time the unit swims (or sinks) on its own merits.

As with many other thin-film solar technologies, times were good when silicon was scarce and prices were high. But with contract prices plunging past $75/kg on their way to possibly $45/kg, AMAT’s x-Si module prices of $1.95/W can’t keep up with the ~$1.50/W (COGS $1.05) or lower for silicon.

Nevertheless, “the current desire to bury the technology is as much of an overreaction as was the initial hype,” claims Lux Research analyst Ted Sullivan, in a research note. ” There is significant room for TF-Si in the long-term technology mix — maybe just not AMAT’s variant.” The firm pegs it as a 2.4GW market by 2015, built “on the backs” of not just AMAT but firms including Sharp and Kaneka, which are still investing heavily. Sharp has a 1GW facility in Sakai with on-site silane and glass manufacturing, and started 180MW initial production (with JV equipment partner Tokyo Electron, which ironically is No.2 in semiconductor tools behind AMAT). Meanwhile, Oerlikon has pushed to >10% module efficiency with its TF-Si technology, vs. AMAT’s 9.5%.

Nor are the problems with AMAT SunFab adopters a big surprise. “Since we estimate SunFab’s TF-Si panel manufacturing costs at $1.40/W, including depreciation, $45/kg polysilicon would wipe out smaller-scale AMAT clients,” Lux notes. In this category would be recently-insolvent German PV module maker Sunfilm, and there have been rumors of others in similar straits; “we have heard of similar troubles with other AMAT clients and expect announcements of bankruptcy or production shutdowns soon [and] a few have quietly happened already,” Sullivan notes.

Nonetheless, AMAT’s x-Si time may not be up just yet, he suggests. The company may have “overreached with SunFab,” but can tap its “strong technical pedigree” to correct flaws in its approach, since equipment upgrades will be a continual need for TF-Si. Moreover, AMAT is familiar with a spike/trough market ride from its semiconductor industry pedigree, and is “not likely to get spooked by the current thin-film silicon panic.” And even if its x-Si plans ultimately gets scaled back, Sullivan hints the company is probably tinkering with CIGS, organic PV, and other non-silicon technologies in the background.

AMAT “has lost a battle, but certainly not the war,” he proclaims.

***

My Note –

And, I was thinking this explains what happens to our brilliant technology and technologies generally when they get into the hands of business. And, then they are shelved. So, I thought – what is making it happen this time and who is all behind it – hmmmmm………

So, I picked this one and went to the page linked to it –

(from the text of the page above)

recently-insolvent German PV module maker Sunfilm,which went to this page –

This article is from

// //

Germany’s Sunfilm goes insolvent

April 5, 2010 – German PV module maker Sunfilm has filed for insolvency citing current conditions and uncertainty regarding the government’s feed-in tariff, but it hopes the move will position it to find help from a new investor.

Current investors “have stopped their financial support,” and the company is “in discussions” with lenders, the company says. Three hundred employees have been working reduced hours since the end of 2009 — that’s three-quarters of the company’s 400-strong workforce it boasted when it finalized its merger with Sontor in July 2009, which also widened its capacity to 146MWp (between two sites, Bitterfeld-Wolfen and Grossroehrsdorf).

“By filing for insolvency we are aiming for a strategic realignment of the company with a new investor,” said Sunfilm chairman Wolfgang Heinze. Attorney Rainer M. Bähr has been appointed as temporary insolvency administrator.

SunFab certified its thin-film tandem-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) line Grossroehrsdorf, Germany in April 2009 and ramped to volume production in June 2009, citing efficiencies of up to 8%.

But the company was at the center of a spat between AMAT and PV tool rival Oerlikon — in May of last year the EU Patent Office invalidated a patent from the U. of Neuchatel related to amorphous silicon PV technology licensed to Oerlikon, and the crux of a suit against Sunfilm (and other module makers).

http://www.electroiq.com/index/display/semiconductors-article-display/5836690507/articles/Photovoltaics-World/thin-film_solar_cells/amorphous-silicon/2010/april/germany_s-sunfilm.html

***

My Note –

It would seem obvious that there was more to this than a simple price / cost ratio in the decision-making process, so I clicked on this one from that article – to understand what is destroying our opportunities to thin-film solar –

the crux of a suit against Sunfilm

which took me here –

Press releases

Oerlikon Solar takes legal action against Sunfilm AG

11 Jun 2008

Patent infringement investigated Oerlikon Solar takes legal action against Sunfilm AG

Patent infringement investigated
Oerlikon Solar takes legal action against Sunfilm AG
Truebbach/Switzerland, 11 June 2008. – Oerlikon Solar, the leading supplier of proven thin-film silicon PV solutions is taking steps to defend its strong Intellectual Property portfolio. In addition to its own proprietary IP, Oerlikon is the worldwide exclusive licensee for production systems for thin film photovoltaic cells on glass for several patent families, in particular under EP 0 871 979 B1. This exclusivity includes the right to enforce the patents against third party infringements. “With this action, Oerlikon Solar is taking steps to protect our core assets and those of our customer’s.

Oerlikon’s intellectual property is being knowingly infringed upon by Sunfilm AG”, says Jeannine Sargent, CEO Oerlikon Solar. “Our IP represents the cumulative work product of thousands of scientists and engineers for over twenty years, including millions of dollars of investment.”
Oerlikon Solar’s IP Portfolio includes European Patent EP 0 871 979 B1, which describes fundamentals of micromorph® tandem cell technology, an exclusive license to which was obtained by Oerlikon in 2003, from IMT, University of Neuchatel (Switzerland). (now invalidated by EU patent ofc, my note?)
Sunfilm AG of Grossroehrsdorf in Germany has publicly announced plans to enter the market with tandem junction photovoltaic modules, in violation of Oerlikon’s exclusive license. In Oerlikon’s view, Sunfilm’s manufacturing setup in Saxony, Germany, is designed to infringe upon both method and product that are protected under EP 0 871 979 B1. Oerlikon has decided to exert its right to enforce EP 0 871 979 B1 against Sunfilm. A complaint for patent infringement has been filed on June 10 with the German District Court of Duesseldorf.
The relevance of this patent has been made clear by the fact that several
companies, including Sunfilm AG, have filed a notice of opposition with the
European Patent office.
Sargent: “Oerlikon wants to assure our stakeholders that we will enforce and
protect our intellectual property and will aggressively pursue all parties who are suspected of violating these rights.”

http://www.oerlikon.com/ecomaXL/index.php?site=OERLIKON_EN_press_releases_detail&udtx_id=6027

***

And, then my first thought was – who is behind this action and who is making these kinds of decisions? I clicked up to the investors’ relations tab to find the board of directors and executive staff members –

Choosing this one from the drop down menu under investors’ relations –

Corporate Governance

brought me to this page –

http://www.oerlikon.com/ecomaXL/index.php?site=OERLIKON_EN_investor_relations_new_governance

And I chose this one from the left-hand sidebar –

Board of Directors

http://www.oerlikon.com/ecomaXL/index.php?site=OERLIKON_EN_investor_relations_new_board

So, I picked the first one – figuring he’s actually the one running the place –

Current members of the Board of Directors:

Vladimir Kuznetsov
Vladimir Kuznetsov
Chairman of the Board of Directors
Chairman of the Human Resources Committee
Profile

***

then clicking on his profile yields this – amazing where his background has been –

http://www.oerlikon.com/ecomaXL/index.php?site=OERLIKON_EN_investor_relations_new_board_detail&udtx_id=4015

Board of Directors

Vladimir Kuznetsov

Vladimir Kuznetsov

Chairman of the Board of Directors
Chairman of the Human Resources Committee

Vladimir Kuznetsov (1961; Russian citizen) was born in Moscow and has been living in Zurich since 2004. He has been involved with Renova group since 2001, and in 2004, he was appointed Chief Investment Officer of Renova Management AG, Zurich. In December 2007, he was appointed member of the Board of Directors of Sulzer AG, Winterthur. Still incumbent as a Renova executive, he became Chairman of the Board of Venetos Management AG in Zurich in October 2008 – a subsidiary of Renova Management AG.

Before joining the Renova group Vladimir Kuznetsov held several management positions at Goldman Sachs, Moscow, and at Salomon Brothers, Moscow and London, and in 1998, was appointed Managing Director of Financial Advisory Services, Moscow.

Vladimir Kuznetsov graduated in economics from the State University of Moscow in 1984, and holds a Master degree in International Affairs from Columbia University, New York.

***

And I noticed this that seems very interesting –

Oerlikon Solar
The total solar energy absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere, oceans and landmasses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. We receive more energy in approx. one hour than the world uses in a year. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.

(and)

Did you know
Oerlikon Systems
Nearly 50% of all the hard disks in the world originate from an Oerlikon system.
more

***

How about that?
– cricketdiane

***

My Note –

Also, as in the first article about the business part of the thin film solar –

Analyst: Why AMAT’s thin-film Si fears are exaggerated

As with many other thin-film solar technologies, times were good when silicon was scarce and prices were high. But with contract prices plunging past $75/kg on their way to possibly $45/kg, AMAT’s x-Si module prices of $1.95/W can’t keep up with the ~$1.50/W (COGS $1.05) or lower for silicon.

“Since we estimate SunFab’s TF-Si panel manufacturing costs at $1.40/W, including depreciation, $45/kg polysilicon would wipe out smaller-scale AMAT clients,” Lux notes.

The firm pegs it as a 2.4GW market by 2015,

(etc.)

I was going to note – that these companies choose their concept of the market in which they believe they are competing. The fact is, a hard panel solar energy system is not the competition for flexible film solar energy technology although they have chosen that for comparison. (and investment community players may be cohesively insisting on that comparison despite reality.)

The reality is that multiple solar technologies and other alternative energy technologies and innovations do not necessarily compete with one another for some small market slice. The applications are too endless and overwhelmingly large to look at it that way.

But most of all, it is making an excuse for institutional investors to pull out their money rather than supporting these innovations and solar technologies past the development phase in the marketplace and often, apparently at the critical time when the introductory foundations have been made but before profitability can be flexibly created by harnessing multiple markets for these products and their introductions into building systems and products.

Hmmmmm……

Now I can see part of it. What is the other part?

– cricketdiane

***

Renova Group is a large Russian conglomerate with interests in aluminium, oil, energy, telecoms and a variety of other sectors. The main owner and president is Viktor Vekselberg.

The Renova Group is primarily active in Russia, the C.I.S. states, Switzerland, South Africa and the United States. Its major assets include participation in the oil company TNK-BP and in aluminum producer RUSAL.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renova_Group

Board of Directors

Dr. Urs Andreas Meyer

Dr. Urs Andreas Meyer

Member of the Board of Directors
Chairman of the Strategy Committee
Member of the Audit Committee

Dr. Urs Andreas Meyer (1964; Swiss citizen) is Chief Executive Officer of Venetos Management AG in Zurich, a 100 percent subsidiary of Renova Group, and entrusted with managing its industrial investments. He earned a PhD in Engineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH) in 1993, and completed a Harvard Advanced Management Program in Boston, USA, in 2004. Dr. Urs Andreas Meyer joined Rieter Spinning Systems in 1990, where he held several management positions until 1997. He served as Managing Director of Otto Suhner AG, Brugg (Switzerland) from 1997 to 2001. Before joining Renova he was CEO of Satisloh, Baar (Switzerland), a division of Schweiter Technologies, Switzerland. Since 2007, Dr. Urs Andreas Meyer has been a member of the Board of Directors of Sulzer, Winterthur (Switzerland).

http://www.oerlikon.com/ecomaXL/index.php?site=OERLIKON_EN_investor_relations_new_board_detail&udtx_id=1441

***

Board of Directors

Carl Stadelhofer

Carl Stadelhofer

Member of the Board of Directors
Member of the Human Resources Committee
Member of the Strategy Committee

Carl Stadelhofer (1953; Swiss citizen) is a Senior Partner at Klein Attorneys in Zurich, Switzerland. He graduated in law from the University of Berne in 1979, and specializes in banking and finance law as well as the resource and commodity business, including M&A. In 1982, he was admitted to the Bar of the Canton of Zurich. Carl Stadelhofer is Chairman of Renova Industries and Renova Holding, and Vice President of Renova Management. He is also the Chairman of NZB Neue Zürcher Bank and NZB Holding. Carl Stadelhofer is Chairman of several other organizations including JTE Finanz, LogObject and Calle Services Management. Besides these chairing mandates, he is a member of a number of boards such as Conrad Electronic, Stadelhofer Enterprises, Terraco Holding, Valamur Enterprise Ltd., Widex Hörgeräte and Wincap. He is also actuary of the International Brachet Foundation, Vice-President of the Foundation Jean-Pascal Imsand and Chief Legal Counsel of Renova group.

http://www.oerlikon.com/ecomaXL/index.php?site=OERLIKON_EN_investor_relations_new_board_detail&udtx_id=1442

***

My Note –

I just had to look up this one because several times its listing was included in the executive and board members bios of the company above –

– cricketdiane

***

Adtranz (alternately ADtranz, complete name ABB Daimler Benz Transportation) was a German-Swedish rail rolling stock equipment manufacturer which designed rail cars and engines. It was created in 1996 in the merger of ABB Henschel and AEG Transportation. Initially it was owned with equal shares by Daimler-Benz and ABB. In 1999 DaimlerChrysler bought ABB’s shares and renamed Adtranz to “DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems”.

Bombardier Transportation acquired the company in 2001, making Bombardier the largest rail equipment manufacturer in the world. At the time of its purchase, ADtranz was the world’s second largest manufacturer of such equipment.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adtranz

***

Hmmmmm………

looks like monopoly – seems most of our subway cars come from them, too.

very interesting.

Now, I’m going back to the business parts of solar technology and maybe battery technology too.

Which reminds me, that I was watching the Crumbling of America show on the History International channel last night from 2009 – I’ve seen it before, but I took some more notes including this one –

Americans driving covers 3 Trillion miles per year.

There were some great things in it about the 85,000 dams in the US and info about the upwater dam from Nashville which was known to be in trouble, etc.

But, quickly about the information above this – it looks like the players in the solar cell and solar thin film corporate decision world and their influx of investors are more interested in destructive plays rather than incorporating these alternative energy tools into the larger markets quickly.

Hmmmm…….

I need a bread sandwich.

– cricketdiane

Let me see what else I can find.

***

German researchers ring 20% CIGS bell (May 4, 2010)
Researchers from Germany’s Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) are claiming a new record for thin-film solar cell efficiency, and say the mark is achievable beyond the demonstrated material (CIGS) to thin-film technology in general.

Low-cost “continuous flow” method for CIS (Apr 28, 2010)

Researchers in the US and Korea have demonstrated feasibility to use continuous flow microreactors to produce thin-film absorbers for solar cells, a process they say is a promising low-cost alternative for thin-film PV manufacturing.

More Thin Film Solar Cells Articles

http://www.electroiq.com/index/photovoltaics/Thin_Film_Solar_Cells/cis_cigs.html

***

And then I chose this one  – (from the list above the entries)

Dye-Sensitized Cells

which wandered about to here

Timminco cuts off UMG output, no rescue in “foreseeable future” (Mar 22, 2010)
Business for general-use silicon metal has been brisk enough to justify a complete ramp-up of Timminco’s three furnaces to full production (since October), but the company has decided to suspend its upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG-Si) operations on lack of demand for the solar-grade material.

(from)

http://www.electroiq.com/index/photovoltaics/Thin_Film_Solar_Cells/Thin-Film.html

Caltech builds flexible solar cells with silicon wire arrays (Mar 9, 2010)
Researchers at Caltech have devised a flexible solar cell that incorporates silicon wire arrays each acting as a high-efficiency solar cell, which also greatly reduces the amount of silicon material required.

Suntech plants first US flag in AZ (Jan 28, 2010)
Suntech Power Holdings has narrowed its planned first US manufacturing plant in Arizona to the town of Goodyear. The site will start with 30MW of initial production capacity, eventually ramping to >120MW.

LG launches 120MW line for solar cells, modules (Jan 6, 2010)
LG Electronics is readying to launch a new crystalline silicon solar cell production line in Gumi, about 200km southeast of Seoul, South Korea, with 120MW capacity and projected annual output of ~500K solar modules.

ECN and REC hit 17% efficiency with multicrystalline solar panel (Dec 17, 2009)
Energy Research Centere of the Netherlands (ECN) has made the world’s first multicrystalline silicon solar panel with 17% efficiency. The full findings will be reported in the January 2010 issue of the journal “Progress in Photovoltaics” and represents a 1.5% improvement over the previous 15–year old listing of 15.5% efficiency held by Sandia National Labs.
SunPower unveils 20.4% efficient panel (Oct 29, 2009)
SunPower says it has produced a full-size solar panel (333W, 1.6m2 including frame) with an NREL-confirmed record 20.4% total area efficiency.
Cu-plated contacts enable 18.4% conversion efficiency for large area solar cells (Sep 23, 2009)
At the European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference EUPVSEC in Hamburg, Germany, IMEC presented a large-area solar with a conversion efficiency of 18.4%. Compared to the consortium’s standard i-PERC cell process, IMEC’s solar cell features a shallow emitter and advanced front metallization using copper plating. The results were obtained on large-area cells (125cm2), proving the industrial viability of the process.

Energy giants join IMEC for silicon solar cell research (Sep 23, 2009)

Two major European energy companies — Total and GDF SUEZ — and their common solar cells manufacturing subsidiary Photovoltech, joined the IMEC industrial affiliation program (IIAP). The team will  concentrate on sharply reducing silicon use, while also increasing the efficiency of solar cells, which should both substantially lower the cost for solar energy.

Fraunhofer develops 23.4% efficient n-type Si solar cell (Sep 22, 2009)
Researchers at the  Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) have developed prototype n-type silicon solar cells with conversion efficiency exceeding a record 23.4%.

Reports: Samsung starts 300MW c-Si pilot line (Sep 17, 2009)
Samsung Electronics is planting its flag in the solar PV space with a new R&D/test facility for crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells, with a goal to sit atop the global solar cell market by 2015, according to local reports.

(from)
http://www.electroiq.com/index/photovoltaics/Thin_Film_Solar_Cells/Thin-Film.html

(and more on this page)

***

My Note –

I also noticed the company “Solair” in the Crumbling of America show last night that I wanted to look up. It was in the background of a photo in the film.

– cricketdiane

***

Had to see this one first –

This article is from

Photovoltaics World

Timminco cuts off UMG output, no rescue in “foreseeable future”

March 22, 2010 – Business for general-use silicon metal has been brisk enough to justify a complete ramp-up of Timminco’s three furnaces to full production (since October), but the company has decided to suspend its upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG) operations on lack of demand for the solar-grade material.

According to the company’s 4Q09 results, overall sales rose 33% sequentially to $25.5M, but that’s still a fraction of the $72M it posted a year ago; a 4Q09 loss of nearly $70M included $45.7M in restructuring charges, vs. $18.5M in 3Q09 and a $1.3M profit in 4Q08. Net losses for the year mounted to $134.2M ($51.6M in charges) vs. $22.6M in FY08, on 59% lower sales of $104.6M.

While proclaiming commitment to solar-grade silicon and helping customers make UMG wafers and cells “indistinguishable from those made with polysilicon,” the company has decided to suspend UMG production “pending evidence of sufficient customer demand and commitments to justify a resumption of production,” according to chairman/CEO Heinz Schimmelbusch, in a statement. “Market conditions” are being blamed for impacting both development of, and demand for, the company’s UMG products, both in the past few quarters and into “the foreseeable future” — badly enough that the company continues to be at “substantial liquidity risk and creating uncertainty as to the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern.”

In fact, Timminco’s sales for solar-grade Si were actually in the negative for 4Q09 (-$3.9M, 2mt worth), due to customer product returns of previously-shipped products. Sales in 3Q09 were $0.4M (16mt), and the company had issued shares to cover ~$25M worth of settlements from customer claims. FY09 solar UMG sales were $5.1M (182mt), down from $61.7M (1045mt) in 2008.

And Timminco’s solar UMG-Si pricing further illustrates the inevitable: ASPs were $36/kg in 4Q09, down from $39/kg in 3Q09 — and just half the $65/kg in 4Q08. For FY09, ASPs were $51/kg vs. $62/kg in the prior year.

http://www.electroiq.com/index/display/photovoltaics-article-display/7790539387/articles/Photovoltaics-World/silicon-photovoltaics/umg-silicon/2010/march/timminco-cuts_off.html

***

Who are they?

Investment Proposition

We are a leading supplier of silicon metal – a key input in thousands of industrial and consumer products – to the chemicals and aluminum industries.  As one of the largest producers of silicon metal in North America and with more than 30 years experience, we are well positioned to capitalize on anticipated growth in demand for silicon metal.

In addition, we are leveraging our silicon expertise to develop a proprietary metallurgical-based purification process for the production of solar grade silicon for the growing solar energy industry.

http://www.timminco.com/Investors.aspx?id=3

Becancour Silicon is a Canadian company in Bécancour, Quebec which produces silicon for photovoltaics. It is a subsidiary of Timminco Ltd., which is based in Toronto and is majority-owned by AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group N.V. of the Netherlands.

External links

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Becancour_Silicon

***

Hmmmm…….

(from above)

March 22, 2010 – Business for general-use silicon metal has been brisk enough to justify a complete ramp-up of Timminco’s three furnaces to full production (since October), but the company has decided to suspend its upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG) operations on lack of demand for the solar-grade material.

http://www.electroiq.com/index/display/photovoltaics-article-display/7790539387/articles/Photovoltaics-World/silicon-photovoltaics/umg-silicon/2010/march/timminco-cuts_off.html

***

Hmmmmm…….

Doesn’t make sense. Are they not prepared for ups and downs over some initial period of time? We wouldn’t have Campbell’s soup if they had done business this way.

– cricketdiane

***

Need another bread sandwich.

And, as with the information about the company, Sunfilm discussed earlier in this post – investors and funding being pulled from these companies involved in production of all the components and manufacturing and raw materials production for solar cells and thin film amorphous solar, and others? What the hell is that strategy going to do?

Why does it always seem to get mucked up when the business part happens?

***

Sandia’s National Security Missions

(from)

http://www.sandia.gov/

***

Sandia project lead Greg Nielson holds a solar cell test prototype with a microscale lens array fastened above it. Together, the cell and lens help creae ca concentrated photovoltaic unit. (Photo by Randy Montoya)Sandia project lead Greg Nielson holds a solar cell test prototype with a microscale lens array fastened above it. Together, the cell and lens help create a concentrated photovoltaic unit. (Photo by Randy Montoya)Click on the image to download a high-resolution image.

https://share.sandia.gov/news/resources/news_releases/glitter-sized-solar-photovoltaics-produce-competitive-results/

***

Because flexible substrates can be easily fabricated, high-efficiency PV for ubiquitous solar power becomes more feasible, said Okandan.

A commercial move to microscale PV cells would be a dramatic change from conventional silicon PV modules composed of arrays of 6-inch-by-6-inch wafers. However, by bringing in techniques normally used in MEMS, electronics and the light-emitting diode (LED) industries (for additional work involving gallium arsenide instead of silicon), the change to small cells should be relatively straightforward, Gupta said.

Each cell is formed on silicon wafers, etched and then released inexpensively in hexagonal shapes, with electrical contacts prefabricated on each piece, by borrowing techniques from integrated circuits and MEMS.

Offering a run for their money to conventional large wafers of crystalline silicon, electricity presently can be harvested from the Sandia-created cells with 14.9 percent efficiency. Off-the-shelf commercial modules range from 13 to 20 percent efficient.

Solar concentrators — low-cost, prefabricated, optically efficient microlens arrays — can be placed directly over each glitter-sized cell to increase the number of photons arriving to be converted via the photovoltaic effect into electrons. The small cell size means that cheaper and more efficient short focal length microlens arrays can be fabricated for this purpose.

High-voltage output is possible directly from the modules because of the large number of cells in the array. This should reduce costs associated with wiring, due to reduced resistive losses at higher voltages.

https://share.sandia.gov/news/resources/news_releases/glitter-sized-solar-photovoltaics-produce-competitive-results/

***

April 28, 2010

Sandia wins 2 national technology transfer awards for work with Cray, Stirling Energy Systems

Archie Gibson, a team leader on the Computer Operations Team at Sandia National Laboratories, works inside the Red Storm supercomputer, the result of an award-winning partnership between Cray Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories. (Photo by Randy Montoya)Archie Gibson, a team leader on the Computer Operations Team at Sandia National Laboratories, works inside the Red Storm supercomputer, the result of an award-winning partnership between Cray Inc. and Sandia. (Photo by Randy Montoya) Click on the thumbnail for a high-resolution image.

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. — Sandia National Laboratories has won two national Federal Laboratory Consortium awards for its efforts to transfer technology to supercomputer manufacturer Cray Inc. and solar energy supplier Stirling Energy Systems, Inc.

The Federal Laboratory Consortium plans to present the Excellence in Technology Transfer Awards in Albuquerque at its national meeting this week. The consortium is a nationwide network of technology transfer professionals at more than 250 federal laboratories and centers and their parent departments and agencies.

“Sandia has always done well in those recognition awards and it’s an indication of our ability to transfer technology to industry,” said Hal Morgan, senior manager for Industrial Partnerships and Strategy at Sandia.

Sandia and Cray joined forces in 2001 to build the Red Storm supercomputer, the predecessor of the Seattle, Wash.-based company’s line of Cray XT supercomputers. In 2009, Jaguar, a Cray XT5 supercomputer housed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, won the Gordon Bell Prize for high-performance computing. And, the Franklin supercomputer, a 350-teraflop Cray XT4 system installed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, was ranked the 11th fastest in the world the same year.

When the partnership started, there were no commercial supercomputers that targeted complex simulations, said Sudip Dosanjh, senior manager of Computer & Software Systems at Sandia.

Nevertheless, Red Storm’s development took about two and a half years, about a year less than the typical vendor schedule.

Peter Ungaro, Cray’s chief executive and president, credits Sandia for the speed of the development. “We would have gotten there, but we definitely wouldn’t have done it in the timeframe that we got there with Sandia, and we wouldn’t have built as good of a product, if we had done it ourselves,” he said.

Since introducing the Cray XT line of supercomputers, the company says it has sold more than 1,200 Cray XT cabinets to more than 80 customers worldwide.

The Cray XT line of supercomputers, which uses tens of thousands of processors working in parallel for several weeks on a single problem, has proven effective at solving a wide range of science and engineering problems related to climate change, fusion, material science, nanomaterials, biology and astrophysics.

The SunCatcher ™ is the outcome of a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories researchers and engineers from Stirling Energy Systems, Inc., who work together at the labs National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque. This radial design is being produced today. (Photo by Randy Montoya)The SunCatcher™ is the outcome of a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories researchers and engineers from Stirling Energy Systems, who work together at Sandia’s National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque. This radial design is being produced today. (Photo by Randy Montoya) Click on the thumbnail for a high-resolution image.

Sandia’s award-winning partnership with the Scottsdale, Ariz.-based Stirling Energy Systems (SES) began in 2003 at Sandia’s National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

Since then, SES has signed contracts to provide 1.6 gigawatts of solar power from its concentrating solar power system, the SunCatcher™. SES, together with its sister company, Tessera Solar, also is planning to build one of the world’s largest solar energy generating projects on about 6,500 acres in southern California. The 750-megawatt Imperial Valley Solar plant is expected to power 562,500 homes in the San Diego area by 2014.

Sandia’s technical expertise helped SES drop 4,000-6,000 pounds of steel from a 16,000-pound structure and halved the number of mirrors from 80 to 40, which reduced construction and maintenance costs, said Chuck Andraka, Sandia’s lead project engineer. Sandia’s improvements in the dish engine control system and in evaluating the interaction between the dish and its mirrors greatly aided this effort.

Sandia also worked with SES to move from a rectilinear to a radial design for the SunCatcher, which is the design being produced today, Andraka said. The collaboration is ongoing.

Steve Cowman, SES chief executive officer, said: “The product has been significantly enhanced and improved by virtue of the collaboration and partnership that we have with Sandia.”


Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration. With main facilities in Albuquerque, N.M., and Livermore, Calif., Sandia has major R&D responsibilities in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and economic competitiveness.Sandia news media contact: Heather Clark, hclark@sandia.gov (505) 844-3511

https://share.sandia.gov/news/resources/news_releases/2010award_techtr/***

The Solaire was the first “green” residential-use building in New York City. Completed in 2003, it is described as an “environmentally-progressive residential tower” (see [1]). The building has been rated U.S. Green Building Council LEED-NC, v2 – Level: Gold.

The LEED ratings were established by the Green Building Council to evaluate a building’s efforts to use renewable materials, conserve energy and water consumption and enhance indoor air quality. The energy conserving building design is 35% more energy-efficient than code requires, resulting in a 67% lower electricity demand during peak hours, resulting in (among other benefits):

  • Lower electric bills for residents
  • Photovoltaic panels convert sunlight to electricity
  • Computerized building management system and environmentally responsible operating and maintenance practices

Although these features would seem to be a hallmark in general for future building projects due to energy efficiency, the building was quite expensive to build. The developer received funding from the State of New York, which was somewhat controversial as the developer was only required to agree to set aside 10% of the units as “affordable housing” or “moderate income”, rather than the usual 80:20 agreement. When the building opened rents ranged from roughly $2500 to $9001 depending on the size of the unit. Many of the current and former tenants work on Wall Street, including Brian Finnerty, former cable TV financial expert and former trader at the investment bank C.E. Unterberg Towbin (see [2]).

The Solaire is located at 20 River Terrace in Battery Park City, one of the most affluent neighborhoods in New York City with a view that spans from Jersey City in the west to a glimpse of the Empire State Building, the tallest building in NYC since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, standing above the rest of its surroundings.

External links

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Solaire

***

My Note –

I don’t think this was it – but there it is very interesting and something I’ve noted the other day when I was looking up the earmarks pushed and received by Representative Barton, (R) Texas that apologized to BP and I notice here again in the entry above about The Solaire project in New York – these people are all against the alternative energy systems until it comes time to get some for themselves, as Rep. Barton did for Texas – even while voting down and pushing against anyone else having alternative energy, natural gas buses, natural gas operating trucks, solar power project moneys, and others – he was garnering those things for Texas and Texas companies.

It is bizarre – and looking at those Wall Street players who decided to live in a “green” building even as they made plays to destroy alternative energy including their massive lobbying against any and every competitive choice to gasoline and diesel and traditional coal-fired electricity generation – from solar to wind to tidal and water-current based electricity generation systems. It is disgusting.

Hmmmmmm……….

And, it looks like some nasty business has been on-going especially deeply and dramatically with devastating consequences in the solar cell industry especially in the last year and possibly more so every day it comes closer to offering reasonably priced choices to any of us.

– cricketdiane

***

I’ll keep looking.

http://www.federallabs.org/home/

What is the FLC?

The Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer (FLC) is the nationwide network of federal laboratories that provides the forum to develop strategies and opportunities for linking laboratory mission technologies and expertise with the marketplace.

The FLC was organized in 1974 and formally chartered by the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 to promote and strengthen technology transfer nationwide. Today, more than 250 federal laboratories and centers and their parent departments and agencies are FLC members.

Learn more about the FLC

FLC TechTicker

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    Gulf of Mexico – US – Dead Zone – Save the Sea – Ocean – Water Pollution – July 2009

    Tags

    , , , , , , , , , ,

    Smaller Than Expected, But Severe, Dead Zone in Gulf of Mexico

    July 27, 2009

    Deadzone on July 27, 2009.

    Deadzone on July 27, 2009.

    High resolution (Credit: LUMCON)

    NOAA-supported scientists, led by Nancy Rabalais, Ph.D. from the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, found the size of this year’s Gulf of Mexico dead zone to be smaller than forecasted, measuring 3,000 square miles. However the dead zone, which is usually limited to water just above the sea floor, was severe where it did occur, extending closer to the water surface than in most years.

    Earlier this summer, NOAA-sponsored forecast models developed by R. Eugene Turner, Ph. D. of Louisiana State University and Donald Scavia, Ph.D. of the University of Michigan, predicted a larger than normal dead zone area of between 7,450 – 8,456 square miles. The forecast was driven primarily by the high nitrate loads and high freshwater flows from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers in spring 2009 as measured by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Rabalais believes the smaller than expected dead zone is due to unusual weather patterns that re-oxygenated the waters, among other factors.

    “The winds and waves were high in the area to the west of the Atchafalaya River delta and likely mixed oxygen into these shallower waters prior to the cruise, thus reducing the area of the zone in that region,” said Rabalais. “The variability we see within each summer highlights the continuing need for multiple surveys to measure the size of the dead zone in a more systematic fashion.”

    “The results of the 2009 cruise at first glance are hopeful, but the smaller than expected area of hypoxia appears to be related to short-term weather patterns before measurements were taken, not a reduction in the underlying cause, excessive nutrient runoff,” said Robert Magnien, Ph.D., director of NOAA’s Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research. “The smaller area measured by this one cruise, therefore, does not represent a trend and in no way diminishes the need for a harder look at efforts to reduce nutrient runoff.”

    The average size of the dead zone over the past five years, including this cruise, is now 6,000 square miles. The interagency Gulf of Mexico/Mississippi River Watershed Nutrient Task Force has a goal to reduce or make significant progress toward reducing this dead zone average to 2,000 square miles or less by 2015. The Task Force uses a five year average due to relatively high interannual variability.

    The dead zone is fueled by nutrient runoff, principally from agricultural activity, which stimulates an overgrowth of algae that sinks, decomposes, and consumes most of the life-giving oxygen supply in the water. The Gulf of Mexico dead zone is of particular concern because it threatens valuable commercial and recreational Gulf fisheries that generate about $2.8 billion annually.

    The models used to forecast the area of the dead zone are constructed for understanding the important underlying causes to inform long-term management decisions, but they do not include short-term variability due to weather patterns.

    Prior to the Louisiana consortium cruise, NOAA’s Southeast Monitoring and Assessment Program found a similar sized dead zone during its annual five-week summer fish survey.

    NOAA understands and predicts changes in the Earth’s environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and conserves and manages our coastal and marine resources.

    http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2009/20090727_deadzone.html

    ***

    **

    The size of dead zones fluctuates throughout any
    given year with the largest dead zones appearing in
    summer months. The hypoxic area in the Gulf of
    Mexico has more than doubled in size since the late
    1980s. Initial forecasts for the size of the 2009 dead
    zone in the Gulf estimated it to be around 7,500 –
    8,500 square miles, however scientists found the dead
    zone to be 3,000 square miles.
    The result appears hopeful as on average the size
    of the dead zone is estimated to be 6,000 square
    miles. However this smaller than expected result is
    believed to be related to short-term weather patterns
    before measurements were taken and not a reduction
    in excessive nutrient runoff. The largest dead zone on
    record occurred in 2002, measuring 8,484 square miles.

    http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2009/pdfs/new%20fact%20sheet%20dead%20zones_final.pdf

    ***

    LUMCON Hypoxia Site

    What is hypoxia?

    Hypoxia, or low oxygen, is an environmental phenomenon where the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water column decreases to a level that can no longer support living aquatic organisms. Hypoxic areas, or “Dead Zones,” have increased in duration and frequency across our planet’s oceans since first being noted in the 1970s.

    The largest hypoxic zone currently affecting the United States, and the second largest hypoxic zone worldwide, is the northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River.

    http://www.gulfhypoxia.net/

    What is the Gulf of Mexico dead zone?
    Tue, Jul 28 2009 at 9:30 AM EST
    From red tides in the Atlantic to a furry blob in Alaska, seaweed seems to be invading the U.S. from all sides. But the country’s worst algae onslaught, even after a quiet summer, still lingers at the mouth of the Mississippi.

    **

    [from recent press releases on the above site -]

    Low oxygen levels have returned to the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Texas

    By Patrique Ludan, The BATALLION ONLINE, College Station, Texas
    7/16/09
    Low oxygen levels have returned to the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Texas, indicating the return of a dead zone, according to Texas A&M researchers.
    Steve Dimarco, associate professor of oceanography, said that a dead zone is an area in an ocean, lake, bay or estuary, where hypoxia, or an oxygen concentration of less than 2 milligrams per liter, is found.

    In 2007, a research group, including Dimarco, found a dead zone off the coast of Freeport, Texas.

    The newly detected dead zone is off the coast of south Galveston. The hypoxia contained within the water is already below levels that are considered harmful to marine life.

    The researchers used a water-quality monitoring system to detect the dead zone. The system provides hourly updates on water salinity, temperature, oxygen and other data.

    The current research is funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research, CSCOR, Dimarco said.

    There are an estimated 200 dead zones located throughout the world as of 2006, according to a 2008 UN Environmental Program report entitled “In Dead Water.”

    One of the largest dead zones predicted this year is off the coast of Louisiana, separate from the Texas dead zone, according to NOAA-CSCOR. The Louisiana dead zone is predicted to measure around 7,450 to 8,456 square miles, or an area roughly the size of New Jersey.

    The largest dead zone recorded in the Gulf occurred in 2002 off the coast of Louisiana. Currently NOAA has not estimated the size of the dead zone near the coast of Texas.

    The first observations of a dead zone near the Texas coast were made in 1970 by Don Harper, a professor at Texas A&M University-Galveston.

    “Those observations did not allow us to determine how long it lasted, how big of an area it covered, or what definitively caused it,” Dimarco said.

    The observations made currently are designed to show how frequently hypoxia occurs near coastal Galveston.

    “This is important because it will provide valuable information for coastal managers to make decisions concerning coastal fisheries and other living resources,” Dimarco said. “In a broader sense, it will also provide extremely valuable data to determine the causes of coastal hypoxia and potentially to model its effects on marine organisms.”

    Dead zones are caused by nutrient runoff, which comes from different types of agricultural activity. This stimulates an overgrowth of algae, which then sinks, decomposes and finally consumes most of the life-giving oxygen supply in the water.

    Other causes of these dead zones come from climate change, or in other words global warming, according to a United Nations report.

    “There is general consensus that different climate change scenarios could affect the dead zone of the northern Gulf of Mexico (which includes both Texas and Louisiana),” Dimarco said. “More rainfall could make it worse, changing wind patterns could make it worse or better depending on the character of the change; a warming climate could make it occur more frequently.”

    Researchers are not certain how to reverse the process of dead zones.

    “There is likely a human component, but there is good evidence that this is a natural condition which has been going on for a long time (more than
    1,000 years off of Louisiana),” said Dimarco.

    Right now the Texas Sea Grant College Program is reviewing a proposal by Dimarco and his team for additional funding, said Texas Sea Grant College Program director Robert Stickney.

    “His work is extremely important and we are very supportive of it,” Stickney said.

    The Texas Sea Grant College Program partially funded Dimarco’s research in 2007.

    http://media.www.thebatt.com/media/storage/paper657/news/2009/07/16/News/Dead-Zone.Returns.To.Gulf.Of.Mexico-3751912-page2.shtml

    http://www.gulfhypoxia.net/News/default.asp?XMLFilename=200907172335.xml

    ***

    ******

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080814154325.htm

    A dead zone also underlies much of the main-stem of Chesapeake Bay, each summer occupying about 40% of its area and up to 5% of its volume. The above map shows measurements of hypoxia in the bay in 2003.

    Study Shows Continued Spread Of ‘Dead Zones'; Lack Of Oxygen Now A Key Stressor On Marine Ecosystems

    ScienceDaily (Aug. 15, 2008) — A global study led by Professor Robert Diaz of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, shows that the number of “dead zones”—areas of seafloor with too little oxygen for most marine life—has increased by a third between 1995 and 2007.

    Diaz and collaborator Rutger Rosenberg of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden say that dead zones are now “the key stressor on marine ecosystems” and “rank with over-fishing, habitat loss, and harmful algal blooms as global environmental problems.”

    [etc.]

    The study, which appears in the August 15 issue of the journal Science, tallies 405 dead zones in coastal waters worldwide, affecting an area of 95,000 square miles, about the size of New Zealand. The largest dead zone in the U.S., at the mouth of the Mississippi, covers more than 8,500 square miles, roughly the size of New Jersey.

    Diaz began studying dead zones in the mid-1980s after seeing their effect on bottom life in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay near Baltimore. His first review of dead zones in 1995 counted 305 worldwide. That was up from his count of 162 in the 1980s, 87 in the 1970s, and 49 in the 1960s. He first found scientific reports of dead zones in the 1910s, when there were 4. Worldwide, the number of dead zones has approximately doubled each decade since the 1960s.

    [ . . . ]

    Adapted from materials provided by Virginia Institute of Marine Science.

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080814154325.htm

    Virginia Institute of Marine Science (2008, August 15). Study Shows Continued Spread Of ‘Dead Zones'; Lack Of Oxygen Now A Key Stressor On Marine Ecosystems. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 7, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2008/08/080814154325.htm

    ***

    09.13.08

    Oceans dying fast

    Posted in Daily life, Environment, Food, Science tagged at 1:46 pm by LeisureGuy

    Ocean dead zones

    Ocean dead zones

    Maybe we’ll kill off ALL the fish. The above image is from this article, which has more information.

    [from -]

    ***

    Ocean Dead Zones Likely To Expand: Increasing Carbon Dioxide And Decreasing Oxygen Make It Harder For Deep-sea Animals To Breath (Apr. 18, 2009) — Low-oxygen “dead zones” in the ocean could expand significantly over the next century, according to marine chemists. These predictions are based on the fact that, as more and more carbon dioxide …  > read more

    Nutrient Pollution Chokes Marine And Freshwater Ecosystems (Mar. 5, 2009) — Protecting drinking water and preventing harmful coastal “dead zones,” as well as eutrophication in many lakes, will require reducing both nitrogen and phosphorus …  > read more
    Baltic States Failing To Protect Most Damaged Sea (Sep. 3, 2008) — Nine Baltic sea states all scored failing grades in an annual WWF evaluation of their performance in protecting and restoring the world’s most damaged …  > read more
    ***

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080814154325.htm

    [also – ]

    Scientists study huge plastic patch in Pacific

    ***

    “Dead Zone”

    Posted by The College of Science at OSU on May 2, 2008

    From Smithsonian Magazine, April 2008:

    Gasping for Breath
    An ocean “dead zone” has been discovered off the Pacific Northwest. The water has so little oxygen that it “kills any marine animals that cannot swim or scuttle away,” says Jane Lubchenco of Oregon State University. She and her colleagues analyzed 60 years of data and found that oxygen levels dropped in 2002. Most of the hundreds of dead zones worldwide are caused by pollution. But this one was caused by winds and currents that disrupted the ecosystem and fueled oxygen-depleting bacteria.

    Visit Jane’s webpage here: http://lucile.science.oregonstate.edu/lubchenco/

    http://sciencebreakthroughsatosu.wordpress.com/2008/05/02/dead-zone/

    • Welcome to Breakthroughs

      Hello! Welcome to Breakthroughs, a site devoted to sharing with you the latest, greatest advancements from the College of Science at Oregon State University. From breakthroughs in research to transformational philanthropy to interesting tidbits from the daily life of the College, we’ll post frequently to keep you up-to-date. Please visit often and absolutely let us know what you might like to learn more about. Enjoy, and of course, GO BEAVS!

    ***

    SCIENCE FOCUS: DEAD ZONES

    Creeping Dead Zones

    Sediment laden water meets blue ocean

    This is not the title of a sequel to a Stephen King novel. “Dead zones” in this context are areas where the bottom water (the water at the sea floor) is anoxic — meaning that it has very low (or completely zero) concentrations of dissolved oxygen. These dead zones are occurring in many areas along the coasts of major continents, and they are spreading over larger areas of the sea floor. Because very few organisms can tolerate the lack of oxygen in these areas, they can destroy the habitat in which numerous organisms make their home.

    The cause of anoxic bottom waters is fairly simple: the organic matter produced by phytoplankton at the surface of the ocean (in the euphotic zone) sinks to the bottom (the benthic zone),where it is subject to breakdown by the action of bacteria, a process known as bacterial respiration. The problem is, while phytoplankton use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen during photosynthesis, bacteria use oxygen and give off carbon dioxide during respiration. The oxygen used by bacteria is the oxygen dissolved in the water, and that’s the same oxygen that all of the other oxygen-respiring animals on the bottom (crabs, clams, shrimp, and a host of mud-loving creatures) and swimming in the water (zooplankton, fish) require for life to continue.

    The “creeping dead zones” are areas in the ocean where it appears that phytoplankton productivity has been enhanced, or natural water flow has been restricted, leading to increasing bottom water anoxia. If phytoplankton productivity is enhanced, more organic matter is produced, more organic matter sinks to the bottom and is respired by bacteria, and thus more oxygen is consumed. If water flow is restricted, the natural refreshing flow of oxic waters (water with normal dissolved oxygen concentrations) is reduced, so that the remaining oxygen is depleted faster.

    Many of the areas where increasing bottom water anoxia has recently been observed are near the mouths of major river systems. While the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) can’t see the bottom of the ocean, it can see the surface, where sediments from rivers mix with ocean waters. The images shown here are SeaWiFS observations of the Mississippi River delta, the Yangtze River mouth in China (The Yangtze River mouth is not currently identified as an area with an associated dead zone, but such conditions could develop there in the future), and the Pearl River mouth in China, near Hong Kong.

    River Deltas

    SeaWiFS can also observe areas where water flow is restricted, such as the Baltic Sea in Europe. The image on the left features Denmark after strong storms caused flooding and increased sediment suspension in the Baltic. On the right is an overview of the Baltic Sea, including a plankton bloom in the Skagerrak just north of Denmark.

    Baltic Sea

    The apparent cause of the creeping dead zones is agriculture, specifically fertilizer. While fertilizer is necessary to foster bumper agricultural crops, it also runs off the fields into the streams and rivers of a watershed. When the fertilizer reaches the ocean, it just becomes more nutrients for the phytoplankton, so they do what they do best: they grow and multiply. Which leads to more organic matter reaching the bottom, more bacterial respiration, and more anoxic bottom water.

    These effects can be magnified by catastrophe. When the heavy rains of Hurricane Floyd caused extensive flooding in North Carolina in September 1999, the heavy load of nutrients (from dead animals, flooded animal waste ponds, and numerous other sources) reached the sounds that lie between the coast and the Outer Banks, oxygen levels in the water plummeted. The picture at the top of the page shows the heavy load of sediments flowing into Pamlico Sound. SeaWiFS captured a remarkable image on September 23, 1999, when the sediment-laden water was carried into the Gulf Stream. In this image, note the turbidity in the sounds and the deep brown color at the river mouths. In some areas of the Neuse River, the water actually turned red.

    In Europe, the flow of water into and out of the Baltic Sea is naturally restricted by the islands and narrow channels around Denmark. Thus, any increase in nutrients which augments biological productivity can be a problem — and that’s what is being observed in the Baltic. The situation at the mouths of major rivers is similar: the area covered by anoxic bottom water appears to be increasing every year.

    Dr. Robert Diaz of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) has created a map of dead zones throughout the world (a version of this map also appeared in the March 2000 issue of Discover magazine). Diaz estimates that the number of such sites will double within a decade.

    Dead Zones Map

    There is another interesting aspect to zones of anoxia—not all areas with anoxic bottom water are caused by pollution. The largest “dead zone” on the planet is the entire Black Sea below a depth of about 150 meters. Due to the fact that the exchange of water in the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Sea is limited to the flow through the narrow Bosporus, all of the mixing of freshwater and seawater takes place in the upper 150 meters, because the freshwater entering from rivers is less dense than seawater.

    Black Sea Diagram
    Graphic adapted from Black Sea Sediments by Holger Lueschen.

    Below the pycnocline (a density boundary where the water density increases abruptly), the Black Sea water column is entirely anoxic, down to the bottom 2000 meters below. SeaWiFS can’t see that deep, either, but it can get a good image of the Black Sea on a clear day. Note the Bosporus in the lower-left corner of the image, and the delta of the Danube River on the western coast of the sea.

    Black Sea

    Recently, geologists Walter Pitman and William Ryan suggested that the Black Sea had been a freshwater lake at one time, and it became an anoxic marine basin fairly recently. Around 5600 B.C., as sea levels rose due to glacial melting, a flood of seawater broke through the Bosporus and inundated the Black Sea basin. The influx of Mediterranean seawater raised the level of the lake about 150 meters, and created the density difference that prevented mixing. Once the Black Sea was filled, the development of anoxia would have happened relatively quickly. One indication of the event is the age of freshwater mussels that died as oxygen concentrations fell. The anoxic bottom waters also hold the promise of preserving ancient wooden vessels, and even buildings in coastal communities that existed before the flood.

    (NOTE, November 2003: As scientific examination of this hypothesis has progressed since it was first proposed by Ryan and Pitman, the dramatic rapid infilling scenario can no longer be supported. See the Black Sea section of the “Associated URLs” below for a recent report on the status of understanding the paleohistory of the Black Sea and surrounding regions. There may have been a much more powerful flood earlier in time, approximately 15-16,000 years ago, resulting from the overflow of the Caspian Sea into the ancient Black Sea basin. The Ryan and Pitman event, while still appearing to have occurred, did not involve as much water or as large a rise in the level of the Black Sea as first proposed.)

    Dr. Robert Ballard, famed as the discoverer of the wreck of the Titanic , searched the Black Sea in 1999 and found indications of the ancient shoreline of the freshwater lake. In 2000, Ballard found evidence of ancient settlements on the underwater shore of this ancient lake, well-preserved due to the anoxic conditions, which preserve organic matter well. (Ryan and Pitman proposed that the sudden filling of the Black Sea was the basis for the Noah’s Flood story in the Bible, but we won’t get into that debate here.)

    Another naturally occurring anoxic basin is the Cariaco Basin, near the coast of Venezuela. Because the sediments in anoxic basins are also without oxygen, they preserve organic matter which is normally consumed by bacteria. Thus, the Cariaco Trench is a natural sediment trap, recording how much organic matter is produced in the overlying waters year after year. Researchers are using SeaWiFS data to observe the productivity cycles in the surface water and then correlating these observations with the record preserved in the organic-rich botto sediments.

    SeaWiFS image of Vancouver Island, featuring Saanich InletFinally, one other anoxic zone. The Saanich Inlet on Vancouver Island, Canada, has a “sill” near the mouth of the inlet, about 70 meters deep, which restricts the exchange of water from the Pacific Ocean and the bottom of the inlet. For the same reasons given above, the bottom waters of the Saanich below 100 meters are also anoxic, and sediments from the Saanich have been studied to provide information about changing environmental conditions on the western coast of Canada. The Saanich sediments are particularly valuable because the have annual layers (varves). The study of the Saanich sediments can be compared to tree rings from trees over 12,000 years old that were found in a nearby lake.

    Associated URLs

    SeaWiFS

    Mississippi River Dead Zone

    Saanich Inlet

    Cariaco Basin

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Black Sea

    [ From – ]

    http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/oceancolor/additional/science-focus/ocean-color/dead_zones.shtml

    ***

    Dead zone (ecology)

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Dead zones are often caused by the decay of algae during algal blooms, like this one off the coast of La Jolla, San Diego, California.

    Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world’s oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s. These occur near inhabited coastlines, where aquatic life is most concentrated. (The vast middle portions of the oceans which naturally have little life are not considered “dead zones”.) The term can also be applied to the identical phenomenon in large lakes.

    In March 2004, when the recently-established UN Environment Programme published its first Global Environment Outlook Year Book (GEO Year Book 2003) it reported 146 dead zones in the world oceans where marine life could not be supported due to depleted oxygen levels. Some of these were as small as a square kilometre (0.4 mi²), but the largest dead zone covered 70,000 square kilometres (27,000 mi²). A 2008 study counted 405 dead zones worldwide.[1][2]

    Contents

    // <![CDATA[
    //

    Causes of dead zones

    Aquatic and marine dead zones can be caused by an increase in chemical nutrients in the water, known as eutrophication. Eutrophication leads to harmful algal blooms (HABs). When algal blooms die off, oxygen is used to decompose the algae which creates hypoxic conditions. Chemical fertilizer is considered the prime cause of dead zones around the world. Runoff from sewage, urban land use, and fertilizers can also contribute to eutrophication. [3]

    The Pacific Coast of the United States has a 1120 square mile (2900 km²) dead zone caused by stronger winds that many associate with global warming. [4]. This dead zone has recurred between June and September every year since 2002. [4]

    Additionally, natural oceanographic phenomena can cause deoxygenation of parts of the water column. For example, enclosed bodies of water such as fjords or the Black Sea have shallow sills at their entrances causing water to be stagnant there for a long time. The eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and Northern Indian Ocean have lowered oxygen concentrations which are thought to be in regions where there is minimal circulation to replace the oxygen that is consumed (e.g. Pickard & Emery 1982, p 47).[5]

    Remains of organisms found within sediment layers near the mouth of the Mississippi River indicate four hypoxic events before the advent of artificial fertilizer. In these sediment layers, anoxia-tolerant species are the most prevalent remains found. The periods indicated by the sediment record correspond to historic records of high river flow recorded by instruments at Vicksburg, Mississippi.

    Effects of dead zones

    Underwater video frame of the sea floor in the Western Baltic covered with dead or dying crabs, fish and clams killed by oxygen depletion

    Low oxygen levels recorded along the Gulf Coast of North America have led to reproductive problems in fish involving decreased size of reproductive organs, low egg counts and lack of spawning.

    In a study of the Gulf killifish by the Southeastern Louisiana University done in three bays along the Gulf Coast, fish living in bays where the oxygen levels in the water dropped to 1 to 2 parts per million (ppm) for 3 or more hours per day were found to have smaller reproductive organs. The male gonads were 34% to 50% as large as males of similar size in bays where the oxygen levels were normal (6 to 8 ppm). Females were found to have ovaries that were half as large as those in normal oxygen levels. The number of eggs in females living in hypoxic waters were only one-seventh the number of eggs in fish living in normal oxygen levels. (Landry, et al., 2004)

    Fish raised in laboratory-created hypoxic conditions showed extremely low sex-hormone concentrations and increased elevation of activity in two genes triggered by the hypoxia-inductile factor (HIF) protein. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF pairs with another protein, ARNT. The two then bind to DNA in cells, activating genes in those cells.

    Under normal oxygen conditions, ARNT combines with estrogen to activate genes. Hypoxic cells in a test tube didn’t react to estrogen placed in the tube. HIF appears to render ARNT unavailable to interact with estrogen, providing a mechanism by which hypoxic conditions alter reproduction in fish. (Johanning, et al., 2004)

    It might be expected that fish would flee this potential suffocation, but they are often quickly rendered unconscious and doomed. Slow moving bottom-dwelling creatures like clams, lobsters and oysters are unable to escape. All colonial animals are extinguished. The normal re-mineralization and recycling that occurs among benthic life-forms is stifled.

    Locations of dead zones

    In the 1970s, marine dead zones were first noted in areas where intensive economic use stimulated “first-world” scientific scrutiny: in the U.S. East Coast’s Chesapeake Bay, in Scandinavia’s strait called the Kattegat, which is the mouth of the Baltic Sea and in other important Baltic Sea fishing grounds, in the Black Sea, (which may have been anoxic in its deepest levels for millennia, however) and in the northern Adriatic.

    Other marine dead zones have apparently appeared in coastal waters of South America, China, Japan, and southeast Australia. A 2008 study counted 405 dead zones worldwide.[1][2][6]

    Oregon

    Sediment from the Mississippi River carries fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico

    Off the coast of Cape Perpetua, Oregon, there is also a dead zone with a 2006 reported size of 300 square miles (780 km²).[7] This dead zone only exists during the summer, perhaps due to wind patterns.

    Gulf of Mexico

    Currently the most notorious dead zone is a 22,126 square kilometre (8,543 mi²) region in the Gulf of Mexico, where the Mississippi River dumps high-nutrient runoff from its vast drainage basin, which includes the heart of U.S. agribusiness, the Midwest. The drainage of these nutrients are affecting important shrimp fishing grounds. This is equivalent to a dead zone the size of New Jersey. A dead zone off the coast of Texas where the Brazos River empties into the Gulf was also discovered in July 2007.[8]

    Reversal of dead zones –

    Dead zones are reversible.

    The Black Sea dead zone, previously the largest dead zone in the world, largely disappeared between 1991 and 2001 after fertilizers became too costly to use following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the demise of centrally planned economies in Eastern and Central Europe. Fishing has again become a major economic activity in the region.[9]

    While the Black Sea “cleanup” was largely unintentional and involved a drop in hard-to-control fertilizer usage, the U.N. has advocated other cleanups by reducing large industrial emissions.[9] From 1985 to 2000, the North Sea dead zone had nitrogen reduced by 37% when policy efforts by countries on the Rhine River reduced sewage and industrial emissions of nitrogen into the water. Other cleanups have taken place along the Hudson River[10] and San Francisco Bay.[1]

    The chemical Aluminium sulfate can be used to reduce phosphates in water.[1]

    Notes

    1. ^ a b c http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/08/15/MNLD12ADSN.DTL
    2. ^ a b http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1156401
    3. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22301669 Corn boom could expand ‘dead zone’ in Gulf
    4. ^ a b http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-deadzone15feb15,0,3979313.story Dead zones off Oregon and Washington likely tied to global warming, study says
    5. ^ http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/WOA01F/oxsearch.html
    6. ^ http://www.epa.gov/msbasin/pdf/diaz_data.pdf
    7. ^ Wired News – AP News
    8. ^ Bloomberg.com: Exclusive
    9. ^ a b Mee, Laurence (November 2006). “Reviving Dead Zones”. Scientific American.
    10. ^ ‘Dead Zones’ Multiplying In World’s Oceans by John Nielsen. 15 Aug 2008, Morning Edition, NPR.

    References

    • Diaz, R.J., and Rosenberg, R. 2008. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321(5891): 926-929. Abstract
    • Osterman, L.E., et al. 2004. Reconstructing an 180-yr record of natural and anthropogenic induced hypoxia from the sediments of the Louisiana Continental Shelf. Geological Society of America meeting. Nov. 7-10. Denver. http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2004AM/finalprogram/abstract_75830.htm Abstract.
    • Pickard, G.L. and Emery, W.J. 1982. Description Physical Oceanography: An Introduction. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 249 pp.
    • Landry, C.A., S. Manning, and A.O. Cheek. 2004. Hypoxia suppresses reproduction in Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis. e.hormone 2004 conference. Oct. 27-30. New Orleans.
    • Johanning, K., et al. 2004. Assessment of molecular interaction between low oxygen and estrogen in fish cell culture. Fourth SETAC World Congress, 25th Annual Meeting in North America. Nov. 14-18. Portland, Ore. Abstract.
    • Taylor, F.J., N.J. Taylor, J.R. Walsby 1985. A bloom of planktonic diatom Ceratulina pelagica off the coastal northeastern New Zealand in 1983, and its contribution to an associated mortality of fish and benthic fauna. Intertional Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 70: 773-795.
    • Morrisey, D.J. 2000. Predicting impacts and recovery of marine farm sites in Stewart Island New Zealand, from the Findlay-Watling model. Aquaculture 185: 257-271.

    Further reading

    External links

    [From Wikipedia Entry]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_zone_(ecology)

    ***

    Flotsametrics and the Floating World

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to: navigation, search

    Flotsametrics and the Floating World: How One Man’s Obsession with Runaway Sneakers and Rubber Ducks Revolutionized Ocean Science is a 2009 book by Curtis Ebbesmeyer and Eric Scigliano. Ebbesmeyer and his team of volunteers used flotsam to study oceanic currents.

    External links

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flotsametrics_and_the_Floating_World

    ***

    Toxics Release Inventory

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to: navigation, search

    TRI-ME, the TRI computer reporting program

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available database from the EPA that contains information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported annually by certain covered industry groups as well as federal facilities. This inventory was first proposed in a 1985 New York Times op-ed piece[1] written by David Sarokin and Warren Muir, researchers for an environmental group, INFORM. TRI was established under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), and later expanded by the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. The law grew out of concern surrounding Union Carbide’s releases of toxic gases in the 1984 Bhopal disaster and a smaller 1985 release in Institute, West Virginia[2]

    Each year, companies across a wide range of industries (including chemical, mining, paper, oil and gas industries) that produce more than 25,000 pounds or handle more than 10,000 pounds of a listed toxic chemical must report it to the TRI. The TRI threshold was initially set at 75,000 pounds annually. If the company treats, recycles, disposes, or releases more than 500 pounds of that chemical into the environment (as opposed to just handling it), then they must provide a detailed inventory of that chemical’s inventory.

    Proposed changes in late 2005 would lower the reporting standards for TRI. Several state attorney generals wrote the EPA asking that the standard not be altered. This move came under fire from Eliot Spitzer who said “”Public disclosure has proven to be a strong incentive for polluters to reduce their use of toxic chemicals, this move by EPA appears to be yet another poorly considered notion to appease a few polluting constituents at the expense of a valuable program.” [3] EPA originally proposed to reduce the required reporting frequency from every year to every other year. This drew intense criticism, and the idea was dropped.

    However, the EPA went forward with another part of the plan that initially did not receive much attention. Companies were previously required to disclose any release over 2000 pounds (907 kg) on a more detailed “Form R” rather than the less detailed “Form A”. With the new regulations, the minimum reporting requirements for Form R have been increased to 5000 pounds (2268 kg), thus reducing the amount of information available. Although this move was widely criticized by the public as well as many officials, EPA went ahead with the new rule anyway.[4] EPA claimed that the comments submitted opposed to the Form R requirements were invalid because nearly all the people who had commented did so on both the change in reporting frequency as well as the minimum amounts required for Form R.

    [edit] Accessing TRI data

    The data in the Toxic Release Inventory is available to the public, but accessing has until recently been a difficult task. In recent years, the EPA and several other organizations has made the task much easier.

    Mapping Systems

    In 2007, three organizations released tools for mapping the TRI data to particular locations. These tools also allow the user to view some of the information in the database.

    MapEcos, A Map of Industrial Environmental Performance

    • MapEcos.org is a browser-based tool. It allows users to access an interactive map of the US showing the most recent TRI data. The map can be searched for locations of interest. At lower zoom levels, it allows the user to get information on pollution from particular facilities. This site was created by faculty and students at Dartmouth College, Harvard Business School, and Duke University.[5]
    • The Commission for Environmental Cooperation has created a downloadable File for Google Earth which shows all of the most recent reports to the TRI database. It also includes locations from the equivalent Canadian and Mexican pollution inventory. The system currently only maps the locations and links to data at the national registries.[6]
    • DotGovWatch offers a simple browser-based map of TRI data. The map can be searched by city, address, and each facility’s detailed emissions are available.
    • TRI.NET is a new application developed by EPA that supports complex adhoc queries of TRI data. TRI.NET maps facilities using Google Maps, Google Earth, or Virtual Earth. Additional data layers allow TRI data to be analyzed with respect to other factors such as Environmental Justice, Chemical Toxicity, and Tribal and U.S. Mexico Border geographies. Uses powerful drill-downs and advanced trends to spot trends and hot spots. [7]

    Public Portals

    • Scorecard.org For those seeking detailed information, the easiest access to the data is at scorecard.org. This site also provides information about a variety of other pollution issues, but it has not been updated since 2002. This site was created by a team at Environmental Defense. It is now run by the Green Media Tool Shed.

    Research Oriented Portals

    • RTKnet.org Run by an OMB watch, this site provides access to current to a variety of EPA data, including data for the TRI. Queries allow users to download files with the raw data.
    • The EPA also provides access to the raw data through their Envirofacts site. As with RTK net, queries to the underlying relational database produce downloadable text documents.

    [edit] See also

    [edit] References

    1. ^ Too Little Toxic Waste Data, New York Times, Oct 7, 1985, pg A31
    2. ^ What is the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program
    3. ^ Waste News
    4. ^ EPA Finalizes Rules for Toxics Release Inventory – January 9, 2007 Vol. 8, No. 1 – OMB Watch
    5. ^ Mapping out the environment – CNN.com
    6. ^ GIS News:Google Earth layer helps mapping industrial pollutants
    7. ^ Find toxic wastelands via Google Earth | CNET News.com

    What I’ve been working on lately – at least some of it – ocean – atomic energy – job employment opportunities – nanotechnology

    Tags

    , , , , , , ,

    # Giant intrinsic electroresistance in conventional ferroelectric films
    (Newswise/Oak Ridge National Lab)

    A new study has for the first time demonstrated giant intrinsic electroresistance in conventional ferroelectric films, where flipping of the spontaneous polarization increased conductance by up to 50,000 percent. The key distinction of ferroelectric memory switches is that they can be tuned through thermodynamic properties of ferroelectrics. Numerous previous works have demonstrated defect-mediated memory, but defects cannot easily be predicted, controlled, analyzed or reduced in size. Ferroelectric switching, however, surpasses all of these limitations and will offer unprecedented functionality. The authors believe that using phase transitions such as ferroelectric switching to implement memory and computing is the real fundamental distinction of future information technologies.
    [Polarization Control of Electron Tunneling into Ferroelectric Surfaces, Science 12 June 2009: Vol. 324. no. 5933, pp. 1421 – 1425 DOI: 10.1126/science.1171200]
    (June 25, 2009)
    # Transmitting information using chemistry
    (PhysOrg.com)

    Credit: Samuel W. Thomas III, et al. ©2009 PNAS

    Information transmission currently require electrons or photons for transmitting information. Scientists have now demonstrated a third method of transmission: chemical reactions. Based on a flammable “infofuse,” the new system combines information technology and chemistry into a new area the researchers call  infochemistry.  The system transmits information in the form of coded pulses of light generated entirely by chemical reactions, without electricity. The system is self-powered, with power being generated by combustion. The power density of the system is higher than that of electrochemical batteries, and has the advantage of not discharging over time. The study demonstrates direct chemical to binary encoding, and transmission of information at a useful bit rate, without batteries. The system consists of a strip or fuse of combustible material (nitrocellulose) about 1 mm long. When ignited, a yellow-orange flame moves along the infofuse. To encode information, the scientists patterned the fuse with various metallic salts, which could be done using a desktop inkjet printer or a micropipettor. With their different emission wavelengths, the salts created distinct emission lines in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. By coding letters of the alphabet using patterns of metallic salts, the scientists transmitted the phrase, “LOOK MOM NO ELECTRICITY” on a single infofuse using the new technique.
    [Infochemistry and infofuses for the chemical storage and transmission of coded information, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. vol. 106, no. 23, 9147-9150]
    (June 24, 2009)
    # Polymer solar cell with near-perfect internal efficiency
    (PhysOrg.com)

    Researchers have developed a polymer-based solar cell with an ability not yet seen in similar cells: almost every single photon it absorbs is converted into a pair of electric-charge carriers, and every one of those pairs is collected at the cell’s electrodes. The overall efficiency of the cell is six percent, excellent for polymer-based solar cells. The cell incorporates an alternating co-polymer in bulk heterojunction composite with a fullerene derivative. The cell exhibits the best performance of any bulk heterojunction system investigated so far, according to the authors.
    [Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%, Nature Photonics 3, 297 – 302 (2009) doi:10.1038/nphoton.2009.69]
    (June 24, 2009)
    # Elusive forms of water may have been found
    (Nature News)

    In a study done in 1992, computer simulations of water suggested that hydrogen bonds might produce two different types of liquid if water was made very cold and squeezed to high pressures. In one form, the hydrogen bonds create a rather open, sparse network of water molecules, called low-density liquid (LDL) water. In the other, water molecules press closer at the cost of breaking some hydrogen bonds, forming a high-density liquid (HDL). The two types of liquid water changed from one to the other in an abrupt ‘phase transition’ in the simulations. Now, researchers of a new study report that they have experimentally observed these two phases. They used electron spin resonance to study the mobility of water molecules within tiny pockets of liquid trapped between crystallites of ice at temperatures down to around –183 °C. The researchers don’t measure the movement of the water directly: instead, they watch the motions of an organic ‘probe’ molecule called TEMPOL. However, some researchers in the field remain unconvinced.
    [Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA published online. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900734106 (2009)]
    (June 24, 2009)
    # Carbon nanotubes wired for pressure sensing

    [ etc. ]

    http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec.asp?CID=1920&DID=84063#jun09_2f

    ***

    http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/index.asp

    Sneak Peek
    Preview one of the thousands of research papers available FREE to MRS Members.

    Design of Nano-Composites for Ultra-High Strengths and Radiation Damage Tolerance
    Amit Misra, X. Zhang, R. G. Hoagland, M. J. Demkowicz, M. Nastasi
    From MRS Proceedings Volume 1188

    Abstract: The combination of high strength and high radiation damage tolerance in nanolaminate composites can be achieved when the individual layers in these composites are only a few nanometers thick and therefore these materials contain a large volume fraction associated with interfaces. These interfaces act both as obstacles to slip, as well as sinks for radiation-induced defects. The morphological and phase stabilities of these nano-composites under ion irradiation are explored as a function of layer thickness, temperature and interface structure. Using results on model systems such as Cu-Nb, we highlight the critical role of the atomic structure of the incoherent interfaces that exhibit multiple states with nearly degenerate energies in acting as sinks for radiation-induced point defects. Reduced radiation damage also leads to a reduction in the irradiation hardening, particularly at layer thickness of approximately 5 nm and below. The strategies for design of radiation-tolerant structural materials based on the knowledge gained from this work will be discussed.

    Full Article…

    ***

    Materials News

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    Current materials-related news gathered from around the Web that is frequently updated. Visit this page regularly to keep in touch with the latest in materials research. Please note that some external websites may require registration for access.

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    * Ultra-thin material absorbs almost 100% light
    (Leiden University)

    Credit: Eduard Driessen, Michiel de Dood, Leiden University

    Researchers have demonstrated that 4.5 nanometers thick niobiumnitride (NbN) is ultra-absorbent with respect to light. They have recorded a light absorption of almost 100%, while the best light absorption to date was 50%. This research brings the realization of an ideal light detector a step closer. The most important part of the detector is a lattice of ultra-absorbent NbN filaments. When an s-light particle falls on the lattice, it is absorbed (light has two kinds of polarizations: s and p). A p-particle is reflected. This p-particle can then in turn be collected by a second detector so that all the light is detected. Calculations show that the wavelength (colour) of the light particle has hardly any influence. The detector can therefore also be used for particles with completely different wavelengths, such as detection systems for telecommunications and infra-red equipment.
    [The perfect absorber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171109 (2009); DOI:10.1063/1.3126062 ]
    (June 30, 2009)
    * Microspheres change color instantly in response to external magnetic field
    (University of California, Riverside)

    Credit: Yin lab, Univ. Cal. Riverside

    Microscopic polymer beads that change color instantly and reversibly when external magnetic fields acting upon the microspheres change orientation, have been fabricated. The beads or magnetochromatic microspheres have excellent structural stability. They also are highly compatible with various types of dispersion media such as water, alcohol, hexane and even polymer solutions, allowing them to retain magnetically tunable colors in a variety of chemical environments. To fabricate the microspheres, the researchers first mixed magnetic iron oxide particles into a resin, which is initially in liquid phase but later turns solid on exposure to ultraviolet curable resin. They then dispersed the resin solution in oil (mineral oil or silicon oil), whereupon the resin transformed into spherical droplets in the oil. Next, the researchers applied an external magnetic field to organize the iron oxide particles into periodically ordered structures. These structures display a reflective color if viewed along the direction of the magnetic field. Finally, the research team exposed the liquid system to ultraviolet radiation to polymerize the resin droplets and make them solid microspheres.
    [Magnetochromatic Microspheres: Rotating Photonic Crystals, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/ja903626h Publication Date (Web): June 15, 2009]
    (June 30, 2009)
    * Box-shaped 3D-DNA origami
    (Royal Society of Chemistry)

    Credit: A. Kuzuya and M. Komiyama, Chem. Commun.

    One important area in DNA nanotechnology is DNA origami in which single-stranded DNA is folded to construct arbitrary structures. These can then be used as platforms for nanostructures such as protein arrays, gold nanoparticles and messenger RNA. Until now, the focus has been on 2D origami, but now researchers have shifted their focus to 3D structures. They folded DNA strands into an open-box shape and identified it using atomic force microscopy. For guest encapsulation, the box is designed to fold into an open form first, and can be closed afterwards by adding appropriate DNA strands. The outside and inside of the box can be distinguished throughout the process so it may be possible to place a guest molecule in the face of the open form before closing it. The boxes are similar in size to virus capsids, which are currently gaining interest as nanocontainers, but the faces of the DNA boxes are easier to chemically modify, enabling selective capture of various guest molecules.
    [Design and construction of a box-shaped 3D-DNA origami, Chem. Commun., 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b907800b]
    (June 30, 2009)
    * Tiny ratchet could lead to cancer traps
    (Physics World)

    Credit: Nature Physics

    Scientists have built a tiny device that can separate some types of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Resembling a ratchet, the device exploits the fact that different cells use different strategies to squeeze their way through narrow passages. The team believes that similar ratchets could be used to trap  metastatic  cancer cells, which can spread the disease throughout the body. Metastasis is the process by which cancer cells break away from a tumour and move through the body — creating more tumors and often decreasing a patient’s chance of survival. Understanding how these cells move could lead to new medical treatments that stop metastasis — or even the development of “cancer traps” that remove cancer cells from circulation.
    [Directing cell motions on micropatterned ratchets, Nature Physics Published online: 14 June 2009 | doi:10.1038/nphys1306]
    (June 29, 2009)
    * CO trapped on a chip
    (Science)

    Microfluidics technology has facilitated remarkable miniaturization of chemical synthesis platforms; through electrically gated solution flow and mixing, molecular reactions can be carried out on chips several centimeters across. However, when it comes to more fundamental dynamics studies, involving probing gas-phase molecules in specific quantum mechanical states, experiments still tend to require much larger interaction areas. Researchers have taken a step toward miniaturization in this latter regime by demonstrating the isolation of a cold gas-phase beam of CO molecules just above a microelectrode-decorated chip. The technique relies on rapidly modulated electric fields that trap and then slow down the incoming molecules through dipole interactions. Once brought to a stop, the molecules can be held on the chip for a discrete period and then released to a detector.
    [Trapping Molecules on a Chip, Science 26 June 2009: Vol. 324. no. 5935, pp. 1699 – 1702 DOI: 10.1126/science.1175975]
    (June 26, 2009)
    * Self-assembled tetrahedral container molecule encapsulates white phosphorus
    (Eurekalert/Cambridge University)

    For centuries it has been known for its violent combustion upon contact with air – but this week a team of researchers reveals that it has tamed one of the most hazardous chemical substances, white phosphorous, a feedstock for the preparation of many useful chemicals such as weed killers, insecticides and fertiliser. White phosphorous is also infamous for its propensity to burst into flame. For this reason it is often used in military campaigns to create smokescreens to mask movement from the enemy, as well as an incendiary in bombs, artillery and mortars. The team created a ‘container molecule’ to stabilise white phosphorous indefinitely. This renders it safe until such time as a signal agent, benzene, is applied to release it.
    [White Phosphorus Is Air-Stable Within a Self-Assembled Tetrahedral Capsule, Science 26 June 2009: Vol. 324. no. 5935, pp. 1697 – 1699 DOI: 10.1126/science.1175313]
    (June 26, 2009)
    * Stream of sand behaves like water
    (National Science Foundation/Univ. Chicago)

    Credit: Helge F. Gruetjen*, John R. Royer, Scott R. Waitukaitis,
    and Heinrich M. Jaeger, The University of Chicago

    Researchers recently showed that dry granular materials such as sands, seeds and grains have properties similar to liquid, forming water-like droplets when poured from a given source. The finding could be important to a wide range of industries that use  fluidized  dry particles. It was previously thought that dry particles lacked sufficient surface tension to form droplets like ordinary liquids. But, in a first-time accomplishment, the researchers used high-speed photography to measure minute levels of surface tension and detect droplet formation in flows of dry granular materials. They observed falling 100-micrometer-diameter glass beads, or streaming sand, and found that forces as much as 100,000 times smaller than those that produce surface tension in ordinary liquids could cause droplet formation in granular streams and cause these dry streams to behave like an ultra-low-surface-tension liquid. They also directly measured grain-to-grain interactions with an atomic force microscope.
    [High-speed tracking of rupture and clustering in freely falling granular streams, Nature 459, 1110-1113 (25 June 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature08115]
    (June 25, 2009)

    http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec.asp?CID=1920&DID=84063

    ***

    FDA panel: Lower maximum daily dose of Tylenol

    By MATTHEW PERRONE – 37 minutes ago

    ADELPHI, Md. (AP) — Government experts called for sweeping safety restrictions Tuesday on the most widely used painkiller, including reducing the maximum dose of Tylenol and eliminating prescription drugs such as Vicodin and Percocet.

    The Food and Drug Administration assembled 37 experts to recommend ways to reduce deadly overdoses with acetaminophen, which is the leading cause of liver failure in the U.S. and sends 56,000 people to the emergency room annually. About 200 die each year.

    We’re here because there are inadvertent overdoses with this drug that are fatal and this is the one opportunity we have to do something that will have a big impact,  said Dr. Judith Kramer of Duke University Medical Center.

    But over-the-counter cold medicines — such as Nyquil and Theraflu — that combine other drugs with acetaminophen can stay on the market, the panel said, rejecting a proposal to take them off store shelves.

    The FDA is not required to follow the advice of its panels, though it usually does. The agency gave no indication when it would act on the recommendations.
    In a series of votes Tuesday, the panel recommended 21-16 to lower the current maximum daily dose of over-the-counter acetaminophen from 4 grams, or eight pills of a medication such as Extra Strength Tylenol. They did not specify how much it should be lowered.

    The panel also endorsed limiting the maximum single dose of the drug to 650 milligrams. That would be down from the 1,000-milligram dose, or two tablets of Extra Strength Tylenol.

    A majority of panelists also said the 1,000-milligram dose should only be available by prescription.

    The industry group that represents Johnson & Johnson, Wyeth and other companies defended the current dosing that appears on over-the-counter products.

    [ etc. ]

    If the combination products are eliminated, the acetaminophen and the other ingredients could be prescribed separately. In effect, patients would take two pills instead of one, and be more aware of the acetaminophen they are consuming.

    Vicodin is marketed by Abbott Laboratories, while Percocet is marketed by Endo Pharmaceuticals. Both painkillers also are available in cheaper generic versions.

    The panel recommending banning Vicodin and Percocet seems a little draconian,  said Les Funtleyder, an analyst for Miller Tabak & Co.

    Drug companies avoided the most damaging potential outcome with the defeat of proposal to pull NyQuil and other over-the-counter cold and cough medicines that combine acetaminophen with other drugs.

    These drugs can be dangerous when taken with Tylenol or other drugs containing acetaminophen, according to the FDA, but cause only 10 percent of acetaminophen-related deaths.

    I don’t think we should be advocating a solution to a problem that really is not there,  said Dr. Osemwota Omoigui, of the Los Angeles pain clinic.

    A recall of combination cold medicines would have cost manufacturers hundreds of millions of dollars in revenue. Total sales of all acetaminophen drugs reached $2.6 billion last year, with 80 percent of the market comprised of over-the-counter products, according to IMS Health, a health care analysis firm.

    [ . . . ]

    This basically puts more government oversight into something that heretofore has been less than present,  Brozak said.

    AP Business writers Stephen Manning and Donna Borak contributed to this report.

    A bottle of Tylenol, which contains the ingredient acetaminophen, appears with its box wrapper, in Walpole, Mass., Tuesday, June 30, 2009. In a series of votes Tuesday, a Food and Drug Administration panel endorsed lowering the maximum dose of over-the-counter acetaminophen _ the key ingredient in Tylenol, Excedrin and other medications. (AP Photo/Steven Senne)

    http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5iAaMZR2NEacGDWrzy-QZLjoLO7wQD995CU480

    ****
    Belgian prosecutors raid BNP Paribas Fortis HQ
    Tue Jun 30, 2009 10:22am EDT

    Market News
    Nikkei claws higher, view of BOJ tankan mixed
    Wall St brakes on confidence data, but has upbeat Q2   |  Video
    Oil falls 2 percent, U.S. consumer confidence weighs
    More Business & Investing News…

    BRUSSELS, June 30 (Reuters) – Belgian prosecutors said on Tuesday they carried out a raid at the headquarters of BNP Paribas Fortis, the Belgian bank now owned by France’s BNP Paribas BNPP.P as part of a market manipulation probe.

