Angel Investor Directory
Jun 13, 2005
To help get you started in your search for an angel, we’ve compiled a list of U.S. angel networks. Because many angel groups limit their investments to a particular geographical area, we’ve divided the list into eight regions: Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Mid-Atlantic, Northeast, North Central, California, South, and Midwest. There is also a category for those groups that consider investments anywhere in the country.
My Note –
I have been looking up angel investors for the last three days. It was interesting at first and now, after seeing a multitude of information about how to deal with them and what to do as a “startup” business generally – forget it. I’m throwing the whole damn mess in the trash that I’ve spent thirty-five years creating and researching and designing and testing – and I’m going to walk away to a beach somewhere and just forget the whole thing. It is not worth it. Between finding stuff online and the many years of already studying the business aspects of doing anything in business – it is bullshit and I am not the person to do it. Oh yeah and this –
How to Find an Angel Investor
When you’re in search of financing, the idea of an angel — an individual investor with money to invest in early-stage or start-up companies — can seem nothing short of enchanting. But where do you find an angel? This guide will help you start your search.
By Inc. Staff | Feb 1, 2006
“Here’s what they’re looking for, how they operate, and (because the devil is in the exit strategy) what they expect for their money”
My Note –
So, the only real goal is the exit strategy? Give them money back plus money made on their money and give them the way out where they make even more money on the “exit strategy” – hmmm…… If I did that and presented my intentions that way, it would be considered criminal, immoral, unethical and just plain wrong – maybe even delusional.
Damn – this can’t be business.
Seven Steps to Heaven
Funding for entrepreneurial businesses has completely dried up, right? Wrong. Angel investors — long a tried-and-true source of capital for young businesses — have not hung up their wings.
By Paul B. Brown | Oct 1, 2001
“Angels, who are often cashed-out entrepreneurs, invest money of their own, typically the $250,000 to $500,000 that companies need to get off the ground. VCs, by contrast, invest mostly institutional funds, and they typically come on board later in a company’s life, supplying the $1 million or more needed to keep both early-stage and midstage companies going.”
STEP 1: Sourcing, or Who Are You, Anyway?
The best angels are always looking for good new deals. They call it sourcing. Before you go courting them, do some sourcing of your own. Look for angels who can do you the most good. Here are five traits all good angels share:
The most effective way to find them, as in nearly every other aspect of commerce, is word of mouth. You want to come recommended, says Amis. In a perfect world you’ll have a track record and will be known by someone who knows an angel. That someone introduces you, and you’re off and running.
Atlanta Technology Angels
Early stage capital and support for Georgia startups
The Cold Reality of First-Time Funding
DateFriday, May 28, 2010 at 10:41AM
Too many people think they can raise money on an idea, a powerpoint deck, or even a mere prototype. From what I see, that is the exception, not the norm, regardless of chatter about a lot of seed money swirling around.
An idea and vision is necessary but not enough. Maniacal zeal is necessary but not enough. A smart, clued-in team is necessary but not enough. A first version of the product is necessary but not enough. You are competing against other funding-hopeful startups that have achieved all that PLUS initial traction PLUS a fit with the investor’s sweet spot.
The Network of Business Angels and Investors
NBAI is a community of investors that want to actively pursue business opportunities that may involve the investment of time, money, or other resources. Traditionally, we have focused on private equity and funding transactions. The organization has evolved to include special interest groups that have socio-economic influence, short term liquidity requirements, or acquisition and participation elements.
Investors are invited to attend the NBAI Investor Meetings, a premier invitation-only meeting for early stage venture capital, angel investors, executives of early stage, early stage capital, accredited angel investors, angel investor networks, capital investors, angel groups, small business investors, and emerging growth companies, investment bankers, executives, successful entrepreneurs, premier service providers and industry leaders.
How investors get involved?
Investors preview innovative company presentations at the NBAI Investor Meeting.
Investors review deals from NBAI and other Angel Groups from across the United States using Angelsoft.
Who should present?
If your company has raised $500,000 or more in startup capital, you are eligible to apply at Angelsoft and get exposed to angel groups across the United States including the NBAI Investor
LAUNCHfn is the leading strategic advisory and investor relations firm helping entrepreneurs prepare for and obtain early stage capital. LAUNCHfn’s ‘Access to Capital System’TM is a proven system for entrepreneurs to connect with early stage venture capital and small business investors. The CEOs that engage LAUNCHfn to be strategic advisers to them attract more early stage venture capital and small business investors for their business quicker than those companies that seek to find angel investors and meet with angel groups without the benefit of our knowledge, experience and our vast network of early stage venture capital sources and private equity funds.
(etc. – found from the NBAI site – it also says this at the bottom of the page – )
LAUNCHfn, NBAI, and SPEC are all part of the holding company, Kugarand Holdings.
NOTE: All credit card charges are handled securely through Authorize.net and will show up on your bill as Kugarand Holdings. Refunds will be issued if request is received within 24 hours and no service has been provided at that point in time.
Angel Investor Georgia
Why and how are angel investors useful and important? Who are they and how do you find them? How does a company in Georgia profit from their use and what is the cost of using them? Angel investors can help a business in Georgia get off the ground or they can help rescue businesses in financial trouble.
( . . . )
Angels offer a unique way for a business to raise capital without making money commitments of their own in the way of loans or getting new permanent partners.
These are not regulated investments as the SEC assumes the angels are sophisticated investors and do not need government protection. They have the knowledge and experience to do their own due diligence when making an investment decision.
This is a special area of finance that is not tapped by as many companies as it should be. Small companies in Georgia could grow well beyond what the owners expect if they had the money and knowledge an angel or a group of angels could bring to the table.
Updated: Atlanta Angel Investors Mashup
March 7, 2008 A 1 Comment
Edit on 12/5/08
Atlanta Technology Angels
The Atlanta Technology Angels (known as ATA) is a formal angel investment group founded in 1998. It is comprised of 50+ private individuals who are active angel investors. ATA’s investments are focused on early stage, Georgia based, technology companies that are focused on large markets. 90% of the companies funded by ATA receive local or outside venture capital funding within 12-18 months of angel funding. The group has funded 40+ technology companies since 1999 and currently has 24 active portfolio companies. ATA, as a group, has invested $25,000,000+ into these 40+ companies and these same companies have gone on to raise over $300,000,000 in venture capital funding from 21 venture capital funds in 18 states. The vast majority of the members of ATA are active investors and often mentor entrepreneurs within ATA portfolio companies. Recent positive exits include Invirtus and Spi Dynamics. ATA formally reviews two companies 10 months out of the year. ATA has completed one funding in 2008, is closing another in March and is actively engaged in additional financings.
ATDC Seed Fund
State funded. Often co-invests with angel investors. $3 to $1 match provision ($3 private capital to each $1 state funds) Run by Charles Ross within ATDC. This one is getting active and is one to keep an eye on. Has plenty of capital. Remember, tho, that the match is a must for any investment. So to get ATDC in, you must have private capital.
( . . . )
Angel Investor Network, Private Equity Investors, Accredited Investors
Angel Investor Networks vary considerably. They are generally a group of accredited investors who get together to review companies for potential investment. The investments can be made by the private equity investors belonging to the network or by the network itself as a limited partnership. Some angel networks charge a fee to the entrepreneur for the business plan to be reviewed, or for an in-person presentation to be made to the angels group and other angel networks don’t. The Angel Networks are linked and listed below.
(includes an extensive list – many angel networks charge entrepreneurs and investors to list and participate in their resources – my note)
Call us (800) 991-5137
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SBA Business Loans in Georgia GA
We provide small business loans in Georgia to all types of businesses and organizations. You qualify if your business is a corporation, partnership or sole proprietor. We will assist you in getting your application approved. We are a preferred SBA lender in Georgia GA.
SBA Small Business Administration Loans in Georgia GA
The SBA offers numerous loan programs to assist businesses; although the actual lending is done by approved SBA lenders, participating banks and private and commercial financial institutions like us. We offer small business owners all types of business loans in Georgia GA. Our loan programs are guaranteed in part by the United States Small Business Administration (SBA).
The Small Office Home Office (SOHO) Community Express Micro Loan is the most basic loan offered by the SBA and is geared toward women, minority and veteran business owners in Georgia GA. It was put in place to help Georgia GA small businesses obtain loan financing when they might not be eligible for business loans through normal lending channels. We also offer the SBA 7(a) and real estate secured SBA 504 loans in all 50 states.
Our loans may be used for start-up, expansion, equipment purchases, working capital, inventory, franchise, business acquisition or real-estate acquisition.
Georgia SBA Office
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Office Hours 8:30am to 5:00pm
Commercial Mortgage Lenders in Georgia | Business.com
Commercial lenders in Georgia can help you finance the business location of your dreams. By Shannon Tani. Georgia commercial lenders may have what it takes …
http://www.business.com › … › Commercial Lenders › United States – Cached – Similar
Chambers of Commerce
You are here: Business Finance >> Chambers of Commerce >> Georgia Chambers of Commerce … Danish American Chamber of Commerce, GA. Inc. Gitte Hagensen …
http://www.businessfinance.com › Chambers of Commerce – Cached – Similar
Business Loans and Cash Advance for Georgia
We offer Business Loans and Cash Advances in Georgia. Learn why business loans are necessarcy, who provides them, qualifying, how interest is assessed, …
http://www.merchantloans.com/states/GA_business-loans.html – Cached – Similar
Angel Investor Network
Angel investing has long been an important source of financial support and mentoring for new and growing businesses bridging the gap between individual (friends and family) and institutional venture capital rounds of financing. Over the past several years, Angel / Sophisticated investors and this sector of the private capital market has been formalizing in response to both growing demands and complexity.
