|Posted: April 24, 2009|
|Georgia Tech formally dedicates Marcus Nanotechnology Building|
|(Nanowerk News) Three years after breaking ground, Georgia Tech is set to dedicate the Marcus Nanotechnology Building, one of the most ambitious and expensive projects in the Institute’s history. The ceremony will be held on Friday, April 24, at 3PM.|
|The 190,000-square-foot complex poises Georgia Tech to be a global hub for nanotechnology research and development while igniting an environment that could potentially transform both local and state economies.|
|Schematic structure of a CNT based IR detector with a nanoscale antenna. (Image: Dr. Ning Xi, Michigan State University)|
|“The opening of the Marcus Nanotechnology Building positions Georgia Tech as the premier facility for nanotechnology in the U.S.,” said Georgia Tech President Dr. G.P. “Bud” Peterson. “The invaluable research and activities taking place at our Nanotechnology Research Center (NRC) will affect the lives of every individual, from health care advances to green energy development and personal technology. Georgia Tech and Atlanta are now sufficiently equipped to be the nanotechnology hub of the southeast and the U.S.”|
|The Marcus building, coupled with current nanotechnology research facilities at the Pettit Microelectronics Building, creates an unparalleled complex for the development of nanotechnology enhanced by world-class researchers, faculty and student talent.|
|The $90 million facility was made possible in part by a grant from philanthropist Bernie Marcus, founder and chairman of the Marcus Foundation, who made a $15 million commitment to the project. Marcus views nanotechnology as a driving force in innovation and economic development for the 21st century and beyond.|
|“There isn’t anything that nanotechnology will not touch or influence in the future,” Marcus said. “It will enhance medicine, high-technology and consumer products. I hope that nanotechnology will do for Georgia Tech, Atlanta and the region what the ‘chip’ did for Silicon Valley.”|
|Foremost among the new facility’s attributes is 30,000 square feet of clean room space, which provides the sterile environment and sophisticated equipment necessary to maximize the potential of nanotechnology. Companies such as Intel, Hewlett-Packard, SanDisk and Kimberly-Clark have utilized the current NRC facility and clean room space for product research and development.|
|With the addition of the facilities in the Marcus Nanotechnology Building, Georgia Tech’s nanotechnology efforts could potentially be an economic boon for the Institute and metro Atlanta. Last year, nearly 600 users from academia, private enterprise and government utilized the existing facilities. The new facility will allow for significant growth in external users.|
|“The NRC aims to be the hub of nanotechnology research and development nationally, delivering Atlanta the recognition in this field that the San Francisco Bay area earned for silicon chip development,” said Dr. James Meindl, director of the Joseph M. Pettit Microelectronics Research Center founding director of the Nanotechnology Research Center.|
|The dedication of the Marcus building will be followed by a reception and tours of the facility. Speakers at the event will include Marcus, Dr. Peterson, Dr. Meindl and Erroll B. Davis, Jr., chancellor of the University System of Georgia.|
Challenges in Nanoanalysis
Performing EDS Analyses on Small Structures at Low Acceleration Voltages
Free online seminar (webinar) on 29 April 2009
Time: 4 pm GMT, 5 pm CET, 11 am EST
Continuing technological advances require the elemental analysis of
increasingly smaller structures in many industrial fields, including biological
applications, semiconductors, and nanotechnology in general.
This confronts the otherwise well proven electron microscope based energy
dispersive spectroscopy with new challenges. Most of these challenges are
due to physical conditions, such as limited resolution and radiation yield in the
low energy range.
During the last few years Bruker AXS Microanalysis has been researching
solutions for these problems, and during this webinar will show you how the recent improvements in technology provide the answers. In particular, developments in the QUANTAX microanalysis system and the new 5th generation XFlash® 5000 series SD detectors are important factors in pushing this area of science ahead.
This webinar will deal with
- analysis of EDS spectra acquired at low acceleration voltages
- application examples for nanoanalysis.