    The raids took place in the framework of an investigation which was launched months ago into possible manipulation of share prices,  a Brussels prosecutor said.

    He added that the probe focused also, among other things, on whether Fortis withheld information from its shareholders.

    A Fortis spokesman confirmed prosecutors had questioned former Fortis Holding (FOR.BR) Chief Executive Filip Dierckx as part of the investigation.

    Belgian prosecutors are also investigating suspected insider trading in financial group Fortis (FOR.BR) by a large shareholder in a separate probe launched in early June.

    [ . . . ]

    French bank BNP Paribas took control of Fortis Bank Belgium in May after months of delay due to shareholder opposition. ($1=.7077 Euro) (Reporting by Antonia van de Velde; editing by Simon Jessop)

    http://www.reuters.com/article/marketsNews/idUSLU12358620090630

    ***

    Bank of America accused of anti-consumer practices
    Tue Jun 30, 2009 1:02pm EDT

    By Jonathan Stempel

    NEW YORK (Reuters) – Consumer and labor groups demanded Bank of America Corp and other lenders reform their sales practices so that workers under pressure to meet sales quotas do not saddle customers with costly and unnecessary products.

    [ etc. ]

    He complained that the bank regularly violated the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, and sometimes pushed workers to falsely threaten legal action against customers. He said his team was sometimes pushed to call customers’ neighbors about delinquent accounts,  to embarrass the customer and actually encourage the neighbor to bring over a message.

    Shares of Bank of America rose 5 cents to $13.24 in early afternoon trading on the New York Stock Exchange.

    (Reporting by Jonathan Stempel; Editing by Tim Dobbyn)

    http://www.reuters.com/article/wtUSInvestingNews/idUSTRE55T5E420090630

    ***
    Former Greek Siemens executive accused of corruption arrested in Germany
    MARIA MARQUART, Associated Press Writer
    7:16 AM PDT, June 25, 2009
    MUNICH (AP) — A former senior executive of industrial conglomerate Siemens AG who faces money laundering and bribery charges in Greece was arrested in Germany on Thursday, prosecutors said.

    [etc.]

    http://www.latimes.com/business/nationworld/wire/sns-ap-eu-germany-greece-siemens,0,6543692.story

    ***

    $103m suspected fraud uncovered at Keydata

    By Matthew Vincent, Lucy Warwick-Ching and Brooke Masters

    Published: June 30 2009 18:09 | Last updated: June 30 2009 18:09

    Investors in life-insurance based income products offered by Keydata Investment Services may have become the victims of a £103m suspected fraud, according to the administrator appointed by the Financial Services Authority to sell the company.

    PwC said on Tuesday that the second-hand life insurance policies backing Keydata’s Secure Income Bonds 1,2 and 3 had been liquidated and the proceeds “misappropriated”, and that income and redemptions had been paid “in an irregular fashion” out of the company’s own funds, rather than from the underlying investments.

    [ etc. ]

    No income can be paid out to investors in Secure Income Bonds 1, 2 and 3 and in Income Property Bonds 1-6, and redemption have been suspended while PwC tries to trace the assets underlying these products.

    [ . . . ]

    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/9ca934d4-6598-11de-8e34-00144feabdc0.html

    ***

    Chill wind of economic data stunts green shoots

    By Ellen Kelleher

    Published: June 26 2009 18:36 | Last updated: June 26 2009 18:36

    Further proof that Britain’s economy is still in the doldrums came on Wednesday when the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) forecast that the UK economy will contract by 4.3 per cent this year and said it expects only “modest growth” in 2010.

    [ etc. ]

    Meanwhile, across the Atlantic, it emerged that the US economy had contracted by more than 5 per cent in the first three months of the year.

    Since the start of the month, the FTSE 100 is 5.4 per cent lower, the S&P 500 is down 2.4 per cent and the FTSE Emerging Markets index has lost 5.2 per cent.

    [ . . . ]

    Another looming problem is the oversupply of government bonds in the market.

    This year, projected gross issuance by OECD governments will jump to almost $12,000bn of debt – up from $9,000bn two years ago.

    Yields on government bonds are rising on concerns about the scale of this issuance.

    [ etc. ]

    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/2820f0bc-6277-11de-b1c9-00144feabdc0.html

    ***

    Turkey to ‘never give up’ EU bid
    Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan in Brussels, 26 June 09
    Mr Erdogan said Turkey deserved better treatment in the negotiations

    Turkey has urged France and Germany to back its bid to join the EU, rejecting calls for a special partnership rather than full membership.

    We will never give up,  Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan told reporters in Brussels.

    Turkey’s EU accession talks are going at a glacial pace and risk suspension if Ankara fails to open its ports and airports to Cyprus this year.

    France and Germany want to give Turkey a  privileged partnership  with the EU.

    But Mr Erdogan insisted  our goal is full membership .

    He also said it was  populist and wrong  to use Turkey’s bid as an election issue.

    Some right-wing parties opposed to Turkey’s bid made gains in the recent European Parliament elections.

    Slow progress

    The BBC’s Oana Lungescu says both opposition inside the EU and insufficient democratic reforms in Turkey are hampering its bid.

    Next week will see a small step forward, when Turkey is due to start talks on taxation, one of the 35 areas where it is negotiating EU entry terms.

    Turkish diplomats argue that their country is of strategic importance to Europe and that its eventual accession would send a positive signal to the whole Muslim world.
    So far, Turkey has opened talks on 10 out of the 35  negotiation chapters  in the accession process, which started in October 2005.

    But eight chapters have been frozen because of Ankara’s refusal to open up its ports and airports to traffic from Cyprus, an EU member.

    Turkey says it will not do this until the EU takes steps to end the Turkish Cypriot community’s economic isolation.

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8121544.stm

    ***

    City targets US help in EU hedge fund fight

    By Tom Braithwaite in Washington and Martin Arnold in London

    Published: July 1 2009 00:24 | Last updated: July 1 2009 00:24

    The City of London is hoping to win support from the US administration to head off tough regulation from Brussels on hedge funds and private equity firms.

    Delegates from the City of London Corporation, a standard bearer for UK financial services, visited Washington last week to give warning of a threat to British and US companies from a proposed European directive on alternative investment fund managers.

    EDITOR’S CHOICE
    EU set to tighten rules for markets – Jun-17
    Alarm at EU’s hedge fund rule plans – Jun-15
    In depth: hedge funds – Dec-20
    Berlin to back EU financial regulation plan – Jun-04
    Editorial: Frau Merkel and the central banks – Jun-03
    Opinion: Framework to secure single market – Jun-03

    The EU directive, a response to public anger at the excessive risk-taking that led to the credit crisis, would require many hedge funds and private equity firms to register with regulators and disclose more about themselves and their investments.

    They would also have to meet increased minimum capital requirements and limits on borrowing, which have triggered threats from some big UK hedge funds to move overseas unless the plan is rewritten.

    Direct lobbying of the US Treasury and key financial committees in Congress is a shift in strategy from the corporation, which holds regular meetings with members of the New York financial establishment.
    “We’ve had worrying trends that the Anglo-Saxon model is being seriously questioned in terms of a more centrist approach to economic management,” said Stuart Fraser, head of the City’s policy and resources committee.

    Mr Fraser, also a director at UK stockbroker Brewin Dolphin, told the Financial Times there was a danger of “tit-for-tat regulation” between Europe and the US. “We need to harmonise the regulation,” he said. “Why have two different standards, which would be bad for global trade and for the City of London?”

    Alternative investment funds based outside the EU would be forced to comply with the directive or an equivalent standard after a three-year transition period. Otherwise they would be banned from marketing to European investors.

    Private equity bosses have given warning that this could trigger a protectionist backlash. “You are opening the door to all sorts of responsive legislation, not only in the US but also Asia,” Jonathan Russell, chairman of the European Private Equity and Venture Capital Association, said.

    European regulators say the directive would make life easier for non-EU funds, as a passport system would mean they would need to seek approval only once, rather than from each different country, to market to European investors.

    Under current US proposals, hedge funds would have to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission and both they and private equity firms would have to disclose more information.

    But most US proposals for financial regulation have focused on the systemic risks in banks and insurers, not alternative investment funds.

    Lord Myners, the UK’s City minister, said the directive was “flawed” and showed “poor understanding” of the alternative investment industry. The British government was working hard to improve it.

    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/296daa22-65ac-11de-8e34-00144feabdc0,dwp_uuid=70662e7c-3027-11da-ba9f-00000e2511c8.html

    ***

    Regulator calls on UBS to pay

    By Scheherazade Daneshkhu in Paris and Haig Simonian in,Zurich

    Published: June 30 2009 03:00 | Last updated: June 30 2009 03:00

    UBS, the custodian bank to Luxalpha, one of the main European funds invested in Bernard Madoff, should compensate investors for their losses, the French regulator said yesterday, write Scheherazade Daneshkhu in Paris and Haig Simonian in Zurich.

    Speaking on publication of the regulator’s annual report, Jean-Pierre Jouyet, president of the Autorité des Marchés Financiers, said custodian banks  are responsible and investors should be compensated .

    The Madoff fraud demonstrated the need for stronger rules to protect investors, he said. The public needed to be informed of the risks in investments such as the  1bn ($1.4bn) Luxembourg-based Luxalpha fund, which was almost wholly invested with Madoff.

    However, UBS rejected responsibility, saying that investors in Luxalpha were  fully aware of the nature of the investments .

    The Luxalpha fund  was created at the explicit request of wealthy clients who requested a tailormade fund to enable them to continue investing their assets with Madoff , according to UBS, adding that fund documentation  made it very clear that UBS Luxembourg was not expected to be responsible for the safekeeping of the assets .

    Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2009

    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/59be49fc-650c-11de-a13f-00144feabdc0.html

    ***

    Radical shift in the banking power base

    By Patrick Jenkins and Jane Croft

    Published: June 30 2009 18:50 | Last updated: June 30 2009 18:50

    It is barely nine months since the collapse of Lehman Brothers ushered in one of the worst financial crises since the Great Depression. But for the strongest banks, the second quarter of 2009, which closed on Tuesday, has confirmed the upbeat trends of the first quarter.

    While banks such as Citigroup, Merrill Lynch, Royal Bank of Scotland and UBS continue to find life difficult, thriving rivals – JPMorgan, Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Barclays, Deutsche Bank and Credit Suisse – .

    EDITOR’S CHOICE
    Martin Wolf: The cautious approach to fixing banks will not work – Jun-30
    UK braced for call to shrink Lloyds – May-21
    Alarm at EU’s hedge fund rule plans – Jun-15

    They have benefitted from lively markets for commodity and foreign exchange trading, at profit margins that are between two and eight times higher than before the height of the financial crisis last autumn. At the same time, companies have been rushing to issue new debt and equity.

    More fundamentally and sustainably there have been clear shifts in market share between the banks – in everything from UK mortgages to US Treasury bill issuance – as aggressive groups have taken advantage of opportunities left by weakened rivals.

    BanksOne investment banker says: “There used to be 15 banks competing. Now there are six. This is a phenomenal environment. I’ve never seen anything like this in 20 years in the business.”

    Prime brokerage – the business of providing financing services to the world’s hedge funds – is not an obvious place to make money, given the troubles that the sector has suffered in recent months, as investors have lost large sums and demanded back much of what was left. But for the banks providing the financing, the market still promises to be lucrative.

    The likes of Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank and JPMorgan, and to an extent Barclays and BNP Paribas, have been challenging the traditional dominance of Goldman and Morgan Stanley, which once held an estimated 80 per cent of the market between them.

    Market participants estimate that the big two now have barely half the market, with Credit Suisse and Deutsche on about 15 per cent apiece. The change was driven from both sides – hedge funds wanted to rely less on a single counterparty for their financial affairs, while Goldman and Morgan Stanley have been shrinking their balance sheets.

    Even with hedge fund assets at an estimated 50 per cent of previous levels, the most successful banks reckon they are on track to make just as much money this year as in a boom year, though with lower ratios of lending to collateral and higher prices.

    “We’re putting less balance sheet at risk,” says one senior banker. “But we are making the same bottom line.”

    The trade credit market has similarly been “dislocated”, as bankers like to say, by the financial crisis. While much of the market used to be in the hands of Fortis, Citi and RBS, the combination of near-collapse (for the former) and balance sheet shrinkage (for the other two), has left a larger share of the market for a handful of others, such as HSBC, Deutsche Bank, BNP and Standard Chartered.

    For them, the market – though shrunken by the turmoil in trade flows over the past year – has been lucrative, reflecting a less competitive market and higher perceived risk. Stuart Nivison, HSBC’s head of trade in Europe, says: “Pricing typically doubled towards the end of last year,”.

    Probably the most visible, though still hard to measure, change in market share has been in mortgages, and nowhere more so than in the UK where a large swath of traditional lenders simply does not have the funding to maintain mortgage lending.

    In a market set to grant net new lending of close to zero this year, it is the big groups – with the deposit base to fund their mortgages – that are dominant, regardless of past troubles.

    RBS’s mortgage lending rose 9 per cent year-on-year in the three months to March to £76.1bn, as it strove to meet a government commitment to make £9bn of extra mortgage finance available – a quid pro quo for its state bail-out. Santander lent about £800m for new mortgages in the first quarter.

    RBS, Santander and Barclays recorded net new lending. Ray Boulger, at Charcol mortgage advisers, says the UK market is dominated by RBS, Santander and Barclays, plus to a lesser extent Nationwide, Lloyds and HSBC – a far cry from a couple of years ago when there were 165 mortgage providers and tens of thousands of mortgage deals.

    There have been other shifts – in private banking, for example, where UBS’s problems have unsettled some clients and sent them towards small-scale Swiss competitors.

    But for the most part, the new world order is simply a matter of one set of big banks giving way to another set of big banks, with the benefit of higher prices.

    Kian Abouhossein, analyst at JPMorgan, says the message is simple. ”What clients want today is better, larger counterparties.”

    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/b77dbe58-6596-11de-8e34-00144feabdc0.html
    676ba9ee-659f-11de-8e34-00144feabdc0.jpg
    Global Investment Banking Graphic – showing comparative pie charts plus table

    ***

    Russian MFA on Upcoming Geneva Talks
    Civil Georgia, Tbilisi / 29 Jun.’09 / 19:34

    The Russian Foreign Ministry said that “reevaluation” of format of Geneva talks would be required amid “emerging new situation” in the Caucasus.

    In a statement released on Monday, ahead of the sixth round of Geneva talks planned for July 1, the Russian Foreign Ministry said that the upcoming meeting would be held against the background of “difficult conditions” amid closing OSCE and UN observer missions in Georgia.

    “Despite Russia’s constructive and transparent position in favor of maintaining the field missions of OSCE and UN in South Caucasus, the western partners and Georgia are doing their best to close down the activities of international observers in this volatile region,” it said. “Meanwhile, the situation on the borders is still tense; the Georgian forces and police continue maneuvering near the borders of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.”

    “It is obvious, that emerging new situation in Trans-Caucasus requires serious reevaluation, including in respect of format and prospects of the Geneva discussions,” the Russian Foreign Ministry said.

    “In the face of persisting internal political instability in Georgia and further deteriorating social-economic situation of its [Georgian] population is fraught with risk of new surge of tensions.”

    It also reiterated Moscow’s long-standing insistence on the need of signing non-use of force agreements between Tbilisi and Sokhumi, as well as between Tbilisi and Tskhinvali.

    “In the current condition, the need for legally binding documents on non-use for force gain even more importance… The international community should have firm guarantees that the terrible tragedy of last August will not reoccur in Trans-Caucasus,” the Russian Foreign Ministry said.
    Related
    Fifth Round of Talks End in Geneva
    Russian Deputy FM Meets Abkhaz, S.Ossetian Officials
    Co-Mediators of Geneva Discussions Hold Talks in Tbilisi

    http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=21177

    Latest News
    30 Jun. ’09 | 18:25
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    29 Jun. ’09 | 23:49
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    29 Jun. ’09 | 15:57
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    27 Jun. ’09 | 13:07
    Interior Minister Visits U.S.

    ***

    Third round of Russia-U.S. nuclear talks opens in Geneva
    More on this topic
    Third round of Russia-U.S. nuclear talks opens in Geneva

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    16:1522/06/2009
    Multimedia

    * Infographics:

    World’s nuclear states map
    *

    12 Russian targets for U.S. nuclear missiles

    MOSCOW, June 22 (RIA Novosti) – The third round of comprehensive Russia-U.S. talks on a new strategic arms reduction pact opened on Monday in Geneva, a Russian diplomat told RIA Novosti.

    The first two rounds of Russia-U.S. arms reduction talks were held on May 19-20 in Moscow and on June 1-3 in Geneva. The U.S. team of negotiators is led by Assistant Secretary of State Rose Gottemoeller, while the Russian delegation is headed by Anatoly Antonov, director of the Foreign Ministry’s Department of Security and Disarmament.

    The talks are being held behind closed doors at the U.S. mission [in Geneva],  the source said, adding that they will continue until June 24.

    The Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START 1), which expires in December 2009, obliges Russia and the United States to reduce nuclear warheads to 6,000 and their delivery vehicles to 1,600 each. In 2002, a follow-up agreement on strategic offensive arms reduction was concluded in Moscow. The agreement, known as the Moscow Treaty, envisioned cuts to 1,700-2,200 warheads by December 2012.

    Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama agreed during their London meeting in early April that the talks would commence virtually immediately.
    According to a report published by the U.S. State Department in April, as of January 1 Russia had 3,909 nuclear warheads and 814 delivery vehicles, including ground-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) and strategic bombers.

    The same report said the United States had 5,576 warheads and 1,198 delivery vehicles.

    Russia, which proposed a new arms reduction agreement with the U.S. in 2005, expects Washington to agree on a deal that would restrict not only the numbers of nuclear warheads, but also place limits on all existing kinds of delivery vehicles.

    Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said on June 20 he hopes the U.S. has a good understanding of Russia’s position, voiced by President Medvedev, that any arms cuts should also involve a resolution on the controversial issue of a planned U.S. missile defense shield due to be deployed in Central Europe.

    Only 8 Russian Strategic Submarines Are …

    3 Million Vote Discrepancy Found In Iran

    Russia Responds to the Joint Strike Fighter …

    China ‘Kill Weapon’ Aimed at US Aircraft …

    http://en.rian.ru/world/20090622/155318110.html

    ***

    155398065.jpg

    The Kiel Week (Kieler Woche) is an annual sailing event taking place at the port of Kiel, northern Germany. Since 1882, the year of the first race t, the event has grown into a truly grand sailing festival.

    http://en.rian.ru/photolents/20090701/155398138.html

    155398089.jpg
    Russian tall ship Mir leading the traditional Tall Ships Parade at the Kiel Week event.

    155398060.jpg
    Dutch sailing ship Aphrodite.

    (and others . . . very nifty)

    http://en.rian.ru/photolents/20090701/155398138_12.html

    ***

    Opinion Poll: Medvedev and Putin Enjoy Wide Popularity in Ukraine

    June 22, 2009
    Would the Real Ukraine Please Stand Up?
    By Graham Stack
    Special to Russia Profile

    * Flying First Class, By Sergei Balashov
    * Jackson the Exception, By Andrei Zolotov, Jr.
    * Second Class Citizens, By Albina Kovalyova

    Other stories:

    Freezing and Thawing
    A Legacy to Preserve
    Navigating the Minefield
    Talking Green
    Russia’s Diplomatic Riddle
    A Pass-Fail Examination
    Fired For Skepticism
    A Problem with the Udder
    The Recourse of Authoritarianism
    Here Comes the Man in Beige

    The Ukrainian People May Want a Union State with Russia, but Few Russians Wish to Join the Ukraine

    A Ukrainian public opinion study recently published by the Kiev-based Research and Branding polling institute found that top Russian politicians, including Dmitry Medvedev and Vladimir Putin, enjoy sky-high public approval ratings—much more impressive than those of their Ukrainian counterparts. Moreover, the number of Ukrainians who want a union state with Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan is greater than the number of those rooting to join the European Union.

    KIEV/ Opinion polls show that Ukraine is a Russian-leaning country, very different from the one described by Western media and the Ukrainian foreign policy elite. “If we were to fantasize, and pretend that [the Russian Prime Minister] Vladimir Putin would run for the post of Ukrainian president, then according to opinion poll results he would win right off,” sais Alexei Lyashenko, an analyst at Kiev’s Research & Branding (R&B) polling institute. “His only serious competitor would be [Russian President] Dmitry Medvedev.”

    The R&B poll published on May 25 shows that for all the rhetoric about the Westward-bound Ukraine breaking free of Russia’s malignant influence and Putin’s imperialism, the reality on the ground is very different. “In fact, Vladimir Putin’s high rating in Ukraine is nothing new, but quite steady,” Lyashenko added. “It was over 50 percent even during the ‘Orange Revolution’.”

    Opinion poll results published in May indicate that 58 percent of Ukrainians have a positive attitude toward Vladimir Putin, and 56 percent approve of the current Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. Twenty-one percent take a neutral stance, and 16 percent think of them negatively—25 percent disapprove of Putin and 14 percent of Medvedev.
    R&B’s survey also found that 35 percent of Ukrainians would like to see Ukraine united with Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, compared to 22 percent who wish to join the EU and ten percent who wanted to restore the Soviet Union. These results were confirmed by a poll published on June 17 by the Kiev International Institute of Sociology (KIIS). According to KIIS President Valery Khmelko, 23 percent of Ukrainians desire full unification with Russia – compared to only 12 percent of Russians wanting the same.

    Inarguably under the influence of the 2008 and 2009 political and economic crisis wracking Ukraine, the number of Ukrainians rooting for “reunification” has risen over the last year, from 20 percent to 23 percent, and the number of Russians in favor has fallen from 19 percent to 12 percent. “These findings also indicate that the ‘prevailing willingness of the Russians to append Ukraine to their country, forming one state’ is an erroneous idea, as the overwhelming majority of Russians do not want such a union,” said Khmelko.

    While only a quarter of Ukrainian respondents want full unification with Russia, 68 percent want an EU-style border-free regime with Russia, with Russia and Ukraine being “independent but friendly states” without a visa regime or custom controls. Only 7.8 percent of respondents were in favor of Ukraine’s relations with Russia becoming the same as its relations with other countries, i.e. with border controls, customs and visas.

    In fact, this contrasts even with the prevailing sentiment in Russia, where respondents are far more cautious about union with Ukraine. Perhaps due to the Ukrainian leadership’s antagonistic policies toward Russia, emphasized by the Russian state-controlled media, only 50 percent of Russian respondents want to see a border-free regime between the two countries. Twenty-nine percent want relations with Ukraine to be the same as with all other countries. “Ukrainians’ attitude toward Russia is much better than the Russians’ attitude toward the Ukraine. Over 90 percent of people in Ukraine have a positive attitude toward Russia – and it has become even better over the past year,” Khmelko noted.

    According to Lyashenko, the Ukrainian affection for Putin and Medvedev is most concentrated in Eastern Ukraine, where 75 percent think of them positively. However, even in the Western Ukrainian districts where Russian is hardly ever spoken, around 25 percent of respondents described their attitude toward the Russian leaders as favorable.

    Surprisingly, the polls found that in contrast to geographical factors, age does not influence the Ukrainians’ attitude toward Russia and its leaders. “The Ukrainian preference for Russian state-controlled television and the desire for strong leadership in the times of crisis also play a role,” said Lyashenko. “But the main reason why Medvedev and Putin score so high is the endless conflicts and score-settling in Ukrainian politics, which make the Russian politicians look good,” he said.

    None of the current Ukrainian leaders can compete with Putin and Medvedev in terms of popularity. The pro-Russian head of the opposition Party of Regions Viktor Yanukovych currently enjoys a 25 percent approval rating, Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko—14 percent, and the new face, Arsenyi Yatsenyuk, 13 percent. Only two percent of Ukrainians would vote for President Viktor Yushchenko, the most anti-Russian top Ukrainian official, in the upcoming elections in January of 2010.

    Nor do Ukrainians have much sympathy for the Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili, whom Yushchenko vocally supported during the country’s conflict with Russia over South Ossetia in August of 2008. According to Lyashenko, 45 percent have a negative opinion of Saakashvili, and only 11 percent have a positive one.

    Back in March, the Polish daily Rzeczpospolita published an opinion poll claiming that 56 percent of Polish respondents fear Vladimir Putin, and 58 percent believe that Russia’s foreign policy endangers Poland’s national security—this despite the fact that Poland has no border with Russia other than in Kaliningrad, and, unlike the Ukraine, is a member of both NATO and the EU.

    http://www.russiaprofile.org/page.php?pageid=Politics&articleid=a1245680109

    from – The Moscow Times
    RIA Novosti

    Russia Profile.org
    “The Soviet System Strikes Back”

    226.jpg
    Putin and Medvedev photo

    ***

    MI6 scours the City for Bonds

    By James Blitz

    Published: May 27 2009 21:44 | Last updated: May 27 2009 21:44

    james bond

    One morning in 1983, in my final year at university, I received a postcard from a professor of medieval history. “Would you like to meet up,” he asked, “so we can discuss an interesting career opportunity?”

    This took me somewhat by surprise. I had never met this professor and I wasn’t studying medieval history. But these were the early 1980s, when unemployment was rife and every job opportunity had to be grasped with both hands.

    Over lunch at a Chinese restaurant, he popped the question: “Would you like to apply for a job with MI6?”
    “Of course,” I spluttered over the dim sum and rice wine. So the wheels were set in motion. I travelled to London, signed the Official Secrets Act and answered lots of questions about things such as my family history. But something about me told them I was not their type.

    Working overseas, they get to know locals who have access to people of influence or to information that could be of interest to Her Majesty’s Government. The art is to get your contacts to tell you things that they shouldn’t really be telling you

    ‘John’ –MI6 recruitment head

    Nearly 30 years later, MI6’s recruitment methods have changed. Today its hiring system is more open and democratic. The Secret Intelligence Service – as MI6 is formally known – has an informative website where anyone can file an application to join. And the service recently launched an advertising campaign to encourage people to apply. Such openness has a purpose: MI6 wants to attract as many candidates as possible because, from the many who apply, only a very few have the qualities to make the cut.

    To get a better sense of how MI6 hires its staff – and what life is like in the service – I meet its head of recruitment. In a large room inside the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the department that sets MI6 its tasks, I am introduced to a tall, affable man, in (I guess) his late 40s.

    “My name is John,” he says.

    “Is that your real name?” I ask.

    “No,” he answers in a deadpan voice. “It’s just a name I use.”

    Over the course of the next hour, I discover next to nothing about him. He has spent much of his career on operations in the Middle East. He has been MI6’s recruiting chief for a year. That is it.

    SIS, as everyone knows, gathers intelligence for Britain overseas. Like MI5, which runs intelligence operations inside the UK, it has grown considerably following the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 on New York and Washington and the July 7 2005 bombings in London. John will not give any details on the size of the organisation, which is based in Vauxhall, south London, but says: “We are on course to meet the growth targets that the government has set for us over the next few years”.

    What kind of jobs do its top professionals do? The focus is the work done by “operational officers”, in particular the “case officers” who plan and carry out covert intelligence operations overseas. Their main task is to recruit and manage agents and information sources worldwide. For about a third of their careers, they will do this on an overseas posting.

    “Working overseas,” says John, “they get to know locals who have access to people of influence or to information that could be of interest to Her Majesty’s government. The art is to get your contacts to tell you things that they shouldn’t really be telling you.”
    What kind of person makes the ideal applicant? John reels off qualities that might be sought by any big employer – “good intellectual ability, people in the top 40 per cent of their year group at university, people who are politically aware, with a strong interest in international affairs”. Entrants tend to be “good communicators, able to build relations with people”.

    This last point, one suspects, is crucial. Persuading individuals living in police states to hand over classified information demands considerable powers of persuasion.

    One rumour doing the rounds is that MI6 is keen to recruit people who might have lost their jobs in the City. John says he is certainly keen to recruit from the Square Mile. “We’ve had quite a number of entrants coming out of City jobs and they have been top quality,” he says. “They’ve got very strong skills, often honed by working in financial services.”

    But, he insists, they must be sure they can cope with the cut in salary that may come with a move to the public sector. “We spend a lot of time ensuring that entrants don’t come to us with huge personal financial commitments,” he says. “If they do, it can pose a serious risk to security.”

    I fire off a string of questions any university undergraduate would ask. Out in the field, is it dangerous? “You may well be sent to parts of the world where the situation is unstable and there is an immediate threat to you,” he replies. “But we’re determined to protect the wellbeing of officers. It’s all about mitigating risk.”

    Can you do this kind of thing and have a family life? “Yes. Many operational officers working overseas take their family with them on postings.”

    But can you tell your spouse, your parents, what you are doing? “We recommend that people tell the minimum number of relatives and friends what their job is. There’s no bar on this. I know one member of the service who tells his six-year-old what he does. But people in SIS need to think carefully, because it can put relatives under pressure. Best to say you’re a civil servant.”

    And if you decide after a few years that you do not like it, that you want to leave, can you do so? “You certainly can. But our retention rate is very high. Some 97.5 per cent of the people who join us stay on throughout their career.”

    I take my leave of John, knowing little more about him on departure than I did on arrival. But I pause at the door. “One last thing. The whole James Bond thing – does it get on your nerves?”

    He smiles. “We’re not about vodka martinis and Aston Martin DB5s. We do a serious job and we have to keep careful records. But yes, there is certainly an element of excitement.”

    Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2009

    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/b7b96b64-4aad-11de-87c2-00144feabdc0.html

    ***
    http://www.sis.gov.uk/output/sis-home-welcome.html

    MI6 – S/IS

    http://www.mi6.gov.uk/output/careers-1.html
    careers

    * SIS Home Welcome
    * > Careers

    * Introduction
    * Virtual Tour
    * Operational Officers
    * Administrators
    * Technology
    * Corporate Services
    * Language Specialists
    * Apply
    * Trades and Services
    * Graduates

    CAREERS IN SIS

    In SIS we can offer people from a very wide range of backgrounds the chance to develop an absorbing career in the global intelligence arena. Explore the site, and discover how you could use your skills to help protect the security of your country.
    Virtual TourVirtual Tour

    Let us show you around
    AdministratorsApply

    Please click here to apply for any of our vacancies
    Operational OfficersOperational Officers

    Click here to try our interactive scenario
    AdministratorsAdministrators

    Try our ‘Virtual Administrator’

    http://www.mi6.gov.uk/output/careers-1.html

    ***

    NATIONALITY AND SECURITY CLEARANCE

    For any role in SIS, you must meet the following criteria:

    You must be a British Citizen

    In addition, at least one of your parents must be a British citizen or have substantial ties with the UK (if deceased, the parent must have had British citizenship/substantial ties with the UK). You will also need to meet our residency rule. Normally this means that you will need to have lived in the UK for the last ten years, but you may still be eligible even if you have not been here all that time.

    British dual nationals may apply but must be prepared to renounce their other nationality, if required, before joining SIS.

    If you are interested in applying, but are not sure whether you meet our nationality and residency criteria, we suggest that you apply anyway. We will let you know whether we can take your application forward.

    You will have to pass a medical and drugs test

    We will give you an in-depth medical, and you’ll be tested for drugs. If you have used Class A drugs within the last 12 months, and Class B/C drugs in the last six months, your application will not be taken forward.

    You will need to be Security Cleared

    The nature of our work is such that our people have access to a wide amount of sensitive information. Should this information get into the wrong hands, then national security would be put at risk. Consequently, we owe it to both our staff and the public at large to insist on the most stringent Security Clearance procedures. You’ll undergo a process of Developed Vetting, which will include an in-depth look into your life – including your finances. It’s essential not to conceal or lie about any of the vetting criteria, or your application will not be taken forward. The process can take up to three months – but if you have nothing to conceal, you have nothing to be afraid of.

    PLEASE BE AWARE THAT IN ORDER TO OBTAIN DEVELOPED VETTING SECURITY CLEARANCE, YOU MUST BE OVER THE AGE OF 21 AT THE TIME OF ENTRY.

    We are unable to accept your application if you:

    Have used Class A drugs (for example, Ecstasy, Cocaine etc) in the last 12 months.

    Have used Class B/C drugs (for example, Amphetamines, Cannabis etc) in the last 6 months.

    Are currently being treated for an addiction (for example to alcohol or gambling) or have received such treatment in the last 12 months.

    Have ever suffered from manic depression or schizophrenia.

    Are currently bankrupt or the subject of an Individual Voluntary Agreement (IVA).

    http://www.mi6.gov.uk/output/nationality-and-security-clearance.html

    ***

    DIVERSITY

    Our priority is to attract, select and retain the most talented individuals who are motivated to do a great job for SIS. Our people represent a diverse range of skills and abilities in a broad spectrum of roles in different teams in a global context.

    We strive to create an environment where everyone’s talents are nurtured by offering, irrespective of background or skills, the opportunity for continuous development and progression based on merit. In adopting this approach, we work hard to ensure we recognise the different needs, motivations and ambitions of the people who make up our teams and look to ensure everyone feels recognised and rewarded for the work they deliver.

    http://www.mi6.gov.uk/output/diversity.html

    ***

    WHO WE’RE LOOKING FOR

    We need people with a host of different skills, backgrounds and experience to work both in the UK and overseas. However, there are some qualities that all our people share; complete integrity, team spirit and a ‘can-do’ attitude. Each and every one of them is also committed to helping protect the UK from threats ranging from terrorism to regional instability.

    The roles for which we regularly recruit fall into the following areas:

    Administrators – Assisting with the essential daily running of the organisation, through a broad range of administrative tasks.

    Technology – Ensuring we have outstanding – and secure – IT systems to communicate internationally.

    Operational Officers – Collecting, analysing and reporting global secret intelligence.

    Corporate Services – Working in a range of departments, leading projects on anything from event organisation to the management of intelligence records.

    Language Specialists – Translating intelligence from around the world.

    Trades and Services – Maintaining our properties and our security.

    http://www.mi6.gov.uk/output/who-were-looking-for.html

    ***

    SIS OR MI6.  WHAT’S IN A NAME?

    The origins of the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) are to be found in the Foreign Section of the Secret Service Bureau, established by the Committee of Imperial Defence in October 1909. The Secret Service Bureau was soon abbreviated to ‘Secret Service’, ‘SS Bureau’ or even ‘SS’. The first head of the Foreign Section, Captain Sir Mansfield Cumming RN, signed himself ‘MC’ or ‘C’ in green ink. Thus began the long tradition of the head of the Service adopting the initial ‘C’ as his symbol.

    Cumming sought to ensure that the Foreign Section of the Secret Service Bureau maintained a degree of autonomy but the War Office, in particular, managed to exercise extensive control over his actions. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 brought a need for even closer cooperation with military intelligence organisations within the War Office. The most significant manifestation of this was the virtual integration of the Foreign Section within the Military Intelligence Directorate. Thus, for much of the war, Cumming’s organisation was known as MI1(c). This arrangement did not sit well with Cumming who regretted this diminution of his independence. As a naval officer he was less than pleased at appearing under the auspices of the War Office.

    The debate over the future structure of British Intelligence continued at length after the end of hostilities but Cumming managed to engineer the return of the Service to Foreign Office control. At this time the organisation was known in Whitehall by a variety of titles including the ‘Foreign Intelligence Service’, the ‘Secret Service’, ‘MI1(c)’, the ‘Special Intelligence Service’ and even ‘C’s organisation’. Around 1920, it began increasingly to be referred to as the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), a title that it has continued to use to the present day and which was enshrined in statute in the Intelligence Services Act 1994.

    ‘MI6′ has become an almost interchangeable title for SIS, at least in the minds of those outside the Service. The origins of the use of this other title are to be found in the late 1930s when it was adopted as a flag of convenience for SIS. It was used extensively during the Second World War, especially if an organisational link needed to be made with MI5 (the Security Service). Although ‘MI6′ fell into official disuse years ago, many writers and journalists continue to use it to describe SIS.

    http://www.mi6.gov.uk/output/sis-or-mi6-what-s-in-a-name.html

    ***

    For MI5 ‘What’s in a Name?’ click here.

    The Security Service (MI5) is responsible for protecting the United Kingdom against threats to national security. This website provides information about the Security Service, the threats it counters, links to sources of security advice and details of careers with the Service.

    http://www.mi5.gov.uk/

    ***

    Review of 7/7 intelligence published

    * Home
    > News & Updates
    *

    Parliament’s Intelligence and Security Committee (ISC) has published a review of intelligence concerning the London terrorist attacks of 7 July 2005. The review was carried out as part of a lengthy and detailed investigation by the ISC to determine whether the attacks could have been prevented in the light of what was known at the time and what should have been known. Drawing on sensitive intelligence gathered by the Security Service, the police and other UK agencies, the ISC concludes:  we cannot criticise the judgements made by MI5 and the police based on the information that they had and their priorities at the time.

    Two of the 7/7 attackers appeared on the fringes of another terrorist plot, Operation CREVICE, that the Security Service was investigating in 2004, but were not identified or investigated in detail by the Service or the police as they appeared to be petty fraudsters, not involved in attack planning. The ISC has found that, prior to the attacks, there was no reason to believe that the two – Mohammed Siddique Khan and Shehzad Tanweer – were involved in a plot to carry out terrorist attacks. Immediately following the CREVICE arrests, further work was undertaken on leads emerging from the CREVICE investigation. However, shortly after this, all of the Service’s resources had to be fully committed to other threat to life investigations.

    The ISC reports that, since the attacks, the UK’s intelligence agencies and the police have implemented certain changes in the way that they operate. The Government has also increased the resources directed towards national security work. While it is impossible to guarantee that there will be no repeat of the 7/7 attacks, the ISC concludes that the chances of detecting a similar plot have been improved.
    The ISC has also tackled a number of allegations about the handling of 7/7-related intelligence material. It has found that there is no evidence to support claims of overlooked clues and ignored warnings.

    * Could 7/7 Have Been Prevented? Review of the Intelligence on the London Terrorist Attacks on 7 July 2005
    (Intelligence and Security Committee, 12 May 2009. Adobe PDF, 1.4 Mb)

    * The 7 July 2005 bombings and the Security Service
    A summary of MI5’s role in the investigations prior to the 7/7 bombings.

    * The 7/7 bombings: rumours and reality
    Answers to various allegations, rumours and claims about the 7/7 bombings.

    19 May 2009

    http://www.mi5.gov.uk/output/news/review-of-7-7-intelligence-published.html

    ***

    How you can help

    * Home
    > How you can help
    *

    IMPORTANT

    If your information relates to an imminent threat to life or property, please contact the police on 999 or the police Anti-terrorist Hotline on 0800 789 321

    We are responsible for protecting against threats to national security, such as terrorism. If you know something about a threat to national security, we want to hear from you.

    Do you have information which you think could be of value to our work? Could it make a difference to keeping the community safe? If so, please let us know. It would help if you explained how you came by the information. We shall treat your information and any personal details you submit in confidence – please refer to our Privacy Policy.
    Internet

    Your message will be sent over a secure Internet connection*. You can choose to remain anonymous, but you may wish to include contact details so that we can get back to you if necessary.

    Continue to the contact form.

    * Your message will be sent via a Secure Socket Layer (SSL), a protocol used for secure communications over the Internet. Web addresses that begin with  https  indicate that an SSL connection will be used.
    Written Correspondence

    You can write to the following address:

    The Enquiries Desk
    PO Box 3255
    London SW1P 1AE
    By Phone

    You can tell us your information by calling our phone line on 020 7930 9000 (Please do not use the phone line for making general or recruitment enquiries – the Contact Us page tells you where to direct these).

    https://www.mi5.gov.uk/output/how-you-can-help.html

    ***

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    About Us
    The UK Intelligence Agencies

    GCHQ is one of the three UK Intelligence Agencies and a part of the UK’s National Intelligence Machinery. GCHQ works in partnership with the Security Service (also known as MI5) and the Secret Intelligence Service (also known as MI6) to protect the UK’s national security interests.

    The Agencies act within the law. All their operations are conducted within a framework of legislation that defines their roles and activities. In summary, their operations must relate to national security, the prevention or detection of serious crime, or the UK’s economic well-being.

    Much greater detail on the UK’s National Intelligence Machinery, the roles of the Agencies, legislation, accountability and funding can be found at http://www.intelligence.gov.uk. See also the MI5 and MI6 websites.
    About GCHQ

    GCHQ’s headquarters are in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. We have two much smaller sites in Cornwall and Yorkshire but most of the c5500 staff work at the impressive state of the art building at Benhall in Cheltenham. The building, often referred to locally as the Doughnut, is a dramatic landmark at the entrance to the spa town of Cheltenham.

    Aerial view of Benhall

    Aerial view of Benhall

    A second smaller site, occupied by some of our staff, is located in the Oakley area of Cheltenham.
    M Block Oakley

    Oakley

    Director GCHQ reports to the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. Our primary customers are the Ministry of Defence, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and law enforcement agencies but we also serve a wide range of other Government Departments.

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    Vacancies

    Have you thought about applying to join GCHQ?
    Click here to visit our recruitment portal.

    http://www.gchq.gov.uk/about_us/index.html

    m_block2.jpg
    Oakley
    A second smaller site, occupied by some of our staff, is located in the Oakley area of Cheltenham.

    ariel_view.jpg
    Aerial view of Benhall
    GCHQ’s headquarters are in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. We have two much smaller sites in Cornwall and Yorkshire but most of the c5500 staff work at the impressive state of the art building at Benhall in Cheltenham. The building, often referred to locally as the Doughnut, is a dramatic landmark at the entrance to the spa town of Cheltenham.

    http://www.gchq.gov.uk/about_us/index.html

    ***

    Selling to GCHQ

    GCHQ purchases a wide range of goods and services. Wherever possible these are procured from pre-existing GCHQ Framework Arrangements and other approved Framework Arrangements such as the Office of Government Commerce Catalist Framework. These Framework Arrangements meet a high proportion of GCHQ’s purchasing needs.

    Where GCHQ is to purchase goods and services by placing a new separate contract and where security considerations allow it is our intention to advertise such purchases on our procurement opportunities page.

    All suppliers invited to tender for advertised requirements will need to undergo stringent financial and capability checks and, in some instances if successful, be able to provide staff with appropriate security clearances and operate from secure premises.
    Sustainable Procurement

    In line with Government Policy GCHQ aspires to procure in a way that achieves value for money on a whole life basis in terms of generating benefits not only to the organisation, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimising damage to the environment.

    GCHQ’s Sustainable Procurement Principles are available here.
    Contacting GCHQ Procurement

    If you would like to send information about products or services which you think might be of interest to GCHQ please submit to: procurementanswers@gchq.gsi.gov.uk Note that individual responses will not be given. If a future match between your services and our requirements arises then we may contact you for further details.

    http://www.gchq.gov.uk/about_us/selling_to.html

    ***

    CESG
    What is CESG?
    What does CESG do?
    What is Information Assurance?
    What is CESG?

    CESG is the Information Assurance (IA) arm of GCHQ and is the Government’s National Technical Authority for IA responsible for enabling secure and trusted knowledge sharing, which helps its customers achieve their aims.

    Top of page
    What does CESG do?

    Capitalising on the UK’s SIGINT knowledge base, CESG helps to protect the nation’s security and safety, and deny foreign SIGINT success.

    CESG aims to protect and promote the vital interests of the UK by providing advice and assistance on the security of communications and electronic data. Its objective is to protect the communications and information of the government and other parts of the national information infrastructure, by developing technical means of countering assessed threats.

    Top of page
    What is Information Assurance?

    IA is about enabling the secure sharing and use of knowledge. It involves ensuring the:

    * Authentication
    * Accountability
    * Availability
    * Confidentiality
    * Integrity
    of information itself and the systems by which information is used, shared or stored.

    Top of page

    More information

    Find out more information about CESG:
    CESG website

    http://www.gchq.gov.uk/about_us/cesg.html

    ***

    http://www.cesg.gov.uk/
    The National Technical Authority for Information (Access)

    ***

    Think of any skill and the chances are we could be using it. At MI5 we are currently looking for…

    *
    o IT Staff
    o Language Unit
    o Mobile Surveillance Officers
    *
    o Computer and Network Specialists

    http://www.mi5.gov.uk/

    ***

    UK Organisations

    * Cabinet Office
    * Defence Intelligence Staff
    * Foreign and Commonwealth Office
    * Government Communications HQ
    * Home Office
    * Intelligence & Security Committee
    * Intelligence Services Commissioner
    * Investigatory Powers Tribunal
    * Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre
    * Ministry of Defence
    * No 10 Downing Street
    * National Archives
    * National Audit Office
    * Office of Public Sector Information
    * Security and Intelligence Co-ordinator
    * Security Service
    * UK Intelligence Community Online

    UK Legislation

    * Data Protection Act 1998
    * Environmental Information Regulations (EIR)
    * Freedom of Information Act 2000
    * Human Rights Act 1998
    * Intelligence Services Act 1994
    * Public Records Act 1958
    * Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA)

    http://www.mi6.gov.uk/output/links.html

    ***

    Energy | 29.06.2009
    EU brings Russia and Ukraine together for gas talks

    Two chairs and two pens await the representatives from Russia and Ukraine with the flags from each nation in the background
    Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: This is the second time Russia and Ukraine have come to the negotiating table over gas
    International lenders have met in Brussels in an attempt to come up with a rescue plan to help Ukraine to pay its upcoming gas bill, avoiding a gas cut off such as the one that left millions in the cold last winter.

    Representatives from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), European Investment Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are meeting in Brussels with the vice presidents of Russian gas giant Gazprom and Ukraine’s gas monopoly Naftogaz to discuss how to best come up with enough money for Ukraine to pay its upcoming gas bill.
    The talks, hosted by the European Commission, are taking place less than a week before Kiev will be expected to hand over three billion euros ($4.2 billion) to Russia for gas that it has started to store for the coming winter.

    A dispute over payment earlier this year led to Russia shutting off gas supplies to Ukraine, which affected not only citizens there, but also those living in parts of the European Union which depend on gas coming from pipelines running through Ukraine.

    A quarter of all the natural gas burned within the EU comes from Russia, with 80 percent of that flowing through Ukraine, mostly to the south-eastern corner of the continent.

    Transparency an issue

    A pipe waiting to take its place in the Baltic Pipeline between Russia and GermanyBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift:  Germany is betting on a pipeline across the Baltic Sea to save itself from these disputes in the future

    Weighed down by the global financial crisis, Kiev claims it won’t be able to come up with the money in time to buy the roughly 20 billion cubic meters of natural gas that it wants, and that has incited the EU to call on the international community to give Ukraine a short term loan.

    However, many organizations, including the IMF, aren’t convinced that Naftogaz is in a position to receive funding. Ceyla Pazarbasioglu, head of the IMF delegation, told the Reuters news agency that they were demanding that the state-owned gas giant undergo some serious reorganization, adding that the company needed to become more transparent and clean up its finances.

    The multibillion euro loan would be part of the IMF’s $16.4 billion program to help out nations hit hard by the economic crisis.

    mrm/dpa/Reuters/AFP

    Editor: Michael Lawton

    http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4441700,00.html

    ***

    DW-WORLD.DE

    *

    DW-WORLD: Germany’s Fischer to promote EU gas pipeline

    According to a report, former German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer has signed a six-digit contract to promote the planned European Nabucco gas pipeline project. (26.06.2009)
    *

    DW-WORLD: Steinmeier calls on Ukraine to avoid another gas crisis

    German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier has warned of new complications in the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict, which could result in further reductions in energy supplies to Europe. (17.06.2009)
    *

    DW-WORLD: Germany Confirms Resumption of Russian Gas Supplies

    After an almost three-week dispute between Russia and Ukraine over gas supplies came to an end at the weekend, Germany announced on Wednesday that the country was once again receiving Russian gas. (21.01.2009)

    Feedback

    *

    Feedback: Should Ukraine receive the loan? Send us an e-mail. Please include your name and country in your reply.

    http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4441700,00.html
    Deutsche Welle – Your Link to Germany – News Portal

    ***

    Annulation de la visite d’Ahmadinejad au sommet de l’UA (présidence iranienne)
    01.07.09 | 07h28

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    La visite que le président iranien Mahmoud Ahmadinejad devait effectuer à partir de mercredi en Libye pour participer au sommet de l’Union africaine (UA) a été annulée, a déclaré une source à la présidence iranienne.

    La visite a été annulée , a déclaré cette source à l’AFP sans préciser la raison de l’annulation.

    Le président Ahmadinejad devait prononcer un discours devant les chefs d’Etats africains au cours de cette visite prévue pour deux jours.

    L’hote du sommet, le dirigeant libyen Mouammar Kadhafi, avait invité à la dernière minute M. Ahmadinejad dont la récente réélection a été contestée dans son pays, comme par les Occidentaux.

    http://www.lemonde.fr/web/depeches/0,14-0,39-39740571@7-37,0.html

    ***

    Plan de départ prolongé jusqu’en 2010 chez PSA Peugeot Citroën
    LE MONDE | 01.07.09 | 09h07

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    Compte tenu du contexte de crise économique, PSA Peugeot Citroën va prolonger son  plan de redéploiement des emplois et des compétences  (PREC), lancé en décembre 2008.

    A l’origine, ce plan prévoyait 3 550 départs de personnels dits de structure, c’est-à-dire hors ouvriers de production : 2 700 pour le groupe et 850 sur la seule usine de Rennes. Il devait être clos le 30 juin 2009.
    Avec 60 fils de dépêches thématiques, suivez l’information en continu
    Abonnez-vous au Monde.fr : 6  par mois + 30 jours offerts
    Sur le même sujet
    Le constructeur automobile lance une émission obligataire de 500 millions d’euros.
    Cadrage PSA s’attend à une perte opérationnelle de 1 à 2 milliards d’euros en 2009
    Ancien patron de Corus, Philippe Varin succède à Christian Streiff à la tête de PSA.
    Les faits Philippe Varin bouscule l’état-major de PSA
    Infographie Les effectifs industriels de Renault dans le monde
    Infographie Secteur automobile : d’importantes pertes d’emplois
    Edition abonnés Thématique : L’automobile, une industrie à réinventer

    La direction du constructeur automobile estime qu’il lui  manque environ 600 départs sur le groupe et 300 à Rennes . Le plan sera donc maintenu jusqu’au 31 mars 2010. Il sera fermé pour les cadres et les techniciens, mais ouvert aux ouvriers professionnels (maintenance par exemple), au personnel administratif et aux salariés du site de Rennes.

    Parallèlement, le constructeur affirme vouloir mettre un coup d’accélérateur en direction des jeunes. Le groupe veut en embaucher 7 300 en insertion professionnelle : 3 000 stages, 200 VIE, 2 100 contrats de professionnalisation et 2 000 contrats en alternance.
    Nathalie Brafman
    Article paru dans l’édition du 02.07.09.
    Abonnez-vous au Monde à 16 /mois

    http://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2009/07/01/plan-de-depart-prolonge-jusqu-en-2010-chez-psa-peugeot-citroen_1213753_3234.html

    ***

    PSA s’attend à une perte opérationnelle de 1 à 2 milliards d’euros en 2009
    LE MONDE | 23.06.09 | 14h47  •  Mis à jour le 23.06.09 | 14h47

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    Après le remaniement de son état major, Philippe Varin, le nouveau président de PSA Peugeot Citroën, a donné quelques précisions sur l’état de santé du groupe. Mardi 23 juin, il a annoncé qu’en 2009, le groupe perdrait entre 1 milliard et 2 milliards d’euros sur le plan opérationnel. Les analystes interrogés par l’agence Bloomberg tablaient sur une perte de 1,4 milliard d’euros.
    Dossiers : retrouvez l’analyse approfondie des grands sujets d’actualité
    Abonnez-vous au Monde.fr : 6  par mois + 30 jours offerts
    Sur le même sujet
    Ancien patron de Corus, Philippe Varin succède à Christian Streiff à la tête de PSA.
    Les faits Philippe Varin bouscule l’état-major de PSA
    Infographie Les effectifs industriels de Renault dans le monde
    Infographie Secteur automobile : d’importantes pertes d’emplois
    Edition abonnés Thématique : L’automobile, une industrie à réinventer

    Parallèlement, PSA a lancé une émission d’obligations convertibles d’un montant d’environ 500 millions d’euros (susceptibles d’être portée à 575 millions) à échéance le 1er janvier 2016. A l’issue de cet emprunt, le groupe familial, qui détient actuellement 30,30 % du capital, devrait être un peu dilué. Le constructeur s’est défendu de passer les comptes à la paille de fer comme c’est souvent le cas lorsqu’un nouveau patron est nommé. En février, lors de la présentation des résultats de 2008, Christian Streiff avait déjà averti que 2009 se solderait par une perte. Aucun chiffre n’avait été avancé.
    Les conditions d’activités restent médiocres , indique aujourd’hui le groupe. Au premier trimestre, PSA Peugeot Citroën a enregistré une baisse de son chiffre d’affaires de 25 % compte tenu du recul des volumes de vente.

    Certes pour l’ensemble de 2009, PSA est un peu moins pessimiste qu’il y a quelques mois sur ses perspectives de vente en Europe. La baisse devrait être  seulement  de 12 % – le groupe tablait précédemment sur une chute de 20 %. Cette nouvelle estimation s’explique par le succès des nombreux plans gouvernementaux de soutien à l’achat de voitures neuves, notamment en Allemagne et en France.

    POURSUIVRE L’INVESTISSEMENT

    Revers de la médaille, ces plans favorisent essentiellement les petits véhicules (segment B) dont les marges sont moins importantes. L’entreprise s’inquiète aussi d’un éventuel arrêt des différentes primes à la casse en 2010.  Si elles n’étaient pas reconduites, nous serions obligés de revoir la production du quatrième trimestre à la baisse , précise-t-il.

    Concernant l’émission d’obligations convertibles, le groupe se défend d’avoir besoin de liquidités pour finir l’année.  Nos besoins pour 2009 sont couverts par le prêt de l’Etat de 3 milliards d’euros et par celui de la Banque européenne d’investissement de 400 millions. Et nous n’avons pas de remboursements prévus ni en 2009 ni en 2010, souligne-t-on en interne. Mais nous anticipons des besoins futurs.  Ces fonds lui permettront de poursuivre  ses investissements et dépenses en vue du développement de nouveaux produits stratégiques  : nouveau modèle, nouveau moteur… Mais compte tenu de l’état du marché, un nouvel emprunt obligataire est déjà envisagé.
    Nathalie Brafman
    Article paru dans l’édition du 24.06.09.
    Abonnez-vous au Monde à 16 /mois

    http://www.lemonde.fr/la-crise-financiere/article/2009/06/23/psa-s-attend-a-une-perte-operationnelle-de-1-a-2-milliards-d-euros-en-2009_1210303_1101386.html#ens_id=1100912

    ***

    Al-Qaida menace de se venger après les propos de Sarkozy sur la burqa
    LEMONDE.FR avec AFP | 30.06.09 | 17h17  •  Mis à jour le 01.07.09 | 09h21

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    La branche d’Al-Qaida au Maghreb a menacé de se venger de la France, après les propos de Nicolas Sarkozy sur la burqa, a rapporté, mardi 30 juin, le centre américain SITE, citant des forums djihadistes sur Internet.

    Hier c’était le hijab et aujourd’hui, c’est le niqab, a affirmé le chef d’Al-Qaida au Maghreb islamique (AQMI, ex-Groupe salafiste pour la prédication et le combat), Abou Moussab Abdoul Wadoud. Nous nous vengerons de la France et de ses intérêts par tous les moyens à notre disposition, pour l’honneur de nos filles et de nos sœurs.   Nous, les moujahidines ne resterons pas silencieux face à de telles provocations et injustices. Nous appelons tous les musulmans à faire face à cette hostilité par une plus grande hostilité et à lutter contre les tentatives de la France pour détourner les fidèles hommes et femmes de leur foi (…) en adhérant aux enseignements de la charia islamique , a-t-il ajouté, selon SITE.
    Retrouvez les archives du journal : tous les articles parus dans Le Monde depuis 1987
    Abonnez-vous au Monde.fr : 6  par mois + 30 jours offerts
    La France  ne se laissera pas intimider

    Le secrétaire général de l’UMP, Xavier Bertrand, a déclaré mardi à propos des menaces proférées sur Internet par la branche maghrébine d’Al-Qaida contre la France que la République française  ne se laissera jamais intimider .

    Nous avons des valeurs très fortes et parmi ces valeurs très fortes il y a la liberté des uns et des autres et la liberté des femmes , a dit M. Bertrand à quelques journalistes, en marge d’une réunion de la majorité. – (avec AFP)
    Sur le même sujet
    Les différents types de voiles
    Infographie Les différents types de voile musulman
    Profil En Belgique, Mahinur Özdemir a relancé le débat sur le voile islamique
    Compte rendu Burqa : des  femmes-relais  pour nouer le dialogue ?
    Son Port de la burqa : André Gerin salue l’attitude  positive et pondérée  de Nicolas Sarkozy
    Témoignages  En France, la liberté pour tous, sauf pour les musulmans
    Edition abonnés Archive : Mohammed Moussaoui :  Nous ne demanderons pas à la société française d’accepter la burqa

    Le président français avait affirmé  solennellement  devant le Parlement réuni en Congrès, le 22 juin, que la burqa n’était  pas la bienvenue  en France. Il a estimé que le voile intégral  n’est pas un signe religieux, c’est un signe d’asservissement, c’est un signe d’abaissement  de la femme. Une mission parlementaire a été chargée dans la foulée d’enquêter pendant six mois sur le port de la burqa ou niqab, qui couvre complètement la tête, le visage et le corps.

    La France est le seul pays d’Europe à avoir interdit par la loi, en 2004, le port du foulard islamique (qui recouvre la tête) à l’école, après un débat passionnel. Il s’était alors agi d’interdire  les signes religieux ostentatoires  dans les établissements scolaires.

    La mission d’information parlementaire sur la question du port du voile intégral, burqa et niqab, comprenant des députés de tous les groupes, sera officiellement lancée mercredi 1er juillet.

    http://www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2009/06/30/un-chef-d-al-qaida-menace-de-se-venger-des-propos-de-sarkozy-sur-la-burka_1213670_3224.html

    ***

    The Physiology of Perception

    By Walter J. Freeman

    The brain transforms sensory messages into conscious perceptions almost instantly Chaotic, collective activity involving millions of neurons seems essential for such rapid recognition.
    From: February 1991 Scientific American, Vol 264, (2) Pgs. 78-85.
    WALTER J. FREEMAN is professor of Neurobiology at the University of California, Berkeley. He received an M.D. from Yale University in 1954 and completed postdoctoral training in neurophysiology at the University of California, Los Angeles, in l959, the year he joined the Berkeley faculty. When a person glimpses the face of a famous actor, sniffs a favorite food or hears the voice of a friend, recognition is instant. Within a fraction of a second after the eyes, nose, ears, tongue or skin is stimulated, one knows the object is familiar and whether it is desirable or dangerous. How does such recognition, which psychologists call preattentive perception, happen so accurately and quickly, even when the stimuli are complex and the context in which they arise varies?

    Much is known about the way the cerebral cortex, the outer rind of the brain, initially analyzes sensory messages. Yet investigations are only now beginning to suggest how the brain moves beyond the mere extraction of features-how it combines sensory messages with past experience and with expectation to identify both the stimulus and its particular meaning to the individual.

    My own group’s studies, carried out over more than 30 years at the University of California at Berkeley, suggest that perception cannot be understood solely by examining properties of individual neurons, a microscopic approach that currently dominates neuroscience research. We have found that perception depends on the simultaneous, cooperative activity of millions of neurons spread throughout expanses of the cortex. Such global activity can be identified, measured and explained only if one adopts a macroscopic view alongside the microscopic one.

    There is an analogy to this approach in music. To grasp the beauty in a choral piece, it is not enough to listen to the individual singers sequentially. One must hear the performers together, as they modulate their voices and timing in response to one another.

    Our studies have led us as well to the discovery in the brain of chaos- complex behavior that seems random but actually has some hidden order. The chaos is evident in the tendency of vast collections of neurons to shift abruptly and simultaneously from one complex activity pattern to another in response to the smallest of inputs.
    This changeability is a prime characteristic of many chaotic systems. It is not harmful in the brain. In fact, we propose it is the very property that makes perception possible. We also speculate that chaos underlies the ability of the brain to respond flexibly to the outside world and to generate novel activity patterns, including those that are experienced as fresh ideas.

    An understanding of perception must be based on knowledge of the properties of the neurons that enact it. My colleagues and I have concentrated in many of our studies on neurons of the olfactory system.

    For years it has been known that when an animal or a person sniffs an odorant, molecules carrying the scent are captured by a few of the immense number of receptor neurons in the nasal passages; the receptors are somewhat specialized in the kinds of odorants to which they respond. Cells that become excited fire action potentials, or pulses, which propagate through projections called axons to a part of the cortex known as the olfactory bulb. The number of activated receptors indicates the intensity of the stimulus, and their location in the nose conveys the nature of the scent. That is, each scent is expressed by a spatial pattern of receptor activity, which in turn is transmitted to the bulb.

    The bulb analyzes each input pattern and then synthesizes its own message, which it transmits via axons to another part of the olfactory system, the olfactory cortex. From there, new signals are sent to many parts of the brain-not the least of which is an area called the entorhinal cortex, where the signals are combined with those from other sensory systems. The result is a meaning-laden perception, a gestalt, that is unique to each individual. For a dog, the recognition of the scent of a fox may carry the memory of food and expectation of a meal. For a rabbit, the same scent may arouse memories of chase and fear of attack.

    Such knowledge has provided a valuable starting point for more detailed study of olfaction. But it leaves two important issues unresolved. The first is the classic problem of separating foreground from background: How does the brain distinguish one scent from all others that accompany it?

    PHASE PORTRAITS  made from electroencephalograms (EEGs)
    generated by a computer model of the brain reflect the overall activity of
    the olfactory system at rest (above) and during perception of a familiar
    scent (right). Resemblance of the portraits to irregularly shaped, but still
    structured, coils of wire reveals that brain activity in both conditions is
    chaotic: complex but having some underlying order. The more circular
    shape of the right-hand image, together with its greater segregation of
    color, indicates that olfactory EEGs are more ordered-more nearly
    periodic-during perception than during rest.

    Also, how does the brain achieve what is called generalization-over- equivalent receptors? Because of turbulence in nasal air flow, only a few of the many receptors that are sensitive to an odorant are excited during a sniff, and the selection varies unpredictably from one sniff to the next. How does the brain recognize that signals from different collections of receptors all refer to the same stimulus? Our investigations begin to suggest answers to both problems.

    Many of our insights were derived from intensive studies of the olfactory bulb. Those experiments show clearly that every neuron in the bulb participates in generating each olfactory perception. In other words, the salient information about the stimulus is carried in some distinctive pattern of bulbwide activity, not in a small subset of feature-detecting neurons that are excited only by, say, foxlike scents.

    Moreover, although this collective neural activity reflects the odorant, the activity itself is not determined solely by the stimulus. Bulbar functioning is self-organized, very much controlled by internal factors, including the sensitivity of the neurons to input.

    The experiments uncovering the collective activity were conceptually simple. By applying standard reinforcement techniques, we trained animals, often rabbits, to recognize several different odorants and to behave in particular ways when they did-for instance, to lick or chew in expectation of food or water. Before training was started, we attached 60 to 64 electrodes 0.5 millimeter apart in a gridlike array to a large part of the bulbar surface.

    During training and thereafter, the array enabled us to collect sets of 60 to 64 simultaneously recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) tracings as the animals breathed in and out, sometimes sniffing familiar scents and sometimes not. Each tracing reflects the mean excitatory state of local pools of neurons lying in a well-defined layer immediately beneath the electrodes. Rises in the wavelike tracings indicate increasing excitement; dips represent diminished excitement caused by inhibition.

    The EEGs should not be confused with recordings of impulses fired by individual axons or by pools of neurons, although each EEG is related to the firing pattern of neurons in a neighborhood of the cerebral cortex. The tracings detect essentially the same information that neurons assess when they  decide  whether or not to fire impulses, but an EEG records that information for thousands of cells at once.

    To better understand exactly what the EEG shows, it helps to know some of the details of how cortical neurons operate. Such cells continuously receive pulses-usually at projections known as dendrites-from thousands of other neurons. The pulses are conveyed at specialized junctions called synapses. Certain incoming pulses generate excitatory waves of electric current in the recipients; others generate inhibitory waves [see top illustration on page 82]. These currents- dendritic currents -are fed through the cell body (which contains the nucleus) to a region called the trigger zone, at the start of the axon.

    There the currents cross the cell membrane into the extracellular space. As they do, the cell calculates the overall strength of the currents (reflected in changes in voltage across the membrane), essentially by adding excitatory currents and subtracting inhibitory ones. If the sum is above a threshold level of excitation, the neuron fires.

    The mechanism producing each EEG tracing similarly sums the currents initiated at the dendrites, but it taps the currents after they leave the cell. The tracings reflect the excitatory state of groups of neurons rather than of individual ones, because the extracellular space is traversed by currents from thousands of cells. BASIC FLOW OF OLFACTORY INFORMATION IN THE BRAIN In our experiments the EEG tracings from the electrodes in an array are as unpredictable and irregular as freehand scrawls. Yet they manifest perceptual information.

    In living individuals, EEGs always oscillate, or rise and fall, to some extent, but the oscillations are usually quite irregular. When an animal inhales a familiar scent, what we call a burst can be seen in each EEG tracing. All the waves from the array of electrodes suddenly become more regular, or ordered, for a few cycles-until the animal exhales. The waves often have a higher amplitude (height) and frequency than they do at other times.

    The burst waves are often called 40 hertz waves, meaning that they oscillate at about 40 cycles per second. Because the frequency can actually range from 20 to 90 hertz, I prefer to call them gamma waves, in analogy with a range of high-frequency X rays.

    The fact that the bursts represent cooperative, interactive activity is not immediately clear in the EEG plots, because the burst segments differ in shape from tracing to tracing in a simultaneously recorded set. Nevertheless, by taxing our computers, we find we are able to tease out evidence of collective behavior from the complex background. In each set of burst recordings, we can identify a common waveform, or carrier wave: a shared pattern of rises and falls that is embedded in each tracing. The average amplitude is not identical across the set-some versions of the carrier wave are shallow, and others are deep. But all of them curve up and down nearly in synchrony. The common behavior makes up between one quarter and three quarters of the total activity of the neurons giving rise to each trace.

    Curiously, it is not the shape of the carrier wave that reveals the identity of an odor. Indeed, the wave changes every time an animal inhales, even when the same odorant is repeatedly sniffed. The identity of an odorant is reliably discernible only in the bulbwide spatial pattern of the carrier- wave amplitude [see top illustration on page 84].

    Amplitude patterns become especially clear when we plot the average amplitude of the individual versions of the carrier wave on a grid representing the surface of the bulb. The resulting  maps  resemble contour diagrams that indicate the elevations of mountains and valleys. As long as we do not alter the animals’ training, the same map emerges every time an animal sniffs a particular odorant, even though the carrier wave differs with each sniff.

    These maps have helped demonstrate not only that perception requires global bulbwide activity but also that the bulb participates in assigning meaning to stimuli. The amplitude map representing a given odorant changes strikingly when we alter the reinforcement associated with that scent. If the bulb did not bring experience to bear on perception, the map would remain constant even after the conditioned association had been changed. NEURONS OF THE OLFACTORY SYSTEM share information through a rich web of synapses, junctions where signals flow from neuron to neuron. Usually signals pass from projections called axons to projections called dendrites, but sometimes they pass from dendrite to dendrite or axon to axon. The widespread sharing leads to collective activity. In this highly schematic diagram, red shading signifies that a neuron is exciting another cell, black shading that a neuron is inhibiting another. We believe that something we call the nerve cell assembly is both a crucial repository of past associations and an essential participant in the formation of the collective bulbar burst. The hypothetical assembly consists of neurons that have simultaneously been excited by other neurons during learning.

    More than 20 years ago my colleagues and I discovered that when animals are trained by reinforcement techniques to discriminate olfactory stimuli, certain synapses that connect neurons within the bulb and within the olfactory cortex become selectively strengthened during the training. That is, the sensitivity of the postsynaptic cells to excitatory input-a property known as gain-is increased at the synapse, so that an input generates a greater dendritic current than it would have generated in the absence of special training. Technically, gain is the ratio of output to input-here, the net strength of the dendritic currents to the number of incoming pulses. The strengthening occurs not in the synapse between an input axon (such as a receptor from the nose) and the neuron it excites (such as a bulbar neuron) but in the synapse between connected neurons that are simultaneously excited by input neurons during learning. Neurons in the bulb and in the olfactory cortex are connected to many others in those regions. EEG WAVES reflect the mean excitation of pools of neurons. Excitatory inputs at synapses generate electric currents that flow in closed loops within the recipient neuron toward its axon, across the cell membrane into the extracellular space and, in that space, back to the synapse (red arrows). Inhibitory inputs generate loops moving in the opposite direction ( black arrows). In cells the trigger zone adds current strengths (reflected in changes in voltage across the membrane), and it fires impulses if the sum is sufficiently positive. Electrodes on the brain tap those same currents after they leave the cell. The resulting EEGs indicate the excitation of whole groups of cells, not individuals, because the extracellular avenues from which the EEGs arise carry currents contributed by thousands of cells.
    Such strengthening is predicted by the widely accepted Hebb rule, which holds that synapses between neurons that fire together become stronger, as long as the synchronous firing is accompanied by a reward. (The strengthening is now known to involve  modulator  chemicals that the brain stem releases into the bulb and cortex during reinforcement.) We infer from our data that a nerve cell assembly, consisting of neurons joined by Hebbian synapses, forms for a particular scent as an individual is reinforced for learning to identify that odorant. Thereafter, when any subset of neurons in the assembly receives the familiar input, the entire assembly can rapidly become stimulated, as excitatory signals speed across the favored Hebbian synapses. The assembly, in turn, directs the rest of the bulb into a distinct pattern of activity.

    If we are correct, the existence of a nerve cell assembly would help explain both the foreground-background problem and generalization-over- equivalent receptors. In the first instance, the assembly would confer  frontrunner  status on stimuli that experience, stored in the Hebbian synapses has made important to the individual. In the second instance, the assembly would ensure that information from any subset of receptors, regardless of where in the nose they were located, would spread immediately over the entire assembly and from there to the rest of the bulb. SIMULTANEOUS RECORDINGS from the olfactory bulb (a) and front (b) and rear (c) parts of a cat’s olfactory cortex show low-frequency waves interrupted by  bursts -high-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations that are generated when odors are perceived. The average amplitude of a burst is some 100 microvolts. Each lasts a fraction of a second, for the interval between inhalation and exhalation. As important as the nerve cell assembly is to perception, it does not by itself generate bulbwide bursts of collective activity. For a burst to occur in response to some odorant, the neurons of the assembly and the bulb as a whole must first be  primed  to respond strongly to input.

    Two important processes complement the priming accomplished by the development of Hebbian synapses. Both processes affect the gain, doing so by altering the sensitivity of the trigger zones, not the synapses. Here the gain is the ratio of the number of pulses fired (output) to the net dendritic current (input). The total gain is the product of the gain at the synapses and trigger zones.

    One primer is general arousal. Our experiments show that the gain in neuronal collectives increases in the bulb and olfactory cortex when an animal is hungry, thirsty, sexually aroused or threatened [see illustration on page 85]. Such priming seems to be accomplished by axons from elsewhere in the brain that release modulatory chemicals (other than those involved in forming Hebbian synapses).

    The other primer is input itself. When cortical neurons are excited, their output increases. Each new input they receive while they are still excited raises their output markedly, indicating that their gain has been increased by the input. This increase occurs over a particular range of input. If the net input is strongly inhibitory, no pulses are fired. Above some very high level of excitatory input, neurons fire at their maximal rate and cannot do more, even if the input is increased. In the wide range between, however, pulse output increases along a sigmoid (S-shaped) curve. The steepness, or slope, of the curve reflects the gain.

    The discovery of an increase in gain with excitation is particularly noteworthy because most neural network models assume neurons are at maximum gain when they are at rest. Both excitation and inhibition are generally assumed to decrease gain, so that the networks constantly maintain stability. Such assumptions are inappropriate for the brain because they do not allow networks to generate explosive changes. Hence, it seems that information from odorants is fed by a small number of receptors to a still smaller number of cells in the bulb. If the odorant is familiar and the bulb has been primed by arousal, the information spreads like a flash fire through the nerve cell assembly. First, excitatory input to one part of the assembly during a sniff excites the other parts, via the Hebbian synapses. Then those parts reexcite the first, increasing the gain, and so forth, so that the input rapidly ignites an explosion of collective activity throughout the assembly. The activity of the assembly, in turn, spreads to the entire bulb, igniting a full-blown burst.

    The bulb then sends a  consensus statement  simultaneously along parallel axons to the olfactory cortex. What must next be made clear is how that cortical area distinguishes the consensus statement from the background of other stimuli impinging on it from the bulb and elsewhere. WHY EEG WAVES OSCILLATE
    Alternating rises and falls in amplitude stem from negative-feedback circuits that are established by the interaction of pools of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. When the pools have been sensitized to input, even a small input can trigger. A burst of high-amplitude oscillation. The diagrams represent neuronal activity at the end of each quarter cycle. Dark shading signifies great excitement; lighter shading signifies less excitement.
    The answer undoubtedly has to do with the wiring joining the bulb to the cortex. The bulb generates trains of impulses that run simultaneously along the parallel axons leading from the bulb to the cortex. Each axon branches extensively and transmits pulses to many thousands of neurons across the olfactory cortex, and each cortical target cell receives input from thousands of bulbar cells.

    The carrier activity of the incoming lines, which is synchronized by cooperation, probably stands out for the simple reason that such signals add together- nonsynchronous inputs, which are not at the carrier frequency and phase, effectively cancel one another. Thus, every recipient neuron in the olfactory cortex picks up a share of the cooperative bulbar signal and transmits the summed signals to thousands of its neighbors simultaneously.

    In response, the massively connected neurons of the cortex, which have formed their own nerve cell assemblies, promptly generate their own collective burst, albeit one having a carrier wave and a spatial amplitude pattern that differ from those in the bulb. In essence, the transmission pathway for the global pattern in the bulb launders the bulbar message; it removes  noise,  so that only the collective signal affects the olfactory cortex significantly. Just as a burst in the bulb guarantees the delivery of a coherent message to the cortex, so presumably does the global burst in the cortex enable outgoing messages from that region to stand above the din when they reach other regions of the brain.

    There are many reasons why we believe the activity of the brain both during and between bursts is chaotic, not merely random. But before I delve into those reasons, let me clarify further what is meant by chaos. At the risk of oversimplification, I sometimes like to suggest the difference between chaos and randomness by comparing the behavior of commuters dashing through a train station at rush hour with the behavior of a large, terrified crowd. The activity of the commuters resembles chaos in that although an observer unfamiliar with train stations might think people were running every which way without reason, order does underlie the surface complexity: everyone is hurrying to catch a specific train. The traffic flow could rapidly be changed simply by announcing a track change. In contrast, mass hysteria is random. No simple announcement would make a large mob become cooperative.

    One of the most convincing early clues to the presence of chaos was an aperiodic (nonrepeating) common carrier wave everywhere in the bulb not only during bursts but also between bursts-even when there was no extrabulbar stimulus driving that collective activity. The lack of external driving meant the activity was self-generated by the bulb. Such self- organization is a characteristic of chaotic systems [see  Chaos,  by James B. Crutchfield, J. Doyne Farmer, Norman H. Packard and Robert S. Shawl SCENTIFIC AMERICAN, December 1986].

    Another clue was the apparent ability of neural collectives in the bulb and cortex to jump globally and almost instantly from a nonburst to a burst state and then back again. Rapid state changes are called phase transitions by physicists and bifurcations by mathematicians. Whatever they are called, dramatic changes in response to weak input are, it will be recalled, another feature of chaotic systems. Bifurcation is significantly harder to control in random systems.

    We gained more evidence for chaos by developing computer models of the olfactory system as a whole: the bulb, the cortex, the connections between them and the input to both areas from outside the system. We simulated the activity of the system by solving sets of ordinary differential equations that describe the dynamics of local pools of neurons.

    First we demonstrated that the model did in fact represent the olfactory system accurately. With no more than a single pulse (equivalent to excitation of a few receptors) to start the system, the model sustained activity that closely resembled aperiodic olfactory EEGs.

    After we   trained  the model to recognize specific odorants, the bulbar segment generated bursts in response to the selected inputs, and the embedded common carrier waves yielded distinct and consistent amplitude maps. Moreover, whenever we added a new  odorant  to the perceptual repertoire of our hypothetical subject, an identifying global amplitude map was created. At the same time, the other maps changed-as they should, of course, in a true associative memory system. We had earlier found such changes in test animals after they were trained to recognize stimuli beyond the ones they had learned initially.
    COMMON CARRIER WAVE emerged from 60 EEGs recorded information is contained in the spatial pattern of amplitude simultaneously from the olfactory cortex of a rabbit as it recognized a scent (left). The wave is nearly the same in each recording, except that the amplitude varies. The shape of the carrier wave does not indicate the identity of the scent. That information is contained in the spatial pattern of amplitude across the cortex, which can be displayed as a contour plot(right), much like the plots of elevations in topographic maps. The colored contours represent the highest amplitude; successive contours represent the lower amplitudes. Our model yielded additional evidence for chaos when we coaxed it to produce mock EEGs of extended bursts and of  interburst  activity in the intervals between bursts. Because the artificial EEGs persisted longer than EEGs normally do, we were able to plot what are called phase portraits of the predicted behavior of the olfactory system, both during and between bursts. The portraits can show at a glance whether the dynamics may be chaotic.

    The details of how such portraits are made and why they are a valid reflection of global activity in the olfactory system are too complex to discuss at length. Nevertheless, for those readers familiar with phase portraits, I should note that we plotted the portraits in a three- dimensional grid and added color to display a fourth dimension. Each axis represented EEG amplitude from some part of the olfactory system, such as the bulb or a subsection of the olfactory cortex. A range of colors from red to blue represented high to low amplitude from a fourth part of the system.

    We plotted as a point one set of three amplitudes, measured at a given moment. Next we plotted another point from the set, representing a thousandth of a second later, and connected the two points with a colored line. Then we plotted a third point, and so on. We rotated the final image in space to find the most informative point of view.

    CONTOUR PLOT at the left emerged consistently from bulbar EEG’s of a rabbit that had been conditioned to associated the scent of sawdust with a particular reinforcement. After the animal learned to recognize the smell of banana (middle), however, reexposure to sawdust led to the emergence of a new sawdust plot (right). The change shows that bulbar activity is dominated more by experience than by stimuli; otherwise, sawdust would always give rise to the same plot. The pictures supported the possibility of chaos, because the images resembled loose coils of wire having different shapes and color distributions. If the model olfactory system had behaved randomly, there would be no coherent shapes, just dots spread everywhere, like  snow  on a television set. If, on the other hand, the system was predictable in detail, the shapes would be simpler; they might resemble a spiral, a folded circle or a torus (a doughnut).