New Angel Groups Online –
Rockies Venture Club – Angel Investor Network
Angel Investor Forum (Connecticut) – Angel Investor Network
Core Network – Angel Investor Network
Eastern Montana Angel Investor Network – Angel Investor Network
eCoast Angels – Angel Investor Network
Enterprise Oklahoma Venture Fund – Angel Investor Network
Lancaster Angel Network (Philadelphia) – Angel Investor Network
Louisiana Angel Network – Angel Investor Network
ACE-Net – Angel Investor Network in White Plains, NY
Active Angel Investors – Angel Investor Network in Vienna, VA
Alaska InvestNet – Angel Investor Network in Juneau, AK
Alaska Technology Research Transfer Center – Angel Investor Network in Anchorage, Alaska
Alliance of Angels – Angel Investor Network in Seattle, WA
Angel Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in Sausalito, CA
AngelDeals – Angel Investor Network in ,
Angel Healthcare Investors – Angel Investor Network in Newton, MA
Angel Investing Group – Angel Investor Network in ,
Angel Strategies – Angel Investor Network in Tustin, CA
Angels With Attitude – Angel Investor Network in Seattle, WA
Angels With Attitude WA – Angel Investor Network in Seattle, WA
Arizona Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Scottsdale, AZ
Arizona Angels – Angel Investor Network in Scottsdale, AZ
Arkansas Capital Corporation – Angel Investor Network in Little Rock, Arkansas
Atlanta Technology Angels – Angel Investor Network in Atlanta, GA
Atlantic Venture Networking Group – Angel Investor Network in Halifax, Nova Scotia
Atlantis Group – Angel Investor Network in Raleigh, NC
Aztec Venture Network – Angel Investor Network in San Diego, CA
Band of Angels – Angel Investor Network in Menlo Park, CA
Ben Franklin Technology Partners – Angel Investor Network in Bethlehem, PA
Bi-State Investment Group – Angel Investor Network in Lenexa, KS
Blue Ridge Angel Investment Network – Angel Investor Network in Asheville, NC
BlueTree Allied Angels – Angel Investor Network in Pittsburgh, PA
Calgary Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Calgary, Alberta
Calgary Enterprise Forum – Angel Investor Network in Calgary, Alberta
Califonria Angels Forum – Angel Investor Network in Los Altos, CA
Camino Real Angels – Angel Investor Network in El Paso, TX
Canadian Angel Investment Network – Angel Investor Network in Montreal, Quebec
C-Cap – Angel Investor Network in Cincinnati, OH
Center for Emerging Technologies – Angel Investor Network in St Louis, Missouri
Center For Entrepreneurship Norfolk State University – Angel Investor Network in Norfolk, Virginia
Center for Innovation University of North Dakota – Angel Investor Network in Grgand Forks, North Dakota
Central Coast Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Santa Cruz, CA
Charleston Angel Partners – Angel Investor Network in Charleston, SC
Charlotte Angel Partners – Angel Investor Network in Charlotte, NC
Cherrystone Angel Group – Angel Investor Network in Providence, RI
Chesapeake Emerging Opportunities Club – Angel Investor Network in Columbia, MD
Chippewa Valley Angel Investors Network – Angel Investor Network in Chippewa Valley, WI
Common Angels – Angel Investor Network in Lexington, MA
CTEK Angels – Angel Investor Network in Boulder, CO
CVBI Angel Investor Network – Angel Investor Network in Clovis, CA
Dallas Womens Venture Fund – Angel Investor Network in Addison, TX
Delta Angel Group – Angel Investor Network in Post Falls, ID Spokane, WA
Desert Angels – Angel Investor Network in Tucson, AZ
Emergent Growth Fund – Angel Investor Network in Gainesville, Ocala, FL
Fast Angels – Angel Investor Network in ,
Florida Angel Investors – Angel Investor Network in Miami, Boca Raton, FL
Foster Center for Private Equity – Angel Investor Network in Hanover, New Hampshire
Gathering of Angels – Angel Investor Network in Santa Fe, NM
Global Stock Trends Private Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in Boca Raton, FL
Goodmans Angel Investor Network – Angel Investor Network in Toronto, Ontario
Gould and Co – Angel Investor Network in Merrimack, NH
Grand Angels – Angel Investor Network in Grand Rapids, MI
Great Lakes Angels – Angel Investor Network in Bloomfield Hills, MI
Houston Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Houston, TX
Idaho Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Boise, ID
Idealflow Angel Fund – Angel Investor Network in Los Angeles, CA
Inception Micro Angel Fund – Angel Investor Network in Greensboro, NC
Indiana AngelNet – Angel Investor Network in , Indiana
InterPeak Partners – Angel Investor Network in Denver, CO
Investors Circle – Angel Investor Network in San Francisco, CA
Investors Circle MA – Angel Investor Network in Brookline, MA
Jumpstart New Jersey Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Mt Laurel, NJ
Kalamazoo Angels – Angel Investor Network in Kalamazoo, MI
Keiretsu Forum – Angel Investor Network in ,
Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development – Angel Investor Network in Frankfort, Kentucky
Kentucky Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in , Kentucky
Launchpad Venture Group – Angel Investor Network in Wellesley, MA
Local Fund – Angel Investor Network in ,
LORE – Angel Investor Network in Philadelphia, PA
Maine Angels – Angel Investor Network in ,
Marquette University Golden Angels Network – Angel Investor Network in Milwaukee, WI
Maryland Angels Council – Angel Investor Network in Rockville, MD
Minnesota Investment Network Corp – Angel Investor Network in St. Paul, Minnesota
Minnesota Seed Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in Minneapolis, MN
Nashville Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in Nashville, TN
National Angel Organization – Angel Investor Network in Toronto, Ontario
National Association of Seed and Venture Funds – Angel Investor Network in ,
NCIC Capital Fund – Angel Investor Network in Dayton, OH
NEOSA Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Cleveland, OH
Network for Business Angels & Investors – Angel Investor Network in Atlanta, Georgia
Nevada Angels – Angel Investor Network in Incline Village, NV
New Mexico Private Investors – Angel Investor Network in Albuquerque, NM
New Product Development Consortium – Angel Investor Network in ,
New York Angels – Angel Investor Network in New York, NY
North Bay Angels – Angel Investor Network in Healdsburg, CA
North Country Angels – Angel Investor Network in , Vermont
North Dallas Investment Group – Angel Investor Network in Dallas, TX
Northern Illinois Angels – Angel Investor Network in Chicago, IL
Northwest Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Boise, ID
Oklahoma Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in Tulsa Oklahoma City, OK
Ottawa Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in Ottawa, Ontario
Pasadena Angels – Angel Investor Network in Pasadena, CA
Pennsylvania Private Investors Network – Angel Investor Network in Jenkintown, PA
Piedmont Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Greensboro, NC
Portland Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Portland, OR
Portland Area Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Portland, Oregon
Prairie Angels – Angel Investor Network in Chicago, IL
Prince George County Economic Development Corp – Angel Investor Network in Lanham, Maryland
Private Investors Network – Angel Investor Network in McLean, VA
Purple Angels – Angel Investor Network in Ottawa, Ontario
Reseaucapital – Angel Investor Network in Montreal, Quebec
Richmond Venture Forum – Angel Investor Network in Richmond, VA
River Valley Investors – Angel Investor Network in Springfield, MA
Robin Hood Ventures – Angel Investor Network in Wayne, PA
Sacramento Angels – Angel Investor Network in Sacramento, CA
Sand Hill Angels – Angel Investor Network in Menlo Park, CA
Seed Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in Knoxville, TN
Seraph Capital Forum – Angel Investor Network in Seattle, WA
Sierra Angels – Angel Investor Network in Incline Village, NV
Silicom Ventures – Angel Investor Network in Los Altos, CA
Silicon Garden Angels – Angel Investor Network in Somerset, NJ
Silicon Garden Angels and Investors Network – Angel Investor Network in Somerset, NJ
Silicon Pastures – Angel Investor Network in Whitefish Bay, WI
Silicon Valley Band of Angels – Angel Investor Network in Portola Valley, CA
Small Business Development – Angel Investor Network in Charleston, West Virginia
Sound Angels – Angel Investor Network in Stamford, CT
Southern Connecticut State University – Angel Investor Network in New Haven, Connecticut
Southwest Pennsylvania Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Pittsburgh, PA
St Louis Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in St Louis, MO
TechCoast Angels – Angel Investor Network in Laguna Hills, CA
Tech Coast Angels – Angel Investor Network in Laguna Hills, CA
Technology Alliance – Angel Investor Network in Seattle, WA
TechRanch Angels – Angel Investor Network in Bozeman, MT
Tech Valley Angel Network – Angel Investor Network in Troy, NY
TechVentures Network – Angel Investor Network in Oakland, California
TENEX Medical Investors – Angel Investor Network in Burlingame, CA
Texas Angels Network – Angel Investor Network in Austin, TX
Texas Venture Post – Angel Investor Network in Fairview, Texas
The Angels Forum – Angel Investor Network in Los Altos, CA
The Dallas Angels – Angel Investor Network in Dallas, TX
The Desert Angels – Angel Investor Network in Tuscon, AZ
The Dinner Club – Angel Investor Network in Washington, DC
The Meyering Corp – Angel Investor Network in Harper Woods, MI
The South Carolina Technology Alliance – Angel Investor Network in Columbia, South Carolina
The Stoops Distinguished Professor of Entrepreneurship – Angel Investor Network in Muncie, Indiana
The Texas Angels – Angel Investor Network in Austin, TX
The Tribe of Angels – Angel Investor Network in San Francisco, CA
TiE Angel Forum – Angel Investor Network in Wellesley Hills, MA
Toronto Angel Group – Angel Investor Network in Toronto, Ontario
Tri-State Investment Group – Angel Investor Network in Chapel Hill, NC
Tri-State Private Investors Network – Angel Investor Network in New York, NY
Tristate Venture Group – Angel Investor Network in New York, NY
UH Angels University of Hawaii – Angel Investor Network in Honolulu, HI
University Angels – Angel Investor Network in White Plains, NY
University of Puerto Rico – Angel Investor Network in San Juan, Puerto Rico
UNLV NSBDC – Angel Investor Network in Las Vegas, Nevada
Utah Angels – Angel Investor Network in Salt Lake City, UT
Valley Angels – Angel Investor Network in Green Bay, WI
Valley Angels Investment Group – Angel Investor Network in Green Bay, WI
Vancouver Angel Network for Tech Companies – Angel Investor Network in Vancouver, BC
Vancouver Enterprise Forum Angel Technology Network – Angel Investor Network in Vancouver, BC
Vegas Valley Angels – Angel Investor Network in Las Vegas, NV
Venture Investment Forum – Angel Investor Network in Middleton, PA
Vermont Investors Forum – Angel Investor Network in Waterbury, VT
Walnut Venture Associates – Angel Investor Network in ,
Walnut Venture Group – Angel Investor Network in Wellesley Hills, MA
Washington Seed Capital Network – Angel Investor Network in Seattle, WA
Wisconsin Investment Partners – Angel Investor Network in Madison, WI
Women Angel Investors – Angel Investor Network in Washington, DC
WomenAngels – Angel Investor Network in Washington, DC
Womens Investment Network – Angel Investor Network in Pottstown, PA
Wyoming SBDC – Angel Investor Network in Laramie, Wyoming
Angel Networks / Groups are as unique as the private investors that make them up. A network of angel investors is a group of accredited investors (sophisticated investors) who get together to review companies for potential investment. The investments can be made by accredited individuals belonging to the network or by the network itself as a limited partnership. Some angel networks charge a fee to the entrepreneur for the business plan to be reviewed, or for an in-person presentation to be made to the angels group and other angel networks don’t. Learn about as many angel networks / groups in your area as possible.