- the QUANTAX microanalysis system with 5th generation XFlash® Detectors for nanoanalysis
Who should attend
- all those managing or working in research and QC labs, especially users of scanning electron microscopes
- material sciences lecturers and students
- persons interested in materials research and testing in general
- Dr. Ralf Terborg, Methodology Specialist
- Dr. Tobias Salge, Application Scientist EDS
- Dr. Markus Sulzberger, Global Product Manager EDS
Sign up here for the webinar:
We look forward to meeting you online on 29 April!
I am pleased to present in a two-parts article the Top 10 artists in the 3rd edition of the international online competition for NanoArt, a new discipline at the art-science-technology intersections and a reflection of the Nanotechnology development. Read the Whole Article
— Cris Orfescu, artist and scientist, NanoArt21
- Molecule predicted by theory discovered (STUTTGART, GERMANY)
- Planting the seeds for nanoparticle growth (JAPAN)
- IMEC transferred Design-for-Manufacturing tool for embedded SRAMs to Samsung Electronics (LEUVEN, BELGIUM)
- Nanotech’s big booster: Bernard Marcus sees enormous potential in the science of the small. (NEW YORK, NY)
- Electric scooter hoping to spark eco two-wheelers (TX AND VIETNAM)
- Chubais Proposes Tracking All Nanotech Production (MOSCOW, RUSSIA)
- Germany Gets Their Nanotechnology on Track…Train Tracks (GERMANY)
- Nanotechnology could spark compensation payouts (AUSTRALIA)
- `Black gold of the forest’ makes a solid investment (KOTA BARU, MALAYSIA)
- Antiferromagnetic coupling in semiconductors: Magnetic materials (SEOUL, KOREA AND USA)
- Molecular magnets wired on gold (ITALY)
- Better photocells from bigger Buckyballs (USA AND GERMANY)
- Nanoparticles deliver the goods and leave without a trace (USA)
- Diatoms boost dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency (OREGON)
- It’s Not Your Father’s Night Vision (USA)
- Easton AXIS Arrows Now With Nano Infused Carbon (SALT LAKE CITY, UT)
- Govt asks industries to focus on R&D in nano-technology (INDIA)
- Little seen outside Dallas tech circles, nano expert gives start-ups millions (DALLAS, TX)
Cavitation technology—behavior of voids or bubbles in a liquid—offers tremendous promise for humanity. It is a growing technology as seen by the race to patent anything related to cavitation since weapons, treatment of wrinkles to a cleaner environment. Read the Whole Article
— Magda Carvalho, Patent Agent (PhD, JD), Patent Law at M. Carvalho
We offer consulting, technology monitoring, and in-depth analysis, as well as up-to-the-minute news briefs and breaking developments in the nanosciences. The world’s leading nanotech experts routinely contribute to Nanotechnology Now, which has become the daily ‘must read’ site for stakeholders: inventors, investors, policy makers and opinion shapers.
We are your resource for:
- Reporting on disruptive technologies (such as Artificial Intelligence, NEMS, MEMS, Nanoscale Materials, Molecular Manufacturing, Quantum Computing, Nanomedicine, Nanoelectronics, Nanotubes, Self Assembly, and Molecular Biology)
- New developments in nanotech inventions, patents, and patent applications
- White papers, interviews with industry leaders, and in-depth analysis
- Full-service consulting
- Investment opportunities in nanotech
- Opportunities for venture capitalists
- Late breaking news and industry updates
This One Is THE Best –
|High-Temp Superconducting Nanowire System is First of its Kind|
|Scientists from the California Institute of Technology have, for the first time, created an array of nanowires that are superconducting at relatively high temperatures. This work, published recently…|
|Nanomanufactured polymer film could lead to lower-cost solar cells|
|You never know where basic research may lead. For decades materials scientists have been experimenting with a corkscrew-like polymer structure called a gyroid. Now an international team of…|
|Mother of Pearl Secret Revealed|
|In addition to its iridescent beauty, mother of pearl, or nacre, the inner lining of the shells of abalone, mussels and certain other mollusks, is also renowned for an amazing strength and toughness…|
|‘The photon force is with us’: Harnessing light to drive nanomachines|
|Science fiction writers have long envisioned sailing a spacecraft by the optical force of the sun’s light. But, the forces of sunlight are too weak to fill even the oversized sails that have been…|
|‘Stress tests’ probe nanoscale strains in materials|
|Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have demonstrated their ability to measure relatively low levels of stress or strain in regions of a semiconductor device as small as…|
Sun Microsystems Laboratories
|»||External Research Office|
|»||Education & Research|
|»||Open Media Commons|
|»||Other Labs at Sun|
General information, links and how-to about investing in nanotech and science / tech companies – how to create a proprietary portfolio and investing directly as well – check sidebar links particularly
[Look what kinds of businesses can be made – and solutions created -]
Next Generation Detection
In these uncertain times, there has never been a greater need to ensure the safety of our armed forces and civilian population.
