Sounds like they don’t want this to work. And, we are subsidizing these vehicles being built, plants being built to build them, factories being tooled to produce them, research to have been done to create them and countless dollars for every single part of the operation – and then, they produce a few thousand cars which doesn’t reap the rewards of mass production to bring down the costs? What kind of jackasses would do that?
Sounds like the car companies simply don’t want electric vehicles to be purchased by mainstream car buyers in America. And, they’ve used our money to do it. Disgusting.
A milk float is a small battery electric vehicle (BEV), specifically designed for the delivery of fresh milk. They were once common in many European countries, particularly the United Kingdom, and were operated by local dairies. However, in recent years, as the number of supermarkets, small independent grocers and petrol stations stocking fresh milk has increased, most people have switched from regular home delivery to obtaining fresh milk from these other sources.
Because of the relatively small power output from its electric motor, a milk float travels fairly slowly, usually around 10 to 16 miles per hour (16 to 26 km/h) although some have been modified to do up to 80 mph (130 km/h).Operators often exit their vehicle before they have completely stopped to speed deliveries; milk floats generally have sliding doors that can be left open when moving, or may have no doors at all. They are very quiet, suiting operations in residential areas during the early hours of the morning or during the night.
In August 1967 the UK Electric Vehicle Association put out a press release stating that Britain had more battery-electric vehicles on its roads than the rest of the world put together It is not clear what research the association had undertaken into the electric vehicle populations of other countries, but closer inspection disclosed that almost all of the battery fuelled vehicles licensed for UK road use were milk floats.
Before BEVs, dairy supplies were delivered using horse-drawn milk floats. This lasted from the late 1800s until the 1950s. Today, with rounds expanding in coverage to ensure profitability in the face of falling levels of patronage, the limited range and speed of electric milk floats have resulted in many being replaced by diesel-powered converted vans.
Glasgow has one of the largest working milk float fleets in the UK. Most of the vehicles operate from the Grandtully Depot in Kelvindale. Some dairies in the UK, including Dairy Crest, have had to modernise and have replaced their electric milk floats with petrol or diesel fuel-powered vehicles to speed up deliveries and thus increase profit.
Low-speed vehicle is a federally approved street-legal vehicle classification which came into existence in 1998 under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 500 (FMVSS 500). There is nothing in the federal regulations specifically pertaining to the powertrain.
Low-speed vehicles are defined as a four-wheeled motor vehicle that has a gross vehicle weight rating of less than 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) and a top speed of between 20 to 25 mph (32 to 40 km/h). Those states that authorize NEVs generally restrict their operation to streets with a maximum speed limit of 35 or 45 mph (56 or 72 km/h). Because of federal law, car dealers cannot legally sell the vehicles to go faster than 25 mph (40 km/h), but the buyer can easily modify the car to go 35 mph (56 km/h). However, if modified to exceed 25 mph (40 km/h), the vehicle then becomes subject to safety requirements of passenger cars.
These speed restrictions, combined with a typical driving range of 30 miles (48 km) per charge and a typical three-year battery durability, are required because of a lack of federally mandated safety equipment and features which NEVs can not accommodate because of their design. To satisfy federal safety requirements for manufacturers, NEVs must be equipped with three-point seat belts or a lap belt,windshield wipers are not required, running lights, headlights, brake lights, reflectors, rear view mirrors, and turn signals. In many cases, doors may be optional, crash protection from other vehicles is partially met compared to other non motorized transport such as bicycles because of the use of seat belts.
Regulations for operating an NEV vary by state. The federal government allows state and local governments to add additional safety requirements beyond those of Title 49 Part 571.500. For instance,the State of New York requires additional safety equipment to include windshield wipers, window defroster, speedometer, odometer and a back-up light. Generally, they must be titled and registered, and the driver must be licensed. Because airbags are not required the NEV cannot normally travel on highways or freeways. NEVs in many states are restricted to roads with a speed limit of 35 mph (56 km/h) or less.
Some communities are designed to separate neighborhoods from commercial and other areas, connecting them with relatively high speed thoroughfares on which NEVs cannot go, legally or safely. As a result, these vehicles are most common in communities that provide separate routes for them or generally accommodate slow speed traffic.
Some communities designed specifically with NEVs in mind include:
The U.S. Army has announced that it will lease 4,000 Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) within three years. The Army plans to use NEVs at its bases for transport of personnel and for security patrols and maintenance and delivery services. .
Aptera 2 Series (formerly Aptera Typ-1) is a high-efficiency, three-wheeled vehicle currently in development, now accepting pre-orders. Expected for sale in 2010 in both electric and hybrid versions. Registers as a motorcycle, not required to be FMVSS rated.
The car will be made available on a lease arrangement to selected UK corporate customers with deliveries starting in November 2006. Up to 200 of the electric microcars will be built and delivered to the UK, which will serve as the trial market for the vehicle.
According to the DaimlerChrysler press release, the Smart EV sets a new benchmark in the electric vehicle sector; it has 30 kW (40 hp) output and a top speed of70 mph (110 km/h). It offers even better in-town performance than its petrol powered stablemate, with 0 to 30 mph (0 to 48 km/h) in 6.5 seconds. With a range of up to72 miles (116 km), the Smart EV is exempt from vehicle excise duty and the London congestion charge.
The drive train for the Smart EOptimal Energy Joule V is produced in the UK by technology partner Zytek Group who undertake final assembly of the car in Fradley, near Lichfield.
Mass-EV is developing in Reading, UK by Turbo Electric Ltd. This car is targeted to be on sale 2011 at a price of £7,000 to the public and charges directly from the UK socket. Roughly the size of a Ford Focus C-Max, will do in excess of 100 miles and motorway speeds. With trailer generator will do in excess of 500 miles on one tank of petrol.
Miles Electric Vehicles XS500 planned for production in 2009. It’s a four door sedan and it will have a top speed of over 80 mph (130 km/h) top speed, 120-mile (190 km) range, battery life of approx. 100,000 miles (160,000 km) and a price tag of $30,000 
Mini E from BMW, with more than 500 cars leased for field testing in the U.S. and the U.K. Test trials will en by mid 2010 in the U.S.
Mitsubishi Motors announced on May 11, 2005, that it will mass-produce its MIEV. Test fleets are to arrive in 2006 and production models could be available in 2010. The first test car, revealed to be Colt EV, is expected to have a range of 93 miles (150 km) using lithium-ion batteries and in-wheel electric motors. The target price of an MIEV is US$19,000, although no export decision has yet been made. In July 2009, the Mitsubishi i-MiEV will go on sale to fleets in Japan and New Zealand, with availability to the general Japanese public beginning in April 2010. It uses a 16 kWh capacity lithium-ion battery.
Optimal Energy Joule, a multipurpose six-seater electric car with a top speed of 135 km/h (84 mph) and maximum reach of 400 km (250 mi).
Phoenix Motorcars based in Ontario, California, plans to build both a mid-sized SUV and an SUT (Sports Utility Truck) with 130-mile (210 km) range for $45,000 using NanoSafe batteries from Altairnano. 500 cars are planned for delivery in early 2008 to fleet customers. A consumer version is planned for release in late 2008. Over 250-mile (400 km) range version also in development.
Ford Ranger EV (1998–2003) some sold, most leased. Several hundred were produced for lease only, almost all were recovered and most destroyed. Ford has announced reconditioning and sale of a limited quantity to former leaseholders by lottery.
Henney Kilowatt (1958–1960) the first modern (transistor-based) electric car, capable of highway speeds of up to 60 mph and outfitted with modern hydraulic brakes. Fewer than one hundred of them were produced before production was discontinued in 1960.
Honda EV Plus (199?-1999) (several hundred produced for lease only, all recovered and most destroyed)
A liquid nitrogen vehicle is powered by liquid nitrogen, which is stored in a tank. The engine works by heating the liquid nitrogen in a heat exchanger, extracting heat from the ambient air and using the resulting pressurized gas to operate a piston or rotary engine.
Liquid nitrogen propulsion may also be incorporated in hybrid systems, e.g., battery electric propulsion and fuel tanks to recharge the batteries. This kind of system is called a hybrid liquid nitrogen-electric propulsion. Additionally, regenerative braking can also be used in conjunction with this system.
A liquid nitrogen economy is a hypothetical proposal for a future economy in which the primary form of energy storage and transport is liquid nitrogen. It is proposed as an alternative to liquid hydrogen in some transport modes and as a means of locally storing energy captured from renewable sources. An analysis of this concept provides insight into the physical limits of all energy conversion schemes.
Liquid nitrogen is distributed and stored in insulated containers. The insulation reduces heat flow into the stored nitrogen; this is necessary because heat from the surrounding environment boils the liquid, which then transitions to a gaseous state. Reducing inflowing heat reduces the loss of liquid nitrogen in storage. The requirements of storage prevent the use of pipelines as a means of transport. Since long-distance pipelines would be costly due to the insulation requirements, it would be costly to use distant energy sources for production of liquid nitrogen. Petroleum reserves are typically a vast distance from consumption but can be transferred at ambient temperatures.
Liquid nitrogen production is an energy-intensive process. Currently practical refrigeration plants producing a few tons/day of liquid nitrogen operate at about 50% of Carnot efficiency.
Energy density of liquid nitrogen
Any process that relies on a phase-change of a substance will have much lower energy densities than processes involving a chemical reaction in a substance, which in turn have lower energy densities than nuclear reactions. Liquid nitrogen as an energy store has a low energy density. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels by comparison have a high energy density. A high energy density makes the logistics of transport and storage more convenient. Convenience is an important factor in consumer acceptance. The convenient storage of petroleum fuels combined with its low cost has led to an unrivaled success. In addition, a petroleum fuel is a primary energy source, not just an energy storage and transport medium.
The energy density — derived from nitrogen’s isobaric heat of vaporization and specific heat in gaseous state — that can be realised from liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and zero degrees Celsius ambient temperature is about 97 watt-hours per kilogram (W-hr/kg). This compares with about 3,000 W-hr/kg for a gasoline combustion engine running at 28% thermal efficiency, 30 times the density of liquid nitrogen used at the Carnot efficiency .
For an isothermal expansion engine to have a range comparable to an internal combustion engine, an 350-litre (92 US gal) insulated onboard storage vessel is required . A practical volume, but a noticeable increase over the typical 50-litre (13 US gal) gasoline tank. The addition of more complex power cycles would reduce this requirement and help enable frost free operation. However, no commercially practical instances of liquid nitrogen use for vehicle propulsion exist.
