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That works – he is a quarter of the way to raising the amount of money that it will take to lease or purchase the first satellite for it. Very interesting approach to it.
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Free Landsat Scenes Go Public by the Million
Released: 8/20/2009 3:26:01 PM
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Office of Communication
119 National Center
Reston, VA 20192
On August 17, someone who wanted to see how the Earth looks from 440 miles away in space downloaded the one-millionth Landsat satellite image scene from a U.S. Geological Survey web site at its Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Since the USGS opened its full Landsat archive to user access at no charge last October, the response from across the nation and around the globe has grown exponentially.
“USGS satellite operations and its data archives at EROS enable experts, or any interested member of the public, to see the land objectively with unbiased, consistently calibrated data,” said Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar. “The historical depth and reliability of these earth observations are vital to scientists and land managers across the country and across the Department of the Interior in projects that range from climate change studies and invasive species surveys to the monitoring of drought and assessment of wildfire damage.”
One development of particular note is that the very oldest data in the archive, dating to over three decades ago, is being downloaded at unprecedented levels – with land-surface change detection emerging as a primary use of Landsat data.
“The opening of the Landsat archive to free, web-based access is like giving a library card for the world’s best library of Earth conditions to everyone in the world,” said Adam Gerrand, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Landsat 1 was launched on July 23, 1972, and subsequent Landsat missions have continually acquired land-image data across the globe. Scientists, educators, and the general public use these data for a wide array of activities ranging from supporting disaster relief efforts to making agricultural crop assessments to identifying sites for cell phone towers.
Additional information on satellites, sensors, data, and the Landsat Program, which is managed by the USGS in partnership with NASA, can be found at the Landsat Missions Web site.
USGS provides science for a changing world. For more information, visit www.usgs.gov.
**** http://www.usgs.gov ****
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1. Read the papers before signing them.
2. Ask the dumb questions that make it obvious you don’t know.
3. Ask the same dumb questions of everybody, especially specialists and attorneys who would know what it actually means, until you understand it.
4. Look it up, but don’t expect that to make any sense of it until you can form the right questions to ask using the right words to convey what you are asking.
5. Expect to communicate poorly until the basic principles start to gel in your mind – but keep trying until you get the communication right.
6. Don’t expect anybody to believe you know anything about anything – it won’t be about that anyway. It will be about someone else proving they know more than you do – so let them.
7. Learning is the one thing that can’t be fudged, it can’t be cooked to appear to be what it isn’t. The skills of learning are yours simply by applying them.
8. If you know a lot about something – remember this: you can’t now, nor ever know everything about it. There will always be more to remember than you have ever thought to ask about it and there will always be more to learn about any one thing than what you’ve ever considered about it.
9. There will always, always, always be times that appear to be complicated which are indeed complicated. It is the magic of being alive as a human being that the capacity exists within each of us to challenge the reality before us and apply ourselves to it despite its complexity and difficulty.
10. Whatever can be learned, can be mastered and there will still be more to know and to learn about it. There will always be ways to apply new ideas and new information and new processes and new paradigms to that mastery.
11. If you ask, the only fool is the one who pretended to know and didn’t – not you or me for accepting the limitations of knowledge and sought to know more.
12. Living is not a game, not a premise easily dismissed and not a practice session for something else. It is lived in the now with all the fullness and depth of the entire universe available. It doesn’t matter what people think about that – living is intrinsically powerful by virtue of itself regardless of anything else. What you do with it is up to you.
– cricketdiane, 08-07-09
Adding 2 plus 2 to get 8,633,000,000 –
(A Cricket House Studios thought of the day thing.)
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Don’t tell me ceilings have to be painted white or its wrong . . .
Don’t tell me that doing art is “coloring” and that nobody makes a living at it . . .
Don’t tell me hard-work, perseverance and talent are paid with great rewards . . . it isn’t the truth in America.
Don’t tell me that you are better than I am or try to prove that is so, because I know the same maggots will eventually eat us both and return us to the soil . .
Don’t tell me I am mentally ill because I am different than you are – I have not seen what you call “normal” indicating much to be proud of – it isn’t impressive . . .
Don’t tell me that your life, your opinions and your knowledge has greater substance than mine for no other reason than the amount of money you make – because obviously that does not define the value of a human life nor of a human mind, let alone define a judgment of the extent of knowledge within it.
And, I just want to know who put the Christians and other religious zealots in charge of everybody’s sex life, classification in the financial caste system, value as a human being, position in the pecking order, exclusion or inclusion for personal opportunities and damn near every other facet of life? Who made them the voice of God – because it sure wasn’t God that did it . . .
And, don’t tell me that it isn’t like that, because it is.
Do you know what I see? Of course not. We are never going to be standing in the same place at the same moment with the same mind. Thank God for that, because if we were, there would be less chance of our species surviving for the generations yet to come – in fact, we wouldn’t have made it this far. It is by diversity that nature insures the survival of species, from plant and animal life to mankind. It is designed that way for good reason . . .
– my note, cricketdiane, 08-01-09
A note about inventions exhibition in 2010 –
THE WORLD’S LARGEST MARKET-PLACE
Exhibition of Inventions
Geneva – Palexpo
21st – 25th April 2010
EXHIBITION OF INVENTIONS
Rue du 31-Décembre 8
Tel +41 22 736 59 49
Fax +41 22 786 00 96
conservative Republicans legacy, Gary McKinnon, Homeland Security actions, human rights violations in the United States, Patriot Act, Republican policies in action, UK, US Bill of Rights, US Constitution, US extradition of UK man who hacked into government databases looking for UFO information, US government policies, US human rights, US oppression (of diversity - differences and disabled individuals - elderly - poor - disadvantaged - homeless - destitute - nonconformist ) continues along conservative christian values of intoleranc, US oppression of diversity difference and disabled individuals continues along conservative christian values of intolerance and shameful cruel sadism same as the Bush administration CIA and domestic p
My Note – A little about this year’s poisoning of horses (real life in America, and I should’ve put the story about the Holocaust survivor that was strangled, beat and killed in his home – 90 years old, survived horrors of prison camps in Hitler’s version of Germany, and this is what America gives him in his final years, unbelievable) and below that, what the current uses of the “Patriot Act” and Homeland Security are doing to a 43-year old UK man who has a form of autism and is brilliant in spite of it –
* At least 20 horses were deliberately poisoned on farm, authorities say
* Toxic oleander leaves were found with apples, carrots in horses’ stalls
* No word yet on possible motive or sickened horses’ prognosis
updated 8:00 a.m. EDT, Sat August 1, 2009
(CNN) — More than 20 horses became ill when they were intentionally poisoned with toxic leaves in southern California this week, authorities said Friday.
These oleander bush leaves, toxic to horses, were found in a San Diego, California, stable.
An exact number of horses sickened was unclear, but officials believe they were more than 20. The animals, whose prognosis was not known, were under the care of veterinarians.
An investigation is under way.
[And from April of this year – ]
Polo horses may have been poisoned
Twenty-one ponies who mysteriously died as they were being prepared for a major match in Florida are likely to have been poisoned, vets believe.
By Tom Leonard in New York
Published: 6:38PM BST 20 Apr 2009
A horrified crowd at the International Polo Club Palm Beach in Wellington watched in silence on Sunday as vets tried desperately to save the animals after they collapsed or became dizzy as they were led out of their trailers.
The team is owned by Victor Vargas, a Venezuelan businessman, close confidant of Hugo Chavez and one of the richest men in South America.
Vets at the scene, who inserted intravenous tubes and tried to cool them down with fans and water, said the horses suffered pulmonary edema, an accumulation of fluid in their lungs, and heart failure.
They had high temperatures and were disoriented but felt no pain.
The as yet unidentified toxin could have been in tainted food, vitamins or dietary supplements, or some combination of all three that caused a toxic reaction, said Scott Swerdin, a vet who treated the horses.
James Belden, a local vet who worked for the team, Lechuza Caracas, said it was a clear case of “some sort of poison” and played down the possibity of steroid abuse.
[ . . . ]
John Wash, president of club operations for the International Polo Club Palm Beach, said the polo teams were told by veterinary officials that whatever killed the horses wasn’t airborne or contagious.
“It won’t just be the polo scene in Wellington, I think it will affect the polo scene worldwide,” Mr Wash said.
“In polo’s history there’s never been an incident like this that anybody can remember. This was a tragic issue on the magnitude of losing a basketball team in an aeroplane crash.”
40 MPs in plea to Barack Obama over computer hacker Gary McKinnon
More than 40 MPs have issued a highly unusual direct plea to the Barack Obama urging him to halt the “shameful” extradition of a British computer hacker to the United States.
By John Bingham and Christopher Hope
Published: 8:00AM BST 01 Aug 2009
Gary McKinnon: British judges agree to more extraditions than US counterparts British computer hacker Gary McKinnon suffers from Asperger’s syndrome, a form of autism Photo: AP
David Cameron, the Conservative leader, also threw his weight behind a campaign against plans to send Gary McKinnon, who suffers from Asperger’s syndrome, a form of autism, for trial in the US accused of breaking into sensitive military networks.
It came as the 43-year-old lost an eleventh hour High Court challenge to the move claiming that it would worsen his condition and represent “inhuman” treatment.
In a letter, seen by The Daily Telegraph, a group of MPs urged Mr Obama to halt the extradition arguing that “most reasonable individuals” would view it as disproportionate given his mental state.
[ . . . ]
Mr McKinnon, described by his own legal team as an eccentric, claims that he was merely searching for evidence of UFOs when he hacked into almost 100 US government computers from his bedroom in north London shortly after the September 11 attacks of 2001.
Although his extradition has already been agreed after a lengthy legal process, he launched a last-minute High Court challenge attempting to force the Home Secretary to block the move earlier this year.
His lawyers also challenged the decision by Keir Starmer QC, the Director of Public Prosecutions, not to sanction a trial in this country – something which would preclude extradition.