    The shapes we found represent chaotic attractors. Each attractor is the behavior the system settles into when it is held under the influence of a particular input, such as a familiar odorant. The images suggest that an act of perception consists of an explosive leap of the dynamic system from the  basin  of one chaotic attractor to another; the basin of an attractor is the set of initial conditions from which the system goes into a particular behavior. The bottom of a bowl would be a basin of attraction for a ball placed anywhere along the sides of the bowl. In our experiments, the basin for each attractor would be defined by the receptor neurons that were activated during training to form the nerve cell assembly.
    We think the olfactory bulb and cortex maintain many chaotic attractors, one for each odorant an animal or human being can discriminate. Whenever an odorant becomes meaningful in some way, another attractor is added, and all the others undergo slight modification. SIGMOID CURVES show the relation between input (wave density) and output (pulse density) at trigger zones in populations of neurons. (The plots are not valid for individual neurons.) The rising steepness associated with increased arousal indicates that sensitivity to input-or gain (the ratio of output to input, or the slope)-rises with arousal. In each case, gain also increases as neurons that are already excited (those at and to the right of the circles) receive more stimulation. This input-dependent increase in gain is essential to the formation of bursts
    Identification of chaos does not automatically reveal its source. We suspect chaos in the brain arises when two or more areas of the brain, such as the bulb and the olfactory cortex, meet at least two conditions: they excite one another strongly enough to prevent any single part from settling down, and, at the same time, they are unable to agree on a common frequency of oscillation. Competition between the parts would increase the sensitivity and instability of the system contributing to chaos. Part of the evidence for the importance of interaction between the bulb and the cortex is that disconnection of the two regions makes chaos disappear; both parts become abnormally stable and quiet.

    Modulatory chemicals released into the system from elsewhere in the brain also increase sensitivity to input, both by participating in the formation of the Hebbian synapses in nerve cell assemblies and by enhancing arousal. Because various factors maintain great sensitivity, a very small signal-a whiff, a whisper, a glimpse-can trigger a massive, collective state change.

    Conceivably, the chaos we have observed is simply an inevitable by- product of the brain’s complexity, including its myriad connections. Yet our evidence suggests that the controlled chaos of the brain is more than an accidental by-product. Indeed, it may be the chief property that makes the brain different from an artificial-intelligence machine.

    One profound advantage chaos may confer on the brain is that chaotic systems continually produce novel activity patterns. We propose that such patterns are crucial to the development of nerve cell assemblies that differ from established assemblies. More generally, the ability to create activity patterns I may underlie the brain’s ability to generate insight and the  trials  of trial and-error problem solving.

    We have found widespread, apparently chaotic behavior in other parts of the brain. That finding does not necessarily imply that other sensory systems operate as the olfactory system does. But we think they do. Indeed, we and other investigators have documented gamma bursts across large cortical regions involved in recognizing visual images. As in the olfactory system, familiar visual stimuli are associated with specific amplitude maps of common carrier waves. I predict that when people examine drawings in which foreground and background are ambiguous, so that perception alternates between two images, the amplitude maps will be found to alternate as well.

    I begin to envision the general dynamics of perception. The brain seeks information, mainly by directing an individual to look, listen and sniff. The search results from self-organizing activity in the limbic system (a part of the brain that includes the entorhinal cortex and is thought to be involved in emotion and memory), which funnels a search command to the motor systems. As the motor command is transmitted, the limbic system issues what is called a reafference message, alerting all the sensory systems to prepare to respond to new information.

    And respond they do, with every neuron in a given region participating in a collective activity-a burst. Synchronous activity in each system is then transmitted back to the limbic system, where it combines with similarly generated output from other sensory systems to form a gestalt. Then, within a fraction of a second, another search for information is demanded, and the sensory systems are prepared again by reafference.

    Consciousness may well be the subjective experience of this recursive process of motor command, reafference and perception. If so, it enables the brain to plan and prepare for each subsequent action on the basis of past action, sensory input and perceptual synthesis. In short, an act of perception is not the copying of an incoming stimulus. It is a step in a trajectory by which brains grow, reorganize themselves and reach into their environment to change it to their own advantage. The poet William Blake wrote:  If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite.  Such cleansing would not be desirable. Without the protection of the doors of perception-that is, without the self-controlled chaotic activity of the cortex, from which perceptions spring-people and animals would be overwhelmed by eternity. FURTHER READING
    MASS ACTION IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: EXAMINATION OF THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR THROUGH THE EEG. Walter J. Freeman. Academic Press, 1975.
    How BRAINS MAKE CHAOS IN ORDER TO MAKE SENSE OF THE WORLD. Christine A. Skarda and Walter J. Freeman in behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 10 No. 2, pages 161-195; June 1987.
    THE SYNAPTIC ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN. Third edition. Gordon M. Shepherd. Oxford University Press, 1990.
    SYNERGETICS OF COGNITION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM AT SCHLOSS ELMAU, BAVARIA, JUNE 4-8, 1989. Edited by H. Haken and M. Stadler. Springer-Verlag, 1990.
    Copyright 1991: Walter J. Freeman

    http://sulcus.berkeley.edu/FLM/MS/Physio.Percept.html

    Fig9.gif
    SIGMOID CURVES show the relation between input (wave density) and output (pulse density) at trigger zones in populations of neurons. (The plots are not valid for individual neurons.) The rising steepness associated with increased arousal indicates that sensitivity to input-or gain (the ratio of output to input, or the slope)-rises with arousal. In each case, gain also increases as neurons that are already excited (those at and to the right of the circles) receive more stimulation. This input-dependent increase in gain is essential to the formation of bursts

    Fig8.gif
    CONTOUR PLOT at the left emerged consistently from bulbar EEG’s of a rabbit that had been conditioned to associated the scent of sawdust with a particular reinforcement. After the animal learned to recognize the smell of banana (middle), however, reexposure to sawdust led to the emergence of a new sawdust plot (right). The change shows that bulbar activity is dominated more by experience than by stimuli; otherwise, sawdust would always give rise to the same plot.

    Fig7.gif
    COMMON CARRIER WAVE emerged from 60 EEGs recorded information is contained in the spatial pattern of amplitude simultaneously from the olfactory cortex of a rabbit as it recognized a scent (left). The wave is nearly the same in each recording, except that the amplitude varies. The shape of the carrier wave does not indicate the identity of the scent. That information is contained in the spatial pattern of amplitude across the cortex, which can be displayed as a contour plot(right), much like the plots of elevations in topographic maps. The colored contours represent the highest amplitude; successive contours represent the lower amplitudes.

    Fig6.gif
    WHY EEG WAVES OSCILLATE
    Alternating rises and falls in amplitude stem from negative-feedback circuits that are established by the interaction of pools of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. When the pools have been sensitized to input, even a small input can trigger. A burst of high-amplitude oscillation. The diagrams represent neuronal activity at the end of each quarter cycle. Dark shading signifies great excitement; lighter shading signifies less excitement.

    Fig5.gif
    SIMULTANEOUS RECORDINGS from the olfactory bulb (a) and front (b) and rear (c) parts of a cat’s olfactory cortex show low-frequency waves interrupted by  bursts -high-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations that are generated when odors are perceived. The average amplitude of a burst is some 100 microvolts. Each lasts a fraction of a second, for the interval between inhalation and exhalation.

    Fig4.gif
    EEG WAVES reflect the mean excitation of pools of neurons. Excitatory inputs at synapses generate electric currents that flow in closed loops within the recipient neuron toward its axon, across the cell membrane into the extracellular space and, in that space, back to the synapse (red arrows). Inhibitory inputs generate loops moving in the opposite direction ( black arrows). In cells the trigger zone adds current strengths (reflected in changes in voltage across the membrane), and it fires impulses if the sum is sufficiently positive. Electrodes on the brain tap those same currents after they leave the cell. The resulting EEGs indicate the excitation of whole groups of cells, not individuals, because the extracellular avenues from which the EEGs arise carry currents contributed by thousands of cells.

    Fig3.gif
    NEURONS OF THE OLFACTORY SYSTEM share information through a rich web of synapses, junctions where signals flow from neuron to neuron. Usually signals pass from projections called axons to projections called dendrites, but sometimes they pass from dendrite to dendrite or axon to axon. The widespread sharing leads to collective activity. In this highly schematic diagram, red shading signifies that a neuron is exciting another cell, black shading that a neuron is inhibiting another.

    Fig3B.gif

    BASIC FLOW OF OLFACTORY INFORMATION IN THE BRAIN
    Fig2.gif
    Fig1.gif

    PHASE PORTRAITS  made from electroencephalograms (EEGs)
    generated by a computer model of the brain reflect the overall activity of
    the olfactory system at rest (above) and during perception of a familiar
    scent (right). Resemblance of the portraits to irregularly shaped, but still
    structured, coils of wire reveals that brain activity in both conditions is
    chaotic: complex but having some underlying order. The more circular
    shape of the right-hand image, together with its greater segregation of
    color, indicates that olfactory EEGs are more ordered-more nearly
    periodic-during perception than during rest.

    http://sulcus.berkeley.edu/FLM/MS/Physio.Percept.html

    ****

    Nanoparticles make self-erasing images
    Materials displaying ‘self-erasing’ color images have been created by researchers, using specific nanoparticles that can assemble and disassemble themselves under different wavelengths of light. The materials are printed with ultraviolet (UV) light and erased with visible light. They are made by coating gold and silver nanoparticles with a single layer of azobenzene molecules, and then embedding the nanoparticles in thin, flexible ‘organogel’ films. When the films are exposed to UV light, the structural symmetry of the azobenzene molecules flips, and they acquire electric dipoles that make them attract. This attraction causes the nanoparticles to assemble, and thereby take on a new color. However, in an absence of UV light – or even better, in strong visible light – the particles revert to their original symmetry, and the color disappears over a period of time.

    Bio Focus

    Crustacean shell, polyester mixed-fiber material for nerve repair
    In the clothing industry it’s common to mix natural and synthetic fibers such as cotton and polyester. Researchers have now used the same principle for biomedical applications by mixing an industrial polyester with chitosan, found in the shells of crabs and shrimp, creating a promising new material for the tiny tubes that support repair of a severed nerve, and could serve other medical uses. The hybrid fiber combines the biologically favorable qualities of the natural material with the mechanical strength of the synthetic polymer.

    Double helix is an electric slide for proteins
    DNA may contain the blueprint for life but it takes proteins to read the plan and build an organism. The mechanism of this vital biological process has remained a mystery but now researchers are proposing a physical model wherein individual proteins can “slide” freely along DNA strands in search of target sequences. The team envision the process involving ‘DNA-binding proteins’ swarming around the iconic double helix on account of electric attraction — proteins have a net positive charge and DNA has a net negative charge. Miraculously, these proteins can then bind to exactly the right section of the long, coiling DNA so they can carry out vital functions such as copying genetic information and translating genes into templates for protein production.

    MEETINGS UPDATE

    Stream of sand behaves like water
    In a first-time accomplishment, researchers used high-speed photography to measure minute levels of surface tension and detect droplet formation in flows of dry granular materials. They observed falling 100-micrometer-diameter glass beads, and streaming sand, and found that forces as much as 100,000 times smaller than those that produce surface tension in ordinary liquids could cause droplet formation in granular streams and cause these dry streams to behave like an ultra-low-surface-tension liquid.

    http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec.asp?CID=1920&DID=84063#jun09_2d

    Information transmission currently require electrons or photons for transmitting information. Scientists have now demonstrated a third method of transmission: chemical reactions. Based on a flammable “infofuse,” the new system combines information technology and chemistry into a new area the researchers call  infochemistry.  The system transmits information in the form of coded pulses of light generated entirely by chemical reactions, without electricity. The system is self-powered, with power being generated by combustion. The power density of the system is higher than that of electrochemical batteries, and has the advantage of not discharging over time.

    Pure white light emitting molecule developed
    Researchers are reporting the first use of a fundamentally new approach in the quest for a pure white light emitting LED. They have development a new, simpler white LED using a single molecule that is the first to achieve stable white light emissions. The specially engineered molecule combines two light-emitting materials, one orange and one blue, which together produce white light over the entire visible range. In laboratory studies, the scientists showed that light production from an LED using the new molecule was highly efficient and had excellent color stability and reproducibility.

    Energy Focus

    Polymer solar cell with near-perfect internal efficiency
    Researchers have developed a polymer-based solar cell with an ability not yet seen in similar cells: almost every single photon it absorbs is converted into a pair of electric-charge carriers, and every one of those pairs is collected at the cell’s electrodes. The overall efficiency of the cell is six percent, excellent for polymer-based solar cells. The cell incorporates an alternating co-polymer in bulk heterojunction composite with a fullerene derivative. The cell exhibits the best performance of any bulk heterojunction system investigated so far, according to the authors.

    Nano Focus
    released to a detector.

    Self-assembled tetrahedral container molecule encapsulates white phosphorus
    A team of researchers reveals that it has tamed one of the most hazardous chemical substances, white phosphorous. White phosphorous is also infamous for its propensity to burst into flame. For this reason it is often used in military campaigns to create smokescreens to mask movement from the enemy, as well as an incendiary in bombs, artillery and mortars. The team created a ‘container molecule’ to stabilise white phosphorous indefinitely. This renders it safe until such time as a signal agent, benzene, is applied to release it.

    MEETINGS – Materials Research Society

    XVIII International Materials Research Congress 2009
    August 16-20, 2009
    Cancun, Mexico
    • Congress Website

    2009 MRS Fall Meeting
    November 30 – December 4
    Boston, Massachusetts
    • Meeting Website
    • Exhibit—Reserve Your Booth Today
    • Symposium Assistants Sought
    • Join the meeting FACEBOOK Group

    ***

    MRS News

    Materials Voice

    Tell your legislators why support of the physical sciences and science education is necessary — for national security, quality of life and a strong economy. With Materials Voice, you’ll create personalized letters addressed to your representatives on Capitol Hill — which you can then customize and send via email, or print and send via mail or fax. It’s essential that your voice be heard on science policy issues. We invite you to discover Materials Voice, and ensure that your message is heard — with resonance — on Capitol Hill.

    CAREER CENTRAL

    Classifieds

    Partial listing from the July 2009 issue of the MRS Bulletin

    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Group Leader, Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Dartmouth College
    Tenure-Track Faculty Position, Thayer School of Engineering

    Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and RWTH Aachen University
    Director, Institute of Solid State Research—Microstructure Research

    International Specialty Products
    Scientist I

    Los Alamos National Laboratory
    Postdoctoral Position, Softmatter Device Structures

    Nanyang Technological University
    Assistant Professors, The School of Materials Science and Engineering

    The University Of Akron
    Faculty Positions, College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering

    University of California, Davis
    Postdoctoral Positions, Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory

    University of Texas at Dallas
    Distinguished Chairs in Nanoelectronics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    DIVERSIONS

    Did You Know?

    MRS has a Diversity Statement:
    The scientific and engineering communities must strive to become more inclusive, engaging all demographic groups in advancing science and technology.   MRS recognizes that Diversity drives Innovation, Excellence, and New Discoveries.  Although progress has been made, women and under-represented groups still remain a largely untapped resource in research and innovation.  We affirm the critical role that professional societies must play at all levels of education and professional pursuits.   Recent programs by many professional societies have provided benchmarking data collection, forums to discuss diversity issues in science and opportunities for professional development training.   More needs to be done.   The Materials Research Society therefore charges our membership and our leaders to continually engage the science and engineering enterprise, promoting greater participation from all demographic groups, proactively addressing barriers and fostering greater diversity wherever scientists and engineers are educated and employed.

    Quiz
    Answer to the Quiz in the previous Materials360®:
    Other than the U.S., the top three countries in terms of current number of MRS members are Japan (1,259), Korea (736), and Germany (559).

    Quotes of the Month

    A physical theory is not an explanation. It is a system of mathematical propositions, deduced from a small number of principles, which aim…to represent as simply, as completely, and as exactly as possible a group of experimental laws.
    – Pierre-Maurice-Marie Duhem, French Physicist and Mathematician

    The theory of our modern technical [era] shows that nothing is as practical as theory.
    – Robert J. Oppenheimer, American Physicist

    **

    Miscellany

    Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits

    Informal science is a burgeoning field that operates across a broad range of venues and envisages learning outcomes for individuals, schools, families, and society. The evidence base that describes informal science, its promise, and effects is informed by a range of disciplines and perspectives, including field-based research, visitor studies, and psychological and anthropological studies of learning. Learning Science in Informal Environments draws together disparate literatures, synthesizes the state of knowledge, and articulates a common framework for the next generation of research on learning science in informal environments across a life span. Contributors include recognized experts in a range of disciplines–research and evaluation, exhibit designers, program developers, and educators. They also have experience in a range of settings–museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, aquariums, zoos, state parks, and botanical gardens. Learning Science in Informal Environments is a guide for program and exhibit designers, evaluators, staff of science-rich informal learning institutions and community-based organizations, scientists interested in educational outreach, federal science agency education staff, and K-12 science educators.

    Common Chemistry™
    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), a division of the American Chemical Society, has launched Common Chemistry, a free online database containing information on 7,800 chemicals of widespread and general interest as well as all 118 elements from the periodic table. It contains CAS Registry Numbers for chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information. The CAS Registry Number is the universally recognized unique identifier of chemical substances and is often found on packaging and on articles of commerce. While not a comprehensive CAS Registry Number lookup service, Common Chemistry does provide a way to quickly and easily find names or CAS Registry Numbers for chemicals of general interest.

    ***

    Apollo 40 years on

    On 20 July 1969, NASA’s Apollo programme landed a human on the Moon, less than a decade after President John F Kennedy announced the goal to the U.S. Congress. On the 40th anniversary of that milestone, Nature looks at the legacy of the Apollo missions and their influence on lunar science, as well as prospects for future manned missions that could see humans once again set foot on the Moon.

    NEW PRODUCT FOCUS

    Carbon Nanotube Probe Technology for AFM

    Carbon Design Innovations, Inc. (C|D|I) announces the availability of two new atomic force microscope (AFM) probe types with carbon nanotube (CNT) tips. The CCHAR (carbon core high-aspect ratio) and CCHR (carbon core high resolution) CNT probes offer quantum improvements for AFM imaging, substantially improving results, reducing overall cost of operation and opening new avenues for research. Based on a patent pending process, C|D|I is able to produce CNT AFM probes that are perfectly straight and precisely aligned, allowing them to be set at desired angles to the surface. The new CNT AFM probes are compatible with all major AFM systems, giving users an easy path for improving AFM performance without making a substantial investment in new instrumentation.
    [Contact: 650-697-7070 or info@cdi-nano.com]

    Single Layer Graphene Oxide

    CheapTubes.com can now supply true Single Layer Graphene Oxide with no metal catalyst, an average thickness of 0.7 to 1.2 nm, 100% pure, water and DMF soluble without the use of surfactants, and it can be reduced to Single Layer Graphene. Available dispersed or as a coating o include: solar energy, graphene semiconductor chips, conductive graphene films, graphene communications chips, graphene computer memory, graphene sheets, transparent conductive coatings, and many others yet to be discovered. A more cost effective Multi Layer Graphene Oxide with a high surface area and six average layers is coming soon.
    [Contact: 802-254-6969 or sales@cheaptubes.com]

    Selective Wavelength Photodiodes

    Opto Diode Corporation, a global supplier of advanced performance photodiodes and visible and IR LEDs, introduces the first in a series of three new selective wavelength photodiodes. The ODD-470W features a spectral bandwidth of 100 nm. It operates between 380 nm and 540 nm, with a peak sensitivity response at 470 nm. With extremely low dark current and no optical filters used, the new photodetector is ideal for use in color sensors and fluorescence detection, and medical diagnostic applications.
    [Contact: 805-499-0335 or russdahl@optodiode.com]

    Valveless Metering Pumps & Dispensers Catalog

    The new catalog from Fluid Metering, Inc. includes three new products. The PDS-100 is a Programmable Dispensing System which uses precision stepper motors to control delivery from 500 nanoliters per dispense up to 2 liters per minute continuous flow. The newly patented Chloritrol™ is a valveless metering system for accurate, maintenance-free injection of liquid sodium and calcium hypochlorite for treatment of municipal drinking water. And the third new product is the Smooth-flo PDS Pulse-Free Dispensing & Metering System. The new Catalog can be requested by phone, mail, email or can be easily viewed and downloaded from the Fluid Metering web site.
    [Contact: 516-922-6050 or pumps@fmipump.com]

    Continuous-Wave Solid-State Laser

    Cobolt AB, a Swedish manufacturer of low-noise DPSS lasers, announces the release of the Cobolt Fandango™, a continuous-wave solid-state laser operating at a fixed wavelength of 515 nm and with an output power of 50 mW. Built on the Cobolt DPSS laser platform, the Cobolt Fandango™ is a single longitudinal mode laser with very low noise, narrow spectral line width and exceptionally high beam quality in a compact hermetically sealed package. Now available with up to 50 mW CW output power, the Cobolt Fandango™ is perfectly suited for power demanding fluorescence analysis applications such as spinning-disc confocal microscopy and high-speed plate reading.
    [Contact: 46-8-545-912-30 or info@cobolt.se]

    [To suggest items for inclusion in New Product Focus, please contact Mary Kaufold
    at 724-779-8312]

    Materials360® is Edited by Gopal R. Rao, Ph.D., Web Science Editor, MRS.

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    © Materials Research Society, 2009. All rights reserved.

    http://www.mrs.org

    ***

    # A camera from a sheet of fiber
    (Technology Review)

    Credit: Yoel Fink, Fabien Sorin, MIT

    Researchers have integrated a collection of light sensors into polymer fibers, creating a new type of camera. Such a camera would be lightweight, robust, and even foldable. They integrated eight semiconducting light sensors into a polymer cylinder with a diameter of 25 millimeters, controlling the sensor’s spacing and angle within the fiber. Once the sensors, made of a type of semiconducting glass, were in position, the polymer cylinder was heated and then stretched so that the diameter shrank the diameter of hundreds of micrometers–a process that is identical to the way in which commercial fiber is made for telecommunication applications–retaining the orientation of the sensors. When light hits the semiconductors, it creates an electrical current. The intensity of this current from the fibers is input into algorithms, running on an attached computer, that create the image of an object placed near the sheet of fiber.
    (June 22, 2009)
    # Nanoparticles make self-erasing images
    (Royal Society of Chemistry)

    Credit: Angewandte Chemie

    Materials displaying ‘self-erasing’ color images have been created by researchers, using specific nanoparticles that can assemble and disassemble themselves under different wavelengths of light. The materials are printed with ultraviolet (UV) light and erased with visible light. They are made by coating gold and silver nanoparticles with a single layer of azobenzene molecules, and then embedding the nanoparticles in thin, flexible ‘organogel’ films. When the films are exposed to UV light, the structural symmetry of the azobenzene molecules flips, and they acquire electric dipoles that make them attract. This attraction causes the nanoparticles to assemble, and thereby take on a new colour. However, in an absence of UV light – or even better, in strong visible light – the particles revert to their original symmetry, and the colour disappears over a period of time.
    [Writing Self-Erasing Images using Metastable Nanoparticle Inks, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Published Online: 16 Jun 2009]
    (June 22, 2009)

    http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec.asp?CID=1920&DID=84063#jun09_2f

    Pure white light emitting molecule developed
    (Science Daily)

    Credit: The American Chemical Society

    Researchers are reporting the first use of a fundamentally new approach in the quest for a pure white light emitting LED. They describe the development of a new, simpler white LED using a single molecule that is the first to achieve stable white light emissions. Their specially engineered molecule combines two light-emitting materials, one orange and one blue, which together produce white light over the entire visible range. In laboratory studies, the scientists showed that light production from an LED using the new molecule was highly efficient and had excellent color stability and reproducibility.
    [A White-Light-Emitting Molecule: Frustrated Energy Transfer between Constituent Emitting Centers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/ja902533f]
    (June 19, 2009)

    # Molecular metal chalcogenide complexes act as glue for colloidal nanocrystals
    (NanotechWeb)

    Solution-based processes for semiconductor nanocrystals such as spin or dip coating and inkjet printing are cost-effective ways to make large-area solar cells. However, individual nanocrystals in printed arrays made using these techniques communicate poorly with each other. This is because surface ligands, consisting of bulky, insulating organic molecules, block electric charge transfer from one nanocrystal to another. Researchers have now overcome this challenge by developing a new chemistry that allows coupling of individual nanocrystals into arrays of strongly communicating building blocks. The researchers  glued  colloidal nanocrystals together using a class of compounds called molecular metal chalcogenide complexes. The ligands are more stable and robust than the previously employed organic ligands and do not alter the chemistry of the nanocrystals. They also allow efficient charge transfer between the nanocrystals.
    [Colloidal Nanocrystals with Molecular Metal Chalcogenide Surface Ligands, Science 12 June 2009: Vol. 324. no. 5933, pp. 1417 – 1420 DOI: 10.1126/science.1170524]
    (June 19, 2009)
    # Double helix is an electric slide for proteins
    (Physics World)

    DNA may contain the blueprint for life but it takes proteins to read the plan and build an organism. The mechanism of this vital biological process has remained a mystery but now researchers are proposing a physical model wherein individual proteins can “slide” freely along DNA strands in search of target sequences. The team envision the process involving ‘DNA-binding proteins’ swarming around the iconic double helix on account of electric attraction — proteins have a net positive charge and DNA has a net negative charge. Miraculously, these proteins can then bind to exactly the right section of the long, coiling DNA so they can carry out vital functions such as copying genetic information and translating genes into templates for protein production. This complex biological set-up was reduced into more general physical shapes. Using Monte Carlo computer simulations, DNA was modelled as a long cylinder, and the protein as one of four solids: a sphere; a cylinder; or a cube or cylinder with a groove carved in one side.
    [Nonspecific DNA-Protein Interaction: Why Proteins Can Diffuse along DNA, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 228101 (2009)]
    (June 17, 2009)
    # Concrete creep slowed to a crawl
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology / Eurekalert)

    Resesearchers have for the first time identified what causes the most frequently used building material on earth — concrete — to gradually deform, decreasing its durability and shortening the lifespan of infrastructures such as bridges and nuclear waste containment vessels.They suggest that creep in concrete is caused by the rearrangement of particles at the nano-scale. They explain that concrete creep comes about when nanometer-sized C-S-H particles rearrange into altered densities: some looser and others more tightly packed. They also explain that a third, more dense phase of C-S-H can be induced by carefully manipulating the cement mix with other minerals such as silica fumes.
    [To be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences]
    (June 17, 2009)

    http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec.asp?CID=1920&DID=84063#jun09_2f

    ***

    Nano-sized photocatalyst for artificial photosynthesis
    (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

    Credit: Flavio Robles, Berkeley Lab Public Affairs

    A goal of scientists has been to develop an artificial version of photosynthesis that can be used to produce liquid fuels from carbon dioxide and water. Researchers have now taken a critical step towards this goal with the discovery that nano-sized crystals of cobalt oxide can effectively carry out the critical photosynthetic reaction of splitting water molecules. According to the researchers,  Photooxidation of water molecules into oxygen, electrons and protons (hydrogen ions) is one of the two essential half reactions of an artifical photosynthesis system – it provides the electrons needed to reduce carbon dioxide to a fuel. Effective photooxidation requires a catalyst that is both efficient in its use of solar photons and fast enough to keep up with solar flux in order to avoid wasting those photons. Clusters of cobalt oxide nanocrystals are sufficiently efficient and fast, and are also robust (last a long time) and abundant. They perfectly fit the bill.
    [Nanostructured Cobalt Oxide Clusters in Mesoporous Silica as Efficient Oxygen-Evolving Catalysts, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Volume 48 Issue 10 (2009) 1841 – 1844]
    (March 11, 2009)

    ***

    * The Gathering 2009 FAQs
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    * The Teaghlach Wood
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    Gathering Interactive
    launch video

    Click here to watch Lord Sempill’s introduction to The Gathering 2009 and other videos

    http://www.clangathering.org/

    ***

    Swiss banks shut out Americans

    Tax dodgers under the gun
    June 30, 2009

    By Warren Giles Geneva

    Swiss banks are shutting the accounts of Americans as the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS) accelerates the hunt for tax dodgers.

    UBS and Credit Suisse Group, the country’s biggest banks, have told Americans to move their money into specially created units registered in the US, or lose the accounts.

    Smaller private banks such as Geneva-based Mirabaud are closing all accounts held by US taxpayers.

    While the banks declined to say how many people are affected, more than 5 million Americans live abroad, including about 30 000 in Switzerland, according to American Citizens Abroad in Geneva. Swiss banks must register with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to provide services for those customers.

    My bank doesn’t want to do that, so we wouldn’t accept an investment account for a US person,  Pierre Mirabaud, the chairman of Mirabaud, said yesterday.

    SEC registration means that the clients do not enjoy the protection of Swiss banking secrecy laws, which makes it a crime for money managers to disclose the names of clients without their consent.

    Switzerland said in March that it would co-operate with international tax evasion probes after UBS admitted helping US clients avoid taxes.

    The IRS has since increased pressure on Americans to disclose offshore accounts as it seeks to recoup an estimated $50 billion (about R394bn) in unpaid taxes.

    The agency set a deadline of September 23 for taxpayers to declare all foreign accounts or face possible criminal prosecution that could result in as much as 10 years in prison and $500 000 in penalties.

    The US has also proposed increasing reporting and oversight requirements for so-called qualified intermediaries – foreign banks that withhold taxes on behalf of the IRS.
    Click here

    That might increase the cost of compliance and the risk of violating US laws, said Charles Adams, the managing partner at law firm Hogan & Hartson in Geneva.

    American citizens are starting to feel like they’re Typhoid Mary,  said Adams, who hosted a 2008 fundraiser for presidential candidate Barack Obama that featured actor George Clooney.

    The Swiss simply don’t want American customers because it requires so much infrastructure and hassle that they do not make any money.

    Sandra Dysli, an American who has lived in Geneva for 40 years, said Zurich-based Bank Zweiplus and a Geneva branch of Raiffeisen International Bank had refused to open investment accounts for her.

    UBS said last July that it planned to stop all offshore banking and investment services for people subject to US taxes, except through US registered units.

    UBS notified US clients in a March 27 letter that it would close accounts within 45 days. Customers were asked to transfer assets to entities registered with the SEC, and asked to consult an adviser about the US tax consequences, according to a copy of the letter.

    UBS will no longer be able to continue to provide services to you through your current account,  the letter said.

    The spokesman for UBS, Dominique Gerster, declined to say how much progress the bank had made in moving US clients or closing their accounts.

    We offer domestic and international wealth management services in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and policies,  said Jan Vonder Muehll, the spokesman for Credit Suisse.

    http://www.busrep.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=565&fArticleId=5059093

    ***

    http://www.belgiumtheplaceto.be/

    http://www.iaea.org/

    ***

    http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Focus/IaeaIran/index.shtml

    IAEA – International Atomic Energy (Commission) Agency – 2009

    * You are in :
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    IAEA Daily Press Review

    The objective of the DPR is to present a general overview of international, English-language, media coverage of the IAEA and nuclear issues, that does not purport to be exhaustive. The following articles are obtained from external news sources for whose content the IAEA takes no responsibility.

    30 June 2009
    IAEA in the News

    Election row hits Iran nuclear talks Prospects for negotiations over Iran’s nuclear activities appear bleak after the reassertion of power by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. BBC

    Safety Of Canada’s Nuclear Reactors In Question Because Of Design Feature Canada’s seven nuclear stations which use Candu technology have a positive reactivity feedback design feature which may lead to dangerous power pulses in the event of a major accident. AHN
    Other Nuclear News

    North Korea Trying to Enrich Uranium, South Says North Korea appears to be enriching uranium, potentially giving the state that tested a plutonium-based nuclear device in May another path for making atomic weapons, South Korea’s defense minister said on Tuesday. Reuters

    Berlusconi says G8 sanctions likely against Iran The Group of Eight wealthy powers are likely to agree to adopt sanctions against Iran when they meet in Italy next week, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said on Monday. Reuters

    Group offers plan to eliminate nukes by 2030 A group committed to eliminating nuclear weapons presented on Monday a four-step plan to achieve that goal by 2030, while acknowledging that Iran could be a  show stopper.  AP

    Central Asians seek help to clear Cold War waste Four Central Asian countries called on Monday for international help from governments and business in clearing toxic nuclear waste left over from the Cold War when they formed part of the Soviet Union. Reuters

    Re-think urged on UK nuclear deterrent The Government was today facing renewed pressure to re-think its decision to update its Trident nuclear deterrent in the face of growing cost pressures on the defence budget. The Independent

    Should renewable energy include nuclear? The US, China, and dozens of other countries are meeting today in Egypt to chart the course of a new international agency aimed at promoting renewable energy. CSMonitor
    Opinion and Analysis

    Sanctions on Iran: Will Europe Act? NYT

    Analysis: Grim Chinese views of North Korea suggest rethink Reuters
    Copyright 2003-2004, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
    Telephone (+431) 2600-0; Facsimilie (+431) 2600-7; E-mail: Official.Mail@iaea.org
    Disclaimer

    http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Dpr/pressreview.html

    ***

    NUCLEUS is the common access point to the IAEA’s scientific, technical and regulatory information resources. It incorporates, and facilitates access to about 100 IAEA databases, scientific and technical publications as well as safety standards.
    Featured Information Resources

    Food Irradiation Clearance Database (FICD)
    A database on country approvals of irradiated foods for human consumption. More »

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) provides leading information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. More »

    Food Irradiation Facilities Database (FIFD)
    A database on facilities for the irradiation of foods intended for human consumption. More »

    Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)
    PRIS is a comprehensive data source of nuclear power reactors in the world. More »

    Radiation Protection of Patients (RPOP)
    Information to help health professionals achieve safer use of radiation in medicine for the benefit of patients. More »

    Incident Reporting system (IRS)
    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system through which thirty-one participating countries exchange experience to improve the safety of nuclear power plants . More »

    http://nucleus.iaea.org/NUCLEUS/nucleus/Content/index.jsp

    **

    http://www.iaea.or.at/programmes/a2/

    LATEST NEWS RELATED TO PRIS AND THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
    Current status of the nuclear industry:

    * 436 nuclear power reactors in operation with a total net installed capacity of 370.221 GW(e)
    * 5 nuclear power reactors in long term shutdown
    * 48 nuclear power reactors under construction

    ***

    http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Focus/IaeaIran/index.shtml

    International Atomic Energy (Commission) Agency – 2009

    IAEA and Iran

    ***
    IAEA Daily Press Review

    The objective of the DPR is to present a general overview of international, English-language, media coverage of the IAEA and nuclear issues, that does not purport to be exhaustive. The following articles are obtained from external news sources for whose content the IAEA takes no responsibility.

    30 June 2009
    IAEA in the News

    Election row hits Iran nuclear talks Prospects for negotiations over Iran’s nuclear activities appear bleak after the reassertion of power by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. BBC

    Safety Of Canada’s Nuclear Reactors In Question Because Of Design Feature Canada’s seven nuclear stations which use Candu technology have a positive reactivity feedback design feature which may lead to dangerous power pulses in the event of a major accident. AHN
    Other Nuclear News

    North Korea Trying to Enrich Uranium, South Says North Korea appears to be enriching uranium, potentially giving the state that tested a plutonium-based nuclear device in May another path for making atomic weapons, South Korea’s defense minister said on Tuesday. Reuters

    Berlusconi says G8 sanctions likely against Iran The Group of Eight wealthy powers are likely to agree to adopt sanctions against Iran when they meet in Italy next week, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said on Monday. Reuters

    Group offers plan to eliminate nukes by 2030 A group committed to eliminating nuclear weapons presented on Monday a four-step plan to achieve that goal by 2030, while acknowledging that Iran could be a  show stopper.  AP

    [etc.]

    http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Dpr/pressreview.html

    International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
    Telephone (+431) 2600-0; Facsimilie (+431) 2600-7; E-mail: Official.Mail@iaea.org

    ***

    [Also here – ]

    NUCLEUS is the common access point to the IAEA’s scientific, technical and regulatory information resources. It incorporates, and facilitates access to about 100 IAEA databases, scientific and technical publications as well as safety standards.
    Featured Information Resources

    Food Irradiation Clearance Database (FICD)
    A database on country approvals of irradiated foods for human consumption. More »

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) provides leading information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. More »

    Food Irradiation Facilities Database (FIFD)
    A database on facilities for the irradiation of foods intended for human consumption. More »

    Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)
    PRIS is a comprehensive data source of nuclear power reactors in the world. More »

    Radiation Protection of Patients (RPOP)
    Information to help health professionals achieve safer use of radiation in medicine for the benefit of patients. More »

    Incident Reporting system (IRS)
    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system through which thirty-one participating countries exchange experience to improve the safety of nuclear power plants . More »

    http://nucleus.iaea.org/NUCLEUS/nucleus/Content/index.jsp

    ***

    http://www.iaea.or.at/programmes/a2/

    IAEA – Power Reactor Information System Portal

    International Atomic Energy (Commission) Agency – 2009

    LATEST NEWS RELATED TO PRIS AND THE STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Current status of the nuclear industry:

    * 436 nuclear power reactors in operation with a total net installed capacity of 370.221 GW(e)
    * 5 nuclear power reactors in long term shutdown
    * 48 nuclear power reactors under construction

    ***
    Japan: Nuclear Power Reactors – Alphabetic
    Under Construction     2     Operational     53
    Long Term Shutdown     1     Shutdown     5
    Annual Electrical Power Production for 2008
    Total Power Production (including Nuclear)     Nuclear Power Production
    964931.668 GWh(e)     240518.529 GWh(e)
    Click on the name of a reactor to view its full details.

    Capacity (MWe)     Date
    Name     Type     Status     Location     Net     Gross     Connected
    FUGEN ATR
    HWLWR     Permanent Shutdown     FUKUI     148     165     1978/07/29
    FUKUSHIMA-DAIICHI-1
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     439     460     1970/11/17
    FUKUSHIMA-DAIICHI-2
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     760     784     1973/12/24
    FUKUSHIMA-DAIICHI-3
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     760     784     1974/10/26
    FUKUSHIMA-DAIICHI-4
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     760     784     1978/02/24
    FUKUSHIMA-DAIICHI-5
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     760     784     1977/09/22
    FUKUSHIMA-DAIICHI-6
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     1067     1100     1979/05/04
    FUKUSHIMA-DAINI-1
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     1067     1100     1981/07/31
    FUKUSHIMA-DAINI-2
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     1067     1100     1983/06/23
    FUKUSHIMA-DAINI-3
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     1067     1100     1984/12/14
    FUKUSHIMA-DAINI-4
    BWR     Operational     FUKUSHIMA-KEN     1067     1100     1986/12/17
    GENKAI-1
    PWR     Operational     SAGA PREFECTURE     529     559     1975/02/14
    GENKAI-2
    PWR     Operational     SAGA PREFECTURE     529     559     1980/06/03
    GENKAI-3
    PWR     Operational     SAGA PREFECTURE     1127     1180     1993/06/15
    GENKAI-4
    PWR     Operational     SAGA PREFECTURE     1127     1180     1996/11/12
    HAMAOKA-1
    BWR     Permanent Shutdown     SHIZUOKA-PREFECTURE     515     540     1974/08/13
    HAMAOKA-2
    BWR     Permanent Shutdown     SHIZUOKA-PREFECTURE     806     840     1978/05/04
    HAMAOKA-3
    BWR     Operational     SHIZUOKA-PREFECTURE     1056     1100     1987/01/20
    HAMAOKA-4
    BWR     Operational     SHIZUOKA-PREFECTURE     1092     1137     1993/01/27
    HAMAOKA-5
    BWR     Operational     SHIZUOKA-PREFECTURE     1212     1267     2004/04/26
    HIGASHI DORI 1 (TOHOKU)
    BWR     Operational     Aomori Prefecture     1067     1100     2005/03/09
    IKATA-1
    PWR     Operational     EHIME PREFECTURE     538     566     1977/02/17
    IKATA-2
    PWR     Operational     EHIME PREFECTURE     538     566     1981/08/19
    IKATA-3
    PWR     Operational     EHIME PREFECTURE     846     890     1994/03/29
    JPDR
    BWR     Permanent Shutdown     IBARAKI     12     13     1963/10/26
    KASHIWAZAKI KARIWA-1
    BWR     Operational     NIIGATA-KEN     1067     1100     1985/02/13
    KASHIWAZAKI KARIWA-2
    BWR     Operational     NIIGATA-KEN     1067     1100     1990/02/08
    KASHIWAZAKI KARIWA-3
    BWR     Operational     NIIGATA-KEN     1067     1100     1992/12/08
    KASHIWAZAKI KARIWA-4
    BWR     Operational     NIIGATA-KEN     1067     1100     1993/12/21
    KASHIWAZAKI KARIWA-5
    BWR     Operational     NIIGATA-KEN     1067     1100     1989/09/12
    KASHIWAZAKI KARIWA-6
    BWR     Operational     NIIGATA-KEN     1315     1356     1996/01/29
    KASHIWAZAKI KARIWA-7
    BWR     Operational     NIIGATA-KEN     1315     1356     1996/12/17
    MIHAMA-1
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     320     340     1970/08/08
    MIHAMA-2
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     470     500     1972/04/21
    MIHAMA-3
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     780     826     1976/02/19
    MONJU
    FBR     Long-term Shutdown     FUKUI     246     280     1995/08/29
    OHI-1
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     1120     1175     1977/12/23
    OHI-2
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     1120     1175     1978/10/11
    OHI-3
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     1127     1180     1991/06/07
    OHI-4
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     1127     1180     1992/06/19
    ONAGAWA-1
    BWR     Operational     MIYAGI PREFECTURE     498     524     1983/11/18
    ONAGAWA-2
    BWR     Operational     MIYAGI PREFECTURE     796     825     1994/12/23
    ONAGAWA-3
    BWR     Operational     MIYAGI PREFECTURE     796     825     2001/05/30
    SENDAI-1
    PWR     Operational     KAGOSHIMA PREFECTURE     846     890     1983/09/16
    SENDAI-2
    PWR     Operational     KAGOSHIMA PREFECTURE     846     890     1985/04/05
    SHIKA-1
    BWR     Operational     ISHIKAWA-KEN     505     540     1993/01/12
    SHIKA-2
    BWR     Operational     ISHIKAWA-KEN     1108     1206     2005/07/04
    SHIMANE-1
    BWR     Operational     SHIMANE PREFECTURE     439     460     1973/12/02
    SHIMANE-2
    BWR     Operational     SHIMANE PREFECTURE     789     820     1988/07/11
    SHIMANE-3
    BWR     Under Construction     SHIMANE PREFECTURE     1325     1373     2011/12/15
    TAKAHAMA-1
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     780     826     1974/03/27
    TAKAHAMA-2
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     780     826     1975/01/17
    TAKAHAMA-3
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     830     870     1984/05/09
    TAKAHAMA-4
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     830     870     1984/11/01
    TOKAI-1
    GCR     Permanent Shutdown     IBARAKI-KEN     137     166     1965/11/10
    TOKAI-2
    BWR     Operational     IBARAKI-KEN     1060     1100     1978/03/13
    TOMARI-1
    PWR     Operational     HOKKAIDO     550     579     1988/12/06
    TOMARI-2
    PWR     Operational     HOKKAIDO     550     579     1990/08/27
    TOMARI-3
    PWR     Under Construction     HOKKAIDO     866     912     2009/12/10
    TSURUGA-1
    BWR     Operational     FUKUI     340     357     1969/11/16
    TSURUGA-2
    PWR     Operational     FUKUI     1110     1160     1986/06/19

    [from left sidebar – list – put in the country  Japan  – allow list to sort alphabetically]
    ********

    [You need to know this – and this is where to find it – ]
    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT INFORMATION

    This section provides some of the tables and charts which are produced using PRIS data. All data are based on information provided by IAEA Member States through designated national correspondents or governmental organizations.

    * Number of Reactors up to date
    o Operational by age
    o Under Construction
    + By Country
    + By Type
    o Operational & Long Term Shutdown
    + By Country
    + By Type
    o Shutdown
    + By Country
    + By Type

    * Lifetime factors by country up to 2008 (Includes all operational & shutdown reactors from beginning of comercial operation up to 2008)
    o Energy Availability Factor
    o Unit Capability Factor
    o Unplanned Capability Loss Factor

    * Last three years factors by country up to 2008 (Includes only operational reactors from 2006 up to 2008)
    o Energy Availability Factor
    o Unit Capability Factor
    o Unplanned Capability Loss Factor

    * World average factors by year (Energy Availability Factor, Unit Capability Factor & Unplanned Capability Loss Factor calculated only for operational reactors from 1998 up to 2008)
    * Reactors Under Construction
    * Number of Reactors in Operation Worldwide
    * Nuclear Share of Electricity Generation
    * Number of Reactors in Operation by Age
    * World Energy Availability Factors by Year

    [located by using tab above left sidebar search window for details on each country – this page is the  World Summary  listing by clicket on those words in the left sidebar – then it is the portal for all of these things listed above.]

    http://www.iaea.or.at/programmes/a2/

    ***

    My Note –

    This is the answer to the question –  how did I know that?  – I already knew where to look . . .

    – cricketdiane, 06-30-09

    ***
    NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS INFORMATION
    Last three years Energy Availability Factor
    (Includes only operational reactors from 2006 up to 2008)
    Country     2006     2007     2008     2006-2008
    No. of Reactors     EAF (%)     No. of Reactors     EAF (%)     No. of Reactors     EAF (%)     No. of Reactors     EAF (%)
    ARGENTINA     2     87.6     2     82.7     2     83.7     2     84.7
    ARMENIA     1     76.1     1     73.8     1     69     1     73
    BELGIUM     7     87.7     7     90.5     7     84.6     7     87.6
    BRAZIL     2     81     2     78.4     2     86.2     2     81.8
    BULGARIA     4     79.9     2     82.5     2     87.5     4     82.9
    CANADA     18     84.6     18     80.7     18     80     18     81.8
    CHINA     9     87.3     11     86.5     11     86.5     11     86.8
    CZECH REPUBLIC     6     79.4     6     78.3     6     78     6     78.6
    FINLAND     4     92.8     4     94.7     4     92.5     4     93.3
    FRANCE     59     81.6     59     78.5     59     77.6     59     79.2
    GERMANY     17     89.6     17     75.7     17     79.9     17     81.7
    HUNGARY     4     81.5     4     87.1     4     86.1     4     85
    INDIA     16     55     17     51.6     17     43.6     17     49.8
    JAPAN     55     69.1     55     63.2     55     57     55     63.1
    KOREA, REPUBLIC OF     20     92.3     20     90.2     20     93.2     20     91.9
    LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF     1     73.5     1     83.8     1     84.5     1     80.6
    MEXICO     2     93.9     2     89.7     2     83.1     2     89
    NETHERLANDS     1     84.6     1     95.1     1     92.6     1     90.9
    PAKISTAN     2     70.7     2     68.1     2     55.5     2     64.7
    ROMANIA     1     90.3     2     96     2     90.3     2     91.9
    RUSSIAN FEDERATION     31     75.1     31     76.9     31     80.6     31     77.5
    SLOVAK REPUBLIC     6     82.5     5     82.1     5     87.8     6     84
    SLOVENIA     1     89.9     1     90.9     1     98.6     1     93.1
    SOUTH AFRICA     2     65.6     2     80.4     2     81.3     2     75.8
    SPAIN     9     87.7     8     81.1     8     86.4     9     85.1
    SWEDEN     10     82.7     10     80.9     10     77.8     10     80.4
    SWITZERLAND     5     92.8     5     93.5     5     92     5     92.8
    UKRAINE     15     77.8     15     77.3     15     77.1     15     77.4
    UNITED KINGDOM     23     67.1     19     63.3     19     54.3     23     61.9
    UNITED STATES OF AMERICA     103     91     104     92.1     104     91.1     104     91.4
    World Wide     442     82.9     439     80.9     439     80     447     81.3

    The following data from Taiwan, China is included in the totals
    2006     2007     2008     2006-2008
    No. of Reactors     EAF (%)     No. of Reactors     EAF (%)     No. of Reactors     EAF (%)     No. of Reactors     EAF (%)
    6     89.1     6     90.2     6     90.4     6     89.9

    Above data from PRIS database. Last updated on 2009/06/15

    **

    [above information found by clicket on this link – from list on the page before it – ]

    http://www.iaea.org/cgi-bin/db.page.pl/pris.factors.htm?faccve=EAF&facname=Energy%20Availability%20Factor&group=Country

    ***

    http://www.thew2o.net/taxonomy/term/111
    World Ocean Observatory Directory

    Transportation

    ***

    AFL – Astra Freight & Logistics

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 35 El Obour Buildings, FL 15 , Apt. 1
    City: Nasr City
    State: Cairo
    Country: Egypt
    Continent: Africa Internet URL: http://www.afl-eg.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12115

    ***

    Ahrenkiel

    Contact Details
    City: Hamburg
    Country: Germany
    Continent: Europe Internet URL: http://www.ahrenkiel.net

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11004

    ***

    Alaska Marine Lines
    Contact Details
    Street Address: 1048 Whitney Road
    City: Anchorage
    State: Alaska
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 99501
    Internet URL: http://www.aml.lynden.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1208

    ***

    Alian?a Navega??o e Log?stica Ltda & Cia
    .
    Contact Details
    Street Address: Rua Verbo Divino, 1547, Bairro Ch?cara Santo Ant?nio
    Country: Brazil
    Continent: America: South
    Postal Code: 04719-002
    Internet URL: http://www.alianca.com.br

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/3350

    ***

    American Sail Training Association

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 240 Thames Street, P.O. Box 1459
    City: Newport
    State: Rhode Island
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 2840
    Telephone: (401) 846-1775
    Internet URL: http://tallships.sailtraining.org
    Mission Statement
    The American Sail Training Association (ASTA) is a Rhode Island-based, non-profit organization dedicated to enriching youth education through character building and leadership development experiences aboard tall ships. Founded in 1973, ASTA represents more than 250 American and international sailing vessels and is the largest sail training association in the world. Our national mission is to encourage character building through sail training, to promote sail training to the North American public, and to support education opportunities under sail. The organization?s activities directly support experiential education and personal development programs that profoundly shape young people?s lives and help build tomorrow?s leaders

    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    We publish the directory of sail training vessels?Sail Tall Ships ?that has been the only comprehensive register of vessels and related educational programs for more than 25 years. , http://www.sailtraining.org

    School Programs:
    We award scholarships that give young people the chance to experience life at sea aboard tall ships and that help vessels develop effective sail training programs., http://www.sailtraining.org

    Exhibits:
    We organize the TALL SHIPS CHALLENGE which is an annual series of tall ships races and maritime fesitvals across North America. , http://www.sailtraining.org

    Web Programs:
    Online professional development and employment opportunities in the sail training industry, educational resources., http://www.sailtraining.org

    Organizational Type
    * Educational Institution
    o Alternative Programs
    + Experiential
    + On-the-Water
    + Social Service
    o College
    o Elementary School
    o High School
    o University
    * Non-Governmental Organization
    o Cultural
    o Environmental
    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Professional Association
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Marine Biology
    * Art/Artifact
    * Culture
    * Economics
    * Maritime History
    * Ocean Science
    o Oceanography
    * Planning
    * Ports
    * Public Policy
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1790

    ***

    Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services

    Contact Details
    Street Address: GPO Box 594
    City: Canberra
    State: Australian Capital Territory
    Country: Australia
    Continent: Oceania
    Postal Code: 2601
    Internet URL: http://www.dotars.gov.au

    Organizational Type
    * Government Agency
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/13857

    ***

    Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB)
    Contact Details
    Street Address: 15 Mort Street
    City: Canberra City
    State: Australian Capital Territory
    Country: Australia
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 2601
    Internet URL: http://www.atsb.gov.au/marine/marine.aspx

    Organizational Type
    * Government Agency
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/13412

    ***

    Backman-Trummer

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Teollisuuskatu 1
    City: Vaasa
    Country: FINLAND
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: 65170
    Internet URL: http://www.rauanheimo.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11978

    ***

    Baltic Shipping Company

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Hans Edvard Teglers Vej 3
    City: Charlottenlund
    Country: Denmark
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: DK-2920
    Internet URL: http://www.balticshipping.dk
    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/264

    ***

    Barque Picton Castle

    Contact Details
    Street Address: P.O. Box 1076 132 Montague Street.
    City: Lunenburg
    State: Nova Scotia
    Country: Canada
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: B0J 2C0
    Telephone: 902 634-9984
    Facsimile: 902 634-9985
    Internet URL: http://www.picton-castle.com

    Mission Statement
    Deep ocean sail training on global circumnavigations in our 180-foot square-rigged ship, the PICTON CASTLE. Sail trainees learn traditional seafaring.

    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    Picton Castle Handbook for Crew, http://beworldwise.org

    School Programs:
    Hands-on sail training on world voyages for ages 18+, summer programs biannually for ages 15+.
    Curriculum:
    The ship and the voyage are the curriculum.

    Organizational Type
    * Educational Institution
    o Alternative Programs
    + On-the-Water
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + The Law of the Sea
    * Maritime History
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/723

    **

    BELFOR LOGISTICS NV

    Contact Details
    Street Address: NOORDERLAAN 76
    City: ANTWERP
    Country: Belgium
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: B-2030
    Internet URL: http://www.belforlogistics.be

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12294

    **

    BRISE Schiffahrt Hamburg

    Contact Details
    Street Address: M?rkenstra?e 12
    City: Hamburg
    Country: Germany
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: D – 22767
    Internet URL: http://www.brise.de

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11002

    **

    Brooklyn Public Library

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Grand Army Plaza
    City: Brooklyn
    State: New York
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 11238
    Internet URL: http://www.brooklynpubliclibrary.org

    Organizational Type
    * Library
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Fresh Water and Sanitation
    + Marine Biology
    + Ocean Energy
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Energy
    * Ethnography
    * Exploration
    * Fishing
    * Food Production
    * Fresh Water
    * Governance
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Legal
    * Maritime History
    * Medical Research
    * Natural Resources
    * Nautical Archeology
    * Naval History
    * Ocean Technology
    * Photography
    * Planning
    * Ports
    * Public Health
    * Public Policy
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Sanitation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1416

    **

    Bunkerworld Vancouver

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Unit 816 – 675 West Hastings Street
    City: Vancouver
    Country: Canada
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: V6B 1N2
    Internet URL: http://www.bunkerworld.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12073

    **

    Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics

    Contact Details
    Street Address: L2/111 Alinga Street
    City: Canberra
    State: Australian Capital Territory
    Country: Australia
    Continent: Oceania
    Postal Code: 2601
    Internet URL: http://www.btre.gov.au

    Organizational Type
    * Government Agency
    * Research Organization
    Content Areas
    * Publications
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8727

    **

    Canada Science and Technology Museum

    Contact Details
    Street Address: P.O. Box 9724, Station T
    City: Ottawa
    State: Ontario
    Country: Canada
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: K1G 5A3
    Telephone: 613 991-3044
    Facsimile: 613 990-3654
    Internet URL: http://www.sciencetech.technomuses.ca

    Mission Statement
    To foster scientific and technological literacy throughout Canada by establishing, maintaining and developing a collection of scientific and technological objects, with special but not exclusive reference to Canada, and by demonstrating the products and processes of science and technology and their economic, social and cultural relationships with society.

    Educational Offerings
    School Programs:
    Students discover, enjoy and marvel at science and technology in school programs designed to complement school curricula in math, science and technology, and social studies. Our programs extend the classroom experience, emphasizing active participation, hands-on opportunities and problem-solving. , http://www.sciencetech.technomuses.ca/english/schoolzone/index.cfm

    Exhibits:
    Canada?s largest science and technology museum is a great hands-on experience for visitors of all ages. Discover some of the most important scientific objects in Canada. Climb aboard real trains, try your hand at fascinating experiments, and see for yourself how science and technology affect our everyday lives., http://www.sciencetech.technomuses.ca/english/whatson/ongoing_exhibits.c

    Web Programs:
    http://www.sciencetech.technomuses.ca/english/index.cfm

    Organizational Type
    * Museum
    o Science
    Content Areas
    * Climate
    * Communication
    * Education
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Physical
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1556

    **

    Canadian Transportation Agency

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 15 Eddy Street
    City: Gatineau
    State: Quebec
    Country: Canada
    Continent: America: North Internet URL: http://www.cta.gc.ca
    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12074

    **

    Center for Maritime Systems

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 711 Hudson Street
    City: Hoboken
    State: New Jersey
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 7030
    Internet URL: http://www.stevens.edu/engineering/cms/

    Educational Offerings
    School Programs:
    http://www.stevens.edu/engineering/ceoe/

    Curriculum:
    http://www.stevens.edu/engineering/ceoe/Grad/index.html

    Organizational Type
    * Educational Institution
    o University
    * Research Organization
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Physical
    * Climate
    * Exploration
    * Maritime History
    * Natural Resources
    * Naval History
    * Ocean Science
    o Oceanography
    * Ocean Technology
    * Ports
    * Publications
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/3848

    **

    Center for Ports and Waterways

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Texas Transportation Institute, 701 N. Post Oak, Suite 430
    City: Houston
    State: Texas
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 77024-3827
    Telephone: 713-686-2971
    Facsimile: 713-686-5396
    Internet URL: http://tti.tamu.edu/cpw/

    Mission Statement
    The CPW will provide maritime interests with a dynamic research, development, technology transfer, and education program.

    Organizational Type
    * Research Organization
    Content Areas
    * Ports
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9019

    **

    Ceres Amsterdam Marine Terminals

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 1044 AB Amsterdam
    City: Havennr
    State: harbornr
    Country: Netherlands
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: 5035
    Internet URL: http://www.ceresglobal.nl

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1229

    **

    Ceres Terminals Incorporated

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 1200 Harbor Boulevard
    City: Weehawken
    State: New Jersey
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 7086
    Internet URL: http://www.ceresglobal.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/2763

    **

    Chamber of Shipping of British Columbia

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Suite 100 Main Floor, 1111 West Hastings Street
    City: Vancouver
    State: British Columbia
    Country: Canada
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: V6E 2J3
    Internet URL: http://www.chamber-of-shipping.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/3870

    **

    CLECAT – European Association for Forwarding, Transport, Logistic

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 77 Rue du Commerce
    City: Brussels
    Country: Belgium
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: B-1040
    Internet URL: http://www.clecat.org

    Organizational Type
    * Professional Association
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12048

    **

    Coastal Transportation

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 4025 13th AVE W
    City: Seattle
    State: Washington
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 98119-1350
    Internet URL: http://www.coastaltrans.com

    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/6209

    **

    Coastalwatch

    Contact Details
    Street Address: P.O. Box 1488
    City: North Sydney
    State: New South Wales
    Country: Australia
    Continent: Oceania
    Postal Code: 2059
    Telephone: 61 02 99657315
    Facsimile: 61 2 99555111
    Internet URL: http://www.coastalwatch.com

    Mission Statement
    The Coastalwatch web site links viewers to live coastal images, current information and news, via a system of national web cameras Coastalwatch is committed to bringing the coast to all Australians and overseas visitors, making a significant contribution to safer coastal use and more efficient and cost effective coastal management. Coastalwatch actively supports community groups such as Surf Life Saving, Volunteer Rescue organisations, Surfing Australia, Surfrider Foundation Australia and charities such as SurfAid International and the Disabled Surfers Association. Coastalwatch is currently consolidating its position as the premier provider of these services in Australia and overseas. Through the expansion of its camera networks, the provision of accurate, cost effective real time coastal zone management data, and establishing and maintaining beneficial links with community groups, all levels of government and agencies, Coastalwatch will continue its sustainable growth and will be the World???s best.

    Organizational Type
    * Archive
    * Corporation
    * Research Organization
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Ocean Energy
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Physical
    * Archives
    * Climate
    * Communication
    * Culture
    * Fishing
    * Ocean Science
    o Oceanography
    * Ocean Technology
    * Photography
    * Ports
    * Recreation
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/18157

    **

    Concept Marine Associates, Incorporated

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 180 Grand Avenue, Suite 400
    City: Oakland
    State: California
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 94612
    Internet URL: http://www.conceptmarine.com

    Organizational Type
    * Professional Association
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8228

    **

    Consolidated Marine Contractors

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Comarco base
    City: Limatoni bay
    State: Mombasa
    Country: Kenya
    Continent: Africa Internet URL: http://www.comarconet.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/10292

    **

    CROWLEY SERVICES

    Contact Details
    Street Address: P.O. Box 2108
    City: Mobile
    State: Alabama
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 36652
    Internet URL: http://www.crowley.com

    Organizational Type
    * Corporation
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/13799

    **

    D&H Canal Museum

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 23 Mohonk Rd, 1 block east of Rt. 213
    City: High Falls
    State: New York
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 12440
    Telephone: 845-687-9311
    Internet URL: http://www.canalmuseum.org

    Mission Statement
    The mission of the D&H Canal Historical Society is to preserve, protect and perpetuate the unique history of the Delaware & Hudson Canal
    .
    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    The Canawler newsletter – free to members – includes information on D&H Canal Historical Society activities, events and archival information.

    School Programs:
    We provide elementary and secondary school programs, teacher resources and youth and adult programs.

    Exhibits:
    Our Museum exhibits include a working lock model, dioramas, fine art and artifacts and the Five Locks Walk, a National Historic Landmark towpath trail

    Study Collections:
    The Museum has extensive archives of photographs, maps and primary documents.

    Organizational Type
    * Museum
    o Historic Site
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    * Archives
    * Art/Artifact
    * Maritime History
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/907

    **

    Department for Transport
    Contact Details
    Street Address: Great Minster House, 76 Marsham Street
    State: London
    Country: United Kingdom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: SW1P 4DR
    Internet URL: http://www.dft.gov.uk

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9880

    **

    Department of Transport

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Transport House, 44 Kildare Street
    City: Dublin 2
    Country: Ireland
    Continent: Europe Internet URL: http://www.transport.ie

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/10355

    **

    Dieterle & Victory International Transport Co., Inc.

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 42B Hacksensack Avenue
    City: South Kearny
    State: New Jersey
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 7032
    Internet URL: http://www.dievict.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation
    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12300

    **

    EL ? SHARKAWY GROUP

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 23 Moustafa Kamal & Gamal Abdel Naser Str., P.O.Box 240
    City: Port Said
    Country: EGYPT
    Continent: Africa Internet URL: http://www.elsharkawygroup.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12512

    **

    Environment, Transport and Works Bureau

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 15/F – 16/F, Murray Building, Garden Road
    City: Central
    State: Hong Kong
    Country: China
    Continent: Asia Internet URL: http://www.etwb.gov.hk

    Organizational Type
    * Non-Governmental Organization
    o Environmental
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9931

    **

    Environmental Literacy Council

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 1625 K Street, NW, Suite 1020
    City: Washington
    State: District of Columbia
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 20006-3868
    Telephone: 202-296-0390
    Internet URL: http://www.enviroliteracy.org

    Organizational Type
    * Non-Governmental Organization
    o Environmental
    * Nonprofit Organization
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Fresh Water and Sanitation
    + Marine Biology
    + Ocean Energy
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Economics
    * Energy
    * Fishing
    * Food Production
    * Fresh Water
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    * Legal
    * Natural Resources
    * Public Health
    * Public Policy
    * Sanitation
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1107

    **

    Equasis Management Unit
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    3, square Desaix
    State:
    Paris
    Country:
    France
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    75014
    Internet URL: http://www.equasis.org
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9063

    **
    Eucon Shipping & Transport Ltd.
    Contact Details
    State:
    Rotterdam
    Country:
    Netherlands
    Continent: Europe Internet URL: http://www.eucon.nl
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11937

    **

    European Commission
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    99, Rue Joseph II
    City:
    Brussels
    Country:
    Belgium
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    1049
    Telephone:
    3222969135
    Facsimile:
    3222994817
    Internet URL: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/
    Mission Statement
    We are consulting the public on a future integrated and holistic ocean policy for Europe.
    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    – A European vision for the oceans and seas, 7 June 2006 – Maritime Facts and Figures, June 2006 – Posters
    Organizational Type

    * Government Agency

    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Marine Biology
    + Ocean Energy
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Climate
    * Communication
    * Culture
    * Economics
    * Energy
    * Exploration
    * Fishing
    * Food Production
    * Fresh Water
    * Governance
    * Legal
    * Maritime History
    * Natural Resources
    * Ocean Science
    * Ocean Technology
    * Planning
    * Ports
    * Public Policy
    * Publications
    * Sanitation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9488

    **

    Evergreen America Corp.
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    8140 Corporate Drive, Suite 205
    City:
    Baltimore
    State:
    Maryland
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    21236
    Internet URL: http://www.evergreen-america.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12095

    **

    F.K. Warren Ltd.
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    2000 Barrington Street, Cogswell Tower, Suite 920
    City:
    Halifax
    State:
    Nova Scotia
    Country:
    Canada
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    B3J 3K1
    Internet URL: http://www.fkwarren.ca
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12059

    **

    Faisal M. Higgi Group
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Aziz Street P.O Box 156
    City:
    Yanbu Al-Bahr
    Country:
    Saudi Arabia
    Continent: Asia Internet URL: http://www.faisal-higgi.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12369

    **

    FAST LINES BELGIUM NV
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Ernest Van Dijckkaai 15/17
    City:
    Antwerpen
    Country:
    Belgium
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    B-2000
    Internet URL: http://www.fast-lines.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/15616
    **

    Fishing From Georgia Trips Charters
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    560 Ishman Ballard Road
    City:
    Newnan
    State:
    Georgia
    Country:
    USA
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    30263
    Telephone:
    770 502 9560
    Internet URL: http://www.FishingFromGeorgia.com, http://www.JoyfulEvents.net
    Mission Statement
    Welcome: Families, Groups, Organizations, Couples, Individuals, Churches, Teenagers, Kids, Young Adult Attend..Deep Sea Fishing Trips & Lake Fishing
    Educational Offerings
    Exhibits:
    Please Review Websites http://www.FishingFromGeorgia.net or http://www.JoyfulEvents.net
    Organizational Type

    * Educational Institution
    o Alternative Programs
    + On-the-Water
    + Special Needs
    * Recreational Association

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    * Fishing
    * Recreation
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/5349

    **

    GERMAN MARITIME ARBITRATION ASSOCIATION
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    K??lner Strasse 34
    City:
    Bremen
    State:
    Bremen
    Country:
    Germany
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    D-28327
    Telephone:
    +49-421-4379070
    Facsimile:
    +49-421-4379072
    Internet URL: http://www.gmaa.de
    Organizational Type

    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Professional Association
    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Legal
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8571

    **

    Great Bay Coast Watch
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Sea Grant, Kingman Farm/UNH
    City:
    Durham
    State:
    New Hampshire
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    03824-3512
    Telephone:
    1-603-749-1565
    Facsimile:
    1-603-743-3997
    Internet URL: http://www.gbcw.unh.edu
    Organizational Type

    * Educational Institution
    o University
    * Nonprofit Organization

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Marine Biology
    * Fresh Water
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Natural Resources
    * Naval History
    * Photography
    * Planning
    * Public Policy
    * Recreation
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9250

    **

    Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    111 Ashmun St.
    City:
    Sault Ste. Marie
    State:
    Michigan
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    49783
    Telephone:
    800-635-1742
    Facsimile:
    906-635-0860
    Internet URL: http://www.shipwreckmuseum.com
    Mission Statement
    The mission of the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum is to collect, preserve, study and interpret the material culture of the Great Lakes.
    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    Quarterly Shipwreck Journal
    School Programs:
    Student visits to Shipwreck Museum; professional seminars on-site; presentations to schools; student intern program.
    Exhibits:
    The museum and its exhibits are open from May 1 to October 31, every day 10 am to 6pm; located at the historic Whitefish Point Light Station.
    Study Collections:
    Great Lakes Images Collection; Shipwreck Artifact Collection; U.S. Life-Saving Service Collection; U.S. Lighthouse Service Collection.
    Web Programs:
    Please visit our web site
    Organizational Type

    * Museum
    o Historic Site
    o Maritime History
    * Lighthouse
    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Ports
    * Research Organization

    Content Areas

    * Art/Artifact
    * Education
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    * Culture
    * Exploration
    * Fresh Water
    * Maritime History
    * Nautical Archeology
    * Ports
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/532

    **

    Herman Andersson Oy
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Poikkimaantie 12
    City:
    OULU
    Country:
    Finland
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    90401
    Internet URL: http://www.hermanandersson.fi
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11981

    **

    InforMare – Laws & Regulations
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    via al Ponte Reale 1/41
    City:
    Genoa
    State:
    Genoa
    Country:
    Italy
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    16124
    Internet URL: http://www.informare.it/dbase/law/idxuk.htm
    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8579

    **

    Institute for Science, Technology and Public Policy (ISTPP)
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Texas A&M University, George Bush School of Government and Public Service, 4350 TAMU
    City:
    College Station
    State:
    Texas
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    77843-4350
    Telephone:
    (979) 845-2929
    Facsimile:
    (979) 862-8856
    Internet URL: http://bush.tamu.edu/research/ISTPP, http://bush.tamu.edu/about_us/directory/details/?t=istpp_dir
    Mission Statement
    The Institute for Science, Technology and Public Policy (ISTPP) is a nonpartisan, interdisciplinary public policy research institute. The Institute pursues a dual mission: the scholarly examination of public policy issues and the communication of research-based knowledge to the public and decision makers. It seeks to (1) conduct and facilitate interdisciplinary research required by today???s complex problems, and (2) enhance the university???s ability to communicate research findings in ways that have a positive impact on the policy process and the public???s understanding of science and technology issues. ISTPP interdisciplinary research projects focus on the ways that scientific and technological information is framed, processed, communicated, and received in complex systems and the policy implications of these processes. Projects have as their goal the development of theoretical and applied frameworks that integrate technical and policy data to provide more holistic assessments of problems and their potential solutions.
    Organizational Type

    * Educational Institution
    o University
    * Research Organization

    Content Areas

    * Climate
    * Communication
    * Education
    o Content Areas
    * Governance
    * Planning
    * Public Health
    * Public Policy
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9104

    **

    Instituto Mar??timo – Portu??rio
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Vasco da Gama – Rua General Gomes Ara??jo
    City:
    Lisboa
    State:
    Lisboa
    Country:
    Portugal
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    1399-005
    Internet URL: http://www.imarpor.pt
    Organizational Type

    * Educational Institution
    o University

    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8586

    **
    Khedivial Marine Logistics S.A.E
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    129 El-Merghany St.7 Th floor
    City:
    Heliopolis
    State:
    Cairo
    Country:
    Egypt
    Continent: Africa Internet URL: http://www.kml-logistics.net
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12131

    **

    LINK SHIPPING TRANSPORTATION & TRADE LTD.
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    EGITIM MAHALLESI, CEM IS MERKEZI, NO:10, D:1
    City:
    HASANPASA
    State:
    ISTANBUL
    Country:
    TURKEY
    Continent: Asia
    Postal Code:
    34722
    Internet URL: http://www.linkshipping.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12307

    **

    Liverpool John Moores University
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    4 Rodney Street
    City:
    Liverpool
    State:
    Merseyside
    Country:
    United Kingdom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    L1 2TZ
    Telephone:
    1512312235
    Facsimile:
    1512312453
    Internet URL: http://www.livjm.ac.uk/maritime
    Mission Statement
    The Centre of Transport and Maritime Studies provides quality courses for the benefit of the maritime and transport industry and those in it.
    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    30+ journal and conference papers on maritime risk assessment, port operations, navigation, transport and maritime programme development annually. , http://www.eng.livjm.ac.uk/research/groups/morg/home.html
    School Programs:
    Post Doc, Phd,MSc,Undergraduate & CPD programmes in Maritime & Transport studies plus marine engineering. Seagoing, science and business courses., http://www.livjm.ac.uk/maritime/
    Curriculum:
    The course curriculum is varied between business and law, navigation, transport business and marine engineering., http://www.eng.livjm.ac.uk/prospectStudent/progStudy/underGrad/underCour&#8230;
    Exhibits:
    You can find details of exhibits regarding maritime and transport at LJMU in the maritime website, http://www.livjm.ac.uk/maritime/
    Organizational Type

    * Educational Institution
    o University

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    o Content Areas
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Physical
    * Communication
    * Economics
    * Legal
    * Ocean Science
    o Oceanography
    * Ocean Technology
    * Ports
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/4418

    **

    Logistec
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    360 St. Jacques Street, Suite 1500
    City:
    Montr?al
    State:
    Quebec
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    H2Y 1P5
    Internet URL: http://www.logistec.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/10903

    **

    LogisticsWorld
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    3195 Dayton-Xenia Rd, Ste 900, Box 335
    City:
    Beavercreek
    State:
    Ohio
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    45432
    Internet URL: http://www.loglink.net
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/10918

    **

    London?s Transport Museum
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    39 Wellington Street
    City:
    Covent Garden
    State:
    London
    Country:
    United Kingdom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    WC2E 7BB
    Internet URL: http://www.ltmuseum.co.uk
    Organizational Type

    * Museum

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9677

    **

    Lynden Logistics, Inc.
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    6441 South Airpark Place
    City:
    Anchorage
    State:
    Alaska
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    99502-1809
    Internet URL: http://www.llog.lynden.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12295

    **

    Marine Leisure Association
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Burrwood, 24 Peterscroft Avenue, Ashurst
    City:
    Southampton
    State:
    Hampshire
    Country:
    England
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    SO40 7AB
    Telephone:
    00 44 (0)23 8029 3822
    Facsimile:
    00 44 (0)23 8029 3888
    Internet URL: http://www.marineleisure.co.uk
    Mission Statement
    The Trade Association for TRAINING, CHARTER and HOLIDAYS offering the general public better protection, guidance and advice. The membership boasts more than 170 members operating Worldwide. Training members are RYA Recognised Training Centres offering fully coded and equipped boats, expert Instructors and tuition for beginners through to professional qualifications. The courses offered are a careful blend of serious instruction and fun. Charter companies adhere to current legislation, especially with regards to the Package Travel Holiday and Package Tour Regulations 1992, using appropriate bonding, insurance or trust fund arrangements. Holiday companies are all ATOL (Air Travel Organiser Licence) bonded, managed by the Civil Aviation Authority. ATOL is the government???s licensing and financial protection scheme for air holidays and flights sold by tour operators and travel organisers in the UK.
    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    Annual brochure listing all members which is available free of charge. YCA Guide to Charter: A practical guide to the yacht charter business to buy.
    School Programs:
    All RYA sail/power courses and MCA qualifications.
    Organizational Type

    * Professional Association
    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Commerce
    * Exploration
    * Recreation
    * Trade
    * Transportation
    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8528

    **

    Marine Services On-line
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    330 Sparks Street
    City:
    Ottawa
    State:
    Ontario
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    K1A 0N5
    Internet URL: http://www.marineservices.gc.ca
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/10192

    **

    Marine Transportation Specialists Corporation
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    1201 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 300
    City:
    Washington
    State:
    District of Columbia
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    20004
    Internet URL: http://www.mtscorporation.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9083

    **

    MariTerm AB
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Box 12037
    City:
    G??teborg
    Country:
    Sweden
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    402 41
    Internet URL: http://www.mariterm.se
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11955

    **

    MARITIME DEVELOPMENT CENTER OF EUROPE
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Amaliegade 33
    City:
    K??benhavn K
    Country:
    Denmark
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    DK-1256
    Internet URL: http://www.maritimecenter.dk
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9070

    **

    Maritime New Zealand
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    8th Floor, gen-i Tower, 109 Featherston Street
    State:
    Wellington
    Country:
    New Zealand
    Continent: Oceania
    Postal Code:
    27-006
    Internet URL: http://www.msa.govt.nz
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8581

    **

    Morska Agencja Gdynia Sp zoo (MAG)
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    16, Devonshire street
    State:
    London
    Country:
    United Kingdom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    WIG7AF
    Internet URL: http://www.mag.gdynia.pl
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11341

    **

    MTL Maritime Transport + Logistik GmbH & Co. KG
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    August-Hirsch-Strasse 10
    City:
    DUISBURG
    Country:
    Germany
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    D-47119
    Internet URL: http://www.mtl-duisburg.de
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12078

    **

    NAUSICAA
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Boulevard Sainte Beuve, B.P. 189
    City:
    Boulogne-sur-Mer Cedex
    Country:
    France
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    62203
    Telephone:
    00 33 3 21 30 99 99
    Facsimile:
    00 33 3 21 30 93 94
    Internet URL: http://www.nausicaa.fr/
    Mission Statement
    To incite the general public to discover and to love the Sea, while raising its awareness on the need for a sustainable management of marine resources
    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    NAUSICA? proposes an Education Resource Book, Educational Worksheets, Investigation Worksheets, Themed Files, and Educational Resource Boxes., http://www.nausicaa.fr/Anglais/enseignants.html
    School Programs:
    To complete a visit at NAUSICA?, the Education Service can provide an activity leader to help you understand better a topic studied in the exhibition., http://www.nausicaa.fr/Anglais/enseignants.html
    Exhibits:
    NAUSICA?, the French National Sea Experience Centre in Boulogne-sur-Mer, invites you to join Jean-Michel Cousteau and three children aboard their vessel for an ocean voyage from Iceland to the Cape of Good Hope, http://www.nausicaa.fr/Anglais/Exposition_CAS.htm
    Organizational Type

    * Aquarium
    * Non-Governmental Organization
    o Environmental
    * Museum
    o Natural History
    o Science

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Marine Biology
    + Ocean Energy
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Archives
    * Climate
    * Economics
    * Energy
    * Exploration
    * Fishing
    * Food Production
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Natural Resources
    * Ocean Technology
    * Ports
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1861

    **

    Neptune Orient Lines Limited (NOL)
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    456 Alexandra Road
    City:
    NOL Building
    Country:
    Singapore
    Continent: Asia
    Postal Code:
    119962
    Internet URL: http://www.nol.com.sg
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12310

    **

    Northland Services
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    P.O. Box 24527
    City:
    Seattle
    State:
    Washington
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North Internet URL: http://www.northlandservicesinc.com
    Organizational Type

    * Corporation

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/13802

    **

    Owen Sound Marine-Rail Museum
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    1155 1st Avenue West
    City:
    Owen Sound
    State:
    Ontario
    Country:
    Canada
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    N4K 4K8
    Telephone:
    (519) 371-3333
    Facsimile:
    (519) 371-8628
    Internet URL: http://www.e-owensound.com/marinerail
    Mission Statement
    Located on the waterfront in the former Canadian National Railway depot, the Museum illustrates the time at the turn of the century when Owen Sound was a thriving and bustling port that served as the ?Gateway to the West?. Visit our displays of artifacts, models, photographs and interactive stations related to the history of marine & rail transportation and associated area industries
    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    Member newletter each spring and late fall.
    School Programs:
    Organized interactive group activities incorporating fun and learning are available. Youth will learn about our heritage in ways that arouse interest and allow hands-on experience. Minimum two week advance booking is recommended.
    Exhibits:
    Harbour History Ship-to-Shore In the mid 1800?s, the Harbour was the only way to bring a large amount of goods into what is now Owen Sound. This city grew and became what it is as a result of the marine traffic in and out of our harbour.
    Organizational Type

    * Museum
    o Historic Ship
    o Maritime History
    o Natural History
    o Naval
    * Lighthouse
    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + Elementary
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Fisheries and Food
    * Archives
    * Art/Artifact
    * Culture
    * Economics
    * Maritime History
    * Natural Resources
    * Naval History
    * Photography
    * Recreation
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/922

    **

    Owls Head Transportation Museum
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Route 73
    City:
    Owls Head
    State:
    Maine
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North Internet URL: http://www.ohtm.org
    Organizational Type

    * Museum

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/2592

    **

    Panama Canal Museum
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    7985 113th St, Ste 100
    City:
    Seminole
    State:
    Florida
    Country:
    USA
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    33772
    Telephone:
    727-394-9338
    Facsimile:
    727-394-2737
    Internet URL: http://panamacanalmuseum.org
    Mission Statement
    To preserve history of Panama Canal, 1904-1999, contributions of citizens across the globe, construction, operation, defense, maintenance
    Educational Offerings
    Exhibits:
    Honoring 150th anniversary of completion of Panama RR, 1st transcontinental RR. History exhibit from Spanish colonial, French sea-level to U.S.
    Study Collections:
    To be digitized official Canal records from 1906-1941, including the Isthmian Canal Commission records, for research
    Web Programs:
    Why A Canal? Overview, history, how it operates, is it still important, about the culture. Latest featured program: Roosevelt Medal Certificate, http://www.panamacanalmuseum.org
    Organizational Type

    * Museum
    o Childrens
    o Maritime History
    o Naval
    o Science
    * Library
    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Research Organization

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Fresh Water and Sanitation
    + Marine Biology
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Archives
    * Art/Artifact
    * Energy
    * Exploration
    * Fresh Water
    * Governance
    * Maritime History
    * Medical Research
    * Natural Resources
    * Naval History
    * Ocean Technology
    * Ports
    * Public Health
    * Sanitation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8155

    **

    Peterson logistics
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Jufferstraat 9
    City:
    Rotterdam
    Country:
    The Netherlands
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    3011 XL
    Internet URL: http://www.peterson.nl
    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12354

    **

    Poole Central Library
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Dolphin Centre
    City:
    Poole
    Country:
    United Kingdoom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    BH15 1QE
    Telephone:
    +44(0)1202 262421
    Facsimile:
    +44(0)1202 262442
    Internet URL: http://www.poole.gov.uk, http://boroughofpoole.com
    Mission Statement
    The Council?s vision for the library service is to deliver high quality front line services and continuous improvement, driven by innovation and based on public consultation.
    Educational Offerings
    Exhibits:
    http://www.boroughofpoole.com/categories.asp?id=F773FD1A8EE64B&title=Mus&#8230;
    Organizational Type

    * Library

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Fresh Water and Sanitation
    + Marine Biology
    + Ocean Energy
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Climate
    * Communication
    * Culture
    * Energy
    * Exploration
    * Fishing
    * Food Production
    * Fresh Water
    * Governance
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Legal
    * Maritime History
    * Medical Research
    * Natural Resources
    * Nautical Archeology
    * Naval History
    * Ocean Technology
    * Photography
    * Planning
    * Ports
    * Public Health
    * Public Policy
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Sanitation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/7830

    **

    Port of Benton
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    3100 George Washington Way
    City:
    Richland
    State:
    Washington
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    99354
    Internet URL: http://www.portofbenton.com
    Organizational Type

    * Ports

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/592

    **

    Public Works and Water Resources Division – Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    1201 Capitol Access Road (PO Box 94245)
    City:
    Baton Rouge
    State:
    Louisiana
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    70804-9245
    Internet URL: http://www.dotd.louisiana.gov/intermodal/division/water/documents.shtml
    Organizational Type

    * Corporation
    * Government Agency

    Content Areas

    * Fresh Water
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/15125

    **

    Race Shipping & Transport Co Pvt Ltd
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    A-401, 4th Floor, Remi Biz Court, Shah Indl. Estate
    City:
    Andheri (West)
    State:
    Mumbai
    Country:
    India
    Continent: Asia
    Postal Code:
    400 053
    Internet URL: http://www.raceship.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11095

    **

    Rederi AB Transatlantic
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    P.O. Box 32
    City:
    Sk??rhamn
    Country:
    Sweden
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    SE-471 21
    Internet URL: http://www.rabt.se
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12007

    **

    S. T. & T. Sea Transport & Trading
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    P.O.B. 65107
    City:
    Tel Aviv
    Country:
    Israel
    Continent: Asia
    Postal Code:
    61651
    Internet URL: http://www.seatransport.co.il
    Organizational Type

    * Ports

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9510

    **

    Salam International Transport and Trading Co.
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Arar Street, Wadi Saqra, P. O. Box 212955
    City:
    Amman
    Country:
    Jordan
    Continent: Asia
    Postal Code:
    11121
    Internet URL: http://www.sittcogroup.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12412

    **

    San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Headquarters: Building E, Lower Fort Mason Center
    City:
    San Francisco
    State:
    California
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    94123
    Telephone:
    415-561-7000 or 415-447-5000
    Facsimile:
    415.556.1624
    Internet URL: http://www.nps.gov/safr
    Mission Statement
    Preserve and interpret the history and achievements of seafaring Americans and the Nation’s maritime heritage, especially on the Pacific Coast.
    Organizational Type

    * Government Agency
    * Museum
    o Historic Ship
    o Maritime History
    * Library
    * Park
    * Research Organization

    Content Areas

    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + The Law of the Sea
    * Archives
    * Art/Artifact
    * Communication
    * Culture
    * Economics
    * Ethnography
    * Exploration
    * Fishing
    * Maritime History
    * Nautical Archeology
    * Photography
    * Planning
    * Public Policy
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/948

    **

    SARTORI & BERGER
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Wall 49/51
    City:
    Kiel
    Country:
    Germany
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    24103
    Internet URL: http://www.sartori-berger.de
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11867

    **

    SBS Marine Ltd
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Badentoy Avenue, Badentoy Park
    City:
    Portlethen
    State:
    Aberdeen
    Country:
    United Kingdom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    AB12 4YB
    Internet URL: http://www.sbsmarine.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12076

    **

    Schierbeck Supply Services A/S
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Baltikavej 10 ? Box 2528
    City:
    Copenhagen
    Country:
    DENMARK
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    DK-2100
    Internet URL: http://www.schierbeck.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12230

    **

    SEA TRANSPORT CORPORATION
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    PO Box 1043
    City:
    Southport
    State:
    Queensland
    Country:
    Australia
    Continent: Oceania
    Postal Code:
    4215
    Internet URL: http://www.seatransport.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine

    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11787

    **

    Sea Transportation Services
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    3565 Cardinal Point Drive
    City:
    Jacksonville
    State:
    Florida
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    32257
    Internet URL: http://www.stsgroup.com
    Organizational Type

    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas

    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12314

    **

    Seaboard Marine

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 8001 N.W. 79th Ave
    City: Miami
    State: Florida
    Country: United state of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 33166
    Internet URL: http://www.seaboardmarine.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11217

    **

    SeafoodIntelligence.com

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Laghtgannon
    City: Oughterard
    State:
    Co. Galway
    Country: Ireland
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: N/A
    Internet URL: http://www.seafoodintelligence.com

    Mission Statement
    SeafoodIntelligence.com (www.seafoodintelligence.com)- is a leading news & intelligence service for the international aquaculture, fisheries, global seafood and agrifood industries for all topics interesting marketers, managers, stakeholders, fisheries & marine scientists, decision-makers at large & consumers. It also features directories with more than 12,000 seafood companies listed, thousands of relevant WWW links, a job board with many scientific postings, classifieds, and much more

    Organizational Type
    * Archive
    * Corporation
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Fresh Water and Sanitation
    + Marine Biology
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    * Archives
    * Climate
    * Communication
    * Economics
    * Fishing
    * Food Production
    * Fresh Water
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Legal
    * Medical Research
    * Natural Resources
    * Ocean Technology
    * Planning
    * Ports
    * Public Health
    * Public Policy
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/7858
    **

    Shearwater-The Luxury Charter Boat

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Eriador, Lon Pin, Llanbedrog, Pwllheli
    City: Gwynedd
    State: Wales
    Country: United Kingdom
    Continent: Europe Internet URL: http://llynmarinecharters.supanet.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/3067

    **

    Shepstone & Wylie

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 35 Aliwal Street
    City: Durban
    State: Durban
    Country: South Africa
    Continent: Africa
    Postal Code: 4001
    Internet URL: http://www.wylie.co.za/Site/Transport.asp

    Content Areas
    * Education
    * Legal
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8587

    **

    Shortsea Promotion Danmark

    Contact Details
    Country: Denmark
    Continent: Europe Internet URL: http://www.shortsea.dk
    Organizational Type
    * Ports
    Content Areas
    * Ocean Technology
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1682

    **

    Smithsonian Institution

    Contact Details
    Street Address: PO Box 37012, NMAH-5300A/MRC 628
    City: Washington
    State: DC
    Country: USA
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 20560
    Telephone: 202.633.3909
    Facsimile: 202.357.4256
    Internet URL: http://americanhistory.si.edu

    Organizational Type
    * Educational Institution
    * Government Agency
    * Museum
    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Research Organization
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    * Art/Artifact
    * Fishing
    * Maritime History
    * Nautical Archeology
    * Naval History
    * Trade
    * Transportation
    http://www.thew2o.net/node/403

    **

    SouthEast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System

    Contact Details
    Street Address: University of North Carolina, Abernethy Hall, CB 3420
    City: Chapel Hill
    State: North Carolina
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 27599
    Telephone: 9199292391
    Internet URL: http://www.seacoos.org

    Mission Statement
    SEACOOS is a collaborative university partnership which collects, manages, and disseminates integrated regional ocean observations and information products for the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Funding for this effort has been provided by the Office of Naval Research.