Unlike internal combustion engines, using a cryogenic working fluid requires heat exchangers to warm and cool the working fluid. In a humid environment, frost formation will prevent heat flow and thus represents an engineering challenge. To prevent frost build up, multiple working fluids can be used. This adds topping cycles to ensure the heat exchanger does not fall below freezing. Additional heat exchangers, weight, complexity, efficiency loss, and expense, would be required to enable frost free operation .
However efficient the insulation on the nitrogen fuel tank, there will inevitably be losses by evaporation to the atmosphere. If a vehicle is stored in a poorly ventilated space, there is some risk that leaking nitrogen could displace air and cause asphyxiation. Since nitrogen is a colorless and odourless gas that already makes up 78 % of air, such a change would be difficult to detect.
Cryogenic liquids are hazardous if spilled. Liquid nitrogen can cause frostbite and can make some materials extremely brittle.
As liquid N2 is colder than 90.2K liquid oxygen can be produced which can spontaneously violently react with organic chemical and petroleum products like asphalt.
Since the liquid to gas expansion ratio of this substance is 1:694, a tremendous amount of force can be generated if liquid nitrogen is rapidly vaporized. In an incident in 2006 at Texas A&M University, the pressure-relief devices of a tank of liquid nitrogen were sealed with brass plugs. As a result, the tank failed catastrophically, and exploded.
The fiber materials are considerably lighter than metals but generally more expensive. Metal tanks can withstand a large number of pressure cycles, but must be checked for corrosion periodically.
Like other non-combustion energy storage technologies, a liquid nitrogen vehicle displaces the emission source from the vehicle’s tail pipe to the central electrical generating plant. Where emissions-free sources are available, net production of pollutants can be reduced. Emission control measures at a central generating plant may be more effective and less costly than treating the emissions of widely dispersed vehicles.
Liquid nitrogen vehicles are comparable in many ways to electric vehicles, but use liquid nitrogen to store the energy instead of batteries. Their potential advantages over other vehicles include:
Much like electrical vehicles, liquid nitrogen vehicles would ultimately be powered through the electrical grid. Which makes it easier to focus on reducing pollution from one source, as opposed to the millions of vehicles on the road.
Transportation of the fuel would not be required due to drawing power off the electrical grid. This presents significant cost benefits. Pollution created during fuel transportation would be eliminated.
Lower maintenance costs
Liquid nitrogen tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than batteries.
Liquid nitrogen vehicles are unconstrained by the degradation problems associated with current battery systems.
The tank may be able to be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be recharged, with re-fueling rates comparable to liquid fuels.
The principal disadvantage is the inefficient use of primary energy. Energy is used to liquify nitrogen, which in turn provides the energy to run the motor. Any conversion of energy between forms results in loss. For liquid nitrogen cars, energy is lost when electrical energy is converted to liquid nitrogen.
Liquid nitrogen is not yet available in public refueling stations.
^ J. Franz, C. A. Ordonez, A. Carlos, Cryogenic Heat Engines Made Using Electrocaloric Capacitors, American Physical Society, Texas Section Fall Meeting, October 4–6, 2001 Fort Worth, Texas Meeting ID: TSF01, abstract #EC.009, 10/2001.
The firm’s first product, the eponymous Lightning GT, is based on an extant internal-combustion vehicle from Ronart Cars. The GT is currently in development, and is expected to go into production in 2008. Dan Says it should be noted the car manufacturer is building other cars.
The propulsion system and development platform acts as an electric motor, generator or brake and is several times lighter, smaller and powerful than the conventional electronic propulsion systems and generators it replaces.
The embedded (in the motor) control electronics reliably, efficiently and precisely manages the control of the motors to provide smooth operation when driving at any speed.
The integrated power management system distributes drive power to the motor and then recaptures and feeds most of that energy back into the battery using a regenerative system.
The control software helps engineers optimize energy efficiency and vehicle performance while giving drivers more control over the driving experience.
Instead of an alternative fuel source, the magnetic air car uses air-compressing technology to propel it. The patented technology is developed by Magnetic Air Cars, Inc., a San Jose-based company who is working on the world’s first viable fuel-less car. A French company, MDI Cars, previously showed a car based on similar principle to a BBC reporter in 2002.
The idea of the magnetic air car stems from the air car concept developed by J.M Custer of Piggott, Arkansas in 1932. The air car ran on compressed air. He used the engine that was developed by Roy J. Meyers. The air engine replaced the gasoline engine in standard cars. Four air tanks filled with compressed air powered the car 500 miles at a speed of 35 miles an hour. The engine did not require a cooling system, ignition system, carburetor, nor the hundreds of moving parts included in a standard gasoline motor. The compressed air took care of all of those features and left a vehicle that cost nearly nothing to maintain or use.
The magnetic air technology is a combination of magnet motor and compressed air motor. A battery starts a special magnetic motor to initialize the powerful air compressor, heating up the air tank in order to boost the air pressure. The air flow is then turbocharged and multiplied to where the resulting horse-pressure smoothly powers the car…
The car is environmental friendly. The source of the power is air. The battery costs less than $70 and maintenance free. It is acid free, recyclable, and long lasting. Air flow will not be a problem since the patent pending cold air bearing turbocharger creates sufficient air pressure. No fossil fuels are needed as power source. Only air is used as major power source. A patented water filtration system emits cleaner air. The disengagement of burning fossil fuels produces “zero pollution” and promotes environmental protection.
The real cost of the car is undetermined. It is not tested by any credible authorities or organizations for its safety. No experimental results are provided. The magnets, repelling each other, can be a source of movement, and, if properly propelled by an air jet, could have “devastating” effects in terms of power. No exact specifications of their technology have been made yet. This technology needs some control so it won’t go awry if its more air energy applied to it.
Some folks claim the fuel is air here. Well it actually is not. Compressed air is like a powered engine used to move the car mechanically but clearly not the fuel. Compressed air is not a naturally available resource. The actual fuel is the one used to compress the air into a cylinder which makes it powered to provide a ‘Force’.
Air powered cars, also recognized as air car, use technology that is similar to the magnetic air car. The power source is compressed air, which makes the car a zero-emission-fuel-less car. The air car engine combines the mono energy engines (compressed air only) and the dual-energy engines (compressed air + energetic adjuvant). The whole system has four operating modes: mono energy compressed air, simple dual energy, autonomous dual energy, and dual energy with recompression of the tank. By using compressed air stored in tanks at high pressure, the air car can run in an eco-friendly mode.
In operation, a mass of zinc particles forms a porous anode, which is saturated with an electrolyte. Oxygen from the air react at the cathode and form hydroxyl ions which migrate into the zinc paste and form zincate (Zn(OH)2−4), releasing electrons to travel to the cathode. The zincate decays into zinc oxide and water returns to the electrolyte. The water and hydroxyls from the anode are recycled at the cathode, so the water is not consumed. The reactions produce a theoretical 1.65 volts, but this is reduced to 1.4–1.35 V in available cells.
Zinc-air batteries have some properties of fuel cells as well as batteries: the zinc is the fuel, the reaction rate can be controlled by varying the air flow, and oxidized zinc/electrolyte paste can be replaced with fresh paste. A future possibility is to power electric vehicles.
The effect of oxygen was known early in the 19th century when wet-cell [Leclanche battery|[Leclanche batteries]] absorbed atmospheric oxygen into the carbon cathode current collector. In 1878 a porous platinized carbon air electrode was found to work as well as the manganese dioxide (MnO2) of the Leclanche cell. Commercial products began to be made on this principle in 1932 when George W. Heise and Erwin A. Schumacher of the National Carbon Company built cells, treating the carbon electrodes with wax to prevent flooding. This type is still used for large zinc-air cells for navigation aids and rail transportation. However, the current capacity is low and the cells are bulky.
Large primary zinc-air cells such as the Thomas A. Edison Industries Carbonaire type were used for railway signaling, remote communication sites, and navigation buoys.These were long-duration, low-rate applications. Development in the 1970s of thin electrodes based on fuel-cell research allowed application to small button and prismatic primary cells for hearing aids, pagers, and medical devices, especially cardiac telemetry.
Zinc-air batteries have significant properties that make them ideal for certain applications. Because ordinary air supplies one of the battery reactants, a cell can use more zinc in the anode than a cell that must also contain, for example, manganese dioxide. This increases capacity for a given weight.
Storage and operating life
Zinc-air cells have long shelf life; even miniature button cells can sit for up to 3 years at room temperature with little capacity loss, since before use, oxygen is excluded from the cell by a tape barrier. Industrial cells stored in a dry state have an indefinite storage life.
The operating life of a zinc-air cell is a critical function of its interaction with its environment. Hot or dry conditions pull water from the electrolyte. Because the potassium hydroxide electrolyte is deliquescent, in humid conditions excess water accumulates in the cell, flooding the cathode, destroying its active properties. Potassium hydroxide also reacts with atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbonate formation eventually reduces electrolyte conductivity. Miniature cells have high self-discharge once opened to air; the cell’s capacity is typically consumed within a few weeks.
Because the cathode does not change properties during discharge, terminal voltage is quite stable until the cell approaches exhaustion.
Power capacity is a function of several variables: cathode area, air availability, porosity, and the catalytic value of the cathode surface. Oxygen entry into the cell must be balanced against electrolyte water loss; cathode membranes are coated with hydrophobic material (Teflon) to limit water loss. Low humidity increases water loss; if enough water is lost the cell fails. Button cells have a limited current drain; for example an IEC PR44 cell has a capacity of 600 milliamp-hours (mAh) but a maximum current of only 22 milliamps (mA). Pulse load currents can be much higher since some oxygen remains in the cell between pulses.
Low temperature reduces primary cell capacity but the effect is small for low drains. A cell may deliver 80% of its capacity if discharged over 300 hours at 0 °C (32 °F), but only 20% of capacity if discharged at a 50 hour rate at that temperature. Lower temperature also reduces cell voltage.
Zinc-air batteries cannot be used in a sealed battery holder since some air must come in; the oxygen in 1 liter of air is required for every ampere-hour of capacity used.
Primary (unrechargeable) cells
Large zinc-air batteries, with capacities up to 2,000 ampere–hours per cell, are used to power navigation instruments and marker lights, oceanographic experiments, and railway signals.
Primary zinc-air cells are made in button format to about 1 Ah. Prismatic shapes for portable devices are manufactured with capacities between 5 and 30 Ah. Hybrid cells have manganese dioxide added to the cathodes to allow high peak currents. Button cells are highly effective, but it is difficult to extend the same construction to larger sizes due to air diffusion performance, heat dissipation, and leakage problems. Prismatic and cylindrical cell designs address these problems. Stacking prismatic cells requires air channels in the battery and may require a fan to force air through the stack.