The lawyers argued that sending him for trial in the US, despite his mental condition and with the prospect of up to 60 years in prison if found guilty, would breach his human rights.
But despite accepting that extradition to the US could cause Mr McKinnon’s mental health to deteriorate and even worsen the risk of suicide, two senior judges ruled that it did not represent a “inhuman or degrading treatment”.
[ . . . ]
Forty MPs including Michael Ancram, Sir Patrick Cormack and Peter Bottomley signed the letter, organised by the Conservative member Angela Browning who is Vice President of the National Autistic Society.
Sir Menzies Campbell, the former Former Liberal Democrat leader, Chris Grayling, the shadow Home Secretary, and Keith Vaz, the Labour chairman of the Home Affairs Select Committee, also spoke out against the extradition.
Karen Todner, Mr McKinnon’s solicitor, said: “I have today sent a letter to President Barack Obama signed by 40 members of a cross parliamentary group of MPs asking him to step in to bring this shameful episode to an end. It is a sad state of affairs if this Government cannot protect our most vulnerable citizens.”
Any Supreme Court case is not thought likely to be heard until next spring, in the run-up to the expected general election.
[ . . . ]
Mr Cameron said: “Gary McKinnon is a vulnerable young man and I see no compassion in sending him thousands of miles away from his home and loved ones to face trial.”
Speaking on the steps of the Royal Courts of Justice Mrs Sharp described the attempt to extradite her son as a “disgrace”.
“I’m desperately trying to get through to Obama,” she said. “This is from the Bush era … it is not of Obama, he would not want this to happen.”
My Note –
Is That the best they can do with our money – to process and prosecute someone who is obviously not a terrorist, didn’t intend harm and was capable of getting into secure computer databases of our government. They ought to be hiring him instead of prosecuting and persecuting Gary McKinnon – he’s obviously brilliant and we need his expertise, and so does the government of the UK and Interpol and the European Parliaments’ cybersecurity forces.
What are they thinking to bring this man to the United States away from all that he knows and subject him to sitting in a jail cell through the fall and Christmas, locked away from everyone he knows in the abusive environments of our prison system? Why in the hell would anybody do such a thing given that what he did hacking into the government agency computer networks took a brilliant ability that we so desperately need?
How dare anyone destroy that brilliance, genius and level of knowledge when it caused no harm, was not intended to cause harm and was in no way related to terrorism, nor to a terrorist act? Then, to sit him in our jails until Spring of whenever without a due recourse because the bureaucracy of the Republican Party’s Bush Administration is still in unfettered tyranny? Are you kidding me – what kind of people would do this and get it so backwards when we are desperate to have people exactly like this man help us in our intelligence and cyber security fields? If they do this to him, there is nothing worth saving in America because there is apparently too much wrong with it to fix . . .
The United States of America has no business acting like a senseless bunch of Gestapo bastards without the insight or good judgment of a rock. It is a waste of time, effort and resources along with the fact that no good comes of it and it undermines the very foundation of our nation’s premise.
– cricketdiane, 08-01-09
Title – (this is not a sentence, it is a paragraph for a title – sorry about that),
US – Republican Administration Policies continue unabated, unhindered, and without regard, using their “conservative thinktank” policies to impose and define America with Abuses of Human Rights, Violations of Civil Rights, Oppression of the Disadvantaged and Disabled – These Bush, Reagan and even, Nixon era bureaucrats are still using their Gestapo tactics of unbridled cruelty, senseless unmerciful viciousness and psychotic sadistic whims on citizens lives while causing egregious harms against mankind – Here is what their efforts are using our money and resources to do this time – (leftover evils from previous Republican bureaucratic policies) –
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/barackobama/5949202/40-MPs-in-plea-to-Barack-Obama-over-computer-hacker-Gary-McKinnon.html – These Republican right wing policies continue to be imposed on our society by using the Conservative Caucus choices that were enacted throughout the US agencies, state legislatures and under the guise of US states’ rights from the last twenty years, which inflict their abuses of power, intolerance of Human Rights and degradations of people upon every person it touches – now to include Gary McKinnon, UK citizen for hacking into US databases to find out about UFOs . . .
I still say – they ought to be hiring this guy, Gary McKinnon instead of giving him hell across two countries and using countless manhours, resources, administrative efforts, prosecution funds and costs to both countries, as well as the mental stress, inconvenience and difficulties it has caused him and his family (and in his community) – it is an insane waste of resources and a complete waste of his talents when we most need them available to us in both countries and in the European Parliament facilities, as well.
– my note
US oppression (of diversity – differences and disabled individuals – elderly – poor – disadvantaged – homeless – destitute – nonconformist – creative – gifted – intelligent – genius – brilliant – talented – unusual) continues along conservative christian values of intolerance and shameful cruelty / sadistic games with human lives – the same as the Bush administration CIA, NSA, police brutality and domestic policies of castes and oppression.
In the words of our Chinese counterparts – “Don’t try to catch a falling knife.” I saw it on the bloomberg ticker one night last fall and nearly fell out of my chair considering its implications. It might be correct – it may be that the United States who has demanded that every other nation abide by certain human rights protections for citizens, cannot do the same at home nor in any policies or action it takes. That would be a shame for it to continue that way.
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Among the participants, Iran sent the most teams with 50 in the running, followed by Germany and Japan, according to the organisers.
Robots face off on football pitch, in kitchen at RoboCup 2009
Jul 1, 2009
VIENNA (AFP) — RoboCup 2009, the world’s largest robotics event, kicked off Wednesday in the southern Austrian city of Graz, with some 400 teams and 2,000 robots ready to compete in sports and rescue operations.
Check out these cool videos of robots –
July 5, 2009 9:34 AM PDT
Ramen robots invade Japanese restaurant
by Dave Rosenberg
Udon combo in Tokyo
Udon combo in Tokyo.
(Credit: Dave Rosenberg)
Just when you thought your noodle waterslide was the height of Japanese food gadgetry, a ramen shop in Minami-Alps, Yamanashi, Japan, is gaining popularity for its robot chef.
Look out chefs this bot has the moves!
its a salmon, its a tuna, nope its ROBOT FISH!!!
big bots small bots, one bot two bots…oh my
watch how the world started the creation of robots to now
It’s the Cleopatra of the model world
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Small Business Grants
We’ve all seen the headlines: “Millions in free government money for your business.” Late-night infomercials and Internet advertisements promise grants to start or expand a business. Sound too good to be true? It is.
Facts About Government Grants
The federal government does not provide grants for starting and expanding a business.
Grants from the federal government are only available to non-commercial organizations, such as non-profits and educational institutions in areas such as, medicine, education, scientific research and technology development. The federal government also provides grants to state and local governments to assist them with economic development.
Some business grants are available through state and local programs, non-profit organizations and other groups. For example, some states provide grants for expanding child care centers; creating energy efficient technology; and developing marketing campaigns for tourism. These grants are not necessarily free money, and usually require the recipient to match funds or combine the grant with other forms of financing such as a loan.
If you are not one of these specialized business, both federal and state government agencies provide financial assistance programs that helps small business owners obtain low-interest loans and venture capital financing from commercial lenders.
How to Find Grants
If you are a small business owner, use our Small Business Loans and Grants Search Tool to find specialized small business grant programs.
If you are a non-profit organization or a for-profit business involved in scientific and technology research and development, consult the following resources:
The following is a selection of major grant programs provided by federal government agencies.
Arts, Humanities and Education
Community and Social Services
Health and Medicine
Science, Technology and Environment
World Heritage List
The World Heritage List includes 878 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value.
[Etc. – See this page for list of all sites by country -]
Atmocean’s wave-driven ocean upwelling system operates in the open ocean hundreds of miles from land where there is a steady supply of large ocean waves. Each pump, typically reaching down to depths of 100 meters to 400 meters beneath the surface, employs a surface buoy to capture this kinetic wave energy and pump the deep ocean toward the surface.
The deeper ocean is both colder and contains higher levels of nutrients. Upwelling of this deeper ocean, whether caused by storms and currents or by future deployment of Atmocean pumps, triggers the growth of phytoplankton. To metabolize the nutrients, phytoplankton take in dissolved CO2. This natural process today is absorbing nearly half of mankind’s emissions of CO2 while providing food for nearly all life in the upper ocean. But global warming is stratifying the upper ocean and reducing nutrients which reach the sunlit zone. Fewer phytoplankton grow, diminishing the ocean food chain and absorbing less CO2. This causes a feedback loop as more warming lessens natural ocean absorption of CO2, which then remains in the atmosphere to cause more warming.
In the years and decades ahead, Atmocean believes our wave-driven ocean upwelling system – which closely mimics and slightly enhances the natural ocean process – can play a critical role in restoring our ocean environment and cutting short this feedback loop. On the adjoining pages you can learn more about how our technology works and some of its applications. For more details, please contact Philip W. Kithil, CEO, at firstname.lastname@example.org
Reduce Hurricane Intensity
|Given the very active hurricane season of 2008 – refreshing our memories of 2005 (Katrina, Rita, and Wilma) and 2004 (Charlie, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne) – there is renewed interest in deploying Atmocean upwelling pumps to cool the upper ocean and reduce hurricane intensity.
We have used the GFDL coupled ocean-atmosphere tracking & intensity model used by National Hurricane Center to model the effects on intensity attributable to cooling the upper ocean. From this we have developed the following deployment strategy:
Since the hurricane generates ever-increasing waves, more cold water is pumped as the storm approaches, resulting in overall cooling by about one degree C. – enough to lower peak winds 5% to 20%. Since hurricane damages are proportional to the cube of windspeed, losses could be reduced by 15% (e.g. 100mph reduced to 95 mph) to 49% (100mph reduced to 80mph).
Both in 2005 and this year, a portion of the Gulf Stream spun off and formed a large eddy of very warm, deep water in the Gulf of Mexico. If an approaching storm has a well-formed eye, low wind shear in the upper atmosphere, and crosses this warm eddy, rapid intensification is likely. Therefore, a further strategy is to deploy Atmocean pumps weeks ahead of time in the warm eddy to reduce its heat content and mitigate against rapid intensification. We hope to conduct further modelling of this strategy in the near future.
