Press Release No. 874
For use of the information media
Not an official record
HAITI NEEDS METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AS RAINS/HURRICANES APPROACH
Geneva, 9 February 2010 (WMO) – The World Meteorological Organization stresses the pressing need for operational meteorological services in Haiti to prevent further disasters. The rainy season with flood risk is due early April and the hurricane season begins early June. In order to prevent potential disasters related to the natural hazards, which the country is prone to the capacity of Haiti to produce and disseminate weather information and warnings needs to be developed without delay. Weather forecasts and early warnings from the Haiti National Meteorological Center are essential for national authorities, humanitarian and development agencies and the people for emergency contingency planning and recovery.
WMO Members have been providing weather information for Haiti since domestic meteorological facilities were rendered unusable by the earthquake. WMO with several of its member States and its Regional Office for North America, Central America and the Caribbean, are coordinating the flow of meteorological information to Haiti to ensure maximum efficiency and access by all. For instance, a number of countries in the region including the United States, Canada and the Dominican Republic are providing reports and forecasts essential for aviation safety and humanitarian operations. WMO is now working to ensure that the Meteorological Service of Haiti is equipped with basic capacities and expertise for translation and dissemination of this information for risk managers, humanitarian assistance entities and other decision-makers and the public in Haiti during the upcoming rainy and hurricane seasons.
The restoration of basic operational meteorological services within the next six to twelve months is a key objective in the UN Revised Flash Appeal and various bilateral supports. The estimated cost amounts to US$ one million and includes basic capacities such as an operational office space (the building was significantly damaged during the earthquake), computers and printer, communication systems, restoration of automated weather stations, back up generators, and hands-on training of the meteorological staff.
The Director of the Haiti National Meteorological Center (NMC), Mr Ronald Semelfort, called for “an office or a shelter where the NMC could operate safely under all kinds of meteorological conditions as the most immediate need… This is especially important as the hurricane season approaches”. He explained to WMO that the Office located in Port-au-Prince, “is severely cracked and is no longer a safe place to work”. The NMC is therefore currently working directly on the airport tarmac, and has a small temporary office within the Civil Aviation Bureau. Despite the less than optimal conditions, NMC is doing it’s best to provide services on a 24/7 basis. Since automated weather stations are non-functional NMC staff are collecting weather data observations manually at the two airports in Haiti to refine the results obtained by the meteorological models available on the Internet and from other Meteorological Services through the WMO coordinated network. “
In the medium to long-term, WMO is coordinating with government officials, technical agencies and development partners to reconstruct meteorological and hydrological capacities to support disaster risk reduction and multi-hazard early warning systems. This is part of the Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) and reconstruction planning under the leadership of the United Nations and the World Bank, and with the Inter-American Development Bank and other partners.
On 29-30 November, just one and a half month before the earthquake, the Secretary-General of WMO, Michel Jarraud, visited Haiti to assess investment needs for disaster risk reduction and early warning capabilities.
Over 90% of disasters in the country are linked to frequently occurring meteorological, hydrological and climate-related hazards: tropical cyclones and related storm surges, rivers and flash floods, drought, thunderstorms or lightning, landslides or mudslides, which have been further exacerbated by massive deforestation and environmental changes. Haiti annually experiences two rainy seasons, from April to June and from October to November, as well as a hurricane season from early June until the end of November. It suffered significant losses in 2008 from four hurricanes, Fay, Gustav, Hanna, and Ike. In 2004 tropical storm Jeanne’s heavy rains caused massive flooding and landslides; 1998 experienced Hurricane George; 1994, Hurricane Gordon and 1963, Hurricane Flora.
Special sessions to address the needs of Haiti will take place at upcoming WMO meetings in the region: including the Hurricane Committee (Bermuda, 8-10 March), and The Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems Workshop for Central America and the Caribbean (Costa Rica, 22-25 March; see: www.wmo.int/pages/prog/drr/events/MHEWSCostaRica/index_en.html.).
WMO is the United Nations System’s authoritative voice on weather,
climate and water.
For more information, please contact:
Ms Carine Richard-Van Maele, Chief, Communications and Public Affairs, WMO, Tel: +41 (0) 22 730 8315, Mobile: +41 794 064730; E-mail: email@example.com
Ms Gaëlle Sévenier, Press Officer, Communications and Public Affairs, Tel. +41 (0) 22 730 8417, Fax: +41 (0) 22 730 8027, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Category:Stratovolcanoes of Chile
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pages in category “Stratovolcanoes of Chile”
The following 90 pages are in this category, out of 90 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Stratovolcanoes_of_Chile”
Cerro Azul (Chile volcano)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Elevation||3,788 m (12,430 ft)|
|Coordinates||35°39.2′S 70°45.65′W / 35.6533°S 70.76083°W / -35.6533; -70.76083Coordinates: 35°39.2′S 70°45.65′W / 35.6533°S 70.76083°W / -35.6533; -70.76083|
|Age of rock||Quaternary|
|Volcanic arc/belt||South Volcanic Zone|
For other uses, see Cerro Azul.
Cerro Azul (“blue hill” in Spanish) is an active stratovolcano in central Chile‘s Maule Region, immediately south of Descabezado Grande volcano, part of the South Volcanic Zone. Capped by a 500-metre (1,600 ft) wide summit crater that is open to the north, the lower slopes have numerous scoria cones and flank vents.
Azul has produced the largest eruptions ever in South America, once in 1846 and again in 1932. In 1846, an effusive eruption formed the vent at the site of present-day Quizapu Crater and sent lava flowing down the sides of the volcano, creating an 8–9 square kilometer lava field. Phreatic and strombolian volcanism between 1907 and 1932 excavated Quizapu Crater. In 1932, 9.5 cubic kilometres (2.3 cu mi) of dacitic tephra erupted from Quizapu Crater on the northern flank of Cerro Azul in one of the largest explosive eruptions of the 20th century. The volcano’s latest eruption took place in 1967.
Chile has almost 100 volcanoes, of which about 36 are active. The South Volcanic Zone has a long history of eruptions and poses a threat to the surrounding region. Any volcanic hazard—ranging from minor ashfall to pyroclastic flows—could pose a significant risk to human and wildlife.
Geography and geology
Tectonic and volcanic map of the Andes, showing regions of Andean volcanism and volcanic gaps.