Secondary (rechargeable) cells
Rechargeable zinc-air cells are a difficult design problem since zinc precipitation from the water-based electrolyte must be closely controlled. The problems are dendrite formation, non-uniform zinc dissolution and limited solubility in electrolytes. Electrically reversing the reaction at a bi-functional air cathode, to liberate oxygen from discharge reaction products, is difficult; membranes tested to date have low overall efficiency. Charging voltage is much higher than discharge voltage, producing cycle energy efficiency as low as 50%. Providing charge and discharge functions by separate uni-functional cathodes, increases cell size, weight, and complexity. A satisfactory electrically recharged system potentially offers low material cost and high specific energy, but none has yet reached the market.
Mechanically recharged cells
Rechargeable systems may mechanically replace the anode and electrolyte, essentially operating as a refurbishable primary cell, or may use zinc powder or other methods to replenish the reactants. Mechanically-recharged systems were investigated for military electronics uses in the 1960s because of the high energy density and easy recharging. However, primary lithium batteries offered higher discharge rates and easier handling.
Mechanical recharging systems have been researched for decades for use in electric vehicles. Some approaches use a large zinc-air battery to maintain charge on a high discharge–rate battery used for peak loads during acceleration. Zinc granules serve as the reactant. Vehicles exchange used electrolyte and depleted zinc for fresh reactants at a service station to recharge.
The term zinc-air fuel cell usually refers to a zinc-air battery in which zinc metal is added and zinc oxide is removed continuously. This is accomplished by pushing zinc electrolyte paste or pellets into a chamber. Waste zinc oxide is pumped into a waste tank or bladder inside the fuel tank, and fresh zinc paste or pellets are taken from the fuel tank. The zinc oxide waste is pumped out at a refueling station for recycling. Alternatively, this term may refer to an electrochemical system in which zinc is a co-reactant assisting the reformation of hydrocarbons at the anode of a fuel cell.
Metallic zinc could be used as an alternative fuel for vehicles, either in a zinc-air battery  or to generate hydrogen near the point of use. Zinc’s characteristics have motivated considerable interest as an energy source for electric vehicles. Gulf General Atomic demonstrated a 20 kW vehicle battery. General Motors conducted tests in the 1970s. Neither project led to a commercial product.
Solid zinc cannot be moved as easily as a liquid. An alternative is to form pellets that are small enough to be pumped. Fuel cells using it would be able to quickly replace zinc-oxide with fresh zinc metal. The spent material can be recycled. The zinc-air “battery” cell is a primary cell (non-rechargeable); recycling is required to reclaim the zinc; much more energy is required to reclaim the zinc than is usable in a vehicle.
Attempts to address zinc-air’s limitations include
Pumping zinc slurry through the battery in one direction for charging and reversing for discharge. Capacity is limited only by the slurry reservoir size.
Alternate electrode shapes (via gelling and binding agents)
Carefully dispersing catalysts to improve oxygen reduction and production
Modularizing components for repair without complete replacement
Safety and environment
Vent holes allow any pressure build-up to be released. Zinc corrosion can produce hydrogen. Manufacturers caution against hydrogen build-up in enclosed areas. A short-circuited cell gives relatively low current. Deep discharge below 0.5 V/cell may result in electrode leakage; there is little useful capacity below 0.9 V/cell.
Older designs used mercury amalgam amounting to about 1% of the weight of a button cell, to prevent zinc corrosion. Newer types have no added mercury. Zinc is relatively low in toxicity. Mercury-free designs require no special handling when discarded or recycled.
In United States waters, environmental regulations now require proper disposal of primary batteries removed from navigation aids. Formerly, discarded zinc-air primary batteries were dropped into the water around buoys, which allowed mercury in the cells to escape to the environment.
^ J. Noring et al, Mechanically refuelable zinc-air electric vehicle cells in Proceedings of the Symposium on Batteries and Fuel Cells for Stationary and Electric Vehicle Applications Volumes 93-98 of Proceedings (Electrochemical Society), The Electrochemical Society, 1993 ISBN 1566770556 page 235-236
^ C. A. C. Sequeira Environmental oriented electrochemistry Elsevier, 1994 ISBN 044489456X, pages 216-217
The Zinc-Air Module
The on-board zinc-air module is built from cells with replaceable zinc anode cassettes.
No. of cells
Open Circuit Voltage
(@80% DOD) 8 kW
The cell comprises a central static replaceable anode cassette comprising a slurry of electrochemically generated zinc particles in a potassium hydroxide solution compacted onto a current collection frame and inserted into a separator envelope, flanked on two sides by high-power air (oxygen) reduction cathodes that extract oxygen from the air for the zinc-oxidation reaction.
The discharged zinc-air module removed from the vehicle is “refueled” or mechanically recharged by exchanging spent “cassettes” with fresh cassettes. This is accomplished by a refueling machine that returns the zinc-air modules to service.
The depleted cassettes are electrochemically recharged and mechanically recycled external to the battery. Regeneration of the cassettes will take place at centralized facilities serving regional networks of refueling stations. In this way the zinc anode recharging/recycling facility would assume a parallel role in a zinc-air based transportation system to that held by oil refineries in today’s fuel distribution system, without the negative impacts.
Check out the third slide in the series called The Bellhop2 with cab
With a 2400 lb payload capacity, the Haulster is ready to tackle your biggest hauling or towing projects. Featuring power steering and an independent front suspension, it’ll get the work done seamlessly, every time. - Cushman
Lease the Tesla Roadster - A smart choice just became a no-brainer: drive a Roadster home today. Tesla Leasing allows you to take immediate delivery of a new 2010 Roadster or Roadster Sport with a three year, 30,000 mile contract and with monthly payments as low as $1,658. The cost savings compared to a similar gas powered car could be $131 per month.
The Dean drive is a device intended to be a reactionless thruster that was invented by Norman L. Dean. Dean claimed that it was able to generate a uni-directional force, in violation of Newton’s Third Law of Motion. Such a violation is generally considered to be impossible in Physics. While it is theoretically possible for a mass that moves in one direction to have its momentum balanced by something other than a reaction mass (e.g. see Nuclear photonic rocket), there is no known theoretical mechanism for a mass to be moved one way while nothing moves the other way.
An actual functioning “reactionless thruster” would, of course, have enormous application, completely changing human transport, engineering, space travel and more.
According to Dean, his drive is a reactionless thruster, and his models were able to demonstrate this effect. He received two patents for related devices that are known to be unable to generate a uni-directional force, but he occasionally demonstrated devices that were different.  Dean’s claims of reactionless thrust generation have subsequently been shown to be in error; the thrust generated is understood to be reliant on friction with the surface on which the device is resting.
(but doesn’t that mean – it still works and simply uses friction instead? – but it works? – my note)
Inventor Norman L. Dean beside his Dean Drive apparatus.
According to Dean’s writings and records now in possession by his son Norman Robert Dean; several groups, including Westinghouse Electric Corporation, the U.S. military, Robert L. Vesco, and the AC Spark Plug (Aeronautics Division) became interested in licensing the device. AC Spark Plug researched the technology for 2 years, but AC’s board decided it was too much of an unknown technology to invest in.
Combined with his experience of forced appropriation of his non-precessing gyroscopic inertial guidance system by the US military (for use in intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarines) and Dean’s cautious nature, led him to terminate relations with his most recent interested party investment banker Robert L. Vesco who coincidently fled to Cuba in 1973.
In the 1950s Jerry Pournelle, working for an aerospace company, contacted Dean to investigate purchasing the device. Dean refused to demonstrate the device without pre-payment and promise of a Nobel prize. Pournelle’s company were unwilling to pay for the right to examine the device and never saw the purported model, although Pournelle remains skeptical that Dean’s device ever worked. 
In 1999, Dean’s son, Norman Robert “Bob” Dean, appeared at an anti-gravity conference by invitation of a group of patent holders who had created differing versions of the reactionless drives that referred to N.L. Dean in their patents. He gave a presentation about his father’s device.
In 2009, Professor Provatidis published a paper on the mechanics involved in Dean drive. He claims to have proven that the device practically works like a catapult while a variable angular velocity can only control the smoothness of the object velocity to which the drive is attached. Moreover, as the net impulse produced by rotating mass particles along a circle is zero (in Dean drive), he proposed the transformation of the aforementioned circle to a figure-eight-shaped curve (symbol of infinity) in which only the upper (or lower) 180 degrees are drawn thus causing anti-gravity effects.
Dr Yevgeny Podkletnov (Russian: Евгений Подклетнов) is a Russian engineer, formerly affiliated with the Materials Science Department at the Tampere University of Technology, Finland, who is best known for his controversial work on a so-called gravity shielding device. Born in Russia in the mid-1950s, Podkletnov graduated with a master’s degree from the University of Chemical Technology, Mendeleyev Institute, in Moscow; he then spent 15 years at the Institute for High Temperatures in the Russian Academy of Sciences. Later he received a doctorate in materials science from Tampere University of Technology, and worked at the university, on superconductors, until 1996.
Podkletnov’s gravity shielding experiments
According to the account Podkletnov gave to reporter Charles Platt in a 1996 phone interview, during a 1992 experiment with a rotating superconducting disk,
Someone in the laboratory was smoking a pipe, and the pipe smoke rose in a column above the superconducting disc. So we placed a ball-shaped magnet above the disc, attached to a balance. The balance behaved strangely. We substituted a nonmagnetic material, silicon, and still the balance was very strange. We found that any object above the disc lost some of its weight, and we found that if we rotated the disc, the effect was increased.
Podkletnov wrote a paper reporting that the gravitational force directly above the disk was about 0.3% less than normal. He concluded that the superconducting disk was altering the Earth’s gravitational force above it. (Since this initial experiment, Podkletnov claims, he has improved his technique, allegedly obtaining as much as a 2% decrease in the gravitational force.)
Podkletnov’s gravity reflection beam
In a second interview (1997) by Wired magazine reporter Charles Platt, Podkletnov told Platt that he was continuing to work on gravitation, claiming that with new collaborators at an un-named “chemical research center” in Moscow he has built a new device. He said:
Normally there are two spheres, and a spark jumps between them. Now imagine the spheres are flat surfaces, superconductors, one of them a coil or O-ring. Under specific conditions, applying resonating fields and composite superconducting coatings, we can organize the energy discharge in such a way that it goes through the center of the electrode, accompanied by gravitation phenomena – reflecting gravitational waves that spread through the walls and hit objects on the floors below, knocking them over…The second generation of flying machines will reflect gravity waves and will be small, light, and fast, like UFOs. I have achieved impulse reflection; now the task is to make it work continuously.
