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Note: Not all federal agencies have specific webpages for nanotechnology funding opportunities. In addition, solicitations often are worded generally and the technological tools to be employed, whether micro-, nano- or macro-scale, are not specified. Looking broadly into areas of interest—for instance, toxin removal or semi-conducting materials— is often the best approach.
- April 27, 2009 deadline—National Institutes of Health (NIH); NIH has received new funds for Fiscal Years (FYs) 2009 and 2010 as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). NIH has designated at least $200 million for a new initiative called the NIH Challenge Grants in Health and Science Research.
- May 1, 2009 deadline—The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; CNMS is soliciting proposals for user-initiated nanoscience research that will make effective use of CNMS facilities and staff expertise.
- May 11, July 13, 2009 deadlines—Technology Innovation Program; Call for White Papers. TIP is seeking white papers to help shape the Programs’ collaborative outreach and competitions in the future.
- May 21, 2009 deadline—DARPA – Microsystems Technology Office; NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI). DARPA is soliciting innovative research proposals in the area of NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI). The primary goal of this program is the development and demonstration of ideas based on novel materials and structures that can provide significant reductions in the thermal resistance of the interface layer (often called the TIM) between the backside of an electronic device and the next layer of the package, which might be a spreader or a heatsink (this might be based on technologies developed in the DARPA-sponsored TGP and/or MACE programs, respectively).
- October 30, 2009 deadline (continuously open) — U.S. Army; The U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command-Armaments Research, Development and Engineering Center (RDECOM-ARDEC) is looking to identify and develop nanotechnologies for the purpose of generating future armament systems.
- February 5, June 5, October 5 annual deadline— (A) National Institutes of Health, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine “(R01 – Basic Research Grant).” The purpose of this funding opportunity is to stimulate nanoscience and nanotechnology research approaches that have the potential to make valuable contributions to biology and medicine.
- February 16, June 16, October 16 annual deadline— (B) National Institutes of Health, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine “(R21 – Exploratory/Developmental Grant).” The purpose of this funding opportunity is to stimulate nanoscience and nanotechnology research approaches that have the potential to make valuable contributions to biology and medicine.
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The emerging markets of Eurasia present unique opportunities for U.S. companies and Eurasian economies alike. The Special American Business Internship Training (SABIT) program builds partnerships and provides technical assistance by training Eurasian business leaders in U.S. business practices. These training programs directly support Eurasian economic and civil society development by encouraging market-based reforms, while generating valuable export and investment opportunities for U.S. industry.
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The Small Business Administration (SBA), created in 1953, is the only independent agency of the federal government with the sole mission of assisting small businesses to start, grow and prosper. SBA offers loan guaranty programs that enable the small business exporter to obtain working capital to finance pre- and post- shipment needs, increase global competitiveness, enhance their ability to export a product or service and financing for acquisition of long term fixed assets.
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The NNI participating agencies contribute in many ways to research in nanotechnology, from basic research and development to regulation and commerce issues. You can find out what research is currently being funded by the U.S. government by searching databases at www.research.gov and CRISP.
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1. A process for removing NOx emissions from a boiler fired by a high nitrogen content fuel, comprising:burning a high nitrogen content fuel in a boiler at atmospheric pressure to generate steam for a steam-turbine cycle and a waste gas including oxides of nitrogen;
burning a hydrocarbon fuel in a gas turbine combustor for a gas-turbine cycle to clean said waste gas of the oxides of nitrogen and to generate power;
compressing said waste gas from said boiler to a predetermined entering pressure of said gas turbine combustor;
introducing said compressed waste gas from said boiler into a fuel rich zone of said gas-turbine combustor to react with pyrolyzed fragments of said hydrocarbon fuel to convert NOx in said waste gas to N2 ;
adding an oxidant to said gas turbine combustor to complete combustion; and
directing exhaust gas from said combustor to a gas turbine.
2. The process of claim 1, further comprising removing sulfur compounds from said waste gas prior to entering said compressor to minimize damage to said gas turbine.
3. The process of claim 2, further comprising removing particulates from said waste gas prior to entering said compressor to minimize damage to said gas turbine.
4. The process of claim 3, wherein said particulates are removed at below 4 ppm.
5. The process of claim 1, wherein said hydrocarbon fuel comprises natural gas.
6. The process of claim 1, wherein substantially all of said waste gas is compressed and introduced into said gas combustor.