The number of organized angel groups / networks has grown in response to several factors:
– A desire to attract better deals and generate higher returns than angels acting alone
– The legal and economic complexity of these investments.
Angel Investor Networks – Groups of Private Investors funding CEOs / seed stage entrepreneurs
Angel Investment Network
(has a list of individual investors on a scrolling list to the right side of the website with their interests for investments they are seeking – very interesting, my note)
Angel Investors in Texas and Southeast and Southwest
(Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Arkansas, Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma)
Angel investors in the Southeast (Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Arkansas) and in the Southwest (Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma) tend to invest nearby. It’s pure economics — angel investors from Dallas find it very expensive to travel to Maine to oversee their investment.
Check the web sites of each group carefully before submitting a proposal. Some are looking in particular industries, some are more general; some focus on startups, some want companies to have some kind of track record; some will accept only online submission, some want a business plan.
* Atlanta Technology Angels – Atlanta, GA
* Atlantis Group – Raleigh, NC
* Blue Angel Ventures, Inc – Morrisville, NC
* Blue Ridge Angel Investment Network (BRAIN) – Asheville, NC
* Charleston Angel Partners – Charleston, SC
* Charlotte Angel Partners – Charlotte, NC
* Columbia Angel Partners – Columbia, SC
* Emergent Growth Fund – Gainesville, FL
* Florida Angel Investors – Miami/Boca Raton, FL
* Fund for Arkansas’ Future – Little Rock, AR
* Inception Micro Angel Fund – Greensboro, NC
* Louisiana Angel Network – Baton Rouge, LA
* Nashville Capital Network – Nashville, TN
* New World Angels – Boca Raton, FL
* Piedmont Angel Network – Greensboro, NC
* SCP Capital – Spartanburg, SC
* Springboard Capital – Jacksonville, FL
* Startup Florida – Sarasota, FL
* Triangle Accredited Capital Forum – Wake Forest, NC
* Tri-State Investors Group – Chapel Hill, NC
* Wilmington Investor Network – Wilmington, NC
* Arizona Angels – Scottsdale, AZ
* Camino Real Angels – El Paso, TX
* Desert Angels – Tucson, AZ
* Enterprise Oklahoma Venture Fund – Tulsa, OK
* Houston Angel Network – Houston, TX
* New Mexico Private Investors – Albuquerque, NM
* North Dallas Investment Group – Dallas, TX
* San Antonio Angels – San Antonio, TX
* Technology Tree Group – Houston, TX
* Texas Women Ventures Fund – Dallas, TX
Check out tips on business plans for venture capital firms. Many of the techniques for venture capital firms can be used effectively here as well.
Never discount the SBA as a funding source.
Emerging Venture Capital in Alabama aims to put the state on the technology map.
My Note –
My document from the last couple days of working with this – is over 273 pages, so I’m trying to get only the links and a bit of info with each to post here. However, there is every evidence that these angel investor networks and angel investors, as well as venture capitalists – take in thousands of packets requesting funding and choose only a few – likely less than five from those each year or so. That is about the same odds as playing bingo – in a room full of 100 people, only one wins for each game – that makes 99 losers on each game. The fact is, that doesn’t mean (in either case) that any of the others that did not receive funding were without merit, but it would be hard to believe that throughout the experience of it. There has to be another way.
Yesterday, I called the Cobb County Chamber of Commerce and the lady was nice enough to look up some local angel investor groups and business incubators for me. Then I wrote them on a card and called the three business incubator companies – all of which exist on the far side of Metro Atlanta from here and at least one of which is set up more like a rent-an-office and officey stuff place than an incubation system for supporting businesses – but maybe its both.
(my note, cricketdiane)
DECEMBER 19, 2005
By Karen E. Klein
Send Me an Angel Investor
Need cash and maybe some hands-on management help? If your startup has the potential for rich returns, you just might snag an angel
Contrary to the sound of it, angel investors do not earn their wings by dropping money from the sky. They are wealthy current or former business owners motivated not by philanthropy but by the desire to achieve extraordinary return on their investments in entrepreneurial companies.
Most institutional investors and venture capitalists put their money into expanding businesses that are already proven winners. Angels, on the other hand, are more willing to invest in startups they deem good prospects — but that may not have already achieved profitability.
Most angels operate independently, but they do come in groups as well. You can find a listing of these approximately 225 groups, organized by region, at the Angel Capital Association Web site.
You have to be ready to partner with a funding source who will primarily be interested in a return on investment. It’s a big step away from friends-and-family money, he notes. The pressure for the company to perform up to expectations can be intense.
Our goal is to get three to five times the money we’ve invested within three to five years, May says, adding that his group typically looks to invest $500,000 in companies valued at as little as $1 million.
Talk to your attorney and accountant about the implications of bringing angel investment on board, then ask them to make introductions for you, or find someone who can. Individual angels are usually well-connected in regional business circles, and have a network of professionals looking out for deals for them, so if your company is a good prospect for an angel investor, it shouldn’t be difficult to meet up with one.
The Angel Capital Association is North America’s professional alliance of angel groups. The association brings together many of the angel organizations in the United States and Canada to share best practices and collaboration opportunities. ACA provides excellent professional development and discounts on important services for angel investors who belong to member groups, and also serves as the public policy voice of the American angel community.
ACA thanks Senate for passing amendments to Financial Reform Bill. Learn more.
2010 ACA Summit Join ACA ACEF Newsletter ACA Member Directory ACA Member Newsletter Sign-up Guidelines for Charging Fees Syndication Webinar Series
Info for Entrepreneurs
ACA itself is not a source of capital, but we do have helpful information.
Our member angel groups do make investments in companies that fit their investment criteria and are selected through their investment evaluation processes.
ACA does not review business plans or provide financing to companies and cannot introduce you or your business to an angel group or other investor. Please do not send us business plans. However, we do have several resources in this section for you, including:
* FAQs/ Info for Entrepreneurs – Learn more about what angel investing is, general criteria to determine if this type of capital is right for you and your company, basic information on how to prepare for the funding process, and other helpful Web sites, articles, and books.
* Listing of ACA Member Angel Groups in the United States, Canada, and Mexico with links to each group’s Web site. Entrepreneurs are welcome to review the directory to learn about the investment interests and processes of these organizations. If you decide to contact any of these groups, please do so in the way they request on their Web site. This page also links you to a larger set of angel groups, including groups that do not belong to ACA, via the Angel Capital Education Foundation Web site.
* Guidelines to angel groups for charging fees to entrepreneurs – ACA feels strongly that angel groups should charge no or little fees to entrepreneurs to apply for funding or present their business plans to angel groups, and that any fees should be transparent on their Web sites and other materials. This page outlines ACA’s guidelines to angel groups and background on what ACA member groups do.
ACA Member Directory
Below is a listing of angel groups that are members in good standing of the Angel Capital Association, as well as organizations that are affiliated with ACA.
The directory includes a link to the Web site of each organization so you may learn more about the group, including investment preferences and processes. Click on the group name to link to the corresponding Web site. (on their site – my note).
Entrepreneurs in the process of searching for funding sources may also find valuable information resources specifically for entrepreneurs on the Angel Capital Education Foundation Web site, including a longer set of links to angel groups.