More recently, in collaboration with ItalianphysicistGiovanni Modanese, Podkletnov has reported on a similar device which he claims generates a coherent gravity repulsion beam. (See the citation below.) Supporters claim it has been seen to move a pendulum located 150 meters away in another building. Allegedly, Podkletnov has observed that the “backside” of this second device emits “radiation” (not otherwise specified) which seems to be dangerous to biological tissues.
Then in the 1987 race, the GM Sunraycer completed the same North-South 3010 km trip with an average speed of 67 kmh, setting the scene for an extensive research and development program among the teams.
When the Solar Race teams design their electrical systems they have to allow for variations in sunlight. The Sun’s energy powers the car’s motor and charges a battery for use when the Sun is hidden by a cloud. If a car is designed to put all of its energy toward driving and keeps nothing in reserve, it will come to a halt in cloudy weather. If too much energy is diverted to the battery, the engine runs too slowly to keep up in the race. The ratio of energy stored and energy used directly, is therefore quite an important compromise.
While engineers and still have many problems to tackle before solar power becomes an efficient and economical way to fuel vehicles, it is hoped that the constant development from racing events, will hasten a solution. The best bit about using solar power for transportation is that it’s pollution free and inexhaustible.
WHAT IS A SOLAR CAR
A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the car. Solar cars are not currently a practical form of transportation as they can only operate during the day and can only carry one or two passengers. However, they are raced in competitions such as the World Solar Challenge and the American Solar Challenge. These events are often sponsored by Government agencies such as the United States Department of Energy keen to promote the development of alternative energy technology such as solar cells. Such challenges are often entered by universities to develop their students engineering and technological skills as well as motor vehicle manufacturers such as GM and Honda.
There are three basic types of transmissions used in solar cars:
a single reduction direct drive
a variable ratio drive belt
a hub motor
There are several varieties of each type. The most common is the direct drive transmission.
The mechanical systems are designed to keep friction and weight to a minimum while maintaining strength. Designers normally use titanium and composites to ensure a good strength-to-weight ratio.
Solar cars usually have three wheels, but some have four. Three wheelers usually have two front wheels and one rear wheel: the front wheels steer and the rear wheel follows. Four wheel vehicles are set up like normal cars or similarly to three wheeled vehicles with the two rear wheels close together.
Solar cars have a wide range of suspensions because of varying bodies and chassis. The most common front suspension is the double-A-arm suspension found in traditional cars. The rear suspension is often a trailer-arm suspension found in motor cycles.
Solar cars are required to meet rigorous standards for brakes. Disc brakes are the most commonly used due to their good braking ability and ability to adjust. Mechanical and hydraulic brakes are both widely used with the brakes designed to move freely by minimise brake drag.
Steering systems for solar cars also vary. The major design factors for steering systems are efficiency, reliability and precision alignment to minimise tire wear and power loss. The popularity of solar car racing has led to some tire manufacturers designing tires for solar vehicles. This has increased overall safety and performance.
Composite materials are widely used in solar cars. Carbon fibre, Kevlar and fibreglass are common composite structural materials while foam and honeycomb are commonly used filler materials. Epoxy resins are used to bond these materials together. Carbon fibre and kevlar structures can be as strong as steel but with a much lighter weight.
The electrical energy carried onboard a BEV to power the motors is obtained from a variety of battery chemistries arranged into battery packs. For additional range genset trailers or pusher trailers are sometimes used, forming a type of hybrid vehicle. Batteries used in electric vehicles include “flooded” lead-acid, absorbed glass mat, NiCd, nickel metal hydride, Li-ion, Li-poly and zinc-air batteries.
Battery electric vehicles or BEVs are electric vehicles whose main energy storage is in the chemical energy of batteries. BEVs are the most common form of what is defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as zero emission (ZEV) passenger automobiles, because they produce no emissions while being driven.
The electrical energy carried onboard a BEV to power the motors is obtained from a variety of battery chemistries arranged into battery packs. For additional range genset trailers or pusher trailers are sometimes used, forming a type of hybrid vehicle. Batteries used in electric vehicles include “flooded” lead-acid, absorbed glass mat, NiCd, nickel metal hydride, Li-ion, Li-poly and zinc-air batteries.
Venturi Fetish production electric 0-100km/h in 4.5 secs
The new F 600 HYGENIUS is the latest in the series of research vehicles from Mercedes-Benz that point the way forwards for the future. Powered by a zero-emission fuel cell drive with an output of 85 kW/115 hp, the compact-class car with a family-friendly design consumes the equivalent of 2.9 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres and has an operating range in excess of 400 kilometres.
Dr. Thomas Weber, Daimler-Chrysler AG Board Member for Research & Technology and Head of Development at the Mercedes Car Group, said: “By developing the fuel cell, we are creating a new basis for supplying energy in tomorrow’s vehicles which will make a further lasting improvement to their environmental compatibility.” “This represents a major step towards bringing the fuel cell drive up to full production maturity, a goal that we aim to achieve some time between 2012 and 2015.”
In addition to the fuel cell technology, the Mercedes-Benz research vehicle also showcases an operating concept with virtual displays, new-style seats and other pioneering technologies designed to enhance safety and passenger comfort.
Some recent handheld device battery designs by Toshiba  are claimed to be capable of accepting an 80% charge in as little as 60 seconds. Scaling this specific power characteristic up to the same 7 kWh EV pack would result in the need for a peak of 336 kW of power from some source for those 60 seconds. It is not clear that such batteries will work directly in BEVs as heat build-up may make them unsafe.
Most people do not require fast recharging because they have enough time (6 to 8 hours) during the work day or overnight to refuel. As the charging does not require attention it takes a few seconds for an owner to plug in and unplug their vehicle. Many BEV drivers prefer refueling at home, avoiding the inconvenience of visiting a petrol station. Some workplaces provide special parking bays for electric vehicles with charging equipment provided.
Some USA EV fans have accused the three major domestic manufacturers, General Motors, Chrysler Corporation and Ford Motor Company of deliberately sabotaging their own electric vehicle efforts through several methods: failing to market, failing to produce appropriate vehicles, failing to satisfy demand, and using lease-only programs with prohibitions against end of lease purchase. By these actions they have managed to terminate their BEV development and marketing programs despite operators’ offers of purchase and assumption of maintenance liabilities. They also point to the Chrysler “golf cart” program as an insult to the marketplace and to mandates, accusing Chrysler of intentionally failing to produce a vehicle usable in mixed traffic conditions.
The manufacturers, in their own defense, have responded that they only make what the public wants. EV fans point out that this response is the same argument used by GM to justify the intensively promoted 11 mpg 6500 lb (2,950 kg) Hummer H2 SUV. Of the various BEVs marketed by the “Big Three”, only the General Motors EV1 (manufactured by GM) and the Th!nk City (imported and marketed by Ford) came close to being appropriate configurations for a mass market. However, at the end of their programs GM destroyed its fleet, despite offers to purchase them by their drivers. Ford’s Norwegian-built “Th!nk” fleet was covered by a three-year exemption to the standard U.S. Motor Vehicle Safety laws, after which time Ford had planned to dismantle and recycle its fleet; the company was, however, persuaded by activists to not destroy its fleet but return them to Norway and sell them as used vehicles. Ford also sold a few lead-acid battery Ranger EVs, and some fleet purchase Chevrolet S-10 EV pickups are being refurbished and sold on the secondary market.
ZAP is a leading distributor of affordable, efficient, 100% electric vehicles in the United States and has established a network of licensed automobile dealers throughout the United States. Plans for European distribution are underway as well. In January 2009, ZAP unveiled a high performance electric roadster called the Alias which is planned for deliveries in late 2010. ZAP launched the XEBRA in 2006. Our first automotive product comes in a four-passenger sedan version and a two-passenger utility pickup truck.. Almost all EVs sold are LSVs. With speed restricted to 25 MPH. Xebra Zapcars and Zaptrucks are licensed to go up to 40 MPH to fill the growing demand for electric vehicles in use for urban, in-town driving. Other vehicles sold by ZAP include the XL truck, the Zapvan Shuttle, and ATV called Dude and the always popular Zappy3 scooter line.
ZAP has been tirelessly perfecting the Xebra line in order to give our end users the ultimate electric experience. Our 2009 Xebra Truck is packed with exciting new features, while providing the same low operating cost and ease of use, which has defined the Xebra line for over two years.
Classified as a motorcycle, the Xebra can legally travel up to speeds of forty miles per hour, while other electric vehicles, such as vehicles in the NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) category are speed limited to twenty-five miles per hour.
Providing you with a range up to forty miles with ideal driving conditions, the ZAP Xebra Truck provides you and one passenger with a payload of 500 lbs.
Providing you with a range up to forty miles with ideal driving conditions, the ZAP Xebra Truck provides you and one passenger with a payload of 500 lbs.
Navistar’s new electric truck is the nation’s first all-electric, purpose-built class 2c-3 truck. It was designed and built from the ground up to provide customers with a green, yet practical, transportation solution.
This class 2c-3 electric truck has an approximate range of 100 miles per charge, which makes it ideal for many citywide applications. When it returns to its home base at the end of its day, it can be plugged in and fully recharged for the next day’s work.
Additional news and information about this innovative vehicle will be coming soon, so please sign up to the right if you’re interested in receiving additional information about Navistar’s electric truck.
Designed and built from the ground up with one purpose, to be an electric vehicle that is a sound commercial decision.
No CO, CO2, NOX tailpipe emissions.
Approximately 100 mile range on a single charge.
It works all day and charges while you sleep.
Be seen to be green.
A striking, eye-catching design that visibly demonstrates your serious commitment to preserving the environment.
Plenty of get-up-and-go with exceptional maneuverability to handle busy urban traffic challenges.
GVWR of 12,100 lbs. Up to 4,400 lb. payload.
220V Split Phase (2x110V) Electrical Charging
Quick, efficient. Plug it in at night, it’s ready to go in the morning.
This two-page pdf shows the NavStar International – Electric Truck brochure with a nifty picture of it fitted out for work and a photo of the interior cab. I saved it and I’m printing it out. It is definitely a go-see. – my note, cricketdiane
The Oree was met with enthusiasm in the Innovation Café. “The response at the Intermot Cologne was stunning,” confirms Look, “even a lot of Ducati riders were zealous about the look of the bike and the idea behind it.”