Volcanic activity in Chile varies widely, and includes explosive eruptions and both subaerial and submarine basalt flows.
Volcanism in the Andes is caused by subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic tectonic plates under the South American Plate. Volcanoes in Chile (including Cerro Azul) occur in the Central (CVZ), South (SVZ), and Austral Volcanic Zones (AVZ). The gap that separates the Central and South Volcanic Zones is due to shallow-angle subduction in the Pampean flat-slab segment where the more buoyant Juan Fernández Ridge subducts under South America. This buoyant region, prevents the slab (subducting tectonic plate) from diving deep into the mantle, where the heat and pressure would destabilize the mineral chlorite, relasing water that causes melting and volcanism. The Patagonian Volcanic Gap, which separates the South and Austral Volcanic Zones is caused by the subduction of the Chile Ridge, though it is less clear whether this gap also is due to flat-slab subduction or is because melting of the subducting slab there produced felsic igneous rocks instead of volcanoes.
Offshore volcanism also occurs in Chile. Intraplate volcanism due to the Easter and Juan Fernández hotspots forms many Chilean islands including Isla Salas y Gómez, Easter Island, and the Juan Fernández Islands. Underwater volcanism occurs due to seafloor spreading along the Chile Ridge.
Nearly 100 Quaternary (Pleistocene– or Holocene-age) volcanoes exist in the country, as well as 60 complexes and caldera systems. Of the 200 historically active volcanoes in the Andean Range, 36 are found in Chile.
A map displaying the major Chilean volcanoes, marked by red triangles
Cerro Azul, just 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) south of Descabezado Grande volcano, is part of the Andes‘ South Volcanic Zone, which runs through central and western Chile. The volcano is part of the Descabezado Grande–Cerro Azul eruptive system, a volcanic field which comprises its two large namesake volcanic edifices and several smaller vents, incuding 12 Holocene calderas. Both volcanoes lie on top of the Casitas Shield, a plateau built of over 100 lava flows that erupted in at least 12 volcanic episodes during the Quaternary period.
The South Volcanic Zone, of which Cerro Azul is a part, extends south to Argentina. This range includes at least nine caldera complexes, more than 70 of Chile’s stratovolcanoes and volcanic fields that have been active in the Quaternary, and hundreds of minor eruptive centres. The South Volcanic Zone is the most volcanically active region in Chile, and produces around one eruption per year. Its largest historical eruption was at Quizapu crater, and its most active volcanoes are Llaima and Villarica.
As with the majority of the Andean volcanoes, Cerro Azul is a stratovolcano, meaning that it consists of layers, or strata, of volcanic ash and lava flows. The cone of Cerro Azul has a total volume of about 11 km3, and is a young feature, having formed in Holocene. It is made of agglutinated pyroclasts and some dacite–andesine lavas. The cone has a few volcanic craters (calderas), with the majority of its eruptions in recorded history originating from Quizapu Crater on the northern flank of the Azul’s cone. Two separate calderas lie within Quizapu: Cerro del Medio and Volcan Nuevo. Four other craters make up the volcano: Carasol, Crater los Quillayes, Crater la Resolana, and Crater sin Nombre. All of the craters lie between 2,000 and 3,000 metres (6,600 and 9,800 ft) in elevation except Quizapu, which is 3,292 metres (10,800 ft) up the volcano. The summit of Cerro Azul is crowned by an asymmetric crater about 500 m in diameter. Pleistocene glacial activity is evident in the form of 500 metres (1,640 ft) deep struts in the volcanoes’ sides. These deep cuts have revealed strata of older rock.
Quizapu, which formed during the 1846 eruption, is the most prominent caldera. The volcanic vent formed during an effusive eruption involving hornblende–dacite flows accompanied by tephra, and crater was excavated by phreatic and strombolian eruptions between 1907 and 1932. Pent up pressure within the volcano spawned an enormous Plinian eruption in 1932. The volume of lava ejected during this single event is roughly equal to that erupted during the rest of the eruptive history at Quizapu, since its formation in 1846. In spite of the fact that 9.5 cubic kilometres (2.3 cu mi) of material was ejected, no subsidence was detected in response to the removal of the magma. Although the eruption was large, it had little effect on the morphology of the caldera. Isopach mapping of the volcanic deposits, between 5 to 1 centimetre (2.0 to 0.4 in), contradict 1930 estimates by about half.
The Quizapu Crater is very steep inside, its walls between 150 metres (492 ft) and 300 metres (984 ft) tall. At 3,230 metres (10,597 ft) elevation, Quizapu is one the highest Plinian calderas known. It is cut by two long, dacitic lava flows which are probably the remnants of a dome or an eruption. It is surrounded by debris from its 1932 eruption and topped by 50 metres (164 ft) thick layers of mafic scoria and ash.
Cerro Azul has a history of eruptions, dating back to at least 1846. The known events include effusive eruptions (lava flows), which created the Quizapu Crater, explosive eruptions, and phreatic eruptions. Pyroclastic flows have also been observed as a result of some of these explosive eruptions. The earliest recorded eruption began on November 26, 1846, while the volcano’s last eruption began on August 9, 1967. The volcano has produced the two largest eruptions in South America in recorded history, in 1846 and 1932. Both released 4–5 cubic kilometres (0.96–1.2 cu mi) of the dacitic magma.
On November 26, 1846, Cerro Azul erupted. This was the first documented activity at the volcano, and there is no trace of fumaroles, adjacent vents, or pre-eruptive activity. Most descriptions of the eruption come from arrieros (traveling merchants) who saw it. One claimed to have been sitting in a valley beneath the volcano “in late afternoon” when a blast emanated from the mountain. He claimed that the volcano then ejected a cloud of ash, and that there were no precursor earthquakes. Later, volcanic phenomena began to take place. Reports of crackling sound “like that of great rockslides” accompanied by lightning, thunder, and sulfurous gas were later documented. Several originate from Talca, nearly 85 kilometres (53 mi) away, describing loud noise. All correspond to studies which indicate the type of eruption. Cerro Azul’s first recorded eruption in 1846 was an effusive one, forming what is now Quizapu crater. Hornblende-dacite lava erupted with small masses of tephra, which had been degassed shortly before the eruption. Lava flows streamed out over the Estero Barroso Valley and westward into the Río Blanquillo Valley. By November 28, the volcano appeared at rest, and the arrieros returned to their place of first observation. There, they found a blocky lava field. The lava was still active, fuming and crackling with gas and flame. Fascinated by the volcano, I. Domeyko traveled to Chile to study the field. He placed it at 8–9 square kilometres (3.1–3.5 sq mi); today, the field is twice that.