    Organizational Type
    * Research Organization

    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + Elementary
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Marine Biology
    + Ocean Energy
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Archives
    * Climate
    * Communication
    * Economics
    * Energy
    * Fishing
    * Food Production
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Ocean Technology
    * Planning
    * Ports
    * Public Health
    * Public Policy
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/3825

    **

    Stolt-Nielsen Transportation Group

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Level 6, 11 Queens Road
    City: Melbourne
    State: Victoria
    Country: Australia
    Continent: Oceania
    Postal Code: 3004
    Internet URL: http://www.sntg.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9533

    **

    Swedish Maritime Administration

    Contact Details
    State: Norrkoping
    Country: Sweden
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: SE-601 78
    Internet URL: http://www.sjofartsverket.se

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/8590

    **

    T??rntank Rederi AB
    Contact Details
    Street Address: Dons?? Hamnv??g 24
    City: Dons??
    Country: Sweden
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: SE-430 82
    Internet URL: http://www.tarntank.se

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12011

    **

    TEMARO

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Hoogstraat 22
    City: Rotterdam
    Country: The Netherlands
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: 3011 PP
    Internet URL: http://www.temaro.nl

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12356

    **

    Texas A&M University at Galveston

    Contact Details
    Street Address: P.O. Box 1675
    City: Galveston
    State: Texas
    Country: USA
    Postal Code: 77553
    Telephone: 18773224443
    Internet URL: http://www.tamug.edu, http://www.tamug.edu/corps

    Mission Statement
    TAMUG is an ocean-oriented campus offering academic degrees, research, and continuing education in marine science, engineering, business and transportation.

    Educational Offerings
    School Programs:
    Marine Biology, Marine Sciences, Marine Engineering Technology, Marine Transportation, Marine Fisheries, Maritime Systems Engineering, Maritime Administration, Maritime Studies, Ocean and Coastal Resources, and Marine Resources Management., http://www.tamug.edu/academics

    Curriculum:
    http://www.tamug.edu/catalog/CAT071.pdf

    Organizational Type
    * Educational Institution
    o University
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Marine Biology
    + Ocean Energy
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Maritime History
    * Natural Resources
    * Nautical Archeology
    * Naval History
    * Ocean Science
    o Oceanography
    * Ocean Technology
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/18373

    **

    The Metropolitan Waterfront Alliance

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 457 Madison Avenue
    City: New York
    State: New York
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 10022
    Telephone: 800.364.9943
    Internet URL: http://www.waterwire.net

    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    Bi-weekly email newsletter about waterfront issues in the NY/NJ Harbor Estuary region and twice annually published print publications.

    Exhibits:
    Occasional free exhibits on waterfront planning, maritime history, port/commererce issues, etc.

    Organizational Type
    * Non-Governmental Organization
    o Cultural
    o Environmental
    o Policy
    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Ports
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Fisheries and Food
    * Energy
    * Fishing
    * Fresh Water
    * Governance
    * Maritime History
    * Natural Resources
    * Ocean Science
    * Planning
    * Ports
    * Public Policy
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/4618

    **

    The Vancouver Maritime Museum

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 1905 Ogden Avenue,
    City: Vancouver
    State: British Columbia
    Country: Canada
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: V6J 1A3
    Telephone: 1-604-257-8300
    Facsimile: 1-604-737-2621
    Internet URL: http://www.vancouvermaritimemuseum.com

    Educational Offerings
    School Programs:
    http://vancouvermaritimemuseum.com

    Organizational Type
    * Museum
    o Historic Ship
    o Maritime History
    * Library
    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + Elementary
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    * Archives
    * Art/Artifact
    * Culture
    * Exploration
    * Fishing
    * Maritime History
    * Nautical Archeology
    * Naval History
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/692

    **

    Tianwoo Logistics Developing Co.

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 2801-2804, Tianjin International Commercial Trade Center 59 Machang Rd
    City: Hexi Dist.
    State: Tianjin
    Country: China
    Continent: Asia
    Postal Code: 300203
    Internet URL: http://www.tianwoo.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12425

    **

    TRANSOCEAN OY AB

    Contact Details
    Street Address: P.O.BOX 960
    City: HELSINKI
    Country: FINLAND
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: FIN – 00101
    Internet URL: http://www.transocean.fi

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11977

    **

    Transport Canada

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 330 Sparks Street
    City: Ottawa
    State: Ontario
    Country: Canada
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: K1A 0N5
    Internet URL: http://www.tc.gc.ca

    Organizational Type
    * Ports
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/2980

    **

    U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 1200 New Jersey Ave, SE
    City: Washington
    State: DC
    Country: USA
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 20590
    Telephone: 202.366.5067
    Facsimile: 202.366.5063
    Internet URL: http://marad.dot.gov

    Organizational Type
    * Government Agency
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11871
    **

    Underwater Australasia

    Contact Details
    Street Address: PO Box 1753
    City: Byron Bay
    State: New South Wales
    Country: Australia
    Continent: Oceania
    Postal Code: 2481
    Telephone: 61-2-66809410
    Internet URL: http://www.underwater.com.au

    Mission Statement
    Australasia’s most popular website for divers, snorkellers and other marine enthusiasts – featuring an extensive directory, regional underwater gallery, 100s of interesting articles on marine critters and dive experiences and much much more.

    Organizational Type
    * Non-Governmental Organization
    o Environmental

    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Content Areas
    + Marine Biology
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Ocean Technology
    * Photography
    * Publications
    * Recreation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/2329

    **

    Union Transport Group Plc

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 21-25 North Street
    City: Bromley
    State: Kent
    Country: United kingdom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: BR1 1SJ
    Internet URL: http://www.uniontransport.co.uk

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11396

    **

    Universidad de Cantabria

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Avenida de Los Castros s/n
    City: Santander
    State: Cantabria
    Country: Spain
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: E-39005
    Telephone: +34 942 201 500
    Internet URL: http://www.unican.es

    Mission Statement
    U. Cantabria is a young modern public institution whose main objective is to contribute to social progress through scientific and teaching excellence.

    Educational Offerings
    School Programs:
    Nautical Studies, Maritime Navigation, Naval Architecture, Naval Engines, Coastal Engineering., http://www.unican.es/WebUC/catalogo/

    Study Collections:
    http://www.buc.unican.es

    Organizational Type
    * Educational Institution
    o University

    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Fresh Water and Sanitation
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Physical
    * Legal
    * Naval History
    * Ocean Technology
    * Ports
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/5293

    **

    University of Auckland Library

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 5 Alfred Street(cnr Alfred St & Princes St)
    City: Auckland City
    Country: New Zealand
    Continent: Oceania Internet URL: http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz

    Organizational Type
    * Educational Institution
    o University
    * Library

    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Commerce
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Marine Biology
    + Ocean Energy
    + The Law of the Sea
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Climate
    * Economics
    * Energy
    * Ethnography
    * Exploration
    * Fishing
    * Food Production
    * Fresh Water
    * Governance
    * Legal
    * Maritime History
    * Medical Research
    * Natural Resources
    * Ocean Science
    * Ocean Technology
    * Planning
    * Ports
    * Public Policy
    * Recreation
    * Trade
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/6893

    **

    US Merchant Marine Academy

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 300 Steamboat Road
    City: Kings Point
    State: New York
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 11024
    Internet URL: http://gmats.usmma.edu

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1347

    **

    Van Esch International

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Bunschotenweg 115, Harbour no. 2678
    City: Rotterdam
    Country: The Netherlands
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: 3089 KB
    Internet URL: http://www.vanesch.com

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12357

    **

    Van Hulle Shipsuppliers NV

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Bredastraat 139
    State: Antwerp
    Country: Belgium
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: 2060
    Internet URL: http://www.vanhulleships.be

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/12284
    **

    Ventura County Maritime Museum

    Contact Details
    Street Address: 2731 S. Victoria Avenue
    City: Oxnard
    State:
    California
    Country: United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code: 93035
    Telephone: 805-984-6260
    Internet URL: http://www.naut-res-guild.org/mis/ventura.html

    Mission Statement
    The mission of the Museum is to provide a rewarding museum experience based on the age of sail and to enhance the understanding of our rich maritime heritage through world-class maritime art, unique ship models, dynamic exhibits, artifacts, and educational programs.

    Educational Offerings
    School Programs:
    At Sea 3 day Expeditions on tall ships off the Channel Islands, marine science afloat & in the classroom, social science.

    Curriculum:
    All programs support applicable grade-specific state core curriculum standards.

    Exhibits:
    Art traces the evolution of Marine Art from 1622 to present, ship models trace the development of sailing vessels, local maritime history exhibits.

    Organizational Type
    * Museum
    o Maritime History

    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Cultural History and Traditions
    + Marine Biology
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    * Archives
    * Art/Artifact
    * Culture
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Maritime History
    * Natural Resources
    * Nautical Archeology
    * Naval History
    * Photography
    * Ports
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/978

    **

    Yang Ming Marine Transport Corporation

    Contact Details
    Street Address: Oberbaumbruecke 1
    City: Hamburg
    Country: Germany
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code: 20457
    Internet URL: http://www.yml.com.tw

    Organizational Type
    * Shipping/Submarine
    Content Areas
    * Transportation

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/11967

    **

    http://www.topnews.in/general/global-warming

    Global Warming
    Groundbreaking proposals unveiled for inclusion of climate change data in annual reports
    Submitted by Mohit Joshi on Tue, 05/26/2009 – 07:48.
    * Featured
    * Global Warming
    * United States

    Climate change may spur rapid shifts in global wildfire patternsWashington, May 26 : The Climate Disclosure Standards Board (CDSB) has announced groundbreaking proposals to assist directors in the inclusion of climate change-related information in companies’ annual reports.

    The pioneering proposals, unveiled at the World Business Summit on Climate Change in Copenhagen, take the form of a global framework that clarifies precisely which climate change data should be reported by corporations and provides management with a set of guidelines designed to streamline disclosure procedures.

    **

    Climate change threatens Siberian lake’s ecological balance
    Submitted by Mohit Joshi on Fri, 05/01/2009 – 09:57.

    * Featured
    * Global Warming
    * United States

    climate-changeWashington, May 1 : An analysis by a joint US-Russian team has determined that Siberia’s Lake Baikal, the world’s largest and most biologically diverse lake, faces the prospect of severe ecological disruption as a result of climate change.

    The analysis was done by Marianne V. Moore, of Wellesley College in Massachusetts, and five coauthors, including four from Irkutsk State University in Russia.

    Lake Baikal is considered a treasure trove for biologists and was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because a high proportion of its rich fauna and flora are found nowhere else.

    **

    Oxfam: Climate crises to affect 375 million by 2015
    Submitted by Mohit Joshi on Tue, 04/21/2009 – 06:54.

    * Featured
    * Global Warming
    * Asia
    * Bangkok
    * Thailand
    global warmingBangkok – Natural disasters caused by climate change are expected to affect 375 million people by the year 2015, threatening to overwhelm the current humanitarian aid system, a confederation of internatonal aid groups warned Tuesday.

    Oxfam International Tuesday launched its report entitled The Right to Survive, studying the potential impact of climate change on the current humanitarian aid system.

    global-warming_5.jpg

    **

    Arctic-ice_0.jpg
    Arctic ice melt in 2008 has been ‘fascinating’ and ‘alarming’, say scientists
    Submitted by Mohit Joshi on Mon, 10/06/2008 – 08:19.

    * Global Warming
    * Canada
    * Ottawa

    Arctic ice melt in 2008 has been ‘fascinating’ and ‘alarming’, say scientistsOttawa, Oct 6 : Climate scientists have said that the melting of the Arctic ice this year has been ‘fascinating’ and ‘alarming’.

    According to a report in the Vancouver Sun, so much ice had melted by the end of August 2008 that it was possible for the first time in human history to circumnavigate the North Pole, prompting one prominent U. S. scientist to say that the ice cap has entered a “death spiral.”

    http://www.topnews.in/general/global-warming

    [and]

    Fuel emissions from marine vessels remain a global concern
    Submitted by Sahil Nagpal on Wed, 09/10/2008 – 09:43.

    * Global Warming
    * United States

    Washington, September 10 : A new study that has examined tradeoff among fuel switching and emission control policies, has indicated that fuel emissions from marine vessels still remain a global concern.

    The study was carried out by James Winebrake, professor and chair of the Department of Science, Technology and Society/Public Policy at Rochester Institute of Technology, and James Corbett, associate professor in the College of Marine and Earth Studies at the University of Delaware.
    ***

    Tamweel, the UAE’s largest provider of real estate finance, has announced that it has clocked a net loss of Dh41 million for the quarter ending March 31, 2009.

    According to sources, the conglomerate has reported an operational profit of Dh11million for the period, an impairment provision amounting to Dh52 million landed the company in a net loss for the first quarter of the current fiscal.

    The sources further added that the Islamic financing and investing assets stood at Dh10 billion at the end of March.

    http://www.topnews.ae/

    http://www.topnews.in/

    ***
    http://www.pdphoto.org/PictureDetail.php?mat=&pg=7918

    Royalty Free, Public Domain Stock Photos

    ***

    http://www.nasportsmouth.org.uk/news/conference2007.php
    Nautical Archeology Society.org

    ***

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://io9.com/assets/images/io9/2008/09/weatherengineeringboat.jpg&imgrefurl=http://io9.com/5046852/a-fleet-of-1500-cloud%2Bseeding-ships-could-stop-global-warming-say-scientists&usg=__Ablf7x8Vo6WLFsyIUNd5icxOP7U=&h=350&w=500&sz=34&hl=en&start=106&um=1&tbnid=KdebI6XcQv1U1M:&tbnh=91&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dships%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26start%3D100%26um%3D1

    http://io9.com/5046852/a-fleet-of-1500-cloud+seeding-ships-could-stop-global-warming-say-scientists

    ***

    Contact Us

    The Georgia Aquarium works hard to facilitate all of the needs of our guests. We have provided links to the various sections of the Web site, which may answer many of your questions. We will respond to your email as quickly as possible. Please do not send emails to multiple addresses; it will only hinder our response time.

    Georgia Aquarium
    225 Baker Street
    Atlanta, GA 30313
    404-581-4000
    Visitor Services:

    Call (404)581-4000 or email Visitor Services for comments, questions and problems related to the following:

    * Visiting the Aquarium including: hours of operation, tickets, annual passes and any matters concerning our call center, online ticketing and reservations.
    * Our special group rates or make a group reservation for school groups, field trips, family reunions, church groups, club groups, girl/boy scout groups or birthday parties.
    * Existing ticket orders

    Georgia Aquarium’s Social Media:

    * Facebook
    * Twitter
    * YouTube
    * MySpace
    * Flickr

    Group Sales & Reservations:

    Send comments and questions related to conventions or large groups in hotels to
    John Walker.

    Send comments and questions related to our special tour operator contracted rates to
    Sarah Dollacker.

    Send comments and questions related to our corporate group packages or make a corporate group reservation to Nadja Krasnoselsky.

    For additional information on social groups (i.e. senior centers, family reunions, alumni associations, fraternities/sororities), please email your request to Paul Selby.
    Event Reservations:

    Send comments and questions related to booking private parties, corporate events, kosher events and weddings to booking@georgiaaquarium.org.
    Development and Sponsorship:
    Send comments or questions about making a donation or gift to the aquarium through 4Rs, FishScales or Founder’s Pass to 4R@georgiaaquarium.org.
    Marketing:

    Send comments and questions related to marketing, advertising and promotions to marketing@georgiaaquarium.org
    Media Professionals:
    Working media professionals should send any questions or requests to media@georgiaaquarium.org.
    School Group Educational Programs:

    All requests for reservations should be directed to (404)581-4433 or you may book online through our Education page.

    Send general comments or questions about our student educational programs and teacher workshops to education@georgiaaquarium.org.
    Volunteering:

    Send comments and questions related to volunteering with the Georgia Aquarium to volunteer@georgiaaquarium.org.
    Employment:

    As our staffing needs change regularly, please check the employment section of our web site for an up-to-date, complete listing of available employment opportunities at the Georgia Aquarium. We will review your application and/or résumé as quickly as possible and should your qualifications, experience and interest reflect our immediate needs, we will contact you.

    http://www.georgiaaquarium.org/contactUs/

    ** My Note – There was an employment listing at the Aquarium site for Paradies Gift Shop which I would guess is the owner of the concession for the Aquarium gift shop and others. Its listings are below:

    The Paradies Shops Inc

    5950 Fulton Industrial, Atlanta, GA 30336-2717

    Contact Phone:     (404) 344-7905
    URL (web address):
    Business Category:     Ret Gifts/Novelties Ret News Dealer/Stand Ret Women’s Clothing in Atlanta, GA
    Industry (SIC):     Gift, Novelty, and Souvenir Shops

    Ads by Google

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    The ads are not affiliated with The Paradies Shops Inc
    Business Information

    This company profile is for the private company The Paradies Shops Inc headquarters, located in Atlanta, GA. The Paradies Shops Inc’s line of business is ret gifts/novelties ret news dealer/stand ret women’s clothing.
    Company Name:     The Paradies Shops Inc
    Is This Your Company?
    Address:     5950 Fulton Industrial, Atlanta, GA 30336-2717 (Map)
    Alt Business Name:
    Location Type:     Headquarters
    Est. Annual Sales:     $372,724,848
    Est. # of Employees:     2,000
    Est. Empl. at Loc.:     100
    Year Started:     1960
    State of Incorp:     GA
    SIC #Code:     5947
    Contact’s Name:     Gregg Paradies
    Contact’s Title:     President & Chief Executive Officer
    NAICS:     Gift, Novelty, and Souvenir Stores
    Data above provided by D&B.

    Click on the reports tab at the top of the page to research company background, detailed company profile, credit and financial reports for The Paradies Shops Inc.

    Paradies Shops
    http://www.theparadiesshops.com
    5275 Westgate Dr SW, Atlanta – (404) 346-3521
    Directions and more »

    Paradies Shops Inc
    http://www.theparadiesshops.com
    5950 Fulton Industrial Blvd SW, Atlanta – (404) 344-7905
    Directions and more »

    Paradies Shops
    – maps.google.com
    6000 N Terminal Pkwy, Atlanta – (404) 761-7914

    http://www.theparadiesshops.com/store.asp?ID=165

    Gift Shop
    Huntsville International
    Landside 2nd floor

    Louise Dyer
    (256) 461-1940
    5:00am – 8:00pm

    Gift shop

    The proven leader in airport retailing.

    The Paradies Shops is a company unlike any other.

    The Paradies Shops operates more than 500 stores in over 70 airports and hotels across the United States and Canada, serving more than a half-billion customers each year. These stores include original, one-of-a-kind brands unique to individual airports, as well as national brands.

    Outside of airports, The Paradies Shops operates retail locations at the Gaylord Palms Resort & Convention Center (Orlando, Florida), Tropicana Hotel and Casino (Atlantic City, New Jersey) and the Hilton Americas Hotel (Houston, Texas). The company also operates the concession program at the world’s largest aquarium – The Georgia Aquarium in Atlanta.

    With roots tracing back to 1960, Paradies is a true pioneer in airport concessions. We were the driving force that moved the industry toward emphasizing value (through the Request for Proposal “RFP” process) over price (bid).

    Paradies has enjoyed 49 consecutive years of growth and profitability. We have increased sales from $4 million in 1978 to more than $428 million in 2008.

    Diversity and minority representation is important to us. More than half (55 percent) of our over 3,000-member employee family is comprised of people of color, and our company-wide DBE participation rate is 23 percent.

    The Paradies Shops is the most recognized and acclaimed airport concessionaire. Airport Revenue News (ARN), the industry’s leading publication, has named us the nation’s “Best Airport Retailer” for 14 consecutive years; no other airport retailer has won this award. Additionally, ARN has named us as “Best News & Gift Operator” and “Concessionaire With The Highest Regards for Customer Service.  The Paradies Shops has also captured scores of other industry honors, including ARN’s “Best Airport Retail Store Design”, Georgia Trend Magazine’s “Family Business of the Year”, and has been recognized by the Atlanta Business Chronicle as an A+ Employer.

    Our company culture and values distinguish us in the marketplace. We treat our team members, customers and business partners as members of our family, and we pride ourselves on finding ways to exceed expectations on all fronts.
    http://www.theparadiesshops.com/about.shtml

    Copyright ©2008 The Paradies Shops | Privacy Statement
    5950 Fulton Industrial Blvd., Atlanta, GA 30336 (404) 344-7905 Fax: (404) 349-3226

    Leadership that builds a brand

    The over 3,000 employees of The Paradies Shops are the driving force behind the company’s success in airport, hotel and specialized retailing. That’s largely because they’re empowered and entrusted by The Paradies Shops leadership to uphold the high standards of the company’s brand, every day.

    By creating a family culture and leading by example, the executive team of The Paradies Shops has sustained a remarkable growth rate for the company for nearly half a century.  The Paradies Shops’ leadership has fostered a “can-do” spirit and has taken steps to ensure that the over 3,000 team members who staff the shops have the support to provide every customer with an exceptional shopping experience.

    Comprised of experienced men and women, The Paradies Shops’ leadership team is both expert and enterprising. Some re-shaped the industry in the 1970s by showing airports the value of considering the quality and creativity of the retail experience, rather than focusing exclusively on the bid price. And by focusing on the specific needs and interests of the traveling public – as well as the unique attributes of every airport and its locale – the company’s leadership has built a brand that is distinct and lasting.

    Learn more about the background and contributions of the The Paradies Shops executives who lead the way for every member of our family. Learn more about our founder, Dan Paradies.

    Dick Dickson
    Chairman
    James Paradies
    Vice Chairman

    Gregg Paradies
    President & Chief Executive Officer

    Lou Bottino
    Chief Operating Officer

    Jeffrey R. Brown
    Vice President, Merchandising
    Bruce Feuer
    Vice President, Business Development

    Rick Lillie
    Regional Vice President

    Don Marek
    Chief Financial Officer

    Les Russell
    Vice President, Human Resources

    Patrick Wallace
    Regional Vice President

    Charlene Yde
    Regional Vice President

    Barry Young
    Regional Vice President

    http://www.theparadiesshops.com/leadership.shtml

    **

    **
    Vendor Fairs – Unique Offerings with Local Flavor

    One of The Paradies Shops’ most successful endeavors is seeking out and offering the best and most innovative local merchandise through airport Vendor Fairs. Fairs are conducted for the purpose of soliciting local and regional vendors whose products could be offered for sale in airport retail stores.

    Vendor Fairs, held intermittently throughout the year, assure The Paradies Shops is offering fresh, new merchandise on a consistent basis, while at the same time giving exposure to the local community of vendors who might not otherwise have the opportunity for such exposure. Official events in several Paradies markets, Vendor Fairs are established at the Support Center in Atlanta and announced in local markets.

    http://www.theparadiesshops.com/artman/publish/specialprograms/Vendor_Fairs_Unique_Offerings_with_Local_Flavor.shtml

    **

    Adding enjoyment to the traveling experience

    The people of The Paradies Shops never stop thinking about new ways to serve their customers. This spirit of invention results in special programs that provide speed, convenience and comfort to the millions of people who pass through the company’s host airports and properties every day.
    Paradies’ special programs have captured national media coverage and industry recognition. But the greatest satisfaction comes from helping another member of our family enjoy the experience of travel – the customer.

    Nov 14, 2007
    Buy a book in Hartford, get half your money back in San Francisco

    Nov 14, 2007
    Speed and convenience for the busy traveler

    Nov 13, 2007
    H20 & A Paper To Go Program – Self-Serve Essentials

    Nov 12, 2005
    Vendor Fairs – Unique Offerings with Local Flavor

    Nov 12, 2005
    Annual October “Pink Promotion”

    Nov 12, 2005
    Trunk Shows

    Nov 11, 2005
    Green Program – Taking Good Care of Our Planet

    http://www.theparadiesshops.com/artman/publish/specialprograms.shtml

    Georgia Aquarium

    Atlanta, Georgia
    http://www.georgiaaquarium.org

    Beyond The Reef
    Atrium
    Sand Dollar
    Food Court

    Brenita Reid, General Manager
    Beyond The Reef
    Georgia Aquarium
    225 Baker Street
    Atlanta, GA 30313
    (404) 581-4050 office
    brenita.reid@theparadiesshops.com

    Beyond The Reef

    Georgia Aquarium
    Atrium

    Brenita Reid
    (404) 581-4063
    9:00am – 6:00pm

    Exclusive souvenirs from the world’s largest aquarium

    http://www.theparadiesshops.com/store.asp?ID=162

    **

    Designs by Sue

    The Designs by Sue concept was introduced by The Paradies Shops and is an innovative concept in retail design. With its debut at the Pittsburgh International Airport, the brand employs a fresh tongue and cheek approach to marketing a new designer : Ms. Sue Venir. Sue travels the world to seek out and find rare and exclusive souvenirs that retail for $9.99 or less.

    The store takes on an import/export storage warehouse look, complete with fixtures made of packing crates and shipping cartons. Artwork, featuring the worldly and sophisticated Ms. Venir, in the many exotic locations to which she has traveled, are featured within the store.

    Designs by Sue Locations
    Cincinnati, Ohio
    Cincinnati /Northern Kentucky International

    Dallas/Ft Worth, Texas
    Dallas/Fort Worth International

    Houston, Texas
    George Bush Houston Intercontinental

    Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    Pittsburgh International

    Columbus, Ohio
    Port Columbus International

    http://www.theparadiesshops.com/branddetail.asp?ID=25

    smlogo25.JPG
    smimage_125.JPG
    smimage_225.JPG
    smimage_325.JPG

    http://www.theparadiesshops.com/index.asp

    ***

    http://www.amnhshop.com/

    http://www.amnh.org/

    American Museum of Natural History

    New York

    ***

    San Francisco, 5:38 PM
    Thu Jun 4
    28 posts in the last 24 hours
    Team

    Tip your editors: tips@io9.com

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    2Sophie_Kahn800x250.jpg

    ***

    Atmocean, Inc.
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    142 West Palace Ave. #301
    City:
    Santa Fe
    State:
    NM
    Country:
    USA
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    87501
    Telephone:
    505-820-1695
    Internet URL: http://www.atmocean.com
    Mission Statement
    Atmocean, Inc. is developing wave-driven ocean pumping systems to create upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich deeper water, with goals of widespread increase in primary production leading to enhanced fisheries; absorbing ocean dissolved CO2 and sequestering carbon; and, in tropical cyclone prone regions, reducing intensity by subjecting the storm to the cooler upper ocean.
    Organizational Type

    * Corporation

    Content Areas

    * Climate
    * Energy
    * Fishing
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    * Ocean Technology

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/14946

    ***

    http://conservationinstitute.org/

    Conservation Science Institute
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    P.O. Box 7924
    City:
    Santa Cruz
    State:
    California
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    95061
    Internet URL: http://conservationinstitute.org
    Mission Statement
    To provide quality science for the recovery of ecosystems.
    Educational Offerings
    Publications:
    see http://www.conservationinstitute.org/accomplishments.htm, http://www.conservationinstitute.org/accomplishments.htm
    School Programs:
    see http://www.conservationinstitute.org/forkids.htm, http://www.conservationinstitute.org/forkids.htm
    Web Programs:
    see http://www.conservationinstitute.org/, http://www.conservationinstitute.org/
    Organizational Type

    * Corporation
    * Educational Institution
    * Non-Governmental Organization
    o Environmental
    o Policy
    * Nonprofit Organization
    * Professional Association
    * Research Organization
    * Science Institute

    Content Areas
    * Education
    o Age Level
    + College/University
    + Elementary
    + Post Graduate/Teacher
    + Secondary
    o Content Areas
    + Coastal Issues
    + Fisheries and Food
    + Marine Biology
    o Science Content Area
    + Earth
    + Life
    + Physical
    * Climate
    * Communication
    * Economics
    * Energy
    * Exploration
    * Fishing
    * Fresh Water
    * Governance
    * Ocean Science
    o Habitat
    o Oceanography
    o Species
    * Natural Resources
    * Publications

    ***

    OVERVIEW
    The Surfrider Foundation is a non-profit grassroots organization dedicated to the protection and enjoyment of our world’s oceans, waves and beaches. Founded in 1984 by a handful of visionary surfers in Malibu, California, the Surfrider Foundation now maintains over 50,000 members and 80 chapters worldwide.

    http://www.surfrider.org/whoweare.asp

    **

    Contact Information
    Surfrider Foundation USA:
    P.O. Box 6010
    San Clemente, CA 92674-6010
    tel. (949) 492-8170
    fax (949) 492-8142

    Membership:
    membership at surfrider

    Chapter Issues:
    emazzarella at surfrider

    Enviro Issues:
    enviro at surfrider

    Web Site Staff:
    mbabski at surfrider

    Catalog/Online Store:
    mailorder at surfrider

    All Other:
    info at surfrider

    http://www.surfrider.org/whoweare11.asp

    **
    http://conservationinstitute.org/oceanchangeinitiative.htm

    Useful Links

    The groups or initiatives listed below are those to which Conservation Science Institute provides information, or those that  stand out as particularly helpful in resolving ecological dilemmas related to the oceans.

    Sea Around Us Project aims to provide an integrated analysis of the impacts of fisheries on marine ecosystems, and to devise policies that can mitigate and reverse harmful trends whilst ensuring the social and economic benefits of sustainable fisheries.

    Oceana is a non-profit international advocacy organization dedicated to protecting and restoring the world’s oceans through policy advocacy, science, law, and public education.

    The Marine Conservation Biology Institute works to protect and restore marine life by encouraging research and training in marine conservation biology, bringing scientists together to examine crucial marine conservation issues, doing policy research to frame the marine conservation agenda, lecturing, producing books and other publications to educate scientists, the public and decision makers on key issues, and building partnerships to solve problems affecting marine life and people.

    The Marine Fish Conservation Network is a coalition of over 150 national and regional environmental organizations, commercial and recreational fishing groups, aquariums, and marine science groups dedicated to conserving marine fish and to promoting their long-term sustainability.

    The Shifting Baselines Group: Marine Biology heroes Jim Carlton, Paul Dayton, and Daniel Pauly conceived the phenomenon of shifting baselines as ‘moving targets of reduced expectations of the natural state of an ecosystem.’ Baselines ‘shift’ because new researchers erroneously perceive the ecosystems they first encounter to be healthy baselines.

    The Surfrider Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to protecting our oceans, waves, and beaches.

    The Earth Island Institute develops and supports projects that counteract threats to the biological and cultural diversity that sustain the environment. Through education and activism, these projects promote the conservation, preservation, and restoration of the Earth.

    ***

    http://www.thew2o.net/taxonomy/term/56

    Garden
    *
    Aquarium & Rainforest at Moody Gardens
    *
    Black Hills Reptile Gardens
    *
    Blue Spring Heritage Center
    *
    Botanica Wichita Gardens
    *
    Brandywine River Museum Wildflower Gardens
    *
    Bristol Zoo Gardens
    *
    Brookgreen Gardens
    *
    Busch Gardens
    *
    Camden Children’s Garden
    *
    Caribbean Gardens
    *
    Castle Bromwich Hall Gardens
    *
    Chicago Botanic Garden
    *
    Edison & Ford Winter Estates Museum, Gardens & Laboratory
    *
    Hendricks Park Rhododendron Garden
    *
    Hershey Gardens
    *
    Longue Vue House and Gardens
    *
    Maxwelton Valley Gardens
    *
    Missouri Botanical Garden
    *
    Moanalua Gardens Foundation
    *
    Overbecks Museum and Garden

    *
    Paradise Wildlife Park
    *
    Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens
    *
    Quail Botanical Gardens
    *
    Queens Botanical Garden
    *
    Reiman Gardens
    *
    Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
    *
    Rotary Gardens
    *
    Rotch-Jones-Duff House and Garden Museum
    *
    Rutgers Gardens
    *
    Ruth Bancroft Garden
    *
    San Antonio Botanical Garden
    *
    Sonnenberg Gardens
    *
    Stapeley Water Gardens
    *
    THE FRIENDS OF HE’EIA
    *
    The Huntington — Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens
    *
    The Peel Mansion Museum & Gardens
    *
    The University of California Botanical Garden
    *
    Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
    *
    Tropical Audubon Society
    *
    Tucson Botanical Gardens
    *
    Tyler Rose Garden
    *
    UC Berkeley Botanical Garden
    *
    Umlauf Sculpture Garden & Museum
    *
    Vizcaya Museum and Gardens
    *
    W J Beal Botanical Garden
    *
    Wave Hill Gardens

    ***

    http://www.abbothall.org.uk/

    Abbot Hall Art Gallery – UK

    Abbot Hall Art Gallery
    Contact Details
    City:
    Kendal
    State:
    Cumbria
    Country:
    United Kingdom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    LA9 5AL
    Internet URL: http://www.abbothall.org.uk
    Organizational Type

    * Museum

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9585

    **

    GEfoto_2007_009.jpg
    Rikke_o_Ulla-Lena.JPG

    Välkommen till Ålands sjöfartsmuseum

    Hamngatan 2, tel 018-19930

    Öppet

    1 maj: 12-16
    maj (2.5-31.5):
    vardagar: 9-17
    lö-sö: 12-16

    juni och augusti (1.6-30.6 och 1.8-31.8)
    alla dagar: 9-17

    Midsommaröppet:
    midsommarafton 19.6: 9-13
    midsommardagen 20.6: 13-17

    juli (1-31.7):
    alla dagar: 9-19

    övriga tider: se här

    _____________________
    Utställningen Farväl till seglen – sista gången runt Kap Horn
    och målningar av Hilde Lütken-Bengtsson hade vernissage den 26 maj 2009

    http://www.sjofartsmuseum.aland.fi/sjomuseum/

    ?land Maritime Museum
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    Hamngatan 2
    City:
    Mariehamn
    State:
    Aland Islands
    Country:
    Finland
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    SF 22100
    Internet URL: http://www.sjofartsmuseum.aland.fi
    Organizational Type

    * Museum
    o Maritime History

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/1038

    ***

    Albertland and Districts Museum
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    PO Box 128
    City:
    Wellsford
    Country:
    New Zealand
    Continent: Oceania
    Postal Code:
    1242
    Internet URL: http://www.albertland.co.nz
    Organizational Type

    * Museum

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/7860

    ***

    Academy of Natural Sciences
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    1900 Ben Franklin PKWY
    City:
    Philadelphia
    State:
    Pennsylvania
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    19103
    Internet URL: http://www.acnatsci.org
    Organizational Type

    * Museum
    o Natural History
    o Science

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/193

    ***

    http://www.ansp.org/

    Academy of Natural Sciences – see above

    **
    Alta Society
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    P.O. Box 607 Sentrum
    City:
    Oslo
    Country:
    Norway
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    106
    Internet URL: http://www.knmalta.org
    Organizational Type

    * Museum
    o Historic Ship
    o Naval

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/13435

    **

    American Museum of Science and Energy (AMSE)
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    300 S. Tulane Avenue
    City:
    Oak Ridge
    State:
    Tennessee
    Country:
    United States of America
    Continent: America: North
    Postal Code:
    37830
    Internet URL: http://www.amse.org
    Organizational Type

    * Museum
    o Science

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/183

    ***

    http://www.amse.org/
    American Museum of Science and Energy

    ***

    ASSOCIATION MUSEE NAVAL
    Contact Details
    Street Address:
    2, avenue de Saint-Charles
    Country:
    MONACO
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    MC 98 000
    Internet URL: http://www.musee-naval.mc
    Organizational Type
    * Museum
    o Naval

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/9501

    ***

    San Francisco Airport Museums
    Location: San Francisco International Airport Terminals
    San Francisco, California, USA

    email – curator@flysflo.com
    Tele – (650) 821-6700
    http://www.sfoarts.org/

    **

    San Francisco Bay Traders
    designed to look like –
    Fisherman’s Wharf

    ***

    FACILITY NAME

    PHONE # ALL        (650)

    DAYS

    OPEN

    CLOSE

    Terminal 1 – Concourse  B

    Andale – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-8942

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    10:30 PM

    Aviator News & Books (before security)

    821-0632

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    City by the Bay (past security)

    821-8979

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Duty Free Facility (past security)

    827-8741

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    11:30 PM

    Go Bistro (past security)

    821-0523

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    10:30 AM

    Just Desserts (before security)

    821-8947

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:30 PM

    Klein’s Deli (past security)

    821-9178

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    11:30 PM

    Legends of San Francisco (past security)

    821-0553

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    11:30 PM

    Lori’s Diner – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-0550

    24 hours

    Max’s Eatz (past security)

    877-6632

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    10:00 PM

    Peet’s Coffee & Tea (before security)

    821-8950

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    2:00 PM

    Peet’s Coffee & Tea (past security)

    821-8952

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    9:00 PM

    San Francisco Bay Reader (past security)

    875-0759

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Sankaku – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-0818

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Shoeshine (past-security)

    No phone

    Sun
    Mon-Fri
    Sat

    7:00 AM
    6:00 AM
    7:00 AM

    1:00 PM
    8:00 PM
    1:00 PM

    TGI Friday’s (before security)

    821-8090

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Willow Creek Grill (past security)

    821-1117

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Terminal 1 – Concourse  C

    Aviator News & Books (before security)

    821-0630

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    Bayshore News (past security)

    821-0624

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    1:00 AM

    Christian Science Reading Room (before security)

    877-0105

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Firewood Café – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-8968

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Fung Lum – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-8181

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Guava & Java (past security)

    821-1033

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    1:00 AM

    I Luv SF (past security)

    821-1195

    Daily

    10:00 AM

    6:00 PM

    Just Desserts – in foodcourt (before security)

    No phone

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    On the Fly (past security)

    821-0610

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    Simply Gourmet (before security)

    616-9647

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Perry’s (past security)

    821-1037

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:30 PM

    Terminal 3 – Pre-security

    Bank of America (before security)

    877-0262

    Sun
    Mon-Fri
    Sat

    CLOSED
    8:00 AM
    8:00 AM

    CLOSED
    4:00 PM
    12:00 PM

    Peet’s Coffee & Tea (before security)

    821-8951

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    9:00 PM

    Subway (before securityl)

    821-1040

    open 24 hours

    Terminal 3 – Concourse  E

    Guava & Java – in foodcourt (past security)

    821-8096

    Daily

    4:00 AM

    10:30 PM

    Jalapeno Grill- in foodcourt (past security)

    821-0575

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Klein’s Deli (past security)

    821-9179

    Daily

    4:30 AM

    11:00 PM

    KTVU2 News (past security) @ Gate 64

    877-0617

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    KTVU2 News (past security) @ Gate 69

    821-8977

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    10:00 PM

    Marilla Gifts (past security)

    821-8978

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:30 PM

    Mission Bar & Grill (past security)

    821-8304

    Daily

    4:30 AM

    12:00 AM

    Peppermint Bay Chocolate & Candy Gifts (past security)

    877-4942

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    11:30 PM

    Subway – in foodcourt (past security)

    821-8094

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    Swatch (past security)

    821-8335

    Daily

    6:30 AM

    10:30 PM

    Terminal 3 – Concourse  F

    Airport Wireless/Palm (past security) @ Gate 69

    583-5052

    Daily

    6:30 AM

    10:30 PM

    Airport Wireless/Palm (past security) @ Gate 86

    583-5012

    Daily

    6:30 AM

    10:30 PM

    InMotion Entertainment CDs/DVDs (past security) in Hub

    821-1045

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Anchor Steam (past security)

    821-8914

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Andale Mexican- in foodcourt (past security)

    821-0620

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Body Shop (past security)

    794-9160

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Boudin – in foodcourt (past security)

    871-2515

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Brookstone (past security)

    952-4004

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Buena Vista Café (past security)

    827-6626

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Burger King (past security)

    821-8966

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Bzinc Books & Gifts (past security)

    244-0615

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    California Limited Express Regional Gifts (past security)

    821-0617

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:30 PM

    CNBC News (past security)

    821-7311

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    11:00 PM

    Compass Bookstore (past security)

    244-0610

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    10:00 PM

    Destination San Francisco Gifts (past security)

    952-0414

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Emporio Rulli Gran Caffe (past security)

    821-8345

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Erwin Pearl Jewelry (past security)

    821-7200

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    10:00 AM

    Firewood Café (past security)

    821-8956

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Fung Lum Chinese Cuisine (past security)

    821-8383

    Daily

    7:30 AM

    12:30 AM

    Gordon Biersch (past security)

    827-6635

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    10:00 PM

    InMotion Pictures DVDs (past security) @ Gate 71

    877-8320

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    8:00 PM

    Just Desserts – in foodcourt (past security)

    No phone

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    KTVU2 News (past security)

    821-8920

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    10:30 PM

    Lori’s Diner – in foodcourt (past security)

    821-0500

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Max the Greek

    827-6638

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    7:00 PM

    Peet’s Coffee & Tea (past security) @ Gate 70

    821-8953

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    8:30 PM

    Peet’s Coffee & Tea (past security) @ Gate 72

    821-8954

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Peet’s Coffee & Tea (past security) @ Gate 86

    821-8955

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    PGA Tour Golf Shop (past security)

    821-8309

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Sankaku Japanese Cuisine – in foodcourt (past security)

    821-0808

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    See’s Candy Store (past security)

    589-6637

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    See’s Candy Cart (past security) in Hub

    877-8401

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    See’s Candy Cart (post-security) near Colmpass Book Store

    877-0835

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    SF Soup Company – in foodcourt (past security)

    821-7687

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Shoeshine – by Gate 72 (past security)

    No phone

    Sun
    Mon-Fri
    Sat

    7:00 AM
    6:00 AM
    7:00 AM

    1:00 PM
    8:00 PM
    1:00 PM

    Shoeshine – by Gate 81(past security)

    No phone

    Sun
    Mon-Fri
    Sat

    7:00 AM
    6:00 AM
    7:00 AM

    1:00 PM
    8:00 PM
    1:00 PM

    Sunglass Design (past security)

    952-8318

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Swatch (past security)

    821-8330

    Daily

    6:30 AM

    10:30 PM

    Tie Rack (past security)

    821-8002

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Tomokazu Japanese Cuisine – in foodcourt (past security)

    821-8833

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Travelex Currency Exchange Cart (past security)

    821-0549

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    9:00 PM

    U Threads Clothing (by Gate 73 – past secirity)

    873-4071

    Sun-Fri
    Sat

    6:45 AM
    6:45 AM

    10:00 PM
    8:00 PM

    U-Threads Clothing (by Gate 84/86 – past security)

    737-8400

    Sun-Fri
    Sat

    6:30 AM
    6:30 AM

    10:00 PM
    8:00 PM

    Willow Creek Grill – in foodcourt (past security)

    821-8945

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Wilson’s Leather (past security)

    615-9069

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    9:00 PM

    Wine Wisdom (past security)

    821-0626

    Daily

    6:30 AM

    11:00 PM

    Yankee Pier Seafood (past security)

    821-8938

    Daily

    5:30 AM

    10:00 PM

    International Terminal – Main Hall  A

    Burger Joint – in foodcourt (before security)

    583-5863

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    12:00 AM

    Emporio Rulli – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-6946

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Firewood Grill 1 (before security)

    821-1111

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    11:00 PM

    Harbor Village – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-8983

    Sun-Thur
    Fri-Sat

    8:30 AM
    8:30 AM

    12:00 AM
    12:30 AM

    LMD Bag Wrapping (Mobile Unit – before security)

    No phone

    Daily

    10:30 AM

    11:00 PM

    CNBC News (before security)

    821-7304

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    Osho Japanese Cuisine- in foodcourt (before security)

    821-8218

    Daily

    9:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Sephora Beauty Products (before security)

    877-1750

    Daily

    9:00 AM

    8:00 PM

    SFMOMA Museum Store (before security)

    553-8043

    Daily

    9:00 AM

    6:00 PM

    Travelex Foreign Currency (Aisle 12 – before security)

    821-0933

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    International Terminal – Main Hall  G

    InMotion Entertainment CDs/DVDs (before security)

    821-6252

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    Airport Travel Agency & Bag Storage (before security)

    877-0422

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Brookstone (before security)

    588-8409

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Ebisu Japanese Cuisine – in food court (before security)

    588-2549

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Emporio Rulli – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-6940

    M,W,F,Sa

    T,Tr,Su

    7:00 AM

    5:30 AM

    11:00 PM

    11:00 PM

    Fung Lum Chinese Cuisine – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-8282

    Daily

    7:30 AM

    12:00 AM

    Lori’s Diner – in foodcourt (before security)

    821-7400

    Daily

    5:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    CNBC News (before security)

    821-7302

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    CNBC News – near BART Station (before security)

    821-7306

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    Sephora Beauty Products (before security)

    877-1750

    Daily

    9:00 AM

    6:00 PM

    SFO Hairport Salon & Showers (before security)

    876-1741

    Daily ex.Sun

    8:00 AM

    5:00 PM

    Travelex Currency Exchange-main office (before security)

    821-0900

    Daily

    6:30 AM

    3:30 PM

    Travelex Currency Exchange (Aisle 1 – before security)

    821-0900

    Daily

    7:30 AM

    11:30 PM

    WHSmith Books & Hudson News (before security)

    821-6013

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Willow Street Café (before security)

    589-3978

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    International Terminal – Arrivals

    Café Metro (before security)

    821-0539

    Daily

    7:30 AM

    9:30 PM

    Travelex Currency Exchange (North side – before security)

    821-0900

    CLOSED

    Travelex Currency Exchange (South side – before security)

    821-0900

    CLOSED

    Travelex Currency Exchange (Meeting point – before security) 808-9813

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    8:30 PM

    Travelex Foreign Currency (for intransit passengers)

    821-0897

    Daily

    7:30 AM

    3:30 PM

    International Terminal – Concourse  A

    Duty Free Shop (past security)

    827-8681

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    12:30 AM

    Duty Free Shop (past security)

    246-3726

    Daily

    10:00 AM

    4:00 PM

    Firewood Café (past security)

    588-8464

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Firewood Grill (past security)

    821-1111

    Daily

    10:30 AM

    7:00 PM

    Il Fornaio Café (past security)

    821-6440

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    7:00 PM

    Pacific Gateway News (past security) @ Gate 3

    821-0533

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Pacific Gateway News (past security)

    872-2784

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    7:00 PM

    Pacific Outfitters Travel Accessories (past security)

    821-1024

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    1:00 AM

    San Francisco Bay Traders Gifts (past security)

    821-6261

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    12:30 AM

    San Francisco Time Jewelry (past security)

    821-1024

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    12:00 AM

    SFO Treats
    821-0640

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    7:00 PM

    Sunset Shades Sunglasses & Accessories (past security)

    821-1024

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    1:00 AM

    Travelex Currency Exchange (past security)

    821-0928

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    6:30 PM

    U Threads Clothing (past security)

    872-0763

    Daily

    9:30 AM

    4:15 PM

    International Terminal – Concourse  G

    Andale Mexican – (past security)

    821-8201

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    10:30 PM

    Andale Bar (past security)

    821-8201

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    12:30 AM

    Coach (past security)

    821-6262

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    12:30 AM

    Kids City Toys, Apparel & Gifts (past security)

    827-0643

    Daily

    10:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Deli-Up Café (past security)

    821-6000

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Duty Free Shop (past security) Main Store

    827-3700

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    12:00 AM

    Duty Free Shop (past security) Satellite Store @ Gate 93

    827-3527

    Daily

    9:00 AM

    3:00 PM

    Embarcadero Treats Food & Candy (past security)

    821-1600

    Daily

    9:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Il Fornaio Café (past security)

    821-9443

    Daily

    7:00 AM

    7:00 PM

    Trendsetters Gifts (past security)

    827-8689

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    12:00 AM

    Wine Country Gourmet (past security)

    246-1579

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    12:00 AM

    Pacific Gateway News (past security) @ Gate 94

    873-6974

    Daily

    9:00 AM

    11:00 PM

    Pacific Gateway News (past security) @ Gate 98

    872-7006

    Daily

    9:00 AM

    1:00 AM

    Pacific Gateway News (past security) @ Gate 102

    821-1737

    Daily

    10:00 AM

    2:00 PM

    Pacific Outfitters Travel Assessories (past security)

    821-1024

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    1:00 AM

    SF Bay Trader Gifts (past security)

    246-3736

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    1:00 AM

    Tomokazu Japanese Cuisine (past security)

    821-8899

    Daily

    8:30 AM

    12:00 AM

    Travelex Currency Exchange (past security)

    821-0900

    Daily

    8:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    Non-Terminal

    Tazza D’ Oro (in Rental Car Center)

    No phone

    Daily

    6:00 AM

    10:00 PM

    All telephone numbers begin with area code (650).

    http://www.sfgov.org/site/sf311rfs_index.asp?id=52917

    Airport 103040 – Concessions – Services – Hours

    Information provided by theSan Francisco Airport (SFO)

    ***

    Like medicine for the shopping weary, Home Remedies (1026 Valencia, 415-826-2026) offers an easy trip down Santa Claus lane for kids and adults. Pick up a San Francisco-scene dish towel ($6.50), fingerless gloves ($8), an illustrated, needle- and yarn-inclusive learn-to-knit scarf kit ($22), a feather- and fur-topped tool set ($35), a gorgeous, supersoft woven wrap in tangerine, aquamarine, plum, or olive ($55), a Space Boy flashlight with a Morse code siren ($12.95), and Mother Goose nesting blocks ($22), along with a few show-off pillows and linens and some regional food specialties, like maple syrup and hot sauce.

    Bookstores are heavy on the ground in these parts, with Abandoned Planet (518 Valencia, 415-861-4695), Borderland Books (866 Valencia, 824-8203), Modern Times (888 Valencia, 415-282-9246), and Dog Eared Books (910 Valencia, 415-282-1901) housing enough fiction and nonfiction titles, zines, small-press beauties, calendars, cookbooks, mysteries, and histories to make you want to curl up in front of the fire (or central heater) for the winter. And for the note-inclined, there’s Aquarius Records (1055 Valencia, 415-647-2272), a good place to test-drive the latest death metal, electroclash, noise, pop, jazz, or ambient CD before putting it under the tree.

    http://www.sfbg.com/37/12/culture_shopping.html

    First and foremost, there’s Amoeba Music (1855 Haight, 415-831-1200), where you can find something to please anyone with ears – and eyes, too, thanks to the easy-to-search selection of old concert posters from local clubs and far beyond. Two blocks down at the independently owned Booksmith (1644 Haight, 415-863-8688), pick up an autographed copy of Ursula K. Le Guin’s The Other Wind ($25) or Dan Savage’s Skipping towards Gomorrah ($23.95) as well as other great hard- or softcover reads.

    For you, dear last-minute shopper, Happy Trails (1615 Haight, 415-431-7232) will indeed be a happy place. The kitschy, thematically arranged offerings include such singular items as cowboy-boot pizza cutters ($12.95) and cotton Wild West pajama sets (a dear $59.95), lots of tiki, skull, superhero, and Elvis items, Last Supper paint-by-number sets ($29.95), strings of hot dog- and horse-shaped lights ($15.95), Magic Garden kits ($6.95), black lights ($17.95), self-adhesive sideburns ($8.99), and rubber chickens ($10.95).

    Remember those crafts you were going to learn how to make? Well, at Mendel’s (1556 Haight, 415-621-1287) you can find the supplies for people who already know how. There are make-a-pet-dish kits ($12.95) for the animal lover, mosaic house-number sets for the new homeowner/renter ($25), paint-by-number kits ($5.95) for the budding realist artist, fabrics and buttons galore for the sewer, and yes, tie-dye kits ($19.95) for the Deadheads. And Mendel’s rubber stamps, stickers, coloring books, and stencils make perfect stocking stuffers.

    It would be close to impossible not to find the perfect magazine, comic, or small-press book for even your most difficult gift recipient at Anubis Warpus (1525 Haight, 415-431-2218). Imagine the joy your unemployed friends will experience as they unwrap Sell Yourself to Science ($16.95) or The Art and Science of Dumpster Diving ($14.95) – and the horror your parents will experience as they watch your younger sister ooh and aah over the latest tattoo or body-piercing tome. Plus, there’s an enviable selection of belt buckles (grizzly bears, banjos, states), a few racks of club-ready clothes ($5-$20), and plenty of nose and tongue rings to choose from.

    Kid Robot (1512 Haight, 415-487-9000) sells collectible Western and Asian vinyl action figures, such as the bad-ass Ray the Aerosol Can ($59.95), Stereo’s Who’s Next Girl ($69.95, complete with disposable camera), Michael Lau’s Crazychildren series (from $21.95), the Mulletheads ($7.95), Planet of the Apes characters ($19.95 a set), and Run DMC ($19.95). Kid Robot also stocks very intriguing stuffed items like Friends with You Albino Squid ($44.95).

    Mainline Gifts (1928 Fillmore, 415-563-GIFT) offers whimsical products like walkie-talkie pens ($20.95), Flensted paper mobiles ($30), music-box innards that play  Hey Jude  or the Pink Panther theme ($9.95), alarming gummy penises and breasts ($5.95 each), microwavable aromatherapy (apparently not an oxymoron) neck pillows ($34), and Kozial utensils (around $5).
    Tucked in among the envelopes and manila folders at Brown Bag (2000 Fillmore, 415-922-0390) are supercheap handmade paper photo albums ($15.50), Zippo lighters ($28), Elizabeth cutout dolls (Queen, $3.95; Taylor, $12), animal masks ($2.95),  dead duck  rubber duckies ($3.95), the tiniest tarot card set in the world ($6), and candle sets ($8.98), along with boxes of stationery ($7 and up) and glass ornaments (from $2). And you can wrap it all up in T-bone steak wrapping paper ($4.95).

    A silk robe ($92) or a floral, wooden-handled purse ($18.95) from the decidedly French-flared Nest (2300 Fillmore, 415-292-6199) is not the sort of gift that would end up in the exchange pile. Neither are the French posters ($12) and metal signs ($20), hooks made out of old perfume ads ($22), Parisian teapots ($90), or stunning quilts (around $450 for a queen). Toward the back are children’s clothes and toys, as well as a lovely learn-your-animal-names bowl set ($9).

    SFO

    Last but not least, the truly desperate traveler will want to use his or her postsecurity check time to browse the minimalls of San Francisco International Airport, with its cavalcade of Fisherman’s Wharf-variety shops selling San Francisco magnets and T-shirts and sourdough everything. For gourmet food and wine there’s San Francisco Bay Traders, Made in California, and the California Product Shop, and yes, Virginia, there is a See’s Candies. Even the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art has a place at the airport. There’s also branches of the Museum Store, Discovery Channel, and Mont Blanc. If you didn’t think of anything for Dad, take a look around San Francisco Golf, which bills itself as the  largest airport golf store in the country.  And last of all, stock up on reading material for the flight. When you’re through with the New York Times, you’ll be spending the rest of the flight wrapping up the results of your hard day’s work.

    http://www.sfbg.com/37/12/culture_shopping.html

    ***

    Bolton Museums, Art Gallery And Aquarium
    Contact Details
    City:
    Le Mans Crescent
    State:
    Greater Manchester
    Country:
    United Kingdom
    Continent: Europe
    Postal Code:
    BL1 1SE
    Internet URL: http://www.boltonmuseums.org.uk
    Organizational Type

    * Aquarium
    * Museum

    Content Areas

    * Art/Artifact

    http://www.thew2o.net/node/2054

    ***

    http://www.boltonmuseums.org.uk/

    the moth release exhibition with light refreshments

    **

    http://www.theiff.org/reef/index.html

    About the Crochet Coral ReEF PROJECT

    The Institute For Figuring is crocheting a coral reef: a woolly celebration of the intersection of higher geometry and feminine handicraft, and a testimony to the disappearing wonders of the marine world.

    Created and curated by IFF directors:
    Christine Wertheim and Margaret Wertheim

    Crochet Coral and Anemone Garden  with sea slug by Marianne Midelburg.
    Photos © The IFF by Alyssa Gorelick.

    One of the acknowledged wonders of the natural world, the Great Barrier Reef stretches along the coast of Queensland like a psychadelic serpent, a riotous profusion of color and form unparalleled on our planet. But global warming and pollutants so threaten this fragile monster that scientists now believe the reef will be devastated in coming years. As a homage to the Great One, IFF directors Margaret and Christine Wertheim instigated a project to crochet a woolen reef. The sisters, who grew up in Queensand, have been spearheading the project since 2005, quiety watching as it has morphed into an unexpected and far-reaching wordwide movement.

    The Reef begins with the technique of hyperbolic crochet discovered by mathematician Dr. Daina Taimina, which the Institute has taken up and elaborated into a polyphony of organismal crochet procedures, bringing into being in a wide taxonomy of reef-life forms. Loopy  kelps , fringed  anemones , and curlicued  corals  have all been modeled. While the process that brings these models into being is algorithmic, endless permutations of the underlying formulae result in a constantly surprising panoply of shapes. The quality of yarn, style of stitch, and tightness of the crochet all affect the finished forms so that each is as individual as a living organism. As a whole, the Crochet Reef is made up of many different “sub-reefs,” each with its own colors and styling: these include the Bleached Reef, the Beaded Reef, the Branched Anemone Garden, and our largest work, The Ladies’ Silurian Atoll, a ring-shaped installation with close to 1000 individual crochet pieces made by dozens of contributors around the world. In addition to these woolen reefs is the massive Toxic Reef crocheted from yarn and plastic trash – a part of the project that responds to the escalating problem of plastic trash that is innundating our oceans and choking marine life.

    Large scale anemone with brain coral head by Margaret Wertheim.

    Each crochet model results from the application of an iterative recipe. Like fractals, such as the Mandelbrot Set, these forms come into being through the process of doing a small set of steps again and again and again. Though experience often serves as a guide, there is no way to know in advance what a specific algorithm will produce and we have many times been surprised when seemingly insignificant changes in the underlying pattern led to fundamentally new results. In a very real sense, this is a kind of experimental mathematics and we invite crocheters everywhere to explore for themselves the possibilities inherent in these techniques.

    More information about these techniques and instructons for making specific forms are given in the IFF’s extensive Onine Exhibit about Hyperboic Crochet. We encourage beginners to expore this Exhibit, which also explains the concept of hyperbolic space.
    This information is also available in a beautifully produced handbook published by the Institute called A Field Guide to Hyperboic Space, which may be purchased here: A Field Guide to Hyperbolic Space.

    Orange brain coral with urchins.
    Getting started on your own hyperbolic models is easy. The basic insight is to understand that these forms result from the simple process of increasing the number of stitches in every row. The more often you increase stitches the faster the model will grow and the more crenellated the finished form will become. Models can begin with a simple line, resulting in a hyperbolic plane; or from a single point with the crochet spiraling around to gradually fan out like a cone, resulting in what is known as a pseudosphere. You may also begin from a circle, which will produce tubular, bell shaped, or trumpeted configurations. Once you start to experiment, the variety is endless and we recommend that beginners study our Introductory Gallery for helpful tips.

    Crochet coral and anemone garden.

    As you explore, be playful. Don’t worry about sticking too closely to the formal rules, though it’s interesting and important to understand what the rules do. Try things out for fun. Experiment with different types of yarn. Try mixing yarns together, say a thick worsted and a fine mohair, or a silk and a cotton thread. Try varying the rate of increasing in a single model. Consider using string, wire, and plastic, or anything else that takes your fancy. Try felting – throw the finished model in a washing machine with hot water and let it churn for half an hour. This only works with pure wool (acrylics and cotton won’t felt) but the results are wonderfu

    We encourage you all to be inventive – in the end the only overriding rule of the Crochet Reef project is that there are no rules that can’t be broken. Just as living organisms continually evolve and morph into new forms, so too there is an endless taxonomy of crochet reef forms awaiting to be.

    reef4.jpg

    Hyperbolic crochet coral reef

    – About the Crochet Coral Reef
    – History of the Coral Reef
    – Crochet Reef and Global Warming
    – Crochet Reef and Hyperbolic Space
    – Crochet Reef and Evolution
    – The Great Pacific Garbage Patch
    – Plastic Trash and the IFF Midden
    – Crocheting Plastic and the Toxic Reef
    – The Bleached Reef
    – Contributors

    – Crochet Reef Workshops and Lectures

    Crochet Reef Exhbitions

    – Exhibition Schedule
    – Report On Crochet Reef Showing in Scottsdale, AZ
    – Crochet Reef Showing in Scottsdale, AZ
    – Crochet Reef Showing in Los Angeles
    – Report on Crochet Reef Exhibition in Los Angeles
    – New York and Chicago Reefs in Staten Island
    – Plastic Exploding Inevitable Reef in San Francisco
    – Crochet Reef Showing in London at the Hayward
    – Report On The Crochet Reef in London
    – Crochet Reef Symposium at Southbank Center
    – New York Exhibitions – Now Showing
    – New York Broadway Windows Photos [IFF-G21]
    – New York Winter Garden Photos [IFF-G21]
    – Chicago Cultural Center Exhibition
    – Chicago Exhibition Main Photos [IFF-G18]
    – Chicago Exhibition Toxic Reef Photos [IFF-G19]
    – Chicago Exhibition Chicago Reef Photos [IFF-G20]
    – The Andy Warhol Museum Exhibition [IFF-G11]
    – Track 16 Exhibition [IFF-G12]

    Satellite Reefs
    – Introduction
    – The Chicago Reef
    – The New York Reef
    – The UK Reef
    – The Scottsdale Reef
    – The Sydney Reef
    – The Latvian Reef

    http://www.theiff.org/reef/index.html

    ***

    Ocean Art
    Cape Farewell

    Cape Farewell brings artists, scientists and educators together to collectively address and raise awareness about climate change. Created by David Buckland, Cape Farewell has led three expeditions into the wild, beautiful and icy High Arctic, a place for artistic inspiration and scientific enquiry.

    ‘Articles on climate change appear almost daily in the newspapers, and on television and it can appear that such issues are beyond our control. This is why we are trying to use the personal experiences of renowned artists, and the creative vocabulary of art rather than science, to raise an awareness that everyone individually can help alleviate the impacts of climate change…’ (Bergit Arends, Art Curator at the Natural History Museum, London)
    Art and the Sea Gallery

    This gallery at Britain’s National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, offers an overview of the sea in European visual culture from the 16th to 21st centuries.
    Louis George-Batier (in French and English)

    A voyager’s record in art of boats and maritime life around the world.
    The Marine Art Information Center

    Lists auctions, art galleries, and museums with marine art collections, and offers articles on marine art history, links to marine photography and maritime research sites, and a library of titles on marine art.
    Marine Art Quarterly

    Insider information from the one of the contemporary marine art world’s leading galleries; offers issues of the Quarterly, images of new works, information about historic marine art, and links to gallery exhibitions.
    American Society of Marine Artists

    A gallery of members’ work is an outstanding feature of this site on contemporary American marine art. ASMA is a membership organization aiming to recognize and promote marine art and history, and to encourage the interests of artists, historians, marine enthusiasts and others.
    The Institute for Figuring: Crochet Coral Reef

    The Institute For Figuring is crocheting a coral reef: a woolly celebration of the intersection of higher geometry and feminine handicraft, and a testimony to the disappearing wonders of the marine world.
    Arden Scott: Sculptor

    Arden Scott’s environment provides much of the inspiration for her artwork, which most recently has centered on the creation of elegantly simplified sculptures of boats, canoes and other pleasure craft.
    Saltwater Yirkalla Bark Paintings of Sea Country

    The Australian National Maritime Museum’s display of its renowned Saltwater Collection… eighty spectacular Indigenous bark paintings that double as legal documents.

    All of these works were painted by artists among the Yolngu people of north-east Arnhem Land in the late 1990s to explain their traditional ties with the region’s coastal zone – their ‘saltwater country.’ Click here for image gallery.
    Ocean Literature

    Under Construction – Please visit Ocean Publications

    http://www.thew2o.net/ocean_art

    ***

    http://www.fishermanswharf.org/
    Fisherman’s Wharf San Francisco California

    http://www.visitfishermanswharf.com/

    Shopping –

    A Heart for Kids
    Address: 283 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): Between Taylor and Jones Streets
    Phone: 415-441-3274

    Souvenirs

    After the Quake
    Address: 2734 Taylor Street
    Cross Street(s): Between Taylor and Mason Streets
    Phone: 415-931-3624
    Web: http://www.afterthequake.com

    With a crumbling ceiling, overturned cars, a cable car crashing through a wall, and broken concrete columns, After The Quake® is proud to present a Disaster Sale to all customers who walk through its torn and ragged entrance. Almost everything is on sale in this 8000 square foot retail store which has barely survived one of the periodic earthquakes that shake, rattle and roll the beautiful city of San Francisco.
    Days / Hours of Operation: After The Quake® shopping zone is open 365 days a year from 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m
    Directions: After the Quake is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Aquarium of the Bay Gift Shop
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Buildings A and N, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-623-5300
    Web: http://www.aquariumofthebay.com

    Bay-Related Gifts
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    B.C. Company
    Address: 2685 Taylor Street
    Cross Street(s): At Beach
    Phone: 415-885-5627

    Novelty, souvenir and clothing store
    Directions:

    B.C Company is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Bay Company/ The Flagship
    Address: 496 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): At Hyde
    Phone: 415-771-5200

    Novelty, souvenir and clothing store
    Directions: Bay Company/ The Flagship is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages

    Better Value Gifts
    Address: 83 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): At Mason
    Phone: 415-986-2383

    Novelty, souvenir and clothing store
    Directions:

    Better Value Gifts is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Blossem Gifts
    Address: 155 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): Between Taylor and Mason Streets
    Phone: 415-776-3328

    Novelty, souvenir and clothing store
    Directions:

    Blossem Gifts is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Cable Car Station
    Address: 2713 Taylor Street
    Phone: 415-885-0190

    Novelty, souvenir and clothing store
    Directions:

    Cable Car Station is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Cable Car Store
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building P, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-989-2040
    Web: http://www.cablecarstore.com

    Cable Car Collectibles
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    **
    Captain’s Wharf
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building P, Level 2
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-398-4679

    Nautical Themed Gifts
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    ell Block 41 Gift Shop
    Address: Pier 41
    Cross Street(s): At Jefferson Street
    Phone: 415-249-4666

    Novelty, souvenir and clothing store
    Directions:

    Cell Block 41 Gift Shop is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Coast Marine & Industrial
    Address: 398 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): At Leavenworth
    Phone: 415-673-1923

    Marine & Industrial Hardware, Ropes, Tarpaulines, Slings, Gangway Nets and ladders
    Crazy Shirts
    Address: 65 and 333 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): Between Mason and Powell Streets/Leavenworth and Jones Streets
    Phone: 415-982-7309 (65 Jefferso
    Phone 2: 415-771-1794 (333 Jeffers
    Web: http://www.crazyshirts.com

    A fun, relaxed Hawaiian approach to original T-shirts found only here.
    Days / Hours of Operation: Both Crazy Shirts stores in Fisherman’s Wharf are open Sunday through Thursday from 10:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., and  Friday and  Saturday 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m.
    Directions: For the Crazy Shirts store at 333 Jefferson Street, enter the Anchorage Square garage at 500 Beach Street at Jones. Park for only $3 for the first hour with validation of purchase. You can also take the cable car to the Hyde Street turnaround, which is just a block away. Or hop aboard a vintage “F” Line streetcar and get off right at our door.

    Crystal Shop II
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building D, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-291-0660

    Crafted Handbags, Glassware & Art
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Ess Eff
    Address: Pier 43 1/2
    Cross Street(s): At Jefferson Street
    Phone: 415-249-4675

    Novelty, souvenir and clothing store
    Directions:

    Ess Eff is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Fairyland
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building E, Level 2
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-291-8463
    Web: http://www.fairylandsf.com

    Mystic Myths & Magic
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Flags America
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building N, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-982-3524

    Flags of the World & Flag-Related Merchandise
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Frank’s Fisherman Supply
    Address: 366 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): Between Leavenworth and Jones Streets
    Phone: 415-775-1165
    E-Mail: info@franksfisherman.com
    Web: http://www.franksfisherman.com

    Frank’s Fisherman offers original oil paintings, antique ship models, rare marine navigation devices, and historic ship’s accouterment. We have been in business since 1946 and are family owned and operated. Customers are treated as neighbors.
    Days / Hours of Operation: Monday through Saturday 10:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.
    Directions: Frank’s Fisherman Supply is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Fun Time
    Location: Ghirardelli Square
    Address: 900 North Point Street, 2nd Floor, Woolen Mill Building
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street
    Phone: 415-922-4427

    Unique images of time
    Directions: Ghirardelli Square is located at 900 North Point Street between Beach and Larkin Streets. It is near the west end of Fisherman’s Wharf, two blocks east of Van Ness Avenue and one block west of the Cable Car turnaround at Beach and Hyde Streets.

    Gallery 55 Art Galleries
    Address: 101 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): At Mason Street
    Phone: 415-771-0898

    Fine Art.
    Directions: Gallery 55 is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking and Public Transit pages.

    uardino’s Souvenir and Gift Shop
    Address: 2801Taylor Street
    Cross Street(s): At Jefferson Street
    Phone: 415-775-3669

    Souvenirs and other unique gifts.
    Directions: Guardino’s Souvenir and Gift Shop is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Hand & Mind Gallery
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building J, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-951-0700

    Hand-Crafted Gifts by Local Artists
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Helpers Home Bazaar
    Location: Ghirardelli Square
    Address: 900 North Point Street, Lower Plaza
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street
    Phone: 415-441-0779

    Arts and crafts, new designer and vintage clothing
    Directions: Ghirardelli Square is located at 900 North Point Street between Beach and Larkin Streets. It is near the west end of Fisherman’s Wharf, two blocks east of Van Ness Avenue and one block west of the Cable Car turnaround at Beach and Hyde Streets.

    Hidden Plunder
    Location: The Anchorage
    Address: 2800 Leavenworth Street
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street
    Phone: 415-775-5060

    Find something for everyone   Clothing to fit your style…the choice is yours.  A wide selection of souvenirs so you remember your stay in San Francisco
    Directions: Enter the Anchorage Square garage at 500 Beach Street at Jones. Park for only $3 for the first hour with validation of purchase. You can also take the cable car to the Hyde Street turnaround, which is just a block away. Or hop aboard a vintage “F” line streetcar and get off right near our door.

    Krazy Store
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building H, Level 2
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-392-3638
    Web: http://www.crazyhatsandties.com

    Humorous Apparel & Merchandise
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Lark In The Morning
    Location: THE CANNERY at Del Monte Square
    Address: 2801 Leavenworth Street, 1st Level, South Bldg.
    Cross Street(s): At Columbus Street
    Phone: 415-922-4277
    Web: larkinthemorning.com

    Musical instruments and recordings from the world over; artwork of musical subjects; books, videos and instruction.
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily, with hours that vary by season.
    Directions: Full-service restaurants and most retail stores provide validations for parking discounts at The Anchorage Shopping Center Garage, located just one half block from THE CANNERY at 500 Beach Street. Please visit THE CANNERY website for directions and public transit information.

    Le Beastro
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building H, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-391-3411

    Dog Boutique & Gifts
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Lefty’s – The Left Hand Store
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: PIER 39, Building O, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-989-5508

    Gifts and accessories for the left-handed.
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily.  Hours of operation vary by season.  Please check the PIER 39 website for details at http://www.pier39.com
    Directions:
    Parking is conveniently located in the PIER 39 Garage directly across from the Entrance Plaza. For directions, please visit http://www.pier39.com/LocateUs/directionsparking.htm. PIER 39 is convenient to several public transit options, including the F Line and Muni bus routes #19, #15, #39)

    Little Cable Car
    Location: Ghirardelli Square
    Address: 900 North Point Street, 2nd Floor, Woolen Mill Building
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street
    Phone: 415-922-4427

    Cable car and San Francisco themed souvenirs
    Directions: Ghirardelli Square is located at 900 North Point Street between Beach and Larkin Streets. It is near the west end of Fisherman’s Wharf, two blocks east of Van Ness Avenue and one block west of the Cable Car turnaround at Beach and Hyde Streets.