Double-digit growth is forecast in US government spending on chemical detection over the next decade. Recognizing this multi-billion dollar opportunity, Owlstone has developed a unique technology platform that sets a new benchmark for reliable, cost-effective chemical sensing in a wide array of applications… from homeland security and defense to environmental monitoring, transportation and healthcare.
Chemical Detection System
Using leading-edge nanofabrication techniques, Owlstone has created a complete chemical detection system on a chip. A hundred times smaller – and a thousand times cheaper – than other currently available devices, the Owlstone detector overcomes many of the limitations of traditional detection technologies.
By significantly reducing the cost and complexity of building devices to detect specific chemical agents, Owlstone opens up an exciting new world of chemical sensing applications. Smaller, lighter and more versatile than the competition, Owlstone sensing technology takes chemical detection into the 21st century.
Flexible Solar Panels – Consumer Ready Modules – OEM
Flexible Solar Panels: The lightest thin film flexible solar panels on today’s market are available from Silicon Solar.
Solar technology has reached its most convenient, lightweight form: the newly-engineered flexible solar panel. Silicon Solar is the proud carrier of over 50 modules of flexible solar panels, offered in a variety of sizes.
Through recent developments, Silicon Solar has provided ways of listing thin, light weight, flexible solar panels allowing for multiple applications to now be solar accessible that never were before.
Thin Film solar cells and panels now allow for several types of application to be introduced into the market including solar backpacks, solar thin film clothing and athletic apparel. We at Silicon Solar have taken these methods to the extreme and receive requests from customers who give us incentive and constructive feedback on developing new ways of utilizing this technology not only for them, but for you as well. Each flexible solar panel can be rolled up to 2 inches in diameter, making the paper thin solar cell one of the most durable and long lasting solar modules on the market.
Click Here to View our Selection of
Flexible Solar Panels
A web application that organizes information chronologically. Google News Timeline allows users to view news, scanned newspapers and magazines, blog posts, sports scores, and more on a zoomable, graphical timeline.
Search for images using pictures rather than words. Similar images helps you narrow your search by finding images that are visually similar to an existing result.
Try a new beta version available for Mac. Organize, edit, and share your photos and create movies and collages.
Collaborative Q&A for group events. Google Moderator will help keep discussions on track by allowing users to both suggest questions and vote on others’ questions.
Search and compare quotes from political figures found in stories on Google News from the United States, Canada, India, and the United Kingdom.
Search what people are saying inside YouTube videos. Google Audio Indexing uses speech technology to find spoken words inside videos and lets you jump to the right portion of the video where these words are spoken.
Google Code helps you find function definitions and sample code by giving you one place to search publicly accessible source code hosted on the Internet.
See what the world is searching for. Google Trends allows you to enter up to five topics and see how often they’ve been searched on Google over time.
View some of the most detailed maps of Mars created by NASA scientists. Explore the Red Planet’s surface, keep track of orbiters and see the ‘face’ in the planet’s surface.
Quickly access Google products from within Apple’s Dashboard. Widgets are mini-applications that you download and install into Dashboard to add new functionality.
A 3D software tool that combines a tool-set with an intelligent drawing system. Enables to place models using real-world coordinates and share them with the …
The Size of Nano
These two illustrations give visual examples of the size and the scale of nanotechnology, showing us just how small nanotechnology actually is.