To discuss in more detail how Atmocean’s technology might help reduce hurricane intensity, please contact Philip W. Kithil, CEO, at email@example.com
802 Early Street
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Telephone – 505-310-2294
Fax – 888-527-6480
As an individual, you can help in many ways. Developing an awareness of the importance of World Heritage is the first step towards becoming an active participant in the preservation process. You can get informed about World Heritage, learn about World Heritage education, find out how to become a partner, discover how to visit sites in a responsible manner, how to work with us or make a donation.
[From – ]
If you find an old windmill for sale, first make sure it’s intended for generating electricity instead of just pumping water. One common old windmill that’s often found for sale used is the Wincharger. The other popular wind generator of the era was the Jacobs. These were of higher quality than Winchargers–but many of both are still flying today. Several people around the U.S. restore, service and stock parts for old windmills. And the Jacobs is still being made today! The current production models are very large and expensive, with over 10 kW output–they are magnificently designed and built. Check out the Manufacturer’s Website for more information and cool pictures.
Electricity producing wind generators were very popular in the 1920s and 1930s all over rural America. They were available in many different sizes and voltages, and can often be found for sale in rural farm communities. Most models are quite suitable for a modern remote power system no matter what voltage they are. If you are able to locate an old wind generator, some basic maintenance (rust removal, lubrication, and testing) could put it back in working order quickly. They were built to last–before Rural Electricifation, they were the ONLY source of power for many rural farms and ranches. Backwoods Home Magazine published an excellent article in 2001 about finding and restoring old wind generators.
- Homebrew Wind Turbine Construction Seminar, July 25-31 2009, Gerald, Missouri. More details, costs, and online registration (now OPEN) are available at the Evergreen Institute website. This will be a hands-on, 6-day, very intensive turbine building seminar that will end with a complete wind turbine install and erection. Loads of fun and great knowledge to be gained by everyone. Expect to be completely exhausted by the end of it!
Homebrew Wind Turbine Construction Seminar, August 17-22 2009, at the Otherpower wind turbine shop, 35 miles West of Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. This will be a hands-on, 6-day, very intensive turbine building seminar that will end with a complete wind turbine install and erection. Loads of fun and great knowledge to be gained by everyone. Expect to be completely exhausted by the end of it! Registration is NOW OPEN, and class is capped at 12 students, so register early.
Contact us for more information if you want to book a seminar of your own here in Colorado for 2-4 students, or seminar at your own location. Many of these seminars we put on are made possible by grant money from universities and community colleges, who sponsor instructors and professors to attend. We can also provide references from past seminars.
OPTIONS FOR GETTING STARTED IN WIND POWER
Build your own!
Homebrew Wind Power by Dan Bartmann and Dan Fink.The best book out there about building and flying do-it-yourself wind turbines. We know, because we wrote it!
Order it from our Online Store HERE.
Building a wind generator from scratch is not THAT difficult of a project. You will need a shop with basic power and hand tools, and some degree of dedication. Large wind generators of 2000 Watts and up are a major project needing very strong construction, but smaller ones in the 700-1000 Watt, 8-11 foot range can be built fairly easily! In fact, we highly recommend that you tackle a smaller wind turbine before even thinking about building a large one. You’ll need to be able to cut and weld steel, and a metal lathe can be handy (though you could hire a machine shop that turns brake rotors do do some small steps for you).
In most locations, GENTLE winds (5-15 mph) are the most common, and strong winds are much more rare. As you’ll see by examining our latest machines, our philosophy about designing wind turbines is to make large, sturdy machines that produce good power in low wind speeds, and are able to survive high wind events while still producing maximum power. The power available in the wind goes up by a factor of 8 as the windspeed doubles.
Other critical factors are rotor size and tower height. The power a wind turbine can harvest goes up by at least a factor of 4 as you double the rotor size. And making a tower higher gets you above turbulence for better performance and substially increased power output. Putting a wind turbine on a short tower is like mounting solar panels in the shade!
Before you jump into building your own wind turbine or buying a commercial one, do your homework! There are certain things that work and certain things that don’t, and you can save hours and dollars by learning from other people’s successes and mistakes. Some recommended reading:
- Our book Homebrew Wind Power covers everything you need to know about the physics behind turning moving air into electricity, and includes detailed, step-by-step illustrated instructions on how to build a 10-foot diameter, 1 kilowatt turbine. And much more, including controls, wiring, towers, and troubleshooting.
- Our article The Bottom Line About Wind Turbines is an essential introduction to wind power. It covers the basics of how wind comes to us, how much power different size wind turbines can make in different wind regimes, and has a very handy section on detecting wind turbine scams.
Put Yourself in Charge of Your Home’s Energy Needs
Take control of your home’s energy needs by harnessing a free resource—the wind. How? With a residential wind generator from Skystream®. Designed for homes just like yours, the smart, modern Skystream 3.7 converts wind into electricity you can use. It lowers your electric bill by as much as 80%, protects you against volatile electricity prices, reduces your dependence on foreign oil, and produces clean energy that doesn’t affect global warming. Most importantly, it provides independence and stability for you and your family.
On February 17, 2009 President Obama signed the American Recovery and Re-investment Act of 2009 into law. The bill improves upon the 2008 tax credit, by removing “cost caps.” This change allows consumers and small businesses to take a 30% tax credit off the installed cost of a wind turbine.
Wind Maps –
My Note –
I found a site that had a build your own generator a while back – something like a home garage project. Will find it again and post it later . . .
It looks like the states and non-profits, cities and counties are good places to look for business grants, as well as specific industry groups. I’m going to look around for those also. I wonder how much could be raised with a business that is built from the ground up with green – ecologically friendly practices from the get-go. Might be interesting to find out.
– cricketdiane, 06-06-09
Good Living is to stand where the trees filled with bright green leaves sparkling in the sunlight bow over a gently gurgling creek with its waters singing from little waterfalls and swirls over round glistening moss-covered rocks. It is to put a hand into the cool water and find a pretty rock or two and put the wet sparkling treasures into a pocket to discover later at home. It is to stand with pants rolled up in the bubbling swirls to feel rocks underfoot and waterfall spray under the canopy of arching branches and leaves that spreads out as far up the stream as the eye can see.
That is good living. It doesn’t cost much, doesn’t pay any bills, isn’t harnessed for anything except the sheer joy of the moment, but it nourishes the soul and complements the mind. It is a moment of time stopped from today and tomorrow and yesterday. Long before now, the creek has flowed and long after today, it will continue. The trees will sparkle with rays of the sun casting long strands of light through the branches and the new spring leaves will be the most marvelous colors of every green and yellow-green that exists. The spray of the creek’s falls will be cool on the skin, a gentle breeze will flow through the canopy and the beautiful water-polished rocks will sit on the creek bed highlighting their colors beneath the moving water.
Skipping rocks across a still pool a little ways from the drifting water, watching for crawdads and water snakes, finding rose quartz and rubies under the water on the creek bed and sunning on a flat rock that has been smoothed by the water over hundreds of years, are exceptional special moments to carry back into a hustled modern world of streets and buildings and buzzing activity.
In Japan, there are beautiful gardens with water features because of the soothing effects to the spirit and in many homes of the Middle East, there are fountains, pools and gently moving water channels in a central courtyard of the home for its spiritually nourishing qualities. There are sounds of water which cannot be acquired any other way but by its fall and splash with the echo of it against rocks or marble basin.
This sound sings to the soul of every human being. It calls to the life of living, it nourishes and forebears, it completes and awakens, it soothes and calms while restoring thoughts to a flow of focus and breadth at the same time. It is amazing and even the memory of it can do the same thing, filling the mind with wonder again and with a child-like delight at the world in its newness and potential, calming and awakening the mind to consider the possibilities with openness and the willingness to contemplate challenge.
– cricketdiane, 06-01-09
careers, conferences, Creating Solutions for America, Creativity, Cricket Diane C Phillips, Cricket House Studios, cricketdiane, employment, global economic crisis, information resources, innovation, International Concerns, Inventing, invention, inventiveness, jobs, macro-economic analysis, mathematicians, mathematics, mathematics applications, networking, occupations, Principles of Economics, Rapid Prototyping Processes, resources, social networking, Start Your Own Business, start your own business tools, technology resources, training, UN Economic Crisis summit, US economic crisis, workshops
September 22 – 24, 2009
MIT Campus, Cambridge, MA
The annual EmTech@MIT conference gives you access to the most innovative labs, companies, and entrepreneurs from around the world and shows you where to lead your organization in order to stay ahead of the curve.
EmTech@MIT brings Technology Review’s mission to life by showcasing the most important emerging technologies and explaining their impact on you, our audience. EmTech@MIT is packed with groundbreaking demos, thought-provoking keynotes, interactive breakout sessions, and opportunities for exclusive networking with our senior-level audience.
Join the most important leaders in technology as we spotlight the critical innovations that will drive our economy forward—many of which you have not yet seen or read about.
2009 Conference Highlights
- New! Lab to Market Workshop that explores technological innovation and tackles how to enter the marketplace in a tough economic climate
- Powerful keynotes and interactive breakout sessions
- New! Preview Sessions that give you a first look at powerful emerging technologies
- Unveiling of the 2009 TR35—the top 35 innovators under the age of 35
Why attend EmTech@MIT?
- To discover critical innovations across the technology spectrum, in industries including energy, biotechnology, IT, and the Web
- To understand how up-and-coming trends in these areas are going to impact your business
- To network with 1,000 innovators and leaders in business and technology, including CEOs, CTOs, CIOs, policy leaders, entrepreneurs, venture investors, and more
Who attends EmTech@MIT?