Cerro Azul was quiet from 1846 to the beginning of 20th century. A period of small eruptions purportedly took place between 1907 and 1914. Vapour plumes and clouds of ash were seen rising out of Quizapu Crater rather frequently. On September 8, 1914, a plume was erupted 6 kilometres (4 mi) or 7 kilometres (4 mi) into the air. The volcano also erupted phreatically several times, as recorded by Vogel in 1913 and 1920, with its activity increasing from 1916 to 1927. In the later year, a period of violent eruptions began, lasting until 1929. During it Cerro Azul erupted sometimes daily, sending columns of ash as far as 4 kilometres (2 mi) into the air. While there is tephra present on the mountain dated before 1932, it is not from any of these eruptions, as they were largely phreatic or fumarolic. This activity probably enlarged Quizapu Crater, although not significantly.
By 1932, Quizapu had produced many phreatic events and one effusive eruption, but had produced no explosive eruptions. The frequency of activity proved to be a precursor for a major eruption. Ash clouds were ejected, not frequently, and became larger than the other activity. On January 25, 1932, a large black cloud was observed in Malargue over the summit. By April 9, the volcano emitted green gas and gave off deep “bellow”s.
On April 10, Cerro Azul erupted, releasing a towering column of white gas. Unusually, the eruption did not release tephra straightaway; in fact, tephra was not ejected until well into the day. At 1000 minutes after the initial explosion, the plume blackened and began to form an umbrella shape. The ash was carried by wind into Puesto E1 Tristan in Argentina, 47 kilometres (29 mi), raining down for hours. Reports of “fine ash began falling about 1300 and coarse “sand” (and sparse pumice lapilli) were common.
Cerro Azul’s April 1932 eruption is now documented as one of the most enormous of the 20th century. The Global Volcanism Program reports that between 1916 and 1932, activity at the volcano’s Quizapu crater widened a caldera to 600–700 metres (2,000–2,300 ft) with a depth of 150 metres (492 ft). Releasing 9.5 cubic kilometres (2 cu mi) of lava, the volcano ejected primarily dacitic tephra, accompanied by rhyodacite, andesite, and minuscule amounts of andesitic and basaltic scoria. At least one eruptive period lasted for 18 hours, creating an “exceptionally uniform” deposit. Eruption columns, extending 27–30 kilometres (17–19 mi) into the air, were sighted. Phenocrysts compared similar to the effusive eruption in 1846. Soon after, both the Tinguiririca and Descabezado Grande volcanoes began erupting, sending clouds of ash 500 miles (805 km) into Argentina. The eruption had a VEI of at least 5.
Threats and preparedness
Chile remains at risk from a volcanic eruption. Several volcanoes, such as Mount Hudson and Villarica, are still active. According to John Ewert and Ed Miller in a 1995 publication, “a great majority of the world’s potentially active volcanoes are unmonitored”. Of the historically active volcanoes in the world, less than one fourth are monitored. Only twenty-four volcanoes in the entire world are thoroughly monitored for activity. They also state that “seventy-five percent of the largest explosive eruptions since 1800 occurred at volcanoes that had no previous historical eruptions”.
Mount Hudson shortly after an eruption in 1991. The volcano has produced eruptions as powerful as Volcanic Explosivity Index degree six.
Many South Volcanic Zone volcanoes pose a threat to human life. Every known type of eruption, including Hawaiian eruptions, Strombolian, Plinian, Subplinian, Phreatomagmatic, and Vulcanian eruptions, has occurred at some time in the range. The type of eruption tends to correspond with lava type. Volcanoes such as Llaima have produced Strombolian activity, while more silicic and rhyolitic lavas have been linked to Plinian eruptions (Quizapu, 1932; Hudson, 1991). Because of this versatility, any type of volcanic hazard could threaten life. Ashfall, for example, could interfere with air traffic. Lava flows and lahars could wipe out entire cities or towns, and both have been present during eruptions in recent time. Most threatening of all is the risk of pyroclastic flows or avalanches, which have in the region historically traversed as far as 100 kilometres (62 mi).
If a volcano were to erupt, relief efforts could be orchestrated. The Volcanic Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), which formed in response to Nevado del Ruiz‘s famous eruption, has provided relief efforts to victims of volcanic disasters in the country before. After Mount Hudson erupted in 1991, the VDAP saved lives by evacuating the area. The team’s stated aim is to “reduce eruption-caused fatalities and economic losses in developing countries”. Made up of various USGS offices, such as the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), responsible for monitoring Mount St. Helens, the team is outfitted with advanced equipment which can monitor any volcano.
Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Descabezado_Grande”
Last eruption – 1933
It is now 2010 – isn’t that 77 years?
Global Volcanism Program — Department of Mineral Sciences — National Museum of Natural History — Smithsonian Institution
(from – )
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Revenue||US$ 14.3 billion (2008)|
CODELCO (Corporación Nacional del Cobre de Chile or, in English, the National Copper Corporation of Chile) is the Chilean State owned copper mining company formed in 1976 from the foreign owned copper companies that were nationalised in 1971. The headquarters are in Santiago and the seven man board of directors is appointed by the President of the Republic. It has the Minister of Mining as its president and six other members including the Minister of Finance and one representative each from the Copper Workers Federation and the National Association of Copper Supervisors.
It is currently the largest copper producing company in the world and produced 1.66 million tonnes of the metal in 2007, 11% of the world total. It owns the world’s largest known copper reserves and resources. At the end of 2007 it had a total of reserves and resources of 118 million tonnes of copper in its mining plan, sufficient to ensure more than 70 years of operations at current production levels. It also has additional identified resources of 208 million tonnes of copper, though one cannot say how much of this may prove economic.
Codelco’s principal product is cathode copper. It is one of the world’s ‘foremost’ molybdenum producers and produced 27,857 fine metric tons in 2007 and is a large producer of rhenium, of which Chile is the world’s largest producer . It also produces small amounts of gold and silver from refinery anode slimes, the residue from electro refining of copper.