Nanoscale: 3 Examples
<!– If there is no information in
Applications and Products: Putting Technology to Use
Nanotechnology is going to change the world and the way we live, creating new scientific applications that are smaller, faster, stronger, safer and more reliable, including: New Medical Treatments Nanomedicine is focused on diagnosing and treating diseases and creating new drug delivery techniques with fewer side effects. Many nanomedicine findings are now in clinical trials and could soon be available to the public.
• Nanotech-enabled sensors may be able to “smell” cancer. Researchers have mapped the odor profile of certain skin cancers and are looking into ways to create a small electronic nose able to sense the airborne chemical pattern of skin cancer and other odors.
• Gold nanoparticles can be used to detect early stage Alzheimer’s. Other nanostructures can recognize diseased cells and deliver drugs to cancerous tumors without harming healthy cells or organs. Some researchers are designing new nanoparticles to improve biomedical imaging.
• Research is underway to use nanotechnology to engineer a gel that spurs the growth of nerve cells. The gel fills the space between existing cells and encourages new cells to grow. This process could be used to re-grow lost or damaged spinal cord and brain cells.
Photo credit: These iron oxide nanoparticles have a diameter less than 10 nanometers and are coated with DNA for use in biomedical imaging. Image courtesy of Joyce Wong, Boston University.
Cheap and clean energy
The difficulty of meeting the world’s energy demand is compounded by the growing need to protect our environment. Many scientists are looking into way to develop clean, affordable and renewable energy sources.
- Prototype solar panels incorporating nanotechnology are far more efficient than standard designs in converting sunlight to electricity, promising cheap solar power in the near future.
- Nanotechnology is already being used in new batteries, and nanostructured materials look to greatly improve hydrogen storage materials and catalysts needed to realize fuel cells for alternative transportation.
Photo credit: New solar panel films incorporate nanoparticles to improve performance (Gui Bazan, UCSB, graphic by Peter Allen).
Clean water is a precious natural resource and a basic necessity. While the worldwide supply of potable water is limited, the demand continues to increase.
- Nanotechnology could help meet the need for affordable clean water through inexpensive water purification, as well as rapid, low cost detection of impurities. Researchers already discovered unexpected magnetic interactions between ultra small specks of rust, which can help remove arsenic from drinking water.
Photo credit: Nanorust Cleans Arsenic from Drinking Water. Image courtesy of CBEN/Rice University
Pollution Reduction and Environmental Progress
There are many eco-friendly possibilities for nanotechnology, including lighter cars and machinery that requires less fuel; alternative fuel and energy sources; and materials that detect and clean up environmental contaminants.
- Scientists are examining the potential for nanosilver, which is known to have anti-microbial properties, to clean up oil spills and other hazardous chemicals in the environment.
- Nanotech- enabled sensors may one day be able to detect and identify harmful chemical or biological agents in the environment.
Improved Materials and New Products
The very structure of materials can be improved through nanotechnology, by developing nanomaterials that are stronger, lighter, more durable or better conductors, among other traits.
- Adding nanoparticles to plastics can make them stronger, lighter and more durable. Nanoparticles are currently used in baseball bats and tennis rackets, but someday may also be used in bulletproof vests and light, fuel efficient vehicles.
- Different nanoscale materials can be used in thin films to make them water-repellent, anti-reflective, self-cleaning, ultraviolet or infrared-resistant, antifog, anti-microbial, scratch-resistant, or electrically conductive. Nanofilms are used now on eyeglasses, computer displays, and cameras to protect or treat the surfaces.
- Nanoscale transistors may someday lead to computers that are faster, more powerful and more energy efficient than those used today. Nanotechnology also holds the potential to exponentially increase information storage capacity; soon your computer’s entire memory will be able to be stored on a single tiny chip.
What some companies are already doing with this – links to their products and companies’ websites – nanotech and new physics of materials science
NNI Research Centers
A highly significant impact of the NNI has been the focused investment by the NNI-participating agencies in the establishment and development of multidisciplinary research and education centers devoted to nanoscience and nanotechnology. NNI agencies have developed an extensive infrastructure of over 60 major interdisciplinary research and education centers and user facilities across the country. Many such centers, with state of the art equipment for nanoscale S&T research, are designated as user facilities and are available to researchers from academia and the private sector, and to scientists at the national laboratories.
