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(I know what’s made the country this way – we’ve had Jackasses and bimbos running the country, Kasha)
** My note –

I found the intellectual crevasse into which the last thirty years of US administrations had fallen:
“A limiting form of small central government as a system foundation is called, a monarchy.” – my quote

A small central government means to let the sum total of power and access to manipulate resources rest in the hands of a few key people who act as autocratic dictators for all. Their decisions become the final arbitrator of all decisions, policies and choices emanating from them, such that if there is an inherent flaw in their thinking, knowledge, skills or policies, they become enacted throughout the system.

That is a crevasse that moves as an acid into the very heart and foundation of the system to crumble it wherever it touches (goes).

Not only is that not a democracy, it undermines the very tenets of that democracy including the rights, freedoms and security that were to be provided by that system and its foundation.

It also precludes a free market economy because the decisions that maneuver and manipulate all resources rest in the hands of a few. It is isolationist and excluding in that resources and opportunities are restricted and driven by “favor,” rather than open and inclusive in the manner of a free market economy, a democracy and a Republic. It means that opportunities are driven not by supply, demand, necessity, innovation and  opportunity, but rather by the decisions and policies of the few who hold power. Therefore, the only opportunities that exist are underwritten and “granted” by those in power and denied to those that they would choose to deny.

This is now the situation results that has ensued from operating in these ways. Attitudes of being untouchable and “entitled”, manipulations of policy choices, poor applications of stated and publicly claimed principles, unintended consequences resulting in deaths, deprivations, impoverishments and macro-economic instability and insecurity – these are all the direct results of this manner of government that has been undulating throughout the US and each of the States.

It was based on a fallacy or two or three or a dozen, which in each case could not be resolved by the checks and balances originally put in place through the founding principles of our nation and secured by its Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Declarations.

– cricketdiane, 03-13-09, USA

***
“Unfortunately, we have a government run by the conceit of the ruling class that believes they are more powerful than we are.” (Lightly paraphrased) Antonin Scalia on FoxBusiness, 03-12-09

***

Homeland Security

A June 28, 2007 Washington Post article related how a U.S. Department of Homeland Security contract with Booz Allen increased from $2 million to more than $70 million through two no-bid contracts, one occurring after the DHS’s legal office had advised DHS not to continue the contract until after a review. A Government Accountability Office (GAO) report on the contract characterized it as not well-planned and lacking any measure for assuring valuable work to be completed.

According to the article,
A review of memos, e-mail and other contracting documents obtained by The Washington Post show that in a rush to meet congressional mandates to establish the information analysis and infrastructure protection offices, agency officials routinely waived rules designed to protect taxpayer money. As the project progressed, the department became so dependent on Booz Allen that it lost the flexibility for a time to seek out other contractors or hire federal employees who might do the job for less.

Elaine C. Duke, the department’s chief procurement officer, acknowledged the problems with the Booz Allen contract. But Duke said those matters have been resolved. She defended a decision to issue a second no-bid contract in 2005 as necessary to keep an essential intelligence operation running until a competition could be held.[64]

SWIFT

In 2006 at the request of the Article 29 Working Group, an advisory group to the European Commission (EC), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Privacy International (PI) investigated the U.S. government’s SWIFT surveillance program and Booz Allen’s role therein. The ACLU and PI filed a memo at the end of their investigation which called into question the ethics and legality of a government contractor (in this case Booz Allen) acting as auditors of a government program, when that contractor is heavily involved with those same agencies on other contracts. The basic statement was that a conflict of interest may exist. Beyond that, the implication was also made that Booz Allen may be complicit in a program (electronic surveillance of SWIFT) that may be deemed illegal by the EC.[60][61]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booz_Allen_Hamilton

***

Lacking Progress

A Growing DNI

When the 9/11 Commission first recommended the creation of a Director of National Intelligence, we specified that the organization should consist of a “several hundred.”  Since then, I understand that the number of DNI personnel has grown substantially beyond what we envisioned.