    Lola of North Beach
    Location: Ghirardelli Square
    Address: 900 North Point Street, West Plaza
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street

    Stationery and gift items
    Directions: Ghirardelli Square is located at 900 North Point Street between Beach and Larkin Streets. It is near the west end of Fisherman’s Wharf, two blocks east of Van Ness Avenue and one block west of the Cable Car turnaround at Beach and Hyde Streets.

    Magnet Kingdom
    Location: The Anchorage
    Address: 2800 Leavenworth St
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street
    Phone: 415-929-7876
    E-Mail: info@magnetkingdom.net
    Web: http://www.magnetkingdom.net

    The best and widest selection of unique magnets—by popular vote. Great home and gift ideas plus service as outstanding as our magnets
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily from 10:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.
    Directions: Enter the Anchorage Square garage at 500 Beach Street at Jones. Park for only $3 for the first hour with validation of purchase. You can also take the cable car to the Hyde Street turnaround, which is just a block away. Or hop aboard a vintage “F” line streetcar and get off right near our door.

    Magnetron
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building K, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-989-2361

    Decorative Magnets
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Majestic Collection Art Galleries
    Address: 229 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): At Taylor Street
    Phone: 415-409-9100

    Art Gallery
    Directions: Majestic Collection is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Making History
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: PIER 39, Building H, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-391-3563

    Gifts & Packaged Food Items Relating to San Francisco’s Past
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Marine Mammal Center Store
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building J, Level 2
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-289-7373
    Web: http://www.tmmc.com

    Apparel, Books & Gifts
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Mud, Wind and Fire Craft Gallery
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building F, Level 2
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-397-7066
    Web: http://www.madragsfashions.com

    Hand-Crafted Gifts
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Natalie’s Antiques
    Address: 145 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): Between Mason and Taylor Streets
    Phone: 415-440-1600

    Art, Collectibles & Hobbies, Antiques
    Directions: Natalie’s Antiques is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    National Park Store
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building J, Level 2
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-433-7221
    Web: http://www.ggnpa.org

    Maps, Books, Gifts & Information
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    New CWK Gift Shop
    Address: 2655 Taylor Street
    Cross Street(s): Between Beach and North Point Streets
    Phone: 415-359-9231

    Gifts for everyone
    Days / Hours of Operation: 10 a.m.- 8:30 p.m. daily

    **

    Only in San Francisco
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building A, Level 1, Building D, Level 2
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-397-0143
    Web: http://www.onlyinsanfrancisco.net

    San Francisco Mementos
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Paper Palace
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building B, Level 2
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-217-8840

    Handmade S.F. Paper Gifts
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Puppets on the Pier
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building H, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-781-4435
    Web: http://www.puppetdream.com

    Hand Puppets & Marionettes
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Rainbow Art
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building J, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-2790-6683
    Web: http://www.sfname.com

    Personalized Name Painting
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Rip Squeak & Friends Gallery
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: PIER 39, Building K, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-391-8264

    A whole company of fun
    Days / Hours of Operation: Hours of operation vary by season.  Please check the PIER 39 website for details at http://www.pier39.com
    Directions:
    Parking is conveniently located in the PIER 39 Garage directly across from the Entrance Plaza. For directions, please visit http://www.pier39.com/LocateUs/directionsparking.htm. PIER 39 is convenient to several public transit options, including the F Line and Muni bus routes #19, #15, #39)

    Russian Ark
    Location: THE CANNERY at Del Monte Square
    Address: 2801 Leavenworth Street, 1st Level, North Bldg.
    Cross Street(s): At Columbus Street
    Phone: 415-346-0977
    Web: russiantreasure.com

    Authentic Russian crafts & collectibles.
    Directions: Full-service restaurants and most retail stores provide validations for parking discounts at The Anchorage Shopping Center Garage, located just one half block from THE CANNERY at 500 Beach Street. Please visit THE CANNERY website for directions and public transit information.

    San Francisco Music Box Co.
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building E, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-398-2379

    Waterglobes, Figurines & Jewelry Boxes
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Richter’s Music Boxes
    Location: Ghirardelli Square
    Address: 900 North Point Street, West Plaza
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street
    Phone: 415-441-2663

    Music Boxes
    Directions: Ghirardelli Square is located at 900 North Point Street between Beach and Larkin Streets. It is near the west end of Fisherman’s Wharf, two blocks east of Van Ness Avenue and one block west of the Cable Car turnaround at Beach and Hyde Streets.

    Scope City
    Location: Northpoint Shopping Center
    Address: 350 Bay Street
    Cross Street(s): Between Mason and Powell Streets
    Phone: 415-421-8800

    The largest and most complete optical centers in the world.
    Directions: Parking is available at the Northpoint Parking Garage, located at 2355 Powell Street.

    Shell Cellar
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building P, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): Between Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-433-3285
    Web: http://www.theshellcellars.com

    Sea Shells, Jewelry & Gifts
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.

    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Shirtique
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building N, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): Between Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-296-8930
    Web: http://www.destinationpartners.com/shirtique.htm

    Casual Apparel for Men, Women & Children
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.
    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Shirts Gallery
    Address: 99 Jefferson Street
    Cross Street(s): At Mason Street
    Phone: 415-398-1842

    Souvenir and novelty store.
    Directions: Shirts Gallery is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Silver Treasures
    Address: Building P, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-781-1509
    Web: http://www.charmsbythebay.com

    Silver Jewelry, Gifts & Accessories
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.
    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Souvenir Outlet
    Address: 417 Beach Street
    Cross Street(s): At Taylor Street
    Phone: 415-345-1821

    Souvenirs for everyone.
    Directions: Souvenir Outlet is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Sports Shop
    Address: 289 Jefferson Street
    Phone: 415-749-3062

    Athletic wear and apparel.
    Directions: Sports Shop is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Sports Trend, Inc.
    Location: The Anchorage
    Address: Three Locations in the Wharf
    Phone: 415-776-7888

    The lowest prices in San Francisco on sweatshirts, t-shirts, caps, jackets and more. Great values in high-quality souvenirs. Store locations are:

    * 333 Jefferson Street at Anchorage Square (415-776-7888)
    * 95 Jefferson Street (415-392-9968)
    * 105 Jefferson Street (415-409-3228)

    Directions: For the Anchorage Square location, enter the Anchorage Square garage at 500 Beach Street at Jones. Park for only $3 for the first hour with validation of purchase. You can also take the cable car to the Hyde Street turnaround, which is just a block away. Or hop aboard a vintage “F” line streetcar and get off right at our door.

    Under the Golden Gate
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building B, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-397-1080

    Golden Gate Bridge Themed Merchandise
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.
    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Wharf T-Shirts
    Address: 286 Jefferson Street
    Phone: 415-749-3062

    T-shirts and souvenirs.
    Directions: Wharf T-Shirts is convenient to Fisherman’s Wharf parking lots and public transit. For more information, please visit the Parking or Public Transit pages.

    Wyland Galleries
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building K, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-398-3263
    Web: http://www.wylandgalleries.com

    World’s Foremost Marine Life Artist & Select Artists
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.
    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Yap Wraps
    Location: Ghirardelli Square
    Address: 900 North Point Street, West Plaza
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street
    Phone: 415-346-8878
    Web: http://www.yapwraps.com

    Yap Wraps, Le Pooch Couture
    Directions: Ghirardelli Square is located at 900 North Point Street between Beach and Larkin Streets. It is near the west end of Fisherman’s Wharf, two blocks east of Van Ness Avenue and one block west of the Cable Car turnaround at Beach and Hyde Streets.

    Yuriy Bihusyak
    Location: The Anchorage
    Address: 2800 Leavenworth Street
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street

    Wonderful paintings by local artists.
    Directions: Enter the Anchorage Square garage at 500 Beach Street at Jones. Park for only $3 for the first hour with validation of purchase. You can also take the cable car to the Hyde Street turnaround, which is just a block away. Or hop aboard a vintage “F” line streetcar and get off right at our door.

    Winery Collective, Tasting Room & Wine Store
    Address: 485 Jefferson Street next to THE CANNERY
    Cross Street(s): At Jefferson and Hyde Streets, one block from the Hyde Street Cable Car
    Phone: 415-929-9463
    Web: http://www.winerycollective.com

    Winery Collective is the first multi-winery tasting room and wine store in San Francisco focused on boutique wineries unique to California.  Come meet wine makers, explore over 50 different wines, and experience wine country across California from the Napa Valley to Santa Barbara right in the heart of San Francisco.
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily 11:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. and later in peak season.  For more information please click here.
    Directions: Take the Cable Car to Hyde Street turnaround and walk 1/2 block to Jefferson Street and turn right.  Or hop aboard a vintage  F  line streetcar and get off at Jones & Jefferson Streets and walk one block down just past THE CANNERY.

    Wines of California
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: Building J, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-989-0353
    Web: http://www.winesofca.com

    California Wines & Wine Accessories
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily. Hours of operation vary by season. Please check the PIER 39 website for details.
    Directions: PIER 39 has convenient visitor parking in the PIER 39 Garage, located directly across the street from the Entrance Plaza.

    Wines of California Wine Bar
    Location: PIER 39
    Address: PIER 39, Building N, Level 1
    Cross Street(s): At Beach Street and The Embarcadero
    Phone: 415-989-0353

    Wine tasting by the glass.
    Days / Hours of Operation: Open daily.  Hours of operation vary by season.  Please check the PIER 39 website for details at http://www.pier39.com
    Directions:
    Parking is conveniently located in the PIER 39 Garage directly across from the Entrance Plaza. For directions, please visit http://www.pier39.com/LocateUs/directionsparking.htm. PIER 39 is convenient to several public transit options, including the F Line and Muni bus routes #19, #15, #39)

    http://www.visitfishermanswharf.com/shopping/default.aspx

    **
    Astra Freight and Logistics – Egypt

    AFL is legally registered in
    Egypt since 1997,
    the company has retained
    a wealth of experience
    that goes with
    15 years of business
    experience with
    expert team of freight
    AFL are specialized in air
    and ocean freight offering
    services to importers and
    exporters to and from all
    international sea and
    airport worldwide.
    AFL are committed to
    customer satisfaction;
    offers reliable, flexible
    and professionalized
    service.

    http://www.afl-eg.com/services.html

    Services

    AIR

    AFL provides first class Airfreight services.

    As a specialist we provide the expertise to handle shipments that can be difficult because of size or destination. We can arrange collection, documentation and Airfreight through all major passenger and all cargo airlines. Where appropriate AFL will arrange for goods to be inspected prior to departure.

    There is no formal size and weight restriction. If it can be moved by air AFL will make the arrangements on behalf of you or your customer.

    SEA

    AFL Ocean Services provides total control over your ocean freight movements into, out of, and  around Egypt.

    AFL can arrange for sea freight movements from allover the world  full containers (FCL), part loads (LCL.

    We have an International Network of Freight Partners able to assist us with Door to Door Transportation, Logistics and Customs Clearance.

    AFL will look after the collection, documentation and dispatch to destination port.

    DOOR TO DOOR:
    This service involves some aspects of Logistics Transportation (total shipping). Your goods are picked up at your overseas location/suppliers warehouse and shipped to Egypt. Company representatives supervise customs clearance and delivery to your door.

    CUSTOMS BROKERAGE SERVICE:

    This involves processing all relevant customs documents. Liaison with Government Agencies to facilitate efficient clearance of your cargo on time.
    SHIPPING CONSULTANTS:

    We work together with you, advising you about shipping solutions that best meet with your requirements. We track all commercial consignment from point of origin to point of delivery. This ensures that goods shipped arrive on time.

    Our team consists of resourceful and experienced individuals with extensive knowledge of shipping.

    Other Services

    – Freight Charges Collect Destination Service – Freight charges are payable in Egypt upon arrival of shipment.

    – Flexible Shipping Arrangement – to facilitate customs clearance, we are able to meet customer’s requirement on how they want the airway bill to be prepared at the origin country such as:

    – No value declared on the airway bill
    – No freight charges shown on the airway bill – only  As Arranged .
    – Customer can choose the carrier or airline they want.
    – Customer can dictate the kind of commodity they want us to declare on the

    airway bill.
    –  Pick-up of cargoes from the shipper’s location at the origin country.
    –  Pre-Alert Notification Service – we can advise consignee in advance about their

    shipments before it actually arrives in Cairo.
    –  Free delivery of Inbound airway bills to consignee or broker upon arrival.
    –  Door-to-Door service when required.
    –  Other service requirements

    (***)

    Tuesday June 30, 2009
    Welcome Writers Ask the Expert Serial Rights Vs. Print Rights

    Serial Rights Vs. Print Rights     Print     E-mail
    By Anne Bowling

    Q: After reading about the mess surrounding the Tasini decision, I’m confused. If I want to sell a story or article to a magazine to print one time after which all rights revert to me, should I sell first North American serial rights or first North American print rights? -Steve

    A: Before I begin to attack this one, let me qualify the answer by saying I’m not an attorney. So I’ll take my best stab at it and then recommend a couple of places you might want to research before signing anything.

    In the Tasini decision you mention, the Supreme Court ruled against The New York Times and others in their claim that in paying for first North American serial rights they automatically acquired the right to publish work electronically for profit with no additional compensation for the writer. This means writers may now sell electronic rights as separate from print rights, the upshot being they can earn more money for their work (in being fairly compensated). But what you also find is publishers specifying in contracts that they lump print and electronic rights together.

    Generally, yes, I recommend in whatever contract you’re signing that you reserve the right to be paid additionally if the publisher is going to use your work electronically for profit. The growth of electronic publishing has seriously complicated the serialization issue, so for more information (you don’t want legal advice from a liberal arts major, anyway) I suggest you check out a few different Web sites.

    First, intellectual property law attorney Ivan Hoffman is very active in posting information on the Internet related to this issue, and you’d do well to check out his site. There is also a great deal of information on the subject on the National Writers Union and The Authors Guild. Lastly, to be certain of what rights you’re selling and what you’re retaining with any given contract, it would be a good idea to have an attorney review it before you sign.

    Anne Bowling Picture

    Anne Bowling
    Editor of 2001-2005 Novel & Short Story Writer’s Markets
    Writer’s Digest Books

    http://www.fictionaddiction.net/Ask-the-Expert/serial-rights-print-rights.html

    http://www.ivanhoffman.com/

    http://www.nwu.org/

    http://www.authorsguild.org/

    ***

    The Housing Market Recovery
    Independent Financial & Investment Advice – ?1 hour ago?
    The Zurich Club gives you access to a seasoned panel of experts, whose tips and advice are intended to deliver top notch gains. …

    Foreclosures Rate Surges to 2.9%
    123Jump.com – ?48 minutes ago?
    … 5.27 or 0.17% to 3188.41 and in Frankfurt DAX index traded lower 7.10 or 0.15% to 4877.99.In Zurich trading SMI increased 18.05 or 0.33% to 5461.50.

    ***

    42nd session of UN int’l trade law body opens in Vienna
    Xinhua – ?Jun 29, 2009?
    VIENNA, June 29 (Xinhua) — The 42nd Session of UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) opened here Monday, with finalizing and adopting the …

    42nd session of UN int’l trade law body opens in Vienna
    http://www.chinaview.cn 2009-06-29 17:29:36           Print

    VIENNA, June 29 (Xinhua) — The 42nd Session of UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) opened here Monday, with finalizing and adopting the UNCITRAL Notes on cooperation, communication and coordination in cross-border insolvency proceedings high on its agenda.

    These documents are aimed at providing practical guidance for practitioners and judges on cooperation and communication in cross-border insolvency cases.

    The session, which is to last till July 17, will also discuss such issues as progress towards revision of the 1994 Model Law on Procurement of Goods, Construction and Services, preparation of the Annex to the Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions.

    Progress on monitoring implementation of the 1958 New York Convention, the status and promotion of UNCITRAL legal texts, technical cooperation and assistance to law reform and working methods of UNCITRAL will also be discussed.

    The Commission is expected to consider and recommend the use in international trade of the 2007 revision of the Uniform Customs and Practice for documentary credit (UCP 600) adopted by the International Chamber of Commerce.

    The UNCITRAL is the core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law. Currently it has 60 members who are elected by the United Nations General Assembly.

    Its mandate is to remove legal obstacles to international trade by progressively modernizing and harmonizing trade law by such measures as preparing legal texts and providing technical assistance to law reform activities.
    Editor: Mo Hong’e

    ***

    http://www.isria.com/9/n77.htm

    Weekly Letter 77
    Iran tests Bushehr plant, makes dramatic advances in its nuclear program

    more “Contrary to the request of the Board of Governors and the Security Council, Iran has not suspended its enrichment related activities, or its work on heavy water related projects” IAEA DG ElBaradei’s latest statement said.  Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant is a symbol of cooperation between Iran and Russia  once said Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Mohammad Ali Hosseini. Indeed, like Russia, the Bushehr power plant (+Natanz) is the heart of Iran’s nuclear ambitions and constitutes its best asset to access nuclear energy and to build military nukes, according to the West. In 1995, the Russian company named  Atomstroyexport  signed a contract to complete the plant since Germany discontinued its participation after the Islamic revolution in 1979.

    The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant has the capacity of producing one thousand mega watts of electricity (500 in a first stage) and its reactor uses light water. On December 2008, an IAEA report confirmed that Iran increased the number of its operating centrifuges in Natanz from 3,800 to 5,000. Deputy head of Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization Mohammad Saeedi said the job would be completed and that the Bushehr plant would become operational in 2009. Last November, the Russian Federation notified the UNSC Committee of supplies it had delivered for the light water reactor at Bushehr. Group 5+1 – China, France, Germany, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and United States – posed suspension of enrichment of uranium by Iran as a precondition for starting negotiation. Iran always refused and argued such a precondition violates its sovereignty and that its nuclear program is for peaceful purpose.

    Keywords: Iran, Israel, China, France, Germany, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, nited States, Group 5+1, E3+3, Bushehr, Natanz, Mohammad Ali Hosseini, Atomstroyexport, Mohammad Saeedi, Condoleezza Rice, Israel Defense Forces, UNSC Resolution 1803, Bank Melli, Bank Saderat, Uranium, Enrichment, Hasan Qashqavi, Ali Asghar Soltanieh, IAEA, UNSC, UN, Security Council, Eurodif, Ali Larijani, Rosatom, Sergei Kiriyenko, Dual-track approach, Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, Bernard Kouchner, Alaeddin Boroujerdi, Nuclear Bomb, Centrifuge, International Security, Middle East, Nuclear Power Plant, Reactor, Resolution 1737 (2006), ElBaradei.

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    Military

    North Caucasus Military District:

    Defending Russia’s Interests in the Caucasus

    (1996-August 1999)

    Dr Steven J Main

    June 2000

    Source: Military News Bulletin, No 8, August 1994.

    Disclaimer

    The views expressed are those of the

    Author and not necessarily those of the

    UK Ministry of Defence

    If Kosovo was selected to be the staging post for the launch of international terrorism in the Balkans, then Chechnya is the equivalent in the Caucasus. With [outside] assistance, enforced on the population of this Russian republic has been created an anti-people, anti-constitutional, criminal regime…a criminal-terrorist enclave.

    This has generated a qualitatively new threat … to national and international security, stability and the general peace. Today Russia stands square on to the threat in the North Caucasus, defending not only its territorial integrity and sovereignty, the law and freedom of its citizens, but also Europe, and the whole world from the strengthening criminal-terrorist abyss.

    The men who are literally in the front line waging Russia’s present  counter-terrorist campaign  are operating from the North Caucasus Military District (MD), Russia’s main guarantor of her security interests in the south. Not enjoying the easiest of times in 1994-1996 during the first Chechen War, Russia seems to have got things more right than wrong in this second military campaign in the region. Some of the reasons for this lie in the changes which have taken place both within this  frontline  military district and in the representative structures and units of the other power ministries based there. This paper examines those changes which took place within the MD during 1996-1999 and assesses their effectiveness in the light of the Chechen campaign. It is subdivided into a number of sections, including an overview of the relevant experience of the first Chechen war; the general military reform process and its impact on the MD; the level of mutual training between the units of the power ministries based in the MD. It is hoped that the reader will gain a more comprehensive picture of exactly how the North Caucasus MD prepared for its second military campaign in the Caucasus in the space of 5 years.

    The Experience of the 1994-1996 First Chechen War

    In early 1998, two Russian Lieutenant-Colonels published a detailed review of recent (1986-1996) military involvement in internal conflicts in USSR/Russia. They listed a total of 16 instances (10 in the period 1986-1991 and 6 in the post-Soviet period) when the central political power in Moscow felt it necessary to introduce troops onto the streets of the country’s cities and towns. Using four separate categories to gauge the effectiveness of the country’s Armed Forces –  cessation of disorder ;  reduction in tension ;  regularisation  and  localisation of conflict  – as well as a points system (0 representing no success; 1 partial success and 3 total success) – the authors reasoned that only one operation – that carried out in the Kirghiz cities of Osh, Kara-Suu and Uzgen in June 1990 – could be labelled  a great success.  Using their methodology, three operations were deemed to have been  a total failure : Tbilisi, April 1989; Vilnius, January 1990 and, not surprisingly, Chechnya, December 1994-August 1996. Their assessment of the current  counter-terrorist operation  in the North Caucasus is not yet known, but one can assume that it would be classed either as enjoying  certain limited success , or be placed in the slightly higher category,  use of troops justified itself.  Certainly, in comparison with the first Chechen war, at least militarily, the current campaign cannot be classed as a  a total failure , although how successful the politicians will be in securing both long-term peace and stability for the region is impossible to say at present.

    Thus, the assumption must be that Russia’s senior political and military figures did learn from the first Chechen War and did put into effect a number of changes, at least at a local level, designed to ensure that the Russian Armed Forces did not repeat the mistakes of 1994-1996. There can be very little doubt that the experience accumulated as a result of the first Chechen War was collated and analysed with a view not only, for instance, to strengthening the cooperation and interaction between the various power ministries, both locally and nationally, but also a determination to restore Moscow’s writ in the republic at the earliest possible date. After all, Chechnya in 1994-1996 proved that there was a very real internal threat to the Russian Federation and the response of the power ministries was less than adequate, to put it mildly. Moscow is also very aware of the strategic and economic importance of the region to Russia and is determined to maintain its presence in the region, by force of arms if needs be. Nor will it brook outside  interference  in what it considers to be a region of vital national importance.

    Even before the first Chechen War had fully run its course, it was obvious that changes were going to be made, especially in relation to the North Caucasus MD, in order to take into account the immediate combat experience of the troops on the ground. In May 1996, in an interview with Interfax, the then Russian Minister of Defence, General P Grachev, made it clear that the military experience of Chechnya would be used to re-model the Army, especially those units in the North Caucasus MD:
    Units in the North Caucasus Military District will be restructured on the basis of the experience of military actions conducted in Chechnya…the need has emerged to form infantry units and airborne assault units capable of fighting in the mountains, and airborne assault units to be dropped from helicopters in unfamiliar localities. The special rapid deployment units will also undergo some changes.
    Grachev also pointed out that one of  the main problems  facing the Armed Forces in the war in Chechnya was the Army’s lack of experience in seizing towns:  Besieging towns and preparing to take them by storm in one’s own country was very hard from the psychological point of view.  Judging from reports concerning the latest military campaign in the Caucasus, the seizing of towns would appear to have become less of a problem for the Russian Armed Forces.

    In a more detailed report, published at the end of May 1996, concerning the impact of the overall reform of the Armed Forces, as well as the war in Chechnya, Grachev spoke about  the essentially newly-created forces of the Moscow and the North Caucasus Military Districts , as well as the operational training which had taken place during the winter of 1995, when  attention was focussed on the study and tactical analysis of questions concerning the settlement of military conflicts of various sizes , involving not only the MoD, but also the Border Guards Service, MVD’s Interior Troops and the troops of the Ministry of Emergencies. Noting the resignation of Major-General Kondrat’yev as Commander of Operational Group of Forces (Chechnya), Grachev spoke about  the unjustifiable losses  due to  insufficient attention  being paid by the Commander to  the experience of the war in Afghanistan.

    A further sign of change in the MD was Grachev’s announcement in the article that all Federal forces not previously belonging to the North Caucasus MD were to be moved out of the MD by 1st August 1996, thus effectively signalling the beginning of the end of the military campaign in the region. Of course, by the time the deadline was due to be reached, Grachev was no longer Russia’s Minister of Defence, replaced by Colonel-General I Rodionov in July 1996. One of the reasons behind the downfall of Russia’s  best ever  Minister of Defence was Grachev’s handling of the war in Chechnya (indeed in an interview of the new Minister of Defence, Rodionov bluntly stated that  military activities [in Chechnya] were initiated with bad preparation and bad planning ). On too many occasions, Grachev had the bad habit of not living up to his boasts. Although it would be unfair to blame Grachev wholly for the low combat capability of the Russian Army, nevertheless his poor handling of the war in Chechnya – along with growing allegations of corruption and even the possibility of his role in murder – was an important reason in Yel’tsin’s decision to sack him.

    Rodionov was a very different kind of man to Grachev. Formerly Commander of 40th Army in Afghanistan when, according to one source, military activity was at its highest but losses of both men and material were at their lowest, Rodionov’s most recent appointment had been Chief of the General Staff’s Military Academy. As such, he had written widely on reform of the Armed Forces and the general nature of war. In relation to developments closer to home, ie the recent experience of the Chechen War, Rodionov in a TV interview broadcast in early September 1996, made it clear that the troops from the North Caucasus MD would be a permanent fixture in Chechnya:
    Defence Minister Igor Rodionov said today that units of the North Caucasus Military District would be permanently based in Chechnya. Only the troops that, in the minister’s words, were providing temporary military assistance there will leave the republic.
    In the same interview, Rodionov also revealed that, in his opinion, the fighting in Chechnya would go on  for a very long time, perhaps for years, perhaps for a decade  and that the Russian forces based there would have to be careful not to give in to  revenge  or  provocations .

    Thus, not only was the new Minister of Defence unconvinced about the settlement negotiated between A Maskhadov and A Lebed at Khasavyurt in the previous month, but he also saw the need for a permanent Russian military presence in the region, made up of units supplied from the North Caucasus MD. At this point, it should be noted that thanks to the war in Chechnya, the North Caucasus MD had now effectively been re-designated as one of Russia’s frontline MDs. Gone were the days when service in the MD was viewed as a relatively easy number, due to the temperance of the climate, the fact that, during the Soviet period, there was little inter-ethnic tension, its borders were stable. Now, tension in the region was high and the MD was in the forefront of protecting Russia’s geostrategic interests in the south.

    The importance of the MD, as well as the continued anxiety over Russia’s position in the south, was emphasised by a leaked report of a session of Russia’s Security Council, held on 28th November 1996:
    Ivan Rybkin, secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation and Igor Rodionov, defence minister of the Russian Federation, discussed creating a reinforced North Caucasus Military District group using the 101st Brigade of Interior Troops of the Interior Ministry and 205th Brigade of the defence ministry.
    Curiously enough, the 205th Motor Rifle Brigade had come in for some criticism a couple of months earlier, in an article examining the overall failure of the Russian Army’s military campaign in Chechnya:
    Another reason for the Russian Army’s failures in Chechnya can be considered the familiar and ineradicable disorder in the troops and the lack of a precise structure, line of control and even information about the whereabouts at any given moment in time about any unit. Many officers cannot understand the previously unseen structure of the 205th Motor Rifle Brigade which is to be permanently based in Chechnya. It consists of the Separate 204th Regiment and several battalions and companies. Leaving aside the fact that there has never been such an ‘organism’ in the Army before – some personnel do not know to whom it is directly subordinate and who is its higher command. Formally, the brigade is part of 58 Army, North Caucasus MD and, obviously, should be subordinate to its leadership. On the other hand, 205th is under the command of the temporary combined forces in Chechnya, represented by deputy commander North Caucasus MD, Vladimir Tikhomirov and Konstantin Pulikovskiy, in other words, a higher command and control structure.
    The confusion over issues of command and control of the Federal grouping in Chechnya during the first Chechen War was symptomatic, not only of poor leadership during the campaign itself, but also of poor cooperation (vzaimodeystviye) between the various units of the power ministries operating in Chechnya at that time, particularly between the MoD and the Interior Ministry (MVD). As will be detailed below, this has been an area, both nationally and within the North Caucasus MD, that has attracted a great deal of attention since 1996 and one which, despite some success, has still not been fully resolved. In an early evaluation of the role of the Russian Army in the first Chechen war, one Russian analyst was acutely aware of the impact of poor coordination between the activities of the units of the power ministries:
    Finally, one of the most important reasons for the failure of the Federal Group of Forces in Chechnya was the lack of cooperation between units of different departments. There has already been much talk about the complicated relations between units of the MoD and the MVD. Their history began back during the New Year’s assault on Groznyy in 1994, when columns of the two departments advancing along parallel streets did not have a unified command or communications, and that is why, occasionally, shells would hit friendly troops … Both Army units and MVD units believe that they alone were bearing the main burden of the war and that the ‘services’ of the competitors [my emphasis – SJM] consisted of running away from the battlefield.
    Thus not only did the MoD and MVD units not cooperate, but this could have disastrous consequences for their men on the ground. It was more than just a problem of making sure, for instance, that the units involved could actually talk to one another, quite literally through the supply of the same portable radio equipment, but that there was a culture at work which saw the units not even in healthy competition with one another, but more importantly, a competition which denigrated the role of one unit in comparison with another, thereby leading to feelings of contempt and mistrust.

    In short, by the end of 1996, a number of changes were either being put into effect, or were in the pipeline, to harbour the experience of the first Chechen War in preparation for the future. The first Chechen War proved to be the strongest indication yet of how ineffective the Russian Armed Forces had become since the collapse of the USSR in 1991. The decision to permanently base units from the North Caucasus MD in Chechnya was also a sign that Russia was serious in its desire to maintain its military hold on the region, a clear signal that whilst in some respects it had  lost  the war in Chechnya, its defeat was one that was not irreversible. The reform of the North Caucasus MD, as well as of Armed Forces, would gather pace; 1997-1998 were in many respects decisive in preparing for Russia’s return to military action in August 1999.

    Reform and the North Caucasus MD (1997-1999)

    One of the more concrete aspects of military reform to hit the Caucasus region was the decision to disband the Transcaucasus Group of Forces in March 1997 and replace it with the Group of Russian Forces (Transcaucasus). This was more than simply a change of name: according to one report, it meant a reduction in the number of personnel by 70%, as well as the withdrawal of military hardware from a number of Russian bases in Georgia. The new group was to be subordinated to the command of the North Caucasus MD (still under the command of Colonel-General A Kvashnin) and the regional branches of a number of the intelligence directorates were moved from Tbilisi to Rostov, HQ of the North Caucasus MD. All in all, this was an enforced measure, as much to do with economic necessity as any significant change in strategic thinking – on paper, in 1997, Russia’s defence budget allocation was 3.83% of GNP. In fact, the MoD only received 2.71% of GNP that year, less than in 1996, 1995, 1994.

    In a keynote address to a meeting of Heroes of the Soviet Union/Russian Federation, held in June 1997, the new Minister of Defence, Colonel-General Igor Sergeyev, outlined what he considered to be the main structural reforms for the Russian Armed Forces in the immediate future, including what he called the  units of the future :
    We will manage to gain time and turn it from an enemy into an ally only by focussing our main efforts on the conservation of combat-ready units and formations with a well-developed infrastructure and modern weapons and combat equipment which confirm their combat capability in practice. As early as 1998, it is planned to create three or four ‘units of the future’, with one in the east of the country, one in the North Caucasus Military District and two in the Moscow Military District.
    In a TV interview, Sergeyev elaborated on what these  units of the future  would look like:
    [they will be] highly mobile formations, having a modular structure, which will be equipped, or will start to be equipped, first and foremost, with modern weapons and equipment.
    A Kvashnin’s appointment to the post of Acting Chief of the General Staff in May 1997 left the position of Commander of the North Caucasus MD vacant, but not for long. By presidential decree, dated 29th July 1997, the MD’s First Deputy Commander, Lieutenant-General V G Kazantsev was promoted to MD Commander, Lieutenant-General N Troshev, 58 Army Commander, being appointed to the post of First Deputy Commander of the MD on the same date. Both men had seen service in the first Chechen War and no doubt had their own views on what went right and, more importantly, what went wrong with the conduct of operations then. It was also important that the soon to be confirmed Chief of the General Staff, Kvashnin, had been Kazantsev’s immediate superior when both men served in the North Caucasus MD in 1996-1997. It is extremely unlikely that Kazantsev would have obtained such an important position without Kvashnin’s approval. Certainly, in the words of one experienced military commentator, the appointment of Kazantsev was heavily linked with the whole reform process of the Armed Forces:
    One thing is certain for sure: in reforming the District, Kazantsev has been promised the support of the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Colonel-General Anatoliy Kvashnin. They served together almost 1½ years and, without Kvashnin’s recommendation, Kazantsev would not have been able to occupy the vacant post in Rostov-on-Don.
    The article also pointed out that Kazantsev had two main tasks to perform as MD Commander:
    [Kazantsev must] be ready to stop the sorties by the bandit formations … whilst, at the same time, carry out a thorough re-organisation of the MD itself where, according to the plan of military reform, will be concentrated the main strike force of the Russian Army’s Ground Forces.
    These were two very clear and distinct aims, but by no means mutually exclusive: reform of the MD, building partly on a careful study of the first Chechen War, would mean making it more difficult for the  bandit formations  to operate within the territory of the MD. Kazantsev was appointed to the post as MD Commander not simply because he knew Kvashnin personally or because he had a reasonably  good war  in the first military campaign in Chechnya, but also because long before the first shots had been fired in the first Chechen War, he knew the area well, having served just under 10 years in the Transcaucasus MD.

    It was not long before the recently-appointed Minister of Defence paid a  working visit  to the North Caucasus MD, on 22nd-23rd August 1997. Sergeyev flew down to Vladikavkaz, as opposed to Rostov-on-Don, in order to see for himself a training exercise on the Tarsk mountain exercise range, where the men taking part had to operate in mountain-forested terrain. Despite the severe under-funding of the Armed Forces, according to the newspaper report of Sergeyev’s visit, the fact that such an exercise was being held at all was indicative of the renewed emphasis being placed by the MoD on the financing of military training for the Armed Forces:  For the first time in a long time in 1997, about 10% of the funds allocated to the military budget are being directed to military training.

    This was one of the first exercises to take place after the decision to grant the control structures in the MDs the status of territorial commands, ie all the troops of the power ministries operating within the confines of each district were placed under one command, namely the MD Commander. This was designed to create  one fist , each unit to work in close coordination with every other unit. To that end,  commanders, deputy commanders and representatives of units and formations of the Interior Troops and FPS [Federal Border Guard Service] attended the exercise.  That may well have been the case, but there is no mention in the report of Interior Ministry or FPS units being used in the exercise, training alongside their brothers-in-arms from the Ministry of Defence. This was the first exercise of its type held in the MD under the direct command of Kazantsev in his new role as Commander and was, in overall terms, highly praised by Sergeyev:
    I would like to single out the well-coordinated nature of the troops in solving the most complicated problems. To no small extent, this was due to the work of the MD Commander, Lieutenant-General Viktor Germanovich Kazantsev, who had a firm grasp of every detail … Once again, were are convinced how difficult this profession is – that of being an officer of the Ground Forces. I feel, though, that the commanders here are not novices. They are people who have been through a lot.
    So many officers and men excelled themselves that at the end of the exercise, Sergeyev wanted to award the best  commander’s watches ; unfortunately, there were not enough to go round, so a number of the generals and officers accompanying Sergeyev took off their own and gave them to the Minister, so enabling him to reward all those who had stood out

    Not long after the August exercise, Kazantsev outlined his own views on how the reform process would affect his district:
    During the reform process, the quality of the formations and units will increase sharply … for example, let’s take a motor rifle division. In the future, it will have paratroopers. Then will appear helicopters and flame throwers. As a result, the mobility of the motor rifle unit will increase.
    In this context, he also spoke about increasing the  technical capabilities  of the units, as well as improving their rear support facilities:
    All this, it goes without saying, compels us now to think seriously about improving the quality of field training, imparting to the officers a love for method [metodika] which, at the end of the day, raises the military preparation of the units and formations to a qualitatively new level.
    This was how Kazantsev saw the immediate future for the reform of the troops under his direct command up until the year 2001. In the post-2001 period, Kazantsev saw the emphasis being placed on  changing the functions of the commands  of the air army, air defence corps, airborne units deployed on the territory of the MD,  thus, not only will the control of the troops be improved, but so will increase significantly the combat, manoeuvrable possibilities of the units and formations.

    Kazantsev’s views on the way ahead for his own MD were very definite, with great emphasis on increasing the mobility and firepower of the units. Not surprisingly, this was very much in line with Sergeyev’s thinking on the future of the Armed Forces, with further emphasis being placed on improving their quality. Given also the renewed emphasis on training, one can see early signs that the troops of the North Caucasus MD were being steadied for what was to come. As Kazantsev noted in the interview:
    The main task for us today is to improve the military training of the troops. And this presupposes quality training of the personnel, beginning with the command of the district and ending with the units.
    On increased cooperation with the other units of the power ministries, Kazantsev stated bluntly:
    The President of Russia, as Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, has demanded from us readiness for action in cooperation with the interior troops in emergency situations including armed conflict on the territory of the district [emphasis mine – SJM]. In connection with this, we have a number of units on combat alert.
    In conclusion, Kazantsev once again underlined the importance of training for the future:
    Simply, it is obvious, everyone must understand that we cannot live according to the old ways. The leadership of the district understands this. The main thing now is to study under the new conditions how to organise combat training exercises directly amongst the units.
    Kazantsev had outlined the future direction of the reform process to be adopted in the MD – greater emphasis on training and field exercises (reminding one of Suvorov’s famous dictum  teach the soldier what he needs to know to fight a war ); creation of more mobile units, with more of their own independent means of fire support; greater interaction with interior troops in particular but, by extension, all other uniformed units deployed in the MD and, finally, improving the  controllability  (upravlyayemost’) of all sections of the MD’s apparatus, from HQ downwards.

    One aspect of the reform that was not to everyone’s liking was to become fairly obvious not long after the publication of Kazantsev’s interview. This was the reduction in the number of officers and NCOs required by the MD to carry out its new responsibilities. In a press conference conducted towards the end of September 1997, Kazantsev admitted that the MD was set to lose some 15,000 officers and men by 1st November that year:
    We are developing units that are mobile and have the latest word in military equipment, commanded by highly-skilled officers and stripped of unnecessary administrative staff and other surplus fat at headquarters … the point of the reform is not only to save money … in the past few years, the North Caucasus Military District has evolved into a border district with an entirely new set of duties dictated by Russia’s present-day geopolitical situation and the state of affairs in the North Caucasus. To be able to perform these new duties, the command structure is being changed and the range of equipment available is being expanded. The district’s units now have every type of modern tank artillery [sic] … this makes it possible to form units that are radically different in structure and in combat potential – they have fewer men but incomparably greater firepower and better defence against incoming fire.
    Kazantsev also spoke about cooperation with other branches of the Armed Forces, as well as with units from the other ministries:
    Officer training now pays particular attention to interaction with all the other branches of the armed forces including army air power … this forms the basis for all the district’s exercises, with the involvement as well of Interior Ministry troops and border guards. We already have experience of such exercises and will continue to rely on them in the future.
    Finance was to rear its ugly head again in the MD somewhat less predictably, when ransoms were demanded for the release of 6 officers kidnapped by Chechens in September-October 1997. A ransom of $150,000 each was demanded from the authorities. Kazantsev made a direct personal appeal to President Maskhadov and managed to secure the prompt release of two of the officers; using, in his own words,  exactly the same method , he was hopeful to secure the release of the other four men.

    Kazantsev also pointed out that, despite the reduction in the numbers of officers and men in the MD – here put at 12,500, not 15,000 as earlier – they were being  strengthened  through the acquisition of  new military technology . Interestingly, he also spoke about the  need  for the Army to have an  ideology, a Russian path for the construction of modern armed forces :  it is enough that we adopted an Americanised variant of the form. Now, we are suffering.  As regards his own units, he singled out the  disreputable fame  of the 205th Motor Rifle Brigade, in relation to its use of contract soldiers, as being another example of the inappropriateness of the American military system.

    And yet, as was to be revealed in a later interview of the MD’s First Deputy Commander, Lieutenant-General G Troshev, contract soldiers made up between 20-30% of the total number of soldiers and sergeants of the MD by the beginning of 1998. Troshev touched on a whole series of matters concerning the future development of the troops in the MD, including military training and the creation of special alpine units. However, he began by making a number of introductory remarks concerning the recent past of the MD, as well as its contemporary status:
    The North Caucasus MD has changed from being a central MD to a border MD. Its forces protect the south-western direction. The region is complex, the position here is explosive. This was once again demonstrated by recent events in Buynaksk [Chechen terrorist outrage] – even recently, there were no such barbaric attacks. As a result of this action, once again civilians suffered.
    Troshev pointed out that the decision had been taken earlier to re-open the mountain training complex at Dar’yal, an important development given the fighting that was to come in 1999-2000:
    In 1992, during the Osetian-Ingush conflict, the centre was destroyed, the territory was mined and for five years, it lay deserted. But, in 1997, the decision was taken to restore the centre. During September-November, it was restored and, as of 1st December, training has begun there. The test range is situated 1,500 metres above sea-level. There’s a tankodrome, a firing range and a ‘mountain village’. But its most distinguishing feature is that it is natural: natural precipices, gorges, mountain rivers, waterfalls.
    In other words, the training here would be as close as possible to real conditions. Troshev also said that it was the MD’s intention to propose to the MoD that other units also make full use of the restored facilities on offer,  not only the North Caucasus MD should train to carry out military actions in mountains.  In terms of further specialisation of the MD’s troops, Troshev confirmed that it was training  elite  units of intelligence officers and special forces for operating in the mountains and affirmed that, in his opinion,  in every unit , there should be a squad of men, better trained than the rest, to fight in the mountains.

    Troshev also spoke about the deployment of one of the  constant readiness  units in the MD, namely the Volgograd division. In effect, this was a rapid reaction unit, designed to operate within a fairly short-time period:
    In the 1998 training period, it will begin to train according to a new programme. All units and sections will be able in the shortest possible timescale to solve any military task. This will require well-trained personnel, which means training better officers, NCOs and junior specialists. The division will also need modern combat equipment and weapons, new rifles, new computerised communications system. Given the conditions of our district, all of this will have to work effectively in a mountainous environment. Such a division will have to be mobile, in its composition will be rapid reaction units, ready in a thirty-minute time frame to solve tasks in the same time as [the rest] of the unit is getting up.
    In general, according to Troshev, in terms of manning levels, the MD was between  80-95%  of full strength, with both intelligence and communication units being virtually at full strength,  95-100% . He admitted that there were problems with the officer corps due, in part, to the fall in the prestige of military service, as well as the fact that many officers were quitting the ranks simply out of economic necessity: irregular payment of salaries and the lure of better money elsewhere for considerably less dangerous work meant that many young officers with families had to think about a non-service career.

    Other significant changes in the MD which Troshev was prepared to discuss publicly included the following:
    The airborne assault brigade has been re-organised to become a regiment, the motor rifle brigade has been transformed into a regiment and become part of 19th Motor Rifle Division. We have also created two independent training battalions [to train] officers for the motor rifle regiments, tank commanders, BMP commanders … We are not waiting for someone else to train our cadres, we are doing it ourselves.
    All these changes bear testimony to the fact that the MD was steadily putting into practice lessons learnt during the first Chechen War, but was also striving to make sure that past mistakes were not repeated. A visit by Colonel-General V Isakov (Chief of Rear Services, Armed Forces Russian Federation) in February 1998 concluded that:
    Despite objective difficulties, as a whole the Rear Services of the district enable the troops stationed in the North Caucasus to successfully resolve any tasks placed before them.
    However, the overall reform process meant that reductions in personnel would still have to take place, even in one of Russia’s frontline MDs. This was confirmed by Defence Minister Sergeyev’s two-day working visit to the MD, begun on 16th March 1998. In a statement to ITAR-TASS, Sergeyev confirmed that  the reduction of army personnel envisaged by the military reform will take effect in the North Caucasus, as well.  However, Sergeyev stated that the principle of  combat effectiveness, rather than the number  would be applied. In a more detailed report of his visit to the MD, the General put the cuts in manning in the North Caucasus MD in a wider context:
    We have been forced to spend 90% of our funds on the upkeep of the troops. And there are virtually no funds left to renew equipment or do research and development … reform is, of course, also a quest for internal reserves … we need to get rid of everything that is superfluous and does not directly benefit combat training.
    This must have been music to Kazantsev’s ears, in the sense that Sergeyev was making such a strong, pubic commitment to supporting the adequate financing of combat training. Whilst Sergeyev’s role in the first Chechen War was limited – at the time, he was C-in-C of Strategic Rocket Forces, as a professional military man, he would have been well aware of the shortcomings of the Russian Armed Forces in 1994-1996 and realised the importance of more effective combat training.

    Whilst in Budennovsk, Sergeyev was also asked if the Army would assist the militia and the internal troops in the defence of the civilian population against terrorists. Sergeyev answered unequivocally:  without any shadow of a doubt .
    First of all, he [Sergeyev] told reporters that the military units in the North Caucasus Military District remain combat effective and will, as always, carry out both their army and police functions in the Caucasus in the defence of law and order and ensuring the safety of citizens, particularly in the areas bordering on Chechnya.

    The agreements reached between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Defence remain in force, but there are important changes being made in the North Caucasus Military District. The minister was particularly interested in two army brigades with the greatest strategic importance for security in the North Caucasus District, the 205th Motor Rifle Brigade and the 21st Special Cossack Assault Brigade, the only unit of its kind in Russia. The soldiers and officers in the latter have taken part in all the armed conflicts on the territory of Russia and the CIS.

    Despite its military record, however, the Brigade was still going to be affected by the cuts: it was to change its designation from a Brigade to a Regiment, it was then to be subordinated to the 7th Novorossiysk Division but, even with the reduction in manpower, Sergeyev was keen to emphasise that its effectiveness was not going to be affected:  It should be understood that the security of the residents of the North Caucasus republics will not suffer from the reforms.

    Sergeyev’s two-day visit did not leave him particularly  optimistic  about the situation in Stavropol’ kray, however. This feeling of pessimism had less to do with the work being undertaken by the North Caucasus MD and more to do with the overall security situation in the region:
    We consider the situation in the North Caucasus as under control, although we assess developments in individual areas as negative.
    Not long after Sergeyev’s departure, another exercise was held in the MD involving a number of units, including Interior Ministry Troops, troops of the Ministry of Emergency Situations and Border Guards. Kazantsev was keen to downplay its aggressive intent in relation to Chechnya:
    I want especially to stress that during the command and staff exercises, the power-wielding structures were not preparing either for a new escalation in the Chechen conflict or for a worsening of the criminal situation in Dagestan. What we were thoroughly working through here was operating against classical armies, not partisan detachments. The essence of the exercises is to offer moral support for efforts by diplomats, politicians and regional leaders engaged in seeking peace and accord in the Caucasus.
    Whilst not wishing to cast aspersions on Kazantsev’s noble desire to assist the efforts of others to help build stability in the region, the statement that the exercise was operating on the principle of combating  classical armies  rings rather hollow. What  classical armies  had he in mind? Georgia’s? Azerbaijan’s? Some other army from the outside the region? The MD had changed in response to the changing nature of the internal threat to the Russian Federation. In many ways, prior to NATO enlargement in April 1999, the nature of the external threat (especially in relation to the Caucasus region) had not significantly changed. It was as it had been.

    In an article commemorating the 80th anniversary of the creation of the North Caucasus MD, Kazantsev pointed out that then, as now,  the main aim for our district, like 80 years ago, is to defend the territorial integrity of Russia in its southern borders.  However, Kazantsev was much more keen to detail what was going on now and how things had changed recently:
    In spite of the present situation in the region, we are constantly involved in a planned programme of combat training, as much as necessary, in order to ensure that the units and formations of the NCMD [North Caucasus Military District] are mobile and military capable. Today, on the Dar’yal test range, the only one of its type in the Armed Forces, not one day passes without military exercises taking place: firing, tactical exercises. Because, in my view, to train a real professional in mountain [warfare] you need at least two years.
    The emphasis was also placed on training at least one smaller unit to be better equipped for fighting in the mountains:
    We will strive to achieve a situation so that in every regiment there is a motor rifle battalion which has single-mindedly trained to operate in the mountains. In the future, we will instruct all regiments and brigades in the district in this.
    Training was not just for the benefit of the units of the NCMD either, but also for the units of the Interior Ministry, the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Border Guards, and so on. Kazantsev also made the interesting remark that there were fewer problems between units of the power ministries lower down the chain of command:  the lower the level, the greater the mutual understanding.

    Despite the attack on a vehicle convoy carrying a number of MD and General Staff officers in April 1998, Kazantsev, although condemning the attack as  an insolent act planned by rebels , still adopted a fairly mild tone as regards possible future retaliation, saying that  ways should be sought towards reconciliation, rather than taking steps towards a new confrontation.  In the same interview to a local ITAR-TASS correspondent, Kazantsev confirmed that the numerical strength of the MD over the past two years had been cut by 7,500 men (so much for the original planned cut of 15,000), but said that the units of the NCMD had  acquired a new higher level of combat readiness.  He also repeated that  the units and sub-units directly involved in carrying out training and combat tasks had been brought up to 95-100% of their strength , and what was fast becoming a mantra:
    The task of the district’s troops is to protect Russia’s territorial integrity on its southern borders … therefore, the main attention is being paid to teaching personnel the skills needed in conditions of mountain and forest terrain.
    A number of interesting developments took place in May/June 1998 concerning the situation in the North Caucasus, following renewed interest in the region shown by Moscow. On 12th May, it was announced by S Stepashin – Minister of Interior – that it had been decided to appoint the former C-in-C Interior Ministry Troops, Colonel-General L Shevtsov, to the recently-created post of Deputy MVD Minister with responsibility for the North Caucasus. According to Stepashin, he had decided  to make more expedient use  of the General’s service career (Shevtsov’s previous appointment was commander of the Russian contingent of troops in Bosnia-Herzegovina). This renewed interest was underlined by Yel’tsin’s decision (on 21st May) to create a special  field team  to deal with the situation in Dagestan. Headed by Stepashin, the  team  was to consist of the Ministers of Justice, Regional and Ethnic Policy and  top security officials.  On 25th May, the government went one stage further, when it announced that a  special government body to normalise the situation in the North Caucasus  was being created, headed by the Russian Deputy Prime Minister, V Khristenko. According to A Kokoshin, Secretary to the Security Council, the  normalisation  process would be achieved by  socio-economic means :
    It will be combined with a determination to use all the forces and means possessed by the state, including the federal and local authorities, in order to enforce law and order in the North Caucasus, especially in Dagestan.
    Yel’tsin’s press secretary, S Yastrzhembskiy, stated that, at the same meeting, the Security Council had decided  to strengthen the coordination of the power structures in the North Caucasus.  At a meeting between Yel’tsin and Stepashin on 26th May, coordination in the North Caucasus was again discussed. After the meeting,  Stepashin told journalists that tough coordination among the power structures is being established in the Caucasus, both from the point of view of interaction between them and the settlement of tasks which might be given to them in the future.  He also mentioned the establishment of  an emergency commission … in Stavropol’ … in charge of issues of coordination and ensuring security in the entire North Caucasus region.  Unfortunately, no detail was published about the actual composition of the new body.

    So within a month, according to available evidence, we have a  special field team ,  a special government organ  and now  an emergency commission  all tackling security issues in the North Caucasus  Without more detail, it is impossible to say how they interacted with one another, if at all; who were the members; what was the representation of the MoD, MVD, FAPSI, etc, or even if they functioned at all. And to add even more to what was becoming a virtual alphabet soup of organs and commissions, on 6th June, a report carried by ITAR-TASS spoke about Stavropol’ having been chosen  as the base for the Russian Interior Ministry’s Operations Centre.  This was created  to co-ordinate the efforts of all power-wielding structures in the North Caucasus region in the fight against terrorism, hostage-taking, armed banditry and other types of crime.  As Deputy MVD Minister with responsibility for the North Caucasus, Shevtsov was placed in charge of the new regional staff HQ. In an interview he gave to the Interior Ministry’s main daily newspaper, Shevtsov spoke briefly about the general background and role of the organ:
    In the North Caucasus, really, there are a large number of power structures. All decide equally important tasks, but separately. However, the practice of recent years has shown the necessity for a clearer and operationally co-ordinated effort of all the power ministries. With this in mind, the Operational staff, as a permanent working organ to lead the forces and means of the MVD, MoD, MChS [Ministry of Emergency Situations], FSB [Federal Security Service], FPS, FSZhV [Federal Railway Troops], FAPSI of Russia, has been brought into being.
    Asked specifically why the MVD had been given the leadership (rukovodstvo) of the power structures in the region, Shevtsov replied:  So decided the President of the Russian Federation. Correctly. You see because we are talking here about the internal security of the country, society and the citizen.  He also mentioned that, despite the fact that the Operational staff had not existed for long,  cooperation had improved  between the power ministries in the region and that a number of small-scale operations, involving  specialists  from the Operational staff had been  successful.

    Throughout May-June 1998, thus, the central power in Moscow had embarked on a number of initiatives to improve the work and co-ordinate the activities of all the power ministry units operating in the North Caucasus region. The single most important organ created during this period – for the purposes of this paper – was the MVD’s Operational staff. It was given the primary task of assisting the coordination of activity of all the units in the region, including units of the MoD. In some respects, this would appear to have been a perfectly logical step; after all, the threat in the North Caucasus was of an internal nature and, as such, was the responsibility first and foremost of the MVD. However Interior Minister Stepashin stated that the existence of the Operational staff:
    … does not signify that someone is preparing large-scale military activities. The situation in the North Caucasus urgently demands overcoming narrow departmental interests in the practical work of the force structures. The steps taken to maintain law and order and security in the region must be complex, worked out according to a plan encompassing the whole region led by the centre. We need to mobilise the intellectual, economic, ideological and law enforcement potential.
    But the nature of the internal threat was changing, as was its scale. The events of August 1999-June 2000 showed that when it comes down to launching attacks against well-equipped and well-trained large  illegal armed formations , the MVD’s response is limited, both in terms of training and equipment. This weakness had been acknowledged in the July 1998 Law on Terrorism, which gave a supporting role in countering terrorism to the MOD.

    This role was further reinforced towards the end of July 1998, when Yel’tsin signed  The Fundamentals (Concept) of State policy of the Russian Federation for Military Development in the Period up to the Year 2005.  It represented the next formal step in reform of the nation’s Armed Forces and introduced a number of changes to the MD system in Russia.
    The President of Russia, Boris Yel’tsin, has established a single system of military-administrative division of the territory of the Russian Federation into strategic directions: North-Western (within the borders of the Leningrad MD); Western (within the borders of Moscow MD); South-Western (within the borders of the North Caucasus MD); Central-Asian (within the borders of the Volga-Urals MD); Siberian (within the borders of the Siberian MD) and Far Eastern (within the borders of the Far Eastern MD).
    The number of MDs was to be cut from 8 to 6, the new 6 being accorded the status of  operational-strategic commands.  What did this mean? In a major article published in the same month as Yel’tsin signed the Concept into law, Chief of the General Staff Kvashnin discussed what he thought the upgrade in the status of the MDs would mean to the country:
    One important area of reform is the transition to the territorial principle of leadership of all troops and forces of the Russian Federation, with military districts being given the status of operational-strategic commands … the system of military administrative division of Russia’s territory is itself based on the territorial principle of subordination and control and its full implementation should make it possible to combine all branches of operational command and control of the power structures under a single figure [emphasis mine – SJM] … the substantial widening of the powers of the military district commander in peacetime pursues the following goals: improving the quality of planning of the use of the Armed Forces and other troops, military formations and organs of the Russian Federation in the interests of defence, as well as the organisation of collaboration, command and control and all-round support for them … improve the quality of operational and combat training measures for all troops.
    This could be interpreted as a bid by the General Staff to exert control over the other men in uniform, operating within these newly-created operational-strategic commands. However, Kvashnin was alert to this possible interpretation and was quick to state that this was not the case:
    At the same time, giving the military district the status of an operational-strategic command does not mean that it will be made responsible for tasks currently carried out by other troops, military formations and organs of the Russian Federation.
    Sergeyev’s stance on all this would have done little to convince many of the other power ministers that the MOD was not making a bid to exert greater control over their units. In September 1997, Sergeyev had published a major article setting out the course of reform for the Armed Forces over the next eight years. On the reform of the MD system, he stated that:
    In 1997-1998, [it is proposed] to give military districts the status of operational-strategic commands [emphasis as in original – SJM] on the strategic directions, placing on them the function of operational leadership … of units, formations and sub-units of all the services of the Armed Forces and all other troops on questions of defence of the country.
    An article published at the time of Concept being passed into law, examining a recent large-scale exercise held in the North Caucasus, revealed the confusion surrounding the whole question of who was in charge of what in relation to the security of the North Caucasus:
    Even now it is not clear who has the main organising role for maintaining security and defence in the North Caucasus – the General Staff or the Main Staff of the MVD.
    One commentator; however, did try to make sense of both the new Concept and its implications for the relationship between MoD and MVD units in any future conflict:
    The leading role of each of the departments in resolving specific tasks has been defined. Thus, the Defence Ministry is responsible for the country’s defence on land and at sea … the Interior Ministry stops and neutralises internal armed conflicts … When tackling each of these problems all the power departments will be obliged to obey the one that bears responsibility for it. For example, if interventionists encroach upon Russian territory, all troops will be directed by the Defence Ministry; the Ministry of the Interior will assume command in the event of an armed revolt in a component part of the federation … the General Staff will co-ordinate operational-strategic planning.
    Judging by the outline of the Concept contained in the above statement, the actions by Chechen forces and their allies in Dagestan in August 1999 could have been interpreted quite legitimately either as an armed intervention on Russian soil (MoD) or an armed revolt (MVD), thereby leading to a period of confusion and indecision as to who was in charge of what when the operation began. What appears to have happened was that, initially at least, Internal Troops Commander in Chief Ovchinnikov’s men were placed in charge of the operation to drive the  militants  out of Dagestan but, as the situation deteriorated and it became obvious that the MVD was out of its depth, the operation was re-defined and the MoD, in the form of the North Caucasus MD, was put in charge of the operation. Given the plethora of government commissions and special organs designed to tackle the security issues of the North Caucasus alone, the fact that there was organisational confusion during the  counter-terrorist operation  should not now be surprising. Whether in the immediate aftermath of the  counter-terrorist operation , all those concerned were working according to the July 1998 Concept, or simply reacting to the developing situation, is difficult to say.

    In re-defining the status of the MDs, both the country’s Minister of Defence and the Chief of the General Staff were of one mind that, if nothing else, the reform should mean that operational leadership of all the men in uniform be transferred, when the occasion so required, to the MD Commander. In short, the military were attempting to regain the upper hand over the Interior Ministry.

    This would have been fuelled partly by the experience of Chechnya in 1994-1996, when units representing different power ministries rarely co-ordinated their activities effectively, but there would also have been an economic imperative (too many power structures chasing too little money to meet the security needs of the country and the military always seeming to lose out in the race). There was also the feeling that the Armed Forces had lost too much influence and power to the other ministries, especially the MVD. Of course, the argument at its surface level – the need to co-ordinate better the activities of all the relevant organs in order to ensure the country’s proper security – cannot be dismissed and was probably one of the main arguments deployed in order to convince Yel’tsin to sign the measure. Interestingly, in Kazantsev’s next major interview to Krasnaya Zvezda, he did not even mention the phrase,  operational-strategic command . Had it already become a dead duck? Had the opposition of the other power ministries become so great that it had been allowed to slip quietly off the agenda or, much more speculatively, was it a casualty of the August 1998 crash? After all, given the fragile nature of the centre-periphery relationship throughout the latter half of 1998, any measures which looked to be granting more power, more control, especially over military affairs, to a regional leadership may have been viewed as a little too risky a course of action to pursue.

    However, this interview did detail the training undertaken in the MD, as well as steps taken to hold more joint exercises with units of the other ministries. In general, the training carried out was intensive:
    During this year, we carried out all planned command-staff exercises and sessions involving commands from platoon to large troop formation, during which were tested various elements in conducting military activity both in the plains and in mountain-forest terrain.
    Kazantsev also pointed out that at the end of such training,  tactical exercises  were held, involving firing or rocket launches, designed to check  the commander’s ability to command his subordinates.  Asked specifically about the experience of the last Chechen War, Kazantsev replied that  correctives  had been introduced in the training schedule:
    In practice training sessions of the troops, for example, the latter [are trained] to carry out a special control exercise from a tank whilst, at the same time, carrying out the tasks of a motor rifle section … Other new ideas have appeared. For example, one of these is the use of bilateral platoon and company tactical exercises. The experience of military operations in mountain-forest terrain showed that the main burden is on the shoulders of small combat groups, mostly motorised and reconnaissance platoons and companies. They are better suited for operating in the mountains and defending road blocks. That is why special attention is paid to this kind of training … For the first 9 months of this year, the district held more than 86% of fire practice sessions of the units and more fire practice sessions at platoon-level than for the whole of 1997.
    Of course, Kazantsev could not but mention the complex at Dar’yal:
    The Dar’yal training range is our main training centre, where the troops learn the techniques to fight in the mountains … special training courses are held here to teach the troops how to use their weapons and equipment in mountain-forest terrain … we continue to train units…to accompany military convoys on winding, mountain roads. The experience and methods learned at the test range and in practice are summed up and analysed at commander sessions, attended by officers from all levels, including senior personnel from the MD.
    In terms of the broader theme of cooperation with the other power ministry units, Kazantsev noted that:
    Today, the North Caucasus Military District in reality is the linking factor in the organisation of joint training of all the troops deployed in the region. We practise the conduct of joint command-staff exercises of the district’s troops with the control organs … of the other power ministries of the RF [Russian Federation] on the territory of the region. During the course of such exercises, we work out ways of stabilising the situation on the territory of the North Caucasus and localising armed conflicts.
    He had no doubt that such joint exercises had demonstrated their success:
    It was clearly shown [in a joint command staff exercise held in July 1998] that the fundamental basis of its success lay in the close cooperation of the control organs and units of all the power structures.
    Despite these positive statements Kazantsev ended his interview on a somewhat pessimistic note, when he reminded his readership of  the difficult conditions  of the troops deployed to Dagestan, hence the recent decision by the Military Council of the MD to make sure that financing of the units there was given  top priority.

    Cooperation & Exercises: The Keys to Success?

    The Inter-Action of the Power Ministries in the North Caucasus MD, 1996-1999
    Our state is becoming more and more an object for all types of expansion. Foreign intelligence services, organised, including international, crime, separatist tendencies in the border zones have all significantly increased. In such a situation, to maintain national security exclusively by the Armed Forces, without minimising in any way their role and significance, is no longer possible. The best confirmation of this is the attempt to solve the Chechen crisis by force.

    One of the most serious reasons for failures of the Federal Grouping in Chechnya is the lack of coordination of the actions of units from different departments. There has long been talk about the difficult relations between units of the Ministry of Defence and the MVD. Their history began back during the New Year’s assault on Groznyy in 1994, when columns of the two departments advancing along parallel streets did not have unified command or communications, and that is why their shells sometimes hit friendly troops.

    Studying the experience of military activity in Chechnya [1994-1996], we have come to the conclusion that coordination of the military efforts of combined arms units and units of the Interior Ministry and Border Guards were the ‘Achilles heel’ of the actions of the Federal forces.

    It was obvious that one of the main reasons for the poor performance of the Federal Grouping of Forces in Chechnya in 1994-1996 was the lack of cooperation (vzaimodeystviye can mean cooperation, coordination or interaction) between the power ministry units on the ground. Thus, cooperation became one of the leitmotifs in the subsequent analysis of the debacle.

    In August and September 1996, articles appeared in the Russian military press calling for much greater coordination between the power ministries in maintaining Russia’s security, external and internal. Lieutenant-General G Radionov, then Chief of the MoD’s Main Educational Directorate, even called for the power structures to begin training their officer cadres together, thereby not only assisting the power ministries to find a common language, but also to save the state money, as resources could be pooled and unnecessary duplication of effort avoided. Similarly, a senior Border Guards officer argued for joint training for the MoD, the Border Guards and FAPSI.

    On 21st March 1997, the following MoD press announcement appeared in Krasnaya Zvezda:
    In accordance with the training plan for the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, during the period 24th-30th March this year, under the leadership of Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the First Deputy Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation, General of the Army Viktor Samsonov, will be held a planned command-staff exercise in the North Caucasus Military District. One of the main tasks of the exercise will be to work out problems in relation to the staff HQ and control organs [organy upravleniya] in charge of the troops.
    A slightly fuller version of the announcement appeared a few days later, which mentioned that  during the course of the command-staff exercise, questions concerning the cooperation of the NCMD’s troops with the territorially based units of the Interior Ministry and the staff HQs of Civil Defence and Emergency Situations in solving joint tasks will be worked on.  It also provided some more detail on the aim of the exercise:
    The aim of the exercise is to work out the tasks of mobilisational readiness and control of the troops under present conditions. This will include questions of cooperation between the control organs and the commands of the troops of the MoD, MVD, Border Guards, Military Railway Troops in the North Caucasus region … In essence, we are talking about checking…on the ways and possibilities of co-ordinating the training of the various power departments. In fact, the co-ordinating role of the General Staff is being worked on.
    The exercise had been planned as far back as November 1996 and thus is the first command-staff exercise to be held in the North Caucasus MD after the war in Chechnya, and was planned not long after the Khasavyurt Agreement had been signed in August 1996. Needless to say, so soon after the end of the First Chechen War, the Chechens were far from happy that such an intensive and very public display of Russian military strength was taking place so close to the Chechen border and accused the Russians of launching a  provocation  in the region, as well as warning that such an exercise would only help  to destabilise the situation  in the area.

    A TV report, broadcast by NTV on 28th March, confirmed the active involvement of the other ministries:
    Many people are saying that the Redut-97 command and staff exercises in the North Caucasus Military District are the largest held in the last 10 years. Representatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Federal Border Service and the other power-wielding departments are involved in carrying out the tasks set, as well as the staff of all the groups, formations and units which are stationed on the district’s territory.
    In his initial public assessment of the exercise, Samsonov did confirm that the exercise was  the main event of the year  for the Russian Armed Forces, but did not say anything directly about the precise role of the other ministries involved. However, in a TV broadcast a week after the exercise had been completed, Samsonov stated that:
    We always need to learn to work in close coordination with the other departments…we have been practising territorial defence actions here and these are closely connected with the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Border Troops, as well as other forces.
    The TV correspondent also noted that the General Staff brought in units from the MVD, Border Guards, and FAPSI, and a local MVD chief confirmed that a  joint headquarters  had also been established. This shows that at least on a practical level, the units were beginning to learn to work and train together. Given the paucity of information on this particular exercise, it is difficult to say much more about it, other than that it was the first in the NCMD to begin tackling the problems associated with the poor coordination of the activities of the power ministries in the earlier military campaign.

    Kazantsev’s interview to Krasnaya Zvezda in September 1997, when he talked about  inter-action with Interior Ministry Troops  was interesting for a number of reasons, on top of those previously examined. In singling out the Interior Ministry Troops – the Army’s greatest rival for the little resources that were available to meet the country’s security needs – and their future co-ordinating role with the MoD, Kazantsev was making a number of points:

    1. the very obvious one that as well-armed units in the MD, both sides would have to work and train together to avoid repeating past mistakes;
    2. the Army was not sufficiently strong to secure Russia’s interests in the region alone and, finally,
    3. the Army would now assume a greater internal role and, therefore, would have to seek greater coordination and cooperation with the MVD on a local level.

    In early August 1997, Kvashnin – now officially confirmed as Chief of the General Staff – addressed a conference of Defence Ministry officials and urged the creation of a unified, territorially-based, control system for all defence and law-enforcement organs. Specifically:
    The North Caucasus Military District must not comprise three Interior Troop districts or two border districts , arguing that  each district should be run by a collective regional agency  with the General Staff being given the status of a  co-ordinating body.
    In short, this was a preamble to the decision to elevate the MDs to  operational-strategic commands.  The statement by Kvashnin helps to reinforce the view that the military apparatus was getting ready to claw back some of its power and influence lost to the other power structures, under the guise of meeting Russia’s internal and external security threats, as well as economic pressure. Defence Minister Sergeyev’s remarks made at this time that the creation of the  operational-strategic commands  should allow the MDs to have  operational leadership  of the other power ministry units in the MD, at the appropriate time, was a clear sign that the military were intent on regaining lost influence.

    The elevation of the MDs to their new status, towards the end of July 1998, was preceded by the appearance of an important and interesting article in Krasnaya Zvezda, written by Colonel-General L S Zolotov, then Commandant of the M V Frunze Military Academy, the Academy for training the Army’s senior officers. The article was simply entitled  Coordination of the Power Structures  and, ostensibly, was a review of a work to be published by the Academy, concerning the inter-action of the various power ministries, based on the experience of the First Chechen War. However, given the article’s appearance just before the adoption of the July 1998 Concept, the position of the author and the content of the work, it was more than simply a book review.

    It began with the sentence, quoted at the beginning of this section, to the effect that  coordination … of the Interior Ministry and Border Guards was the ‘Achilles heel’ in the activities of the Federal forces.  Zolotov pointed out that the experience gained in WW2 had been  lost  and that  troop commanders and staffs did not have the necessary theoretical concepts, or practical recommendations: how to co-ordinate, in such unusual conditions, a battle in a population centre, at night time, in the mountains, how to organise the defence of installations, anti-diversionary activities.

    He admitted that the Academy was at fault in not preparing the necessary textbooks for the Armed Forces, or for any of the other power ministries for that matter, despite having a range of specialists on the staff, including men from the Interior Ministry and the Border Guards. However, the Academy’s attitude to such matters had changed and
    the coordination of the combined arms troops, the border guards and Interior Troops commanders is now one of the priority areas in our work.

    Experience has convinced us that co-ordinating the activities of troops from the various power ministries must be undertaken by the control organ [organ upravleniya] which, before the appearance of a conflict, has in its hands all the links for controlling their [the troops’] preparation, securing [their supplies]. In particular, this could be the administration of the military district.

    In order to sweeten the pill for the other ministries, he then argued that  the delegation of units  to a  combined group of troops  could be  for a defined period of time – either until the successful completion of the operation, or for the conduct of a special operation.

    He was obviously trying to assuage any potential criticism that he was showing a bias towards recommending his  own . He expanded further on this point. Whilst freely admitting that all the structures were already involved in the defence of the state, operating independently they were not equal to the task:
    Let us take, for example, the Interior Ministry Troops. On them has been placed the main burden in the fight against illegal armed formations. But the units and sub-units of the Interior Ministry Troops are territorial units, their entire system of material, military-technical supply is based on local, stationary supply organs. They do not have heavy weapons. In conducting reconnaissance, radio-electronic warfare, defence, fire and engineering support, they are completely dependent on combined arms units.
    Similarly, in relation to the Border Guards:
    Their function is to secure the state border. But when there is a threat of large-scale military provocation on the border, the combined arms formations rush to their assistance. An example of this is Tajikistan. In conducting special operations against illegal armed formations, the border guards play an important role in the isolation of the conflict zone, preventing the movement of mercenaries, weapons, explosives, material resources, into the area. They play an active role in the fight against diversionary-reconnaissance groups and illegal armed formations.
    However, Zolotov was also ready to admit that it was not all one-way traffic:
    In their turn, motor rifle, airborne and tank troops need the assistance of Interior Ministry Troops in securing their rear, protecting it from diversionary and terrorist attacks, helping to disarm the militants. … But, in order to operate successfully together, shoulder to shoulder, you must know one another’s tactics and military capabilities.
    Hence the Academy’s latest  fundamental  work,  Coordination of Ground Forces, Interior Troop and Border Guard Units and Sub-Units in an Armed Conflict . It had already been sent to the printers and was due to see the light of day at the end of 1998. The book contained sections on  the theoretical basis for the combat use of units and sub-units of Ground Forces, Interior Ministry Troops and Border Guards against illegal armed formations ; analysing the principles of coordination through the method of rendering  mutual assistance  to one another, rather than relying on a formal chain of command; methods of work of all the units involved in taking part in a special operation, using a hypothetical case study of an inner-state armed conflict, etc.

    Zolotov concluded that:
    Experience shows that to the interests of coordination must be subordinated the entire system of control of the operational group of forces created, as a rule, on the basis of the military district, within whose responsibility the conflict has arisen. To control the operational group of forces must be created: a single reconnaissance/intelligence centre; a group for general operational planning; an information group; an operational air force group; a centre for planning target destruction. In creating such a control organ, it is important to avoid the mistakes which occurred during the conduct of military operations in Chechnya, that improvised ‘groups’, ‘centres’, ‘administrative organs’ quickly appeared which, in their composition, included different departmental structures. Thus, it required a long time to arrive at carefully thought out joint decisions. As much as possible, it will be necessary to retain the system of administration which already exists in the military district, in the army.
    Thus, in order to avoid one of the mistakes in the last military campaign in Chechnya, Zolotov argued for the creation of an operational group of forces, containing a number of departments, copying what was already there at MD level but making sure that the departments themselves did not sectionalise to represent their own narrow interests: if this was avoided, then time would be saved and lead to an overall increase in the success of joint missions and avoid instances of troops being killed in  friendly fire.  The basis for the creation of the (temporary) operational group of forces (OGV in Russian), would be the MD itself, with Interior Ministry Troops and Border Guards being allocated specific roles to perform in support of the overall military effort.

    This was an important article, not only in its subject matter, but also in its timing, just weeks before the new Concept for the further reform of the Armed Forces was passed on 29th July 1998. The article stated that, having studied the experience of the war in Chechnya, one of the main problems was the inter-departmental rivalry which had led to uncoordinated attacks by the Federal forces and the unnecessary loss of life through soldiers and troops not knowing who was who. The experience of WW2, bought at a high price, had either been forgotten or simply ignored. If Russia was to stand successfully against the threat posed by  illegal armed formations , then independently none of the power ministries was up to the job, but collectively they could. The collective knowledge of the staff of the Academy, no doubt many of whom had served in Afghanistan and Chechnya, and its hypothetical case study, as well as its choice of terminology, would appear to indicate that come 1999-2000, it played a role in ensuring that not all of the mistakes of 1994-1996 were repeated.

    In some respects, especially in relation to the North Caucasus MD, the practical aspect of Zolotov’s work was already being put into effect, but then Kazantsev had his own experience of the First Chechen War to draw on. Thus, his troops were already cooperating with MVD units in the temporary operational grouping (MVD) which was maintaining the security of the administrative borders of Chechnya, North Osetia, Ingushetia and Dagestan. Asked specifically about coordination of activities of the ministries in the MD, he stated that:
    It is not a secret that friction has arisen between the departments. But what particularly is odd about this, and this is strange, is that it is happening ‘from the top’. The lower you go, the more mutual understanding [you find] … We are ready to defend the southern borders of Russia and all the power ministries must tackle this main task together, by joint efforts.
    In terms of how this could be achieved, Kazantsev pointed out that:
    Part of Interior Troops, in principle, could take part in front operations, whilst other units could take part in territorial defence. This is [normally] one of our tasks during war time. In the case of the outbreak of a local conflict, we would jointly operate with the Ministry of Emergency Situations, MVD, properly worked out in joint command-staff exercises and training.
    Indeed, practical coordination was examined in more detail during a very large exercise in the North Caucasus from 27th-31st July 1998. The exercise was unprecedented in the range of organs represented: as one newspaper commented at the time,  in a word, anyone who wears epaulettes  was involved, in all, some 15,000 troops. It was a real test for the Operational staff HQ of the MVD with responsibility for the North Caucasus, headed by Colonel-General L Shevtsov, which was nominally in command, and involved MVD Russia, North Caucasus MD, Federal Security Service, Ministry of Emergency Situations and Federal Border Guards. In the run up to the exercise, at one of the planning sessions, held in Stavropol’ on 3rd July, Interior Minister Stepashin noted that  the developing situation in the North Caucasus urgently demands unified leadership of all the forces and means concerned with the maintenance of law and order and security in the region. Practically all conflicts here are inter-connected.

    For his part, Shevtsov stated that one of the main aims of the exercise was  to work out the necessary steps which may be employed to oppose the activities, on the scale of a sizeable conflict, which have already been unleashed by illegal armed formations of an extremist-separatist nature.

    Several days  before Chief of the General Staff Kvashnin arrived to take control of the military side of the exercise, a working group of senior officers from the General Staff’s Main Operations Directorate and the North Caucasus MD had been sent ahead of him. According to one  well-known  general attached to the exercise,  the main aim is to work out the decision-making system in case of a real aggravation of the situation in the region and a break out of local bandit formations from Chechnya to neighbouring territory. Localise them and then liquidate them.  Officially, the aims of the exercise ranged from maintaining law and order in the North Caucasus region to practising evacuating the population after a large-scale fire.

    It was being run in parallel with a series of  real planned military exercises  involving troops, pilotless planes, helicopters and tanks. According to an official MOD press release:
    The main aim of the exercise is to work out matters arising from the control of forces and means of the temporary operational grouping of the North Caucasus region [responsible] for maintaining law and order, public security, rendering aid to the local population, liquidating the consequences of large-scale fires, evacuating the population from sanitation-epidemic areas of the region, conducting quarantine measures, preventing looting, possible street disorders, terrorist acts, etc.
    From the military’s point of view, its purpose was to work out the decision-making process in the event of a re-run of the First Chechen War, the role of the power ministries  to localise  the conflict and then  eliminate  the bandit formations. Certainly, the Chechen authorities were less than convinced about its  peaceful  nature: on 28th July, the Chechen Foreign Ministry issued a statement condemning the exercise, stating that it was  an open demonstration of force which may destabilise the military and political situation in the entire Caucasus region.  One other brief report confirmed that one of the exercises involving the power ministries was  disarming a group of terrorists who had seized an administrative building , an exercise which was partly based on the events in Budennovsk in 1995 and in Makhachkala in June 1998.

    Judging by reports of the exercise, the MoD, in cooperation with units of the other power ministries, conducted joint operations to free hostages, stop the activities of  terrorists , people dealing with illicit goods, drug traffickers, etc. Thus apart from the more obvious military component, there were a number of areas where the main focus of attention was on anti-terrorist operations. This being the case, it was obvious that the input of the military would be important in evaluating future courses of action.

    In a statement issued at the end of the exercise by ITAR-TASS, a preliminary assessment was positive:
    At a meeting with journalists, he [Stepashin] noted the good cooperation between sub-units from different departments. He said the barrier created by poor liaison had been broken down for good … in Dagestan, for instance, the senior operational commander was the [local] Minister of Internal Affairs. This did not cause any jealousy amongst the military, the Minister said.