(most current entries)
(from – )
From one of the pages on this site – about school practice drills ahead of the earthquake in Chile –
|POSITIVA COORDINACIÓN EN SIMULACRO DE INCENDIO EN COLEGIOS DE CONSTITUCION|
|jueves, 12 de noviembre de 2009|
|Cerca de 2.800 estudiantes de ocho establecimientos escolares de Constitución, en la Región del Maule, participaron en el “Ejercicio Simulacro de Evacuación por Incendio Estructural” que se realizó esta mañana, entre las 11:00 y las 12:00 hrs. El Director Regional de ONEMI, Julio Castiglione, que encabezó la operación, señaló que ésta se desarrolló en forma positiva,
Previamente, a las 10:00 horas, el Alcalde de Constitución, Hugo Tilleria, en la y el Director Regional de ONEMI, Julio Castiglione presidieron una reunión de coordinación del Simulacro de Evacuación. Allí se distribuyeron las fichas de evaluación del ejercicio que recibieron los encargados de supervisar la evacuación de los estudiantes en cada colegio.
El simulacro contemplaba eventuales incendios de características estructurales, es decir con daños mayores en la estructura que sustenta el edificio, en los establecimientos educacionales. En 2 a 3 minutos las dos Compañías de Bomberos de la ciudad, con sus cuatro carros bombas, ya se encontraban sofocando los supuestos siniestros.
Al mediodía y tras finalizar la actividad, que se da en el marco del Proyecto de Modernización y Fortalecimiento Institucional 2006-2010, de ONEMI como parte de la estrategia de desarrollo para la gestión nacional de protección civil, cada institución aportó opiniones y se hicieron las evaluaciones correspondientes sobre coordinación y respuesta. El ejercicio, que se llevó a cabo sin mayores contratiempos fue catalogado como positivo por Julio Castiglioni de ONEMI Regional. “La comunidad escolar está muy preparada para enfrentar una emergencia de estas características. Las instituciones que participaron también conocen bien las medidas que deben tomar, así es que la evaluación fue bastante positiva” expresó el representante en el Maule de la Oficina Nacional de Emergencia.
POSITIVE DRILL COORDINATION IN FIRE IN SCHOOLS OF CONSTITUTION Print E-Mail
Thursday, November 12th, 2009
Nearly 2,800 students in eight schools in Constitution, in the Maule Region, participated in the “Mock Evacuation Exercise structural fires” that took place this morning between 11:00 and 12:00 hrs. The Regional Director of ONEMI, Julio Castiglione, who led the operation, said it developed positively,
Earlier, at 10:00 pm, the Mayor of Constitution, Hugo Araya, the Regional Director and ONEMI, Julio Castiglione chaired a coordination meeting of the drills. There he distributed the exercise evaluation sheets that were responsible for supervising the evacuation of students in each school.
The starting point was the fire alarm which gave the Fire Department from its headquarters in Street Road. At the sound of the siren at 11:00 am sharp, the Municipality, Police, Health, Hospital Service, the Department of Municipal and Provincial Education, the Governor’s Maritime Volunteer Mutual Security and went into action. Pupils from schools involved in the drill began an orderly evacuation to the default security zones.
The fire drill watched any structural features, ie with major damage in the structure behind the building in educational institutions. 2 to 3 minutes in the two Fire Companies of the city, with its four car bombs, were already choking the alleged incidents.
At noon and after completion of the activity that occurs under the Project of Modernization and Institutional Strengthening 2006-2010, of ONEMI as part of the development strategy for the national civil protection management, each institution provided opinions and became the Assessments for the coordination and response. The exercise, which took place without incident was classified as positive by Julio Castiglioni of Regional ONEMI. “The school community is well prepared for an emergency of this nature. The institutions that participated are familiar with the measures to be taken, so the assessment was quite positive, “said Maule representative in the National Emergency Office.
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(from Google translation tools)
My Note – It sounded like President Bachelet said that they would be using the school cafeterias to make hot meals for the population That is absolutely brilliant, if it works the way it is intended. – and there is a need for a way to repower cell phones and probably lap tops even if they are using satellite transmission systems. Somebody needs to send them a bunch of those solar recharger systems for cellphones and laptops so the government and first responders can continue to interact effectively. She also said a desalination plant either needs to be constructed or needs repair – UN has teams on standby and are they sending them yet? The roadways indicate that there needs to be immediate fixes even as the rescue of victims from the earthquake continue. If the next twenty-four hours pass without people getting food or water, the magnitude of the disaster will increase significantly. I wonder if there is anywhere in the US where the coordination and actions would be anywhere close to the level of efficiency and preparedness and organization that is occurring in Chile. Although, we have been seeing pictures of some looting and people saying they haven’t had any food or water yet, how are those efforts to get the immediate physical needs met for these populations? Are the government and military’s plans working or not? Hmmm . . .
TechBytes: After Chile Quake, Google Launches Person Finder
News on The Go, YouTube Goes Disco, Texting Trail
March. 01, 2010
Google is aiding the recovery effort in Chile. The search giant has launched a tool to help people search for friends and loved ones in the aftermath of this weekend’s devastating earthquake. Google Person Finder lets you search for information about people by name, or you can leave information if you know someone’s whereabouts. As of Monday morning, the page had records over more than 36,000 people.
Google launches person finder after Chile quake
by Steven Musil
Google is using a tool to help people locate friends and loved ones who might have been affected by Saturday’s 8.8.-magnitude earthquake in Chile.
Google Person Finder allows users to search for information about people by name or leave information about people in both English and Spanish. As of Sunday morning, the page said it contained 22,900 records. However, the page cautions users that all data input would be viewable and usable by all and that the company plays no role in verifying the information. Google had set up a similar Person Finder tool after Haiti’s recent earthquake.
(from the same page – )
A Google crisis response page also notes that Americans seeking information about those in Chile can call the U.S. State Department at 1-888-407-4747. The page includes a map listing recent seismic activity in Chile, as well as resources to donate money to charities supporting the earthquake relief effort. “Your donation will help disaster victims rebuild their lives and their communities,” the page says.
As with the Haiti relief effort, donations can also be made via text message, according to the Mobile Giving Foundation, the organization that processes the donations. Cell users can make a $10 donation to the effort by texting the word “Chile” to any of the following numbers: 25383 (Habitat for Humanity), 20222 (World Vision), 85944 (International Medical Corp.), and 52000 (Salvation Army).