* Angels’ Forum – Palo Alto, CA
* Band of Angels – Menlo Park, CA
* HealthTech Capital – Los Altos Hills, CA
* Imporium Angels – San Diego, CA
* Life Science Angels – Menlo Park, CA
* Maverick Angels – Thousand Oaks, CA
* North Bay Angels – Healdsburg, CA
* Pasadena Angels – Pasadena, CA
* Sacramento Angels – Sacramento, CA
* San Joaquin Angels – Stockton, CA
* Sand Hill Angels LLC – Menlo Park, CA
* Tech Coast Angels – Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, Santa Barbara, CA
* Alberta Deal Generator – Edmonton, AB
* Angel Forum – Vancouver – Vancouver, BC
* Anges Quebec – Quebec City, QC
* First Angel Network Association – Halifax, NS
* Fundamental Technologies II – Coquitlam, BC
* Maple Leaf Angels – Toronto, ON
* Newfoundland and Labrador Angel Network – St. Johns, NL
* Okanagan Angels – Kelowna, BC
* Saskatchewan Angel Investor Network – Saskatoon, SK
* Vancouver Angel Technology Network (VANTEC) – Vancouver, BC
* Akron ARCH Angels (Akron Regional Change Angels) – Akron, OH
* Blue Water Angels – Midland, MI
* Core Network – Toledo, OH
* Cornerstone Angels – Northbrook, IL
* First Angels – Kalamazoo, MI
* Grand Angels – Grand Rapids, MI
* Hyde Park Angel Network – Chicago, IL
* Irish Angels – Notre Dame, IN
* Lakes Ventures II – Alexandria, MN
* Main Street Venture Fund – Fort Wayne, IN
* Marquette University Golden Angels Network – Milwaukee, WI
* Medical Growth Fund – Cleveland, OH
* North Coast Angel Fund – Cleveland, OH
* Ohio TechAngels – Columbus, OH
* Phenomenelle Angels – Madison, WI
* Queen City Angels – Cincinnati, OH
* RAIN Source Capital – St. Paul, MN
* River Valley Capital – Montevideo, MN
* Rocket Ventures – Toledo, OH
* Silicon Pastures – Milwaukee, WI
* South Metro Investors – Burnsville, MN
* Stateline Angels – Rockford, IL
* Stepstone Angels – Indianapolis, IN
* Two Rivers Angel Investment Network – Mankato, MN
* Wisconsin Investment Partners – Madison, WI
* Angel Ventures Mexico
* Active Angel Investors – Vienna, VA
* BlueTree Allied Angels – Pittsburgh, PA
* Capital Access Network (Dingman Center of Entrepreneurship) – College Park, MD
* Delaware Crossing Investor Group – Doylestown, PA
* Jefferson Corner Group – Charlottesville, VA
* Jumpstart New Jersey Angel Network – Mt Laurel, NJ
* LORE Associates – Philadelphia, PA
* Mid-Atlantic Angel Group Fund I ( MAG ) – Philadelphia, PA
* Minority Angel Investor Network – Philadelphia, PA
* New Dominion Angels – Warrenton, VA
* Pittsburgh Equity Partners – Pittsburgh, PA
* Private Investors Forum – Jenkintown, PA
* Robin Hood Ventures – Wayne, PA
* Virginia Active Angel Network – Charlottesville, VA
* West Virginia Angel Network – Fairmont, WV
Midwest/ Great Plains
* 3C Capital Partners – Northfield, MN
* Billiken Angels – St. Louis, MO
* Centennial Investors – Columbia, MO
* FM Angel Investment Fund – Fargo, ND
* Great Opportunities – Aberdeen, SD
* Louisville Angel Investor Network – Louisville, KY
* Mid-America Angels – Lenexa, KS
* Nebraska Angels Inc – Lincoln, NE
* Northern Plains Investment – Bismarck, ND
* P3 Alliance – Indianapolis, IN
* Seedstep Angels – Oklahoma City, OK
* Show Me Angels – Kansas City, MO
* St. Louis Arch Angels – St. Louis, MO
* Valley Angel Investment Fund – Grand Forks, ND
* Wildcat Angels – Evanston, IL
* Women’s Capital Connection – Lenexa, KS
* ECS Angels – Bar Harbor, ME
* Health Care Angel Group – Houston, TX
* Investors Circle – San Francisco, CA
* Angel Investor Forum – East Hartford, CT
* Bay Angels – Cape Cod, MA
* Beacon Angels – Boston, MA
* Boston Harbor Angels – Boston, MA
* Boynton Angels – Worcester, MA
* Cherrystone Angel Group – Providence, RI
* CommonAngels – Lexington, MA
* eCoast Angels – Portsmouth, NH
* Golden Seeds LLC – Stamford, CT and Boston, MA
* HubAngels – Brookline, MA
* Landmark Angels – Greenwich, CT
* Launchpad Venture Group – Wellesley, MA
* Maine Angels – Portland, ME
* Race Point Capital Group LLC – Newton, MA
* River Valley Investors – Springfield, MA
* Walnut Venture Associates – Wellesley Hills, MA
* Golden Seeds – New York, NY
* Long Island Angel Network – Melville, NY
* New York Angels – New York, NY
* Rochester Angel Network – Rochester, NY
* Seed Capital Fund of CNY – Syracuse, NY
* Tech Valley Angel Network – Albany, NY
* Alliance of Angels – Seattle, WA
* Bellingham Angel Group – Bellingham, WA
* Boise Angel Alliance – Boise, ID
* Northwest Energy Angels – Maple Valley, WA
* Oregon Angel Fund – Portland, OR
* Puget Sound Venture Club – Bellevue, WA
* Seraph Capital Forum – Seattle, WA
* Tacoma Angel Network – Tacoma, WA
* WINGS – Seattle, WA
* Angel Capital Group – Hendersonville, TN
* Ariel Savannah Angel Partners – Savannah, GA
* Atlanta Technology Angels – Atlanta, GA
* Birmingham Angel Network – Birmingham, AL
* Emergent Growth Fund – Gainesville, FL
* Fund for Arkansas’ Future – Little Rock, AR
* Georgia Angel Investor Network – Savannah, GA
* Go Beyond Network – Naples, FL
* Gulf Coast Venture Forum – Naples, FL
* Huntsville Angel Network – Huntsville, AL
* Inception Micro Angel Fund – Family of Funds – Winston-Salem, NC
* Mississippi Angel Network – Ridgeland, MS
* Nashville Capital Network – Nashville, TN
* New World Angels – Boca Raton, FL
* Piedmont Angel Network – Greensboro, NC
* Seraph Group – Atlanta, GA
* South Coast Angel Fund – New Orleans, LA
* Springboard Capital – Jacksonville, FL
* Triangle Accredited Capital Forum – Wake Forest, NC
* Upstate Carolina Angel Network – Greenville, SC
* Virginia Active Angel Network – Charlottesville, VA
* Wilmington Investor Network – Wilmington, NC
* Arizona Angels – Scottsdale, AZ
* Arizona Technology Investor Forum (ATIF) – Tempe, AZ
* Central Texas Angel Network – Austin, TX
* Concho Valley Angel Network – San Angelo, TX
* Desert Angels – Tucson, AZ
* Houston Angel Network – Houston, TX
* New Mexico Angels Inc – Albuquerque, NM
* North Texas Angel Network – Fort Worth, TX
* Startech – San Antonio, TX
* Frontier Angel Fund – Kalispell, MT
* Hawaii Angels – Honolulu, HI
* Sierra Angels – Incline Village, NV
* Vegas Valley Angels – Las Vegas, NV
Capital Source and Matching Databases
* Angel Capital Education Foundation – Listing of all angel groups in North America, (that we know about)
* Chenango Capital – Greensboro, NC
* European Business Angel Network – Listing of angel networks in Europe
* Innovation Park at Notre Dame – Notre Dame, IN
* Jumpstart Inc – Cleveland, OH
* Kansas Technology Enterprise Corporation – Topeka, KS
* Microsoft BizSpark Program – Software for Startups
* National Angel Capital Organization – Listing of angels and networks in Canada
* North Carolina Biotechnology Center – Research Triangle Park, NC
* Pennsylvania Angel Network
* Washington Technology Center (WTC Angel Network) – Seattle, WA
* Wisconsin Angel Network – Madison, WI
The mission of New York Angels, Inc. is to provide a forum in which its members can exchange information about investment opportunities in early-stage technology and emerging growth companies in the Northeast and to provide administrative support as its members help such companies to grow to market leadership.
We provide early-stage capital in the range of $250,000 – $750,000, an investment range not generally served by venture capital funds. Since 1997, we and members of our predecessor group have invested over $28 million in more than 65 ventures companies.
Our members are entrepreneurs, CEO’s, venture capitalists and business leaders who have founded, funded and built world-class companies. We mentor and coach the entrepreneurs in whom we invest, serve on their boards, provide contacts and assist with team building, strategic planning and fundraising.
We welcome you to browse through this site to learn more about us, and about how you can work with us; as an entrepreneur to be funded, a professional industry sponsor, or as prospective angel investor yourself.
If you are a company with a great idea, we want to hear from you. Read about our investment criteria, funding process, and then learn how to submit your business plan.
SUBMIT YOUR BUSINESS PLAN
For Angel Investors
Membership in New York Angels is by invitation only, and is extended to individuals who share our vision and will actively contribute to our process. Find out more about becoming a member.
SCORE – SBA
240 Interstate North Parkway
Marietta, GA 30339
Phone: (770) 859-2321
233 Peachtree St.
Harris Tower-Suite 1900
Atlanta GA 30303
Phone: (404) 331-0121
Fax: (404) 331-0101
Fax: (404) 331-0108
Cobb Chamber of Commerece
240 Interstate North Parkway, NW
Marietta, GA 30339
Phone: (770) 980-2000
Your Local SBA
Georgia District Office
233 Peachtree Street, NE, Suite 1900
Atlanta, GA 30303
(800) 877-8339 TDD/TTY
Office Hours 8:30am to 5:00pm
Directions to the Office
* Terri L. Denison, District Director
* Staff Directory
* SBA Microloan Program Now Available Statewide NEW
* Subscribe to our Newsletter
* Public Training and Seminars Register NOW
* Lenders and Resource Partners ONLY TRAINING – Register NOW
* Archives and WEB Live – SEMINARS & TRAINING MUST SEE
SBA’s Free Online Training Courses
Online Georgia Small Business Resource Guide
Important Business Information
Information Page for Georgia Lenders
Center for Faith-Based and Community Initiatives
Putting your ideas to work
* Teen Business Link
* THE 8(A) / SDB PROGRAM
* SBA Forms Online
* SBA/IRS Resource Guide
* Most Frequently Asked Questions
* U.S. Government GRANTS Website
* Página en español
* Military Reservists
* Be Aware and Prepare
* Disaster Preparedness
* Central Contractor Registration
Georgia SBA District Office
233 Peachtree Street, NE, Suite 1900
Small Business Resource MAGAZINE
Published every year, Small Business Resource magazine is the most complete source of information on starting and expanding your business
Every guide is published with information and resource listings specific to where you live.
Georgia SBA District Office
233 Peachtree Street, NE, Suite 1900
Find the best financing options for your small business. These include sources like loans and grants.
What to Take to the Lender
Financing & Loan Programs
Counseling and seminars can help you start and manage your business successfully.
Small Business Training Network
Attend Local Events
Local events hosted by small business experts can help you learn quickly to get your business on the road to success.
Find Local Events
Programs such as the 8(a) program help minority-owned businesses survive and thrive.
Women entrepreneurs across the country can take advantage of various programs.
There are many programs that help discharged and service-disabled veterans succeed.
Nothing beats experience. Talk to other business owners online, and attend local events in your area.
(not an SBA website)
Small Business Resources for Women
Women entrepreneurs are changing the face of America’s economy. In the 1970’s, women owned less than five percent of the nation’s businesses. Today, they are at least equal owners of nearly half the nation’s businesses and are majority owners of about a third of all small businesses.
The Edge Connection Women’s Business Center
3333 Busbee Drive
CENTER FOR BLACK WOMEN’S WELLNESS
477 Windsor St. S.W.
Women’s Economic Development Agency (WEDA) Women’s Business Center
675 Metropolitan Pkwy. S.W.
Women’s Business Centers
SBA serves women entrepreneurs nationwide through its various programs and service, some of which are designed especially for women. Many of these are overseen by SBA’s Office of Women’s Business Ownership.
Women’s business ownership representatives in every SBA district office coordinate services for women, helping them access appropriate training, counseling, mentoring, federal contracting opportunities, financing, and more. They can also provide information on other local resources, including SBA resource partners and lenders.
The SBA’s Women Business Centers are a nationwide network of 114 community based centers that provide business training, counseling, mentoring and other assistance geared to women, particularly those who are socially and economically disadvantaged.
To meet the needs of women entrepreneurs, the WBCs offer their services at convenient times and locations. Some offer child care during training and many provide assistance and materials in different languages, depending on the needs of the individual communities they serve. Classes are either free or offered at a small fee, and scholarships are often available to those who need them. A number of WBCs also provide courses and counseling via the Internet, mobile classrooms and satellite locations.
Both SBA district offices and women’s business centers offer mentoring roundtables. If there is not an existing roundtable nearby, women’s business centers may be able to help women entrepreneurs set them up.