    The commander of the North Caucasus Military District, Col-Gen V Kazantsev, considers this to be right, since internal affairs bear prime responsibility for public security. The army will always be ready to support them with the manpower and resources at its disposal.
    Kazantsev later stated that:
    We practise holding joint command-staff exercises of the troops of the district with the control organs and formations of the other power structures of the RF on the territory of the region. During the course of such measures, we work on the problems arising from stabilising the situation in the territory of the North Caucasus and localising armed conflicts. Conducting joint work has produced positive results. Confirmation of this was the joint command-staff exercise carried out in July of this year. It was clearly demonstrated that the base of success was the close coordination of the control organs and the units of all the power structures.
    Given the size of the exercise, the equipment used, and the command and control arrangements – technically, the MVD was in overall charge, but with the presence of both the Chief of the General Staff and the MD Commander, as well as the prior involvement of senior officers from the General Staff, this was an exercise which was designed to test more than coordination. There was a bigger game being played here than simply working out how best to cope with a natural or man-made disaster. The involvement of the Chief of the General Staff was clear proof that despite Stepashin’s earlier comment that the Operational staff was in charge of  leading  the coordination of activities of power ministries, what was taking place was a quiet acknowledgement of the increasing internalisation of the role of the Army, at the expense of the MVD. Stepashin, as MVD Minister, was successful for a while in putting the MVD back into the centre of the security picture of the North Caucasus region, but it was not to be too long before the Armed Forces regained centre spot.

    In strategic terms, the exercise had a larger purpose. It was designed to show all and sundry that:

    1. Russia had not only learnt from its first debacle in Chechnya, but was putting those lessons into effect;
    2. It would use all means at its disposal to maintain its presence in the region and, regardless of the terrorist attacks of the past, present or future, or the increasing lawlessness in the region, it would not be bullied or harassed out of it;
    3. As reassurance to the Russian population of the region: Russia was still a military force to be reckoned with and would defend its position there with brute force, if necessary. It would not permit a  Balkanisation  of the region.

    In connection with the presidential decree  On organisational measures to maintain law and order and public security in the North Caucasus region  issued at the end of May 1998, it had been decided to create as part of the MD’s structure the Joint Grouping of MoD Troops in the Republic of Dagestan, based in Kaspiysk. It too was heavily involved in coordinating its activities with the local units of the other ministries and the Grouping’s Commander, Lieutenant-General V Bulgakov, spoke about how the relevant units organised their co-ordinated activities:
    We regularly hold joint exercises with units of the Interior Troops, organs of public security. And not only, by the way, on maps. Not to hide a sin, the reason for many of our previous mistakes has been inter-departmental disconnections. We did not have a unified ‘fighting team’ in Budennovsk, where the militants of Shamil Basayev were able to stroll along the streets without being punished, nor in Kizlyar, nor in Pervomayskoye, where the band of Salman Raduyev held hostages. And, on the whole, war in Chechnya showed the unpreparedness of joint activities of all the power structures, beginning at the tactical level. You see, there was strength here, but it worked in an uncoordinated fashion.
    Asked what concrete steps he had taken to resolve this problem, Bulgakov stated that:
    Twice a week, we hold joint field exercises: shooting and tactics … such exercises have a double benefit. On the one hand, the officers of the militia and the commanders of our units get to know one another, find a common language, and on the other hand – begin to more deeply understand those problems which can be solved jointly.
    Moving on from the relationship with the local militia, Bulgakov also described the Grouping’s relationship with the MVD units based in Dagestan:
    In relation to the units of the Interior Ministry Troops, they now have their own heavy calibre weapons and equipment. But they do not have trained specialists … from the newcomers we are helping them to train real specialists, both in terms of being able to drive the equipment properly and use its firepower. And the information which comes to us, as they say, from reliable sources, helps us to timeously prevent even the smallest provocative actions on the part of the militants.
    An interesting relationship seemed to be at work in Dagestan, if somewhat unorthodox. On a practical level, it did seem to work, however: joint field training with the local militia units would help to hone their skills and improve combat effectiveness, whilst at the same time allow those involved a better chance of knowing one another and knowing the other’s problems and capabilities. Could this practical relationship between the security and law-enforcement organs in Dagestan have been one of the reasons for the distinct lack of success enjoyed by the Chechens and their allies in August 1999? Bulgakov, however, was under no illusion about the difficult position his men were in:
    In comparison with the terrorists, the units of our grouping are in a less favourable position. We know that the extremists are near, constantly studying us, manoeuvring, choosing the moment to strike. We are static. That is why a whole complex of measures is needed, so that our officers are constantly alert, on exercise, on military training, teaching their men … how to survive the strike.
    On 19th May 1999, a further decree was issued concerning the security situation in the North Caucasus. Entitled  On additional measures to combat terrorism in the North Caucasus region of the RF , it was issued after a working meeting involving Yel’tsin and Putin, in his dual role as Secretary to the Security Council and Director General of the Federal Security Service. According to Putin, who was described as the  initiator  of the new decree, its essence was  to improve the coordination of all the forces and means at the disposal of the federal authorities.  Prior to the issue of the decree, the two men discussed three basic questions:  FSB operations, Security Council operations and the political situation in the country against the background of the replacement of the government and elections in Karachayevo-Cherkessiya.

    Leaving aside speculation concerning the alleged infighting between the MVD and the FSB on the  carve-up  of counter-intelligence work in the region, the decree outlined measures  to increase the financial and technical-material aid to Interior Ministry Troops in the North Caucasus.  Putin described the situation in the North Caucasus as  bad  and, in examining the wider ramifications of the instability in the region stated that  certain forces for instability outside Russia are trying to solve their geostrategic problems through the North Caucasus region.  In response, one Russian commentator remarked:  In other words, the FSB is returning to one of its long-term favourite themes: someone is stirring up the peoples of the Caucasus.

    Whilst there can be little denying the fact that the situation in the North Caucasus – despite all the measures being adopted nationally and locally – was continuing to deteriorate, little was to be gained by looking at  outside  forces as being the main instigator of Russia’s problems in the North Caucasus. Whilst it is outside the remit of this paper, Russia does not have far to look when apportioning blame for the present situation in the region – whilst it would be wrong to solely blame Russia for the mess in the Caucasus, it has to accept a fair share of the blame for what has happened and is happening there. Testament to its failure to adequately comprehend the problems of the region is its necessity of having to intervene militarily twice since 1994: will there be a third time?

    A number of exercises were still to take place in the North Caucasus MD in the run up to the events of August 1999. One of the most interesting took place at the beginning of June 1999 and involved militia units, MVD and MoD troops operating in the Kursk region of Stavropol’, not far from the border with Chechnya. A combination of militia, what was described as  personnel from a special mechanised regiment  and  OMON  (special purpose militia) units practised defending a control point. In the description of the exercise, mention was also made of the use of a 30-minute rapid reaction unit, as well as the use of artillery and tanks in order to repulse an  attacking band.  In his evaluation of the role of the MoD units, First Deputy Commander Internal Troops, North Caucasus Interior Troops District, Lieutenant-General Ye Abrashin stated that:  Without the units of the MoD, we would not have been able to carry out the tasks placed before us.

    The report also mentioned joint patrols involving militia and airborne troops operating in the region of Terekli-Mektel in Dagestan. Again, a number of units took part in a variety of exercises including freeing hostages, repulsing an attack on a motor brigade’s headquarters; and disarming  bandits  aboard a bus. In his estimation of the year’s exercises to date, the Deputy C-in-C of Internal Troops for Emergency Situations, Major-General V Dadonov, concluded that:  All the power ministries are now dedicated to one single aim: to maintain stability in the North Caucasus.  For his part Kazantsev, summarising the latest round of exercises and evaluating the work of all the exercises in the past year stated:  In comparison with such command-staff exercises of a year ago, the level of coordination between the staffs of all the power ministries has increased by a whole magnitude.

    Thus, on the eve of a new military campaign opening up in the North Caucasus, the level of coordination of the military activities of the power ministries had increased significantly. Having realised that one of the major reasons for the debacle in 1994-1996 was the lack of coordination between the different power ministry units operating in Chechnya, the senior military leadership, especially in the North Caucasus MD, set about trying to rectify the problem through a renewed emphasis on combat training, joint command staff exercises and greater inter-action between MoD, MVD, MChS, FSB, etc, culminating in the large-scale exercise held in July 1999. Men from different units with different responsibilities trained together and became much more aware of one another’s capabilities and weaknesses. This author is aware of 15 major command-staff exercises between March 1997-July 1999; see Appendix 1. The admission that no one power ministry, including the MoD, could maintain Russia’s security solely by its own efforts meant that all the power ministry units had to operate together in the face of the growing internal threat to the stability of the Russian Federation.

    However, despite this very real need, the issue of operational command and control of joint forces was to be a problem, as evidenced by the initial conduct of the  counter-terrorist operation  in August 1999. On 17th August, operational command of the Federal Groupings of Forces was transferred from the MVD to the MoD, the former simply not being able to retaliate with sufficient venom to the cross border incursion. However, 10 days later, operational command was transferred back to the MVD, for operations against the  rebels  in Karamakhi, Chabanmakhi and Kadar. Again, though, this was deemed a failure and, finally, operational commander was restored to the MoD on 4th September.

    The Immediate Lessons of Coordination in the  Counter-Terrorist Operation  (1999-2000)

    A number of senior Russian military figures have already publicly aired their views on the experience of the coordination of activities in the  counter-terrorist operation  in Chechnya and, to date, the reaction has been far from wild praise for what has been achieved. Indeed, according to the Commandant of the Combined Forces Academy, Colonel-General L S Zolotov,
    In the organisation of coordination of combined arms units with the armed formations of other troops, as in the first Chechen campaign, there were many defects.
    Thus despite all the training and exercises and positive assessment of the level of coordination between the power ministry units in the North Caucasus MD, the operation would appear to have revealed that there is still much room for improvement. It will be interesting to see what further steps are taken by Russia’s military and political leadership.

    Major-General (Retired) I N Vorob’yev, opened his generic analysis by stating that:
    Among the problems which arose during the course of armed conflicts on the territory of Russia recently, one of the biggest has been the organisation of coordination between troops from the various power structures in the conduct of special operations against illegal armed formations. There are many objective and subjective reasons for this but, arguably, the most important has been that, since the collapse of the USSR, the unified military organisation of the state, which went through the testing time of the Great Patriotic War, was divided into separate parts; its own Armed forces separate from the military formations of the other ministries and departments (MVD, FPS, ZhDV, FSB MChS, FAPSI and others).
    The first step, in his opinion, is to restore the principle of  centralised leadership  of the organisation of the state’s military mechanism. Russia’s new Military Doctrine (April 2000) made a number of references to the  centralisation of leadership  as being a  basic principle  of the development of the state’s military organisation. It also refers to  improving strategic planning on the principle of unity of the use of the Russian Federation armed forces and other troops .

    Vorob’yev lists a more specific series of problems which manifested themselves during the current military campaign in the North Caucasus:
    Events in Chechnya and Dagestan show that the basic reasons which made the co-ordinated activities of the various departmental force structures taking part in the armed conflict difficult were: the incompatibility of the legal base to the aims and principles of their joint use; the lack of a unified control system, [the lack of a] comprehensive supply system as well as forecasting and observing the military-political, strategic and operational situation in potentially explosive regions; uncoordinated departmental programme-regulation documents for the training of troops (forces) and organs for joint activities in the event of a crisis situation developing; the disunity in the infrastructure of the state’s military organisation.
    Vorob’yev examined the wider dimension behind solving an internal armed conflict, including the humanitarian and political factors involved, as well as who should be the prime mover in co-ordinating the roles of the force structures. In what he terms  special operations  which seem to cover Russia’s present  counter-terrorist operation , Vorob’yev stated that:
    The main aim of special operations is not to allow the destabilisation of the situation in the country, the violation of the constitutional order, but to create the necessary conditions for the elimination of the contradictions by political means.

    In resolving an internal armed conflict, such an operation will be carried out on the territory of one’s state and this fact will reflect on its content. The force structures will operate in a way to avoid losses amongst the civilian population and amongst the soldiers.

    Vorob’yev also attached  the primary role  to working out  the aims and tasks of the special operation  to the political factor, which will be decisive in choosing the means, forms, scale and length of military operations. This was an interesting point to make and one worth emphasising. One of the fundamental differences between the two military campaigns in Chechnya in the 1990s has been, for want of a better phrase, the political will. This was different in 1999 in many ways from the previous war of 1994-1996 not least because this time round Russia had a leader (Putin) who, rightly or wrongly, wanted to prosecute this war with the utmost vigour. The political leadership in the Kremlin did not interfere in the plans of the military, nor in matters relating to how best to organise the conduct of operations. In short, the military, both at the centre and in Chechnya, were never in any doubt what the Kremlin thought about this war and set about their task accordingly.
    Then the question arises: who in the final analysis is the organiser of coordination? It is difficult to give a categorical answer. If one speaks from the principle side of things, then one has to rely on the fundamental documents of the state. In the National Security Concept of the RF, the priority in solving problems in repulsing…internal threats to national security belongs to the Ministry of the Interior … the representative of Internal Troops MVD and it must organise coordination. However, if an internal armed conflict becomes large-scale and to solve it requires a large mass of troops, then the main co-ordinator of the combat effort of the unified operational grouping of different forces is the combined arms commander, as was the case in repulsing the invasions by the bandit formations in Dagestan, when the leadership of operations was placed on the Commander of the North Caucasus MD. In other circumstances, the head of the operational grouping of forces could be the Commander of Interior Troops MVD district.
    In short, in deciding who has primacy in running an operation, someone has to decide carefully what criteria to adopt, in order to evaluate when and under what circumstances an internal threat to the country can be properly handled by the MVD, with back-up when necessary being provided by the other power ministry units, or when the MoD should be the lead player. Given the growing internalisation of the role of the Armed Forces, this remains a very difficult problem for the country’s senior political, legal and military figures. Definition of the terms used to describe the operation will have important consequences for the command structure and level of force applied.

    The General Staff’s main theoretical journal, Voyennaya Mysl’, continues to publish articles analysing the experience of the  counter-terrorist operation  in the North Caucasus. It printed a number of reports from a  round table  discussion involving senior military officers, giving a preliminary evaluation of the pluses and minuses of the operation so far. In examining coordination, the two main contributions were made by Colonel-General Yu D Bukreyev, Head of the Main Directorate, Ground Forces, and Colonel-General L S Zolotov, Commandant of the Combined Forces Academy.

    In his contribution, Bukreyev noted that  questions concerning the organisation of coordination of various power structures deserved particular attention.  He noted that what now had to occur was a detailed analysis of a range of issues associated with coordination:  the ways [of reaching] joint decisions; the composition of the troops taking part in combat actions; the time and sequence of carrying out planned tasks; [detailed working out and agreement on] regions, borders, installations for action; conditions, means and time in the joint use of means of attack, as well as limitations on their use in population centres; questions concerning the organisation of control and communications, all-round supplies, notification and identification, etc.  It was also important, in his opinion, to ensure that in organising cooperation in the  counter-terrorist operation , the local organs were involved, especially in exchanging information on activities of the  illegal armed formations ; maintaining communication facilities; guarding important facilities for civilian population, etc. Bukreyev listed the following main conclusions:
    One. Units and sub-units of Ground and Airborne Troops played a decisive role in fulfilling the tasks of counter-terrorist operation…

    Two. The experience of the combat use of units and sub-units of Internal Troops MVD RF showed that in the specifics of fulfilling their service-combat missions, they were inadequately effective during the conduct of the first stage of the counter-terrorist operations (the elimination of illegal armed formations)…

    Three. Military-capable, well-coordinated units and sub-units with their own supply organs and the corresponding necessary material-technical reserves must be the basis of the created group of forces for activities in the zone of armed conflict…

    Four. In the Ground Forces, it is necessary to have in constant readiness a packet of combat, special, rear and technical supply units.

    Five. The control system, created in peace time, should adequately ensure the solution of issues of control during an armed conflict without changing it. The leadership of the Unified Grouping of Troops (Forces) must be carried out by the Commander whose troops, at that stage of the conflict, are carrying out the main task.

    Six. Of great significance in armed conflicts are problems involving the inter-action of command personnel and troops with the local population. Knowledge and respect for national customs and values, close contact with representatives of local organs of self-administration, will help the soldiers successfully carry out their tasks, will cut down on the losses amongst soldiers and peaceful citizens.

    For his part, Zolotov also pointed out that the issue of coordination between the power ministries was still a big problem which, in his opinion, would only be resolved when everyone was taught literally in the same classroom:
    As in the first Chechen campaign, there were many inadequacies in the organisation of coordination of combined arms units with armed formations of other troops. The main reason…for this is that we still have not overcome the ministerial disunity in the training of our command cadres. You see only with joint teaching in military higher educational establishments of officers of Ground Forces, Internal Troops MVD, Border Guard troops FPS, will we then have the possibility of unifying views on the basics of the military art, studying the organisation of interaction. Then it will be easier for them to find a common language in a combat situation and jointly decide on combat tasks.
    Zolotov pointed out that there was poor coordination between units of Army Aviation, combined arms units and MVD Troops during the  counter-terrorist operation , as well as, again, poor coordination between artillery of combined arms units and their opposite numbers in the MVD. In conclusion, he reminded readers that his Academy was preparing to publish a  solid  work, examining in great detail all the issues raised.

    There are clearly still a significant number of problems in the area of coordinating combat activities, both at the theoretical and, more importantly, at the practical level. On a theoretical level, there is still not a strong legal foundation, detailing which ministry does what and under what circumstances (when is it appropriate for the MoD to get involved in such operations and at what level? Once involved, what should then be the respective roles of the MVD, the Border Guards, FSB, etc?) Turf wars were a problem in the First Chechen War and would appear to have still been an issue in the second. There is a real possibility that unless adequate steps are taken, friction could easily break out between the Russian Army and MVD Interior Troops in the future in the event of such operations having to be conducted again. Although mistakes on a practical level were not fully ironed out, it would appear that fewer mistakes were made, and of a different type, hence the greater success enjoyed the second time round (although as evidenced by Appendix 2 the power of superior numbers of men and firepower must have played its part). The experience of the current operation, no doubt, will be examined and analysed and more changes introduced, both in terms of defining the legal obligations of each of the power ministries in resolving such conflicts, as well as on a practical level. These will probably include further emphasis on training more men from all units to be able to fight in the mountains and forests of the Caucasus; beginning a proper programme for training cadres for all the main power ministries together in the same establishments; putting into practical effect the elevated status of the MDs to  operational-strategic commands,  by re-defining the role of the local MD Commander as the man in operational charge of all men in uniform in his district, when appropriate circumstances arise. These are just a few of the issues which the government under Putin will have to resolve quickly. How it does so will have a significant impact on how successfully it wages the next  counter-terrorist operation  and, have no doubt about it, there will be another one.

    An interesting development which has taken place recently has been the re-organisation of Russia into seven federal districts and the appointment of  presidential plenipotentiaries  to head them. This has generally been seen as an early attempt by the new Russian president to re-establish the vertical levers of power, thereby ensuring greater Kremlin control of what is actually going on in the regions. Given the fact that the new federal district boundaries are almost coterminous with the MDs and that the overwhelming majority of the new federal plenipotentiaries have been senior members of the power ministries, there has been speculation that it will not be long before further organisational change at this level takes place, thereby leading to a further concentration of both military and civilian powers in the hands of these newly created presidential plenipotentiaries. Given the earlier decision, taken in July 1998, to elevate the MDs to  operational-strategic commands , there are grounds for speculation that in the medium-to-long-term this may happen. In effect, in attempting to further enhance the leadership of the president in the regions, Putin may re-create the old system of governor-generals, introduced in Russia in the mid-19th century when Russia was initially divided into a series of MDs, whose commanders had authority over civilian as well as military affairs in the district.

    The North Caucasus Federal District has the same boundaries as the North Caucasus MD and, not too surprisingly given recent events, the presidential plenipotentiary to the Federal District is none other than General V G Kazantsev. In his first major interview since being appointed, Kazantsev stated that his main task was  to ensure that that there is no serious work for the military to do in the south of the country  by tackling the three evils of  banditry, terrorism and corruption.  At the end of the interview, Kazantsev referred to an idea which, in a slightly different format, he had expressed on a number of occasions in the past:
    I do indeed believe that the rebirth of the army will begin with the North Caucasus Military District and that the revival of the country will begin with the south. All the prerequisites for this exist in our highly abundant, highly fertile region. The south is Russia’s ‘solar plexus’. If we organise normal life [there], we will flourish.
    Only time will tell how successful both this attempt at re-creating the vertical structure of power in general, and Kazantsev’s efforts as Putin’s personal representative to the North Caucasus Federal District in particular, will be in solving the nation’s myriad of problems.

    CODA

    The need for Russia to intervene militarily a second time in Chechnya in such a comparatively short space of time has to be viewed as a comprehensive failure of Russian policy in the North Caucasus region as a whole. The use of military forces – however well or badly they performed – has to be viewed as stark testament to the fact that, first and foremost, the political process in the region had failed. August 1999, however, had much less to do with  revenge  politics, for want of a better phrase, than most commentators in the West give credit for. After all, it is quietly forgotten now but the Chechen  militants  and their allies did launch an armed incursion into Dagestan and Russia saw this as a direct challenge to its authority in the region, an authority which had been severely dented, not just by the First Chechen War, but also by the terrorist outrages in the south of Russia since 1995; the challenge to federal rule posed by the presidential elections in Karachayevo-Cherkessiya; the growing levels of lawlessness in the region – personified by, but not solely restricted to Chechnya; and the growth of religious extremism in the region. As far as Moscow was concerned, something had to be done and done quickly.

    And yet, for a time, the relationship between the command of the North Caucasus MD and Groznyy, publicly at least, looked like it could have followed a different path from the one which led to eventual military confrontation in August 1999. This should not be taken to mean that the Russian military command, at the local level, was not preparing for combat action in the area, but had the attitude of the senior political leadership in the Kremlin of Chechnya been different, the MD’s military command could have reacted accordingly.

    In May 1998, the MD’s Commander – Kazantsev – and First Deputy Commander – Troshev – made a number of public announcements which hint at the possibility that relations could have improved, had events not taken the turn they did, or Moscow had shown a more positive attitude. During that month, Kazantsev formally invited a number of regional political leaders – including A Maskhadov – to attend the 80th anniversary celebrations of the creation of the North Caucasus MD. Troshev confirmed that the MD command did receive a  positive response  from the Chechen authorities. Unfortunately, due to the recent kidnapping of Yel’tsin’s most senior political representative to the region, V Vlasov, the invitation was not followed up.

    Troshev also made the point that the Chechen leadership itself needed stability in the region:
    Maskhadov is anxious that everything in the republic should be stable. It is important even for their own purposes. Even in order to secede, they want peace…they want to put an end to disorder, to get rid of weapons, to create a situation where only those who are authorised…can carry guns.
    In response to a question concerning the desire of the military to aggravate the situation in the region:
    There are roadblocks all along the Russian-Chechen border. The police, the Interior Troops, as well as our troops … are on duty around the clock and today we are pressing for the withdrawal of all these troops. Why? To begin with, these roadblocks separate Chechnya from us, we alienate Chechnya from us, which is not right.
    In the same TV broadcast, Kazantsev mentioned that a request had been sent by Maskhadov  during our last meeting  to the MD’s command for  assistance in clearing mines . This raises a number of interesting points: how many meetings did they have? What was discussed at these meetings? How often did they take place? In a newspaper interview, Kazantsev elaborated on this further, as well as the nature of the relationship both between Rostov and Groznyy and Moscow and Groznyy:
    Let’s take Chechnya, which is in the territory of the district. Recently, there have been positive moments in the dialogue between Moscow and Groznyy. The Minister of the Interior, A Stepashin, has held talks on joint activities of the law-enforcement organs on the administrative border with Chechnya. The president of Chechnya recently approached us with a request to help clear mines. People have to work, feed their children, but not to fight. Not that long ago, we sent humanitarian assistance to Chechnya … we cannot always be in permanent confrontation with Chechnya. We must find variants for normalisation, although the solution to these matters is, of course, in the province of the politicians, not the military [emphasis mine – SJM].
    But by the end of July 1998, Russia held its massive command-staff exercise in the North Caucasus MD and everything was thrown backwards, not forwards. Mutual hostility and suspicion rose to the surface and no new  positive moments  were to be heard publicly in the subsequent dialogue between Moscow, Rostov and Groznyy. The chance for a more peaceful development in the relationship between Russia and Chechnya was lost and the stage set for August 1999.

    Endnotes

    APPENDIX ONE

    Exercises known to have taken place in the North Caucasus Military District, (March 1997-July 1999)

    Date Published aim Units, (forces)

    1) 24-30/3/97  Polish interaction MoD, MVD, FPS

    between NCMD, MVD ZhDV, FAPSI

    Civil Defence staffs  –
    Redut-97
    Leader: General V Samsonov

    July 31st 1997 Lieutenant-General V G Kazantsev takes command

    2) 18-24/8/97  To work out methods 58 Army, MVD Troops,

    of organising military militia, air force

    training, under conditions

    of limited material and motorised resources ;  58A actions against conventional enemy – criminal groupings and subversive groups.

    Leader: Lieutenant-General V Kazantsev

    3) 17-23/3/98 Front line CPX: MoD, MVD, FSB,

    to practise operational FPS, MChS, Black Sea

    and tactical tasks in… Fleet, Caspian Flotilla,

    mountain conditions.  Air Army, PVO

    Leader: Lieutenant-General V Kazantsev

    4) 8-12/7/98  Territorial defence, MoD, Caspian Flotilla,

    emergency measures aimed FPS, MVD Troops, at protecting administrative MChS (Dagestan) and military installations.

    Leader: Colonel-General V Kazantsev

    5) 27-31/7/1998  Polish interaction MoD, MVD Troops,

    between all forces in MChS, FAPSI,  other

    the composition of the law-enforcement

    ‘temporary operational organs , FSB, airborne grouping, North Caucasus forces. region.’

    Leader: Colonel-General L Shevtsov

    6) 28/8/98 (start)  Improve practical methods Guards motor-rifle in
    command and staff formation, FPS,

    planning and organisation and other law- of combat training.  enforcement

    organs

    Leader: Lieutenant-General G Troshev

    7) 19/9/98 (end)  Repulse incursion MoD, MVD from across the Troops

    border.

    Leader: Colonel-General V Kazantsev

    8) 25-30/1/99  Drilled cooperation  FAPSI and

    with other power others

    ministries.
    Leader: Colonel-General V Sherstyuk

    9) 25/2/99 (end)  Polish interaction.  MoD, MVD Troops, FPS, FAPSI

    Leader: Colonel-General V Kazantsev

    10) 18/3/99 (end)  Improve practical skills MoD, Air Force of commanders in analysing PVO, Caspian and organising comprehensive Flotilla, MVD provisions for the troops.  Troops, FPS,

    58 Army

    Leader: ?

    11) 22/4/99 (start)  Rehearse control of forces MoD, MVD and resources for the ‘temp. Troops, FPS operational grouping of troops.’

    Leader: Colonel-General V Kazantsev

    (S Stepashin, Interior Minister, in overall charge)

    12) 5/5/99 (ongoing)  Polish matters concerning MoD, MVD training and preparing control Troops

    personnel ;  interaction to
    maintain security and stability

    of Russia’s southern borders.

    Two-stage exercise.
    Leader: Colonel-General V Kazantsev

    (S Stepashin in overall charge)

    13) End of May 1999  Polish matters of MoD, MVD
    of interactions of all power Troops, OMON,

    ministries to maintain Caspian Flotilla,
    Russia’s security and stability FPS

    in the south.

    Leader: Colonel-General V Kazantsev

    14) 13-16/7/99  Decision-making process MoD, Black Sea for commanders and Fleet, airborne staff HQs ;  interaction forces,  other power in the conduct of a defensive structures  operation.

    Leader: Colonel-General V Kazantsev

    19th July – MVD Troops put on  increased alert . 58 Army not ordered to move

    15) 21/7/99  To check the combat and 58 Army

    mobilisational readiness, coordination of staff HQs, their ability of command to control
    subordinate units.
    Leader: Lieutenant-General A Sidyakin

    Abbreviations: MoD – Ministry of Defence;
    MVD – Ministry of Interior;

    FPS – Federal Border Guard Service;

    ZhDV-Railway Troops;
    FAPSI – Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information;
    FSB – Federal Security Service;

    MChS – Ministry of Emergency Situations;

    PVO – Anti-Aircraft Defence Troops;

    OMON – special police units.

    Sources: Krasnaya Zvezda, 21/3/1997; FBIS-SOV-97-080, 21/3/1997; Krasnaya Zvezda, 26/3/1997; Krasnaya Zvezda,, 29/3/1997; FBIS-SOV-97-091, 1/4/1997; BBC Monitoring, 6/4/1997; BBC Monitoring, 31/7/1997; BBC Monitoring, 8/8/1997; BBC Monitoring, 20/8/1997; BBC Summary of World Broadcasts (SWB), SU/3003 S1/2, 21/8/1997; BBC Monitoring, 21/8/1997; BBC Monitoring, 24/8/1997; SWB SU/3006 S1/2, 25/8/1997; BBC Monitoring, 17/3/1998; FBIS-UMA-98-081, 22/3/1998; BBC Monitoring, 23/3/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda, 24/3/1998; BBC Monitoring, 2/7/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda, 25/7/1998; Interfax, 27/7/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda, 28/7/1998; Interfax, 28/7/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda, 31/7/1998; BBC Monitoring, 31/7/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda, 6/8/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda, 28/8/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda,, 19/9/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda, 25/9/1998; Krasnaya Zvezda, 2/2/1999; Krasnaya Zvezda, 25/2/1999; Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, No 27, 24-30/7/1999; Krasnaya Zvezda, 18/3/1999; SWB SU/3518 S1/2, 26/4/1999; Krasnaya Zvezda, 5/5/1999; Krasnaya Zvezda, 2/6/1999; Krasnaya Zvezda, 10/7/1999; ITAR-TASS, 19/7/1999; Krasnaya Zvezda, 21/7/1999.

    APPENDIX TWO

    THE RETALIATORY STRIKE

    The strength of the Russian Armed Forces located in and around the North Caucasus, (as of early July 1999):

    1. the 136th Mountain Infantry Brigade of the Russian Ministry of Defence (Buynaksk);
    2. the 102nd operations Brigade of the Ministry of Interior Troops (Makhachkala);
    3. the 205th Brigade of the Russian Ministry of Defence (Budennovsk);
    4. the 21st Airborne Brigade of the Russian Ministry of Defence (Stavropol’);
    5. Independent Regiment of Interior Ministry Troops (Kursk region);
    6. 19th Motor-Rifle Brigade of 58 Army Russian Ministry of Defence (Vladikavkaz);
    7. Independent Operations Division of Interior Ministry Troops (Vladikavkaz);
    8. Military airfield and staff base of 58 Army of the Russian Ministry of Defence (Mozdok);
    9. 7th Airborne Division (Novorossiysk);
    10. the 20th Motor-Rifle Division (Volgograd);
    11. Special unit of the Federal Security Service (Krasnodar);
    12. Special Brigade of Main Intelligence Department (GRU), General Staff of the Russian Defence Ministry (Rostov);
    13. two helicopter regiments (Kizlyar and Mozdok);
    14. two attack air force squadrons (Krasnodar and Volgograd)

    As well as reinforced and mobilised police units from Dagestan, Stavropol kray and North Osetia.

    Source: Izvestiya, 8/7/1999.

    The respective military strengths of the Federal and Chechen forces in 1994-1996 and 1999 are given overleaf.

    Equipment and personnel numbers of the Federal forces* and the illegal armed formations

    Date Personnel Tanks and Vehicles Artillery**

    Federal forces (1994-1996)

    11.12.94 6,000 500 270

    1.1.95 8,000 520 340

    1.2.95 40,000 1,500 397

    1.9.96 38,000 1,350 350

    Militants (1994-1996)

    11.12.94 20,000 134 200

    1.1.95 40,000 126 190

    1.2.95 5-7,000 34 28

    1.9.95 40,000 48 54

    Federal forces (1999)

    1.12.99 100,000 1,650 480

    Militants (1999)

    1.12.99 20,000 14 23

    * The equipment and personnel figures do not take into account Ministry of Interior Troops, militia or OMON units.

    ** Artillery systems with a calibre exceeding 100mm, as well as ground force rocket systems.

    Source: A Korbut,  Ucheba v boyu , ( learning in battle ), Nezavismoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, No 50 (173), 24/12/1999-13/1/2000.

    The Conflict Studies Research Centre

    Directorate General Development and Doctrine

    Royal Military Academy Sandhurst

    Camberley Telephone : (44) 1276 412346

    Surrey Or 412375

    GU15 4PQ Fax : (44) 1276 686880

    England E-mail: csrc.dgd&d@gtnet.gov.uk

    http://www.ppc.pims.org/Projects/csrc

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    6.

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    Ukraine Special Weapons

    After the disintegration of the USSR, Ukraine found itself in possession of the world’s third largest nuclear arsenal. There were 176 launchers of intercontinental ballistic missiles with some 1,240 warheads on Ukrainian territory. This force consisted of 130 SS-19s, each capable of delivering six nuclear weapons, and 46 SS-24s, each armed with ten nuclear weapons. An additional 14 SS-24 missiles were present in Ukraine, but not operationally deployed with warheads. Several dozen bombers with strategic nuclear capabilities were armed with some 600 air-launched missiles, along with gravity bombs. In addition, as many as 3,000 tactical nuclear weapons rounded out an arsenal totalling approximately 5,000 strategic and tactical weapons.

    From the first days of its independent development, Ukraine affirmed three basic principles — not to accept, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons. The West remained concerned with the nuclear aspects of Ukraine’s problems with weapons proliferation. Western sensitivity over nuclear issues convinced Ukraine’s leaders that they could influence the West by using the nuclear lever.

    The Declaration on State Sovereignty adopted by the Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR on 16 July 1990 defined the building of the army as a major task and a natural right of the future Ukrainian independent state. By announcing the right to maintain its own army, Ukraine took a significant step toward independence from the USSR. The military coup in Moscow in August 1991 and fears that Soviet troops on Ukraine’s territory would act aggressively against the Ukrainian state led the official leadership in Kiev to subordinate these troops to the control of Ukrainian authorities. Ukraine also announced as its own the Soviet military property on the soil of the newly independent state.

    Ukraine inherited about 30 percent of the Soviet military industry, which included between 50 and 60 percent of all Ukrainian enterprises, employing 40 percent of its working population. Ukraine was, and remains, the leader in missile-related technology, especially guidance systems, navigation electronics for combat vessels and submarines, and radar for military jets. Strong competition in the world’s weapons market forced Ukraine to look into exporting arms to politically unstable or even aggressive regimes. Ukraine established its own network for arms export and, in so doing, did not fully recognize international rules and bans. The Ukrainian military traded conventional arms on the black market and signed contracts with commercial firms. The first contracts on weapons deliveries to Iran, signed in the middle of 1992, and caused negative reaction in the West (particularly in the US).

    On 13 May 1994, the United States and Ukraine signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the Transfer of Missile Equipment and Technology. This agreement committed Ukraine to adhere to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) by controlling exports of missile-related equipment and technology according to the MTCR Guidelines.

    Ukraine has a sufficient amount of highly enriched uranium, which the United States wanted to buy from the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology. Ukraine also has two uranium mining and processing factories, a heavy water plant, a technology for making electronic to determine the isotopic composition of fissionable materials. Ukraine has deposits of uranium that are among the world’s richest.

    Ukraine initially announced its intention to obtain operational control over the strategic nuclear weapons deployed in its territory. Responding to these intentions, Russian military officials responded that attempts to interfere with, or to damage the command and control systems of, Russian strategic troops located abroad would constitute a direct military threat to Russian Federation.

    Originally Ukrainian leader Leonid Kravchuk was  not worried  if nuclear weapons went to Russia for decommissioning. Gradually, however, his worries developed sufficiently to lead to him to reverse his position and on 12 March 1992 to suspend temporarily the transfer of tactical nuclear weapons to Russia. However, in conformity with the 16 July 1990  Declaration of State Sovereignty  and other agreements signed at the creation of the CIS, by May 1992 Ukraine voluntarily removed all tactical nuclear weapons [approximately 3000] inherited from the former Soviet Union.

    The trilateral agreement signed in Moscow on 14 January 1994 by the United States, Russia, and Ukraine was seen as a significant Western success in disarming Ukraine of nuclear weapons. Under the agreement, the Russian Federation undertook to send 100 tons of fuel to Ukraine for its nuclear-power plants. The United States agreed to pay $60 million to the Russian Federation in support of that process. For its part, Ukraine agreed to transfer 200 nuclear warheads over a 10-month period.

    As of May 1994, 120 SS-19 Stiletto and 60 SS-24 Scalpel intercontinental ballistic missiles had been shipped out of Ukraine for reprocessing in Russia.

    Ukraine announced in June 1996 that all warheads bad been removed from the country. A problem arose in the removal of SS-19s, which use large amounts of a toxic substance known as heptyl. The United States sent storage tanks to hold 2,200 metric tons of the substance. After the SS-19 missiles were removed from combat duty, 19 were re-used in Russia.

    The Strategic Nuclear Arms Elimination in Ukraine – SNAE (U) program in Ukraine was structured to support Ukrainian participation in START I Treaty implementation and facilitate the destruction of WMD delivery systems.

    Strategic Weapons Systems Included in the Program
    Location     Weapons
    Belaya Tserkov:     1 Tu-22M3 Bomber;
    9 Tu-95 Bombers
    Kirovskoye     1 Tu-142 Bomber
    Nikolayev     20 Tu-22M Bombers;
    5 Tu-142 bombers;
    4 Bomber Trainers
    Ozernoye:     346 Kh-22 ASMs
    Poltava:     27 Tu-22M3 Bombers
    Priluki:     7 Tu-22M3 Bombers;
    11 Tu-160 Bombers;
    74 Kh-55 ALCMs
    Uzin:     18 Tu-95 Bombers;
    409 Kh-55 ALCMs
    The program is conducted in accordance with the Implementing Agreement between the Department of Defense (DoD) of the United States of America and the Ministry of Defense (MOD) of Ukraine Concerning the Provision of Material, Services, and Related Training to Ukraine in Connection with the Elimination of Strategic Nuclear Arms dated December 5, 1993.

    In 2002, a Ukrainian proposal was submitted to split Executive Agency between the MOD and the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU), with the MOD handling military issues and NSAU handling ICBM and associated fuel elimination and part storage.

    At completion of the SS-24 Weapons System Elimination and Bomber & ASM Elimination programs, all strategic nuclear arms of Ukraine will have been eliminated and the overall objectives of the SNAE (U) program will have been met.

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s International Nuclear Export Control Program [INECP] provides support to the State Department’s Export Control and Border Security Program’s (EXBS) nonproliferation goals by focusing resources on cooperative projects in the three themes that guide its domestic program: licensing, industry outreach, and enforcement.

    In Ukraine, INECP provided support to licensing activities for both of the country’s premier nuclear institutes—the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) and the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). Support for the Nuclear Export License Review System (NELRS), a computer-based system designed to facilitate the technical review of license applications, is ongoing. A second automated system, the SSECU departmental database, was also developed with INECP support. This database is used by the Nuclear Item Review Department of SSECU to review past licenses and access reference materials.

    In Industry Outreach, American experts joined with representatives of INR and KIPT, as well as Ukraine’s State Service for Export Control and the Science and Technology Center (STC) in providing presentations on technology transfers and technology security, commodity classification, and internal compliance for the nuclear industry in Ukraine . In the area of enforcement, the George Kuzmycz Training Center completed the first step of developing a training course for the State Customs Service of Ukraine (SCSU) by completing a curriculum deliverable accepted by SCSU. The Kuzmycz Center, it was agreed, will develop the training courses and begin training SCSU in FY 2003.

    http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/ukraine/

    ***

    Backgrounder on Radiation Protection and the “Tooth Fairy” Issue

    Printable Version PDF Icon
    Background

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the federal agency responsible for protecting public health and safety with regard to the use of nuclear materials in commercial nuclear power plants that generate electricity. Its regulations are based on sound science to make determinations that adequate protection of the public and the environment is maintained. As part of its responsibility, NRC requires plant operators to have effluent and environmental monitoring programs to ensure that the impacts from nuclear plant operations are minimized. The results of this monitoring have shown the presence of natural and weapons fallout radiation and in a few instances, very low levels of radioactive material of nuclear plant origin.

    A number of studies by the Radiation Public Health Project1 assert that levels of radioactive strontium-90 (Sr-90) are rising in the environment and that these increased levels are responsible for increases in cancers, particularly cancers in children, and infant mortality. The group claims that radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants are directly responsible for the increases in Sr-90. In one study, researchers reported that Sr-90 concentrations in baby teeth are higher in areas around nuclear power plants than in other areas. This has sometimes been referred to as “The Tooth Fairy Project.” However, numerous peer-reviewed, scientific studies do not substantiate such claims.
    Strontium-90 Sources

    Strontium is a silvery-white alkaline earth metal that exists in several stable and unstable or radioactive isotopes (Sr-89 and Sr-90). Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope that is produced in nuclear fission–splitting of an atom’s center that releases energy– and has a half-life (decay of half its radioactivity) of about 28 years. In the United States, the primary pathway for Sr-90 to enter the body is through ingestion of contaminated foods and cow’s milk.

    Strontium-90 does not occur naturally. It comes from three sources:

    1) fallout from above-ground explosions of nuclear weapons testing worldwide from 1963 to 1980;
    2) radioactive releases from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the Ukraine; and
    3) radioactive releases from nuclear power plants into the environment.

    By far, the largest source of Sr-90 in the environment (~99%) is from weapons testing fallout. Approximately 16.8 million curies of strontium-90 were produced and globally dispersed in atmospheric nuclear weapons testing until 1980 (UNSCEAR 2001)2. With a 28 year half-life, Sr-90 still remains in the environment at nominal levels. Numerous measurements were made during weapons testing which found that the worldwide average radiation dose from ingesting Sr-90 (1945 to present) is 9.7 millirem (about equal to radiation doses from a transpolar flight), and the dose from inhaling strontium-90 (1945 to 1985) is 0.92 millirem (about equal to the dose from an arm or leg x-ray). These doses are well below those doses known to cause any effects on health (NCRP 1991)3. The doses from Sr-90 in the environment are about 0.3% of the average annual dose a person in the United States receives from natural background radiation (~300 millirem).

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident, approximately 216,000 curies of Sr-90 were released into the atmosphere. An increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in the area directly affected by the accident has been attributable to radioiodine ingestion. No other increase in overall cancer incidence or mortality has been observed that can be attributed to radiation from the accident (UNSCEAR 2000)4.

    The total annual release of strontium-90 into the atmosphere from all 103 commercial nuclear power plants operating in the United States is typically 1/1000th of a curie. (NUREG/CR-2907, Vol. 12)5. At an individual nuclear power plant, the amount of Sr-90 is so low that it is usually at or below the minimum detectable activity of sensitive detection equipment. Radiation doses from Sr-90 to individuals living within 30 miles of a nuclear power plant would be a tiny fraction of less than one millirem. As indicated above, nuclear power plant emissions of Sr-90 are inconsequential compared with other man-made sources and, thus, it is reasonable to conclude that the vast majority of Sr-90 that can be detected in, for example, baby teeth would be attributable to fallout from nuclear weapons testing or, possibly, the Chernobyl accident.
    Ability for Strontium-90 to Cause Cancer

    Sr-90, if ingested, tends to mimic calcium when it is in the body and therefore becomes concentrated in calcified tissues such as bones and teeth. If ingested in quantities that produce very large radiological dose rates (about a thousand times higher than doses we all receive from natural radiation), Sr-90 is known to increase the risk of bone cancer and leukemia in animals, and is presumed to do so in people. Below these doses, there is no evidence of excess cancer [Raabe 1994]6.
    Radiation Monitoring at Nuclear Power Plants

    Limits on Plant Discharges (Effluents)

    The NRC has established strict limits on the amount of radioactive emissions allowed to be released from nuclear plants to the environment and the resulting exposure for members of the public and the plant workers. (NRC requirements are in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20, Appendix B, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/cfr/part020/part020-appb.html). The concentration of radionuclides that may be released is limited to levels which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a dose of no more than 100 millirem. These limits are based on radiation protection recommendations of both the National Council on Radiation Protection Measurements and the International Commission on Radiological Protection organizations resulting from ongoing research. Nuclear power plants are further limited by their license conditions to keep radioactive material in effluents “as low as reasonably achievable” so that dose criteria for releases to unrestricted areas are five millirem for releases into the air and three millirem for liquid releases.

    All power plant operators are required to monitor radioactive airborne and liquid discharges from the plant and to file a report of these discharges annually with the NRC. These reports, which are publicly available, list the radioactive isotopes released, the quantity released and the radiation dose to the public. The concentrations of radionuclides released into the environment from a nuclear facility are generally too low to be measurable outside the plant’s boundary. For this reason, any Sr-90 detected in areas near a nuclear power plant would not likely have come from the plant, but would be attributed to fallout from nuclear weapons testing or from the Chernobyl accident.

    Plant Environmental Monitoring

    In addition to limits on effluent releases, plant operators maintain an environmental monitoring program that is reviewed and inspected regularly by NRC to ensure compliance with its requirements. To demonstrate that the plant is within the regulatory limits, operators regularly sample and analyze the surrounding soil, vegetation, cow’s milk, and water. In a given year, a plant operator samples and analyzes hundreds of environmental samples. The results of environmental monitoring and assessment efforts are provided to the NRC in an annual report, which is available to the public.

    It is reasonable to conclude that Sr-90 would be seen in the environment well before it is seen in baby teeth. In order for it to be in the environment from nuclear power plants, it would have to be seen in significant quantities in the effluent stream from these facilities. However, Sr-90 is not present in the effluents at such levels.
    Studies Examining Health Effects Around Nuclear Power Plants

    In 1990, at the request of Congress, the National Cancer Institute7 conducted a study of cancer mortality rates around 52 nuclear power plants and 10 other nuclear facilities. The study covered the period from 1950 to 1984, and evaluated the change in mortality rates before and during facility operations. The study concluded there was no evidence that nuclear facilities may be linked causally with excess deaths from leukemia or from other cancers in populations living nearby.

    In June 2000, investigators from the University of Pittsburgh8 found no link between radiation released during the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island power plant and cancer deaths among nearby residents. Their study followed 32,000 people who lived within five miles of the plant at the time of the accident.

    The Connecticut Academy of Sciences and Engineering9, in January 2001, issued a report on a study around the Haddam Neck nuclear power plant in Connecticut and concluded radiation emissions were so low as to be negligible.

    The American Cancer Society10 in 2001 concluded that although reports about cancer clusters in some communities have raised public concern, studies show that clusters do not occur more often near nuclear plants than they do by chance elsewhere in the population. Likewise, there is no evidence that links Sr-90 with increases in breast cancer, prostate cancer, or childhood cancer rates. Radiation emissions from nuclear power plants are closely controlled and involve negligible levels of exposure for nearby communities.

    Also in 2001, the Florida Bureau of Environmental Epidemiology11 reviewed claims that there are striking increases in cancer rates in southeastern Florida counties caused by increased radiation exposures from nuclear power plants. However, using the same data to reconstruct the calculations on which the claims were based, Florida officials were not able to identify unusually high rates of cancers in these counties compared with the rest of the state of Florida and the nation.

    In 2000, the Illinois Public Health Department12 compared childhood cancer statistics for counties with nuclear power plants to similar counties without nuclear plants and found no statistically significant difference.
    Measuring Radioactive Substances in People

    Interpreting measurements of radioactive material in people is difficult unless one knows what each individual was exposed to, when the exposures occurred, and by what routes they occurred (ingestion, inhalation, etc.). In particular for Sr-90, dietary contributions from foodstuffs produced out of the region must be considered. Also, fallout in soil across the U.S. is not uniform. Rainfall, wind direction and soil composition all affect the levels of Sr-90 in soil. Finally, migration must be accounted for, because people may have lived and acquired radionuclides from a number of geographic locations that are not near a nuclear power plant. In addition, radioactive substances may come from a variety of sources. In the case of Sr-90, the primary source has always been fallout from atmospheric weapons tests (UNSCEAR 2001).
    Cause-and-Effect Relationships and Scientific Methodology

    Authors of the Radiation Public Health Project reports have stated or implied that claimed statistical associations between cancer rates and reactor operations are cause-and-effect relationships. However, statistical association alone does not prove causation, and well-established scientific methods must be used to determine that for two things that appear to be associated over time, it can be concluded that one causes the other.

    A simple example helps illustrate this point. A college professor gives the following example of a causal inference: “In the winter I wear boots. In the winter I get colds. Therefore, boots cause colds.” A strong statistical association exists between wearing boots and the health effect of colds. There is, however, an argument about whether boots cause colds.

    There are principles of good science that are recognized by the scientific community such as whether a study can be replicated; whether it has considered all data or was it selective (e.g., in the population or in the years studied); whether a study evaluated all possible explanations for the observations; was the data used evaluated for validity and reliability; and whether the study’s conclusions were subjected to independent peer review, evaluation and confirmation.

    There are a number of questions about the Health Project studies with regard to methodology, assumptions, and conclusions. Generally, these studies have not followed good scientific principles. Frequently, they have

    * not established control populations for study;
    * not examined the impacts of other risk factors;
    * used very small sample sizes to draw general conclusions;
    * not performed environmental sampling and analysis;
    * selectively chosen to ignore data in certain geographic locations or during certain periods of time because they did not “fit”;
    * not subjected their data to the independent peer review of the scientific community as a whole; and
    * used an incorrect half-life for Sr-90 which gives a false impression that strontium levels in the environment are decaying more rapidly than in baby teeth.

    The evaluation of health effects from exposure to radiation is an ongoing activity of the NRC’s involving public, private and international institutions. The NRC routinely seeks out new scientific information that might reveal health and safety concerns. It reviews independent studies of nuclear safety issues and embraces opportunities to inform the public about the results of such reviews. Based on all the preceding discussion, NRC finds there is little or no credibility in the studies published by the Radiation Public Health Project.

    Key Points

    The Radiation Public Health Project (RPHP) has conducted a number of studies claiming radioactive strontium-90 (Sr-90) in the environment is responsible for increases in cancers.

    One of the RPHP’s studies, sometimes referred to as the  Tooth Fairy Project,  reported that Sr-90 concentrations in baby teeth are higher in areas around nuclear power plants than in other areas.

    Numerous peer-reviewed scientific studies do not support the RPHP’s claims. NRC finds there is little or no credibility in the RHP’s studies.

    Approximately 99% of Sr-90 in the environment came from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. The second largest source of Sr-90 in the environment was the Chernobyl accident.

    The amount of Sr-90 from all commercial nuclear power plants is a tiny fraction of the amount from Chernobyl.

    The estimated radiation dose from all sources of Sr-90 in the environment is approximately 0.3% of the dose that the average person in the United States receives from natural background radiation. These dose levels are well below the levels that are known to cause any health effects.

    The NRC requires nuclear power plant licensees to monitor the releases of radioactivity from their facilities to the environment and to annually report these releases to the NRC. Additionally, these licensees are required to monitor the environment around their facilities and report results annually to NRC. The NRC routinely inspects these aspects of nuclear power plant licensee performance.

    December 2004

    Footnotes

    1. J. M. Gould, E. J. Sternglass, J. D. Sherman, J. Brown, W. McDonnell, and J. J. Mangano, 2000. “Strontium-90 in Deciduous Teeth as a Factor in Early Childhood Cancer.” International Journal of Health Services. Vol. 30, No. 3; and Mangano, J. et al., 2003 “An Unexpected Rise in Strontium-90 in US Deciduous Teeth in the 1990s.” The Science of the Total Environment, Elsevier Press.

    2. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 2001. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation: UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Vol. I: Sources. United Nations, New York.

    3. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), 1991. Some Aspects of Strontium Radiobiology. Report No. 110, NCRP Publications, Bethesda, Maryland, 1991.

    4. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Vol. 1: Sources. United Nations, New York.

    5. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), 1991. NUREG/CR-2907, Vol.12. Radioactive Materials Released from Nuclear Power Plants, Annual Report.

    6. O. G. Raabe, 1994.  Three-Dimensional Models of Risk From Internally Deposited Radionuclides.  Chapter 30 in Internal Radiation Dosimetry, ed. O. G. Raabe, pp. 633-658. Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, Wisconsin.

    7. National Cancer Institute (NCI), 1990. Cancer in Populations Living near Nuclear Facilities. Bethesda, Maryland.

    8. University of Pittsburgh, June 2000.

    9. Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering, Spring 2001. Bulletin of the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering, Volume 16.2.

    10. American Cancer Society (ACS), 2001c. “1998 Facts & Figures. Environmental Cancer Risks.” Accessed online: http://www.cancer.org/statistics/cff98/enviromental.html Exit Icon.

    11. Florida Department of Health (FDOH), July 17, 2001. Report Concerning Cancer Rate in Southeastern Florida. Bureau of Environmental Epidemiology, Division of Environmental Health, Tallahassee, Florida.

    12. Illinois Department of Public Health, Fall 2000. Health and Hazardous Substances Registry Newsletter, Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Epidemiologic Studies, 605 W. Jefferson St., Springfield, Illinois.

    Suggested References for Further Study

    American Cancer Society (ACS), 2001b. “Prostate Cancer.”

    Eisenbud, M., 1987. Environmental Radioactivity, 3rd Edition. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

    Federal Focus Inc., 1996. Principles for Evaluating Epidemiologic Data in Regulatory Risk Assessment. Developed by an Expert Panel at a Conference in Long, England, October 1995. Available at http://www.pnl.gov/berc/epub/risk/index.html Exit Icon. Federal Focus, Inc., Washington, D.C.

    Gawande, A., 1999.  The Cancer-Cluster Myth.  The New Yorker LXXIV(45):34-37.

    Georgia Department of Human Resources (GADOH), Division of Public Health, Epidemiology and Prevention Branch, Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 1997. The Challenge of Change: A Mid-Decade Look at Maternal and Child Health in Georgia, Publication Number DPH97.53HW.

    Hill A. B., 1965.  The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?  Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58:295-300.

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), 1991.  1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.” (ICRP Publication No. 60) Annals of the ICRP 21(1-3), Pergamon Press, New York.

    National Cancer Institute (NCI), 2001. “Is There a Cancer ‘Epidemic’?” Accessed online: http://press2.nci.nih.gov/sciencebehind/cancer/cancer62.htm Exit Icon.

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). 1993. Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. Report No. 116, NCRP Publications, Bethesda, Maryland.
    National Research Council, 1990. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR V).

    National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Neutra, R. R., 1990.  Counterpoint from a cluster buster.  Am. J. Epidemiol. 132(1):1-8.

    Norman, G. and D. Streiner, 2000. Biostatistics. BC Decker, Inc. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    Omenn, G. S., A. C. Kessler, N. T. Anderson, P. Y. Chiu, J. Doull, B. Goldstein, J. Lederberg, S. McGuire, D. Rall, and VV. Weldon, 1997. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. Final Report, Vol. 1. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

    Page, R., G. Cole, and T. Timmreck, 1995. Basic Epidemiological Methods and Biostatistics. Jones and Bartlestt Publishers, Sudbury, MA

    Reynolds, P., D. F. Smith, E. Satariano, D. O. Nelson, L. R. Goldman, and R. R. Neutra, 1996.  The Four County Study of Childhood Cancer: Clusters in Context.  Statistics in Medicine 15(7-9):683-697.

    Sturgeon, S. R., C. Schairer, M. Gail, M. McAdams, L. A. Brinton, and R. N. Hoover, 1995. “Geographic Variation in Mortality from Breast Cancer among White Women in the United States.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 87:1846-1853.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1987.  Radiation Protection Guidance to Federal Agencies for Occupational Exposure.  Federal Register 52(17):2822-2834.

    http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/tooth-fairy.html

    ***

    Caucasus | 29.06.2009
    In Caucasus, EU monitors must deal with tensions alone

    South Ossetian separatist fighters
    Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Experts are warning of volatility in the separatist regions
    In the conflict-prone Caucasus, concern is mounting about a security vacuum following the end of the UN and OSCE’s observer missions. Just 200 EU monitors are left, and they’re facing a volatile situation.

    Territorial tensions in the Caucasus have a long and tangled history, but since the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia and Georgia have been repeatedly at odds over the breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. It’s not surprising, then, that several international observer and military missions have been active in the region.

    The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has had a mission in Georgia since 1992 to promote negotiations between conflicting parties and reach a peaceful political settlement. In 1993, the United Nations created UNOMIG, a military observer mission to verify compliance with a 1993 ceasefire agreement between Georgian and Abkhaz authorities.

    OSCE vehicle in GeorgiaBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift:  The OSCE’s mandate expires on June 30

    Tensions again came to a head in August 2008 when Georgia launched a short but bloody attack on South Ossetia. Russia, which has long supported the province’s claims to independence, responded by pouring thousands of troops into South Ossetia. Georgian troops were forced out of South Ossetia and Abkhazia in a matter of days, with Russian troops also occupying parts of Georgia.

    Under the ceasefire brokered with the help of then-EU president Nicolas Sarkozy, Russia agreed to pull its troops back into South Ossetia and Abkhazia, but was repeatedly accused by Western nations of failing to abide by the truce deal. Adding fuel to the fire, Russia officially recognized the independence of the breakaway provinces, a move strongly condemned by the West, which maintains that the provinces are part of Georgia.

    OSCE mandate expires June 30

    As a result, the European Union sent a team of 200 observers to Georgia to monitor compliance with the Six-Point Ceasefire Agreement. Their one-year mandate began on Oct.1, 2008.

    The EU monitors had been working in close cooperation with the OSCE and UN missions, but now, the situation has changed dramatically.

    Bildunterschrift:

    The OSCE’s main mission to Georgia expired at the end of 2008, but the organization continued to be represented by 20 unarmed military monitors on a mandate that expires on June 30. Russia has scuppered negotiations on extending their mandate, and has denied them access to South Ossetia since the war.

    Earlier this month, Russia also vetoed the extension of the UN mission in Georgia. The UN team had been monitoring the ceasefire along the border between Georgia and Abkhazia since the end of the war.

    UN mission head Johan Verbeke said Russia’s veto would undermine stability in Abkhazia, leaving some 60,000 ethnic Georgians there unprotected.

    We’ve contributed to ensuring that the population in Abkhazia had a secure environment in which to operate,  Verbeke told Deutsche Welle.  I think this mission did effectively contribute to peace and security.

    Veil of secrecy

    Now, that hard-won security is at stake. With the departure of the OSCE and UN observers, the EU has been left alone with around 200 monitors, who are unable to enter either South Ossetia or Abkhazia.

    In sum, Russia has blinded the international community to what it is doing in the occupied Georgian territories,  David J. Smith, director of the Georgian Security Analysis Center wrote on Georgiandaily.com, an independent English-language website based in New York.  Behind its veil of secrecy, Russia can continue to strengthen military logistics, perhaps preparing another armed attack on the rest of Georgia.

    A column of Russian armored vehicles, headed towards the breakaway republic of South Ossetia’s capital Tskhinvali, is seen in North Ossetia, Russia, Friday, Aug. 8, 2008Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift:  The international community is concerned about Russia’s activities in South Ossetia
    In a recent briefing, the International Crisis Group, a Brussels-based think tank, also expressed its view that  the lack of an effective security regime in and around the conflict zones of South Ossetia and Abkhazia create a dangerous atmosphere in which extensive fighting could again erupt.

    Crisis Group called on Russia to  re-engage fully in discussions with the Security Council  in order to move past its June 15 veto and find a continued role for the UN in Georgia. It also called on the EU and other international organizations to invest the EU mission with an expanded role to address the situation on the ground.

    The head of the EU mission, Joerg Haber, is nonetheless confident that his team will be able to carry out its task of furthering stability in the region and patrolling the border to South Ossetia, despite the loss of the OSCE and UN observers.

    We have enough people and vehicles to patrol the area and continue our work,  Haber told Deutsche Welle.  Our mandate is not the same as those of the OSCE and the UN. The OSCE had broader powers than us, and the UN mission was mainly a mission of military observers. That’s different to what we do, but I think we’re well positioned to safeguard security here.

    Haber added that he expects the EU member states to extend the mission in Georgia by another year at the end of July.

    Author: Deanne Corbett

    Editor: Rob Mudge

    0,,3548014_1,00.jpg

    http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4435199,00.html

    ***

    Ukrainian, Russian foreign ministers discuss Azov, Black Sea delimitation
    Yesterday, 19:56 | Interfax-Ukraine

    Ukrainian, Russian foreign ministers discuss Azov, Black Sea delimitation
    Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov
    Ukraine’s Acting Foreign Minister Volodymyr Khandohiy has met with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov on the sidelines of a meeting of foreign ministers of the OSCE member-states on the Greek Island of Corfu on Sunday.

    The parties exchanged opinions concerning the talks on the delimitation of the Sea of Azov, the Black Sea and Kerch Strait with regard to the results of the 31st round of meetings of the delegation of Ukraine and Russia, which took place in Moscow on June 16-17, the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry’s press service said.

    Besides, Khandohiy and Lavrov discussed the preparations to another meeting of the heads of the two states’ foreign ministries with the participation of governors of border regions, representatives of ministries and agencies of the two states slated for this year in Kharkiv.

    The ministers also spoke about holding the third meeting of the subcommittee for international cooperation of the Ukrainian-Russian interstate commission.
    The Kyiv Post is hosting comments and forums to foster lively debate. Criticism is fine, but stick to the issues. Comments that include profanity or personal attacks will be removed from the site. If you think that a posted comment violates these standards, please flag it and alert us. We will take steps to block violators.
    Please sign in or register to add a new comment

    http://www.kyivpost.com/nation/44353

    ***

    Britain cannot afford £5bn aircraft carriers, says former forces chief

    Lord Guthrie questions government’s plan to build two large and ‘enormously expensive’ ships
    Tuesday, 30 June 2009

    A former head of the armed forces has questioned the government’s plan to build two large aircraft carriers for the navy, now estimated to cost £5bn, and made clear that in his view the country could not afford them. Lord Guthrie, chief of defence staff when Labour came to power in 1997, described the two ships – which would be the biggest the navy has had – as  enormously expensive .

    A leaked memorandum by the consortium that would build the ships revealed on Monday that they were already running £1bn over budget, a 25% increase on the original estimated cost of £3.9bn.

    Can we really afford to do that?  Guthrie asked.  Are there other, better ways of delivering sea power, maybe with more frigates? How good are aircraft carriers at chasing Somali pirates in the Gulf of Aden? Does the navy really want to get locked up in two great aircraft carriers – its manning of it and its funding of it?

    Guthrie was speaking at the launch of a report of the Institute for Public Policy Research thinktank’s national security commission. A fresh defence review would have to consider the whole range of military capabilities, including whether the army had too many tanks and not enough  boots on the ground , he said.

    If we are more likely to be involved in counter-insurgency than during the cold war, then presumably people are needed more than bombs,  he added.

    Lord Ashdown, former Liberal Democrat leader and a chairman of the IPPR commission, said Nato-led forces in Afghanistan were losing the struggle against the Taliban. He said it was a scandal that British troops were dying because of a failure of international co-ordination.

    We are on the way to losing here,  he said.  The real scandal of Afghanistan is not that they haven’t got the right boots or the right helicopters. It is that our young men are dying out there because our politicians won’t get their act together.  Guthrie criticised national restrictions imposed by some Nato allies in Afghanistan:  Some do not go out at night.  Ashdown said he believed there was now a £9bn  black hole  in the Ministry of Defence’s annual budget of £36bn.  My own view is that this is absolutely monstrous.

    The IPPR report says Britain can no longer afford to deliver a  full spectrum . It says Britain should maintain a  minimum credible independent nuclear deterrent , adding that a decision about replacing the existing fleet of Trident submarines need not, and should not, be taken until 2014.

    guardian.co.uk © Guardian News and Media 2009

    http://u.tv/News/Britain-cannot-afford-%C2%A35bn-aircraft-carriers-says-former-forces-chief/a8e9cbdc-7f0a-43dc-a268-1ea208bfe100

    ***

    http://af.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idAFTRE55S2HS20090629

    Russia starts large-scale war games, Georgia fumes
    Mon Jun 29, 2009 2:25pm GMT

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    By Dmitry Solovyov

    MOSCOW (Reuters) – Russia launched large-scale military exercises involving thousands of troops across parts of its southern regions on Monday which Georgia said would violate its territory.

    The Defence Ministry said the sweep of the week-long  Caucasus 2009  manoeuvres would include the volatile, mainly-Muslim regions of Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia – continuing focus of rebel groups seeking to prize the area from Moscow’s control.

    Moscow sees the Caucasus mountains area as a strategically vital zone, the approach to prime agricultural and industrial regions and an important energy transit route. The Kremlin views any challenge here as a threat to the overall security and unity of a vast country stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific.

    A senior Russian general said the manoeuvres would involve Russian troops stationed in the Georgian breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, though the extent of their participation was not clear.

    Similar Russian exercises in the same region last August allowed Moscow to send troops and tanks into Georgia quickly to repel government troops who tried to retake South Ossetia. The brief war raised fears in the West over security of gas transit routes from the Caspian Sea to western Europe.

    The manoeuvres will involve 8,500 military personnel, 200 tanks, 450 armoured vehicles and 250 pieces of artillery.

    Russian President Dmitry Medvedev criticised NATO for holding exercises close to the war zone in Georgia in May, saying they fuelled tension in the region. An annual event, the Russian exercises were planned before the NATO war games.

    We are holding these exercises to boost the country’s defence where it is being threatened,  Dmitry Rogozin, Russian envoy to NATO, said in a video link with Moscow journalists.

    We will hold such exercises irrespective of NATO schedules. If we consider it important to strengthen our combat readiness on our sovereign territory, we will continue doing so.

    The exercises will include  drills by troops simulating a tense situation gradually escalating from a crisis into an armed conflict,  the Defence Ministry said.

    PURE PROVOCATION

    Alexander Nalbandov, a Georgian deputy foreign minister, described the exercises as a  a pure provocation from Russia.

    The fact that the exercises are held not just on Russian territory, but on Georgia’s occupied territory, with the participation of thousands of soldiers and the involvement of so much military hardware, makes this situation even worse,  he told Reuters.
    The Russian exercises — which will include anti-terrorism drills — were launched two days after NATO and Russia resumed formal cooperation for the first time since last August’s war.

    Russian forces have largely quelled a rebellion in the region of Chechnya after two wars, but rebels launch sporadic attacks there and in the neighbouring areas of Ingushetia and Dagestan. Last week the Kremlin-appointed president of Ingushetia, Yunus-Bek Yevkurov, was severely wounded in an assassination attempt claimed by a Chechen group.

    The exercises are due to end on July 6 when U.S. President Barack Obama arrives in Moscow for summit talks with Medvedev.

    General Vladimir Boldyrev, commander of Russia’s Ground Forces, was quoted by Izvestia newspaper as saying the exercises would involve military bases in South Ossetia and Abkhazia, which Russia has now recognized as independent of Georgia.

    He did not say what part they would play.

    Rogozin said he knew that a number of countries continued to supply Georgia with weapons, including offensive ones. Russia had earlier accused Ukraine and the United States of arming Georgia, allowing its army to reach its pre-war strength.

    We hope that despite a lack of proper security guarantees for Abkhazia and South Ossetia, Georgia’s leadership will drop its military adventurism towards these republics,  Rogozin said.

    Because after each such military escapade Georgia’s territory risks to get smaller and smaller.

    (Additional reporting by Margarita Antidze in Tbilisi)

    (Reporting by Dmitry Solovyov; Editing by Ralph Boulton)

    © Thomson Reuters 2009 All rights reserved

    ***

    A senior Russian general said the manoeuvres would involve Russian troops stationed in the Georgian breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, though the extent of their participation was not clear.

    ***

    In Black Sea port, Ukraine is sovereign, but Russia rules
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    By Tom Lasseter | McClatchy Newspapers

    SEVASTOPOL, Ukraine — As the Kremlin seeks to reassert its sphere of influence around its borders and beyond, this home port for Russia’s Black Sea fleet — marooned in the south of Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union — has moved to the center of tensions between Russia and U.S. allies in the region.

    Some Ukrainian politicians worry that Russia will stoke anti-Western sentiments in Sevastopol and cities around it on the Crimean peninsula to create an opportunity to annex the area, the same way Moscow did with two breakaway provinces in Georgia last month, or at least use its considerable influence here to push the central government in Kiev to drop plans to join the European Union and NATO.

    Either move would heighten the rising tensions between Russia and the United States, which have returned to Cold War levels over the past year.

    Georgia and Ukraine, with American backing, angered the Russian leadership with their NATO aspirations. If they were to join, Russia’s Black Sea coastline would be surrounded by members of the military organization.

    Sergei Zayats, the administrator of Sevastopol’s largest district, said he thought the Russians would be willing to resort to force to keep their ships docked in Crimea, where their fleet has operated since the 1780s.  The events in Georgia show that this may happen at any time,  said Zayats, who was appointed by Kiev.

    Russia has said it has no plans along those lines.

    This is a myth brought to you from other countries that Crimea will be next,  Vsevolod Loskutov, the number two man in the Russian Embassy to Ukraine, told journalists last week.  Both Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin have repeated many times that we highlight our respect to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine.

    The tension over Crimea is complicated by the intertwined histories of Ukraine and Russia.

    The region belonged to Russia until 1954, when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev handed it over to Ukraine. At the time, the difference was largely semantic, but when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, many in Crimea would have rather not become part of an independent Ukraine.

    In interviews on the streets of Sevastopol, college students, engineers and housewives alike said they sympathized with Russia far more than with Viktor Yushchenko, Ukraine’s pro-Western president. Any move to join NATO, they said, almost certainly would lead to a backlash.

    The majority of people here are against NATO,  said Viktor Kiselyov, a local artist.  The reason is that NATO is confronting Russia, and Russia is us.

    To smooth over the differences, Ukraine has allowed the region to become a semi-autonomous republic, bound by Ukrainian law but largely self-governed.

    Earlier this year, Russian state news wires carried quotes by a senior member of the lower house of parliament in Moscow suggesting that Khrushchev’s decision might be revisited.

    If Ukraine’s admission to NATO is accelerated, Russia could raise the question of which country the Crimea should be a part of,  Alexei Ostrovsky, the head of the Duma’s committee on regional political affairs, was quoted as saying in April.  The Russian Federation has legal grounds to revise agreements signed under Khrushchev.

    While the Russian government denies issuing passports to residents of Crimea, a tactic used in Georgia to bolster claims that the Kremlin had to save its citizens there, the prosecutor’s office in Sevastopol says that an investigation that started two months ago already has found 1,500 residents with both Russian and Ukrainian passports, in violation of Ukrainian law.

    Some of those passports were from the early 1990s, when the question of statehood was unclear, but others were issued during the past few years, said Alexander Rubstov, an official in the prosecutor’s office, who didn’t say how many passports fell into each of those categories. Rubstov said the inquiry in the city of about 430,000 residents still had a long way to go, and the numbers could rise.

    Roman Zvarych, a top official in Yushchenko’s Our Ukraine party, said he thought Russia had passed out  something in the neighborhood of several tens of thousands  of passports in Crimea, a charge Moscow has denied.

    What happens if in the Crimea these people carrying dual citizenship all of a sudden start saying they want to join Russia?  Zvarych asked in an interview in his Kiev office.  We would have to clamp down to ensure our territorial sovereignty.

    That, he said, would give Russia an opening to exert serious diplomatic or military pressure.

    By treaty, the fleet is supposed to leave Sevastopol and the rest of Crimea by 2017, but the Russian navy has shown little sign that it’s planning to do so.

    During a recent news media tour organized by the Kremlin, naval officers showed off ships that dated to the early 1980s and earlier, and a massive artillery battery that last fired about half a century ago. While the equipment paled in comparison with modern Western militaries, it would be more than enough to ensure that the Ukrainians couldn’t force the Russians to vacate.

    Giving up Crimea would  be like a defeat in battle,  said Capt. Igor Dygalo, a chief navy spokesman. Rear Adm. Andrei Baranov, the deputy commander of the fleet, said his government would honor legal obligations but added that:  History can’t be crossed out.

    Suggestions that Ukraine may want the fleet to leave sooner — a potentially crucial step in its NATO efforts — have been ignored. Ukrainian court orders to hand over control of more than 70 lighthouses, antennae stations and navigational sites in Crimea and nearby areas also have been brushed aside.

    To draw any line here to issue an order to leave, this is very difficult,  Dygalo said.  What do you expect us to say now? That we shall leave? But this is not true.

    On the second day of the Kremlin media tour in Sevastopol, two Orthodox priests led a group of reporters around a church dedicated to fallen sailors from the Russian fleet. They were careful to say that Russia and the U.S.-backed Ukrainian government should live in peace and understanding.

    But by the third or fourth shot of vodka during a round of toasts at lunch, Father Igor Bebin stood up and said that during the Crimean War about 150 years ago,  the West shuddered when Russia showed them the sword and the Black Sea turned red with blood.

    And now, Bebin said in a thundering voice, the sword of Russia was finally shining once again. The Russian naval officers standing beside him shouted in agreement.

    MORE FROM MCCLATCHY

    Russian leaders talk big, but army and economy are weak

    Kremlin-watchers warn of direct U.S.-Russia clash

    Ukrainians wonder what Georgia crisis means for them

    Russian parliament recognizes breakaway Georgian enclaves
    McClatchy Newspapers 2008

    http://www.mcclatchydc.com/homepage/story/52808.html

    &***&

    “And now, Bebin said in a thundering voice, the sword of Russia was finally shining once again. The Russian naval officers standing beside him shouted in agreement.”
    Important Quote – from story above – especially in light of recent involvements – russia caucasus

    ***

    I understand that however I wish to point this out to you the crusades were started on the same principle of Christianity being the only correct religion. Many have been killed in the name of god and Jesus. We know that now the basis of Jesus’s word to the masses was not to worship him, but that through him you would have a relationship with his father and only through god’s love can you enter the kingdom.
    Jesus himself preached love for all no matter what or who they were. Fault not the witch for she cannot help what she is, just as a leper cannot help who he is…. word of god

    I don’t think or believe that others are suppose to be involved in the relationship between you and god and I do not believe that once you have accepted the word that others should judge that relationship either, because as you judge you yourself are judge with the same measure. I do believe that priest are suppose to help strengthen, promote and help you with your path towards such but at the end of the day no one is suppose to force your hand in the relationship between you and god.

    No one is perfect, that much is fact. Everyday we lie, screw up, and basically try to be decent people but that doesn’t always happen. Hence why its called Human Nature, and if god can forgive murders…by the way Moses was a murder and a pagen (Egyptian Prince), Abraham committed Adultery, Jacob stole from his brother and lied to his father. The Bible is filled with these things to show God’s compassion and mercy as well as his anger and wrath. Yet at no point does he ever say  onto you to force and beat into submission those that differ from you in religion, views, or choice, and destroy those who refuse to listen or converse with me.

    People are willing to look at certain parts of the Bible and Ignore the others. While the basic principle he has always tried to get across to us is seemingly lost. Help thy brother, neighbor or friend, no matter who or what they are. Love thy enemy as you love thy self. good will, decency, love for all of God’s creatures and things, and to promote the word of God with out the Hate and ugliness that is within the human scope of things.

    help who you can and keep faith in god no matter what because things will work out in the end, its darkest before the dawn and even when Job lost everything he never lost faith. He didn’t even go out and take out his anger and frustration on the theives that took the things from him, or the land that didn’t produce the food. He kept working and kept faith, in the end he was rewarded.

    That is what I want with people, accept others as God accepts his creatures, and love for all no matter what. For its not my place to judge others, just to help them on their way, God will work out the rest. Respect , acknowledgment, love and equality is how we start with that.

    **
    true, but this is the other thing, god also made consequences, and i think thats what fuels the fire of some, that they want people to follow gods rules so much and to go to heaven so much that they forget that the most important basis of christianity is love and that its the only way that they are saved at all or and it’s the only way that they are going to heaven, by jesus’ love, ya know?

    **

    http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK+Library+and+Museum/Visit+the+Library+and+Museum/Museum+Exhibits/Moon+Shot+-+JFK+and+Space+Exploration.htm

    http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK+Library+and+Museum/Visit+the+Library+and+Museum/Museum+Exhibits/Moon+Shot+-+JFK+and+Space+Exploration.htm

    40th Anniversary
    Moon Shot – JFK and Space Exploration
    May 16, 2009 – May 30, 2010

    “We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win . . . ”
    –President John F. Kennedy, address at Rice University, September 12, 1962

    JFK Presidential Library Launches New Site That Invites the World On Board Apollo 11 — 40 Years Later.

    Moon Shot – JFK and Space Exploration  — A special new exhibit marking 40th anniversary of Moon Landing now on display.

    [From – ]

    http://jfklibrary.org/

    ***

    My Note –

    It is easy for me to remember – July 20 is my birthday . . .
    (and on my 11th birthday – Apollo 11 landed on the moon )

    – cricketdiane

    On May 25, 1961, he urged the nation to make that commitment. He appealed to the spirit of adventure, to patriotic pride, and to the cause of freedom.  America responded with one of the greatest mobilizations of resources and manpower in U.S. history. Eight years later, on July 20, 1969, two American astronauts walked on the Moon. It was a stunning achievement that boosted American confidence and prestige at home and around the world.

    Though he didn’t live to see it happen, it was JFK who harnessed America’s energies to the goal of sending a man to the Moon and returning him safely to Earth. This exhibit focuses on the elements that combined to achieve that success: the grand vision and hard science—the imagination and engineering—the poetry and power that characterized so much of the Kennedy Presidency.

    ***

    Dress the Set With Tears: It’s a Wrap
    Marissa Roth for The New York Times

    A sign of the recession: 20th Century Props is set to close. More Photos >

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    By BROOKS BARNES
    Published: June 17, 2009

    NORTH HOLLYWOOD, Calif. — The rattan sofa from “The Golden Girls” awaits its next role from a shelf deep inside the 20th Century Props warehouse here. Nearby is the futuristic shower Tom Cruise used in “Minority Report” and an armchair that starred with Marilyn Monroe in multiple films. Overhead: Art Deco chandeliers from “The Aviator.”
    Skip to next paragraph
    Multimedia
    A Prop Shop StopsSlide Show
    A Prop Shop Stops
    Related
    Marissa Roth for The New York Times

    20th Century Props serves Hollywood with items like the alien from “The X-Files.” More Photos »

    On Tuesday, Harvey Schwartz stood amid it all, in tears, wondering how his prop shop, which offers a vast inventory of items to be used in film and television productions, became the latest victim of a rapidly changing Hollywood.

    Mr. Schwartz, the owner of 20th Century Props, plans to go out of business next month and auction the inventory. Battered by the surge in out-of-state movie production and the demise of scripted programming on network television, the once-thriving business — one of a handful of its type remaining — is failing.

    “I ran out of money three months ago, and I don’t know what else to do,” he said softly. “It’s terrifying. I’ve devoted my entire life to something that is over.”

    Set decorators are equally upset. “The closing of 20th Century is a disaster for us,” said Melinda Ritz, who won three Emmy Awards for her work on “Will & Grace.” “Harvey is a great person, and it’s one fewer place that offers one-stop shopping.” She added, “The fabric of Hollywood is fraying so fast that it’s scary.”

    Not long ago all movie and television studios operated their own prop houses. A dozen independent companies did a brisk business filling in the gaps — an unusual medical device here, a 1960s-era radio there. Outside prop suppliers like 20th Century also handled commercials and period needs (Mr. Schwartz has a large inventory of Art Deco items) along with special events like lavishly decorated premiere parties.

    Studios started gutting their prop departments in the 1990s to free space on their lots. Mr. Schwartz’s inventory — at last count 93,752 items, ranging from teacups to a life-size submarine — includes the former holdings of 20th Century Fox, for instance. Walt Disney and Paramount have also jettisoned their props divisions. (Sony, Universal and Warner Brothers are the holdouts, and they’re open to outside clients.)

    Independents like Mr. Schwartz and Omega Cinema Props stayed healthy — despite runaway production and the rise of reality television — largely because of special-events divisions. Such events made up a third of the revenue at 20th Century Props just two years ago, Mr. Schwartz said.