Volcanism of Chile
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Volcanism in Chile)
|Volcanism of Chile|
|Llaima‘s 2008 eruption as seen from Temuco nightime|
|Regions||North Volcanic Zone, South Volcanic Zone, Austral Volcanic Zone, Easter Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chilean Antarctica|
|Part of||Pacific Ring of Fire|
|Map of Chile showing the location of tsome active volcanoes.|
Volcanism of Chile is a continuous process that has a strong influence on Chilean landscape, geology, economy and society. Volcanism constantly renews the Chilean lanscape with lava flows, lava plateaus, lava domes, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, submarine volcanoes, calderas, diatremes, and maars. However volcanism in Chile as well as in other parts of the world is also associated with several natural hazards such as lahars, earthquakes, pyroclastic flows, toxic gases and ash. Continental Chile has a high concentration of active volcanoes due to its location along the Peru-Chile Trench, a subduction zone where Nazca and Antarctic Plate are driven beneath the South American Plate. Chile has been subject to volcanism at least since late Paleozoic when subduction along the western marging of South America begun. Easter Island, Juan Fernández Islands and other oceanic islands of Chile are extinct volcanoes created by hotspots. Chile has about 500 volcanoes considered active, 60 of which have had recorded eruptions in the last 450 years. The volcanoes with most recorded eruptions are:
- List of volcanoes in Chile
- Geology of Chile
- Volcanism of Canada
- Volcanism of Iceland
- Volcanism of Italy
- Volcanism of New Zealand
Maps of Volcanoes in Chile – current information and analysis
Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur
Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería
Cerro Ñielol s/n, sector antenas
Tel: (56) 45-270700 (56) 45-270701 Fax:(56) 45-271781
Volcán Lonquimay (38º 23' S - 71º 35' W)
El volcán Lonquimay es vigilado mediante una estación sismológica uniaxial localizada a 9.5 km al sur del cráter principal, en la localidad de Malalcahuello. Esta estación no cuenta con línea telefónica, por lo cual mensualmente es necesario adquirir los registros sísmicos en terreno.(informes)
| Estación: LONQ
Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería
Cerro Ñielol s/n, sector antenas
Tel: (56) 45-270700 (56) 45-270701 Fax:(56) 45-271781
Volcán Llaima (38º 41′ S – 71º 44′ W)
El volcán Llaima es vigilado por dos estaciones sismológicas uniaxiales, una estación local (MELI) y otra telemétrica (LLAI), ubicadas a 17.8 y 9.7 km al sur del cráter principal; respectivamente. La primera de ellas está ubicada en la localidad de Melipeuco (Retén de Carabineros Melipeuco), lugar desde el cual las señales sísmicas son transmitidas al OVDAS vía modem(informes).
| Estación: LLAI
Estación telemétrica de vigilancia LLAI
Volcán Villarrica (39º 25′ S – 71º 56′ W)
El volcán Villarrica es vigilado por dos estaciones sismológicas uniaxiales, una telemétrica (VNVI) y otra local (CVVI) ubicadas a 3.7 y 23.5 km (Centro Volcanológico Villarrica, CVV) al NW del cráter principal. Los registros son almacenados en el CVV desde donde son transferidos de forma automática al OVDAS via Internet cada 1 hora a través de una conexión conmutada. (informes).
| Estación: VNVI
Estación telemétrica de vigilancia VNVI
| Estación: CVVI
Recepción de estación telemétrica VNVI y CVVI
Volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39º 56′ S – 72º 02′ W)
El volcán Mocho-Choshuenco es vigilado mediante una estación sismológica uniaxial, localizada a 12 km al NW del edificio volcánico, en la localidad del mismo nombre. Desde allí, los datos sísmicos son transferidos vía modem al OVDAS (informes).
| Estación: CHOS
Volcán Osorno (41º 06′ S – 72º 29′ W)
El volcán Osorno es monitoreado a través de una estación sismológica telemétrica uniaxial ubicada 4 km al SW del cráter principal. La recepción de la señal se realiza en la Oficina Técnica del SERNAGEOMIN en Puerto Varas. De aquí los datos son transmitidos al del OVDAS, vía red(informes).
Transmisión telemétrica de estación de vigilancia OSOR
Volcán Calbuco (41º 20′ S – 72º 37′ W)
El volcán Calbuco es vigilado por una estación sismológica telemétrica uniaxial, localizada en el Fundo Minte, a 14.3 km al NW del centro eruptivo. La señal sísmica es recibida en la Oficina Técnica del SERNAGEOMIN en Puerto Varas y, posteriormente transmitida al OVDAS, vía red (informes).