First look at the KTM Freeride: Electric motorcycle photos leak from Germany
KTM Freeride electric motorcycle concept – Click above for image gallery
We first brought you news of KTM’s planned debut of two new electric motorcycle only days ago. It appeared as if the world would have to wait for the Tokyo Motorcycle Show and the official March 26th release date to get its eyes on fully exposed photos.
If you were holding your breath for the unveiling, you can thank German mag Motorrad for breaking the photos early. As we can see now, the supermoto and enduro versions differ quite extensively, despite sharing a frame and power-train. The unique single crown fork protruding from a BMX-like handlebar and headtube combination holding a single headlight certainly set the slick-tired version apart from its knobby clad counterpart. We can’t help but notice the rather dainty tubular steel frame on each model, despite plastic covers that give the illusion of a much beefier unit.
—– Only 3 weeks left! Don’t miss the electric mobility event of the year. —–
—– More than 500 expected participants, 45 speakers and 30 exhibitors are part of the biggest electric mobility conference in Germany —–
—– Simultaneous translation German <–> English —–
Speakers of the following companies/institutes/associations have confirmed their participation:
Audi – AVL List – BMW – Bosch – Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit – BYD – Continental – Daimler – Deutsche Bahn – EnergieAgentur.NRW – Ernst & Young – Ford – IAV – IBM Research – Institut für Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe – Öko-Institut – RWTH Aachen – Renault/Nissan – Roland Berger – RWE – Siemens – TÜV SÜD – Volkswagen – and many more
—– Nur noch 3 Wochen: Verpassen Sie nicht das Elektromobilitätsevent des Jahres! —–
—– Mehr als 500 Teilnehmer, 45 Referenten und über 30 Aussteller erwarten Sie am 17. + 18. Juni 2010 im World Conference Center Bonn beim größten Fachkongress Deutschlands. —–
Referenten folgender Firmen/Institute/Verbände haben zugesagt:
Audi – AVL List – BMW – Bosch – Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit – BYD – Continental – Daimler – Deutsche Bahn – EnergieAgentur.NRW – Ernst & Young – Ford – IAV – IBM Research – Institut für Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe – Öko-Institut – Renault/Nissan – Roland Berger – RWE – Siemens – TÜV SÜD – Volkswagen – u.v.m.
Nutzen Sie jetzt die Chance, Sponsor des Kongresses zu werden und präsentieren Sie sich damit als Unternehmen der Zukunft! Bei Fragen stehen wir Ihnen jederzeit gerne zur Verfügung. Weitere Informationen finden Sie auch unter dem Menüpunkt Sponsoring.
Green Car Congress: Tokyo Electric Power to Set Up 1000 Recharging …
Aug 8, 2008 … Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) plans to have up to 200 recharging stations for electric vehicles up and running in the greater Tokyo area … www.greencarcongress.com/2008/08/tokyo-electric.htm
September 23 2005 Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI), the maker of Subaru automobiles, and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) have announced joint development of an electric vehicle (EV). The two companies will spend approximately one year designing and manufacturing the new EV for commercial uses, basing it on the Subaru R1e concept car. FHI is developing and manufacturing 10 prototype vehicles which TEPCO will use as part of its business and service fleet, and examine their performance and economic benefits.
General Motor’s Joint-Venture partner in China, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) rolled out a concept alongside GM’s EN-V at Expo 2010 which in many ways is more ground-breaking than the EN-V. The idea behind the YeZ Concept is that it will photosynthesize, absorbing carbon dioxide from surrounding air and emitting oxygen back into the atmosphere. Among the many futuristic aspects of the YeZ (Chinese for “leaf” as Nissan already uses the name for a clever green concept that is heading for production) is a roof that incorporates solar panels and wheels that incorporate small wind turbines to harvest energy from the environment.
Innovative energy conversion technology The design of the concept vehicle “YeZ” takes electricity as its main source of power, and the technical core is the natural energy conversion technology, which includes the photoelectric conversion technology, wind power conversion technology and carbon dioxide absorption and conversion technology.
The huge leaf on the roof of the “YeZ” is an efficient photoelectric converter, which absorbs solar energy and converts it into electricity, and is able to show the flow of energy by means of visible “veins”. What is worth mentioning in particular is the solar tracking system, where the solar crystal films on the leaf are able to rotate towards the sun for higher efficiency of solar energy collection. The bio-based features enable the “YeZ” to co-exist with Nature harmoniously. The four wheels of the “YeZ” are four wind power generators. Dissipated wind power is captured and converted into electric power, which is filled and stored into the vehicle battery to become an ancillary electric driving system, and thus new energy is made full use of to the maximum.
The body of the “YeZ” is made of MOFs, which is able to absorb carbon dioxide. Simulating green plants, it captures carbon dioxide and water molecules in the air, releases electrons under the action of microorganisms, and generates electric current. The bio-fuel cell then recharge the lithium battery with the generated electricity, and the vehicle is driven by electric motor. In addition, it is also able to convert via the laser generator the high concentration carbon dioxide which is discharged during photoelectric conversion into electricity for vehicular lighting, or into vehicular A/C refrigerant. This helps to achieve not only “zero emission”, but also “negative emission”, so that the air is cleaned, the green house effect is alleviated and the natural environment is improved.
Browse our case studies to learn how organizations interact with our map and read PDF case studies on how organizations have successfully implemented Segway PTs to adapt to their demanding environments.
Zero Pollution Motors (ZPM) confirmed to PopularMechanics.com on Thursday that it expects to produce the world’s first air-powered car for the United States by late 2009 or early 2010. As the U.S. licensee for Luxembourg-based MDI, which developed the Air Car as a compression-based alternative to the internal combustion engine, ZPM has attained rights to build the first of several modular plants, which are likely to begin manufacturing in the Northeast and grow for regional production around the country, at a clip of up to 10,000 Air Cars per year.
And while ZPM is also licensed to build MDI’s two-seater OneCAT economy model (the one headed for India) and three-seat MiniCAT (like a SmartForTwo without the gas), the New Paltz, N.Y., startup is aiming bigger: Company officials want to make the first air-powered car to hit U.S. roads a $17,800, 75-hp equivalent, six-seat modified version of MDI’s CityCAT (pictured above) that, thanks to an even more radical engine, is said to travel as far as 1000 miles at up to 96 mph with each tiny fill-up.
Air-Powered Car Coming to U.S. in 2009 to 2010 at Sub-$18,000, Could Hit 1000-Mile Range - Popular Mechanics February 2008
We’ll believe that when we drive it, but MDI’s new dual-energy engine—currently being installed in models at MDI facilities overseas—is still pretty damn cool in concept. After using compressed air fed from the same Airbus-built tanks in earlier models to run its pistons, the next-gen Air Car has a supplemental energy source to kick in north of 35 mph, ZPM says. A custom heating chamber heats the air in a process officials refused to elaborate upon, though they insisted it would increase volume and thus the car’s range and speed.
Tata Motors, India largest automotive company, on Feb. 5, 2007 announced that it has signed an agreement with Moteur Development International (MDI) of France, inventors of the car, to develop a car that runs on compressed air, thus making it very economical to run and be almost totally pollution free. This article in Rediff India Abroad and the MDI website gives further details.
The air engine has 4 two-stage pistons, i.e. 8 compression and/or expansion chambers on one crankshaft. The pistons work in two stages: one motor stage and one intermediate stage of compression/expansion. They have two functions: to compress ambient air and refill the storage tanks; and to make successive expansions (reheating air with ambient thermal energy) thereby approaching isothermic expansion. It has injection similar to normal engines, but uses a special crankshaft and pistons, which remain at top dead center for about 70 degrees of the crankshaft’s cycle; this allows more power to be developed in the engine. The engine is powered by compressed air, stored in a carbon-fiber tank containing 90 cubic meters (3178 cubic feet) of air at 30 MPa (4500 psi).
The expansion of this air pushes the pistons and creates movement. The atmospheric temperature is used to re-heat the engine and increase the range.
The cars have the following characteristics:
Are light weight vehicle that can reach speeds up to 220 kmph.
MDI’s vehicle’s have fiberglass bodies which makes them light, silent urban car.
The vehicles do not have normal speed gages. Instead, they will have a small computer screen
Both ends of the seat belt are anchored to the vehicles floor for greater safety.
The vehicle’s uses a patented electric system that makes the car 20 kilos lighter and considerably quieter.
There are no keys – just an access card that can be read by the car from your pocket.
In the single energy mode MDI cars consume around US$1.00 (Rs 45) every 60 miles (100 km).
There is no pollution from the car.
The vehicle’s driving range is close to twice that of the most advanced electric cars (from 200 to 180 miles (300 km) or 8 hours of operation).
Better Place swaps electric taxi batteries in Tokyo
A battery changing station developed by Better Place.
(Credit: Better Place)
Vehicles drive up an elevated ramp, and a machine removes a depleted battery and slides in a fresh one in under five minutes. Better Place asserts that this method is better than rapid charging, which causes more wear and tear on batteries. Longer charge times, in the range of 20 or 30 minutes, are also impractical for taxis, it said.
Better Place is working with taxi operator Nihon Kotsu, which will make the cars available to the public via a special taxi line.
Kiyotake Fujii, president of Better Place Japan, said in a statement that other cities have expressed interest in electric taxis because they reduce air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions. He said Tokyo has about 60,000 taxis, representing a large potential market for electric vehicles.
In January, Better Place raised $350 million and said it expects its first full-fledged charging stations and battery-swapping sites to start operating in Israel and Denmark by the end of 2011.
The pilot program between Better Place and Nihon Kotsu — Tokyo’s largest taxi company — will be the first real-world test of the innovative battery-swap technology. Better Place says the ability to quickly and easy change a dead battery is essential to eliminating the “range anxiety” that makes EVs a tough sell. Tokyo is a perfect proving ground because the city has about 60,000 taxis — more than New York, Paris or Hong Kong. Although those taxis represent just 2 percent of the vehicles in Japan, they account for 20 percent of the CO2 that country’s automobiles produce, said Kiyotaka Fujii, president of Better Place Japan.
“Japan has a very large taxi market,” Fujii said at a press conference, according to Japan Times. “I believe EVs with switchable batteries will spread to many other Asian countries, if they succeed in Japan.”
The pilot program is starting small — really small. Better Place says “up to four newly modified and fully operational” electric taxis will serve the Roppongi Hills neighborhood of central Tokyo. Better Place plans to build one of its $500,000 battery-swap stations in Roppongi Hills to keep the cars going.