Senior Business and Technology Leaders. Each year, EmTech@MIT attracts top decision makers from the technology, engineering, investment, and management communities. Attendees include leaders (CXO or director level) from organizations such as
Adobe Systems • Alcatel-Lucent • Amazon Web Services • Bank of America • Bell South • BP • Cisco Systems • Columbia University • Department of Defense DTSA • Deutsche Telekom Group • ESPN • FedEx • Hewlett-Packard • IBM • Intel • Johnson & Johnson • JPMorgan Investment Management • Juniper Networks • Mayo Clinic • Microsoft • NSTAR • Office of Naval Research • PricewaterhouseCoopers • Samsung Electronics • Sun Microsystems • Toyota • United States Senate • and many more!
Register by June 1, 2009, and save $500 on any full-conference package!
Special Information from – EurActiv
Der Vertreter von kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen haben die Entscheidung der EU-Finanzminister zu Mehrwertsteuerkürzungen in bestimmten Bereichen begrüßt und besonders die Sicherheit, die die Kürzungen für ihre Unternehmen bringen, gelobt.
Das Unterhaus des rumänischen Parlaments hat einstimmig für die Aufhebung der Verbrauchssteuern auf traditionelle, selbst gebrannte hochprozentige Getränke gestimmt, obwohl der EU-Beitrittsvertrag für Rumänien vorschreibt, Verbrauchssteuern auf selbst gebrannten Alkohol zu erheben.
In den neuen EU-Mitgliedstaaten wird derzeit viel über die Einführung von Einheitssteuern diskutiert und Rufe nach Steuersenkungen und -vereinfachungen sind auch anderswo in Europa zu hören. (mehr)
Analysen und Kommentare
The University of Kent’s Brussels School of International Studies is a specialised postgraduate school offering advanced international studies in Brussels, Belgium. Our students benefit from the unique advantages of a prestigious degree from a renowned British University, with excellent opportunities for networking and professional advancement offered by our location in the cosmopolitan and politically important “Capital of Europe”.
The Brussels School of International Studies offers the following advanced programmes:
- MA in European Public Policy 
- MA in International Relations 
- MA in International Conflict Analysis 
- MA in International Development 
- MA in International Political Economy 
- MA in Migration Studies 
- MA in Political Strategy and Communication 
- LLM in International Economic Law 
- LLM in International Law and International Relations 
- LLM in Public International Law 
- MPhil/PhD in International Conflict Analysis 
- MPhil/PhD in International Relations 
- MPhil/PhD in International Law 
- MPhil/PhD in Migration Studies 
News and Events
Here is a brief summary of the article, with a link to the full article underneath.
Student Conference: 23/24 May 2009
Doctoral and Masters scholarships available from September 2009.
Anniversary Lecture from General Sir Mike Jackson
MA in International Development
Find out more about this exciting new programme.
View our Video
The Mar-Apr 09 edition of the BSIS Newsletter is now available online.
The new BSIS prospectus is now available online as well as in hard copy
Past Events and News
[From – ]
BSIS, University of Kent, Boulevard de la Plaine 5, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
Electronic Textiles Being Made
Textiles coated with carbon nanotubes form electronic sensors that look and feel like ordinary cotton.
Jian Zhu pulls a cotton thread out of the nano¬tube solution, where it’s been soaking for about two minutes. Zhu will allow the thread to dry and then repeat the process about nine times to maximize the thread’s electrical properties.
Photo by: Fabrizio Costantini
Read the full article:
[From – ]
New on this site
Women in Peacekeeping: The Power to Empower
Over the past six decades, United Nations peacekeeping has evolved into one of the main tools used by the international community to manage complex crises that threaten international peace and security. Today, more than 110,000 men and women serve as peacekeepers – military, police and civilian – in 16 peacekeeping operations around the world, from the arid lands of Darfur, to the mountains of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the shores of Haiti. The number of countries that now contribute police and military personnel has reached 120, an all time high. This participation not only bolsters the strength of UN operations; it is also a clear demonstration of widespread respect for, dependence on and confidence in United Nations peacekeeping.
In 2000, the UN Security Council adopted its landmark Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. For the first time in an omnibus resolution, the Council recognized that women bear the brunt of armed conflicts, and should have a commensurate role in their prevention and resolution.
The resolution stressed the importance of women’s equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security. Among its many recommendations, the resolution called for an expansion of the role and contribution of women in United Nations peacekeeping operations, including in military, police, and civilian roles, as well as in positions of leadership.
After the adoption of Resolution 1325, the United Nations Headquarters, peacekeeping operations and Member States have been working to meet these goals, but progress is far from satisfactory. On the civilian side, the percentage of women recruited, hired and deployed by the Secretariat to work in peacekeeping operations has reached 30 per cent, bringing gender parity well within reach. Progress has been much slower on the uniformed components of UN peacekeeping operations, which Member States contribute and now have less than 3 per cent women. This includes 8 per cent of the 10,000 police officers and 2 per cent of the 80,000 military personnel.
Peacekeeping has evolved from its traditional role of monitoring ceasefire agreements and borders between sovereign States to carrying out large scale multi-dimensional peacekeeping operations often addressing civil wars. These newer missions are mandated to facilitate political processes through the promotion of national dialogue and reconciliation; protect civilians; assist in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of combatants; support the organization of elections; protect and promote human rights; promote reform of the domestic security sector; and assist in restoring the rule of law.
These expanded responsibilities make the need for more women peacekeepers more pressing than ever. In all of these fields, women peacekeepers have proven that they can perform the same roles, to the same standards and under the same difficult conditions, as their male counterparts. In many cases, women are better-placed to carry out peacekeeping tasks, including interviewing victims of sexual and gender-based violence, working in women’s prisons, assisting female ex-combatants during the process of demobilizing and reintegration into civilian life, and mentoring female cadets at police academies.
Adding to the value of this contribution, female peacekeepers act as role models in the local environment, inspiring, by their very example, women and girls in the often male-dominated societies where they serve. Demonstrating to these women and girls that they can do anything – in the realm of politics, security, law and order, medicine, journalism and beyond – the female blue helmets truly embody the concept, “Power to Empower.”
United Nations Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Development (24 – 26 June 2009, UN Headquarters)
The United Nations is convening a three-day summit of world leaders from 24 to 26 June 2009 at its New York Headquarters to assess the worst global economic downturn since the Great Depression. The aim is to identify emergency and long-term responses to mitigate the impact of the crisis, especially on vulnerable populations, and initiate a needed dialogue on the transformation of the international financial architecture, taking into account the needs and concerns of all Member States.
The United Nations summit of world leaders in June was mandated at the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development, held in December 2008 in Doha, Qatar. Member States requested the General Assembly President Miguel d’Escoto Brockmann to organize the meeting “at the highest level”.
«We have an historic opportunity —and a collective responsibility— to bring new stability and sustainability to the international economic financial order.»
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Financial and economic crisis
The world economy is mired in the most severe economic and financial crisis since the Great Depression, which threatens the ability of countries to confront issues such as poverty, hunger and disease. As the crisis deepens, the impact on developing countries is rapidly worsening, particularly in terms of rising unemployment and a widening external financing gap. A sharp decline in international trade flows, a collapse in commodity prices, a drop in international tourism, and a moderation in remittances have contributed to a significant deterioration in the current account balances of many developing countries.
DESA plays a major convening role to support intergovernmental dialogue and coordinated courses of action to address the challenge. The Department serves as the Secretariat of the United Nations Conferences on Financing for Development and many of the functional commissions of the Economic and Social Council. All of these conferences play a key role in addressing the economic and social impact of the current crisis on developing countries.
The Doha Declaration on Financing for Development, adopted by consensus by the Member States on 2 December 2008 during the four-day Follow-up International Conference, calls for a United Nations Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Development. The conference will take place from 24-26 June 2009 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
The Commission for Social Development held experts panels on the financial crisis and its impact on development and stressed that countries must work together to ensure that the world’s most vulnerable do not bear the brunt of the turmoil.
The food crisis, climate crisis, financial crisis and a global recession are all interconnected and the Commission on Sustainable Development expressed concern on their impact on sustainable development, including trade financing for food and other essential imports as well as farmers’ access to credit.
The Commission on the Status of Women focused on the gender perspective of the financial crisis as an emerging issue where disproportionate burden on women was discussed.
The implications of statistics arising from the systemic aspects of the global financial crisis and economic downturn were the focus at the 2009 session of the Statistical Commission. Opportunities were explored how statisticians could accelerate the availability of macroeconomic estimates.
The Department serves with its analysis, research and publications as a think tank within the United Nations in the area of economic and social affairs. Key economic policies are spelled out in the flagship publication on the World Economic Situation and Prospects. This is seen as a point of reference for discussion on economic, social and related issues, becoming the analytical basis for agreement.
DESA focuses in particular on countries with vulnerable economies, including Africa and Small Island Developing States, and conducts analytical studies on the crisis to support the intergovernmental consultations. Research also addresses women’s control over economic resources and access to financial aid.
Generating high quality estimates of economic performance have become an essential output of DESA during the crisis and resulted in a need to develop additional indicators on the performance of the economy and the financial markets.
DESA’s capacity development interventions in the context of the crisis provides supplementary macroeconomic advisory capacity (SMAC) to the Financial Crisis Working Group, as well as through direct advice to developed countries. DESA also assists countries to understand and deal with the social and sustainable development dimension of the crisis and helps countries to enhance their statistical data gathering in general, and on the financial and social aspects of the crisis in particular. DESA draws on its extensive network of partners to provide capacity development services.
The department also focuses during the current crisis on the impact of external shocks on poverty and social vulnerability and assists countries in macroeconomic policy analysis, in particular for the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The availability of MDG indicators and data provides instruments for monitoring these trends for timely intervention and action.
Furthermore, DESA supports the 2010 Population Census to be conducted in most countries of the world and its outcome will also provide information on migration, housing and employment, affected by the current financial and economic crisis.
- Emmanuel Morucci: Pourquoi les leaders politiques ne parlent pas d’Europe?