NNI Centers and Networks of Excellence
Government funds for nanotechnology research have created some of the most sophisticated nanoscience laboratories in the world. In addition to providing the facilities, the National Nanotechnology Initiative also has created programs to attract researchers across an array of disciplines and to facilitate discoveries.
Research at Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Image credit: Department of Energy
Centers and networks provide opportunities and support for multidisciplinary research among investigators from a variety of disciplines and from different research sectors, including academia, industry and government laboratories. Such multidisciplinary research not only leads to advances in knowledge, but also fosters relationships that enhance the transition of basic research results to devices and other applications. All agency centers and networks created under NNI auspices over the last seven years are listed here, organized by funding agency.
NIST Nanotech Center
NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology. Image credit: HDR Architecture, Inc./Steve Hall © Hedrich Blessing.
- National Science Foundation
- Department of Energy
- Department of Defense
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
- National Institute of Standards and Technology
- National Institutes of Health
Other Research Centers
Some centers and networks are collaborative efforts of several agencies. Among them is the National Nanomanufacturing Network, established in 2007 and scheduled to become fully operational in 2008, which is a partnership between four NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Centers (NSEC), DOD laboratories, and NIST. In addition, industry, business and professional organizations are partnering in this effort for nanotechnology development.
Also in 2008, NSF will establish a new center on environmental health and safety in 2008 and will expand national outreach activities at its nanotechnology research and education networks: National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology in Society Network, Nanoscale Center for Learning and Teaching, Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network, Nanoscale Science and Engineering Centers, National Nanomanufacturing Network, and Materials Research Science and Education Centers.
A major milestone for DOE in 2008 is the start of full operations at the agency’s fifth Nanoscale Science Research Center (NSRC) user facility located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These five major user facilities are a primary component of the scientific infrastructure developed through the NNI. All five DOE NSRCs are anticipated to be in full operation by the middle of FY 2008.
NIH continues to fund a network of nanotechnology research centers, supported by both individual NIH institutes and the NIH-wide Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative. Centers’ programs promote multidisciplinary research and development that engage basic biological, physical science, clinical perspectives and expertise, and leverage, and enhance the centers’ investments.
The Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at NIST is now in full operation. Initial work includes fundamental research that may be key to the development of next-generation data storage devices. Other areas of emphasis at NIST include nanomanufacturing and the development of standard reference materials.
|Posted: April 24, 2009|
|IQPC is organizing the 2nd International Congress Advanced Battery Technologies|
|(Nanowerk News) After the overwhelming demand 2008 experts from the Battery, Automotive and Chemical Industry will exchange their experiences in the fields of Li-ion batteries, ultracapacitors and automotive applications at the 2nd International Conference Advanced Battery Technologies taking place from 30th June to 2nd July in Frankfurt/Main, Germany.|