There is no exact “magic number” beyond which growth in ODNI becomes  too large.  Excessive growth in the size of the DNI can indicate activities that threaten to undermine the goals of the position.  Part of the reason the Commission recommended a DNI was to eliminate the waste, redundancy and inefficiency associated with redundant activity across agencies.  Overlapping activities aren’t simply wasteful, but can reduce the effectiveness of intelligence at levels of the intelligence cycle, from collection to distribution.  We envisioned that the DNI would manage and coordinate these activities, involving itself as a coordinator and manager, rather than an executor.

Contracting

According to several recent reports, the number of contract personnel in the intelligence community has grown radically since 9/11.  Contracting in and of itself is not necessarily an indicator of problems.  When used correctly, it can increase the efficiency of non-inherently governmental functions and save taxpayers money.  However, several reports indicate that the scope of its practice, both within the intelligence community and ODNI itself, has outstripped the intended purpose.  A Senate investigation into community contracting found those working in contracted positions on average earn significantly larger than their governmental counterparts performing similar work.  Moreover, the excessive and ill-managed use of contractors can lead to breakdowns in accountability.

The DNI has indicated that it plans to gain a better handle on the use of contract personnel.  Congress must make sure that the Director’s office develops an adequate definition of inherently governmental functions and rigorously adhere to it.  It should also make sure that the use of contract personnel, as with other employees, proceeds from well thought out plans to support defined goals.
http://www.cnponline.org/ht/display/ContentDetails/i/2418

***

Second Glass-Steagall Act

The second Glass-Steagall Act, passed on 16 June 1933, and officially named the Banking Act of 1933, introduced the separation of bank types according to their business (commercial and investment banking), and it founded the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for insuring bank deposits. Literature in economics usually refers to this simply as the Glass-Steagall Act, since it had a stronger impact on US banking regulation.[8]

Impact on other countries

The Glass-Steagall Act has had influence on the financial systems of other areas such as China which maintains a separation between commercial banking and the securities industries.[9][10] Although in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008-9 this influence is waning[11]

Repeal of the Act

The bill that ultimately repealed the Act was introduced in the Senate by Phil Gramm (Republican of Texas) and in the House of Representatives by Jim Leach (R-Iowa) in 1999. The bills were passed by Republican majorities on party lines by a 54-44 vote in the Senate[12] and by a 343-86 vote in the House of Representatives[13]. After passing both the Senate and House the bill was moved to a conference committee to work out the differences between the Senate and House versions. The final bipartisan bill resolving the differences was passed in the Senate 90-8 (1 not voting) and in the House: 362-57 (15 not voting). Having majorities large enough to override any possible Presidential veto, the legislation was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 12, 1999. [14]

The banking industry had been seeking the repeal of Glass-Steagall since at least the 1980s. In 1987 the Congressional Research Service prepared a report which explored the case for preserving Glass-Steagall and the case against preserving the act.[7]

The argument for preserving Glass-Steagall (as written in 1987):

1. Conflicts of interest characterize the granting of credit – lending – and the use of credit – investing – by the same entity, which led to abuses that originally produced the Act

2. Depository institutions possess enormous financial power, by virtue of their control of other people’s money; its extent must be limited to ensure soundness and competition in the market for funds, whether loans or investments.

3. Securities activities can be risky, leading to enormous losses. Such losses could threaten the integrity of deposits. In turn, the Government insures deposits and could be required to pay large sums if depository institutions were to collapse as the result of securities losses.

4. Depository institutions are supposed to be managed to limit risk. Their managers thus may not be conditioned to operate prudently in more speculative securities businesses. An example is the crash of real estate investment trusts sponsored by bank holding companies (in the 1970s and 1980s).

The argument against preserving the Act (as written in 1987):

1. Depository institutions will now operate in “deregulated” financial markets in which distinctions between loans, securities, and deposits are not well drawn. They are losing market shares to securities firms that are not so strictly regulated, and to foreign financial institutions operating without much restriction from the Act.

2. Conflicts of interest can be prevented by enforcing legislation against them, and by separating the lending and credit functions through forming distinctly separate subsidiaries of financial firms.

3. The securities activities that depository institutions are seeking are both low-risk by their very nature, and would reduce the total risk of organizations offering them – by diversification.