- viharg: Bulgarian Nuclear Plant Project Delayed by Elections
- Challenge for Europe: Publier les bilans environnementaux et sociaux des entreprises cotées en Bourse ?
- Challenge for Europe: Publishing the environmental and social assessments of stock exchange registered companies
[from – ]
( ALSO – )
- 28 Mai 2009
Ensuring Investment in Secure and Sustainable Energy: Benefits of Multilateral Action
- 28 – 29 Mai 2009
- 2 Juni 2009
Review of functioning of the Insurance Block Exemption Regulation
- 4 Juni 2009
European elections in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom
Learn Physics in 24 Hours
Rich-Media Physics Video Tutorials, Breakthrough Rapid Learning System.
(My Noter – I don’t know about the above site – it looked interesting and was an ad on one of the pages I noticed. There was another one from the other day that turned out to be very good. It is here – )
* ICAM 2009
11th International Conference on Advanced Materials – VIII Encontro SBPMat
11th International Conference on Advanced Materials – VIII Encontro SBPMat Image
September 20 – 25, 2009
Rio de Janeiro
View Official Conference Web site
The International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM) is one of the prestigious conferences of the International Union of Materials Research Societies (IUMRS) and is held in alternate years. The earlier conferences in this series were held in Beijing, China (1999), Cancun, Mexico (2001), Yokohama, Japan (2003), Singapore (2005) and Bangalore (2007). The ICAM 2009 is organized together with the VIII Brazilian MRS Meeting — VIII Encontro SBPMat. This event will be held in the beautiful city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20 to 25 September 2009. Thirty technical symposia, four plenary lectures, an Energy Forum and an exhibition are envisaged. Each symposium will have invited talks, contributed oral and poster presentations.
A range of topics at the frontiers of material research of contemporary importance for science, technology and engineering will be highlighted. A galaxy of distinguished scientists will be present, delivering plenary and invited talks, among more than 2000 delegates.
The abstract submission deadline for this conference is May 30, 2009. Information regarding the topical symposia can be found in the links below. For complete information regarding this conference, we invite you to view the official conference Web site.
* View Visa Information
* A – Advances on Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Applications
* B – Mechanical Properties of Materials at the Nanometer Length Scales
* C – Carbon Nanostructures: From properties to Applications
* D – Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Inorganic Nanoparticles
* E – Magnetic Materials at the Nanoscale
* F – Solving Nanostructures through Electron Microscopy
* G – Medical Applications of Nanotechnology
* H – New Developments in Biomaterials
* I – New Materials and Processes for Sensing and Biosensing
* J – Materials for Portable Energy Sources
* K – Innovation in Fuel Cells: from Materials to Novel Devices
* L – Environmentally Benign Materials
* M – Frontiers in Photonic and Photovoltaic Materials and Processes
* N – Materials for Nuclear Power Generation
* O – Materials for Direct Energy Conversion Systems
* P – Designer Polymeric Nano and Micro-Structures
* Q – Materials and Processes for Large-Area Electronics
* R – Protective Coating: Advanced Surface Engineering
* S – Current Trends in Oxide Materials
* T – Functional Materials For Organic Electronic and Nanotechnology
* U – Advances in Structural Ceramics from Processing to Applications
* V – Structures and Properties of Metastable Materials
* W – New Developments in the Processing and Applications of Cu-ad Mo-Base Alloys
* X – Processing, structure and properties of advanced metallic materials
* Y – Computational Modeling and Data Driven Materials Discovery
* Z – Phase Transformation in Metallic Systems: Current issues
* AA – Materials Education: Resources, Opportunities and Challenges
* BB – From Theory to Experiment: Advances in engineering materials
Materials Research Society
506 Keystone Drive, Warrendale, PA, 15086-7573, USA
Phone: 724 779.3003, Fax: 724 779.8313,
(Something really interesting – check new information just coming out now)
The Organizers of the International Congress of Mathematicians 2010 in Hyderabad have issued the official “First Announcement of ICM 2010” and invited all mathematicians to preregister at the ICM 2010 Website.
ICM – International Congress of Mathematicians
- The next ICM will be held in Hyderabad, India, August 19-27, 2010. Please go to the ICM 2010 server for detailed information. The ICM 2010 Organizing Committee has produced three posters advertising the Congress. You can download the posters from here. The Organizing Committee asks all mathematical institutions in the world to download, print and post them.
- The IMU has set up the ICM 2010 Program Committee (PC). Its chair isProf. Hendrik W. Lenstra
2300 RA Leiden
The PC has set up the structure of the ICM 2010 program (which includes 20 sections) and determined the panels for all the ICM sections. If you have suggestions for invited section or plenary speakers, please contact Prof. Lenstra by email, see IMU AO Circular Letter 3/2008.
The roles the Program Committee and the Organizing Committee play in the preparation of the scientific program of an ICM is described in the PC/OC Guidelines.
General Information about ICMs
- Program Committees for ICMs
- Bids to Host an ICM
- List of all ICM plenary and invited speakers since 1950
A data base has been compiled from the proceedings volumes of the ICMs since 1950. The data base can be viewed in several versions:
- sorted by speakers’ last name
- sorted by congress year, and subsequently, by speakers’ last name
- sorted by section name, and subsequently, by speakers’ last name
- a simple search interface
The data base probably contains still some errors. Moreover, the section names have changed over the years considerably and are contained in the data base only in some abbreviated form. This means that the “section view” currently provides only a somewhat inconsistent picture.We encourage readers who found errors in the data base to send the observation (and if possible, the correction) to firstname.lastname@example.org so that the data can be updated.
- 2006 Madrid, Spain
- Guillermo P. Curbera (Universidad de Sevilla), who curated the exhibition on the history of the International Congresses at ICM 2006 in Madrid, has made parts of the exhibition electronically available.
- 2002 Beijing, China (see also here)
- 1998 Berlin, Germany
- A list of all previous ICMs is here.
ICM related Grants
- The International Mathematical Union, in cooperation with other mathematical organizations and the local Organizing Committee of an ICM, provides Grants to Young Mathematicians as well as Grants to Senior Mathematicians from developing and economically disadvantaged countries. At each ICM, the local organizers usually offer further grant programs.
More information can be found here.
The IMU server runs under responsibility of the International Mathematical Union (IMU).
Please send suggestions and corrections to IMU Secretary
Martin Grötschel, Secretary
International Mathematical Union
Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB)
D-14195 Berlin, Germany
Fax: +49 30 84185 – 269
This server is hosted by Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB), Germany, Berlin, Germany.
Please send technical suggestions and corrections to
STOCKHOLM (AFP) — A 16-year-old Iraqi immigrant, who figured out a solution to a complex maths puzzle, was not the first person to come up with a successful formula, Sweden’s Uppsala University said in a statement Thursday.
Swedish media, including the website of the Dagens Nyheter daily, reported Thursday that Mohamed Altoumaimi had found a formula to explain and simplify the so-called Bernoulli numbers, a sequence of calculations named after the 17th century Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli.
“Senior lecturer Jan-Aake Lindhal verified the formula, but added that although correct, it was well known and readily available in several databases,” the statement said.
[ . . . ]
Teen figures out 300-year-old math problem
Published: May 28, 2009 at 12:11 PM
UPPSALA, Sweden, May 28 (UPI) — A 16-year-old in Sweden says when he first presented his solution to a 300-year-old mathematics formula, he was met with skepticism from his teachers.
Mohamed Altoumaimi, an Iraqi immigrant to Sweden, said undeterred, he presented the formula explaining the calculation of Bernoulli numbers to professors at Sweden’s Uppsala University, The Local said Thursday.
[ . . . ]
The Local said while the Bernoulli numbers formula had previously been solved, Altoumaimi’s work was praised as a result of his young age and educational level.
“It’s really exciting, now all the teachers have come and congratulated me,” the teen said of the response to his formula.
Bernoulli numbers are sequenced rational numbers connected to number theory.
“Right away they wanted to take a look at all my calculations and the documents where I show that the formula really works,” the teen added regarding Uppsala professors’ interest in his work.
[Quote from above article]
Predicting the unpredictable to assess the risk of a cataclysm
Analyses incorporating a ‘fat-tailed’ expected tail loss predicted last year’s market shock while other analysts were blissfully unaware, a statistician claims
By Jane Baird
Friday, May 29, 2009, Page 9
Professor Zari Rachev scorns the idea that market cataclysms cannot be forecast. He says his statistical models have predicted them, and his customers agree.
His daughter is now president of New York-based company FinAnalytica, which uses his models to provide investors and risk managers with a risk indicator that takes into account the worst-case scenarios.
As those who have so far survived the financial crisis pick over the wreckage to develop enhanced predictors of market risk, Rachev’s are among the offerings for people who believe statistical models can help.
[ . . . ]
Streams of financial commentators have over the past year reveled in a desire to present the crash as coming out of the blue to math whizzes paid a fortune to study the statistical stars and presage such events.
But Rachev is one of those who say they saw it coming — because his models took the worst possible events into account.
DEPARTING FROM VAR
In the case of the Dow Jones index, his fat-tailed expected tail loss — a measure of the potential daily average loss in the worst 1 percent of scenarios — gave investors notice of rising risk.
[ . . . ]
“You see some indications the market is starting to behave in a more volatile way before you see the largest negative shock,” he said.
Rachev first turned to the problem of calculating the probabilities of extreme events after the 1987 market crash.
No model then could explain the crash, the probability of which “was computed at slightly more than the life of the universe,” he said.
The FinAnalytica model now predicts a crash of that size can occur every 30 years on average.
The Bulgarian-born mathematician has tackled the problem from four different directions, including theories on fractals and clustering of volatility, and produced his models by 2002.
Racheva-Iotova said investors will still need to exercise judgment.
“Even with the best output, the model must be used properly in the decision-making process,” she said.
And the model needs data that give as full a risk picture as possible.
“The problem of data-entry implementation should not be underestimated,” Racheva-Iotova said.