| Estación: NIEL
Estaciones de vigilancia sísmica
List of volcanoes in Chile
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2007)
See also: List of volcanoes
|Acamarachi||6046||19831||23°18′S 67°37′W / 23.30°S 67.62°W / -23.30; -67.62||Holocene|
|Acotango||6052||19851||18°22′S 69°03′W / 18.37°S 69.05°W / -18.37; -69.05||Holocene|
|Aguas Calientes||5924||19436||23°22′S 67°41′W / 23.37°S 67.68°W / -23.37; -67.68|
|Aguilera||2546||8353||50°10′S 73°50′W / 50.17°S 73.83°W / -50.17; -73.83||1650 BC ± 200 years|
|Antillanca Group||1990||6527||40°46′16″S 72°09′11″W / 40.771°S 72.153°W / -40.771; -72.153||Holocene|
|Antuco||2979||9771||37°24′S 71°20′W / 37.40°S 71.34°W / -37.40; -71.34||1869|
|Arenales||3437||11276||47°12′S 73°29′W / 47.20°S 73.48°W / -47.20; -73.48||1979|
|Arintica||5597||18358||18°44′S 69°03′W / 18.73°S 69.05°W / -18.73; -69.05||Holocene|
|Aucanquilcha||6176||20257||21°13′S 68°28′W / 21.22°S 68.47°W / -21.22; -68.47||Holocene|
|Caburgua||995||3264||39°12′S 71°50′W / 39.20°S 71.83°W / -39.20; -71.83||–|
|Caichinque||4450||14500||23°57′S 67°44′W / 23.95°S 67.73°W / -23.95; -67.73||Unknown|
|Calabozos||3508||11506||35°33′29″S 70°29′46″W / 35.558°S 70.496°W / -35.558; -70.496||Holocene|
|Calbuco||2003||6570||41°19′34″S 72°36′50″W / 41.326°S 72.614°W / -41.326; -72.614||1972|
|Callaqui||3164||10380||37°55′S 71°27′W / 37.92°S 71.45°W / -37.92; -71.45||1980|
|Carrán-Los Venados||1114||3654||40°21′S 72°04′W / 40.35°S 72.07°W / -40.35; -72.07||1979|
|Cayutué-La Viguería||506||1660||41°15′S 72°16′W / 41.25°S 72.27°W / -41.25; -72.27||Holocene|
|Cerro Azul||3788||12425||35°39′S 70°46′W / 35.65°S 70.76°W / -35.65; -70.76||1967|
|Cerro Bayo||5401||17715||25°25′S 68°35′W / 25.42°S 68.58°W / -25.42; -68.58||Holocene|
|Cerro Chapulul||2143||7029||38°22′S 71°05′W / 38.37°S 71.08°W / -38.37; -71.08||Holocene|
|Cerro del Azufre||5846||19175||21°47′S 68°14′W / 21.78°S 68.23°W / -21.78; -68.23||Holocene|
|Cerro del León||5760||18897||22°11′S 58°07′W / 22.18°S 58.12°W / -22.18; -58.12||Unknown|
|Cerro Escorial||5447||17866||25°05′S 68°22′W / 25.08°S 68.37°W / -25.08; -68.37||Holocene|
|Cerro Hudson||1905||6248||45°54′S 72°58′W / 45.90°S 72.97°W / -45.90; -72.97||1991|
|Cerro Overo||4555||14940||23°21′S 67°40′W / 23.35°S 67.67°W / -23.35; -67.67||Holocene|
|Cerro Pantoja||2112||6927||40°46′S 71°57′W / 40.77°S 71.95°W / -40.77; -71.95||Holocene|
|Cerro Pina||4037||13241||19°29′31″S 68°39′00″W / 19.492°S 68.65°W / -19.492; -68.65||Holocene|
|Cerro Redondo||1496||4907||39°16′S 71°42′W / 39.27°S 71.70°W / -39.27; -71.70||–|
|Cerro Tujle||3550||11644||23°50′S 67°57′W / 23.83°S 67.95°W / -23.83; -67.95||Holocene|
|Cerro Toconce||5435||17827||22°12′S 68°06′W / 22.20°S 68.10°W / -22.20; -68.10||Holocene|
|Cerros de Tocorpuri||5808||19050||22°26′S 67°54′W / 22.43°S 67.90°W / -22.43; -67.90||Holocene|
|Chaitén||962||3155||42°49′59″S 72°38′46″W / 42.833°S 72.646°W / -42.833; -72.646||2009|
|Chao||5100||16728||22°07′S 68°09′W / 22.12°S 68.15°W / -22.12; -68.15||Holocene|
|Chiliques||5778||18952||23°35′S 67°42′W / 23.58°S 67.70°W / -23.58; -67.70||2002|
|Colachi||5631||18470||23°14′S 67°39′W / 23.23°S 67.65°W / -23.23; -67.65||Holocene|
|Copahue||2965||9725||37°51′S 71°10′W / 37.85°S 71.17°W / -37.85; -71.17||2000|
|Copiapó||6052||19851||27°18′S 69°08′W / 27.30°S 69.13°W / -27.30; -69.13||Unknown|
|Corcovado volcano||2300||7544||43°11′S 72°48′W / 43.18°S 72.80°W / -43.18; -72.80||1835|
|Cordón Caulle||1798||5897||40°31′S 72°12′W / 40.52°S 72.20°W / -40.52; -72.20||1960|
|Cordón de Puntas Negras||5852||19195||23°45′S 67°32′W / 23.75°S 67.53°W / -23.75; -67.53||Holocene|
|Cordón del Azufre||5463||17919||25°20′S 68°31′W / 25.33°S 68.52°W / -25.33; -68.52||Holocene|
|Cordón Chalviri||5623||18443||23°51′S 67°37′W / 23.85°S 67.62°W / -23.85; -67.62||Holocene|
|Cuernos del Diablo||–||–||–||–|
|Descabezado Grande||3953||12966||35°51′S 70°45′W / 35.85°S 70.75°W / -35.85; -70.75||1933|
|Estero de Parraguirre||–||–||–||–|
|Falso Azufre||5890||19319||26°48′S 68°22′W / 26.80°S 68.37°W / -26.80; -68.37||Holocene|
|Fueguino||150||492||54°57′S 70°15′W / 54.95°S 70.25°W / -54.95; -70.25||1820|
|Guallatiri||6071||19913||18°25′S 69°10′W / 18.42°S 69.17°W / -18.42; -69.17||1985|
|Guayaques||5598||18361||22°53′S 67°35′W / 22.88°S 67.58°W / -22.88; -67.58||Holocene|
|Hornopirén||1572||5156||41°52′26″S 72°25′52″W / 41.874°S 72.431°W / -41.874; -72.431||Holocene|
|Huelemolle||810||2657||39°18′S 71°49′W / 39.30°S 71.82°W / -39.30; -71.82||–|
|Huequi||1318||4323||42°22′S 72°34′W / 42.37°S 72.57°W / -42.37; -72.57||1920|
|Irruputuncu||5163||16935||20°44′S 68°33′W / 20.73°S 68.55°W / -20.73; -68.55||1995|
|Isla Cook||150||492||54°57′S 70°16′W / 54.95°S 70.27°W / -54.95; -70.27||Holocene|