    But the recession has turned off that spigot. Add in a strike last year by movie and television writers and a continued slowdown in production caused by a threatened actors’ strike, and 20th Century Props could no longer stay afloat.

    Mr. Schwartz said annual revenue was off by 30 percent last year; so far this year the figure is closer to 50 percent. He said he has been seeking a way to keep the collection together — via an investor or a sale to another prop company — but has so far come up short. The business had 28 employees at the beginning of the year; now it has 7.

    “I’m a dinosaur, I guess,” Mr. Schwartz said.

    Great American Group will liquidate the company’s inventory during the last week of July. The holdings are insured for about $8 million, but the value of many of the props is difficult to pin down because of the premium that memorabilia collectors will likely pay for better-known items.

    “He’s got a collector’s eye and has developed an inventory unlike anybody else’s,” Ms. Ritz said of Mr. Schwartz. “He’s got quirky, interesting pieces.”

    Mr. Schwartz is a bit quirky himself. Trained as an aerospace engineer, he decided to go into the furniture business in the early 1970s, opening a small store near Beverly Hills and CBS Television City, a cluster of studios that is now home to shows like “American Idol.”

    He developed a fondness for rattan (“Among other reasons, it was furniture I could lift by myself,” he said) and became an expert. He was an author of a 1999 book titled “Rattan Furniture: Tropical Comfort Throughout the House.” He favors his shirts unbuttoned to about midchest and has a habit of hanging his reading glasses there.

    “I’m a little bit bananas, I know,” he said.

    Walking through the 200,000-square-foot warehouse, which is hunkered amid a smattering of auto repair shops and porno stores in this seedy San Fernando Valley suburb, Mr. Schwartz comes off as the curator of a museum that just happens to rent out its treasures.

    “Beyoncé has danced in this,” he said, motioning to a giant plastic Champagne glass. “See that chair way back there? Claudette Colbert sat in that in ‘Cleopatra,’ the 1934 version.” He paused to point out curved desks used at Ewing Oil on “Dallas” — he’s not certain if J. R. sat at one of them — and led a visitor through a maze of macabre items (jars filled with pickled piglets) to the spot where the morgue from “The X-Files” awaits another adventure.

    Some of 20th Century’s holdings are antiques with famous provenances outside of the movies. For instance Mr. Schwartz claims to have Merv Griffin’s office chair and a giant Art Deco desk once owned by Howard Hughes (and subsequently used in “The Aviator”).
    What are the most frequently rented items? Certain dining room chairs have gone out more than 500 times, Mr. Schwartz said. Also popular: a heart-shaped bed, which rents about twice a month. “We don’t ask too many questions with that one,” he said.

    http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/18/movies/18props.html

    http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2009/06/17/movies/20090617_PROP_SLIDESHOW_index.html

    http://www.incengine.org/incEngine/?content=main

    ****

    The brief version of what I have found about the causes of the current US economic crisis and similar matters of concern to citizens of the United States and around the World

    Tags

    , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

    (I know what’s made the country this way – we’ve had Jackasses and bimbos running the country, Kasha)
    ** My note –

    I found the intellectual crevasse into which the last thirty years of US administrations had fallen:
    “A limiting form of small central government as a system foundation is called, a monarchy.” – my quote

    A small central government means to let the sum total of power and access to manipulate resources rest in the hands of a few key people who act as autocratic dictators for all. Their decisions become the final arbitrator of all decisions, policies and choices emanating from them, such that if there is an inherent flaw in their thinking, knowledge, skills or policies, they become enacted throughout the system.

    That is a crevasse that moves as an acid into the very heart and foundation of the system to crumble it wherever it touches (goes).

    Not only is that not a democracy, it undermines the very tenets of that democracy including the rights, freedoms and security that were to be provided by that system and its foundation.

    It also precludes a free market economy because the decisions that maneuver and manipulate all resources rest in the hands of a few. It is isolationist and excluding in that resources and opportunities are restricted and driven by “favor,” rather than open and inclusive in the manner of a free market economy, a democracy and a Republic. It means that opportunities are driven not by supply, demand, necessity, innovation and  opportunity, but rather by the decisions and policies of the few who hold power. Therefore, the only opportunities that exist are underwritten and “granted” by those in power and denied to those that they would choose to deny.

    This is now the situation results that has ensued from operating in these ways. Attitudes of being untouchable and “entitled”, manipulations of policy choices, poor applications of stated and publicly claimed principles, unintended consequences resulting in deaths, deprivations, impoverishments and macro-economic instability and insecurity – these are all the direct results of this manner of government that has been undulating throughout the US and each of the States.

    It was based on a fallacy or two or three or a dozen, which in each case could not be resolved by the checks and balances originally put in place through the founding principles of our nation and secured by its Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Declarations.

    – cricketdiane, 03-13-09, USA

    ***
    “Unfortunately, we have a government run by the conceit of the ruling class that believes they are more powerful than we are.” (Lightly paraphrased) Antonin Scalia on FoxBusiness, 03-12-09

    ***

    Homeland Security

    A June 28, 2007 Washington Post article related how a U.S. Department of Homeland Security contract with Booz Allen increased from $2 million to more than $70 million through two no-bid contracts, one occurring after the DHS’s legal office had advised DHS not to continue the contract until after a review. A Government Accountability Office (GAO) report on the contract characterized it as not well-planned and lacking any measure for assuring valuable work to be completed.

    According to the article,
    A review of memos, e-mail and other contracting documents obtained by The Washington Post show that in a rush to meet congressional mandates to establish the information analysis and infrastructure protection offices, agency officials routinely waived rules designed to protect taxpayer money. As the project progressed, the department became so dependent on Booz Allen that it lost the flexibility for a time to seek out other contractors or hire federal employees who might do the job for less.

    Elaine C. Duke, the department’s chief procurement officer, acknowledged the problems with the Booz Allen contract. But Duke said those matters have been resolved. She defended a decision to issue a second no-bid contract in 2005 as necessary to keep an essential intelligence operation running until a competition could be held.[64]

    SWIFT

    In 2006 at the request of the Article 29 Working Group, an advisory group to the European Commission (EC), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Privacy International (PI) investigated the U.S. government’s SWIFT surveillance program and Booz Allen’s role therein. The ACLU and PI filed a memo at the end of their investigation which called into question the ethics and legality of a government contractor (in this case Booz Allen) acting as auditors of a government program, when that contractor is heavily involved with those same agencies on other contracts. The basic statement was that a conflict of interest may exist. Beyond that, the implication was also made that Booz Allen may be complicit in a program (electronic surveillance of SWIFT) that may be deemed illegal by the EC.[60][61]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booz_Allen_Hamilton

    ***

    Lacking Progress

    A Growing DNI

    When the 9/11 Commission first recommended the creation of a Director of National Intelligence, we specified that the organization should consist of a “several hundred.”  Since then, I understand that the number of DNI personnel has grown substantially beyond what we envisioned.

    There is no exact “magic number” beyond which growth in ODNI becomes  too large.  Excessive growth in the size of the DNI can indicate activities that threaten to undermine the goals of the position.  Part of the reason the Commission recommended a DNI was to eliminate the waste, redundancy and inefficiency associated with redundant activity across agencies.  Overlapping activities aren’t simply wasteful, but can reduce the effectiveness of intelligence at levels of the intelligence cycle, from collection to distribution.  We envisioned that the DNI would manage and coordinate these activities, involving itself as a coordinator and manager, rather than an executor.

    Contracting

    According to several recent reports, the number of contract personnel in the intelligence community has grown radically since 9/11.  Contracting in and of itself is not necessarily an indicator of problems.  When used correctly, it can increase the efficiency of non-inherently governmental functions and save taxpayers money.  However, several reports indicate that the scope of its practice, both within the intelligence community and ODNI itself, has outstripped the intended purpose.  A Senate investigation into community contracting found those working in contracted positions on average earn significantly larger than their governmental counterparts performing similar work.  Moreover, the excessive and ill-managed use of contractors can lead to breakdowns in accountability.

    The DNI has indicated that it plans to gain a better handle on the use of contract personnel.  Congress must make sure that the Director’s office develops an adequate definition of inherently governmental functions and rigorously adhere to it.  It should also make sure that the use of contract personnel, as with other employees, proceeds from well thought out plans to support defined goals.
    http://www.cnponline.org/ht/display/ContentDetails/i/2418

    ***

    Second Glass-Steagall Act

    The second Glass-Steagall Act, passed on 16 June 1933, and officially named the Banking Act of 1933, introduced the separation of bank types according to their business (commercial and investment banking), and it founded the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for insuring bank deposits. Literature in economics usually refers to this simply as the Glass-Steagall Act, since it had a stronger impact on US banking regulation.[8]

    Impact on other countries

    The Glass-Steagall Act has had influence on the financial systems of other areas such as China which maintains a separation between commercial banking and the securities industries.[9][10] Although in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008-9 this influence is waning[11]

    Repeal of the Act

    The bill that ultimately repealed the Act was introduced in the Senate by Phil Gramm (Republican of Texas) and in the House of Representatives by Jim Leach (R-Iowa) in 1999. The bills were passed by Republican majorities on party lines by a 54-44 vote in the Senate[12] and by a 343-86 vote in the House of Representatives[13]. After passing both the Senate and House the bill was moved to a conference committee to work out the differences between the Senate and House versions. The final bipartisan bill resolving the differences was passed in the Senate 90-8 (1 not voting) and in the House: 362-57 (15 not voting). Having majorities large enough to override any possible Presidential veto, the legislation was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 12, 1999. [14]

    The banking industry had been seeking the repeal of Glass-Steagall since at least the 1980s. In 1987 the Congressional Research Service prepared a report which explored the case for preserving Glass-Steagall and the case against preserving the act.[7]

    The argument for preserving Glass-Steagall (as written in 1987):

    1. Conflicts of interest characterize the granting of credit – lending – and the use of credit – investing – by the same entity, which led to abuses that originally produced the Act

    2. Depository institutions possess enormous financial power, by virtue of their control of other people’s money; its extent must be limited to ensure soundness and competition in the market for funds, whether loans or investments.

    3. Securities activities can be risky, leading to enormous losses. Such losses could threaten the integrity of deposits. In turn, the Government insures deposits and could be required to pay large sums if depository institutions were to collapse as the result of securities losses.

    4. Depository institutions are supposed to be managed to limit risk. Their managers thus may not be conditioned to operate prudently in more speculative securities businesses. An example is the crash of real estate investment trusts sponsored by bank holding companies (in the 1970s and 1980s).

    The argument against preserving the Act (as written in 1987):

    1. Depository institutions will now operate in “deregulated” financial markets in which distinctions between loans, securities, and deposits are not well drawn. They are losing market shares to securities firms that are not so strictly regulated, and to foreign financial institutions operating without much restriction from the Act.

    2. Conflicts of interest can be prevented by enforcing legislation against them, and by separating the lending and credit functions through forming distinctly separate subsidiaries of financial firms.

    3. The securities activities that depository institutions are seeking are both low-risk by their very nature, and would reduce the total risk of organizations offering them – by diversification.

    4. In much of the rest of the world, depository institutions operate simultaneously and successfully in both banking and securities markets. Lessons learned from their experience can be applied to our national financial structure and regulation.[7]
    Financial events following the repeal

    The repeal enabled commercial lenders such as Citigroup, which was in 1999 then the largest U.S. bank by assets, to underwrite and trade instruments such as mortgage-backed securities and collateralized debt obligations and establish so-called structured investment vehicles, or SIVs, that bought those securities.[15] It is therefore seen by some that the repeal of this act contributed to the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009.[16] However, such SIVs existed before the repeal of Glass-Steagall.[15]

    The year before the repeal, sub-prime loans were just 5% of all mortgage lending.[citation needed] By the time the credit crisis peaked in 2008, they were approaching 30%.[citation needed]

    See also Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980, the Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999.

    References

    1. ^  Frontline: The Wall Street Fix: Mr. Weill Goes to Washington: The Long Demise of Glass-Steagall . http://www.pbs.org. PBS. 2003-05-08. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/wallstreet/weill/demise.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-08.
    2. ^  The Repeal of Glass-Steagall and the Advent of Broad Banking  (PDF). http://www.occ.treas.gov/ftp://workpaper/wp2000-5.pdf.
    3. ^  GRAMM’S STATEMENT AT SIGNING CEREMONY FOR GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT . http://banking.senate.gov/prel99/1112gbl.htm.
    4. ^ http://mises.org/rothbard/agd/chapter11.asp
    5. ^ http://mises.org/rothbard/agd/chapter12.asp
    6. ^ Gold Confiscation Act, http://www.the-privateer.com/1933-gold-confiscation.html
    7. ^ a b c http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink/meta-crs-9065:1
    8. ^  FDIC: Important Banking Legislation . http://www.fdic.gov/regulations/laws/important/index.html.
    9. ^ (PDF)Developing Institutional Investors in the People’s Republic of China, paragraph 24, http://www.worldbank.org.cn/english/content/insinvnote.pdf
    10. ^ Langlois, John D. (2001),  The WTO and China’s Financial System , China Quarterly 167: 610–629, doi:10.1017/S0009443901000341
    11. ^  China to stick with US bonds , The Financial Times (paragraph 9), http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ba857be6-f88f-11dd-aae8-000077b07658.html, retrieved on 2009-02-11
    12. ^ On Passage of the Bill (S.900 as amended ), http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=106&session=1&vote=00105, retrieved on 2008-06-19

    [ and others – see original wikipedia entry ]

    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass-Steagall_Act
    Categories: Legal history of the United States | United States federal banking legislation | History of the United States (1918–1945) | Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation | 1933 in law
    Hidden categories: Cleanup from July 2007 | All pages needing cleanup | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since March 2009

    * This page was last modified on 8 March 2009, at 23:39.
    * All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.)
    Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass-Steagall_Act

    ***
    **My note –
    from bloomberg at 8.11 a.m., 03-09-09, Monday morning

    expert somebody – responding about re-instating Glass-Steagall Act said,
    “those that lobbied so heavily for its repeal are still around and they won’t let that happen. Its’ not going to happen.” (More or less.) – Greenberg was “expert” speaking

    So, who was lobbying for its repeal?

    Robert Rubin became head of Citigroup and worked for Clinton at the time as an econ advisor but it looks like their was no chance that Clinton could have vetoed the bill anyway.

    ***

    The repeal enabled commercial lenders such as Citigroup, which was in 1999 then the largest U.S. bank by assets, to underwrite and trade instruments such as mortgage-backed securities and collateralized debt obligations and establish so-called structured investment vehicles, or SIVs, that bought those securities.[15] It is therefore seen by some that the repeal of this act contributed to the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009.[16] However, such SIVs existed before the repeal of Glass-Steagall.[15]

    The year before the repeal, sub-prime loans were just 5% of all mortgage lending.[citation needed] By the time the credit crisis peaked in 2008, they were approaching 30%.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass-Steagall_Act

    ***
    http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf

    [PDF]
    Security and Intelligence Agencies Financial Statement 2007-08 HC 872
    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
    security, management information systems, risk and configuration management. … preparation of those resource accounts. My audit of the consolidated …
    http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf

    1.
    NIST, Computer Security Division, Computer Security Resource Center
    All comments will be analyzed, consolidated, and used in revising the … DRAFT Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations …. and Intelligence Communities and the rapid convergence of information …
    csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsDrafts.html – 46k
    2.
    DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE DIRECTIVE 2/12 – Community Open …
    To manage the use of open source information by the Intelligence Community, … Changes in the scope and resources of the Open Source Program must be agreed to by … Systems Architecture – The COSPO will coordinate the design and … the Consolidated Cryptologic Program, the Central Intelligence Agency Program, …
    http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/dcid212.htm
    3.
    PUBLIC REPORT OF THE VICE PRESIDENT’S TASK FORCE ON COMBATTING …
    Establish a Consolidated Intelligence Center on Terrorism … FBI investigations and tie up government resources in responding to requests. …. technical collection systems for gathering round-the-clock information on terrorism, …
    http://www.population-security.org/bush_report_on_terrorism/bush_report_on_terrorism_3.htm – 65k
    4.
    decipher information systems Resources | TechRepublic
    To meet this need for information, additions to systems are often developed to give consolidated management overviews of the operational information. …
    search.techrepublic.com.com/search/decipher+information+systems.html – 54k –
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    Automated Case Management System. CATS. Consolidated Assets Tracking System. CCIPS. Computer Crime and Intellectual … Human Resource Information System …
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    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
    security, management information systems, risk and configuration management. … preparation of those resource accounts. My audit of the consolidated …
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    The present system does not permit resource-saving trade-off analysis: for example, …. Information on intelligence programs has not been organized to … allowing for the creation of a consolidated Community-wide data base that …
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    ***

    Alexander Haig
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Alexander Haig
    59th United States Secretary of State
    In office
    January 22, 1981 – July 5, 1982
    President     Ronald Reagan
    Deputy     William P. Clark
    Walter John Stoessel, Jr.
    Preceded by     Edmund Muskie
    Succeeded by     George Shultz
    5th White House Chief of Staff
    In office
    1973 – 1974
    President     Richard Nixon
    Gerald Ford
    Preceded by     H.R. Haldeman
    Succeeded by     Donald Rumsfeld
    7th Supreme Allied Commander Europe
    In office
    December 15, 1974 – July 1, 1979
    Preceded by     Gen. Andrew Goodpaster
    Succeeded by     Gen. Bernard W. Rogers
    4th Deputy National Security Advisor
    In office
    1970 – 1973
    President     Richard Nixon
    Preceded by     Robert Komer
    Succeeded by     Brent Scowcroft
    Born     December 2, 1924 (1924-12-02) (age 84)
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Political party     Republican
    Spouse     Patricia Haig
    Alma mater     University of Notre Dame
    United States Military Academy
    Columbia Business School
    Georgetown University
    Profession     Soldier, Civil servant
    Religion     Roman Catholic
    Military service
    Service/branch     United States Army
    Rank     General
    Battles/wars     Korean War
    Vietnam War
    Awards     Distinguished Service Cross
    Defense Distinguished Service Medal
    Silver Star
    Bronze Star
    Combat Infantryman Badge
    Purple Heart
    For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation).

    Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. (born December 2, 1924) is a retired four-star General in the United States Army who served as the U.S. Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan and White House Chief of Staff under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.[1] In 1973 Haig served as Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, the number two ranking officer in the Army.[2] Haig served as the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, commanding all U.S. and NATO forces in Europe. Haig is a veteran of the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and is a recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross, the Army’s second highest medal for heroism, as well as the Silver Star with Oak Leaf Cluster and the Purple Heart.[3]
    Contents

    * 1 Education
    * 2 Serves with MacArthur; heroism in Korea
    * 3 Pentagon assignments
    * 4 Distinguished Service Cross in Vietnam
    * 5 1969–1972: Kissinger’s military assistant, Army Vice Chief of Staff
    * 6 1973–1974: White House Chief of Staff for Nixon and Ford
    * 7 1974–1979: NATO Supreme Commander, assassination attempt
    * 8 Retires from Army, enters private sector
    * 9 1981-82: Secretary of State for President Reagan
    o 9.1  I am in control here
    o 9.2 1982 Falklands War
    o 9.3 1982 Israeli – Lebanon Conflict
    * 10 1988 Republican presidential nomination
    * 11 Military Awards
    * 12 Current
    * 13 Family
    * 14 In popular culture
    * 15 Quotes
    * 16 Further reading
    * 17 See also
    * 18 References
    * 19 External links

    Education

    Haig attended St. Joseph’s Preparatory School in Philadelphia and graduated from Lower Merion High School in Ardmore, Pennsylvania. He then went to the University of Notre Dame for one year, before transferring to and graduating from West Point in 1947. He studied business administration at Columbia Business School in 1954 and 1955. He also received a Masters degree in International Relations from Georgetown University in 1961, where his thesis focused on the role of the military officer in the making of national policy.

    Serves with MacArthur; heroism in Korea

    As a young officer, Haig served on the staff of General Douglas MacArthur in Japan. In the early days of the Korean War, Haig was responsible for maintaining General MacArthur’s situation map and briefing MacArthur each evening on the day’s battlefield events.[4] Haig later saw combat in the Korean War (1950-51) with the X Corps, led by MacArthur’s Chief of Staff, General Edward Almond.[3] During the Korean War, Haig earned two Silver Stars for heroism and a Bronze Star with  V. [5] Haig participated in seven Korean War campaigns, including the Battle of Incheon, the Battle of Chosin Reservoir (a.k.a  The Frozen Chosen ), and the evacuation of Hungnam.[4]

    Pentagon assignments

    Haig later served as a staff officer in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCSOPS) at the Pentagon (1962-64), and then was appointed Military Assistant to Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes in 1964. Haig then was appointed Military Assistant to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. He continued in that service until the end of 1965, whereupon he took command of a Battalion of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division in Vietnam.

    Distinguished Service Cross in Vietnam

    On May 22, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Haig was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the nation’s second highest medal for heroism, by General William Westmoreland as a result of his actions during the battle of Ap Gu in March 1967.[6] During the battle, then Lt. Colonel Haig’s troops (of the 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division (United States) became pinned down by a Viet Cong force that outnumbered U.S. forces by a three to one margin. In an attempt to survey the battlefield, Haig boarded a helicopter and flew to the point of contact. His helicopter was subsequently shot down. Two days of bloody hand-to-hand combat ensued. An excerpt from Haig’s official Army citation follows:

    When two of his companies were engaged by a large hostile force, Colonel Haig landed amid a hail of fire, personally took charge of the units, called for artillery and air fire support and succeeded in soundly defeating the insurgent force…the next day a barrage of 400 rounds was fired by the Viet Cong, but it was ineffective because of the warning and preparations by Colonel Haig. As the barrage subsided, a force three times larger than his began a series of human wave assaults on the camp. Heedless of the danger himself, Colonel Haig repeatedly braved intense hostile fire to survey the battlefield. His personal courage and determination, and his skillful employment of every defense and support tactic possible, inspired his men to fight with previously unimagined power. Although his force was outnumbered three to one, Colonel Haig succeeded in inflicting 592 casualties on the Viet Cong…  (HQ US Army, Vietnam, General Orders No. 2318 (May 22, 1967)[7]

    Haig was also awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Purple Heart during his tour in Vietnam.[6] Haig was eventually promoted to Colonel, and became a brigade commander of the 1st Infantry Division (United States) in Vietnam.

    [edit] 1969–1972: Kissinger’s military assistant, Army Vice Chief of Staff
    Alexander Haig returned to the continental United States at the end of his one-year tour, to become Regimental Commander of the Third Regiment of the Corps of Cadets at the USMA, West Point, under the also newly-arrived Commandant, Brigadier General Bernard Rogers. (Both had served together in the 1st Infantry Division, Rogers as Assistant Division Commander and Haig as Brigade Commander.) In 1969, he was appointed as Military Assistant to the Presidential Assistant for National Security Affairs, Henry Kissinger, a position he retained until 1970, when President Richard Nixon promoted Haig to Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. In this position, Haig helped South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu to negotiate the final cease-fire talks in 1972. Haig continued in this position until 1973, when he was appointed to be Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, a post he held until the last few months of President Nixon’s presidency, when he served as White House Chief of Staff.

    1973–1974: White House Chief of Staff for Nixon and Ford
    Chief of Staff Haig (far right), Sec. of State Kissinger, Rep. Ford and President Richard Nixon meet on October 13, 1973 regarding Ford’s upcoming appointment to Vice-President.

    Alexander Haig served as White House Chief of Staff during the height of the Watergate affair from May 1973 until September 1974, taking over the position from H.R. Haldeman, who resigned on April 30, 1973, while under pressure from Watergate prosecutors.

    Haig played a large  crisis management  role as the Watergate scandal unfolded. Haig has been largely credited with keeping the government running while President Nixon was preoccupied with Watergate.[1] Haig also played an instrumental role in finally persuading Nixon to resign. In his 2001 book  Shadow,  author Bob Woodward describes Haig’s role as the point man between Nixon and then Vice President Gerald Ford during the final days of Watergate. According to the book, Haig played a major behind-the-scenes role in the delicate negotiations of the transfer of power from President Nixon to President Ford.

    Haig remained White House Chief of Staff during the early days of the Ford Administration until Donald Rumsfeld replaced him in September 1974. By that time, Ford, in a highly controversial move, had pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed as president. Author Roger Morris, a former colleague of Haig’s on the National Security Council, early in Nixon’s first term, wrote in his book Haig: The General’s Progress, that when Ford pardoned Nixon, he in effect pardoned Haig as well. Haig had been a persistent solicitor of clemency for Nixon.[8]

    1974–1979: NATO Supreme Commander, assassination attempt
    Gen. Haig as SACEUR, photo taken on June 1, 1977

    Haig served as the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), and Commander in Chief, US European Command (CinCUSEUR), the Commander of NATO forces in Europe, from 1974 to 1979. An assassination attempt on Haig was unsuccessful in Mons, Belgium on June 25, 1979. During the attack, a land mine blew up under the bridge on which Haig’s car was traveling, narrowly missing Haig’s car but wounding three of his bodyguards in a following car.[9] Authorities later attributed responsibility for the assassination attempt to the Red Army Faction (RAF), also known as Baader-Meinhof-group. In 1993 a German Court sentenced Rolf Clemens Wagner, a former Red Army Faction Terrorist, to life imprisonment for the assassination attempt.[9]

    Retires from Army, enters private sector

    Alexander Haig, as a four-star general, retired from the Army in 1979, and moved on to civilian employment. In 1979, he became President, Chief Executive Officer (CEO), and Director of United Technologies, Inc., a job he retained until 1981.

    1981-82: Secretary of State for President Reagan

    In January 1981, Haig was tapped by President Ronald Reagan to be Secretary of State, and he began confirmation hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Much of the hearing focused on Haig’s role during Watergate. Haig was confirmed by a Senate vote of 93-6.[10]

    I am in control here
    Secretary of State Alexander Haig speaks to the press about the attempted assassination on President Ronald Reagan

    In 1981, after the March 30 assassination attempt on Reagan, Haig asserted before reporters  I am in control here  as a result of Reagan’s hospitalization.
    “     Constitutionally, gentlemen, you have the President, the Vice President and the Secretary of State in that order, and should the President decide he wants to transfer the helm to the Vice President, he will do so. He has not done that. As of now, I am in control here, in the White House, pending return of the Vice President and in close touch with him. If something came up, I would check with him, of course.     ”

    ——Alexander Haig, Alexander Haig, autobiographical profile in TIME Magazine, April 2, 1984[11]

    Rather than being seen as an attempt to allay the nation’s fear, the quotation became seen as a laughable attempt by Haig to exceed his authority.[12]

    Haig would have been incorrect if this were an interpretation of the U.S. Constitution concerning both the presidential line of succession and the 25th Amendment, which dictates what happens when a president is incapacitated. The holders of the two offices between the Vice President and the Secretary of State, the Speaker of the House (at the time, Tip O’Neill) and the President pro tempore of the Senate (at the time, J. Strom Thurmond), would be required under U.S. law (3 U.S.C. § 19) to resign their positions in order for either of them to become acting President. This was an unlikely event considering that Vice-President Bush was merely not immediately available. Haig’s statement reflected political reality, if not necessarily legal reality. Haig later said,
    “     I wasn’t talking about transition. I was talking about the executive branch, who is running the government. That was the question asked. It was not, ‘Who is in line should the President die?’     ”

    —— Alexander Haig, Alexander Haig interview with 60 Minutes II April 23, 2001

    1982 Falklands War
    Main article: Falklands War

    In April 1982 Haig conducted shuttle diplomacy between the governments of Argentina in Buenos Aires and the United Kingdom in London after Argentina invaded the Falklands Islands. Negotiations broke down and Haig returned to Washington on April 19. The British fleet then entered the war zone.

    1982 Israeli – Lebanon Conflict

    Al Haig’s report to US president Ronald Reagan on Saturday January 30, 1982, shows that Haig feared that the Israelis might, at the slightest provocation, start a war against Lebanon.[13]

    Haig critics have accused him of  greenlighting  the Israeli Invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Haig denies this and says he urged restraint.[14]

    Haig resigned abruptly in July 1982. A military hawk, Haig caused some alarm with his suggestion that a  nuclear warning shot  in Europe might be effective in deterring the Soviet Union.[15] His tenure as Secretary of State was often characterized by his clashes with the more moderate Defense Secretary, Caspar Weinberger.

    1988 Republican presidential nomination

    Haig unsuccessfully ran for the Republican Party nomination for President in 1988. He was a fierce critic of the more moderate George H.W. Bush, and speculation was that he sought the Presidency in part because of that. When he withdrew from the race, he gave his support to the presidential campaign of Senator Robert Dole of Kansas.

    Military Awards

    Qualification Badges

    * Combat Infantryman Badge

    Decorations

    * Distinguished Service Cross
    * Defense Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster
    * Silver Star with Oak Leaf Cluster
    * Distinguished Flying Cross with Oak Leaf Cluster
    * Bronze Star with  V
    * Air Medal
    * Purple Heart

    Service Medals

    * National Defense Service Medal with Bronze Service Star
    * Korean Service Medal
    * Vietnam Service Medal
    * United Nations Service Medal
    * Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal

    Current –

    Haig was the host for several years of the television program World Business Review. He now hosts 21st Century Business, with each program a weekly business education forum that includes business solutions, expert interview, commentary and field reports.[16] Haig is co-chairman of the American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus, along with Zbigniew Brzezinski and Stephen J. Solarz. Haig is a member of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) Board of Advisors. Haig was a founding Board Member of America Online.[17] On January 5, 2006, Haig participated in a meeting at the White House of former Secretaries of Defense and State to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials.[18] On May 12, 2006, Haig participated in a second White House meeting with 10 former Secretaries of State and Defense. The meeting including briefings by Donald Rumsfeld and Condoleezza Rice, and was followed by a discussion with President George W. Bush.[19] Haig published his memoirs, entitled Inner Circles: How America Changed The World, in 1992.

    Family

    Alexander Haig is the father of author Brian Haig. Haig’s brother, Frank, is a Jesuit priest. He served as seventh president of Le Moyne College in Syracuse, New York, and is now teaching physics at Loyola College in Maryland. Haig’s older sister; Regina Haig Meredith is a practicing attorney licensed in Pennsylvania and is New Jersey co-founding Partner of the firm Meredith, Meredith, Chase and Taggart, located in Princeton and Trenton, New Jersey.

    In popular culture
    Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. Please relocate any relevant information into appropriate sections or articles. (November 2008)

    Haig has been portrayed by the following actors in film and television productions:[20]

    * John Pochna in the 1982 film Inchon.
    * Stanley Grover in the 1987 Warner Bros. Television drama The Betty Ford Story.
    * David Ogden Stiers in the 1989 US television drama The Final Days.
    * Matt Frewer in the 1995 Canadian TV drama Kissinger and Nixon.
    * Powers Boothe in Oliver Stone’s 1995 film Nixon.
    * Richard Dreyfuss in the 2001 US television drama The Day Reagan Was Shot.
    * Colin Stinton in the 2002 BBC production of Ian Curteis’s controversial The Falklands Play.
    * Bill Smitrovich in the 2003 CBS/Showtime miniseries The Reagans.
    * The punk band Dead Kennedys refer to Haig in the song We’ve Got A Bigger Problem Now.
    * In a 1995 episode of The Simpsons Chief Wiggum shows the press a Mug shot of Homer Simpson wearing a shirt with the slogan  Haig in ’88 .

    Quotes

    * In 1980, Spiro Agnew published a memoir in which he implied that, in 1973, Richard Nixon and Haig had planned to assassinate him if Agnew refused to resign the Vice-Presidency, and that Haig told him  to go quietly … or else. [21]
    * Defending himself against accusations of lying in 1983, Haig is quoted as saying,  That’s not a lie, it’s a terminological inexactitude. [22]

    * After the assassination attempt on President Reagan:  As of now, I am in control, here, at the White House.

    Further reading

    * Dress Grey, by Lucian K. Truscott IV, 1978, ISBN 0385134754. Truscott, scion of a longtime military family (his grandfather Lucian Truscott Jr. was an important World War II general), was a cadet at West Point during Haig’s late 1960s stint there; this book is a novel, in which a thinly-disguised Haig is portrayed as a central character in a murder and cover-up mystery at West Point. Truscott had earlier (1974) spoken out in The Village Voice, about problems at West Point.
    * Haig: The General’s Progress, by Roger Morris (American writer), Playboy Press, 1982, ISBN 0872237532. Morris, a respected author, was a colleague of Haig’s on the National Security Council, early in President Richard Nixon’s first term. Morris presents important material on Haig’s early life and Army career, as well as deeper and darker material than the official line, on the often seamy dealings of the Nixon White House, including Watergate.
    * The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House, by Seymour Hersh, Summit Books, New York, 1983, ISBN 0671506889. The book focuses on U.S. foreign policy, directed mainly from the White House by Nixon and Henry Kissinger during Nixon’s first term; since Haig eventually became Kissinger’s deputy during that era, there is also plenty of material on Haig here, often at variance with the official, sanitized versions.

    See also
    United States Army portal

    References

    1. ^ a b  Alexander Haig, MSN Encarta . http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761585441.
    2. ^  ALEXANDER M. HAIG, Assistant to the President: Files, 1973-74 From 1974-79 . http://www.ford.utexas.edu/library/guides/Finding%20Aids/Haig,%20Alexander%20-%20Files.htm.
    3. ^ a b  Premier Speakers Bureau . http://premierespeakers.com/alexander_haig.
    4. ^ a b  LESSONS OF THE FORGOTTEN WAR . http://www.historycentral.com/Documents/HaigKorea.html.
    5. ^  UT Biography . https://my.tennessee.edu/portal/page?_pageid=91,55081&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL.
    6. ^ a b  West Point Citation . http://www.aogusma.org/aog/awards/DGA/96-Haigl.htm.
    7. ^  Full Text Citations For Award of The Distinguished Service Cross, U.S. Army Recipients – Vietnam . http://www.homeofheroes.com/valor/1_Citations/07_RVN-dsc/dsc_07RVN-armyH.html.
    8. ^ Haig: The General’s Progress, by Roger Morris (American writer), Playboy Press, 1982, p. 320-325.
    9. ^ a b  German Guilty in ’79 Attack At NATO on Alexander Haig . The New York Times. November 25, 1993. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE2DB113AF936A15752C1A965958260.
    10. ^  AP: Rice Confirmed Despite Dems’ Criticisms . http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0126-10.htm.
    11. ^ Alexander Haig, Time Magazine, April 2, 1984, p. 22 of 24 page article, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,954230,00.html, retrieved on 2008-05-21
    12. ^  HuffingtonPost: I’m in charge here . http://www.huffingtonpost.com/blake-fleetwood/bush-does-impersonation-o_b_19366.html?page=2.
    13. ^ Ronald Reagan edited by Douglas Brinkley (2007) The Reagan Diaries Harper Collins ISBN 978-0-06-0876005 p 66 Saturday, January 30
    14. ^  Time Magazine: Alexander Haig . http://jcgi.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,952421,00.html.
    15. ^ Waller, Douglas C. Congress and the Nuclear Freeze: An Inside Look at the Politics of a Mass Movement, 1987. Page 19.
    16. ^  World Business Review with Alexander Haig . http://www.21cbtv.com/. Retrieved on 2008-12-17.
    17. ^  Business Wire AOL-TIme Warner announces its board of directors . http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2001_Jan_12/ai_69075111. Retrieved on 2008-12-17.
    18. ^  President George W. Bush poses for a photo Thursday, Jan. 5, 2006 in the Oval Office with former Secretaries of State and Secretaries of Defense from both Republican and Democratic administrations, following a meeting on the strategy for victory in Iraq. . The White House. January 5, 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/01/images/20060105_d-0300-1-515h.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-17.
    19. ^  Bush discusses Iraq with former officials . http://www.upi.com/SecurityTerrorism/view.php?StoryID=20060512-111719-8658r.
    20. ^  Alexander Haig (Character) . IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0036406/. Retrieved on June 25.
    21. ^ Agnew, Spiro T::  Go quietly … or else . Morrow, 1980. ISBN 0-688-03668-6.
    22. ^ Rutledge, Leigh W.::  Would I Lie To You? . Plume, 1998. ISBN 0-425-27931-3. Page 81.

    External links
    Sister project     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Alexander Haig

    * The Day Reagan was Shot article on Haig
    * The Falklands: Failure of a Mission critique of Haig’s mediation efforts
    * Portrait of Haig by Margaret Holland Sargent

    Military offices
    Preceded by
    Gen. Andrew Goodpaster     Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO)
    1974—1979     Succeeded by
    Gen. Bernard W. Rogers
    Political offices
    Preceded by
    H. R. Haldeman     White House Chief of Staff
    1973–1974     Succeeded by
    Donald Rumsfeld
    Preceded by
    Edmund S. Muskie     United States Secretary of State
    Served Under: Ronald Reagan
    1981–1982     Succeeded by
    George P. Shultz

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    White House Chiefs of Staff
    John R. Steelman • Sherman Adams • Wilton Persons • W. Marvin Watson • H. R. Haldeman • Alexander Haig • Donald Rumsfeld • Dick Cheney • Hamilton Jordan • Jack Watson • James Baker • Donald Regan • Howard Baker • Kenneth Duberstein • John H. Sununu • Samuel K. Skinner • James Baker • Mack McLarty • Leon Panetta • Erskine Bowles • John Podesta • Andrew Card • Joshua Bolten • Rahm Emanuel
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    Persondata
    NAME     Haig, Alexander
    ALTERNATIVE NAMES
    SHORT DESCRIPTION     United States Army general
    DATE OF BIRTH     December 2, 1924
    PLACE OF BIRTH     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    DATE OF DEATH
    PLACE OF DEATH

    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Haig
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    ***

    ***
    Stephen J. Solarz
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Stephen J. Solarz
    Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
    from New York’s 13th district
    In office
    January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1993
    Preceded by     Bertram L. Podell
    Succeeded by     Nydia Velázquez
    Born     September 12, 1940 (1940-09-12) (age 68)
    New York City
    Political party     Democratic

    Stephen Joshua Solarz is a former United States Congressional Representative from New York. Solarz was both an outspoken critic of President Ronald Reagan’s deployment of Marines to Lebanon in 1982 and a cosponsor of the 1991 Gulf War Authorization Act during the Presidency of George H. W. Bush.

    Born in New York City, September 12, 1940, Solarz attended public schools in New York City and later received a B.A. from Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass. in 1962 and an M.A. in public law and government from Columbia University in 1967. Solarz taught political science at Brooklyn (N.Y.) College, 1967–1968. He served in the New York State Assembly from 1969 to 1975. He served as a delegate to the Democratic National Mid-term Convention in 1974.

    Solarz was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democrat to the 94th and to the eight succeeding Congresses (January 3, 1975–January 3, 1993). On July 18, 1980, he became the first American public official to visit North Korea since the end of the Korean War, and the first to meet with Kim Il-sung.[1] In 1992 he was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination to the One Hundred Third Congress. Thereafter he was appointed by President Bill Clinton as chairman of the Central Asian-American Enterprise Fund and served from 1993 to 1998.

    Since then he has remained active with the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. He is also a member of the Intellibridge Expert Network and vice-chairman of International Crisis Group. Solarz is also co-chairman of the American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus, along with Zbigniew Brzezinski and Alexander Haig.

    Sibel Edmonds Case
    Solarz’s photograph was listed in Sibel Edmonds’ State Secrets Privilege Gallery [1] alongside photos of seventeen other prominent US officials including Brent Scowcroft, Richard Perle, Dennis Hastert, Marc Grossman, and Douglas Feith. Sibel Edmonds is a former FBI translator and whistleblower who uncovered serious criminality by leading US officials, involving the nuclear black market, narcotics trafficking, terrorism and money laundering. The details of Edmonds’ case have been buried using the State Secrets Privilege. Sibel Edmonds circumvented the State Secrets Privilege gag by simply publishing the photographs of these public officials on her website [2]. Other websites [3] put names to those photographs.

    External links

    * Stephen J. Solarz, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
    * APCO Worldwide Professional biography.
    * NNDB Profile
    * Immigration Votes: NumbersUSA
    * For Solarz, a Career Ends in Grief and Relief
    * “When To Go In”, magazine article by Solarz
    * Biography From International Crisis Group
    * “Arms for Morocco?”, magazine article by Solarz

    References

    1. ^ Facts on File 1980 Yearbook p 547

    New York Assembly
    Preceded by
    Max Turshen     New York State Assembly, 45th District
    1969–1974     Succeeded by
    Charles E. Schumer
    United States House of Representatives
    Preceded by
    Bertram L. Podell     Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
    from New York’s 13th congressional district
    1975–1993     Succeeded by
    Susan Molinari

    Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York
    [ see page for complete listing including current members ]

    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_J._Solarz
    Categories: Members of the United States House of Representatives from New York | Brandeis University alumni | Columbia University alumni | 1940 births | Living people | People from New York City

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_J._Solarz

    ***
    ****
    Douglas J. Feith (born July 16, 1953) served as the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy for United States President George W. Bush from July 2001 until he resigned from his position effective August 8, 2005. His official responsibilities included the formulation of defense planning guidance and forces policy, United States Department of Defense (DoD) relations with foreign countries, and DoD’s role in U.S. Government interagency policymaking. A member of the neoconservative[1][2][3] movement, his tenure in that position was marked by controversy.

    Upon his resignation, Feith joined the faculty of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, as a Professor and Distinguished Practitioner in National Security Policy, for a two year stint despite strong objections from the student body and faculty. His contract was not renewed due to strong opposition from members of the faculty, despite  really good  teaching reviews.[4] Currently, Feith is the Director of the Center for National Security Strategies and a Senior Fellow at the Hudson Institute, a conservative think-tank.[5]
    Contents

    * 1 Early life
    * 2 Career
    * 3 Views and publications
    o 3.1 War and Decision
    * 4 Professional praise
    o 4.1 Former Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld
    o 4.2 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Ret.) Air Force General Richard Myers
    o 4.3 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Marine General Peter Pace
    o 4.4 National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley
    * 5 Professional criticism
    o 5.1 Director of the CIA, Michael Hayden
    o 5.2 Former National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice
    o 5.3 Former Secretary of State Colin Powell
    o 5.4 Former Pentagon Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski (ret)
    o 5.5 Former Director of the CIA, George Tenet
    o 5.6 Former Commander Coalition Forces in Iraq, Gen. Tommy Franks (ret)
    o 5.7 Former Coalition Provisional Authority Official General Jay Garner (Ret.)
    o 5.8 Former Chief of Staff to the Secretary of State, Larry Wilkerson
    o 5.9 Former CENTCOM Deputy Director, Lt. General Michael DeLong
    * 6 Accusations and rebuttals
    o 6.1 1982 NSC alleged firing and security clearance controversy
    o 6.2 Counter Terrorism Evaluation Unit
    o 6.3 Office of Special Plans
    + 6.3.1 Actions Feith authorized at the Office of Special Plans concerning Iraq
    + 6.3.2 Actions Feith authorized at the Office of Special Plans concerning Iran
    + 6.3.3 Investigations of the Office of Special Plans and of Feith
    + 6.3.4 Defense Department Inspector General Report Issued
    o 6.4 Subordinate’s involvement in the Lawrence Franklin espionage scandal
    * 7 See also
    * 8 Footnotes
    * 9 Further reading
    * 10 External links
    o 10.1 Biographies
    o 10.2 Editorials
    o 10.3 Press releases and news articles

    Early life

    Feith was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was one of three siblings born to Rose and Dalck Feith. His father, Dalck, was a member of the Betar, a Revisionist Zionist youth organization, in Poland, and a Holocaust survivor who lost his parents and seven siblings in the Nazi concentration camps. He came to the United States during World War II, and became a successful businessman, a philanthropist, and a donor to the Republican party, and imbued his son with strong and lifelong opinions about government and international relations. Years later, Feith noted:  [Neville] Chamberlain wasn’t popular in my house .[6]

    Feith grew up in Elkins Park, part of Cheltenham Township, a Philadelphia suburb. Feith came of age during the tumultuous Civil Rights and Vietnam War era. He attended Philadelphia’s Central High School. Of that, Feith wrote  It’s a good school. The class that I was in at Central was the most talented group of kids that I ever went to school with, including college and law school. [7]

    Feith attended Harvard University for his undergraduate degree and graduated magna cum laude in 1975. While at Harvard, Feith says he  benefited especially from the lectures and books of Professor Richard Pipes ,[8] the head of Harvard’s Russian Research Center. Feith later said of his tutelage under Pipes:  We were part of a rather small minority in Cambridge who thought that working to bring about the collapse of the Soviet Union was not only a noble pursuit, but a realistic project. [8] Feith also cites the works of philosophers John Stuart Mill and Edmund Burke as two major intellectual influences. He continued on to the Georgetown University Law Center, receiving his J.D. magna cum laude in 1978.

    Pipes ultimately provided Feith with his initial entry into government. Pipes had joined the Reagan administration’s National Security Council in 1981 to help carry out the  project  Pipes and his students had conceived.[9] Feith joined the NSC that same year, working under Pipes. Before that, he worked for three years as an attorney with the law firm Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP.

    Feith has expressed ambivalence about the overall intellectual pedigree Harvard gives its students. In an address on March 3, 2005 to Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government he said,  I want to reassure the students in the audience: a Harvard degree does not have to be a liability. In conservative political circles, I’ve found, it may require some explaining. [10]

    Married with four children, Feith makes his home in the Washington suburb of Bethesda, Maryland.

    Career

    Feith began his career as an attorney in private practice, and first entered government as a Middle East specialist on the National Security Council under Ronald Reagan in 1981. He transferred from the NSC Staff to Pentagon in 1982 to work as Special Counsel for Richard Perle, who was then serving as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger promoted Feith in 1984 to Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Negotiations Policy and, when Feith left the Pentagon in 1986, Weinberger gave him the highest Defense Department civilian award, the Distinguished Public Service medal.

    During his time in the Pentagon in the Reagan administration, Feith was instrumental in getting the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Weinberger and Shultz all to recommend (successfully) to the President not to ratify changes to the Geneva Conventions. The changes, known as Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, would have allowed non-state militants to be treated as combatants and prisoners of war even if they had engaged in practices that endangered non-combatants or otherwise violated the laws of war. Reagan informed the United States Senate in 1987 that he would not ratify Protocol I. At the time, both the Washington Post and the New York Times editorialized in favor of Reagan’s decision to reject Protocol I as a revision of humanitarian law that protected terrorists.[citation needed]

    Upon leaving the Pentagon, Feith co-founded, with Marc Zell, the Washington, DC law firm of Feith & Zell. Three years later, Feith was retained as a lobbyist by the Turkish government. Among other clients, his firm represented defense corporations Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman. Feith left the firm in 2001, following his nomination as Undersecretary of Defense for Policy.

    As Under Secretary, Feith continued to champion US respect for the Geneva Conventions, e.g. his Op-Ed article  Conventional Warfare  in the Wall Street Journal on May 24, 2004. When the logic of Reagan’s decision on Protocol I was applied by Bush in 2001 in designating Al Qaeda fighters as  enemy combatants  or  unlawful combatants  rather than as  prisoners of war  a passionate debate ensued (and continues) as to whether one is undermining or supporting the Geneva Conventions by designating combatants as  terrorists  and denying detainees POW status.

    Following his government service, Feith was employed by the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, where he taught a course on the Bush administration’s anti-terrorism policy. He came to Georgetown’s School of Foreign Service after leaving Stanford’s Hoover Institution and was appointed by School of Foreign Service Dean, Ambassador Robert Gallucci.[11] However, his hiring  caused an uproar among the faculty  and two years later, his contract was not renewed.[4]

    Feith has also set up a personal website (www.dougfeith.com) to counter what he sees as spurious and unfounded claims about his tenure in government. It primarily deals with Inspector-General’s Thomas Gimble’s 2005 report that called Feith’s actions in critiquing CIA intelligence  inappropriate , although not illegal.

    Views and publications

    Like his father, Feith is a Republican, and has contributed money to various party candidates over the years.[12] Sympathetic to the neoconservative wing of the party, he has over the last 30 years published many works on U.S. national security policy. His work on US–Soviet détente, arms control and Arab–Israeli issues generated considerable debate.

    Feith’s writings on international law and on foreign and defense policy have appeared in The Wall Street Journal, Commentary, The New Republic and elsewhere. He has contributed chapters to a number of books, including James W. Muller’s Churchill as Peacemaker, Raphael Israeli’s The Dangers of a Palestinian State and Uri Ra’anan’s Hydra of Carnage: International Linkages of Terrorism, as well as serving as co-editor for Israel’s Legitimacy in Law and History.

    Feith has long advocated a policy of  peace through strength . He was an outspoken skeptic of U.S.-Soviet détente and of the Oslo, Hebron and Wye Processes on Palestinian-Israeli peace. In particular, he criticized the Oslo Accords and the Camp David peace agreement mediated by former President Carter between Egypt and Israel. In 1997, he published a lengthy article in Commentary, titled  A Strategy for Israel . In it, Feith argued that the Oslo Accords were being undermined by Yasser Arafat’s failure to fulfill peace pledges and Israel’s failure to uphold the integrity of the accords it had concluded with Arafat. Furthermore, he was an opponent of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, the International Criminal Court and the Chemical Weapons Convention which he criticized as ineffective and dangerous to U.S. interests.

    In 1998, Feith was one of a number of U.S. officials who signed an open letter to President Bill Clinton calling for the United States to oust Saddam Hussein. Feith was part of a group of former national security officials in the 1990s who supported Ahmad Chalabi and the Iraqi National Congress and encouraged the U.S. Congress to pass the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998. Congress approved the Act, and Clinton signed it into law.

    Feith generally favors US support for Israel and has promoted US-Israeli cooperation. He was a member of the study group which authored a controversial report entitled A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm,[13] a set of policy recommendations for the newly elected Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The report was published by the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies without an individual author being named. According to the report, Feith was one of the people who participated in roundtable discussions that produced ideas that the report reflects. Feith pointed out in a September 16, 2004 letter to the editor of the Washington Post that he was not the co-author and did not clear the report’s final text. He wrote,  There is no warrant for attributing any particular idea [in the report], let alone all of them, to any one participant.

    Feith also served on the board of the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), a think tank that promotes a military and strategic alliance between the United States and Israel.[14]

    Feith was one of 18 founding members of the organization One Jerusalem to oppose the Oslo peace agreement. Its purpose is  saving a united Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel.  He is also Director of Foundation for Jewish Studies, which  offers in-depth study programs for the adult Washington Jewish community that cross denominational lines.

    Feith told The New Yorker in 2005,  When history looks back, I want to be in the class of people who did the right thing, the sensible thing, and not necessarily the fashionable thing, the thing that met the aesthetic of the moment .[15]

    Feith was interviewed by the CBS news magazine 60 Minutes in a segment that was aired on April 6, 2008.[16] During this interview he promoted his newly released memoir, War and Decision and defended the decision making that led to the US invasion of Iraq in 2003.

    In a response to the question on why the United States invaded Iraq, Feith responded,  The President decided that the threats from the Saddam Hussein regime were so great that if we had left him in power, we would be fighting him down the road, at a time and place of his choosing.

    Feith explained that attacking Iraq was necessary even though the U.S. government realized that Hussein had nothing to do with the 9/11 attacks, because of the need for the U.S. to exercise its right to  anticipatory self-defense.

    What we did after 9/11 was look broadly at the international terrorist network from which the next attack on the United States might come. And we did not focus narrowly only on the people who were specifically responsible for 9/11. Our main goal was preventing the next attack.

    Regarding the false claims of the Bush Administration that Iraq was producing weapons of mass destruction, Feith concedes,  It is true that there was a serious error that the CIA made in saying that we would find WMD stockpiles. And it was a terrible mistake for the administration to have made those stockpiles in any way a part of the case for war. I don’t think we needed to.

    Feith also concedes that he and his colleagues didn’t realize that sending a smaller, mobile force to topple Saddam would make it difficult to establish order after he fell.  The looting that arose in the immediate aftermath of the overthrow of Saddam … was a problem that the coalition forces had to deal with. I think we paid a very large price for the fact that, you know, our forces did not get that problem under control.

    Regarding whether he’s happy about the current situation in Iraq, Feith states,  I don’t think anybody can be happy.  We’ve, we’ve, we’ve had terrible losses. We have the Americans who have lost their lives, and Iraqis who have lost their lives. Our coalition partners. It’s been a costly war.

    But Feith still feels that invading Iraq was the right thing to do.  I think the president made the right decision given what he knew. And given what we all knew. And to tell you the truth, even given what we’ve learned since.

    War and Decision
    Main article: War and Decision

    On April 8, 2008, Feith’s memoir, War and Decision: Inside the Pentagon at the Dawn of the War on Terrorism, was published by HarperCollins.

    Professional praise

    Former Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld

    Doug Feith, of course, is without question, one of the most brilliant individuals in government. He is – he’s just a rare talent. And from my standpoint, working with him is always interesting. He’s been one of the really the intellectual leaders in the administration in defense policy aspects of our work here. [17]

    When Feith left the Defense Department in 2005, Secretary Donald Rumsfeld highlighted the following accomplishments:[18]

    * A plan to revamp America’s Global Defense Posture – move troops, move families, move contractors, and facilities from where they were at the end of World War II to the end of the Cold War to where they’re needed and usable
    * A NATO Response Force to counter threats and to deal with crises
    * New security relationships in Central Asia and South Asia;
    * Helping to fashion a new National Security Defense Strategy that helps guide DoD in planning assumptions for the war on terrorism as well as other responsibilities.
    * The training and equipping of foreign forces;
    * The creation of an Office of Post-conflict Reconstruction in the Department of State; and
    * The Global Peace Operations Initiative.

    In his speech, Rumsfeld said:

    Years from now, unfortunately it may be many years, accurate accounts of what’s taking place these past four years will be written and it will show that Doug Feith has performed his duties with great dedication, with impressive skill and with remarkable vision during this perilous and indeed momentous period in the life of our country.

    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Ret.) Air Force General Richard Myers –

    Richard Myers credited Feith with a  great perspective  and  great respect for the military.

    In planning the war with Iraq, Feith  looked at implications of various actions that others might not think about , Myers said.  Doug is very bright and brings a very good strategic view to the table. He has solved some real problems. [19]

    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Marine General Peter Pace –

    United States Marine Corps General Peter Pace, now the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, worked closely with Feith, co-chairing with him the Defense Department’s Campaign Planning Committee (CAPCOM).

    At Feith’s farewell-from-government ceremony on August 8, 2005, Pace as then vice-chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said:

    Doug Feith is a patriot. It irritates me, not that anyone would question his thoughts or his policies – that is absolutely fair game – but that anyone would question his loyalty or his motives. I have watched this man for four years. He cares only about what is best for the United States. He works hard to understand as much as he can about the policy arena, and he works hard to articulate what he believes to be true.[20]

    The New Yorker May 9, 2005 (p. 36) interviewed Pace about Franks’ criticism [see below] and reported:  Pace, who calls Feith a ‘true American patriot,’ said he did not understand Franks’ attack. ‘This is not directed at any individual,’ Pace said, ‘but the less secure an individual is in his thought processes and in his own capacities, the more prone they were to be intimidated by Doug, because he’s so smart.’  Pace believes  Early on, [Feith] didn’t realize that the way he presented his positions, the way he was being perceived, put him in a bit of a hole. But he changed his ways.

    The same article reported on Rumsfeld’s reaction to Franks:

    Feith’s most prominent defender is Rumsfeld, who told me that Feith is  one of the brightest people you or I will ever come across. He’s diligent, very well read, and insightful.  Donald Rumsfeld, Feith’s former boss, is also General Pace’s superior, and appointed both Feith and Pace to their posts. Donald Rumsfeld explained Feith’s trouble with Franks this way:  If you’re a combatant commander and you’re in the area of operations and you’re hearing from people in Washington, what you’re hearing is frequently not on point to what you’re worrying about at the moment, just as the reverse is also true’ [21]

    National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley –

    In a letter to Feith on the day of his resignation from government, August 8, 2005, Stephen Hadley wrote:[22]

    Your efforts in developing the war on terrorism strategy, the global defense posture, the President’s June 24, 2002, Middle East speech, and moving forward the president’s agenda on advancing freedom and democracy are among your many significant accomplishments.

    For the last four years, you and your fine staff have provided outstanding support to Secretary Rumsfeld and the President.

    Your intellectual leadership within the interagency has helped us meet the challenges that face our nation at this critical time. But equally important, you have provided an example of honesty, decency, and integrity that have made you a valued colleague and friend to us all.

    Professional criticism

    Director of the CIA, Michael Hayden –

    At Central Intelligence Agency Director Michael Hayden’s Senate confirmation hearing, Senator Carl Levin asked nominee Hayden about Feith’s Office of Special Plans:

    Senator Carl Levin:  Were you comfortable with Mr. Feith’s office[23][24] approach to intelligence analysis?
    CIA Director Michael Hayden:  No, sir, I wasn’t. I wasn’t aware of a lot of the activity going on, you know, when it was contemporaneous with running up to the war. No, sir, I wasn’t comfortable. [25]

    The June 27, 2006 Wall Street Journal ran an article called  Hayden Corrects the Record.  It pointed out that though Levin drew this comment from Hayden when the General was speaking extemporaneously, Hayden corrected the record afterward to clarify that his comments were not meant to say that Feith’s work was wrong, misleading or inaccurate. According to the Wall Street Journal,  General Hayden has now publicly confirmed what he had previously said in private conversations with Mr. Feith and with Arizona Senator Jon Kyl: To wit, that he did not intend those remarks as Senator Levin has spun them. In a letter to Mr. Kyl, General Hayden concedes that as former Director of the National Security Agency  I did not have any significant personal contact with Mr. Feith or his office and only occasionally saw the product of their work.

    Hayden’s letter adds that  the issues I attempted to address were focused on broad questions of analytic tradecraft, not characterizing the work of Mr. Feith’s office let alone attempting to address questions of lawfulness or even appropriateness. My comments about ‘wrong,’ ‘inaccurate,’ and ‘misleading’ were attached to a broader discussion of analytic challenges and not to any specific activities, including those under Mr. Feith.

    Former National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice –

    According to the long-running Washington newsletter, The Nelson Report, edited by Christopher Nelson, quoting an anonymous source, Feith was standing in for Rumsfeld at a 2003 interagency ‘Principals’ Meeting’ debating the Middle East, and ended his remarks on behalf of the Pentagon. Then-National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice said,  Thanks Doug, but when we want the Israeli position we’ll invite the ambassador. [26][27]

    Former Secretary of State Colin Powell –

    In Bob Woodward’s book Plan of Attack, then-United States Secretary of State Colin Powell called Feith’s operation at the Pentagon the  Gestapo  office, alleging that it amounted to a separate, unchecked governing authority within the Pentagon.[28]

    Soon after publication of the book, Powell said:

    I don’t recall saying that, but it is a terrible term to use and it is out of place, completely out of place. I have known Doug Feith for many years. We have agreed on many issues and disagreed on some. And I just regret that that has gotten into the literature and become a fact.[29]

    An unnamed Bush administration official said to reporters from Newsday that  Secretary of State Colin Powell complained directly to Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld several days ago about Feith’s policy shop conducting missions that countered US policy. [30]

    Former Pentagon Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski (ret) –

    Lieutenant Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski, who was a Desk Officer in Feith’s Policy organization, spoke of Feith’s style:

    He was very arrogant , describing what it was like to work with him.  He doesn’t utilize a wide variety of inputs. He seeks information that confirms what he already thinks. And he may go to jail for leaking classified information to The Weekly Standard. [31]

    Kwiatkowski believes an article that appeared in The Weekly Standard included a classified memo written by Feith alleging ties between Saddam Hussein and al Qaeda.

    Former Director of the CIA, George Tenet –

    The chapter  No Authority, Direction, or Control  of George Tenet’s memoir deals with the prewar government debate about alleged connections between Iraq and al-Qaeda. According to the Washington Post, Tenet’s memoir paints an  unflattering portrait of Feith as a man eager to manipulate intelligence to push the country to war. [32] Tenet refers to Feith’s office as  Team Feith , writing that he saw their criticisms about the CIA’s Iraq-al Qaeda work as  complete crap.  He added that  when the Pentagon inspector general issued a report in February 2007 calling some of Feith’s efforts ‘inappropriate’, Feith shot back. He said peddling his alternative intelligence was simply an exercise in ‘good government.’ Nonsense (Tenet wrote). This was an example of bad government  (Tenet, page 348).

    Feith reviewed Tenet’s memoir and responded to the allegations about his work in the Wall Street Journal on May 4.[33] On Tenet’s account of the bureaucratic differences over Iraq-al Qaeda issues, Feith writes:  Mr. Tenet devotes a chapter to the matter of Iraq and al Qaeda, giving it the title: ‘No Authority, Direction or Control.’ The phrase implies that we argued that Saddam exercised such powers – authority, direction and control – over al Qaeda. We made no such argument. Rather we said that the CIA’s analysts were not giving serious, professional attention to information about ties between Iraq and al Qaeda. The CIA’s assessments were incomplete, nonrigorous and shaped around the dubious assumption that secular Iraqi Baathists would be unwilling to cooperate with al Qaeda religious fanatics, even when they shared strategic interests. This assumption was disproved when Baathists and jihadists became allies against us in the post-Saddam insurgency, but before the war it was the foundation of much CIA analysis.

    Former Commander Coalition Forces in Iraq, Gen. Tommy Franks (ret) –

    Before the war in Iraq, the Iraqi National Congress proposed recruiting a brigade of Free Iraqi Forces to enter Iraq with the Americans. Feith supported the idea behind the project. United States Army General Tommy Franks did not, as reported in the book Cobra II:  Franks remained unenthusiastic, to say the least. After a briefing from [Feith’s aide Bill] Luti on his pet project, Franks turned to Feith in a Pentagon corridor, letting him know where he stood: ‘I don’t have time for this fucking bullshit,’ Franks exclaimed. [34]

    Franks, according to Plan of Attack, says of Feith:  I have to deal with the fucking stupidest guy on the planet almost every day.  (p.281).[35][36] In his autobiography, American Soldier, Franks describes a conversation with his subordinates who were upset with Rumsfeld, Feith and Paul Wolfowitz; Franks tells them,  Here’s the deal, guys. I know OSD – Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz, and Feith – are demanding a lot. But they are not the enemy. Don’t start thinking good guys-bad guys. We’re all on the same side.  They could see I was serious.  I’ll worry about OSD, all of them – including Doug Feith, who’s getting a reputation around here as the dumbest fucking guy on the planet , I continued.  Your job is to make me feel warm and fuzzy. Look, we’re all professionals. Let’s earn our pay. [37]

    On the April 14, 2006 edition of Hardball with Chris Matthews, Franks changed his assessment of Feith:

    MATTHEWS: What did you think on a scale of one to 10 of the military expertise, of the civilians surrounding Secretary Rumsfeld, the people like Wolfowitz and Feith? How would you on a scale of 1 to 10, where would you put their military savvy?

    FRANKS: I would put the dipstick at oh — with a reasonable degree of understanding, I would put Doug Feith in a category as a brilliant man with some military understanding, but both of these gentlemen were apt to think out of the box. And candidly, Chris, for all I know, maybe that’s what Don Rumsfeld wanted them to do.

    MATTHEWS: Were they ideologues or were they analysts?

    FRANKS: In my personal [opinion], they were analysts. Now, that does not imply that I’m making some statement that they were not ideologues, maybe so, but that’s not the way that I saw them.[38]

    Former Coalition Provisional Authority Official General Jay Garner (Ret.) –

    The former Director of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for the Coalition Provisional Authority, General Jay Garner, reported to Feith for five months following the invasion of Iraq. As quoted in Thomas E. Ricks’s book Fiasco, Garner said of Feith:  I think he’s incredibly dangerous. He’s a smart guy whose electrons aren’t connected, so he arc lights all the time. He can’t organize anything.

    Former Chief of Staff to the Secretary of State, Larry Wilkerson –

    Regarding Feith and his colleague, David Wurmser, Wilkerson has stated:

    A lot of these guys, including Wurmser, I looked at as card-carrying members of the Likud party, as I did with Feith. You wouldn’t open their wallet and find a card, but I often wondered if their primary allegiance was to their own country or to Israel. That was the thing that troubled me, because there was so much that they said and did that looked like it was more reflective of Israel’s interest than our own.[39]

    In 2005, Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, Powell’s chief of staff, publicly stated he could  testify to  Franks’ 2004 comment, and added  Seldom in my life have I met a dumber man. [40][41]

    Former CENTCOM Deputy Director, Lt. General Michael DeLong –

    In an interview with PBS on February 14, 2006, General Michael DeLong was asked about the information coming from Feith’s office in the lead-up to the Iraq war. He replied:

    Feith wasn’t somebody we enjoyed working with, and to go much further than that would probably not be a good thing. To be honest, we blew him off lots of times. Told the secretary that he’s full of baloney, his people working for him are full of baloney. It was a real distraction for us, because he was the number three guy in the Department of Defense.[42]

    Accusations and rebuttals –

    1982 NSC alleged firing and security clearance controversy

    It has been alleged by former National Security Council Intelligence Director Vincent Cannistraro and author Stephen Green that Douglas Feith involuntarily left the NSC in March 1982 and lost his security clearance after he fell under Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) suspicion for passing classified material to Israeli embassy officials who were not entitled to receive it.[43][44][45] This would have required the Bush administration to reissue Feith his clearance before bringing him into the Pentagon.[44] This version of events is disputed by the NSC head at the time, Judge William Clark. When a Montana newspaper reported this accusation, Clark, who was Reagan’s National Security Adviser at the relevant time, wrote a September 22, 2005 letter to the editor[46] to correct the record:

    Your article cites a Mr. Cannistraro to the effect that Mr. Feith was fired for wrongdoing from President Reagan’s National Security Council in 1982. I was President Reagan’s National Security Advisor at the time and I tell you that is untrue. Mr. Feith served honorably on my staff and went on to serve well at the Pentagon under Secretary Cap Weinberger. Because of his fine record, President George W. Bush hired him as his Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

    Counter Terrorism Evaluation Unit

    Feith oversaw the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Unit, established to find links between terrorist organizations and their state sponsors. The group issued a report about connections between Iraq and al-Qaida that Secretary of State Donald Rumsfeld requested Feith deliver to CIA Director George Tenet in August 2002. The report has been widely discredited. Tenet told a congressional committee in March 2004 that the report was not reliable. Daniel Benjamin, former director of counterterrorism at the National Security Council, wrote that, far from proving Saddam-Osama ties,  the document lends substance to the frequently voiced criticism that some in the Bush administration have misused intelligence to advance their policy goals. [2]

    Office of Special Plans –

    Feith led the controversial Office of Special Plans (OSP) at the Pentagon from September 2002 to June 2003.[47] This now defunct intelligence gathering unit has been accused of manipulating intelligence to bolster support for the 2003 US invasion of Iraq.[48] According to The Guardian,  This rightwing intelligence network [was] set up in Washington to second-guess the CIA and deliver a justification for toppling Saddam Hussein by force. [49] According to Kwiatkowski, the Office of Special Plans was  a propaganda shop  and she personally  witnessed neoconservative agenda bearers within OSP usurp measured and carefully considered assessments, and through suppression and distortion of intelligence analysis promulgate what were in fact falsehoods to both Congress and the executive office of the president. [50][51] Senator Carl Levin, in an official report on the Office of Special Plans, singles Feith out as providing to the White House a large amount of Iraq-Al Qaeda allegations which, post-invasion, turned out to be false.[52] Disarmament expert George Perkovich of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace told National Public Radio in 2004,  By all accounts, things in Iraq have gone very, very badly. Doug Feith should have been fired a long time ago for incompetence. [53]

    According to The Guardian, the Office of Special Plans kept an extremely low profile, but was able to do the work of a much larger, high-profile organization:

    There was a mountain of documentation to look through and not much time. The administration wanted to use the momentum gained in Afghanistan to deal with Iraq once and for all. The OSP itself had less than 10 full-time staff, so to help deal with the load, the office hired scores of temporary  consultants . They included lawyers, congressional staffers, and policy wonks from the numerous rightwing thinktanks in Washington. Few had experience in intelligence.  Most of the people they had in that office were off the books, on personal services contracts. At one time, there were over 100 of them,  said an intelligence source. The contracts allow a department to hire individuals, without specifying a job description. As John Pike, a defence analyst at the thinktank GlobalSecurity.org, put it, the contracts  are basically a way they could pack the room with their little friends .  They surveyed data and picked out what they liked,  said Gregory Thielmann, a senior official in the state department’s intelligence bureau until his retirement in September.  The whole thing was bizarre. The secretary of defence had this huge defence intelligence agency, and he went around it.  In fact, the OSP’s activities were a complete mystery to the DIA and the Pentagon.  The iceberg analogy is a good one,  said a senior officer who left the Pentagon during the planning of the Iraq war.  No one from the military staff heard, saw or discussed anything with them. [49]

    Actions Feith authorized at the Office of Special Plans concerning Iraq

    A source of Iraqi WMD intelligence was overseas  back-channel  meetings with foreign citizens, which Feith authorized.[54] According to Newsday and The Boston Globe, these foreigners included former Iran-Contra figures[55] and agents of Iraqi politician Ahmad Chalabi[56] who were shopping[57] WMD[23] intelligence to the Office of Special Plans.[58].

    As Kwiatkowski described, this unvetted WMD information was then  stovepiped  to the White House outside of established intelligence review safeguards for use in building support for the war.[59] Post invasion, the Iraq Survey Group found Iraq had no stocks of WMD, and had not produced WMD since 1991.[60]

    These accounts conflict with the official findings of U.S. House and Senate inquiries into these matters. As noted a March 14, 2004 Washington Post article entitled  Feith’s Analysts Given a Clean Bill :  Neither the House nor Senate intelligence committees…which have been investigating prewar intelligence for eight months, have found support for allegations that Pentagon analysts went out and collected their own intelligence…. Nor have investigators found that the Pentagon analysis about Iraq significantly shaped the case the administration made for going to war.  The subjects of these investigations would be investigated again in 2006 by the Pentagon Inspector General (see below).

    Actions Feith authorized at the Office of Special Plans concerning Iran

    The  back-channel  meetings Feith authorized dealt not only with Iraq, but also with Iran. When Powell learned that Feith was authorizing secret meetings with former Iran-Contra figures such as arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar to investigate options for regime change in Iran, he angrily complained on August 9, 2003 directly to Rumsfeld and then Rice about Feith conducting unauthorized missions that were contrary to official U.S. policy. A senior administration official said the US Government had learned about the unauthorised talks  accidentally , and that it was unsettling  the government hadn’t learnt the lessons of last time around , referring to the secret contacts and rogue operations that led to Iran-Contra.[61]

    Feith’s authorization of contact with Manuchar Ghorbanifar was also controversial. The CIA said that Ghorbanifar  should be regarded as an intelligence fabricator , and put him under a burn notice, warning other intelligence agencies not to use him.[62]

    Investigations of the Office of Special Plans and of Feith

    Officially, Feith is currently under investigation by the Pentagon’s Inspector General and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI).[57] Republican Intelligence Committee Chairman Pat Roberts began the investigation when he wrote to the Pentagon Inspector General asking him to start the review:

    The Committee is concerned about persistent and, to date, unsubstantiated allegations that there was something unlawful or improper about the activities of the Office of Special Plans within the office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy … I have not discovered any credible evidence of unlawful or improper activity, yet the allegations persist.  In an attempt to lay these allegations to rest once and for all, he requested the Inspector General to  initiate an investigation into the activities of the Office of Special Plans during the period prior to the initiation of Operation Iraqi Freedom to determine whether any of [its] activities were unlawful or improper; … [that is,] whether the personnel assigned to the Office of Special Plans, at any time, conducted unauthorized, unlawful, or inappropriate intelligence activities.  Senator Levin has asked the Inspector General to look at the activities of the OUSDP generally, and not just the OSP. The SSCI is awaiting the outcome of the DOD Inspector General’s review. [63] Sources within the SSCI report Feith and the Defense Department have been less than helpful to their investigation.[44]

    As of March 2006 the news organisation Rawstory reports Pat Roberts, head of the Senate Intelligence Committee, was not allowing a complete investigation of Feith and his role at his Office of Special Plans.  One former intelligence official suggested that part of the reason for deferring the Feith inquiry was its sensitivity. A Feith investigation might unravel a bigger can of worms, the source said [64]

    The Chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Jay Rockefeller twice alleged that the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy or Feith may have engaged in unlawful activities,[65] Phase II of the Senate Report of Pre-war Intelligence on Iraq  found nothing to substantiate that claim; nothing unlawful about the  alleged  rogue intelligence operation in the PCTEG, nothing unlawful about the Office of Special Plans, and nothing unlawful about the so-called failure to inform Congress of alleged intelligence activities. [65] The previous year, the chairman released a press statement claiming that it appeared that the offices were  not in compliance with the law. [65]

    Defense Department Inspector General Report Issued

    Tasked to examine a briefing that members of Feith’s Policy office delivered in summer-fall 2002 to Secretary Rumsfeld, CIA Director Tenet and White House officials including Steve Hadley and Scooter Libby, the Defense Department Inspector General Thomas Gimble found on February 9, 2007 that Feith’s office did nothing unlawful, unauthorized or that attempted to mislead Congress[66] But, the Policy briefing’s criticisms of the CIA’s intelligence work were found by Gimble to be  inappropriate  because they were  inconsistent with the consensus of the intelligence community. [67]

    The Policy briefing in question  did not provide the most accurate analysis of intelligence to senior decision makers , Gimble argued, at a time when the White House was moving toward war with Iraq.[68]

    According to the Washington Post, Feith’s  office had asserted in a briefing given to Cheney’s chief of staff in September 2002 that the relationship between Iraq and al-Qaeda was ‘mature’ and ‘symbiotic,’ marked by shared interests and evidenced by cooperation across 10 categories, including training, financing and logistics. Instead, the CIA had concluded in June 2002 that there were few substantiated contacts between al-Qaeda operatives. The contrary conclusions reached by Feith’s office – and leaked to the conservative Weekly Standard magazine before the war were publicly praised by Dick Cheney as the best source of information on the topic, a circumstance the Pentagon report cites in documenting the impact of what it described as ‘inappropriate’ work. [69]

    In February 2007, Feith launched an Internet website, dougfeith.com, following the Defense Department’s Inspector General report on pre-war activities of the Pentagon’s policy organization. The report,  spawned a lot of inaccurate commentary by politicians and misreporting by journalists,  and Feith said he launched the website,  to provide accurate information and sound commentary on the IG report controversy. I will use it also to provide reliable news items and other material about the work of the policy organization during my tenure as Under Secretary.
    Feith’s undergraduate work at Harvard and National Security Council position under Professor Richard Pipes in the 1970s and 80’s presages present-day controversy over intelligence critiques. At University, Feith was involved with  Team B  analysis: or critiques of existing intelligence.[9] In the late 1970s, many American conservatives believed the Soviet Union was a qualitatively graver threat than US intelligence agencies believed. These fears later proved unfounded. Feith applied a similar ideological lens to existing intelligence regarding Iraq.[70][71]

    The response to the Inspector General’s report has been determined along partisan lines.[72][73]
    The neutrality of this section is disputed.
    Please see the discussion on the talk page. (February 2008)
    Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved.

    Subordinate’s involvement in the Lawrence Franklin espionage scandal

    A subordinate of Feith’s, Larry Franklin, was convicted, and sentenced to 12 years in Federal prison in 2005 for charges in an espionage scandal. Franklin was accused and convicted of passing classified information to an Israeli diplomat and Steven Rosen, an employee of the Israeli AIPAC lobby. A reporter for the Asia Times wrote in September 2004 that the ongoing FBI counter-espionage probe into improper transmission of classified information to AIPAC from 1999 to shortly before the 2003 Iraq Invasion could involve Feith.[45] Feith has not publicly commented on the investigation.[56] Franklin was one of 1,500[74] employees at Feith’s Pentagon office, and officially worked six layers of bureaucracy beneath Feith. However, while leading the Office of Special Plans (OSP), Feith used Larry Franklin repeatedly for sensitive meetings involving foreign citizens, overseas.[54]

    According to The Guardian, Feith’s office had an unconventional relationship with Israel’s intelligence services:

    The OSP was an open and largely unfiltered conduit to the White House not only for the Iraqi opposition. It also forged close ties to a parallel, ad hoc intelligence operation inside Ariel Sharon’s office in Israel specifically to bypass Mossad and provide the Bush administration with more alarmist reports on Saddam’s Iraq than Mossad was prepared to authorise.

    None of the Israelis who came were cleared into the Pentagon through normal channels , said one source familiar with the visits. Instead, they were waved in on Feith’s authority without having to fill in the usual forms.