The core of the analysis by the United Nations of the financial crisis is presented in the World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP), which provides an overview of recent global economic performance and short-term prospects for the world economy and of some key global economic policy and development issues.
In addition, through its Monthly Briefing on the World Economic Situation and Prospects, DESA provides a regular update on the latest economic and social developments at the global and regional level. They are complemented by UN-DESA Policy Briefs on more specific policy issues and challenges. On the quantitative side, the Department generates crucial input for its macroeconomic reports through Project Link, which is a co-operative, non-governmental, international research activity.
In partnership with developing countries, development account projects aim at capacity-building to achieve a distinct development impact, including macroeconomic policy analysis on the impact of external shocks on poverty and social vulnerability. In addition, the MDG Gap Task Force represents more than 20 UN agencies and tracks commitments and their fulfillment in the areas of official development assistance, market access (trade) and debt relief.
A wide range of data is generated by DESA, including the global economic outlook data, LDC data and the WESP Annex tables.
DESA focus areas
World famous Ndebele artist Esther Mahlangu walks past a mural she and others started to paint at the Sci-Bono museum in Johannesburg Wednesday May 27, 2009. The art of the Ndebele _ panels of geometric shapes outlined in black and filled in in bright primary colors _ is known around the world. On Wednesday two world renowned Ndebele artists painted their vibrant, geometric designs on the walls of a science museum in a project that uses art and tradition to teach math. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay) (Jerome Delay – AP)
The Associated Press
Thursday, May 28, 2009; 8:58 AM
JOHANNESBURG — Circles and squares. Rectangles and angles. Cones and cylinders and trapezoids.
A science museum is using art and tradition to teach math to poor children in some of South Africa’s most neglected schools, based on the exquisite artwork of Ndebele artists.
[ . . . ]
The science museum is trying to bridge that gap through South Africa’s rich cultural heritage of indigenous bead work, architecture and painting.
“We want to show where math applies in their lives,” said Thandi O’Hagan, the museum’s education officer. “We want to demonstrate that there is not an abstract connection between math and art but a real connection.”
[ . . . ]
Ndebele paintings help students understand squares, rectangles and angles. Exercises in measurements and volume have been devised from the shapes used in the stacked gateways and decorated pillars of Ndebele homesteads. Their round huts can show circles, the relationship between circumferences and diameters, and how to solve solid geometry problems like volume.
It is a knowledge that has been transferred from generation to generation without any textbooks _ just a sharp eye and a steady hand.
[etc. – there’s more]
My Noter – that is all great – from South Africa to Bulgaria to the recent prizes won by mathematicians around the World. Why can’t we have these innovative programs,innovative thinking and inventive applications of analysis based in reality within the United States and in our economic / financial industries? And, in our educational approaches?
Rapid Prototyping Process
Rapid Prototyping Primer
by William Palm (May 1998), revised 30 July 2002, Penn State Learning Factory
Table of Contents:
1. Overview of Rapid Prototyping
2. The Basic Process
3. Rapid Prototyping Techniques
* Stereo Lithography (SLA)
* Laminated Object Manufacture (LOM)
* Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
* Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
* Solid Ground Curing (SGC)
* 3-D Ink Jet Printing
4. Applications of Rapid Prototyping
5. Future Developments
Learning Factory Rapid Prototyping Home Page
1 Overview of Rapid Prototyping
The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data. These three dimensional printers allow designers to quickly create tangible prototypes of their designs, rather than just two-dimensional pictures. Such models have numerous uses. They make excellent visual aids for communicating ideas with co-workers or customers. In addition, prototypes can be used for design testing. For example, an aerospace engineer might mount a model airfoil in a wind tunnel to measure lift and drag forces. Designers have always utilized prototypes; RP allows them to be made faster and less expensively.
In addition to prototypes, RP techniques can also be used to make tooling (referred to as rapid tooling) and even production-quality parts (rapid manufacturing). For small production runs and complicated objects, rapid prototyping is often the best manufacturing process available. Of course, rapid is a relative term. Most prototypes require from three to seventy-two hours to build, depending on the size and complexity of the object. This may seem slow, but it is much faster than the weeks or months required to make a prototype by traditional means such as machining. These dramatic time savings allow manufacturers to bring products to market faster and more cheaply. In 1994, Pratt & Whitney achieved an order of magnitude [cost] reduction [and] . . . time savings of 70 to 90 percent by incorporating rapid prototyping into their investment casting process. 5
At least six different rapid prototyping techniques are commercially available, each with unique strengths. Because RP technologies are being increasingly used in non-prototyping applications, the techniques are often collectively referred to as solid free-form fabrication, computer automated manufacturing, or layered manufacturing. The latter term is particularly descriptive of the manufacturing process used by all commercial techniques. A software package slices the CAD model into a number of thin (~0.1 mm) layers, which are then built up one atop another. Rapid prototyping is an additive process, combining layers of paper, wax, or plastic to create a solid object. In contrast, most machining processes (milling, drilling, grinding, etc.) are subtractive processes that remove material from a solid block. RP’s additive nature allows it to create objects with complicated internal features that cannot be manufactured by other means.
Of course, rapid prototyping is not perfect. Part volume is generally limited to 0.125 cubic meters or less, depending on the RP machine. Metal prototypes are difficult to make, though this should change in the near future. For metal parts, large production runs, or simple objects, conventional manufacturing techniques are usually more economical. These limitations aside, rapid prototyping is a remarkable technology that is revolutionizing the manufacturing process.
2 The Basic Process
Although several rapid prototyping techniques exist, all employ the same basic five-step process. The steps are:
1. Create a CAD model of the design
2. Convert the CAD model to STL format
3. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers
4. Construct the model one layer atop another
5. Clean and finish the model
CAD Model Creation: First, the object to be built is modeled using a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software package. Solid modelers, such as Pro/ENGINEER, tend to represent 3-D objects more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD, and will therefore yield better results. The designer can use a pre-existing CAD file or may wish to create one expressly for prototyping purposes. This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques.
Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a number of different algorithms to represent solid objects. To establish consistency, the STL (stereolithography, the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry. The second step, therefore, is to convert the CAD file into STL format. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles, like the facets of a cut jewel. 6 The file contains the coordinates of the vertices and the direction of the outward normal of each triangle. Because STL files use planar elements, they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation, but at the cost of bigger file size. Large, complicated files require more time to pre-process and build, so the designer must balance accuracy with manageablility to produce a useful STL file. Since the .stl format is universal, this process is identical for all of the RP build techniques.
Slice the STL File: In the third step, a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built. Several programs are available, and most allow the user to adjust the size, location and orientation of the model. Build orientation is important for several reasons. First, properties of rapid prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to another. For example, prototypes are usually weaker and less accurate in the z (vertical) direction than in the x-y plane. In addition, part orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model. Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction reduces the number of layers, thereby shortening build time. The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0.01 mm to 0.7 mm thick, depending on the build technique. The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs, internal cavities, and thin-walled sections. Each PR machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary pre-processing software.
Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual construction of the part. Using one of several techniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers, paper, or powdered metal. Most machines are fairly autonomous, needing little human intervention.
Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. This involves removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports. Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use. Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. Sanding, sealing, and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability.
3 Rapid Prototyping Techniques
Most commercially available rapid prototyping machines use one of six techniques. At present, trade restrictions severely limit the import/export of rapid prototyping machines, so this guide only covers systems available in the U.S.
Patented in 1986, stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution. The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when exposed to ultraviolet light. As shown in the figure below, the model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer, solidifying the model’s cross section while leaving excess areas liquid.
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of stereolithography. 7
Next, an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer. A sweeper re-coats the solidified layer with liquid, and the laser traces the second layer atop the first. This process is repeated until the prototype is complete. Afterwards, the solid part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid. Supports are broken off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing.
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machines have been made since 1988 by 3D Systems of Valencia, CA. To this day, 3D Systems is the industry leader, selling more RP machines than any other company. Because it was the first technique, stereolithography is regarded as a benchmark by which other technologies are judged. Early stereolithography prototypes were fairly brittle and prone to curing-induced warpage and distortion, but recent modifications have largely corrected these problems.
3.2 Laminated Object Manufacturing
In this technique, developed by Helisys of Torrance, CA, layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype. The original material consists of paper laminated with heat-activated glue and rolled up on spools. As shown in the figure below, a feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform, where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. Next, a heated roller applies pressure to bond the paper to the base. A focused laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper and then cross-hatches the excess area (the negative space in the prototype). Cross-hatching breaks up the extra material, making it easier to remove during post-processing. During the build, the excess material provides excellent support for overhangs and thin-walled sections. After the first layer is cut, the platform lowers out of the way and fresh material is advanced. The platform rises to slightly below the previous height, the roller bonds the second layer to the first, and the laser cuts the second layer. This process is repeated as needed to build the part, which will have a wood-like texture. Because the models are made of paper, they must be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage.
Figure 2: Schematic diagram of laminated object manufacturing. 8
Helisys developed several new sheet materials, including plastic, water-repellent paper, and ceramic and metal powder tapes. The powder tapes produce a green part that must be sintered for maximum strength. As of 2001, Helisys is no longer in business.
3.3 Selective Laser Sintering
Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis at the University of Texas, selective laser sintering was patented in 1989. The technique, shown in Figure 3, uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials, such as nylon, elastomer, and metal, into a solid object. Parts are built upon a platform which sits just below the surface in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. A laser traces the pattern of the first layer, sintering it together. The platform is lowered by the height of the next layer and powder is reapplied. This process continues until the part is complete. Excess powder in each layer helps to support the part during the build. SLS machines are produced by DTM of Austin, TX.
Figure 3: Schematic diagram of selective laser sintering. 9
3.4 Fused Deposition Modeling
In this technique, filaments of heated thermoplastic are extruded from a tip that moves in the x-y plane. Like a baker decorating a cake, the controlled extrusion head deposits very thin beads of material onto the build platform to form the first layer. The platform is maintained at a lower temperature, so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens. After the platform lowers, the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the first. Supports are built along the way, fastened to the part either with a second, weaker material or with a perforated junction.