|The need for reliable batteries is increasing worldwide. The mar-ketability of electric vehicles is especially pushing the battery de-velopment. At the moment Lithium-ion batteries seem to meet best the demands for enhanced energy storage. But there are still many drawbacks that industry is currently trying to overcome: en-ergy density has to be increased, the life span needs to be ex-tended and the thermal stability to be optimised. The industry is putting a lot of effort in the research in the field of cell chemistry developments, new materials and nanotechnology.|
|The first congress day on Tuesday, 30th June 2009 is concentrating on latest developments in battery technologies, innovative materi-als and components for Li-ion batteries and will focus the question: “Is Lithium-ion the ideal battery?” Gianni Sartorelli (Maxwell Tech-nologies Inc., Switzerland) will give an insight into the topic „Com-bining batteries and ultracapacitors“.|
google_ad_client = “pub-6813309109506967”;
/* 468×60, created 4/11/09 */
google_ad_slot = “7074965340”;
google_ad_width = 468;
google_ad_height = 60;
|On Wednesday, 1st July 2009 we will focus on intelligent batteries for the automotive industry and on strategies how to successfully meeting technical challenges. The attendees will hear about the “Aging behaviour of ultra high power Li-ion batteries” from the ex-pert of Energy Storage Components Dr. Olaf Böse (Continental AG).|
|Amongst other questions the interactive workshop day on Thurs-day, 2nd July will be facing the problems of Battery Management Systems for EV and HEV.|
|The conference addresses to experts from (Pre-) R&D Batteries & Energy Storage, Electronics, E/E-Systems, Energy Management, Electrical Powertrains, Hybrid Engine Development, Business De-velopment, Marketing and Sales.|
|For further information please contact Herrn Mark Reichmann on Phone: +49 (0) 30 20913 428 or email: Mark.Reichmann@iqpc.de|
Source: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie
Published Online April 23, 2009
Accepted on April 9, 2009
Crystal Structure of the Nuclear Export Receptor CRM1 in Complex with Snurportin1 and RanGTP
Thomas Monecke 1, Thomas Güttler 2, Piotr Neumann 1, Achim Dickmanns 1, Dirk Görlich 2*, Ralf Ficner 1 1 Abteilung für Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik, GZMB, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
2 Abteilung Zelluläre Logistik, Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dirk Görlich , E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org<!–
var u = “goerlich”, d = “mpibpc.mpg.de”; document.getElementById(“em0″).innerHTML = ‘<a href=”mailto:’ + u + ‘@’ + d + ‘”>’ + u + ‘@’ + d + ‘<\/a>’//–>
These authors contributed equally to this work.
CRM1 mediates nuclear export of numerous unrelated cargoes, which may carry a short leucine-rich nuclear export signal or export signatures that include folded domains. How CRM1 recognizes such a variety of cargoes has been unknown. Here, we present the crystal structure of the snurportin1-CRM1-RanGTP export complex at 2.5 Å resolution. Snurportin1 is a nuclear import adapter for cytoplasmically assembled, m3G-capped spliceosomal U snRNPs. The structure shows how CRM1 can specifically return the cargo-free form of snurportin1 to the cytoplasm. The extensive contact area includes five hydrophobic residues at the snurportin1 N terminus that dock into a hydrophobic cleft of CRM1, as well as numerous hydrophilic contacts of CRM1 to m3G cap-binding domain and C-terminal residues of snurportin1. The structure suggests that RanGTP promotes cargo-binding to CRM1 solely through long-range conformational changes in the exportin.
> Monecke et al.
|Posted: April 24, 2009|
|Molekularer Shuttleservice – Logistik in kleinsten Dimensionen|
|(Nanowerk News) Die Kommunikation muss stimmen: Dies gilt auch für die lebende Zelle. Winzige Poren in der Zellkern-Hülle sind lebenswichtige Transport- und Kommunikationskanäle, die den gesamten Güterverkehr in und aus dem Zellkern kontrollieren. Diese “Kernporen” sind hochselektive Tore: Während kleine Moleküle meist ungehindert passieren, sind große für ihren Transport auf einen Shuttle-Service angewiesen. Doch wie erkennt ein molekularer Transporter sein Frachtgut? Und wie entscheidet er, wo Fracht geladen oder entladen werden muss?|