7. The process of claim 1, wherein said gas turbine combustor comprises a first fuel-rich combustion zone and a second fuel-lean combustion zone, and said compressed coal waste gas is introduced into said first fuel-rich zone at a downstream location, whereby said waste gas mixes with pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fragments of said fuel.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to pollution control, and more particularly to pollution control for coal-fired combustion processes.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA)
423/235, 60/732, 60/39.182
F01K23/06; F02G3/00; F02G6/00
Field of Search:
60/39.02, 60/39.12, 60/39.464, 60/39.465, 60/39.5, 60/39.182, 60/39.52, 60/732, 422/182, 422/183, 423/235
US Patent References:
3150487 Steam turbine-gas turbine power plant September, 1969 Mangan et al.
3194015 Combined steam and gas turbine power plant July, 1965 Pacault 60/391.82
3232713 Apparatus for converting oxides of nitrogen to innocuous gases February, 1966 Felder, Jr. 422/183
3703807 COMBINED GAS-STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT November, 1972 Rice
3791137 FLUIDIZED BED POWERPLANT WITH HELIUM CIRCUIT, INDIRECT HEAT EXCHANGE AND COMPRESSED AIR BYPASS CONTROL February, 1974 Jubb et al. 60/394.63
3873845 METHOD OF PRODUCING ELECTRIC ENERGY INCLUDING COAL GASIFICATION March, 1975 Osthaus 60/391.82
3957418 Method and an apparatus for performing closed combustion May, 1976 Sata
3971211 Thermodynamic cycles with supercritical CO.sub.2 cycle topping July, 1976 Wethe et al. 60/391.82
4154567 Method and apparatus for the combustion of waste gases May, 1979 Dahmen 422/182
4271664 Turbine engine with exhaust gas recirculation June, 1981 Earnest
4313300 NOx reduction in a combined gas-steam power plant February, 1982 Wilkes et al.
4342192 Plant for producing power from solid fossil fuels, more particularly bituminous coal August, 1982 Heyn et al.
4353206 Apparatus for removing NOx and for providing better plant efficiency in combined cycle plants October, 1982 Lee
4362013 Method for operating a combined plant December, 1982 Kuribayashi
4426842 System for heat recovery for combustion machine including compressor for combustion air January, 1984 Collet
4468928 Altitude responsive turbocharger control system September, 1984 Suzuki
4502277 Turbine power plant system March, 1988 Papastavros 60/391.81
4519207 Combined plant having steam turbine and gas turbine connected by single shaft May, 1985 Okabe et al.
4519993 Process of conversion for disposal of chemically bound nitrogen in industrial waste gas streams May, 1985 McGill et al. 423/235
4539918 Multiannular swirl combustor providing particulate separation September, 1985 Beer et al. 60/394.64
4569197 Method for producing energy from solid, fossil and ballast rich fuels January, 1986 Adrian et al.
4845940 Low NOx rich-lean combustor especially useful in gas turbines July, 1989 Beer
4875436 Waste heat recovery system October, 1989 Smith et al.
4928635 Power plant and method of retrofitting existing power plants May, 1990 Shelor
4936088 Low NOX cogeneration process June, 1990 Bell
4974411 Supercharged coal-fired steam generator December, 1990 Bruckner et al.
4996836 Combined gas and steam turbine process March, 1991 Reh et al. 60/391.2
5044152 Method of operating a combined plant September, 1991 Hoizumi et al.
5069685 Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus December, 1991 Bissett et al. 60/391.2
5078752 Coal gas productions coal-based combined cycle power production January, 1992 Mach et al.
5139755 Advanced reburning for reduction of NO.sub.x emissions in combustion systems August, 1922 Seeker et al. 423/235
5148668 Combined gas/steam turbine power station plant September, 1992 Frutschi
5174107 Combined power generating plant December, 1992 Ogawa et al.
5255507 Combined cycle power plant incorporating atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler and gasifier October, 1993 Gounder 60/391.2
5265410 Power generation system November, 1993 Hisatome 60/391.2
5339621 Waste treatment system and method utilizing pressurized fluid August, 1994 Tolman 60/391.2
JP0336409 March, 1991
JP0048804 April, 1992
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Weingarten, Schurgin, Gagnebin & Hayes LLP
Beer, Janos M. (Winchester, MA)
Toqan, Majed A. (Avon, CT)
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
“The present invention provides a system for NO x emission reduction from boilers which burn fuels having a high nitrogen content, such as coal or a heavy fuel oil. An inverse combined steam-gas turbine cycle is provided. In the steam cycle, the fuel is burned in a boiler to raise steam to power a steam turbine. In the gas turbine cycle, a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas is burned in a gas combustor to power a gas turbine. The exhaust gas from the steam cycle combustion is introduced through a compressor into the gas combustor, where nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in the exhaust gas may be reduced through reactions with the hydrocarbon fuel. Thus, the combined cycle is the inverse of combined steam-gas turbine cycles known in the prior art, in which exhaust from the gas turbine cycle is introduced into the steam turbine cycle.”