Stratasys, of Eden Prairie, MN makes a variety of FDM machines ranging from fast concept modelers to slower, high-precision machines. Materials include ABS (standard and medical grade), elastomer (96 durometer), polycarbonate, polyphenolsulfone, and investment casting wax.
Figure 4: Schematic diagram of fused deposition modeling. 10
3.4 Solid Ground Curing
Developed by Cubital, solid ground curing (SGC) is somewhat similar to stereolithography (SLA) in that both use ultraviolet light to selectively harden photosensitive polymers. Unlike SLA, SGC cures an entire layer at a time. Figure 5 depicts solid ground curing, which is also known as the solider process. First, photosensitive resin is sprayed on the build platform. Next, the machine develops a photomask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built. This photomask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an electrostatic process similar to that found in photocopiers. The mask is then exposed to UV light, which only passes through the transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the shape of the current layer.
Figure 5: Schematic diagram of solid ground curing. 11
After the layer is cured, the machine vacuums up the excess liquid resin and sprays wax in its place to support the model during the build. The top surface is milled flat, and then the process repeats to build the next layer. When the part is complete, it must be de-waxed by immersing it in a solvent bath. SGC machines are distributed in the U.S. by Cubital America Inc. of Troy, MI. The machines are quite big and can produce large models.
3.6 3-D Ink-Jet Printing
Ink-Jet Printing refers to an entire class of machines that employ ink-jet technology. The first was 3D Printing (3DP), developed at MIT and licensed to Soligen Corporation, Extrude Hone, and others. The ZCorp 3D printer, produced by Z Corporation of Burlington, MA (www.zcorp.com) is an example of this technology. As shown in Figure 6a, parts are built upon a platform situated in a bin full of powder material. An ink-jet printing head selectively deposits or prints a binder fluid to fuse the powder together in the desired areas. Unbound powder remains to support the part. The platform is lowered, more powder added and leveled, and the process repeated. When finished, the green part is then removed from the unbound powder, and excess unbound powder is blown off. Finished parts can be infiltrated with wax, CA glue, or other sealants to improve durability and surface finish. Typical layer thicknesses are on the order of 0.1 mm. This process is very fast, and produces parts with a slightly grainy surface. ZCorp uses two different materials, a starch based powder (not as strong, but can be burned out, for investment casting applications) and a ceramic powder. Machines with 4 color printing capability are available.
3D Systems’ (www.3dsystems.com) version of the ink-jet based system is called the Thermo-Jet or Multi-Jet Printer. It uses a linear array of print heads to rapidly produce thermoplastic models (Figure 6d). If the part is narrow enough, the print head can deposit an entire layer in one pass. Otherwise, the head makes several passes.
Sanders Prototype of Wilton, NH (www.solid-scape.com) uses a different ink-jet technique in its Model Maker line of concept modelers. The machines use two ink-jets (see Figure 6c). One dispenses low-melt thermoplastic to make the model, while the other prints wax to form supports. After each layer, a cutting tool mills the top surface to uniform height. This yields extremely good accuracy, allowing the machines to be used in the jewelry industry.
Ballistic particle manufacturing, depicted in Figure 6b, was developed by BPM Inc., which has since gone out of business.
Figure 6: Schematic diagrams of ink-jet techniques. 12
4 Applications of Rapid Prototyping
Rapid prototyping is widely used in the automotive, aerospace, medical, and consumer products industries. Although the possible applications are virtually limitless, nearly all fall into one of the following categories: prototyping, rapid tooling, or rapid manufacturing.
As its name suggests, the primary use of rapid prototyping is to quickly make prototypes for communication and testing purposes. Prototypes dramatically improve communication because most people, including engineers, find three-dimensional objects easier to understand than two-dimensional drawings. Such improved understanding leads to substantial cost and time savings. As Pratt & Whitney executive Robert P. DeLisle noted: We’ve seen an estimate on a complex product drop by $100,000 because people who had to figure out the nature of the object from 50 blueprints could now see it. 13 Effective communication is especially important in this era of concurrent engineering. By exchanging prototypes early in the design stage, manufacturing can start tooling up for production while the art division starts planning the packaging, all before the design is finalized.
Prototypes are also useful for testing a design, to see if it performs as desired or needs improvement. Engineers have always tested prototypes, but RP expands their capabilities. First, it is now easy to perform iterative testing: build a prototype, test it, redesign, build and test, etc. Such an approach would be far too time-consuming using traditional prototyping techniques, but it is easy using RP.
In addition to being fast, RP models can do a few things metal prototypes cannot. For example, Porsche used a transparent stereolithography model of the 911 GTI transmission housing to visually study oil flow. 14 Snecma, a French turbomachinery producer, performed photoelastic stress analysis on a SLA model of a fan wheel to determine stresses in the blades. 15
4.2 Rapid Tooling
A much-anticipated application of rapid prototyping is rapid tooling, the automatic fabrication of production quality machine tools. Tooling is one of the slowest and most expensive steps in the manufacturing process, because of the extremely high quality required. Tools often have complex geometries, yet must be dimensionally accurate to within a hundredth of a millimeter. In addition, tools must be hard, wear-resistant, and have very low surface roughness (about 0.5 micrometers root mean square). To meet these requirements, molds and dies are traditionally made by CNC-machining, electro-discharge machining, or by hand. All are expensive and time consuming, so manufacturers would like to incorporate rapid prototyping techniques to speed the process. Peter Hilton, president of Technology Strategy Consulting in Concord, MA, believes that tooling costs and development times can be reduced by 75 percent or more by using rapid tooling and related technologies. 16 Rapid tooling can be divided into two categories, indirect and direct.
4.2.1 Indirect Tooling
Most rapid tooling today is indirect: RP parts are used as patterns for making molds and dies. RP models can be indirectly used in a number of manufacturing processes:
* Vacuum Casting: In the simplest and oldest rapid tooling technique, a RP positive pattern is suspended in a vat of liquid silicone or room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) rubber. When the rubber hardens, it is cut into two halves and the RP pattern is removed. The resulting rubber mold can be used to cast up to 20 polyurethane replicas of the original RP pattern. A more useful variant, known as the Keltool powder metal sintering process, uses the rubber molds to produce metal tools. 17 Developed by 3M and now owned by 3D Systems, the Keltool process involves filling the rubber molds with powdered tool steel and epoxy binder. When the binder cures, the green metal tool is removed from the rubber mold and then sintered. At this stage the metal is only 70% dense, so it is infiltrated with copper to bring it close to its theoretical maximum density. The tools have fairly good accuracy, but their size is limited to under 25 centimeters.
* Sand Casting: A RP model is used as the positive pattern around which the sand mold is built. LOM models, which resemble the wooden models traditionally used for this purpose, are often used. If sealed and finished, a LOM pattern can produce about 100 sand molds.
* Investment Casting: Some RP prototypes can be used as investment casting patterns. The pattern must not expand when heated, or it will crack the ceramic shell during autoclaving. Both Stratasys and Cubital make investment casting wax for their machines. Paper LOM prototypes may also be used, as they are dimensionally stable with temperature. The paper shells burn out, leaving some ash to be removed.
To counter thermal expansion in stereolithography parts, 3D Systems introduced QuickCast, a build style featuring a solid outer skin and mostly hollow inner structure. The part collapses inward when heated. Likewise, DTM sells Trueform polymer, a porous substance that expands little with temperature rise, for use in its SLS machines.
* Injection molding: CEMCOM Research Associates, Inc. has developed the NCC Tooling System to make metal/ceramic composite molds for the injection molding of plastics. 18 First, a stereolithography machine is used to make a match-plate positive pattern of the desired molding. To form the mold, the SLA pattern is plated with nickel, which is then reinforced with a stiff ceramic material. The two mold halves are separated to remove the pattern, leaving a matched die set that can produce tens of thousands of injection moldings.
4.2.2 Direct Tooling
To directly make hard tooling from CAD data is the Holy Grail of rapid tooling. Realization of this objective is still several years away, but some strong strides are being made:
* RapidTool: A DTM process that selectively sinters polymer-coated steel pellets together to produce a metal mold. The mold is then placed in a furnace where the polymer binder is burned off and the part is infiltrated with copper (as in the Keltool process). The resulting mold can produce up to 50,000 injection moldings.
In 1996 Rubbermaid produced 30,000 plastic desk organizers from a SLS-built mold. This was the first widely sold consumer product to be produced from direct rapid tooling. 19 Extrude Hone, in Irwin PA, will soon sell a machine, based on MIT’s 3D Printing process, that produces bronze-infiltrated PM tools and products. 20
* Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories and Stanford University that can create metal tools from CAD data. 21 Materials include 316 stainless steel, Inconel 625, H13 tool steel, tungsten, and titanium carbide cermets. A laser beam melts the top layer of the part in areas where material is to be added. Powder metal is injected into the molten pool, which then solidifies. Layer after layer is added until the part is complete. Unlike traditional powder metal processing, LENS produces fully dense parts, since the metal is melted, not merely sintered. The resulting parts have exceptional mechanical properties, but the process currently works only for parts with simple, uniform cross sections. The system has been commercialized by MTS corporation (www.mts.com)
* Direct AIM (ACES Injection Molding): A technique from 3D Systems in which stereolithography-produced cores are used with traditional metal molds for injection molding of high and low density polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene and ABS plastic. 22 Very good accuracy is achieved for fewer than 200 moldings. Long cycle times (~ five minutes) are required to allow the molding to cool enough that it will not stick to the SLA core.
In another variation, cores are made from thin SLA shells filled with epoxy and aluminum shot. Aluminum’s high conductivity helps the molding cool faster, thus shortening cycle time. The outer surface can also be plated with metal to improve wear resistance. Production runs of 1000-5000 moldings are envisioned to make the process economically viable.