|Isluga||5550||18209||19°09′S 68°50′W / 19.15°S 68.83°W / -19.15; -68.83||1913|
|Lascar Volcano||5592||18342||23°22′S 67°44′W / 23.37°S 67.73°W / -23.37; -67.73||2007|
|Laguna del Maule||3092||10142||36°01′S 70°35′W / 36.02°S 70.58°W / -36.02; -70.58||Holocene|
|Laguna Mariñaqui||2143||7031||38°16′S 71°06′W / 38.27°S 71.10°W / -38.27; -71.10||–|
|Lanín||3747||12293||39°37′58″S 71°29′59″W / 39.63278°S 71.49972°W / -39.63278; -71.49972||560 ‡150 years|
|Lastarria||5697||18686||25°10′S 68°30′W / 25.17°S 68.50°W / -25.17; -68.50||Holocene|
|Lautaro||3380||11086||49°01′S 73°33′W / 49.02°S 73.55°W / -49.02; -73.55||1979|
|Lexone||5340||17515||17°52′S 69°29′W / 17.87°S 69.48°W / -17.87; -69.48||Holocene|
|Licancabur||5916||19404||22°50′S 67°53′W / 22.83°S 67.88°W / -22.83; -67.88||Holocene|
|Linzor||5680||18635||22°11′S 67°57′W / 22.18°S 67.95°W / -22.18; -67.95||–|
|Llaima||3125||10250||38°41′S 71°43′W / 38.69°S 71.72°W / -38.69; -71.72||2009 |
|Llullaillaco||6739||22109||24°43′0″S 68°32′0″W / 24.716667°S 68.533333°W / -24.716667; -68.533333||1877|
|Lomas Blancas||2268||7439||36°17′10″S 71°00′32″W / 36.286°S 71.009°W / -36.286; -71.009||Holocene|
|Lonquimay||2865||9397||38°23′S 71°35′W / 38.38°S 71.58°W / -38.38; -71.58||1990|
|Maca||2960||9709||45°06′S 73°12′W / 45.10°S 73.20°W / -45.10; -73.20||Holocene|
|Melimoyu||2400||7872||44°05′S 72°53′W / 44.08°S 72.88°W / -44.08; -72.88||200 ± 75 years|
|Mencheca||1840||6035||40°32′02″S 72°02′17″W / 40.534°S 72.038°W / -40.534; -72.038||Holocene|
|Mentolat||1660||5448||44°40′S 73°05′W / 44.67°S 73.08°W / -44.67; -73.08||Holocene|
|Maipo||5264||17266||34°10′S 69°50′W / 34.16°S 69.83°W / -34.16; -69.83||1908|
|Minchinmávida||2404||7885||42°47′S 72°26′W / 42.78°S 72.43°W / -42.78; -72.43||1835|
|Miñiques||5910||19390||23°49′S 67°46′W / 23.82°S 67.77°W / -23.82; -67.77||Unknown|
|Mocho-Choshuenco||2422||7944||39°55′37″S 72°01′37″W / 39.927°S 72.027°W / -39.927; -72.027||1864|
|Mondaca||2048||6717||35°27′50″S 70°48′00″W / 35.464°S 70.800°W / -35.464; -70.800||Holocene|
|Monte Burney||1758||5766||52°20′S 73°24′W / 52.33°S 73.40°W / -52.33; -73.40||1910|
|El Negrillar||3500||11480||24°11′S 68°15′W / 24.18°S 68.25°W / -24.18; -68.25||Holocene|
|La Negrillar||4109||13478||24°17′S 68°36′W / 24.28°S 68.60°W / -24.28; -68.60||Holocene|
|Nevado de Incahuasi||6621||21722||27°02′31″S 68°16′48″W / 27.042°S 68.28°W / -27.042; -68.28||Unknown|
|Nevado de Longaví||3242||10634||36°11′35″S 71°09′40″W / 36.193°S 71.161°W / -36.193; -71.161||Holocene|
|Nevados de Chillán||3212||10535||36°52′S 71°22′W / 36.86°S 71.37°W / -36.86; -71.37||2003|
|Ojos del Salado||6891||22608||27°07′S 68°32′W / 27.12°S 68.53°W / -27.12; -68.53||700 AD ± 300 years|
|Olca-Paruma||5407||17735||20°56′S 68°29′W / 20.93°S 68.48°W / -20.93; -68.48||1867|
|Ollague||5868||19247||21°18′S 68°11′W / 21.30°S 68.18°W / -21.30; -68.18||Unknown|
|Osorno||2652||8699||41°06′S 72°29′W / 41.10°S 72.49°W / -41.10; -72.49||1869|
|Pali-Aike Volcanic Field||250||820||52°00′S 70°00′W / 52.00°S 70.00°W / -52.00; -70.00||5550 BC ± 1000 years|
|Palena Volcanic Group||–||–||43°41′S 72°30′W / 43.68°S 72.50°W / -43.68; -72.50||Holocene|
|Palomo||4860||15941||34°36′29″S 70°17′42″W / 34.608°S 70.295°W / -34.608; -70.295||Holocene|
|Paniri||5946||19508||22°05′S 68°15′W / 22.08°S 68.25°W / -22.08; -68.25||Unknown|
|Parinacota||6348||20821||18°10′S 69°09′W / 18.17°S 69.15°W / -18.17; -69.15||Holocene|
|Planchón-Peteroa||4107||13471||35°14′S 70°34′W / 35.24°S 70.57°W / -35.24; -70.57||1998|
|Poike, Easter Island||370||1,010||27°09′S 109°23′W / 27.15°S 109.38°W / -27.15; -109.38||More than a million years ago|
|Puchuldiza||4500||14760||19°25′S 68°58′W / 19.42°S 68.97°W / -19.42; -68.97||Pleistocene|
|Pular||6233||20444||24°11′S 68°03′W / 24.18°S 68.05°W / -24.18; -68.05||1990|
|Puntiagudo-Cordón Cenizos||2493||8177||40°58′S 72°16′W / 40.96°S 72.26°W / -40.96; -72.26||1930|
|Purico Complex||5703||18706||23°00′S 67°45′W / 23.00°S 67.75°W / -23.00; -67.75||Holocene|
|Putana||5890||19319||22°34′S 67°52′W / 22.57°S 67.87°W / -22.57; -67.87||1972|
|Puyehue||2236||7334||40°35′24″S 72°07′01″W / 40.590°S 72.117°W / -40.590; -72.117||Holocene|
|Puyuhuapi||255||836||44°18′S 72°32′W / 44.30°S 72.53°W / -44.30; -72.53||Holocene|
|Quetrupillán||2360||7741||39°30′S 71°42′W / 39.50°S 71.70°W / -39.50; -71.70||1872|
|Rano Kau, Easter Island||250?||800?||27°09′S 109°23′W / 27.15°S 109.38°W / -27.15; -109.38||More than a million years ago|
|Reclus||1000||3281||50°59′S 73°42′W / 50.98°S 73.70°W / -50.98; -73.70||1908 ± 1 year|
|Resago||1550||5084||36°27′S 70°55′W / 36.45°S 70.92°W / -36.45; -70.92||Holocene|