But Better Place and Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry — which commissioned Better Place for the pilot program — have big plans. Better Place says it anticipates building 100 battery swap stations within the next decade and converting all of Tokyo’s taxis to electricity. It isn’t clear who’s going to build those cars, though. Although several automakers — most recently Mitsubishi with its iMiEV and Nissan with its Leaf — promise to begin selling electric vehicles, so far only Renault is building one with a swappable battery.
Still, taxis are a logical place for the technology because they can work from a centralized location — in this case, a battery swap station — and the economies of scale offered by a massive fleet could make the technology more cost-effective.
The Air Car is the brainchild of Guy Negre, a French inventor and former Formula One engineer. In February, Negre’s company, Motor Development International (MDI), announced a deal to manufacture the technology with Tata Motors, India’s largest commercial automaker and a major player worldwide. “It’s an innovative technology, it’s an environment-friendly technology, and a scalable technology, ” says Tata spokesperson Debasis Ray. “It can be used in cars, in commercial vehicles, and in power generation. ”
Though Negre first unveiled the technology in the early 1990s, interest has only recently grown. In addition to the Tata deal, which could put thousands of the cars on the road in India by the end of the decade, Negre has signed deals to bring the design to twelve other countries, including South Africa, Israel, and Germany. But experts say the car may never make it to US streets.
The Air Car works similarly to electric cars, but rather than storing electrical energy in a huge, heavy battery, the vehicle converts energy into air pressure and stores it in a tank. According to MDI’s Miguel Celades, Negre’s engine uses compressed air stored at a pressure of 300 bars to pump the pistons, providing a range of around 60 miles per tank at highway speeds. An onboard air compressor can be plugged into a regular outlet at home to recharge the tank in about four hours, or an industrial compressor capable of 3,500 psi (likes those found in scuba shops) can fill it up in a few minutes for around two dollars.
Switzerland World Economic Forum Pictures & Photos
Participants talk together in the main lobby of the Congress Center during the opening day of the Annual Meeting of the World …more »
Participants talk together in the main lobby of the Congress Center during the opening day of the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum, WEF, in Davos, Switzerland, Wednesday, Jan. 28, 2009. (AP Photo/Keystone, Laurent Gillieron)
Japan Electric Cars Pictures & Photos Visitors look at electric car Zero EV Elexceed RS, manufactured by Japan's electric car and auto parts maker Zero Sports, dur ...more » Visitors look at electric car Zero EV Elexceed RS, manufactured by Japan's electric car and auto parts maker Zero Sports, during a car electronics technology exhibition in Tokyo Wednesday, Jan. 28, 2009. The sleek single-seater travels 70 kilometers (43.5 miles) on electric power alone after being recharged from a standard wall outlet at home. (AP Photo/Katsumi Kasahara)
May 25, 2010 … Members of the Japan Electric Vehicle Club succeeded in driving an electric car for a record 1003.18 kilometers without recharging the … http://www.chinapost.com.tw/business/asia/japan/…/Japanese–electric.htm
Okay, this may be the best-looking car we’ve seen since Lady Penelope’s six-wheeled FAB-1 Rolls-Royce in the Thunderbirds. The Eliica is an electric-powered vehicle developed by a team at Japan’s Keio University in 2004. Apart from being fun to look at, the Eliica is also fast, having already hit a top speed of 230 mph, with 250 mph in the crosshairs. The Wikipedia explaineth:
The Eliica weighs in at 2,400 kg (5,300 lb) and seats the driver and three passengers. The body was tested in a wind tunnel. The front doors open forward and the rear doors open upward like wings. The car’s platform contains 4 tracks of 80 batteries, which make up one third of the vehicle’s cost. They currently require about 10 hours of recharging from empty to full charge, and can be easily charged off a residential power grid. The car has eight wheels enabling it to be closer to the ground for better traction. Each of the wheels has a 60 kW (80 hp) electric motor, giving a 480 kW (640 hp) eight wheel drive which can tackle all kinds of road surfaces. The four front wheels steer. The electric motors mean that the Eliica can deliver a smooth acceleration free from gear shifts of about 0.8 g. Each wheel contains a disc brake and employs a regenerative brake system to recover energy. There are currently (as of 2005) two versions of the Eliica: a Speed model and an Acceleration model. The Speed model is made to challenge gasoline-based records and has a top speed of 370 km/h (230 mph) with a range of 200 km (120 mi). The Acceleration model is made for the street and has a top speed of 190 km/h (120 mph) with a range of 320 km (200 mi).
The Internets have been abuzz with rumors that renewed interest in the Eliica project on the part of the Japanese government may lead to a limited production run. It’s not clear exactly if that’s true — we haven’t found any confirmation of that chatter. But after watching this propaganda video, we sure hope so:
While all the world’s most famous motoring names look on, a British company, PML, has chosen the UK’s most prestigious motor show as the venue to strip away all the misconceptions surrounding electric/hybrid vehicles and to showcase a truly awesome car. Featuring four revolutionary electric wheels, the standard BMW Mini One you can see on Stand 270 is predicted to have a top speed approaching 150mph and to out-accelerate a Porsche 911 Carrera from 0-60mph. Brake horsepower is a stunning 160bhp per wheel – 640bhp in total.
The car, dubbed the Mini QED, has been designed to run for four hours of combined urban/extra urban driving, powered only by a battery and bank of ultra capacitors. For longer journeys at higher speeds, a small conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) is used to re-charge the battery. In this hybrid mode, fuel economies of up to 80mpg can be achieved.
Typical fuel cell vehicles take in hydrogen and emit water, but Genepax’s car generates electricity by breaking down water into hydrogen and oxygen.
The company says that this is made possible by a technology called ‘membrane electrode assembly (or MEA), which contains a material that is capable of breaking down water into hydrogen and oxygen through a chemical reaction.
“It does not require you to build up an infrastructure to recharge your batteries, which is usually the case for most electric cars,” said Genepax’s CEO Kiyoshi Hirasawa on Tokyo TV. According to the company, the system alone costs about ¥2,000,000 (roughly $18,000 U.S.) but if mass produced, the cost can be reduced to about $5,000 or less. Some people have reacted with disbelief and questioned the car’s legitimacy, claiming that the technology appears to violate the First Law of Thermodynamics . Genepax is reportedly in the midst of filing a patent for its groundbreaking technology. Without more in-depth details, we can’t say for sure if the car is too good to be true, but this will certainly be something worth watching for in the coming months.
The Mitsubishi MIEV has four high-efficiency direct-drive motors inside its 20-inch wheels, each producing 50 kW of power and 518 Nm torque adding to maximum output of 200 kW (270 bhp). And because this drive system allows precise regulation of power at each individual wheel, it opens the door to creating a vehicle dynamics control system in its ultimate evolutionary form. Mitsubishi will also show the Concept-D:5, a go-anywhere, high-performance concept car that embodies the company’s “utmost safety” ideal; and, Concept-X, a concept car with styling that raises the bar on performance car looks and also boasts Mitsubishi’s 4WD-based Super All Wheel Control (S-AWC1).
The MIEV is a proposal for next-generation electric vehicles that utilizes to maximum effect the environmental technology Mitsubishi has developed over the years. The offspring of a marriage between such environmental technology and Mitsubishi Motors’ sporty characteristics, Lancer Evolution MIEV utilises the advantages offered by the electric powertrain to craft smooth and slippery, low-drag body lines and the styling imparts an aggressive wind-cleaving look to the body. Riding on large wheels and tires, Lancer Evolution MIEV projects a tempting taste of its potent new-age sport driving potential.
The in-wheel motors and the lithium-ion battery system, which is located under the floor to reduce the center of gravity, accelerate Lancer Evolution MIEV from 0 km/h to 100 km/h in less than 8 seconds and up to a maximum speed of 180 km/h. This is a level of motive performance that leaves today’s EV’s standing.
The foremost feature of the in-wheel motor is that it allows drive torque and braking force to be regulated with high precision on an individual wheel basis without requiring transmission, drive shafts, differential gears or other complex and heavy components. Housing the drive system in the wheels also gives greater freedom in designing the layout.
This will facilitate the conversion of internal combustion engine-powered vehicles into hybrid vehicles without requiring the introduction of complex hybrid power systems. It will also make it easier to provide room for space-consuming components such as fuel cell stacks and hydrogen tanks in fuel cell vehicles. The space-saving benefits of the in-wheel motor also offer exciting possibilities in terms of body design.
My Note –
It is now 2010 – that was five years ago – why can’t we buy these cars in America today for some reasonable price – Any of them?
In fact, where is America in all this – and why are we behind the curve instead of in front of it?
PML Flightlink has been split into two separate businesses:
The oil penetrates up the structure of the plumage of birds, reducing its insulating ability, and so making the birds more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. It also impairs birds’ flight abilities to forage and escape from predators. As they attempt to preen, birds typically ingest oil that covers their feathers, causing kidney damage, altered liver function, and digestive tract irritation. This and the limited foraging ability quickly causes dehydration and metabolic imbalances. Hormonal balance alteration including changes in luteinizing protein can also result in some birds exposed to petroleum. Most birds affected by an oil spill die unless there is human intervention.Marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways as seabirds. Oil coats the fur of Sea otters and seals, reducing its insulation abilities and leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia. Ingestion of the oil causes dehydration and impaired digestions. Because oil floats on top of water, less sunlight penetrates into the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. This, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem.
A large explosion aboard the offshore oil rig Deepwater Horizon(located about 52 miles southeast of Venice, Louisiana) occurred around 03 UTC on 21 April 2010. McIDAS images of GOES-13 3.9 µm shortwave IR and GOES-13 0.65 µm visible channel data (above) showed a “hot spot” (darker black pixels) associated with the large fire during the nighttime hours following the explosion — then the smoke plume could be seen drifting southeastward on the visible imagery with the onset of daylight. The transport of sediment flowing out of the Mississippi River delta region could also be seen on the GOES-13 visible imagery. Note how the initial hot spot (darker black pixels) transitioned to colder values (lighter gray pixels) as pyro-cumulus clouds formed at the top of the rapidly-rising smoke plume.
A 250-meter resolution MODIS true color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) image from the SSEC MODIS Today site (below) showed the smoke plume around 16:07 UTC.
MODIS true color Red/Green/Blue (RGB) image
===== 25 April Update =====
A 3-image animation of MODIS true color RGB images (below) shows the smoke plume drifting southeastward from the burning oil rig site on 21 April, followed by a small oil slick on 22 April (thin bright feature meandering eastward from the oil rig site), and finally a much larger oil slick on 25 April (which had grown in size and spread to the north and northeast).