“In the present invention, substantially all of the steam cycle flue gas may be introduced into the gas-turbine cycle. A compressor for the flue gas is provided to compress the flue gas to the predetermined input pressure for the gas combustor. The size of the compressor and gas combustor are determined by the amount of flue gas generated. Prior to entry into the compressor, the flue gas is preferably cooled to maximize its density, thereby minimizing the work input to the compressor, and any liquid droplets are removed. A scrubber to remove sulfur compounds and an electrostatic precipitator to remove particulates are also provided in the flue gas exhaust line upstream of the compressor. In this manner, the present invention effectively reduces the NO x emissions from a fossil fuel exhaust gas. If desired, the exhaust gas from the gas turbine may be utilized in the steam-turbine cycle.”
Titre du document / Document title
Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner. 1: An improved Q3D inverse method
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
GUOYI PENG (1) ; SHULIANG CAO (2) ; ISHIZUKA Masaru (1) ; HAYAMA Shinji (1) ;
Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1) Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University, 5180 Kurukawa, Kosugi-machi, Imizu-gun, Toyama 939-0398, JAPON
(2) Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, CHINE
Résumé / Abstract
With the aim of constructing a comprehensive design optimization procedure of axial flow hydraulic turbine, an improved quasi-three-dimensional inverse method has been proposed from the viewpoint of system and a set of rotational flow governing equations as well as a blade geometry design equation has been derived. The computation domain is firstly taken from the inlet of guide vane to the far outlet of runner blade in the inverse method and flows in different regions are solved simultaneously. So the influence of wicket gate parameters on the runner blade design can be considered and the difficulty to define the flow condition at the runner blade inlet is surmounted. As a pre-computation of initial blade design on S2m surface is newly adopted, the iteration of S1 and S2m surfaces has been reduced greatly and the convergence of inverse computation has been improved. The present model has been applied to the inverse computation of a Kaplan turbine runner. Experimental results and the direct flow analysis have proved the validation of inverse computation
Revue / Journal Title
International journal for numerical methods in fluids ISSN 0271-2091 CODEN IJNFDW
Source / Source
2002, vol. 39, no6, pp. 517-531 (18 ref.)
Langue / Language
Editeur / Publisher
Wiley, Chichester, ROYAUME-UNI (1981) (Revue)
Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords
Iterative method ; Numerical convergence ; Numerical simulation ; Modeling ; Three dimensional flow ; Kaplan turbine ; Velocity distribution ; Runner ; Axial flow ; Optimization method ; Computational fluid dynamics ; Geometrical shape ; Optimal design ; Turbine blade ; Inverse problem ; Hydraulic turbine ;
Mots-clés français / French Keywords
Méthode itérative ; Convergence numérique ; Simulation numérique ; Modélisation ; Ecoulement tridimensionnel ; Turbine Kaplan ; Distribution vitesse ; Canal injection ; Ecoulement axial ; Méthode optimisation ; Mécanique fluide numérique ; Forme géométrique ; Conception optimale ; Aube turbine ; Problème inverse ; Turbine hydraulique ;
Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords
Método iterativo ; Convergencia numérica ; Simulación numérica ; Modelización ; Flujo tridimensional ; Turbina Kaplán ; Distribución velocidad ; Canal inyección ; Flujo axial ; Método optimización ; Mecánica fluido numérica ; Forma geométrica ; Concepción optimal ; Paleta turbina ; Problema inverso ; Turbina hidraúlica ;
Localisation / Location
INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 19291, 35400010167402.0040
The Kaplan turbine was developed by Austrian engineer Viktor Kaplan around 1915. Kaplans are generally considered for low head high flow applications.
The Kaplan is an inward radial flow type reaction turbine similar to a Francis turbine. The turbine is usually placed in a spiral volute. Like a Francis turbine the Kaplan has a series of adjustable wicket gates. However the turbine runner (looking somewhat like a ship’s propeller) has adjustable blades. By changing the angle of the blades in tandem with the angle of the turbines the Kaplan can maintain a high efficiency even at very low flows.
Reaction Turbines like the Kaplan have a change in water pressure as the water passes through the turbine. There is pressure on the upstream side of the turbine runner and suction on the downstream side. On the downstream or outlet side of the turbine is the drafttube which slows the water as it exits the turbine. The draftube has a unique curved horn like shape.
Because Kaplans have a very flat flow to efficiency curve they are particularly suited to sites on rivers where the amount of available water varies greatly.
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