    The exchange of information continued a long-standing relationship Feith and other Washington neo-conservatives had with Israel’s Likud party.[49]

    Also in September 2004, writing in an op-ed for the Gulf News, Adel Safty, the UNESCO Chair of Leadership and President of the School of Government and Leadership, Bahcesehir University in Istanbul, writes,  the FBI may be pursuing the wrong guy. Franklin is working for a more fanatical supporter of Israel with a higher security clearance: Under Secretary of Defence for Policy Douglas Feith, in his support for the extremist elements of the Israel’s Likud party, played a crucial role in getting the USA to wage war against Iraq, and is trying to get it to intervene against Iran. Feith’s services and loyalty to the Israeli extremists make the FBI investigation of Franklin’s spy activities pale in insignificance. [75]

    Feith has been defended by Frank Gaffney, the head of the Center for Security Policy and a Feith friend since they served together in the Reagan administration. Gaffney told the Philadelphia Inquirer,  To construe Doug as this sort of running dog of the Jewish state, a Zionist proxy in the Pentagon, is totally false and deeply offensive. [53]

    See also

    Lobbying in the United States

    Footnotes

    1. ^  Feith, Douglas J. , Current Biography, H.W. Wilson, 2008
    2. ^ a b  Douglas Feith: What has the Pentagon’s third man done wrong? Everything. , Slate, May 20, 2004
    3. ^  Insider: Iraq Attack Was Preemptive , CBS News, April 6, 2008
    4. ^ a b Kamen, Al (2008-04-23).  Feith and Hope . In the Loop (Washington Post): pp. A19. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/22/AR2008042202465.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
    5. ^ Official Bio, Hudson Institute website.
    6. ^ Goldberg, Jeffery (May 9, 2005).  A Little Learning: What Douglas Feith knew, and when he knew it. . The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/articles/050509fa_fact. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
    7. ^ Feldman, William (April 14, 2005).  In Defense of America, he’s third in line . Northeast Times. http://www.northeasttimes.com/2005/0414/kids.html. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
    8. ^ a b Feith, Douglas (April 23, 2004).  Defense, democracy and the war on terrorism . US Department of Defense. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PAH/is_2004_April_23/ai_116585447. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
    9. ^ a b Defense, democracy and the war on terrorism – Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Douglas J. Feith – Transcript | US Department of Defense Speeches | Find Articles at BNET.com
    10. ^ Douglas J. Feith, Civil Liberties, Civil Society and Civility
    11. ^ Faculty’s Chilly Welcome for Ex-Pentagon Official – New York Times
    12. ^ NEWSMEAT ? Douglas Feith’s Federal Campaign Contribution Report
    13. ^ A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm
    14. ^ The Men From JINSA and CSP, by Jason Vest, 9/2/02
    15. ^ Letter from Washington: A Little Learning: The New Yorker
    16. ^ Insider: Iraq Attack Was Preemptive
    17. ^ DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary Rumsfeld Interview with Barry Schweid, Associated Press
    18. ^ DefenseLink Speech:
    19. ^ SignOnSanDiego.com > In Iraq – Rumsfeld defends aide against attack by Gen. Franks
    20. ^ DefenseLink Speech:
    21. ^ Letter from Washington: A Little Learning: The New Yorker
    22. ^ http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2005/sp20050808-1841.html
    23. ^ a b Annals of National Security: The Stovepipe: The New Yorker
    24. ^ CIA Hearings May Bring Oversight Debate
    25. ^ Transcript: Hearing on the Nomination of Gen. Michael Hayden to be Director of the CIA, Washington Post, Thursday, May 18, 2006
    26. ^ Saving Feith
    27. ^ Jim Lobe,  Feith Leaving Pentagon – Twilight of the Neo-Cons? , Inter Press Service, January 27, 2005
    28. ^ washingtonpost.com: Bush Began to Plan War Three Months After 9/11
    29. ^ Interview on APTV with Barry Schweid and George Gedda
    30. ^ Knut Royce and Timothy M. Phelps,  Secret Talks With Iranian Arms Dealer , Newsday (8 August 2003).
    31. ^ Article | The American Prospect
    32. ^ Teaching Recent History From Opposite Perspectives – washingtonpost.com
    33. ^ Douglas J. Feith
    34. ^ AEI – Short Publications – Who Lost Iraq? It’s Not Who You Think
    35. ^ The condensed Bob Woodward. – By Bryan Curtis – Slate Magazine
    36. ^ The Long March to Baghdad – Council on Foreign Relations
    37. ^ Tommy Franks, American Soldier, p. 362.
    38. ^ ‘Hardball with Chris Matthews’ for April 14 – Hardball with Chris Matthews – MSNBC.com
    39. ^ Article | The American Prospect
    40. ^ Colonel Finally Saw Whites of Their Eyes
    41. ^  Pentagon Capers , segment on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, Comedy Central, February 13, 2007. Retrieved on March 21, 2008.
    42. ^ FRONTLINE: the dark side: interviews: lt. gen. michael delong | PBS
    43. ^ [1][dead link]
    44. ^ a b c The Raw Story | Pentagon investigation of Iraq war hawk stalling Senate inquiry into pre-war Iraq intelligence
    45. ^ a b Asia Times – Asia’s most trusted news source for the Middle East
    46. ^ http://www.billingsnews.com/story?storyid=18196&issue=285
    47. ^ Office of Special Plans: Information and Much More from Answers.com
    48. ^ Annals of National Security: Selective Intelligence: The New Yorker
    49. ^ a b c Special investigation: The spies who pushed for war on Iraq | World news | The Guardian
    50. ^ [2][dead link]
    51. ^ The Lie Factory
    52. ^ Preface
    53. ^ a b Steve Goldstein,  As Iraq struggles, critics zero in on Pentagon aide , Philadelphia Inquirer (28 September 2004) A1.
    54. ^ a b The Raw Story | Senate Intelligence Committee stalling pre-war intelligence report
    55. ^ Pentagon Officials Hold Secret Talks With Iranian Arms Dealer
    56. ^ a b Wider FBI Probe Of Pentagon Leaks Includes Chalabi (washingtonpost.com)
    57. ^ a b 2d probe at the Pentagon examines actions on Iraq – The Boston Globe
    58. ^  Iran-Contra II?  by Joshua Micah Marshall, Laura Rozen, and Paul Glastris
    59. ^ Annals of National Security: The Stovepipe: The New Yorker
    60. ^ FOXNews.com – Report: No Iraq WMDs Made After ’91 – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum
    61. ^ Knut Royce and Timothy M. Phelps,  Secret Talks With Iranian Arms Dealer , Newsday (Long Island, NY), August 8, 2003
    62. ^ Asia Times -Veteran neo-con adviser moves on Iran
    63. ^ http://rpc.senate.gov/_files/Feb0706DoDIntellMS.pdf
    64. ^ The Raw Story | Prewar intelligence probe grinds towards end as parties accuse each other of delay
    65. ^ a b c   Senate Report on Intelligence Activities Relating To Iraq Conducted By The Policy of Counterterrorism Evaluation Group and the Office of Special Plans Within The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy  (PDF). http://intelligence.senate.gov/080605/phase2b.pdf.
    66. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,,-6403435,00.html
    67. ^ David S. Cloud and Mark Mazzetti,  Pentagon Group Criticized for Prewar Intelligence Analysis , New York Times, February 9, 2007. Retrieved on March 21, 2008.
    68. ^ Ex-Pentagon official calls prewar intelligence review ‘good government’ – USATODAY.com
    69. ^ Hussein’s Prewar Ties To Al-Qaeda Discounted – washingtonpost.com
    70. ^ Rumsfeld’s plan to connect Saddam and al-Qaida – By Fred Kaplan – Slate Magazine
    71. ^ It’s Time to Bench  Team B
    72. ^  Review of Pre-Iraqi War Activities by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy  (PDF). United States Department of Defense Office of Inspector General. February 10, 2007. http://www.dodig.mil/IGInformation/archives/Unclass%20%20Executive%20Summary.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
    73. ^ Cloud, David (February 10, 2007).  Inquiry on Intelligence Gaps May Reach to White House . New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/10/washington/10feith.html?em&ex=1171256400&en=d3f38b78d0ae254d&ei=5087. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
    74. ^ The New York Times > Washington > Campaign 2004 > F.B.I. Is Said to Brief Pentagon Bosses on Spy Case; Charges Are Possible
    75. ^ Adel Safty,  Spying for Israel: Got the Wrong Guy , Gulf News (13 September 2004).

    Further reading

    * [http://fora.tv/2008/10/23/Douglas_Feith_War_and_Decision War and Decision: Ford Hall Forum

    Boston, MA October 23, 2008] a video of a talk by Douglas Feith 1hr and 42min.

    * Maureen Dowd,  The Dream is Dead,  The New York Times, 12 December 2007
    * Vanity Fair editor Craig Unger on the development of the Office of Special Plans
    * Special Plans: the blogs on Douglas Feith and the faulty intelligence that led to war by Allison Hantschel, Wilsonville, Oregon: William, James & Co., September 2005 ISBN 1-59028-049-0
    * Deadly Dogma: How Neoconservatives Broke the Law to Deceive America by Smith, Grant F., Institute for Research: Middle Eastern Policy, 2006, ISBN 0-9764437-4-0.
    * Clear Ideas vs. Foggy Bottom by Melanie Kirkpatrick, The Wall Street Journal August 5, 2003, p. A8.
    * White House Learned of Spy Probe in 2001 by Curt Anderson, Associated Press, September 3, 2004.
    * Chain of Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib by Seymour Hersh, New York: Harper Collins. 2004. ISBN 0-06-019591-6.
    * Israel’s Legitimacy in Law and History Feith, Douglas J., et al; ed. Siegel, Edward M.; assoc.ed. Barrekette, Olga; Proceedings of the Conference on International Law and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (New York, October 21, 1990), Sponsored by The Louis D. Brandeis Society of Zionist Lawyers, Center for Near East Policy Research, 1993, ISBN 0-9640145-0-5.
    * A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm by David Wurmser, 1996
    * Plan of Attack by Bob Woodward, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004, ISBN 0-7432-5547-X.
    * A Dangerous Appointment: Profile of Douglas Feith, Undersecretary of Defense under Bush by James J. Zogby, Middle East Information Center, April 18, 2001
    * Israeli Settlements: Legitimate, Democratically Mandated, Vital to Israel’s Security and, Therefore, in U.S. Interest, The Center for Security Policy, Transition Brief No. 96-T 130, December 17, 1996

    External links

    Biographies

    * Douglas Feith’s personal website
    * Douglas Feith biography, from The Jewish Virtual Library
    * Profile: Douglas Feith a timeline of Feith’s Iraq policies at Center for Cooperative Research

    Editorials

    Editorials and opinion columnists, in reverse chronological order:

    * The Dream Is Dead (Commentary on Doug Feith) by Maureen Dowd, New York Times, December 12, 2007.
    * Vindicating Douglas Feith, New York Sun editorial, February 12, 2007.
    * Douglas Feith’s  inappropriate  hyping of the case for the Iraq War by former senior CIA political analyst Kathleen Christison, Adbusters, May-June, 2007.
    * Who’s Spinning Intel? Captured Iraqi documents tell a different story by Thomas Jocelyn, April 13, 2007.
    * Who’s Misleading Whom? by Rich Tucker, Townhall.com, March 9, 2007.
    * Borking Doug Feith, by Robert Blackwill and Ed Rogers, The Washington Times, March 8, 2007.
    * Feith on Trial: Facts don’t matter to Carl Levin, by Mario Loyola, National Review, February 27, 2007.
    * The Misuses of Intelligence, by Michael Barone, The Washington Times, February 19, 2007.
    * Doug Feith Deserves Our Thanks, by Hugh Hewitt, abcnews.com, February 12, 2007.
    * Senator Ahab, Wall Street Journal editorial, February 12, 2007.
    * Intelligence Games, by Andrew McCarthy, National Review, February 9, 2007.
    * Hayden’s Heroes, Wall Street Journal editorial, May 31, 2006.
    * Moby Feith, Wall Street Journal editorial, October 25, 2004.
    * Spy probe scans neo-cons’ Israel ties by Jim Lobe, Asia Times, September 2, 2004.
    * Douglas Feith: What has the Pentagon’s third man done wrong? Everything. by Chris Suellentrop, Slate, Thursday, May 20, 2004.
    * Douglas Feith’s federal campaign contribution report at NewsMeat, 1986-present.

    Press releases and news articles

    * The spies who pushed for war by Julian Borger The Guardian, July 17, 2003
    * The Department of Defense the Office of Special Plans and Iraq Pre-War Intelligence by Jon Kyl, Republic Policy Committee, US Senate, February 7, 2006
    * Report on the U.S. Intel communities assesments on Iraq by U.S. Senate
    * Speech: Farewell Ceremony for Douglas Feith by Rumsfeld, Pentagon Auditorium, Washington, DC, Monday, August 8, 2005
    * Weapons of Mass Destruction by The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the U.S.
    *  A Little Learning: What Doug Feith Knew and When He Knew It  by Jeffrey Goldberg, The New Yorker, 2005-05-09
    * Conservatives Press for Stronger Campus Presence by D. Pierce Nixon, The Hoya, January 31, 2006
    * Gallucci Considers Feith for SFS Appointment by Caitlin Moran, The Hoya, February 9, 2006
    * FBI probes DOD office by Richard Sale, The Washington Times, August 24. 2004
    * Wider FBI Probe Of Pentagon Leaks Includes Chalabi by Robin Wright and Thomas E. Ricks, Washington Post, September 3, 2004
    * Pentagon investigation of Iraq war hawk stalling Senate inquiry into pre-war Iraq intelligence by Larisa Alexandrovna, Raw Story, January 30, 2006
    * 2d probe at the Pentagon examines actions on Iraq by Bryan Bender, Boston Globe, August 31, 2004
    * Mazzetti, Mark  Contentious Defense Official to Depart . Los Angeles Times, January 27, 2005

    Government offices
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    Walter B. Slocombe     United States Department of Defense
    Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
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    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_J._Feith
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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_Feith

    ***

    ***

    Feith’s first job in government came shortly after he graduated from Harvard, as an intern to a subcommittee chaired by Senator Henry (Scoop) Jackson, whose office was a locus of neoconservative thought. Apart from tours at the National Security Council and the Pentagon during the Reagan Administration (he was a top aide to the neoconservative Richard Perle, who was then an assistant secretary of defense), he has spent his professional life in the private practice of law—he received a law degree from Georgetown University—and as an insistent advocate of neoconservative causes.

    Feith, who announced earlier this year that he will be leaving his post by this summer—he said he hopes to write a book about his experiences—has not often met the reigning aesthetic of Washington. It has been Feith’s job, as the top policy adviser to Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and his departing deputy, Paul Wolfowitz, to help build the intellectual framework for the Bush Administration’s campaign against terrorism. His detractors see him as an ideologue who manipulated intelligence to bring about the invasion of Iraq. His main nemesis on Capitol Hill, Senator Carl Levin, a Michigan Democrat who serves on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, told me that Feith deceived not only the White House but Congress as well. Yet the criticism of Feith in Washington goes beyond his ideology, to his competence. Even some fellow-neoconservatives, who have been lacerating in their criticism of Rumsfeld for his management of postwar Iraq, have asked whether Feith is better at reading history than at shaping it. “I don’t know whether Feith deserves more praise for supporting George W. Bush’s foreign policy or more criticism for being an agent of Rumsfeld,” William Kristol, the editor of the Weekly Standard, said.

    Douglas J. Feith, who is the UnderSecretary of Defense for Policy, lives in one of the better Maryland suburbs, on a street of large and unhandsome Colonial homes. The interior of Feith’s house has space and light, but it is furnished in a mostly expedient manner; Feith and his wife, Tatiana, have four children—ages eight to twenty-one—and the house feels very much theirs.

    The exception is Feith’s library. It is apparent that he has devoted considerable care and money to its design and, in particular, to its collection, which numbers at least five thousand volumes. The floors and shelves are dark oak, and the walls are covered in hunter-green wallpaper. The library is not in the style of the high-station Washington bureaucrat who wants to telegraph his indispensability; there are few photographs of Feith in the company of potentates and prime ministers and presidents. Instead, Feith has filled the room with images of figures who have earned his admiration. Busts of Washington and Lincoln sit on the shelves; Churchill scowls in the direction of Feith’s desk. A black-and-white portrait of Theodore Herzl, the founder of Zionism, hangs over a green leather couch. In his collection, history has displaced nearly every other subject; fiction—his favorite is Nabokov—has been exiled to the basement. The library is weighted disproportionately to the history of the British Empire, and Feith has spent many hours schooling himself in the schemes and follies of the British on the playing fields of the Middle East.

    In conversation, Feith is not often on point. The first time we met, I was prepared to ask about his role in the management of postwar Iraq. Feith, though, preferred to discuss the influence on his thinking of Edmund Burke, the political philosopher who feared instability as much as neoconservatives seem to embrace it. I asked Feith to imagine what Burke would have thought about the Bush Administration’s experiment in Iraq. “Burke warns in his writings about the danger of political abstractions put forward as universal principles,” Feith said. Burke, he continued, “wrote brilliantly and bitterly about the French Revolution and the danger to a society of a bunch of people thinking they could remake society rationally and get rid of all the institutions that have grown up over centuries and reflect the distilled wisdom of numerous people.” But the Bush Administration, Feith added, did nothing of the sort.

    To draft Burke into the Bush Cabinet is typical of Feith: counterintuitive and clever, maybe too clever. He rejected the idea that Bush was seeking to remake Iraq in America’s image: “I believe that what makes President Bush’s policy of democracy promotion better, wiser, more careful than what one could describe as starry-eyed Wilsonianism is precisely the recognition that we should not be taking the particulars of our political views and our institutions and trying to impose them in places where there is not fertile soil.” He also said that the idea of “Shiite democracy,” a system in which clerics would play a large role, does not frighten him. “In different parts of the world, clerics play a larger or smaller role in the political process. The idea that there may be a country where clerics play a larger role in the political process than they do in America is not inherently antidemocratic or alarming,” he said. “What the President talks about is that it is the nature of man to want to be free. I don’t think that violates Burke’s warnings.”

    Feith’s library includes a large selection of books on Zionism, but he did not linger there. “I’m not looking to aggravate a distortion about me,” Feith said. The distortion, he said, is that his religion, or at least his longtime support for right-wing Israeli leaders, has affected his policy recommendations to Rumsfeld. Feith dismisses this criticism as a willful misunderstanding of his motives. “My interest in democratization predates the focus on the Middle East,” he says. Rumsfeld, for his part, derides the idea that the Administration was manipulated by its sub-Cabinet-level Jewish officials. “I suppose the implication of that is that the President and the Vice-President and myself and Colin Powell just fell off a turnip truck to take these jobs,” he said.

    One afternoon, I asked Feith what had gone wrong in Iraq.

    “Your assumption is that everything went wrong,” he replied.

    I hadn’t said that, but I spoke of the loss of American lives—more than fifteen hundred soldiers, most of whom died after the declared end of major combat operations. This number, I said, strikes many people as a large and terrible loss.

    “Based on what?” Feith asked. “It’s a large sacrifice. It’s a serious loss. It’s an absolute disaster for the families. Nobody can possibly deny how horrible the loss is for the families involved. But this was an operation to prevent the next, as it were, 9/11, the next major attack that could kill tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of Americans, and Iraq is a country of twenty-five million people and it was a major enterprise.”

    Before the war, the Administration argued that the overthrow of the Baath regime would prevent a marriage of Al Qaeda terrorists to Saddam’s chemical and biological weapons. But after the fall of Saddam the United States and its coalition partners discovered that Saddam had apparently destroyed his stockpiles of unconventional weapons, and the Administration has been unable to prove a close operational relationship between Al Qaeda and the Iraqi regime.

    I asked Feith if he would have recommended the invasion of Iraq if he knew then what he knows now.

    “The main rationale was not based on intelligence,” Feith said. “It was known to anyone who read newspapers and knew history. Saddam had used nerve gas, he had invaded his neighbors more than once, he had attacked other neighbors, he was hostile to us, he supported numerous terrorist groups. It’s true that he didn’t have a link that we know of to 9/11. . . . But he did give safe haven to terrorists.”

    **
    The largest controversy of Feith’s Pentagon career concerned his role in the lead-up to the war. Feith created two new units within his policy shop: the Office of Special Plans and the Policy Counterterrorism Evaluation Group. Special Plans was the name given to a new subregional office focussed on Iraq. The Ian Fleming-like label was chosen, Feith said, to obscure its mission; at the time, the Bush Administration was publicly pursuing a diplomatic solution to the Iraq crisis, and the Pentagon did not want to advertise that it was engaged in planning for postwar Iraq. The eighteen members of the Special Plans staff prepared strategies on a range of issues that America would face after an invasion: repairing Iraq’s economy and oil industry, the training of a new police force, war-crimes trials, the reorganization of the Iraqi government. The State Department, meanwhile, named its own planning program in a more straightforward way: its Future of Iraq project was also a study of problems anticipated in postwar Iraq. The two programs were not well coördinated; partisans of the State Department have accused the Pentagon of ignoring its planning effort. Feith told me he did not ignore the State Department effort, which he called “a bunch of concept papers.”

    The Policy Counterterrorism Evaluation Group was devoted to alternative intelligence analysis; it employed a rotating staff of two people who were asked to read intelligence data provided by the C.I.A. in order to find unexamined connections between state sponsors of terrorism and terrorist groups. Feith said, “I went to these two guys and said, ‘Read the intelligence so you can tell me what I need to know about, so I can develop a strategy and policies for dealing with terror networks.’ ” Most of the work of this unit was soon focused on looking for evidence of ties between Al Qaeda and Saddam. The analysts looked at data from old intelligence reports and concluded that the C.I.A. had overlooked or downplayed evidence of an operational relationship; they prepared a presentation for Feith.

    Rumsfeld instructed Feith to offer the briefing to George Tenet, who was then the director of the C.I.A., and Feith’s analysts made the presentation to C.I.A. officials in August of 2002. Several weeks later, the analysts made a more aggressive presentation to White House officials. They included the assertion that the leader of the September 11th hijackers, Mohamed Atta, met with an agent of Iraqi intelligence in Prague shortly before the attacks.

    Feith’s Democratic critics accused the counterterrorism group of providing the Administration with incorrect intelligence to buttress its case that Saddam and Al Qaeda were in league. “He was giving the Administration analysis that they wanted to hear,” Senator Levin told me. “It was misleading, it was deceptive, it was based on feeble information.” Feith’s view is that the analysts were simply involved in alternative analysis—an idea that has become increasingly popular as Washington looks for ways to improve its ability to read intelligence.

    Although the work of the Policy Counterterrorism Evaluation Group has been a preoccupation for many opponents of the Bush Administration, Feith’s work in Special Plans had far more significance. In his library, I asked Feith what the Office of Special Plans planned. He began by disagreeing with the prevailing wisdom in Washington: that the crises of the past two years—the insurgency, the embitterment of Iraqis toward the United States, the civilian and military casualties—were in many cases preventable. He even disagreed with the notion that they were as serious as many Americans believe them to be.

    “There’s a paradox I’ve never been able to work out,” he said. “It helps to be deeply knowledgeable about an area—to know the people, to know the language, to know the history, the culture, the literature. But it is not a guarantee that you will have the right strategy or policy as a matter of statecraft for dealing with that area. You see, the great experts in certain areas sometimes get it fundamentally wrong.”

    I asked Feith if he was talking about himself, and he said, “I am talking about myself in the following sense: expertise is a very good thing, but it is not the same thing as sound judgment regarding strategy and policy. George W. Bush has more insight, because of his knowledge of human beings and his sense of history, about the motive force, the craving for freedom and participation in self-rule, than do many of the language experts and history experts and culture experts.”

    Letter from Washington
    A Little Learning
    What Douglas Feith knew, and when he knew it.
    by Jeffrey Goldberg May 9, 2005

    http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/05/09/050509fa_fact?currentPage=all

    ***
    Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a former United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, and President of the World Bank. He is currently a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships,[2] and chairman of the US-Taiwan Business Council.[3]

    As Deputy Secretary of Defense, he was  a major architect of President Bush’s Iraq policy and … its most hawkish advocate. [4][5][6][7] After serving two years, he resigned as president of the World Bank Group  ending a protracted and tumultuous battle over his stewardship, sparked by a promotion he arranged for his companion. [8][9]
    Contents

    * 1 Personal history
    o 1.1 Post-secondary education
    + 1.1.1 Cornell University
    + 1.1.2 University of Chicago
    * 2 Career
    o 2.1 Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
    o 2.2 Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs
    o 2.3 State Department Director of Policy Planning
    o 2.4 State Department Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    o 2.5 Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia
    o 2.6 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
    o 2.7 Out of office
    o 2.8 Deputy Secretary of Defense
    o 2.9 President of the World Bank
    * 3 Recent controversies
    o 3.1 Wolfowitz’s economic arguments pertaining to the Iraq War
    o 3.2 Wolfowitz’s relationship with Shaha Riza
    o 3.3 Wolfowitz’s leadership of the World Bank Group
    * 4 See also
    * 5 Notes
    * 6 External links

    Personal history

    The second child of Jacob  Jack  Wolfowitz (1910–1981) and Lillian Dundes, Paul Wolfowitz  was born in Brooklyn, New York, into a Polish Jewish immigrant family, and grew up mainly in Ithaca, New York, where his father was a professor of statistical theory at Cornell University. [10][11]  In addition to being prolific in research  and  very well read,  according to Shelemyahu Zacks, Jacob Wolfowitz  fought at the time for the liberation of Soviet Jewry. He was a friend and strong supporter of the state of Israel, AIPAC member and had many friends and admirers there. [12] Strongly influenced by his father, according to Eric Schmitt, Paul Wolfowitz became  a soft-spoken former aspiring-mathematician-turned-policymaker … [whose] world views … were forged by family history and in the halls of academia rather than in the jungles of Vietnam or the corridors of Congress … [His father] … escaped Poland after World War I. The rest of his father’s family perished in the Holocaust. [13] (Here Eric Schmitt is mistaken as Jacob Wolfowitz simply emigrated.)

    As a boy, Wolfowitz devoured books about the Holocaust and Hiroshima—what he calls ‘the polar horrors’ .[4] Speaking of the influence of the Holocaust on his views, Wolfowitz said:

    That sense of what happened in Europe in World War II has shaped a lot of my views … It’s a very bad thing when people exterminate other people, and people persecute minorities. It doesn’t mean you can prevent every such incident in the world, but it’s also a mistake to dismiss that sort of concern as merely humanitarian and not related to real interest. [13]

    Before first moving to Ithaca, in the fall of 1952 for his father’s new post, the Wolfowitzes lived in Manhattan:  I was born in Brooklyn but we grew up in Manhattan, one block down on Morningside Drive … from the President of Columbia who for part of that time was Dwight Eisenhower. [14][15] After teaching for a year at Cornell, his father took a year long sabbatical and was accompanied by his family, spending half the time at UCLA, and half at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In 1957, Paul Wolfowitz lived in Israel, while his father was a visiting professor at the Israel Institute of Technology (Technion IIT), in Haifa.[12][5]

    Wolfowitz took classes at Cornell University while still a student at Ithaca High School.[16] In the mid-1960s, while they were both undergraduate students at Cornell, he met Clare Selgin, who later became an anthropologist. They married in 1968, had three children, lived in Chevy Chase, Maryland, separated in 1999, and, according to some sources, became legally separated in 2001 and divorced in 2002.[10][11][5][17][18]

    In late 1999, Wolfowitz began dating Shaha Ali Riza. Their relationship led to controversy later, during his presidency of the World Bank Group.[5][19]

    Wolfowitz speaks five languages in addition to English;  Wolfowitz taught himself Arabic in the 1980s, when he was working at the State Department,  and  He also speaks French, German, Hebrew, and Indonesian. [5]

    Post-secondary education

    Cornell University

    Wolfowitz entered Cornell University in 1961, on full scholarship. He was a member of the Telluride Association, a non-profit organization founded in 1910.[11] He lived in the Telluride House through academic year 1962 to 1963, while philosophy professor Allan Bloom served as a faculty mentor living in the house.[11] Schmitt observes that Wolfowitz first  became a protégé of the political philosopher Allan Bloom, and then of Albert Wohlstetter, the father of hard-line conservative strategic thinking at the University of Chicago. [13] In August 1963,  when he was nineteen, he and his mother attended the civil-rights march on Washington organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. and others .[5][11]

    Though he  majored in mathematics and chemistry … he was profoundly moved by John Hersey’s Hiroshima and shifted his focus toward politics. ‘One of the things that ultimately led me to leave mathematics and go into political science was thinking I could prevent nuclear war,’ he said. [13]

    Wolfowitz graduated in 1965 with a Bachelor’s degree degree in mathematics and chemistry. Against his father’s wishes, Wolfowitz decided to go to graduate school to study politics.[11]

    University of Chicago

    Following his graduation from Cornell, Wolfowitz attended the University of Chicago in order to study under Leo Strauss. He completed his PhD dissertation under Albert Wohlstetter. In the summer of 1969, Wohlstetter arranged for his students Wolfowitz, Wilson, and Richard Perle to join the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy which was set up by Cold War architects Paul Nitze and Dean Acheson.

    From 1970 to 1972, Wolfowitz taught in the Department of Political Science at Yale University, where one of his students was I. Lewis  Scooter  Libby.[20]

    In 1972, Wolfowitz earned a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago, writing his doctoral dissertation on  nuclear proliferation in the Middle East .[21]

    Career

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
    Main article: Team B

    In the 1970s Wolfowitz served as an aide to Democratic Senator Henry M. Jackson, who influenced several neoconservatives, including Wolfowitz and Richard Perle. Jackson  was the quintessential ‘Cold War liberal.’ He was an outspoken and influential advocate of increased military spending and a hard line against the Soviet Union, while supporting social welfare programs, civil rights, and the labor movement. [22]

    In 1972 U.S. President Richard Nixon, under pressure from Senator Jackson, dismissed the head of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and replaced him with Fred Ikle. Ikle brought in a new team including Wolfowitz. Wolfowitz wrote research papers and drafted testimony, as he had previously done at the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy. He traveled with Ikle to strategic arms limitations talks in Paris and other European cities. He helped dissuade South Korea from reprocessing plutonium that could be diverted into a clandestine weapons program.

    Under President Gerald Ford, the American intelligence agencies had come under attack over their annually published National Intelligence Estimate. According to Mann:  The underlying issue was whether the C.I.A. and other agencies were underestimating the threat from the Soviet Union, either by intentionally tailoring intelligence to support Kissinger’s policy of détente or by simply failing to give enough weight to darker interpretations of Soviet intentions.  In an attempt to counter these claims, the newly appointed Director of Central Intelligence, George H.W. Bush authorized the formation of a committee of anti-Communist experts, headed by Richard Pipes, to reassess the raw data. Richard Pipes picked Wolfowitz, to serve on this committee, which came to be known as Team B:  ‘Richard Perle recommended him,’ Pipes says of Wolfowitz today [2003, as quoted by Tanenhaus]. ‘I’d never heard of him.’ [23]

    The team’s report, delivered in 1976 and quickly leaked to the press, stated that  All the evidence points to an undeviating Soviet commitment to what is euphemistically called the ‘worldwide triumph of socialism,’ but in fact connotes global Soviet hegemony,  highlighting a number of key areas where they believed the government’s intelligence analysts had got it wrong. According to Jack Davis, Wolfowitz observed later:

    The B-Team demonstrated that it was possible to construct a sharply different view of Soviet motivation from the consensus view of the [intelligence] analysts and one that provided a much closer fit to the Soviets’ observed behavior (and also provided a much better forecast of subsequent behavior up to and through the invasion of Afghanistan). The formal presentation of the competing views in a session out at [CIA headquarters in] Langley also made clear that the enormous experience and expertise of the B-Team as a group were formidable.[24]

    The work of Team B, the accuracy of its conclusions, and its effects on U.S. military policies remain controversial.[20][25][26]

    Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs

    In 1977, during the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, Wolfowitz moved to The Pentagon. He was employed as U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs for the U.S. Defense Department, under then U.S. Secretary of Defense Harold Brown.

    In early 1980, Wolfowitz resigned from the Pentagon and went to work as a visiting professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. According to the Washington Post;  He said it was not he who changed his political philosophy so much as the Democratic Party, which abandoned the hard-headed internationalism of Harry Truman, Kennedy and Jackson. [1]

    State Department Director of Policy Planning

    In 1980, following the election of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the newly appointed U.S. National Security Advisor Richard V. Allen put together the administration’s foreign policy advisory team. Allen initially rejected Wolfowitz’s appointment but following discussions, instigated by former colleague John Lehman, Allen offered Wolfowitz the position of Director of Policy Planning at the U.S. State Department.

    President Reagan’s foreign policy was heavily influenced by the Kirkpatrick Doctrine, as outlined in a 1979 article in Commentary by Jeanne Kirkpatrick entitled  Dictatorships and Double Standards .

    Although most governments in the world are, as they always have been, autocracies of one kind or another, no idea hold greater sway in the mind of educated Americans than the belief that it is possible to democratize governments, anytime, anywhere, under any circumstances…. (But) decades, if not centuries, are normally required for people to acquire the necessary disciplines and habits.

    Wolfowitz broke from this official line by denouncing Saddam Hussein of Iraq at a time when Donald Rumsfeld was offering the dictator support in his conflict with Iran. James Mann points out:  quite a few neo-conservatives, like Wolfowitz, believed strongly in democratic ideals; they had taken from the philosopher Leo Strauss the notion that there is a moral duty to oppose a leader who is a ‘tyrant.’  Other areas where Wolfowitz disagreed with the administration was in his opposition to attempts to open up dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and to the sale of Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft to Saudi Arabia.  In both instances,  according to Mann,  Wolfowitz demonstrated himself to be one of the strongest supporters of Israel in the Reagan administration.

    Mann stresses:  It was on China that Wolfowitz launched his boldest challenge to the established order.  After Nixon and Kissinger had gone to China in the early 70s, U.S. policy was to make concessions to China as an essential Cold War ally. The Chinese were now pushing for the U.S. to end arms sales to Taiwan, and Wolfowitz used the Chinese incentive as an opportunity to undermine Kissinger’s foreign policy toward China. Instead, Wolfowitz advocated a unilateralist policy, claiming that the U.S. did not need China’s assistance but that the Chinese needed the U.S. to protect them against the far-more-likely prospect of a Soviet invasion of the Chinese mainland. Wolfowitz soon came into conflict with U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig, who had been Kissinger’s assistant at the time of the visits to China. On March 30, 1982, The New York Times predicted that  Paul D. Wolfowitz, the director of policy planning … will be replaced,  because  Mr. Haig found Mr. Wolfowitz too theoretical.  Instead, on June 25, 1982, George Schultz replaced Haig as U.S. Secretary of State, and Wolfowitz was promoted.

    State Department Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs

    In 1982 the new U.S. Secretary of State George Schultz appointed Wolfowitz as Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs.

    Jeane Kirkpatrick, on a visit to the Philippines, had been eagerly welcomed by the dictator Ferdinand Marcos who quoted heavily from her 1979 Commentary article Dictatorships and Double Standards and although Kirkpatrick had been forced to speak-out in favor of democracy the article continued to influence Reagan’s policy toward Marcos. Following the assassination of Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. in 1983 many within the Reagan administration including the President himself began to fear that the Philippines could fall to the communists and the U.S. military would lose its strongholds at Clark Air Force Base and Subic Bay Naval Station. Wolfowitz tried to re-orient the administration’s policy, stating in an April 15, 1985 article in The Wall Street Journal that  The best antidote to Communism is democracy.

    In pursuance of this policy Wolfowitz and his assistant Lewis Libby made trips to Manila where they called for democratic reforms and met with non-communist opposition leaders but the approach was still very soft.

    Mann points out that  the Reagan administration’s decision to support democratic government in the Philippines had been hesitant, messy, crisis-driven and skewed by the desire to do what was necessary to protect the American military installations.  Following massive street protests, Marcos fled the country on a U.S. Air Force plane and the U.S. recognized the government of Corazón Aquino.

    Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia

    From 1986 to 1989, during the military-backed government of President Suharto, Wolfowitz was the U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia.[27]
    According to Peter J. Boyer, in his New Yorker profile of Wolfowitz,

    Wolfowitz’s appointment to Indonesia was not an immediately obvious match. He was a Jew representing America in the largest Muslim republic in the world, an advocate of democracy in Suharto’s dictatorship. But Wolfowitz’s tenure as Ambassador was a notable success, largely owing to the fact that, in essence, he went native. With tutoring help from his driver, he learned the language, and hurled himself into the culture. He attended academic seminars, climbed volcanoes, and toured the neighborhoods of Jakarta. [4]

    Sipress and Nakashima report that  Wolfowitz’s colleagues and friends, both Indonesian and American  pointed to the  U.S. envoy’s quiet pursuit of political and economic reforms in Indonesia. [28] According to the Associated Press, however, in their opposition to Wolfowitz’s later appointment to the presidency of the World Bank,  Analysts in Indonesia … say the candidate has a poor track record in other areas crucial to the World Bank, such as fighting graft and respect for human rights. [27]

    Dewi Fortuna Anwar, a foreign policy adviser to B J Habibie, Suharto’s successor as head of state (1998–1999), stated  that Wolfowitz was a competent and popular envoy,  and  he was extremely able and very much admired and well-liked on a personal level,  Adding however,  he never intervened to push human rights or stand up to corruption. [27]

    As Suzanne Goldenberg observes,

    some who acknowledge his popularity also discount the argument that Wolfowitz used his influence as an envoy to press for change. …  It is really too much to claim that he played any kind of role in leading Indonesia to democracy,  says Jeffrey Winters, an expert on Indonesia at Chicago’s Northwestern University, who was in the country at the time….  The real record when you dig into it is that he was very slow to respond to Indonesia’s movement for democracy. Indonesia’s citizens across the spectrum had been struggling against authoritarian rule. They had been tortured. They had been jailed. They had been ruined in various ways, and the Wolfowitz embassy didn’t speak up for them – not once. … He adds:  He had his chance, and he toed the Reagan hawkish line.  The World Bank will be watching for far more than that from Wolfowitz.[10]

    Officials involved in the AID program during Wolfowitz’s tenure told Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima of The Washington Post that he  took a keen personal interest in development, including health care, agriculture and private sector expansion  and that  Wolfowitz canceled food assistance to the Indonesian government out of concern that Suharto’s family, which had an ownership interest in the country’s only flour mill, was indirectly benefiting. [28]

    In  The Tragedy of Suharto , published in May 1998, in The Wall Street Journal, Wolfowitz states:

    Although it is fashionable to blame all of Asia’s present problems on corruption and the failure of Asian values, it is at bottom a case of a bubble bursting, of too many imprudent lenders chasing too many incautious borrowers. But the greed of Mr. Suharto’s children ensured that their father would take the lion’s share of the blame for Indonesia’s financial collapse. The Suharto children’s favored position became a major obstacle to the measures needed to restore economic confidence. Worst of all, they ensured that the economic crisis would be a political crisis as well. That he allowed this, and that he amassed such wealth himself, is all the more mysterious since he lived a relatively modest life.[29]

    After the 2002 Bali bombing, on October 18, 2002, then Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz observed that  the reason the terrorists are successful in Indonesia is because the Suharto regime fell and the methods that were used to suppress them are gone. [30]

    Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
    This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (May 2007)
    Wolfowitz, Gen. Colin Powell (left), and Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf (middle) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.

    From 1989 to 1993, Wolfowitz served in the administration of George H.W. Bush as Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, under then U.S. Defense Secretary Dick Cheney.

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Wolfowitz’s team co-ordinated and reviewed military strategy, raising $50 billion in allied financial support for the operation. Wolfowitz was present with Cheney, Colin Powell and others, on 27 February 1991 at the meeting with the President where it was decided that the troops should be demobilised.

    On February 25, 1998, Wolfowitz testified before a congressional committee that he thought that  the best opportunity to overthrow Saddam was, unfortunately, lost in the month right after the war. [31] Wolfowitz added that he was horrified in March as  Saddam Hussein flew helicopters that slaughtered the people in the south and in the north who were rising up against him, while American fighter pilots flew overhead, desperately eager to shoot down those helicopters, and not allowed to do so.  During that hearing, he also stated:  Some people might say—and I think I would sympathise with this view—that perhaps if we had delayed the ceasefire by a few more days, we might have got rid of [Saddam Hussein].

    After the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Wolfowitz and his then-assistant Scooter Libby wrote the Wolfowitz Doctrine to  set the nation’s direction for the next century.  At that time the official administration line was  containment , and the contents of Wolfowitz’s plan calling for  preemption  and  unilateralism  which was opposed by Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell and President Bush. Defense Secretary Cheney produced a revised plan released in 1992.

    After the election of U.S. President Bill Clinton in 1992, Wolfowitz left government until 2000. During the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush, from 2000 to 2007, many of the ideas in the Wolfowitz Doctrine became part of what is called the Bush Doctrine.

    See main article: Project for the New American Century

    From 1994 to 2001, Wolfowitz served as Professor of International Relations and Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. He was instrumental in adding more than $75 million to the university’s endowment, developing an international finance concentration as part of the curriculum, and combining the various Asian studies programs into one department. Drawing upon his political and defense experience, he also served as a foreign policy advisor to Bob Dole on the 1996 U.S. Presidential election campaign.[citations needed]

    According to Kampfner,  Wolfowitz used his perch at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies as a test-bed for a new conservative world vision.  Wolfowitz was associated with the Project for the New American Century (PNAC); he signed both the PNAC’s June 3, 1997  Statement of Principles ,[32] which begins by stating:

    American foreign and defense policy is adrift. Conservatives have criticized the incoherent policies of the Clinton Administration. They have also resisted isolationist impulses from within their own ranks. But conservatives have not confidently advanced a strategic vision of America’s role in the world…. We aim to change this. We aim to make the case and rally support for American global leadership.

    and its January 26, 1998  open letter to President Bill Clinton , which begins by stating:  We are writing you because we are convinced that current American policy toward Iraq is not succeeding, and that we may soon face a threat in the Middle East more serious than any we have known since the end of the Cold War. [33]

    In February 1998 Wolfowitz testified before a Congressional hearing, stating that the current administration lacked the sense of purpose to  liberate ourselves, our friends and allies in the region, and the Iraqi people themselves from the menace of Saddam Hussein. [34] In his testimony, he lamented the decision at the end of the 1991 Persian Gulf War to call for a ceasefire before attempting to achieve those goals. Wolfowitz urged the administration to support Iraqi opposition groups, in particular the INC of Ahmed Chalabi with arms, intelligence and financing as a way of overthrowing the current regime without risking American troops.[citation needed]

    In September 2000 the PNAC produced a 90-page report entitled Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century, advocating the redeployment of U.S. troops in permanent bases in strategic locations throughout the world where they can be ready to act to protect U.S. interests abroad.[35] During the 2000 U.S. Presidential election campaign, Wolfowitz served as a foreign policy advisor to George W. Bush as part of the group led by Condoleezza Rice calling itself The Vulcans.[36]

    Deputy Secretary of Defense
    From 2001 to 2005, during the George W. Bush administration, Wolfowitz served as U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense reporting to U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld.

    The terrorist attacks of 9-11 was a turning point in administration policy, as Wolfowitz later explained:  9/11 really was a wake up call and that if we take proper advantage of this opportunity to prevent the future terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction that it will have been an extremely valuable wake up call,  adding:  if we say our only problem was to respond to 9/11, and we wait until somebody hits us with nuclear weapons before we take that kind of threat seriously, we will have made a very big mistake. [37]

    In the first emergency meeting of the U.S. National Security Council on the day of the attacks, Rumsfeld asked,  Why shouldn’t we go against Iraq, not just al-Qaeda?  with Wolfowitz adding that Iraq was a  brittle, oppressive regime that might break easily—it was doable,  and, according to John Kampfner,  from that moment on, he and Wolfowitz used every available opportunity to press the case.  The idea was initially rejected, at the behest of U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, but, according to Kampfner,  Undeterred Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz held secret meetings about opening up a second front—against Saddam. Powell was excluded.  In such meetings they created a policy that would later be dubbed the Bush Doctrine, centering on  pre-emption , American unilateralism, and the war on Iraq, which the PNAC had advocated in their earlier letters.[38]

    After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the U.S. had to deal immediately with the threat of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan.[38] The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001. Victory was declared on March 6, 2002. On October 10, 2001, George Robertson, then Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, went to the Pentagon to offer NATO troops, planes and ships to assist. Wolfowitz rebuffed the offer, saying:  We can do everything we need to.  Wolfowitz later announced publicly, according to Kampfner,  that ‘allies, coalitions and diplomacy’ were of little immediate concern.
    Wolfowitz with New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark at the Pentagon, March 26, 2002.

    Ten months later, on January 15, 2003, with hostilities still continuing, Wolfowitz made a fifteen-hour visit to the Afghan capital, Kabul, and met with the new president Hamid Karzai. Wolfowitz stated,  We’re clearly moving into a different phase, where our priority in Afghanistan is increasingly going to be stability and reconstruction. There’s no way to go too fast. Faster is better.  Despite the promises, according to Hersh,  little effort to provide the military and economic resources  necessary for reconstruction was made.[38] This criticism would also re-occur after the U.S. invasion of Iraq later that year.[38]

    On April 16, 2002 the National Solidarity Rally for Israel was called in Washington to oppose US pressure on the government of Ariel Sharon. Wolfowitz was the sole representative of the Bush administration to attend, speaking alongside Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and former New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. According to Matthew Engel in The Guardian, the administration had exposed itself to being momentarily characterised as anti-Israel, which would have meant losing votes and financial support.[39] As reported by the BBC, Wolfowitz told the crowd that US President George W. Bush  wants you to know that he stands in solidarity with you .[40] Sharon Samber and Matthew E. Berger reported for Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) that Wolfowitz continued by saying that  Innocent Palestinians are suffering and dying as well. It is critical that we recognize and acknowledge that fact,  before being booed and drowned out by chants of  No more Arafat. [41] According to Engel this may have been a turning point that saw a return to a more pro-Israeli position within the administration as Bush feared being outflanked on the right.[39]

    Following the declaration of victory in Afghanistan the Bush administration had started to plan for the next stage of the War on Terror. According to John Kampfner,  Emboldened by their experience in Afghanistan, they saw the opportunity to root out hostile regimes in the Middle East and to implant very American interpretations of democracy and free markets, from Iraq to Iran and Saudi Arabia. Wolfowitz epitomised this view.  Wolfowitz  saw a liberated Iraq as both paradigm and linchpin for future interventions.  The 2003 invasion of Iraq began on March 19.[38]

    Prior to the invasion, Wolfowitz had a plan to sell the war to the administration as well as the general public, as he later stated:  For bureaucratic reasons, we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on. [42][15][14][43][44][45]

    The job of finding WMD and providing justification for the attack would fall to the intelligence services, but, according to Kampfner,  Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz believed that, while the established security services had a role, they were too bureaucratic and too traditional in their thinking.  As a result  they set up what came to be known as the ‘cabal’, a cell of eight or nine analysts in a new Office of Special Plans (OSP) based in the U.S. Defense Department.  According to an unnamed Pentagon source quoted by Hersh, the OSP  was created in order to find evidence of what Wolfowitz and his boss, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, believed to be true—that Saddam Hussein had close ties to Al Qaeda, and that Iraq had an enormous arsenal of chemical, biological, and possibly even nuclear weapons that threatened the region and, potentially, the United States. [38]

    Within months of being set-up, the OSP  rivaled both the CIA and the Pentagon’s Defense Intelligence Agency, the DIA, as President Bush’s main source of intelligence regarding Iraq’s possible possession of weapons of mass destruction and connection with Al Qaeda.  Hersh explains that the OSP  relied on data gathered by other intelligence agencies and also on information provided by the Iraqi National Congress, or I.N.C., the exile group headed by Ahmad Chalabi.  According to Kampfner, the CIA had ended its funding of the I.N.C.  in the mid-1990s when doubts were cast about Chalabi’s reliability.  Nevertheless  as the administration geared up for conflict with Saddam, Chalabi was welcomed in the inner sanctum of the Pentagon  under the auspices of the OSP, and  Wolfowitz did not see fit to challenge any of Chalabi’s information.  The actions of the OSP have led to accusation of the Bush administration  fixing intelligence to support policy  with the aim of influencing Congress in its use of the War Powers Act.[38]

    Kampfner outlined Wolfowitz’s strategy for the 2003 invasion of Iraq, which  envisaged the use of air support and the occupation of southern Iraq with ground troops, to install a new government run by Ahmed Chalabi’s Iraqi National Congress.  Wolfowitz believed that the operation would require minimal troop deployment, Hersh explains, because  any show of force would immediately trigger a revolt against Saddam within Iraq, and that it would quickly expand. [38] The financial expenditure would be kept low, Kampfner observes, if  under the plan American troops would seize the oil fields around Basra, in the South, and sell the oil to finance the opposition.

    During Wolfowitz’s pre-war testimony before Congress, he dismissed General Eric K. Shinseki’s estimates of the size of the post war occupation force as incorrect and estimated that fewer than 100,000 troops would be necessary in the war. Two days after Shinseki testified, Wolfowitz said to the House Budget Committee on February 27, 2003:

    There has been a good deal of comment—some of it quite outlandish—about what our postwar requirements might be in Iraq. Some of the higher end predictions we have been hearing recently, such as the notion that it will take several hundred thousand U.S. troops to provide stability in post-Saddam Iraq, are wildly off the mark. It is hard to conceive that it would take more forces to provide stability in post-Saddam Iraq than it would take to conduct the war itself and to secure the surrender of Saddam’s security forces and his army—hard to imagine.[38]

    On October 26, 2003, while in Baghdad staying at the Al-Rashid Hotel Wolfowitz narrowly escaped an attack when six rockets slammed into the floors below his room blowing out the windows and frames.[46] Army Lt. Col. Charles H. Buehring was killed and seventeen other soldiers were wounded.[47] Wolfowitz and his DOD staffers escaped unharmed and returned to the United States on October 28, 2003.

    President of the World Bank

    In March 2005, Wolfowitz was nominated to be president of the World Bank by U.S. President George W. Bush.[48] Criticism of his nomination appeared in the media.[49] Nobel Laureate in Economics and former chief economist for the World Bank Joseph Stiglitz said:  ‘The World Bank will once again become a hate figure. This could bring street protests and violence across the developing world.’ [50] In a speech at the U.N. Economic and Social Council, economist Jeffrey Sachs also opposed Wolfowitz:  It’s time for other candidates to come forward that have experience in development. This is a position on which hundreds of millions of people depend for their lives … Let’s have a proper leadership of professionalism. [51]
    Press conference at G8 Summit (Paul Wolfowitz standing at rear on right)

    In the U.S. there was some praise for the nomination. An editorial in The Wall Street Journal states:  Mr. Wolfowitz is willing to speak the truth to power … he saw earlier than most, and spoke publicly about, the need for dictators to plan democratic transitions. It is the world’s dictators who are the chief causes of world poverty. If anyone can stand up to the Robert Mugabes of the world, it must be the man who stood up to Saddam Hussein. [52]

    He was confirmed and became president on June 1, 2005. He soon attended the 31st G8 summit to discuss issues of global climate change and the economic development in Africa. When this meeting was interrupted by the July 7, 2005 London bombings, Wolfowitz was present with other world leaders at the press conference given by British Prime Minister Tony Blair.
    Several of Wolfowitz’s initial appointments at the Bank proved controversial, including two US nationals (Robin Cleveland and Kevin Kellems) formerly with the Bush administration, whom he appointed as close advisors with $250,000 tax-free contracts.[53] Another appointee, Juan José Daboub was criticized by his colleagues and others for attempts to change policies on family planning and climate change towards a conservative line. [54][55]

    Wolfowitz gave special emphasis to two particular issues. Identifying Sub-Saharan Africa as the region most challenged to improve living standards, he traveled widely in the region. He also made clear his focus on fighting corruption. Several aspects of the latter program raised controversy. Overturning the names produced by a formal search process, he appointed a figure linked to the US Republican party to head the Bank’s internal watchdog. Member countries worried that Wolfowitz’s willingness to suspend lending to countries on grounds of corruption was vulnerable to selective application in line with US foreign policy interests. In a debate on the proposed Governance and Anti-Corruption Strategy at the Bank’s 2006 Annual Meetings, shareholders directed Wolfowitz to undertake extensive consultations and revise the strategy to show how objective measures of corruption would be incorporated into decisions and how the shareholders’ representatives on the Bank’s Board would play a key role. Following the consultations and revisions, the Board approved a revised strategy in spring 2007.[5]

    Recent controversies

    Wolfowitz’s economic arguments pertaining to the Iraq War

    On March 27, 2003, Wolfowitz told a Congressional panel that oil revenue earned by Iraq alone would pay for Iraq’s reconstruction after the Iraq war; he testified:  The oil revenues of that country could bring between $50 and $100 billion over the course of the next two or three years. Now, there are a lot of claims on that money, but … We are dealing with a country that can really finance its own reconstruction and relatively soon.”[56][57][7] By March 2005, two years later, oil revenues were not paying for the occupation and reconstruction of Iraq, Wolfowitz’s estimation of 50 to 100 billion US dollars had not materialized, and, in light of his miscalculation, detractors criticized his appointment to head of the World Bank.[58]

    Wolfowitz’s relationship with Shaha Riza
    Main article: Shaha Riza

    After President George W. Bush’s nomination of Wolfowitz as president of the World Bank, journalists reported that Wolfowitz had become involved in a relationship with World Bank Senior Communications Officer (and Acting Manager of External Affairs) for the Middle East and North Africa Regional Office Shaha Ali Riza.[59] According to Richard Leiby, of The Washington Post, Riza is  an Oxford-educated British citizen, was born in Tunisia and grew up in Saudi Arabia. She’s known for her expertise on women’s rights and has been listed on the bank’s Web site as a media contact for Iraq reconstruction issues. [60] According to Leiby and Linton Weeks, in their essay  In the Shadow of a Scandal , Riza’s employment at the World Bank predated Wolfowitz’s nomination as Bank president:  Riza started at the World Bank as a consultant in July 1997 and became a full-time employee in 1999 ; and the relationship between Riza and Wolfowitz pre-dated it as well:

    In the early 1990s, Riza joined the National Endowment for Democracy and is credited there with development of the organization’s Middle East program. Wolfowitz was on the endowment’s board—which is how Riza first met him, according to Turkish journalist Cengiz Candar, a friend of the couple.  Shaha was married at the time and Paul was married,  Candar recalled, and it wasn’t until late 1999—after Riza divorced and Wolfowitz had separated from his wife of 30 years, Clare Selgin Wolfowitz—that the couple began dating. [60][19]

    When Wolfowitz was being considered for head of the CIA immediately after the 2000 election, Clare Wolfowitz wrote President-elect George Bush a letter telling him that her husband’s relationship with a foreign national—Riza—posed a national security risk.[61][62] It has been reported that Scooter Libby intercepted the letter.[63] Sidney Blumenthal also reported on the letter Clare Wolfowitz wrote:

    “     This embittered letter remained a closely guarded secret, although a former high official of the CIA told me about it. Chris Nelson also reported it on April 16 in his widely respected, nonpartisan foreign policy newsletter:  A certain Ms. Riza was even then Wolfowitz’s true love. The problem for the CIA wasn’t just that she was a foreign national, although that was and is today an issue for anyone interested in CIA employment. The problem was that Wolfowitz was married to someone else, and that someone was really angry about it, and she found a way to bring her complaint directly to the President. So when we, with our characteristic innocence, put Wolfowitz on our short-list for CIA, we were instantly told, by a very, very, very senior Republican foreign policy operative, ‘I don’t think so.’ It was then gently explained why, purely on background, of course. Why Wolfowitz’s personal issues weren’t also a disqualification for DOD we’ve never heard.  The Daily Mail of London also reported on his wife’s letter at the time that Wolfowitz was appointed president of the World Bank in 2005. Asked about it by the newspaper, Clare Wolfowitz did not deny it, saying,  That’s very interesting but not something I can tell you about. [64]     ”

    According to the profile of Wolfowitz published in the London Sunday Times on March 20, 2005, despite their cultural differences,  Riza, an Arab feminist who confounds portrayals of Wolfowitz as a leader of a ‘Zionist conspiracy’ of Jewish neoconservatives in Washington … [and who] works as the bank’s senior gender co-ordinator for the Middle East and north Africa … not only shares Wolfowitz’s passion for spreading democracy in the Arab world, but is said to have reinforced his determination to remove Saddam Hussein’s oppressive regime. [17]

    The reported relationship created further controversy concerning Wolfowitz’s nomination to head the World Bank, because the organization’s own ethics rules preclude sexual relationships between a manager and a staff member serving under that manager, even if one reports to the other only indirectly through a chain of supervision. Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge, in The Daily Mail, quote one World Bank employee’s statement that  Unless Riza gives up her job, this will be an impossible conflict of interest ; the observation of  a Washington insider :  His womanizing has come home to roost … Paul was a foreign policy hawk long before he met Shaha, but it doesn’t look good to be accused of being under the thumb of your mistress ; and Wolfowitz’s response:  If a personal relationship presents a potential conflict of interest, I will comply with Bank policies to resolve the issue. [18]

    Wolfowitz initially proposed to the World Bank’s Ethics Committee that he recuse himself from personnel matters regarding Riza, but the committee rejected that proposal.[65] Riza was  seconded to the State Department , or placed on  external assignment,  assigned  a job at the state department under Liz Cheney, the daughter of the vice-president, promoting democracy in the Middle East … [66] She  was also moved up to a managerial pay grade in compensation for the disruption to her career,  resulting in a raise of over $60,000, as well as guarantees of future increases;  The staff association claims that the pay rise was more than double the amount allowed under employee guidelines. [66][67] A promotion and raise had been among the options suggested by a World Bank ethics committee that was set up to advise on the situation.[68] According to Steven R. Weisman, however, in a report published in The New York Times, the then-current chair of the committee emphasized that he was not informed at the time of the details or extent of the present and future raises built into the agreement with Riza.[69] Wolfowitz refers to the controversy concerning his relationship with Riza in his recent statement posted on the website of the World Bank (April 12, 2007).[70]

    Wolfowitz’s leadership of the World Bank Group

    Beginning early in 2007, Fox News published on its website a series of investigative stories on the World Bank, based in part on leaks to Fox of internal bank documents.[71]

    On April 11, 2007, Reuters and Al Kamen, in his column in The Washington Post, reported that Wolfowitz and the World Bank board had hired the Williams & Connolly law firm to oversee an investigation into the leaking of internal bank documents to Fox News.[72][73] Those reports cite an internal memo to the bank staff later posted on the internet, dated April 9, 2007, in which the World Bank’s general counsel, Ana Palacio, states that the Bank’s legal staff was scrutinizing two articles by investigative reporter Richard Behar published on the website of Fox News on January 31 and March 27, 2007.[74] A day after the second report published by Behar, on March 28, 2007, Kamen had disclosed that  Bank records obtained by the Government Accountability Project  documented pay raises in excess of Bank policies given to Shaha Riza[75]

    On April 12, 2007 the London Financial Times reported that, in a 2005 memorandum, Wolfowitz had personally directed the Bank’s human resources chief to offer Riza a large pay rise and promotion, according to two anonymous sources who told the Financial Times that they had seen the memo.[76] The memo was part of a package of 102 pages of documents publicly released by the bank on April 14, 2007.[76]

    On April 14, 2007, after reviewing the 102-page document package, the Financial Times concluded that it was  a potentially fatal blow  to Wolfowitz.[76] In contrast, Fox News concluded that the new documents might offer Wolfowitz a  new lifeline  in the scandal, because the Bank’s ethics committee had launched a review of the Riza compensation case in early 2006 and concluded that it did not warrant any further attention by the committee.[77]

    Media speculations about Wolfowitz quitting his position as president of the World Bank intensified on April 19, 2007 after his failure to attend a high-profile meeting.[78] The controversy about Wolfowitz’s girlfriend Shaha Riza led to disruption at the World Bank when some employees wore blue ribbons  in a display of defiance against his leadership. [79]
    World Bank Group’s board of executive directors and staffers complained also that Wolfowitz was imposing Bush Administration policies to eliminate family planning from World Bank programs. According to Nicole Gaouette, in her report published in the Los Angeles Times on April 19, 2007, Juan José Daboub—the managing director whom Wolfowitz had appointed who has also been criticized for overly-conservative policies concerning climate change[55] and  a Roman Catholic with ties to a conservative Salvadoran political party —repeatedly deleted references to family planning from World Bank proposals.[54]

    On May 14, 2007 the World Bank committee investigating the alleged ethics violations reported (in part):

    *  Mr. Wolfowitz’s contract requiring that he adhere to the Code of Conduct for board officials and that he avoid any conflict of interest, real or apparent, were violated ;
    *  The salary increase Ms. Riza received at Mr. Wolfowitz’s direction was in excess of the range established by Rule 6.01 ;
    *  The ad hoc group concludes that in actuality, Mr Wolfowitz from the outset cast himself in opposition to the established rules of the institution ; and
    *  He did not accept the bank’s policy on conflict of interest, so he sought to negotiate for himself a resolution different from that which would have applied to the staff he was selected to head. [80]

    Wolfowitz appeared before the World Bank Group’s board of executive directors to respond on Tuesday, May 15, 2007, and, the following day, on Wednesday, May 16, in another board meeting, its executive directors would  consider the report and make a statement later in the week.  Adams speculates that  With Mr Wolfowitz so far refusing to step down, the board may need to take radical action to break the stalemate. Members have discussed a range of options, including sacking Mr Wolfowitz, issuing a vote of no confidence or reprimanding him. Some board members argue that a vote of no confidence would make it impossible for him to stay in the job. [81] If the World Bank’s board of directors  votes him out,  according to Michael Hirsh, in the May 21, 2007 issue of Newsweek, he would be  the first president dismissed in [its] 62-year history … [82] By mid-afternoon, Wednesday, May 16, 2007, The New York Times, reported that  after six weeks of fighting efforts to oust him as president … Wolfowitz began today to negotiate the terms of his possible resignation, in return for the bank dropping or softening the charge that he had engaged in misconduct … [83] After recent expressions from the Bush administration that it  fully  supported Wolfowitz as World Bank president and its urging a  fair hearing  for him, President Bush expressed  regret  at Wolfowitz’s impending resignation.[84]

    On May 17, 2007, in a statement published on its website, the World Bank Group’s board of Executive Directors announced that Paul Wolfowitz would resign as World Bank Group president at the end of June 2007; their statement is followed by a statement from Wolfowitz about his tenure as president and his hopes for the World Bank’s future success.[8][85]

    See also

    * American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC)
    * Full-spectrum dominance
    * Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA)
    * Joint Vision 2020
    * Neoconservatism
    * Project for the New American Century
    * Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) Board of Advisors
    * Wolfowitz Doctrine
    * World Bank Group

    Notes

    1. ^ a b Michael Dobbs,  For Wolfowitz, a Vision May Be Realized , The Washington Post,April 7, 2003, accessed April 16, 2007.
    2. ^ Zachary A. Goldfarb,  Wolfowitz Joins Think Tank as Visiting Scholar , online posting, The New Yorker, July 3, 2007, accessed July 3, 2007.
    3. ^ US-Taiwan Business Council (2008). Paul D. Wolfowitz. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
    4. ^ a b c Peter J. Boyer,  The Believer: Paul Wolfowitz Defends His War , online posting, The New Yorker, November 1, 2004, accessed June 20, 2007 (7 pages).
    5. ^ a b c d e f g John Cassidy,  The Next Crusade: Paul Wolfowitz at the World Bank , online posting, The New Yorker, April 9, 2007, accessed May 7, 2007.
    6. ^ Cf. Amy Goodman,  Bush Names Iraq War Architect Paul Wolfowitz to Head World Bank , transcript, Democracy Now , March 17, 2005, accessed May 17, 2007.
    7. ^ a b Cf. Ibrahim Warde,  Iraq: Looter’s License , 16-22 in America’s Gulag: Full Spectrum Dominance Versus Universal Human Rights, ed. Ken Coates (London: Spokesman Books, 2004), ISBN 0851246915.
    8. ^ a b  Statements of Executive Directors and President Wolfowitz , World Bank Group, May 17, 2007, accessed May 17, 2007.
    9. ^ Matthew Jones,  Wolfowitz Exit Seen Clearing Way for Progress , Reuters (UK), May 18, 2007, accessed May 18, 2007.
    10. ^ a b c Suzanne Goldenberg,  Guardian Profile: Paul Wolfowitz , The Guardian, April 1, 2005, accessed May 1, 2007.
    11. ^ a b c d e f David Dudley,  Paul’s Choice , Cornell Alumni Magazine Online 107.1 (July/August 2004), accessed May 17, 2007.
    12. ^ a b Shelemyahu Zacks,  Biographical Memories: Jacob Wolfowitz (March 19, 1910–July 16, 1981) , National Academy of Sciences, n.d., accessed May 3, 2007.
    13. ^ a b c d Eric Schmitt,  The Busy Life of Being a Lightning Rod for Bush , The New York Times, April 22, 2002, accessed March 24, 2008.
    14. ^ a b  U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript  of telephone interview of Paul Wolfowitz, conducted by Sam Tanenhaus,  Presenter: Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz , press release, United States Department of Defense, May 9, 2003, accessed May 2, 2007. [ Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview with Sam Tannenhaus [sic], Vanity Fair. ]
    15. ^ a b Sam Tanenhaus,  Bush’s Brain Trust ,  (George W. Bush, Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Weekly Standard Editor William Kristol, former Pentagon official Richard Perle) , Vanity Fair July 2003, AccessMyLibrary, July 1, 2003, accessed May 1, 2007.
    16. ^ Associated Press,  Paul Wolfowitz ’65 Sparks Controversy at World Bank , Cornell Daily Sun, April 17, 2007, accessed May 19, 2007.
    17. ^ a b  Profile: Paul Wolfowitz: Hawk with a Lot of Loot Needs a Bit of Lady Luck , The Sunday Times, March 20, 2005, accessed April 18, 2007.
    18. ^ a b Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge,  Will a British Divorcee Cost ‘Wolfie’ His Job?  The Daily Mail, March 20, 2005, accessed April 14, 2007.
    19. ^ a b Linton Weeks and Richard Leiby,  In the Shadow of a Scandal , The Washington Post, May 10, 2007, accessed May 10, 2007. (Page 2 of 3 pages.)
    20. ^ a b  Profile: Paul Wolfowitz, Right Web (International Relations Center), updated April 19, 2007, accessed May 21, 2007.
    21. ^ Wolfowitz, Paul.  Nuclear Proliferation in the Middle East: The Politics and Economics of Proposals for Nuclear Desalting.  Diss. University of Chicago, 1972.
    22. ^ Kit Oldham,  Cyberpedia Library: Jackson, Henry M. ‘Scoop’ (1912–1983): HistoryLink.org Essay 5516 , historylink.org (The Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History), August 19, 2003, accessed May 17, 2007.
    23. ^ Sam Tanenhaus,  The Hard Liner:
    24. ^ Qtd. by Jack Davis,  The Challenge of Managing Uncertainty: Paul Wolfowitz on Intelligence-Policy Relations , Studies in Intelligence 39.5 (1996): 35-42, accessed May 21, 2007. ( Jack Davis served in the Directorate of Intelligence. ) [Corrected title.]
    25. ^  Profile: Richard Pipes , Right Web (International Relations Center), last updated December 12, 2003, accessed May 21, 2007.
    26. ^ Tom Barry,  A History of Threat Escalation: Remembering Team B , Right Web, International Relations Center, February 12, 2004, accessed May 21, 2007.
    27. ^ a b c AP, http://www.asiademocracy.org/content_view.php?section_id=1&content_id=430  Indonesian Rights Groups Denounce Wolfowitz’ World Bank Nomination ], online posting, Alliance for Reform and Democracy in Asia, March 22, 2005, accessed June 20, 2007.
    28. ^ a b Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima,  Jakarta Tenure Offers Glimpse of Wolfowitz , The Washington Post, March 28, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007.
    29. ^ Paul Wolfowitz,  The Tragedy of Suharto , The Wall Street Journal, May 27, 1998, accessed April 16, 2007.
    30. ^ As qtd. in Scott Burchill,  What the West Wants from Indonesia m Z Magazine, October 1, 2003, accessed June 7, 2007.
    31. ^ Transcript of hearing, Committee on International Relations,  U.S. Options in Confronting Iraq , February 25, 1998, accessed April 17, 2007.
    32. ^ Elliott Abrams, et al.,  Statement of Principles , Project for the New American Century, June 3, 1997, accessed May 27, 2007.
    33. ^ Elliott Abrams, et al.,  Open letter to President Bill Clinton,  Project for the New American Century, January 26, 1998, accessed May 24, 2007.
    34. ^ U.S. House Committee on International Relations,  U.S. Options in Confrtonting Iraq , February 25, 1998, accessed April 18, 2007.
    35. ^ Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century, Project for the New American Century, September 2000, accessed May 14, 2007.
    36. ^ Martin Sieff,  Mission Accomplished: Bush’s Brain Trust Had a Grand Plan for the Middle East. The Results Are Coming Home Every Day in Body Bags , Slate, April 8, 2004, accessed May 19, 2007.
    37. ^  U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript  of  Wolfowitz interview with the San Francisco Chronicle , conducted by Robert Collier,  Presenter: Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz , press release, United States Department of Defense, February 23, 2002, accessed May 26, 2007. [ Interview with Robert Collier, San Francisco Chronicle .]
    38. ^ a b c d e f g h i Seymour M. Hersh,  Annals of National Security Selective Intelligence: Donald Rumsfeld Has His Own Special Sources. Are they reliable?  The New Yorker, May 12, 2003, accessed May 8, 2007.
    39. ^ a b Matthew Engel,  Bush goes to the dogs , The Guardian, April 23, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007.
    40. ^  Thousands in US rally for Israel , BBC News, April 15, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007.
    41. ^ Sharon Samber and Matthew E. Berger,  Speakers Stick to Consensus Theme at National Solidarity Rally for Israel , United Jewish Communities (JTA), April 15, 2002, accessed May 3, 2007.
    42. ^ Qtd. in Associated Press,  Wolfowitz Comments Revive Doubts Over Iraq’s WMD , USA Today, May 30, 2003, accessed May 8, 2007.
    43. ^ Danny Postel,  Noble Lies and Perpetual War: Leo Strauss, the Neo-cons, and Iraq , interview with Shadia Drury, Open Democracy, October 18, 2003, rpt. in Information Clearing House, October 18, 2003, accessed May 26, 2007.
    44. ^ Cf. Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush’s War on Iraq (New York: Tarcher/Penguin, 2003).
    45. ^  Iraq: The War Card . The Center for Public Integrity. http://www.publicintegrity.org/WarCard/Search/Results.aspx?SearchTerms_All=&SearchTerms_Phrase=&SearchTerms_None=&SearchTerms_Person=Wolfowitz&SearchTerms_Subject=WMD&SearchTerms_DateFrom=01%2f29%2f2001&SearchTerms_DateTo=11%2f03%2f2007&SearchTerms_OrderBy=Record_Id&DisplayAll=False. Retrieved on 2008-02-13.
    46. ^ Jane Arraf,  Bold, Well-executed Attack , CNN, October 26, 2003, accessed April 18, 2007.
    47. ^  DoD Identifies Army Casualty , United States Department of Defense, October 27, 2003, accessed April 18, 2007.
    48. ^ Paul Blustein and Peter Baker,  Wolfowitz Picked for World Bank , The Washington Post, March 27, 2005, accessed January 3, 2009.
    49. ^ Alan Beattie and Edward Alden,  Shareholders’ dismay at lack of consultation , The Financial Times, March 16, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007.
    50. ^ Qtd. in Robert Preston,  Stiglitz Warns of Violence If Wolfowitz Goes to World Bank , The Daily Telegraph, March 20, 2005 (Registration required), rpt. in Common Dreams NewsCenter, March 20, 2005, accessed May 7, 2007. updated Daily Telegraph URL.
    51. ^  Many Wary, Some Cheer Wolfowitz Pick , Al Jazeera, April 16, 2007, accessed April 16, 2007.
    52. ^  Banking on Wolfowitz: And You Thought Iraq Was Difficult , The Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007, Review & Outlook (Past Featured Article), accessed June 8, 2007.
    53. ^ Karen DeYoung,  Wolfowitz Clashed Repeatedly With World Bank Staff: Tenure as President Has Been Rocky , The Washington Post, April 15, 2007: A12, accessed May 1, 2007.
    54. ^ a b Nicole Gaouette,  World Bank May Target Family Planning: Repeated Absence of References to Birth Control in Internal Reports Alarms Women’s Health Advocates , The Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2007, accessed May 1, 2007.
    55. ^ a b Krishna Guha,  Wolfowitz Deputy Under Fire for Climate Change , The Financial Times, April 24, 2007, updated April 25, 2007, accessed May 2, 2007.
    56. ^  The Wolfowitz Chronology: An Examination of the Presumptive World Bank President’s Works on Oil, National Security, Development, Corruption, Human Rights, and Debt  (January 2001 – May 2005), Institute for Policy Studies (May 2005), accessed April 18, 2007.
    57. ^ Cf. Gore Vidal,  The Enemy Within , The Observer, October 27, 2002, Review, accessed May 7, 2007, rpt. in lawyersagainstthewar.org, accessed May 7, 2007; rpt. as  Goat Song: Unanswered Questions—Before, During, After 9/11 , Dreaming War: Blood for Oil and the Cheney-Bush Junta (New York: Nation Books/Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2002), ISBN 1560255021 (10), ISBN 978-1560255024 (13).
    58. ^ Paul Blustein,  Wolfowitz Strives To Quell Criticism , The Washington Post, March 21, 2005, accessed April 18, 2007.
    59. ^ Philip Sherwell,  Special ‘relationship’ Behind US West Asia policy , The Telegraph, August 1, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007.
    60. ^ a b Richard Leiby,  Reliable Source: What Will the Neighbors Say? , The Washington Post, March 22, 2007, C-03, accessed May 1, 2007.
    61. ^ Will a British divorcee cost ‘Wolfie’ his job?, Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge, The Daily Mail, March 20, 2005.
    62. ^ How Cheney took control of Bush’s foreign policy, Craig Unger, Salon.com, November 9, 2007; Interview with Vanity Fair contributing editor Craig Unger, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 12, 2007
    63. ^ Libby and Wolfie: A Story of Reacharounds, Ward Harkarvey, The Village Voice, June 14, 2007.
    64. ^ Wolfowitz’s tomb, Sidney Blumenthal, Salon.com, May 24, 2007.
    65. ^ Greg Hitt,  World Bank Ex-Board Member Disputes Wolfowitz , The Wall Street Journal, May 2, 2007, A8, accessed May 8, 2007 (restricted access; free preview); rpt. 2-2007/  World Bank Ex-Board Member Disputes Wolfowitz , goldnotes.wordpress.com, May 2, 2007, accessed May 8, 2007; cf. Greg Hitt,  Top Wolfowitz Adviser Resigns , The Wall Street Journal, Wall Street Journal Online, May 7, 2007, Washington Wire, accessed May 8, 2007.
    66. ^ a b Suzanne Goldenberg,  Wolfowitz Under Fire After Partner Receives Promotion and Pay Rise , The Guardian, April 7, 2007, accessed May 2, 2007.
    67. ^ William McQuillen,  Wolfowitz Says He Won’t Quit, Calls Charges ‘Bogus’  (Update2), Bloomberg News, April 30, 2007, accessed May 2, 2007.
    68. ^  Ethics Committee Case No 2 and President Papers PDF , World Bank, worldbank.org,  strictly confidential  documents posted online at bicusa.org, April 12, 2007, accessed April 14, 2007.
    69. ^ Steven R. Weisman,  Wolfowitz Loses Ground in Fight for World Bank Post , The New York Times, April 27, 2007, accessed May 1, 2007.
    70. ^ Paul Wolfowitz,  Statement by Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank Group WB/IMF Spring Meetings 2007 , Worldbank.org, April 12, 2007, accessed May 1, 2007. (Video and audio links.)
    71. ^ Richard Behar (2007-02-08).  World Bank Launches Internal Probe to Root Out Leakers . Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,250800,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
    72. ^ Reuters,  World Bank Launches Probe Into Leak of Confidential Documents to FOXNews.com , Fox News April 11, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
    73. ^ Al Kamen,  Under Flood of Criticism, Looking to Plug a Leak , The Washington Post, April 11, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
    74. ^ Richard Behar,  Wolfowitz vs. the World Bank Board: It’s Trench Warfare , Fox News, January 31, 2007 and  World Bank Anticorruption Drive Blunted as China Threatens to Halt Loans , Fox News, March 27, 2007, both accessed May 14, 2007.
    75. ^ Al Kamen,  In the Loop: Where the Money Is , The Washington Post, March 28, 2007, accessed May 10, 2007.
    76. ^ a b c Krishna Guha and Eoin Callan,  Wolfowitz Laid Out Terms for Partner’s Pay Package , Financial Times, April 12, 2007, accessed May 14, 2007.
    77. ^ Richard Behar,  Documents May Give Wolfowitz New Lifeline in World Bank Scandal , Fox News April 14, 2007, accessed May 14, 2007.
    78. ^  Wolfowitz Absent As World Bank Board Decides Fate , The Guardian, April 19, 2007, accessed April 20, 2007.
    79. ^  Wolfowitz’s Troubles Disrupt World Bank , San Francisco Chronicle, April 20, 2007, accessed April 20, 2007.
    80. ^ Reuters,  Wolfowitz Rejects World Bank Ethics Ruling : Bank Committee Determines That President Violated Ethics Standards Over His Girlfriend’s Promotion; Wolfowitz Calls Findings ‘unbalanced’ and ‘flawed’ , online posting, CNNMoney.com ( The Internet home of Fortune, Money, Business 2.0 ), May 15, 2007, accessed November 17, 2008.
    81. ^ Richard Adams,  Angry Wolfowitz in Four-letter Tirade , The Guardian Unlimited, May 15, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
    82. ^ Michael Hirsh,  With the Best of Intentions , Newsweek, May 21, 2007, accessed November 17, 2008.
    83. ^ Steven R. Weisman,  Wolfowitz Said to Be Working On Deal for His Resignation , The New York Times, May 16, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
    84. ^ Jeannine Aversa (Associated Press),  White House: Give Wolfowitz Fair Hearing , USA Today, May 9, 2007, accessed November 17, 2008;  Markets: Bush Expresses Regret Over Wolfowitz , The Houston Chronicle, May 17, 2007, accessed November 19, 2008.
    85. ^ Steven R. Weisman,  ‘Second Chance’ at Career Goes Sour for Wolfowitz , New York Times, May 18, 2007, accessed May 18, 2007.

    Sister project     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Paul Wolfowitz
    Sister project     Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Paul Wolfowitz

    External links

    Official biographical accounts

    *  Biography: Paul Wolfowitz: President, The World Bank Group , at web.worldbank.org (World Bank Group). Accessed May 4, 2007.
    *  Paul Wolfowitz—Department of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense . Search result in obsolete directory of  The President and His Leadership Team . Accessed May 4, 2007.
    *  Paul Wolfowitz, Deputy Secretary of Defense —Archived biography at the United States Department of Defense. Last updated: March 16, 2005. Accessed May 2, 2007.
    * Wolfowitz, Paul. Statement by Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank Group WB/IMF Spring Meetings 2007 . Online posting. World Bank Group, Worldbank.org, April 12, 2007. Accessed May 1, 2007. (Video and audio links.)

    Diplomatic posts
    Preceded by
    Anthony Lake     United States Department of State
    Director of Policy Planning
    1981 – 1982     Succeeded by
    Stephen W. Bosworth
    Preceded by
    John H. Holdridge     Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    1982 – 1986     Succeeded by
    Gaston J. Sigur, Jr.
    Preceded by
    John H. Holdridge     United States Ambassador
    to the Republic of Indonesia
    1986 – 1989     Succeeded by
    John C. Monjo
    Government offices
    Preceded by
    Fred Ikle     United States Department of Defense
    Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
    1989 – 1993     Succeeded by
    Frank G. Wisner
    Academic offices
    Preceded by
    George Packard     Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
    1993 – 2001     Succeeded by
    Jessica Einhorn
    Political offices
    Preceded by
    Rudy deLeon     United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
    2001 – 2005     Succeeded by
    Gordon R. England
    Non-profit organization positions
    Preceded by
    James Wolfensohn     President of the World Bank
    2005 – 2007     Succeeded by
    Robert Zoellick

    Presidents of the World Bank
    Eugene Meyer A John J. McCloy A Eugene R. Black, Sr. A George David Woods A Robert McNamara A Alden W. Clausen A Barber Conable A Lewis Thompson Preston A James Wolfensohn A Paul Wolfowitz A Robert Zoellick

    Persondata
    NAME     Wolfowitz, Paul Dundes
    ALTERNATIVE NAMES
    SHORT DESCRIPTION     10th President of the World Bank, Deputy Secretary of Defense in the administration of President George W. Bush
    DATE OF BIRTH     December 22, 1943
    PLACE OF BIRTH     Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
    DATE OF DEATH
    PLACE OF DEATH

    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz
    Categories: 1943 births | Living people | Ashkenazi Jews | Presidents of the World Bank | Directors of Policy Planning | United States Deputy Secretaries of Defense | Ambassadors of the United States | Reagan Administration personnel | American academics | American bankers | American political scientists | Jewish American politicians | Johns Hopkins University faculty | University of Chicago alumni | Cornell University alumni | Polish-American Jews | People from Brooklyn | People from Ithaca, New York

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

    ***

    Richard V. Allen
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Richard Vincent Allen (born 1936) was the United States National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1982.

    Allen received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Notre Dame. He served as a senior staff member of President Nixon’s National Security Council in 1968 and served various Republican administrations up to and including that of President Reagan.

    In November 1981, while serving as Reagan’s National Security Advisor, Allen was accused of receiving a bribe from a Japanese journalist for setting up an interview with First Lady Nancy Reagan, that was done in January 1981. Ronald Reagan said, in his diary, that the Japanese magazine gave cash gifts to people that it interviewed, and that Allen had stepped in to intercept the check to avoid embarrassment for Nancy Reagan, then gave the check to his secretary, who put the check in an office safe. Then when Allen changed offices, the check was found left in the safe. The FBI cleared everyone involved, then the Justice Department began its own investigation, and the story got leaked to the press. Reagan believes it was just political sabotage behind leaking the story.[1] Although the claims were never proven, Allen was eventually pressured into resigning his position.

    He is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, and a member of the Heritage Foundation’s Asian Studies Center Advisory Council, the Council on Foreign Relations, the United States Defense Policy Board, the American Alternative Foundation, and the United States National Security Advisory Group. He also serves on the advisory council of the Nixon Center.

    Allen is president of the Richard V. Allen Company, a Washington-based consulting services firm. He provides consulting services to international companies and organizations. He currently serves on APCO Worldwide’s Iraq reconstruction task force and is considered one of the most influen