MODIS true color images (21 April, 22 April, and 25 April)
However, it is important to point out that the oil slick feature was easy to detect if it was located within the sun glint portion of the MODIS image swath (where the reflection of solar energy off the thin oil surface makes it appear as a bright feature) — on 25 April, this was the case with the 18:56 UTC overpass of the Aqua satellite. However, about 95 minutes earlier, the oil slick feature was not very apparent on the 17:21 UTC overpass of the Terra satellite, since the sun glint region was located in a different part of the image swath, such that there was no reflection of solar radiation off the oil slick region reaching the satellite at that time (below).
17:21 UTC Terra and 18:56 UTC Aqua MODIS true color mages on 25 April 2010
===== 26 April Update =====
AWIPS images of the MODIS and AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products (below) indicated the the SST values within the oil slick feature were often as much as 5º to 10º F cooler (darker green color enhancement) than the surrounding waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The very warm SST values (upper 70s to low 80s F, darker red colors) associated with the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current can be seen in the lower right corner of some of the images.
MODIS and AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products
and the IXTOC (look it up sometime – it was a real piece of work too.)
My Note –
When countless oil executives and oil industry experts have said (including Mr. Hofmeister of Shell Oil on CNN and others) that there have been no oil disasters or incidents – they are just plain lying.
The facts speak for themselves. And, then there was also one in Spain that eight years later, continues to affect their economy and the numerous spills, leaks, explosions, pollutions, ship and oil tanker petroleum spills and disasters, platform disasters, platforms that sank, platforms that caught fire, platforms that spewed oil from some part of their rigs or drilling or pipes for some reason, petroleum refining plants that have exploded and polluted, entire cities that look like sewage dumps of industrial waster because they’ve been taken over by the petroleum industry, oil pipeline leaks like the one BP had in Alaska recently and previously to that as well – with a multitude of easily seen barrels of oil that spewed from them. And, on and on and on and now the Gulf of Mexico is covered in oil at every level and becoming a dire wasteland of petroleum and chemical sewage.
Don’t tell me that your states are worried about tourism and fishing – that is ridiculous along the coasts of America where the decisions have already been made to give that preference and authority to the oil industries. When I watched that lady parish president of somewhere Louisiana who took up our President’s time when he visited instead of him seeing the damages to the marshes for himself partly because that stupid woman was filling his ears with her ideas of continuing oil drilling and oil drilling and oil drilling and oil drilling and oil drilling and oil drilling and don’t make that stop – don’t mess up that oil drilling in the coastal waters of Louisiana and do more drilling for oil and make sure and treat those oil companies nice even though they are destroying all the wildlife and people’s lives in the Gulf of Mexico – drill, drill, drill – get oil, get oil, get oil.
A beach after an oil spill – (now the marsh in Louisiana looks like this – dead).
Well, you’ve got what you wanted – you’ve got oil.
The lady parish president on CNN that got to talk to our President sounded like a broken record from the same oil company messages that I’ve seen and heard in countless other places – almost verbatim. And seeing these beautiful, awesome designs from all over the world for alternative fuels and alternative energy and alternatives to transportation needs that use all manner of other choices and innovations and wondrous options while she pitches for oil – it is stupid, short-sighted, wrong, disgusting and it has destroyed America.
And, then I think about that mess – and that lady parish president talking and Tony Hayward telling people not to have masks or respirators knowing damn good and well that – if you read through the dispersants from the COREXIT brand group – all the way through those safety hazards sheets from the government – it is clear that they call for respirators and clearly every human being over the age of two years old – regardless of education knows not to hover over gasoline (or petroleum it is made from) and sniff that shit for 4 hours or 8 hours or all day long and then the next day too and then the next day after that and without any protection for the eyes, nose and mouth whatsoever.
There is no way to describe how I feel about that and the degree of wrongness that is while that stupid woman walks on the beach around sea turtles and dolphins and sharks and fish and everything else dying from this damn oil – but she wants to protect the interests of those poor oil companies – particularly BP and others drilling offshore that are being so put upon by all this. I don’t think hate is a strong enough word anymore. Those people are just the height of the same ENRON thinking, lying, murdering contempt for humanity that is nothing but evil. There is no other word for it.
They and others like them have put America behind and beneath every other nation on this planet that is making incredible strides and innovative breakthroughs while we watch our land die from the filth polluting our skies, lands and waters from petroleum and its monopoly on every transportation need we have. There is no good sense in it. Our soldiers fought the wrong enemy – the enemy is apparently been in the United States in the personae of Goldman Sachs, Citigroup, Lehman, BP, Halliburton, KBR, Blackwater – Xe, ENRON and Alyeska. They fought the wrong enemy.
Or maybe they simply died fighting one enemy while another came from within our national landscape and decimated us.
– but, we never even had to do it that way – look at all these wonderful choices –
3 Automakers Get Loans to Build More Efficient Cars
By Kendra Marr
Washington Post Staff Writer
Wednesday, June 24, 2009
Three automakers will receive nearly $8 billion in federal loans to boost production of fuel-efficient vehicles in the United States.
This first tranche of a $25 billion program will help Ford, Nissan and Tesla Motors offset the costs of retooling factories and creating advanced-technology vehicles to meet the government’s new fuel standards. The U.S. auto industry has been awaiting this dispersal ever since Congress authorized the program in 2007. But the money wasn’t appropriated until last year, and the Energy Department has been reviewing hundreds of applications.
“Transforming the American automobile industry will not be easy, but we know it can be done,” said Energy Secretary Steven Chu, addressing a crowd yesterday at Ford’s Research and Innovation Center in Dearborn, Mich.
[etc. – lists specifics currently being made available to Tesla, Ford, Nissan.]
The first UK dealership selling the Tesla Roadster electric car has opened in Kensington, West London.
[ . . . ]
The Tesla Roadster electric car will cost you a cool £87,000, but you can reach 60mph in four seconds. If that isn’t fast enough you could plump for the Sport mode, it’ll do 60 mph in 3.5 seconds but at £100,000 that’s a lot of cash for an extra 0.5 seconds.
The first orders will be delivered to British buyers in the next few weeks but a right-hand drive version will not be available until early 2010. Tesla says it expects to sell between 50 and 100 cars during its first 12 months in the the UK.
The Aston MArtin Cygnet is about to become the Smart car’s altogether smarter rival. Aston Martin is planning to launch the Cygnet, its take on the city car, in early 2010.
The diminutive driving machine is actually a Toyota iQ, only with a major makeover by Aston Martin. It’ll be an economical run-around slipped into a suit of high-end Aston approved refinements.
Aston badge or not, the Cygnet is, however, unlikely to be vying with the DBS as James Bond’s car of choice. Even the Euro NCAP five-star crash safety rating, economical fuel consumption, low-emission engine and full leather interior are unlikely to persuade him.
Maryland Science Center has electric cars for rent
Mike Siegel and his daughter, Rosalie, look over one of 10 all-electric Maya 300 cars at the Maryland Science Center. The Altcar program is the city’ first electric car share and rental program. They can go 60 to 120 miles between household current charges. (Baltimore Sun photo by Barbara Haddock Taylor / June 23, 2009)
Electric cars will be available to rent or share in Baltimore through a program announced Tuesday at the Maryland Science Center. The car, a Maya 300, has a lithium-ion battery and was manufactured by Canadian firm Electrovaya Inc., according to the announcement. The Maya 300, with a top speed of 35 mph, boasts zero emissions and 120 miles per charge, said Sankar Das Gupta, chairman and chief executive of Electrovaya, based in Mississauga, Ontario. The cars can be charged with a standard household electric outlet.
The Maryland Science Center will be offering free test drives of the electric car, with center admission, through July. Starting in August, 10 cars will be available for the car-sharing program, Van Reiner, president and chief executive of the Maryland Science Center, said.
Two types of membership will be offered through the Altcar car-sharing program. One involves a monthly fee, with discounted hourly rates and bonuses, while the other type charges only hourly rates, according to Reiner. There will be rental kiosks outside and inside the science center.
Toyota, Honda Hybrids Narrow Drop in Japan Car Sales (Update1)
By Makiko Kitamura
July 1 (Bloomberg) — Toyota Motor Corp. and Honda Motor Co., Japan’s two largest carmakers, slowed the decline in domestic auto sales last month as their new hybrid models and government incentives boosted demand.
The pace of decline in auto sales slowed last month from 29 percent in April and 19 percent in May, as government subsidies and tax cuts helped boost sales of Toyota’s new Prius and Honda’s Insight gasoline-electric hybrid cars. Monthly sales may flip to a year-on-year increase as early as August, according to auto consulting company CSM Worldwide.
[ . . . ]
Toyota on June 25 said it has booked 200,000 domestic orders for the third-generation Prius, introduced in May. It was Japan’s best-selling standard car that month, surpassing Honda’s Insight.
Under a government program started June 19, consumers can apply for a 250,000 yen ($2,600) subsidy if they scrap a car more than 13 years old to buy a new one and 100,000 yen for a new car purchase without scrapping an old one.
Car dealers have distributed 260,000 applications for the subsidies, Takeshi Fushimi, director of the Japan Automobile Dealers Association, told reporters today. The subsidies are available retroactively for purchases from April 10.
The government expects the incentives to lead to the sale of an additional 690,000 vehicles this fiscal year. Electric, hybrid, natural gas, and some diesel vehicles also qualify for an exemption from the country’s weight and purchase taxes.
The city of Hillsboro will become the next Oregon city to build electric vehicle charging stations.
Campbell, Calif.-based Coulomb Technologies Inc. on Wednesday said Hillsboro will deploy 16 of the company’s ChargePoint networked charging stations at the city’s downtown intermodal transit facility to be built this year.
Hillsboro will be the first Oregon city to use Coulomb’s technology.
Portland General Electric Co. earlier this year began deploying a network of charging stations throughout the Portland metro area using technology developed by Portland-based Shorepower Technologies Inc.
With Coloumb charging stations, consumers can subscribe to the company’s ChargePointSM Network and receive a ChargePoint Smart Card that allows them to charge their car at any charging station worldwide. They can then receive a text message or e-mail once their vehicle is done charging and monitor their charging remotely.
LOS ANGELES (Reuters) – Under pressure to deliver sharply higher fuel economy in coming years, U.S. automakers are deepening ties with electric utilities as rechargeable cars move from the drawing board and head toward the dealership.