|Einen entscheidenden molekularen Mechanismus haben jetzt Forscher vom Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie und der Universität Göttingen aufgeklärt (“Crystal Structure of the Nuclear Export Receptor CRM1 in Complex with Snurportin1 and RanGTP”).|
|Am Kern-Exportrezeptor CRM1 (blau) binden der molekulare Schalter RanGTP (rot) und das Frachtmolekül Snurportin (orange) weit entfernt voneinander. Im Hintergrund: eine elektronenmikroskopische Aufnahme von Kernporenkomplexen – den gigantischen Transportkanälen in der Zellkernhülle. (Bild: MPIbpc / Universität Göttingen)|
|Lebende Zellen gleichen in vieler Hinsicht Miniatur-Fabriken mit winzigen Produktionsstätten, Förderbändern und Maschinen. Anders als Bakterienzellen, zeichnen sich die komplexer gebauten Zellen von Pilzen, Pflanzen und Tieren dabei durch strikte Arbeitsteilung aus. Sie sind in verschiedene Abteilungen – Kompartimente – gegliedert, von Verpackungs- und Sortierstationen, Proteinfabriken und Kraftwerken bis hin zur Kommandozentrale, dem Zellkern. In diesem ist das gesamte Genom ( Erbgut ) archiviert, das die Baupläne für die Produktion von Proteinen enthält. Die Proteinfabriken allerdings, die nach diesen Bauplänen arbeiten, befinden sich außerhalb des Kerns im sogenannten Zytosol. Wie gelangen die Baupläne in die Proteinfabriken?|
|“Rushhour” an der Kernhülle|
|Um dieses logistische Problem zu lösen, muss die Zelle einigen Aufwand betreiben. Dazu werden Kopien der einzelnen Gene in Form von Boten-Ribonukleinsäure (Boten-RNA) erstellt und aus dem Zellkern exportiert. Proteinfabriken – die Ribosomen – verwenden diese dann im Zytosol zur Protein-Herstellung. Die Boten-RNA ist damit ein wahrer Exportschlager. Umgekehrt erfolgt auch ein massiver Import in den Kern. In jeder Minute werden damit mehr als eine Million Moleküle transportiert, darunter viele Proteine. Die Folge ist ein immenser Güterverkehr zwischen Zellkern und Zytosol, der der Rushhour einer Großstadt in nichts nachsteht. So entspricht der Materialstrom, der täglich durch die unzähligen Kernporen eines Menschen geleitet wird, in etwa unserem Körpergewicht.|
|Shuttle-Service für große Moleküle|
|Mit einem zehntausendstel Millimeter Durchmesser sind die Kernporen nanoskopisch klein. Selbst im besten Lichtmikroskop ist eine einzelne Kernpore kaum mehr als ein winziger Punkt. Kernporen arbeiten als hochselektive Tore und Sortieranlagen: Während sie die meisten kleinen Moleküle ungehindert passieren lassen, verweigern sie sperrigem Material den Durchtritt. Können sich große Moleküle allerdings durch einen “Passierschein” ausweisen, dann übernehmen Shuttle-Moleküle (sogenannte “Exportine” oder “Importine”) deren Transport. Anders als ihre Fracht haben diese Shuttle das Privileg, die Kernporen nahezu ungehindert zu passieren.|
|“Be- und Entladung dieser Transporter steuert ein molekularer Schalter namens “Ran”. Das kleine Molekül “GTP” schaltet Ran im Zellkern gewissermaßen “an”. Exportine erhalten von RanGTP das Zeichen zum Laden, Importine das Signal zum Entladen ihrer Fracht”, erklärt Ralf Ficner, Leiter der Abteilung Molekulare Strukturbiologie an der Universität Göttingen. Doch wie setzt RanGTP die Fracht-Beladung von Exportinen in Gang? Und wie erkennt und liest ein Exportin den “Passierschein” seines Frachtgutes? Exportin 1 (auch bekannt als CRM1) ist ein wahrer Allrounder unter den Transportern. Es exportiert hunderte, vielleicht tausende verschiedene Zell-Bestandteile aus dem Kern, angefangen bei RNA und Proteinen bis hin zu ganzen Ribosomen. Nicht zuletzt bedienen sich auch einige Viren wie das HIV dieses Transportweges. “Eine solche Vielfalt an Passierscheinen zu lesen, ist ein wahrer Spagat für das Allround-Shuttle. Es soll keine Fracht übersehen, aber auch keine ‘blinden Passagiere’ an Bord nehmen”, so Dirk Görlich, Leiter der Abteilung Zelluläre Logistik am Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie.|
|Transportkomplex in atomarer Auflösung|