|Robinson Crusoe||922||3024||33°39′S 78°51′W / 33.65°S 78.85°W / -33.65; -78.85||1835|
|Sairecabur||5971||19585||22°44′S 67°53′W / 22.73°S 67.88°W / -22.73; -67.88||Holocene|
|San Felix||183||600||26°16′S 80°07′W / 26.27°S 80.12°W / -26.27; -80.12||Holocene|
|San José||5856||19208||33°47′S 69°53′W / 33.78°S 69.89°W / -33.78; -69.89||1960|
|San Pedro||6145||20156||21°53′S 68°24′W / 21.88°S 68.40°W / -21.88; -68.40||1960|
|San Pedro-Pellado||3621||11877||35°59′20″S 70°50′56″W / 35.989°S 70.849°W / -35.989; -70.849||Holocene|
|Sierra Nevada||2554||8379||38°21′S 71°21′W / 38.35°S 71.35°W / -38.35; -71.35||Holocene|
|Sierra Nevada de Lagunas Bravas||6127||20101||26°28′48″S 68°34′48″W / 26.48°S 68.58°W / -26.48; -68.58||–|
|Socompa||6051||19847||24°24′S 68°15′W / 24.40°S 68.25°W / -24.40; -68.25||5250 BC (?)|
|Sollipulli||2282||7485||38°58′S 71°31′W / 38.97°S 71.52°W / -38.97; -71.52||1240|
|El Solo||6190||20308||27°06′29″S 68°43′12″W / 27.108°S 68.72°W / -27.108; -68.72||Unknown|
|Taapaca||5860||19225||18°06′S 69°30′W / 18.10°S 69.50°W / -18.10; -69.50||320 BC ± 50 years|
|Tacora||5980||19614||17°43′S 69°46′W / 17.72°S 69.77°W / -17.72; -69.77||Unknown|
|El Tatio||4280||15810||22°21′S 68°02′W / 22.35°S 68.03°W / -22.35; -68.03||Pleistocene|
|Terevaka, Easter Island||507||1,690||27°09′S 109°23′W / 27.15°S 109.38°W / -27.15; -109.38||More than a million years ago|
|Tilocalar||3116||10223||23°58′S 68°08′W / 23.97°S 68.13°W / -23.97; -68.13||–|
|Tinguiririca||4280||14038||34°49′S 70°21′W / 34.81°S 70.35°W / -34.81; -70.35||1994|
|Tolguaca||2806||9204||38°18′36″S 71°38′42″W / 38.310°S 71.645°W / -38.310; -71.645||Holocene|
|La Torta||5018||16450||22°30′S 67°54′W / 22.5°S 67.9°W / -22.5; -67.9||–|
|Tupungato||6570||21555||33°21′16″S 69°46′7″W / 33.35444°S 69.76861°W / -33.35444; -69.76861||1986|
|Tupungatito||6000||19680||33°24′S 69°48′W / 33.40°S 69.80°W / -33.40; -69.80||1986|
|Unnamed||-642||-2105||33°37′S 76°50′W / 33.62°S 76.83°W / -33.62; -76.83||1839|
|Unnamed||4200||13776||20°50′S 68°38′W / 20.83°S 68.63°W / -20.83; -68.63||Holocene|
|Viedma||1500||4921||49°21′29″S 73°16′48″W / 49.358°S 73.28°W / -49.358; -73.28||1988|
|Villarrica||2847||9340||39°25′S 71°56′W / 39.42°S 71.93°W / -39.42; -71.93||2007|
|El Volcán||5100||16732||22°20′S 67°58′W / 22.33°S 67.97°W / -22.33; -67.97||–|
|Yanteles||2050||6699||43°30′S 72°48′W / 43.50°S 72.80°W / -43.50; -72.80||6650 BC|
|Yate||2187||7175||41°45′18″S 72°23′46″W / 41.755°S 72.396°W / -41.755; -72.396||Holocene|
// <![CDATA[// Groups
Subduction volcanoes in the North
Subduction volcanoes in Central and southern Chile
Subduction volcanoes in the Far South
In Chile volcanoes south of 45° are related to the subduction of the Antarctic Plate under the South American plate.
|Name||Shape||Elevation (m)||Last eruption (VEI)||Coordinates|
|Aguilera||stratovolcano||2,546||1650 BC||50°10′S 73°50′W / 50.17°S 73.83°W / -50.17; -73.83|
|Burney||stratovolcano||1,495||1910||52°20′S 73°24′W / 52.33°S 73.40°W / -52.33; -73.40|
|Fueguino||lava domes||150||1820||54°57′S 70°15′W / 54.95°S 70.25°W / -54.95; -70.25|
|Lautaro||stratovolcano||3,345||1979||49°01′S 73°33′W / 49.02°S 73.55°W / -49.02; -73.55|
|Pali-Aike||volcanic field||5550 BC ± 1000|
|Reclus||stratovolcano||1,000||1908 ± 1 year||50°59′S 73°42′W / 50.98°S 73.70°W / -50.98; -73.70|
Pacific hotspot volcanoes
The pacific islands of Chile are of volcanic origin. They are believed to have formed from three distink hotspots, Easter, Juan Fernández and San Felix hotspots. The westermost part of the ridges formed by these hotpots contain the most recently active volcanoes.
|Name||Shape||Elevation||Last eruption (VEI)||Coordinates|
|Alexander Selkirk Island||volcanic island||1,329 m||<1Ma||33°45′04″S 80°47′00″W / 33.75111°S 80.7833333°W / -33.75111; -80.7833333|
- Volcanism in Chile
- Southern Andean Volcano Observatory
- Glaciers of Chile
- List of lakes in Chile
- List of rivers of Chile
- ^ REUTERS (2009-04-05). “Chile volcano eruption revs up, ash Argentina-bound”. Thomson Reuters Foundation – AlertNet. http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N05332646.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
Siebert L, Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-3, (http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/).
Rescuers are hunting survivors and delivering aid after a massive earthquake killed more than 700 people in Chile. FULL STORY
(CNN – 03-01-10)
Category:Geography of Maule Region
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pages in category “Geography of Maule Region”
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Geography_of_Maule_Region”
(from – )
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