Mind Your Own Business, where you can find the links to turn your entrepreneurial dreams into reality. Created by the U.S. Small Business Administration and Junior Achievement, this site walks you through five easy steps of business ownership – whether you’ve just had a brainstorm for your first business venture or you’ve been at it a few years.
So go Mind Your Own Business, and find out about the challenges and rewards of being an entrepreneur.
* JA/SBA Job Shadow Day 2007
* Small Business Facts and Stats
* Make It Your Business Entrepreneurial Activity
CONNECT…develop your network
Successful entrepreneurs have a variety of people to help them get ahead, including mentors, advisers, coaches, and friends to help them along the way. The act of conducting business is about developing and maintaining relationships – with customers, banks, partners, suppliers, and your community.
Join business organizations and clubs to learn how others succeed and handle setbacks.
Get advice. Stay connected. Listen.
To obtain additional information on counseling and training services provided by SBA visit:
Your Business Buddy List
Home | Explore | Decide | Build | Connect | Succeed
SBA and JA are working together to encourage youth entrepreneurship. SBA’s programs and services are targeted specifically to small businesses. JA is the world’s largest organization educating young people about business, economics and free enterprise. Working together, SBA and JA can maximize support for the next generation of entrepreneurs.
SBA’s participation in this cosponsorship is not an endorsement of the views, opinions, products or services of any cosponsor or other person or entity. All SBA programs, services and cosponsored activities are extended to the public on a nondiscriminatory basis. Neither SBA, nor the United States Government, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information from this server or the links to servers on the HotList.
Cosponsorship Authorization # 07-7630-18 (2010)
BUILD…make it happen
Make it legal.
We live in a country where the rule of law is an important part of society. How will the legal system affect your business? How can you protect yourself, your business ideas, and you? Do you know your federal, state, and local tax laws?
Researching and selecting the right legal structure for your type of business is very important.
Name your business and product – your customers will recognize your product by that name.
Understand the concept of the free enterprise system and how to use the concept of “profit” to your advantage.
How will your business get things done?
Who does what?
What is the structure of your business?
How are tasks divided?
Manage your money.
Where will your money come from?
How will it come in and out of your business?
Will you invest back into your business?
How much cash do you need to operate and pay expenses?
What profit do you expect?
Create your image.
Marketing – How will your customers locate you and your business?
Know where your customers are and design a plan to find them and keep them coming back.
Keep track of your competitors.
Have a good strategy.
Being a small business is an advantage: You’re small, you’re flexible, and you can quickly adapt to market changes. Plan to stay on top of it.
You are your businesses best sales representative.
Read more about building and financing your business:
Cha-Ching: Money Matters
Avoiding Legal Business Hassles
Financial Management Series and Marketing Series
Plan Your Finances
The Seraph Investor Network
It all began in 2003, with a conversation outlining the inefficiencies in Angel investing in addition to the difficulties entrepreneurs face while raising start-up capital. Few investment groups specialize in investing $50,000 to $2,000,000 in early-stage companies and even fewer bring a broad value-add network to support entrepreneurs. The Seraph Investor Network was founded with the vision of providing capital and support in an expedient and efficient manner without geographic prejudice. Our Investor Network reaches 21 cities and spans three continents. The reach provides valuable expertise to entrepreneurs and investors.
Many of the challenges that Angel investors face are:
* inadequate access to quality investment opportunities due to limited personal network and geographic reach.
* limited negotiating leverage to obtain attractive terms, insufficient time available to devote to due diligence
* inability to construct a diversified venture capital portfolio
* high transaction costs as percentage of investment.
Seraph Group offers solutions to these challenges by providing members access to quality deal flow, better investment terms, professional due diligence and post investment monitoring. Addtionally, we offer a unique co-investment feature to our members allowing them to customize their investment portfolio.
Meet Our Team
“BONDING WITH INVESTORS. The main thing they are looking at is an exit strategy for the investment. They don’t always understand the technology, but they can tell if you know what you’re doing, if you have the right team on board, and if you have a compelling value set, Wingard says. The early money is the most difficult to get, and communication is key. Wingard’s partner does investor relations full-time, he says, and he devotes about 20% of his time to the same endeavor.”
Start-ups Only Catalyst for Job Creation Jobs Report
When it comes to U.S. job growth, startup companies aren’t everything – they are the only thing A study released by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation shows that all net job growth occurs in the U.S. economy only through startup firms. Now if only we could get policy makers to read the study.
New Resource for Entrepreneurs Advancing Energy Innovation
The Kauffman Foundation has launched a new initiative for advancing promising new ventures in energy. If you have an interest in energy as an entrepreneur, investor, buyer, agency or advocate, click over and add your voice to the growing choir of those working to kick our energy addiction.
Entrepreneurs have led the U.S. out of every recession of the last 100 years.
To learn how, consider these relevant stories. Also get your FREE E=R decal today and spread the word that entrepreneurs will lead the economic recovery.
A Better Way to go from Concept to Commerce?
New thinking about commercializing collegiate innovation can yield greater success in moving from the laboratory to the market – building companies, employing people along the way Click here to read more.
This site has a vast amount of content for entrepreneurs, policy makers, investors, mentors, and researchers/academics. The information on the website also focuses on specific groups involved in the entrepreneur process.
o Entrepreneurial Topics
o Global Business Policy Topics
o Investor Topics
o Business MentorTopics
o Research & Academic Topics
o Accounting & Finance
o Human Resources
o Marketing & Sales
o Products & Services
o Business Operations
o The Entrepreneur
o Public Policy
o Entrepreneurship Law
Biz ConnectMake Business Connections
Connect with organizations to help build your business. Or, if you represent a group meant to help entrepreneurs build great companies, submit your link now
Go here to learn more. (go to site link below and follow – it has lots of really great and reliable / credible / real deal information – my note, cricketdiane)
Global Content Repository
Finance & Accounting Click here to find Finance & Accounting related content. People/HR Click here for human resources related information. Sales & Marketing Click here for sales and marketing related information.
Products & Services Click here to find information on products and services offered to the entrepreneurial community. Operations Click here for information on a variety of operational topics. The Entrepreneur Click here for stories from entrepreneurs for entrepreneurs.
Access to capital has long been a necessary ingredient to launching entrepreneurial endeavors. In this section you will find stories, best practices, and connections to a variety of sources of capital.
2010 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
Atlanta Development Authority. Central Atlanta Progress. Corenet Global. Corporate Real Estate For Women. Georgia Chamber of Commerce …
My Note –
Among the things I found online were a number of local resources including development authorities and civic organizations which I’m not including here and then I sent information to one of the business incubator groups that the Chamber of Commerce lady gave me – after which – I discovered this on my blog stats page and forgot to send along, although it probably doesn’t matter.
In this post, I’m also leaving out the online info I found about the business incubator groups that they suggested (since these are specific to this area) and the information about what I sent to them – unless I decide to add it at the end of the post – (probably not, but maybe).
cricketdiane weblog stats – 07-22-10
Blog Stats Summary Tables
Total views: 332,685
Busiest day: 5,363 — Monday, April 6, 2009
Views today: 545
Just a note: we don’t count your own visits to your blog.
Generated 2010-07-22 22:05:05 UTC
wordpress blog stats
Basics of Company Valuation
Formal valuation of the seller’s business is a vital component of the buyer’s analysis when discussing a proposed acquisition. The valuation of a business in the context of an acquisition, as opposed to estate planning or other purposes, often involves consideration of investment or strategic value beyond a street analysis of fair market value. Valuation may be done by the seller prior to entertaining prospective buyers, by the buyer who identifies a specific target or by both parties during negotiations to resolve a dispute over price.
However, company valuation is not an exact science, nor will valuation issues typically drive the terms and pricing of the transaction. There are numerous acceptable valuation methods and, in most situations, each will yield a different result.
My Note –
The article above didn’t tell me as much as it would take to even have a basic understanding of how the business would be put through steps of valuation – so I went to the wikipedia entry to get more info. (And it is way too complex to figure it out – so later today, I’m going over to the Harvard business school online and see if I can find some notes on it somewhere.)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Business valuation is a process and a set of procedures used to estimate the economic value of an owner’s interest in a business. Valuation is used by financial market participants to determine the price they are willing to pay or receive to consummate a sale of a business. In addition to estimating the selling price of a business, the same valuation tools are often used by business appraisers to resolve disputes related to estate and gift taxation, divorce litigation, allocate business purchase price among business assets, establish a formula for estimating the value of partners’ ownership interest for buy-sell agreements, and many other business and legal purposes.
Standard and premise of value
Before the value of a business can be measured, the valuation assignment must specify the reason for and circumstances surrounding the business valuation. These are formally known as the business value standard and premise of value. The standard of value is the hypothetical conditions under which the business will be valued. The premise of value relates to the assumptions, such as assuming that the business will continue forever in its current form (going concern), or that the value of the business lies in the proceeds from the sale of all of its assets minus the related debt (sum of the parts or assemblage of business assets).
Business valuation results can vary considerably depending upon the choice of both the standard and premise of value. In an actual business sale, it would be expected that the buyer and seller, each with an incentive to achieve an optimal outcome, would determine the fair market value of a business asset that would compete in the market for such an acquisition. If the synergies are specific to the company being valued, they may not be considered. Fair value also does not incorporate discounts for lack of control or marketability. SFAS 142
Note, however, that it is possible to achieve the fair market value for a business asset that is being liquidated in its secondary market. This underscores the difference between the standard and premise of value.
These assumptions might not, and probably do not, reflect the actual conditions of the market in which the subject business might be sold. However, these conditions are assumed because they yield a uniform standard of value, after applying generally-accepted valuation techniques, which allows meaningful comparison between businesses which are similarly situated.
Elements of business valuation
A business valuation report generally begins with a description of national, regional and local economic conditions existing as of the valuation date, as well as the conditions of the industry in which the subject business operates. A common source of economic information for the first section of the business valuation report is the Federal Reserve Board’s Beige Book, published eight times a year by the Federal Reserve Bank. State governments and industry associations often publish useful statistics describing regional and industry conditions.
The financial statement analysis generally involves common size analysis, ratio analysis (liquidity, turnover, profitability, etc.), trend analysis and industry comparative analysis. This permits the valuation analyst to compare the subject company to other businesses in the same or similar industry, and to discover trends affecting the company and/or the industry over time. By comparing a company’s financial statements in different time periods, the valuation expert can view growth or decline in revenues or expenses, changes in capital structure, or other financial trends. How the subject company compares to the industry will help with the risk assessment and ultimately help determine the discount rate and the selection of market multiples.