|Einen wichtigen Teil dieses Rätsels haben die Göttinger Wissenschaftler um Ficner und Görlich jetzt gelöst. Den Nachwuchswissenschaftlern Thomas Güttler und Thomas Monecke gelang es, die entscheidende experimentelle Hürde zu meistern, an der sich Wissenschaftler seit über zehn Jahren versuchen: Sie konnten CRM1 im Komplex mit dem molekularen Schalter RanGTP und einem Frachtmolekül namens Snurportin kristallisieren. Mithilfe der Röntgenstrukturanalyse lässt sich damit der Transportkomplex wie unter einer Art Supermikroskop in atomarem Detail untersuchen.|
|“Wir sehen jetzt, dass Schalter und Frachtmolekül an völlig unterschiedlichen Stellen von CRM1 sitzen – die beiden sehen sich praktisch nicht. RanGTP scheint bei Bindung an CRM1 wichtige Strukturänderungen im Shuttle auszulösen”, erklärt Thomas Monecke. Erst diese Strukturänderungen befähigen den Transporter, seine Fracht zu laden. Wie die Forscher herausfanden, erkennt und bindet CRM1 Snurportin gleich mehrfach – über drei unterschiedliche Stellen seiner großen Oberfläche. “Dass CRM1 Fracht über seine Außenseite bindet, könnte auch der entscheidende Trick sein, der dieses Exportin zum wahren Transport-Allrounder macht. Denn Transporter, die auf wenige Fracht-Moleküle spezialisiert sind, wickeln diese in ihrem Inneren ein – und dort findet nicht jedes Molekül Platz”, erklärt Thomas Güttler. Dagegen kann auf der Oberfläche von CRM1 Fracht nahezu beliebiger Größe und Form binden.|
|Das nächste Ziel der Wissenschaftler ist es nun, die Bindung weiterer Frachtmoleküle an CRM1 zu untersuchen. “CRM1 ist ein ganz entscheidender Spieler, wenn wir verstehen wollen, wie komplexe Zellen überhaupt funktionieren. Es ist nicht irgendein Transporter der Zelle, sondern das Arbeitstier des Kern-Exports schlechthin”, so Dirk Görlich.|
Source: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie
1.1 NUKLEOZYTOPLASMATISCHER TRANSPORT…………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 DAS SPLEIßOSOM UND DER SPLEIßVORGANG………………………………………………………………….5
Die minimale IBBSPN1-Domäne erstreckt sich von As 1-65 und besteht, wie IBB-Domänen anderer Transportadaptern, welche Mitglieder der Karyopherin β-Familie als Vermittler zur Kernpore verwenden (z.B. IBBα), hauptsächlich aus basischen Aminosäuren (Abbildung 48) (Cingolani et al., 1999). Dennoch ist IBBSPN1 N-terminal um 14 As länger, als die bereits strukturell analysierte IBBα. Die C-terminale m3G-Cap Bindedomäne enthält eine ungewöhnlich hohe Anzahl von fünf Tryptophanresten, zeigt aber keinerlei Sequenzhomologien zu Proteinen in der Proteindatenbank (PDB; Abbildung 47). Sie formt auch keine Armadillo (ARM)-Repeats, wie die cNLS-Bindedomäne von Importin α.
Abbildung 11: Domänenstruktur von SPN1.
(Never mind, this is only exciting to me . . .)
Alternative Energy, alternative fuel, Creating, Creativity, Cricket Diane C Phillips, Cricket House Studios, cricketdiane, Extreme Engineering, physics, Thinking outside the box, transportation, Writing
Title: On Physics –
©2008 Cricket Diane C Phillips
Written by – Cricket Diane C Phillips, 3-17-08
“When I consider how many stars are in the universe, I find it hard to believe we have the energy problems we do.
There are physical forces and sources of ultra – energies that lay untapped. Every source we utilize now is based on the discovery of fire – it has not changed. We use it as the basis of virtually everything we move, convert or mechanically manipulate. Even the manner in which we harness electricity is an out-growth of that thinking.
It is no longer the use of fire and combustion that must power our society’s transportation, home and industrial needs. It is the use of the physical laws governing the motion of bodies and systems across the processes and physics of the Universe that must be harnessed to do it. Conversion principles are simpler, degree and precision of conversion are more effective, the cost is already borne by the factors in the cosmological aspects that cause them, and the forces are already in place.
Instead of (pushing) against the earth and her rotation to move – to transport – to convert energies, it would only take being completely still relative to the earth for an intense and immediate re-location to occur.”
Abstract I Notes & Comments – Robust System II, III – 03/17/08
Diane C. Phillips, 2008
Atlanta, GA, USA