[ . . . ]
Such plug-in and pure electric vehicles are projected to play a key role in allowing automakers to meet an aggressive U.S. fuel-economy target for 35 miles to the gallon for passenger cars by 2016.
The million plug-ins that the Obama administration wants on the road before those standards take effect could also serve as a reserve source of power to an overstretched electric grid, particularly if owners plug in at night.
Those battery-powered cars are also a potentially new source of electricity demand, and U.S. automakers and utilities are using existing alliances to test new marketing ideas for the technology.
[ etc. ]
Ford plans to introduce a battery-powered commercial van in 2010, a battery-powered small car the following year and a plug-in hybrid to challenge General Motors Corp’s highly touted Volt starting in 2012.
Those plans put utilities and battery companies “at the center of the universe” for automakers, Mulally said.
Ford, the first of the U.S. automakers to roll out a hybrid, has made a renewed commitment to the technology a centerpiece of its turnaround plans.
Possible Forecast for Continued Antarctica Glacier Loss and Sea-Level Rise Due to Climate Change
Antarctica’s glaciers are melting more rapidly than previously known because of climate change, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey report prepared in close collaboration with the British Antarctic Survey.
The USGS study documents for the first time that one ice shelf has completely disappeared and another has lost a chunk three times the size of Rhode Island. This research is part of a larger ongoing project that is for the first time studying the entire Antarctic coastline.
“This study provides the first insight into the extent of Antarctica’s coastal and glacier change,” Salazar noted. “The rapid retreat of glaciers there demonstrates once again the profound effects our planet is already experiencing-more rapidly than previously known– as a consequence of climate change. The scientific work of USGS, which is investigating the impacts of climate change around the world, including an ongoing examination of glaciers, is a critical foundation of the Administration’s commitment to combat climate change.”
The USGS study focuses on Antarctica, which is the earth’s largest reservoir of glacial ice. In a separate study published in today’s Geophysical Letters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that ice is melting much more rapidly than expected in the Arctic as well, based on new computer analyses and recent ice measurements.
Using historical and recent satellite imagery, aerial photography and other data, as well as the newest mapping techniques, the USGS study released today maps recent glacier retreat along Antarctica’s Larsen and Wordie Ice Shelves. It represents is just one map of several upcoming studies of Antarctica’s glaciers.
Scientists previously knew that the Wordie Ice Shelf has been retreating, but this study documents for the first time that it has completely disappeared. Moreover, the northern part of the Larsen Ice Shelf no longer exists. An area more than three times the size of the State of Rhode Island (more than 8,500 km2) has broken off from the Larsen Ice Shelf since 1986.
USGS scientists report that these floating ice shelves are especially sensitive to climate change, so their rapid retreat may be a forecast for losses of the land-based ice sheet on the Antarctic continent if warming continues. This could result in sea-level rise, threatening low-lying coastal communities and islands.
“This continued and often significant glacier retreat is a wakeup call that change is happening in our Earth System and we need to be prepared,” said USGS glaciologist Jane G. Ferrigno, lead author on the study. “Antarctica is of special interest because it holds an estimated 91 percent of the Earth’s glacier volume, and change anywhere in the ice sheet poses significant hazards to society.”
The new report and map of the Larsen Ice Shelf are part of a project to research the coastal change and glaciological characteristics of the entire Antarctic margin. The research is also part of the USGS Glacier Studies Project that is monitoring and describing glacier extent and change over the whole planet using satellite imagery.
The research in Antarctica is a collaborative effort of the USGS and the British Antarctic Survey, with the assistance of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Germany’s Bundesamt fűr Kartographie und Geodäsie.
great slide show on this page – click on any image and it will take you to the story – very interesting stuff – (the second image right now is about the earthquakes in Italy mapped out using the PAGER system)
The eruption of Redoubt volcano continues. Seismic and satellite data over the past day indicate continued lava dome growth. The volcano is not visible in web camera views during the night. A low-level steam and gas plume that may contain small amounts of ash is likely present.
The volcano remains at aviation color code ORANGE and alert level WATCH.
The ShakeOut science scenario depicts a magnitude 7.8 earthquake striking the Southern San Andreas Fault, starting at the Salton Sea and rupturing northward 190 miles. In the scenario, the earthquake would kill 1800 people, injure 50,000, cause $200 billion in damage, and have long-lasting social and economic consequences.
This is the most comprehensive analysis ever of what a major Southern California earthquake would mean and is being used as the basis for The Great Southern California Shakeout, November 12-18, 2008, which includes the largest earthquake preparedness drill in United States history. Register to participate, and find out what you can do, at www.shakeout.org.
USGS ShakeOut Scenario Scientific Studies and Products
The USGS led a multi-disciplinary team of more than 300 experts from academia and industry, public and private sectors to develop the ShakeOut Scenario and communicate it to end users including emergency managers and the general public. USGS scientists have also used the scenario’s results to conduct additional research. Many products are available for download, including Shakeout Scenario Reports, Narrative, Studies, Maps, and Movies.
The origin of the name of the San Andreas Fault is often cited as the San Andreas Lake. However, based on some 1895 and 1908 reports by geologist A.C. Lawson, who named the fault, the name was actually taken from the San Andreas Valley. Lawson likely did not realize at the time that the fault ran almost the entire length of California.
The USGS received approximately $140 million as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to help upgrade and improve some of the USGS laboratories and research capabilities and the energy efficiency, health, and safety of the bureau’s facilities. This money will also go toward modernizing streamgages, adding monitoring equipment to the Advanced National Seismic System, expanding our volcano monitoring efforts, collecting imagery as part of The National Map, and upgrading research facilities.
[see list on this page]
DOI Recovery Investments by Bureau
Select a bureau below to learn more about how each is contributing to America’s economic recovery.
[click on logos at bottom of the page to see individual agency uses of Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds by each bureau]
Nissan will unveil a prototype of its new electric car in Portland Monday. As Kristian Foden-Vencil reports, the carmaker plans to introduce the new model in Oregon next year and then market it worldwide in 2012.What she means by “real cars” is that they’re not the tiny “bubble cars” that used to be associated with electric vehicles; that they seat five people; and that they can travel more than 40 miles between charges.
Nissan is a latecomer to the electric vehicle market.
Its plan has been to sign a “memorandum of understanding” with Oregon. The company will launch its car here and in exchange Oregon, PGE and several other large companies will build a network of charging stations.
Oregon is one of seven states vying for the company to build a factory for its small car in the United States.
Then Tuesday, the governor and the CEO of a Norwegian electric car maker have scheduled a press conference.
Nissan is targeting Oregon as an introductory market because the state has the highest per capita number of hybrid owners in the nation.
Nissan Motor Co. unveiled a new prototype electric vehicle Wednesday with batteries twice as powerful as conventional technology, aiming to take a lead in zero-emission cars.Japan’s third-largest automaker said the front-wheel drive, boxy-shaped car has a newly developed 80 kilowatt motor with advanced lithium-ion batteries installed under the vehicle’s floor to avoid taking up space.
The laminated batteries, jointly developed with electronics giant NEC Corp., pack twice the electric power of conventional nickel-metal hydride batteries currently used in hybrid and electric cars, it said.
Nissan's quickie electric car - promised by 2010 and in US, 2012
Recession fueling right-wing extremism, U.S. says
Tue Apr 14, 2009 3:56pm EDT
By Jane Sutton
MIAMI (Reuters) – Right-wing extremists in the United States are gaining new recruits by exploiting fears about the economy and the election of the first black U.S. president, the Department of Homeland Security warned in a report to law enforcement officials.
The April 7 report, which Reuters and other news media obtained on Tuesday, said such fears were driving a resurgence in “recruitment and radicalization activity” by white supremacist groups, antigovernment extremists and militia movements. It did not identify any by name.
DHS had no specific information about pending violence and said threats had so far been “largely rhetorical.”
But it warned that home foreclosures, unemployment and other consequences of the economic recession “could create a fertile recruiting environment for right-wing extremists.”
Quality of Water from Domestic Wells in the United States
2,167 Wells Sampled
in 30 Regionally Extensive Aquifers
Domestic wells sampled in this study (colored circles) are located in 48 states and within 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for water supply in the United States. The aquifers represented by wells in the study are shown, with aquifers and symbols for well locations color-shaded to indicate aquifer rock or sediment type.
by Leslie A. DeSimone, Pixie A. Hamilton, and Robert J. GilliomThis study from the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses water-quality conditions for about 2,100 domestic wells across the United States. As many as 219 properties and contaminants, including pH, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds, were measured. Fecal indicator bacteria and additional radionuclides were analyzed for a smaller number of wells. The large number of contaminants assessed and the broad geographic coverage of the present study provides a foundation for an improved understanding of the quality of water from the major aquifers tapped by domestic supply wells in the United States.
The results of this study are described in two USGS publications, including an overview of the study findings (Circular 1332) and a detailed technical report on data sources, analyses, and results (Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5227). Both publications can be downloaded in PDF format from the NAWQA website (see below). Also available in PDF format are two related articles in the Water Well Journal of the National Ground Water Association, which briefly summarize USGS study findings and general information on domestic well maintenance, siting, and testing.
There are a lot of problems I don’t have right now –
* I don’t have to worry about contaminants in well water because I drink tap water that has its own street address because of “personality”. Atlanta and its surrounding areas have proven there is some use in bottled water. We have more pharmaceuticals in the water than most towns prescribe for their entire population over an entire year.
* I don’t have to worry about earthquakes because in Georgia we let these things happen above ground that blow everything slap to hell – tornadoes, lightning storms, wind gusts that will take your fake fingernails off.
* I don’t have to worry about the credit crisis because nobody in any bank is going to lend money to me regardless unless I go get some rental furniture and manage to spend $200 a month paying for it over ten or twenty years when I could’ve bought it for $500 in the first place.
* And, I don’t have to worry about electric cars, alternative fuels, hybrid cars or other things like that because there is enough natural gas in Georgia and throughout the Southeast to blow any car on down the road without eating beans beforehand. Believe this, I have a lot of family in the South and there is not a shortage of naturally occurring fuels and fertilizers around here.
And, just in case nobody knew this, I don’t have to worry about living in California anymore because apparently they are practicing for what to do when the place slides into the ocean. I can swim , but no . . .
Just a thought or two.
– cricketdiane, 04-15-09
Really good ideas – really bad ideas – Impossible really to tell the difference – [ but to what extent does it matter? ] and places to find some nifty helpful information about ice melting, Oregon and electric cars, earthquakes and volcanoes – and right-wing extremists – oh no –
Okay, so this is the worst title yet. But, there you go . . .