Normalization of financial statements
The most common normalization adjustments fall into the following four categories:
* Comparability Adjustments. The valuer may adjust the subject company’s financial statements to facilitate a comparison between the subject company and other businesses in the same industry or geographic location. These adjustments are intended to eliminate differences between the way that published industry data is presented and the way that the subject company’s data is presented in its financial statements.
* Non-operating Adjustments. It is reasonable to assume that if a business were sold in a hypothetical sales transaction (which is the underlying premise of the fair market value standard), the seller would retain any assets which were not related to the production of earnings or price those non-operating assets separately. For this reason, non-operating assets (such as excess cash) are usually eliminated from the balance sheet.
* Non-recurring Adjustments. The subject company’s financial statements may be affected by events that are not expected to recur, such as the purchase or sale of assets, a lawsuit, or an unusually large revenue or expense. These non-recurring items are adjusted so that the financial statements will better reflect the management’s expectations of future performance.
* Discretionary Adjustments. The owners of private companies may be paid at variance from the market level of compensation that similar executives in the industry might command. In order to determine fair market value, the owner’s compensation, benefits, perquisites and distributions must be adjusted to industry standards. Similarly, the rent paid by the subject business for the use of property owned by the company’s owners individually may be scrutinized.
Income, Asset and Market Approaches
Three different approaches are commonly used in business valuation: the income approach, the asset-based approach, and the market approach. Within each of these approaches, there are various techniques for determining the value of a business using the definition of value appropriate for the appraisal assignment. Generally, the income approaches determine value by calculating the net present value of the benefit stream generated by the business (discounted cash flow); the asset-based approaches determine value by adding the sum of the parts of the business (net asset value); and the market approaches determine value by comparing the subject company to other companies in the same industry, of the same size, and/or within the same region.
A number of business valuation models can be constructed that utilize various methods under the three business valuation approaches. Venture Capitalists and Private Equity professionals have long used the First chicago method which essentially combines the income approach with the market approach.
In determining which of these approaches to use, the valuation professional must exercise discretion. Each technique has advantages and drawbacks, which must be considered when applying those techniques to a particular subject company. Most treatises and court decisions encourage the valuator to consider more than one technique, which must be reconciled with each other to arrive at a value conclusion. A measure of common sense and a good grasp of mathematics is helpful.
The income approaches determine fair market value by multiplying the benefit stream generated by the subject or target company times a discount or capitalization rate. The discount or capitalization rate converts the stream of benefits into present value. There are several different income approaches, including capitalization of earnings or cash flows, discounted future cash flows (“DCF”), and the excess earnings method (which is a hybrid of asset and income approaches). Most of the income approaches look to the company’s adjusted historical financial data for a single period; only DCF requires data for multiple future periods. The discount or capitalization rate must be matched to the type of benefit stream to which it is applied. The result of a value calculation under the income approach is generally the fair market value of a controlling, marketable interest in the subject company, since the entire benefit stream of the subject company is most often valued, and the capitalization and discount rates are derived from statistics concerning public companies.
Discount or capitalization rates
A discount rate or capitalization rate is used to determine the present value of the expected returns of a business. The discount rate and capitalization rate are closely related to each other, but distinguishable. Generally speaking, the discount rate or capitalization rate may be defined as the yield necessary to attract investors to a particular investment, given the risks associated with that investment.
* In DCF valuations, the discount rate, often an estimate of the cost of capital for the business is used to calculate the net present value of a series of projected cash flows.
* On the other hand, a capitalization rate is applied in methods of business valuation that are based on business data for a single period of time. For example, in real estate valuations for properties that generate cash flows, a capitalization rate may be applied to the net operating income (NOI) (i.e., income before depreciation and interest expenses) of the property for the trailing twelve months.
There are several different methods of determining the appropriate discount rates. The discount rate is composed of two elements: (1) the risk-free rate, which is the return that an investor would expect from a secure, practically risk-free investment, such as a high quality government bond; plus (2) a risk premium that compensates an investor for the relative level of risk associated with a particular investment in excess of the risk-free rate. Most importantly, the selected discount or capitalization rate must be consistent with stream of benefits to which it is to be applied.
Capital Asset Pricing Model (“CAPM”)
The Capital Asset Pricing Model ( CAPM) is one method of determining the appropriate discount rate in business valuations. The CAPM method originated from the Nobel Prize winning studies of Harry Markowitz, James Tobin and William Sharpe. The CAPM method derives the discount rate by adding a risk premium to the risk-free rate. In this instance, however, the risk premium is derived by multiplying the equity risk premium times “beta,” which is a measure of stock price volatility. Beta is published by various sources for particular industries and companies. Beta is associated with the systematic risks of an investment.
One of the criticisms of the CAPM method is that beta is derived from the volatility of prices of publicly-traded companies, which are likely to differ from private companies in their capital structures, diversification of products and markets, access to credit markets, size, management depth, and many other respects. Where private companies can be shown to be sufficiently similar to public companies, however, the CAPM method may be appropriate.
Weighted Average Cost of Capital (“WACC”)
The weighted average cost of capital is an approach to determining a discount rate. The WACC method determines the subject company’s actual cost of capital by calculating the weighted average of the company’s cost of debt and cost of equity. The WACC must be applied to the subject company’s net cash flow to total invested capital.
One of the problems with this method is that the valuator may elect to calculate WACC according to the subject company’s existing capital structure, the average industry capital structure, or the optimal capital structure. Such discretion detracts from the objectivity of this approach, in the minds of some critics.
Indeed, since the WACC captures the risk of the subject business itself, the existing or contemplated capital structures, rather than industry averages, are the appropriate choices for business valuation.
Once the capitalization rate or discount rate is determined, it must be applied to an appropriate economic income stream: pretax cash flow, aftertax cash flow, pretax net income, after tax net income, excess earnings, projected cash flow, etc. The result of this formula is the indicated value before discounts. Before moving on to calculate discounts, however, the valuation professional must consider the indicated value under the asset and market approaches.
Careful matching of the discount rate to the appropriate measure of economic income is critical to the accuracy of the business valuation results. Net cash flow is a frequent choice in professionally conducted business appraisals. The rationale behind this choice is that this earnings basis corresponds to the equity discount rate derived from the Build-Up or CAPM models: the returns obtained from investments in publicly traded companies can easily be represented in terms of net cash flows. At the same time, the discount rates are generally also derived from the public capital markets data.
The Build-Up Method is a widely-recognized method of determining the after-tax net cash flow discount rate, which in turn yields the capitalization rate. The figures used in the Build-Up Method are derived from various sources. This method is called a “build-up” method because it is the sum of risks associated with various classes of assets. It is based on the principle that investors would require a greater return on classes of assets that are more risky. The first element of a Build-Up capitalization rate is the risk-free rate, which is the rate of return for long-term government bonds. Investors who buy large-cap equity stocks, which are inherently more risky than long-term government bonds, require a greater return, so the next element of the Build-Up method is the equity risk premium. In determining a company’s value, the long-horizon equity risk premium is used because the Company’s life is assumed to be infinite. The sum of the risk-free rate and the equity risk premium yields the long-term average market rate of return on large public company stocks.
Similarly, investors who invest in small cap stocks, which are riskier than blue-chip stocks, require a greater return, called the “size premium.” Size premium data is generally available from two sources: Morningstar’s (formerly Ibbotson & Associates’) Stocks, Bonds, Bills & Inflation and Duff & Phelps’ Risk Premium Report.
By adding the first three elements of a Build-Up discount rate, we can determine the rate of return that investors would require on their investments in small public company stocks. These three elements of the Build-Up discount rate are known collectively as the “systematic risks.”
In addition to systematic risks, the discount rate must include “unsystematic risks,” which fall into two categories. One of those categories is the “industry risk premium.” Morningstar’s yearbooks contain empirical data to quantify the risks associated with various industries, grouped by SIC industry code.
The other category of unsystematic risk is referred to as “specific company risk.” Historically, no published data has been available to quantify specific company risks. However as of late 2006, new ground-breaking research has been able to quantify, or isolate, this risk for publicly-traded stocks through the use of Total Beta calculations. P. Butler and K. Pinkerton have outlined a procedure, known as the Butler Pinkerton Model (BPM), using a modified Capital Asset Pricing Model ( CAPM) to calculate the company specific risk premium. The model uses an equality between the standard CAPM which relies on the total beta on one side of the equation; and the firm’s beta, size premium and company specific risk premium on the other. The equality is then solved for the company specific risk premium as the only unknown. The BPM is a relatively new concept and is gaining acceptance in the business valuation community.
It is important to understand why this capitalization rate for small, privately-held companies is significantly higher than the return that an investor might expect to receive from other common types of investments, such as money market accounts, mutual funds, or even real estate. Those investments involve substantially lower levels of risk than an investment in a closely-held company. Depository accounts are insured by the federal government (up to certain limits); mutual funds are composed of publicly-traded stocks, for which risk can be substantially minimized through portfolio diversification.
Closely-held companies, on the other hand, frequently fail for a variety of reasons too numerous to name. Examples of the risk can be witnessed in the storefronts on every Main Street in America. There are no federal guarantees. The risk of investing in a private company cannot be reduced through diversification, and most businesses do not own the type of hard assets that can ensure capital appreciation over time. This is why investors demand a much higher return on their investment in closely-held businesses; such investments are inherently much more risky.
The value of asset-based analysis of a business is equal to the sum of its parts. That is the theory underlying the asset-based approaches to business valuation. The asset approach to business valuation is based on the principle of substitution: no rational investor will pay more for the business assets than the cost of procuring assets of similar economic utility. In contrast to the income-based approaches, which require the valuation professional to make subjective judgments about capitalization or discount rates, the adjusted net book value method is relatively objective. Pursuant to accounting convention, most assets are reported on the books of the subject company at their acquisition value, net of depreciation where applicable. These values must be adjusted to fair market value wherever possible. The value of a company’s intangible assets, such as goodwill, is generally impossible to determine apart from the company’s overall enterprise value. For this reason, the asset-based approach is not the most probative method of determining the value of going business concerns.
In these cases, the asset-based approach yields a result that is probably lesser than the fair market value of the business. In considering an asset-based approach, the valuation professional must consider whether the shareholder whose interest is being valued would have any authority to access the value of the assets directly. Shareholders own shares in a corporation, but not its assets, which are owned by the corporation. A controlling shareholder may have the authority to direct the corporation to sell all or part of the assets it owns and to distribute the proceeds to the shareholder(s). The non-controlling shareholder, however, lacks this authority and cannot access the value of the assets. As a result, the value of a corporation’s assets is rarely the most relevant indicator of value to a shareholder who cannot avail himself of that value. Adjusted net book value may be the most relevant standard of value where liquidation is imminent or ongoing; where a company earnings or cash flow are nominal, negative or worth less than its assets; or where net book value is standard in the industry in which the company operates. None of these situations applies to the Company which is the subject of this valuation report. However, the adjusted net book value may be used as a “sanity check” when compared to other methods of valuation, such as the income and market approaches.