* LOMComposite: Helysis and the University of Dayton are working to develop ceramic composite materials for Laminated Object Manufacturing. LOMComposite parts would be very strong and durable, and could be used as tooling in a variety of manufacturing processes.
* Sand Molding: At least two RP techniques can construct sand molds directly from CAD data. DTM sells sand-like material that can be sintered into molds. Soligen (www.3dprinting.com) uses 3DP to produce ceramic molds and cores for investment casting, (Direct Shell Production Casting).
4.3 Rapid Manufacturing
A natural extension of RP is rapid manufacturing (RM), the automated production of salable products directly from CAD data. Currently only a few final products are produced by RP machines, but the number will increase as metals and other materials become more widely available. RM will never completely replace other manufacturing techniques, especially in large production runs where mass-production is more economical.
For short production runs, however, RM is much cheaper, since it does not require tooling. RM is also ideal for producing custom parts tailored to the user’s exact specifications. A University of Delaware research project uses a digitized 3-D model of a person’s head to construct a custom-fitted helmet. 23 NASA is experimenting with using RP machines to produce spacesuit gloves fitted to each astronaut’s hands. 24 From tailored golf club grips to custom dinnerware, the possibilities are endless.
The other major use of RM is for products that simply cannot be made by subtractive (machining, grinding) or compressive (forging, etc.) processes. This includes objects with complex features, internal voids, and layered structures. Specific Surface of Franklin, MA uses RP to manufacture complicated ceramic filters that have eight times the interior surface area of older types. The filters remove particles from the gas emissions of coal-fired power plants. 25 Therics, Inc. of NYC is using RP’s layered build style to develop pills that release measured drug doses at specified times during the day and other medical products. 26
5 Future Developments
Rapid prototyping is starting to change the way companies design and build products. On the horizon, though, are several developments that will help to revolutionize manufacturing as we know it.
One such improvement is increased speed. Rapid prototyping machines are still slow by some standards. By using faster computers, more complex control systems, and improved materials, RP manufacturers are dramatically reducing build time. For example, Stratasys recently (January 1998) introduced its FDM Quantum machine, which can produce ABS plastic models 2.5-5 times faster than previous FDM machines. 27 Continued reductions in build time will make rapid manufacturing economical for a wider variety of products.
Another future development is improved accuracy and surface finish. Today’s commercially available machines are accurate to ~0.08 millimeters in the x-y plane, but less in the z (vertical) direction. Improvements in laser optics and motor control should increase accuracy in all three directions. In addition, RP companies are developing new polymers that will be less prone to curing and temperature-induced warpage.
The introduction of non-polymeric materials, including metals, ceramics, and composites, represents another much anticipated development. These materials would allow RP users to produce functional parts. Today’s plastic prototypes work well for visualization and fit tests, but they are often too weak for function testing. More rugged materials would yield prototypes that could be subjected to actual service conditions. In addition, metal and composite materials will greatly expand the range of products that can be made by rapid manufacturing.
Many RP companies and research labs are working to develop new materials. For example, the University of Dayton is working with Helisys to produce ceramic matrix composites by laminated object manufacturing. 28 An Advanced Research Projects Agency / Office of Naval Research sponsored project is investigating ways to make ceramics using fused deposition modeling. 29 As mentioned earlier, Sandia/Stanford’s LENS system can create solid metal parts. These three groups are just a few of the many working on new RP materials.
Another important development is increased size capacity. Currently most RP machines are limited to objects 0.125 cubic meters or less. Larger parts must be built in sections and joined by hand. To remedy this situation, several large prototype techniques are in the works. The most fully developed is Topographic Shell Fabrication from Formus in San Jose, CA. In this process, a temporary mold is built from layers of silica powder (high quality sand) bound together with paraffin wax. The mold is then used to produce fiberglass, epoxy, foam, or concrete models up to 3.3 m x 2 m x 1.2 m in size. 30
At the University of Utah, Professor Charles Thomas is developing systems to cut intricate shapes into 1.2 m x 2.4 m sections of foam or paper. 31 Researchers at Penn State’s Applied Research Lab (ARL) are aiming even higher: to directly build large metal parts such as tank turrets using robotically guided lasers. Group leader Henry Watson states that product size is limited only by the size of the robot holding the laser. 32
All the above improvements will help the rapid prototyping industry continue to grow, both worldwide and at home. The United States currently dominates the field, but Germany, Japan, and Israel are making inroads. In time RP will spread to less technologically developed countries as well. With more people and countries in the field, RP’s growth will accelerate further.
One future application is Distance Manufacturing on Demand, a combination of RP and the Internet that will allow designers to remotely submit designs for immediate manufacture. Researchers at UC-Berkeley, among others, are developing such a
system. 33 RP enthusiasts believe that RP will even spread to the home, lending new meaning to the term cottage industry. Three-dimensional home printers may seem far-fetched, but the same could be said for color laser printing just fifteen years ago.
Finally, the rise of rapid prototyping has spurred progress in traditional subtractive methods as well. Advances in computerized path planning, numeric control, and machine dynamics are increasing the speed and accuracy of machining. Modern CNC machining centers can have spindle speeds of up to 100,000 RPM, with correspondingly fast feed rates. 34 Such high material removal rates translate into short build times. For certain applications, particularly metals, machining will continue to be a useful manufacturing process. Rapid prototyping will not make machining obsolete, but rather complement it.
5 Steven Ashley, Rapid Prototyping is Coming of Age, Mechanical Engineering July 1995: 63.
6 Pamela J. Waterman, Rapid Prototyping, DE March 1997: 30.
7 Michelle Griffith and John S. Lamancusa, Rapid Prototyping Technologies, Rapid Prototyping. 1998. http://www.me.psu.edu/lamancusa/me415/rpintro2.pdf (Accessed 4/20/98).
11 Lee E. Weiss, SFF Processes, JTEC/WTEC Panel Report on Rapid Prototyping in Europe and Japan. March 1997. http://itri.loyola.edu/rp/02_02.htm (Accessed 4/18/98).
13 Gene Bylinsky, Industry’s Amazing New Instant Prototypes, Fortune Features. January 1998. http://www.pathfinder.com/fortune/1998/980112/imt.html (Accessed 3/29/98).
14 Ray Langdon, A Decade of Rapid Prototyping, Automotive Engineer May 1997: 44-45.
15 Ashley, Coming of Age, 64.
16 Peter Hilton, Making the Leap to Rapid Tool Making, Mechanical Engineering July 1995: 75.
17 Ashley, From CAD Art to Rapid Metal Tools, Mechanical Engineering March 1997: 82.
18 Ashley 83.
21 Ashley, From CAD Art, 86.
22 Langdon 55.
23 Matthew Wieckowski, Alternative Helmet Design, Rehabilitation Robotics Research Program. 10/25/96. http://www.asel.udel.edu/rapid/helmet/ (Accessed 4/21/98).
26 Ashley, Coming of Age, 64.
27 Stratasys Announces New High Speed ‘FDM Quantum’ Rapid Prototyping System, Stratasys Press Release. 1/26/98. http://ltk.hut.fi/archives/rp-ml/0212.html (Accessed 4/21/98).
28 Freeform Fabrication of Structural Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites by Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), Dayton University Rapid Prototyping. 1998. http://www.udri.udayton.edu/rpdl/sff2.htm (Accessed 4/21/98).
29 Laboratory for Freeform Fabrication of Advanced Ceramics at Rutgers University. 1998. http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/sff/ (Accessed 4/21/98).
30 What is TSF? Formus Home Page. 1998. http://www.formus.com/acls.htm (Accessed 4/21/98).
31 Waterman 34.
33 CyberCut: A Network Manufacturing Service http://CyberCut.berkeley.edu/ (Accessed 4/27/98).
34 Langdon 59.
35 Glenn Hartwig, Rapid 3D Modelers, DE March 1997: 38-39.
[from – The Learning Factory]
Is that the most awesome thing you’ve ever seen? There are great diagrams on this page – go there and see them – It’s perfect. – my note
Taiwanese mathematician wins Italy’s Agostinelli Award
Central News Agency
2009-05-25 04:08 PM
Taipei, May 25 (CNA) Academia Sinica academician Liu Ta-ping has won an award from the Italian national academic institute, the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, in recognition of his excellent scientific achievements, according to a statement released Monday by Academia Sinica, Taiwan’s top academic research institute.The statement said that Liu, who also serves as director of Academia Sinica’s Institute of Mathematics, will receive the Cataldo e Angiola Agostinelli international prize June 11 in Rome.
[ . . . ]
He has been a faculty member at the University of Maryland, New York University and Stanford University, and became a distinguished research fellow at Academia Sinica in 2000. He was made an academician at Academia Sinica in 1992.
Liu’s research interests center on nonlinear partial differential equations, shock wave theory and kinetic theory, according to the statement.
(By Elizabeth Hsu)
E3 – Expo
June 2 – 4, 2009
L.A. Convention Center,
Los Angeles, California
About E3 Expo
E3 Expo is the world’s premiere trade show for computer and video games and related products. The show is owned by the Entertainment Software Association (ESA), the U.S. association dedicated to serving the business and public affairs needs of the companies, publishing interactive games for video game consoles, handheld devices, personal computers and the Internet. For more information, please visit www.E3Expo.com or www.theESA.com.
June 16 – 17, 2009
Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, NY
GreenBuildingsNY is the place to source green solutions and materials for the design, construction, restoration, renovation and historical preservation of existing commercial, residential and industrial buildings. See how eco-friendly can be economy friendly. Discover how a smart investment on environmental and sustainability improvements can deliver up to 20–40% risk free return on investment. NY Metro focused, convenient, and ever evolving, GreenBuildingsNY provides easy access to more of the green sustainable products and services that building professionals need:
MAY 28 – 29, 2009
(Today and Tomorrow)
Can you measure creativity?
My Note – now that would be fun – it is happening right now – will have to go see what they’ve generated . . .