The market approach to business valuation is rooted in the economic principle of competition: that in a free market the supply and demand forces will drive the price of business assets to a certain equilibrium. Buyers would not pay more for the business, and the sellers will not accept less, than the price of a comparable business enterprise. It is similar in many respects to the “comparable sales” method that is commonly used in real estate appraisal. The market price of the stocks of publicly traded companies engaged in the same or a similar line of business, whose shares are actively traded in a free and open market, can be a valid indicator of value when the transactions in which stocks are traded are sufficiently similar to permit meaningful comparison.
The difficulty lies in identifying public companies that are sufficiently comparable to the subject company for this purpose. Also, as for a private company, the equity is less liquid (in other words its stocks are less easy to buy or sell) than for a public company, its value is considered to be slightly lower than such a market-based valuation would give.
Guideline Public Company method
The Guideline Public Company method entails a comparison of the subject company to publicly traded companies. The comparison is generally based on published data regarding the public companies’ stock price and earnings, sales, or revenues, which is expressed as a fraction known as a “multiple.” If the guideline public companies are sufficiently similar to each other and the subject company to permit a meaningful comparison, then their multiples should be similar. The public companies identified for comparison purposes should be similar to the subject company in terms of industry, product lines, market, growth, margins and risk.
Guideline Transaction Method or Direct Market Data Method
Using this method, the valuation analyst may determine market multiples by reviewing published data regarding actual transactions involving either minority or controlling interests in either publicly traded or closely held companies. In judging whether a reasonable basis for comparison exists, the valuation analysis must consider: (1) the similarity of qualitative and quantitative investment and investor characteristics; (2) the extent to which reliable data is known about the transactions in which interests in the guideline companies were bought and sold; and (3) whether or not the price paid for the guideline companies was in an arms-length transaction, or a forced or distressed sale.
Discounts and premiums
The valuation approaches yield the fair market value of the Company as a whole. In valuing a minority, non-controlling interest in a business, however, the valuation professional must consider the applicability of discounts that affect such interests. Discussions of discounts and premiums frequently begin with a review of the “levels of value.” There are three common levels of value: controlling interest, marketable minority, and non-marketable minority. The intermediate level, marketable minority interest, is lesser than the controlling interest level and higher than the non-marketable minority interest level.
The marketable minority interest level represents the perceived value of equity interests that are freely traded without any restrictions. These interests are generally traded on the New York Stock Exchange, AMEX, NASDAQ, and other exchanges where there is a ready market for equity securities. These values represent a minority interest in the subject companies – small blocks of stock that represent less than 50% of the company’s equity, and usually much less than 50%. Controlling interest level is the value that an investor would be willing to pay to acquire more than 50% of a company’s stock, thereby gaining the attendant prerogatives of control. Some of the prerogatives of control include: electing directors, hiring and firing the company’s management and determining their compensation; declaring dividends and distributions, determining the company’s strategy and line of business, and acquiring, selling or liquidating the business. This level of value generally contains a control premium over the intermediate level of value, which typically ranges from 25% to 50%. An additional premium may be paid by strategic investors who are motivated by synergistic motives.
Non-marketable, minority level is the lowest level on the chart, representing the level at which non-controlling equity interests in private companies are generally valued or traded. This level of value is discounted because no ready market exists in which to purchase or sell interests. Private companies are less “liquid” than publicly-traded companies, and transactions in private companies take longer and are more uncertain. Between the intermediate and lowest levels of the chart, there are restricted shares of publicly-traded companies. Despite a growing inclination of the IRS and Tax Courts to challenge valuation discounts , Shannon Pratt suggested in a scholarly presentation recently that valuation discounts are actually increasing as the differences between public and private companies is widening . Publicly-traded stocks have grown more liquid in the past decade due to rapid electronic trading, reduced commissions, and governmental deregulation. These developments have not improved the liquidity of interests in private companies, however. Valuation discounts are multiplicative, so they must be considered in order. Control premiums and their inverse, minority interest discounts, are considered before marketability discounts are applied.
Discount for lack of control
The first discount that must be considered is the discount for lack of control, which in this instance is also a minority interest discount. Minority interest discounts are the inverse of control premiums, to which the following mathematical relationship exists: MID = 1 – [1 / (1 + CP)] The most common source of data regarding control premiums is the Control Premium Study, published annually by Mergerstat since 1972. Mergerstat compiles data regarding publicly announced mergers, acquisitions and divestitures involving 10% or more of the equity interests in public companies, where the purchase price is $1 million or more and at least one of the parties to the transaction is a U.S. entity. Mergerstat defines the “control premium” as the percentage difference between the acquisition price and the share price of the freely-traded public shares five days prior to the announcement of the M&A transaction. While it is not without valid criticism, Mergerstat control premium data (and the minority interest discount derived therefrom) is widely accepted within the valuation profession.
Discount for lack of marketability
Another factor to be considered in valuing closely held companies is the marketability of an interest in such businesses. Marketability is defined as the ability to convert the business interest into cash quickly, with minimum transaction and administrative costs, and with a high degree of certainty as to the amount of net proceeds. There is usually a cost and a time lag associated with locating interested and capable buyers of interests in privately-held companies, because there is no established market of readily-available buyers and sellers. All other factors being equal, an interest in a publicly traded company is worth more because it is readily marketable. Conversely, an interest in a private-held company is worth less because no established market exists.
The IRS Valuation Guide for Income, Estate and Gift Taxes, Valuation Training for Appeals Officers acknowledges the relationship between value and marketability, stating: “Investors prefer an asset which is easy to sell, that is, liquid.” The discount for lack of control is separate and distinguishable from the discount for lack of marketability. It is the valuation professional’s task to quantify the lack of marketability of an interest in a privately-held company. Because, in this case, the subject interest is not a controlling interest in the Company, and the owner of that interest cannot compel liquidation to convert the subject interest to cash quickly, and no established market exists on which that interest could be sold, the discount for lack of marketability is appropriate. Several empirical studies have been published that attempt to quantify the discount for lack of marketability. These studies include the restricted stock studies and the pre-IPO studies. The aggregate of these studies indicate average discounts of 35% and 50%, respectively. Some experts believe the Lack of Control and Marketability discounts can aggregate discounts for as much as ninety percent of a Company’s fair market value, specifically with family owned companies.
Restricted stock studies
Restricted stocks are equity securities of public companies that are similar in all respects to the freely traded stocks of those companies except that they carry a restriction that prevents them from being traded on the open market for a certain period of time, which is usually one year (two years prior to 1990). This restriction from active trading, which amounts to a lack of marketability, is the only distinction between the restricted stock and its freely-traded counterpart. Restricted stock can be traded in private transactions and usually do so at a discount.
The restricted stock studies attempt to verify the difference in price at which the restricted shares trade versus the price at which the same unrestricted securities trade in the open market as of the same date. The underlying data by which these studies arrived at their conclusions has not been made public. Consequently, it is not possible when valuing a particular company to compare the characteristics of that company to the study data. Still, the existence of a marketability discount has been recognized by valuation professionals and the Courts, and the restricted stock studies are frequently cited as empirical evidence. Notably, the lowest average discount reported by these studies was 26% and the highest average discount was 45%.
In addition to the restricted stock studies, U.S. publicly traded companies are able to sell stock to offshore investors (SEC Regulation S, enacted in 1990) without registering the shares with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The offshore buyers may resell these shares in the United States, still without having to register the shares, after holding them for just 40 days. Typically, these shares are sold for 20% to 30% below the publicly traded share price. Some of these transactions have been reported with discounts of more than 30%, resulting from the lack of marketability. These discounts are similar to the marketability discounts inferred from the restricted and pre-IPO studies, despite the holding period being just 40 days. Studies based on the prices paid for options have also confirmed similar discounts. If one holds restricted stock and purchases an option to sell that stock at the market price (a put), the holder has, in effect, purchased marketability for the shares. The price of the put is equal to the marketability discount. The range of marketability discounts derived by this study was 32% to 49%.
Another approach to measure the marketability discount is to compare the prices of stock offered in initial public offerings (IPOs) to transactions in the same company’s stocks prior to the IPO. Companies that are going public are required to disclose all transactions in their stocks for a period of three years prior to the IPO. The pre-IPO studies are the leading alternative to the restricted stock stocks in quantifying the marketability discount. The pre-IPO studies are sometimes criticized because the sample size is relatively small, the pre-IPO transactions may not be arm’s length, and the financial structure and product lines of the studied companies may have changed during the three year pre-IPO window.
Applying the studies
The studies confirm what the marketplace knows intuitively: Investors covet liquidity and loathe obstacles that impair liquidity. Prudent investors buy illiquid investments only when there is a sufficient discount in the price to increase the rate of return to a level which brings risk-reward back into balance. The referenced studies establish a reasonable range of valuation discounts from the mid-30%s to the low 50%s. The more recent studies appeared to yield a more conservative range of discounts than older studies, which may have suffered from smaller sample sizes. Another method of quantifying the lack of marketability discount is the Quantifying Marketability Discounts Model (QMDM).
Estimates of Business Value
The evidence on the market value of specific businesses varies widely, largely depending on reported market transactions in the equity of the firm. A fraction of businesses are publicly traded, meaning that their equity can be purchased and sold by investors in stock markets available to the general public. Publicly-traded companies on major stock markets have an easily-calculated market capitalization that is a direct estimate of the market value of the firm’s equity. Some publicly-traded firms have relatively few recorded trades (including many firms traded over the counter or in pink sheets ). A far larger number of firms are privately held. Normally, equity interests in these firms (which include corporations, partnerships, limited-liability companies, and some other organizational forms) are traded privately, and often irregularly.
A number of stock market indicators in the United States and other countries provide an indication of the market value of publicly-traded firms. The Survey of Consumer Finance in the US also includes an estimate of household ownership of stocks, including indirect ownership through mutual funds. The 2004 and 2007 SCF indicate a growing trend in stock ownership, with 51% of households indicating a direct or indirect ownership of stocks, with the majority of those respondents indicating indirect ownership through mutual funds. Few indications are available on the value of privately-held firms. Anderson (2009) recently estimated the market value of U.S. privately-held and publicly-traded firms, using Internal Revenue Service and SCF data. He estimates that privately-held firms produced more income for investors, and had more value than publicly-held firms, in 2004.
1. ^ Pratt, Shannon; Robert F. Reilly, Robert P. Schweihs (2000). Valuing a Business. McGraw-Hill Professional. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0071356150. http://books.google.com/books?id=WO6wd8O8dsUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=shannon+pratt&ei=fcfUR6q-F4TCyQSrxfWABA&sig=Fpqt8pGRjbLPZJ9e_QEQGFzQ7y0#PPA913,M1. hmegrii
2. ^ Economic Principles behind the Market, Asset and Income Approaches
3. ^ Bucks, Kennickell, Mach, & Moore, Changes in US Family Finances from 2004 to 2007: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances, Federal Reserve Bulletin, February 2009
4. ^ Anderson, Patrick L., Value of Private Businesses in the United States, Business Economics (2009) 44, 87–108. doi:10.1057/be.2009.4
* Anderson, Patrick L., Business Economics and Finance, Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2005. ISBN 1584883480.
* Anderson, Patrick L., “New Developments in Business Valuation.” Developments in Litigation Economics. Eds P.A. Gaughan and R.J. Thornton, Burlington: Elsevier, 2005. ISBN 076231270X.
* Damodaran, Avanish. Investment Valuation, New York, Wiley, 1996.ISBN 0471112135.
* Fishman, Pratt, Morrison, Standards of Value: Theory and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NJ, 2007.
* Gaughan, Patrick A., Measuring Business Interruption Losses, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NJ, 2004.
* Hitchner, James R., ed., Financial Valuation, McGraw-Hill, 2003.
* Mercer, Christopher, “Fair Market Value vs. The Real World,” Valuation Strategies, March 1999; reprint
* Pratt, Shannon H. Valuing Small Businesses and Professional Practices. 3rd ed., New York, McGraw-Hill, 1998.
* Pratt, Reilly, and Schweihs, Valuing A Business, The Analysis and Appraisal of Closely Held Companies, 3rd ed., New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996, [4th ed., 2002] [5th ed., 2007]
* Pratt, Reilly, Cost of Capital, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
* Trout, Robert, “Business Valuations,” chapter 8 in Patrick Gaughan, ed., Measuring Commercial Damages, Wiley, 2000.
* Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) (publishes financial accounting and reporting guidelines which are relevant to business valuation)
* AICPA’s Statement on Standards for Valuation Services (SSVS)
* American Society of Appraisers (both CPA and non-CPA business appraisers)
* The Canadian Institute of Chartered Business Valuators (CICBV) (The largest professional valuation organization in Canada and sole administrators of the Chartered Business Valuator (CBV) designation training program and accreditation testing)
* National Association of Certified Valuation Analysts (NACVA)
* Institute of Business Appraisers (IBA)
* International Association of CPAs, Attorneys, and Management (IACAM) (Free Business Valuation E-Book Guidebook)
v • d • e
Corporate finance and investment banking
Senior secured debt A Senior debt A Second lien debt A Subordinated debt A Mezzanine debt A Convertible debt A Exchangeable debt A Preferred equity A Warrant A Shareholder loan A Common equity A Pari passu
Met life tower crop.jpg
(terms / conditions)
Initial public offering (IPO) A Secondary Market Offering (SEO) A Follow-on offering A Rights issue A Private placement A Spin off A Spin out A Equity carve-out A Greenshoe (Reverse) A Book building A Bookrunner A Underwriter
Takeover A Reverse takeover A Tender offer A Proxy fight A Poison pill A Freeze-out merger A Tag-along right A Drag-along right A Pre-emption right A Control premium A Due diligence A Divestment A Sell side A Buy side A Demerger
Leveraged buyout A Leveraged recap A Financial sponsor A Private equity A Bond offering A High-yield debt A DIP financing A Project finance
Financial modeling A Free cash flow A Business valuation A Fairness opinion A Stock valuation A Boyd Model A APV A DCF A Net present value (NPV) A Cost of capital (Weighted average) A Comparable company analysis A Enterprise value A Tax shield A Minority interest A Associate company A EVA A MVA A Terminal value A Real options analysis
List of investment banks A List of finance topics
My Note –
Then I made a list of all the entries from my blog post with their stats – which I won’t repeat here – well, maybe I will –
Top Posts for all days ending 2010-07-23 (Summarized)
Just a note: we don’t count your own visits to your blog.
Generated 2010-07-23 22:01:54 UTC
How to Choose Valuable Original Art For Nearly Nothing
by: cricketdiane ( 101Feedback score is 100 to 499)
Thankyou for answering my questions this afternoon over the phone. I really appreciated the time you made available to me. This is the contact information and a quick note about our conversation –
(it would take getting two-thirds of the way down the page to find anything not about the oil spill – but there are some other things including economics, financial research stuff and things about earthquake resistant housing, etc., the ocean art I do and various solutions for things.)
A tiny bit of the art stuff – but this is not why I called you –
Some of the ocean art cards I painted – called Baby Crickets, pocket art you can hold in your hand
Some of my photography – (from this year)
About my world page on Ebay – from when I was selling there – and I wrote a guide
A page for Ebay about my studios and art –
(At the bottom of the page – there are the recommendations from buyers through my Ebay sales)
One of the written sets of comedy materials from the real world – I’ve also made bumper stickers from it – for protecting cars and homes from thieves who haven’t thought about having to get the brakes fixed if they steal it – or having to find somewhere else to steal credit cards that aren’t maxed out, etc. – better than a security company.
The guide / review I wrote for Ebay –
How to Choose Valuable Original Art For Nearly Nothing
My YouTube Channel –
One of the Animoto videos I created of my artwork – doesn’t use my original music –
Two of the Wix websites of my work –
And the procaster channel / livestream for Cricket House Studios – where some of the clips have the images from my computer files which indicate the things I have been researching and studying –
My Note –
Okay, now all that being said – the problem I have is that I’m not any good with business at all. And, I have been working on a number of things that have nothing to do with art or music (some of which appears on my blog over the last three years of writings there) – but I have been working on these other things for business to be built from them for at least the majority of my lifetime from about the time I was seven years old – I am 52 now.
First, what I am seeking is a way to divest myself of all of it. I don’t want to do anything else with any of it but I do want these businesses to succeed and profit in the hands of someone far more competent in business than I am.
Second, these are not business ideas nor am I talking about the art that I’ve created. I’ve done Ebay – I don’t want to do it ever again. I’ve had businesses that I’ve helped – I don’t want to do that again either. I’ve done nothing at all with it and that hasn’t worked either. It can’t continue to sit idling here in my small apartment while the need for these businesses could be of help to our state and our economy.
Third, the kinds of things that I’m describing are –
1. definitely profitable in the hands of someone else that isn’t me.
2. capable of employing people and making a profit with very reasonable startup costs and efforts.
3. qualified for specific grants, incentives and startup resources.
4. could meet a national as well as regional marketplace, possibly with a foothold for international markets.
I don’t know if the services of a business incubator are a correct fit for what I am trying to do. The idea that I had originally was to seek angel investors who would be interested in pursuing these without my help or participation, but then I become a business of selling these business plans, inventions, prototypes, commercial promotion campaigns, research and similar things to others which I don’t know how to do correctly either.
To be honest, I’m tired of studying business and just not getting it right. I’m tired of trying to figure it out. I own all the rights to my art, to my photos, to my music and to my inventions and I’ve tried very hard to understand how to do the business parts with hundreds of thousands of hours in books, online research and interactions – I just don’t get it.
So, that is the best I can do to try and explain without dancing through everything that is sitting here that I’ve been working on for the last twenty years plus. Today, I will be reading about the ways in which investors make valuations of companies and business concepts to better understand it so that I will at least understand what you are telling me a little better whenever we finally meet in person and I am also covering some materials written about how to package the business plans and spec sheets, customer databases and marketing acceleration campaigns from the angel investor websites and investor associations I found online so they can format properly to be understood.
This is the remaining contact info for me that you might need –
Diane C. Phillips
Marietta, GA 30067
Cricket House Studios –
not a good credit risk
income – a disability check and government assistance
a valid drivers’ license – but no car
Born – Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio
Birthdate – 07-20-1958
Graduated from Monroe High School – Sepulveda, California 06-10-1976
Attended several colleges and universities
Continued with independent studies since that time – do not have a degree but probably qualify for one
Not married currently – have seven children, none of which live with me
My fave reading material is encyclopedias – Encyclopaedia Britannica specifically
My favorite goal is to make a scanning tunneling microscope at home from plans I found online
And my favorite hobby / pastime – according to my children – is studying business, planning businesses and generating business stuff while not doing any business with any of it and inventing things
That is what I think might help. If there is anything else you need, let me know. If we are not the right fit and you know of a better way for me to divest these things I’ve created into the marketplace, please let me know. I am not the right person to do business with them but doing nothing with it, isn’t right either.
One of the business concepts I’ve considered as a good model –
To make it possible to have money show up wherever in the US for a fee of $3.00 – Western Union recently started a campaign to do that for $50 to be moved around at a fee of $5.00 which is wonderful. But, there still needs to be a way to do it from one store to another, say for groceries or for Target, for pharmacies – where a gift card isn’t sent in the mail to the recipient and all it would take is the right software similar to the software used for pharmacies to interact with prescriptions. Then, a person here in Atlanta would go to their local store of whatever kind and simply pay for the purchase here or the gifted amount and it would be available immediately in New York at the same branded store for the person to pick up, sign for and use as they see fit – right now today – for a small fee to the purchaser. However, my business model suggests that selling the software to the store is where the lion’s share of the money would be for a business to be created. It could be a very good selling point for stores to build a greater customer interaction and repeat business opportunities since people could come to do this at their store and then wander around and buy other things while they are there.
But, some of the business plans are a little more filled out than that one. It is here as an example of the way I think about these before getting them onto paper and to explain a little about the approaches I make to it.
That’s about it, other than to say I have two computers, internet, cellphone and a number of other resources, have invested in online access and other tools, and have invested the time and effort to develop networks of online resources to do any number of things effectively including access portals to people, statistics and research, among other things that are extremely efficient and useful quickly and immediately. I don’t know what else to tell you.
Thankyou so much for your help today. I am so glad that the lady at the Cobb County Chamber of Commerce gave me your information where I could contact your team.
I look forward to seeing what we can do with this together.
(Diane C. Phillips)