4. In much of the rest of the world, depository institutions operate simultaneously and successfully in both banking and securities markets. Lessons learned from their experience can be applied to our national financial structure and regulation.[7]
Financial events following the repeal

The repeal enabled commercial lenders such as Citigroup, which was in 1999 then the largest U.S. bank by assets, to underwrite and trade instruments such as mortgage-backed securities and collateralized debt obligations and establish so-called structured investment vehicles, or SIVs, that bought those securities.[15] It is therefore seen by some that the repeal of this act contributed to the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009.[16] However, such SIVs existed before the repeal of Glass-Steagall.[15]

The year before the repeal, sub-prime loans were just 5% of all mortgage lending.[citation needed] By the time the credit crisis peaked in 2008, they were approaching 30%.[citation needed]

See also Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980, the Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999.

References

1. ^  Frontline: The Wall Street Fix: Mr. Weill Goes to Washington: The Long Demise of Glass-Steagall . http://www.pbs.org. PBS. 2003-05-08. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/wallstreet/weill/demise.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-08.
2. ^  The Repeal of Glass-Steagall and the Advent of Broad Banking  (PDF). http://www.occ.treas.gov/ftp://workpaper/wp2000-5.pdf.
3. ^  GRAMM’S STATEMENT AT SIGNING CEREMONY FOR GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT . http://banking.senate.gov/prel99/1112gbl.htm.
4. ^ http://mises.org/rothbard/agd/chapter11.asp
5. ^ http://mises.org/rothbard/agd/chapter12.asp
6. ^ Gold Confiscation Act, http://www.the-privateer.com/1933-gold-confiscation.html
7. ^ a b c http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink/meta-crs-9065:1
8. ^  FDIC: Important Banking Legislation . http://www.fdic.gov/regulations/laws/important/index.html.
9. ^ (PDF)Developing Institutional Investors in the People’s Republic of China, paragraph 24, http://www.worldbank.org.cn/english/content/insinvnote.pdf
10. ^ Langlois, John D. (2001),  The WTO and China’s Financial System , China Quarterly 167: 610–629, doi:10.1017/S0009443901000341
11. ^  China to stick with US bonds , The Financial Times (paragraph 9), http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ba857be6-f88f-11dd-aae8-000077b07658.html, retrieved on 2009-02-11
12. ^ On Passage of the Bill (S.900 as amended ), http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=106&session=1&vote=00105, retrieved on 2008-06-19

[ and others – see original wikipedia entry ]

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass-Steagall_Act
Categories: Legal history of the United States | United States federal banking legislation | History of the United States (1918–1945) | Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation | 1933 in law
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass-Steagall_Act

***
**My note –
from bloomberg at 8.11 a.m., 03-09-09, Monday morning

expert somebody – responding about re-instating Glass-Steagall Act said,
“those that lobbied so heavily for its repeal are still around and they won’t let that happen. Its’ not going to happen.” (More or less.) – Greenberg was “expert” speaking

So, who was lobbying for its repeal?

Robert Rubin became head of Citigroup and worked for Clinton at the time as an econ advisor but it looks like their was no chance that Clinton could have vetoed the bill anyway.

***

The repeal enabled commercial lenders such as Citigroup, which was in 1999 then the largest U.S. bank by assets, to underwrite and trade instruments such as mortgage-backed securities and collateralized debt obligations and establish so-called structured investment vehicles, or SIVs, that bought those securities.[15] It is therefore seen by some that the repeal of this act contributed to the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009.[16] However, such SIVs existed before the repeal of Glass-Steagall.[15]

The year before the repeal, sub-prime loans were just 5% of all mortgage lending.[citation needed] By the time the credit crisis peaked in 2008, they were approaching 30%.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass-Steagall_Act

***
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf

[PDF]
Security and Intelligence Agencies Financial Statement 2007-08 HC 872
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
security, management information systems, risk and configuration management. … preparation of those resource accounts. My audit of the consolidated …
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf

1.
NIST, Computer Security Division, Computer Security Resource Center
All comments will be analyzed, consolidated, and used in revising the … DRAFT Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations …. and Intelligence Communities and the rapid convergence of information …
csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsDrafts.html – 46k
2.
DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE DIRECTIVE 2/12 – Community Open …
To manage the use of open source information by the Intelligence Community, … Changes in the scope and resources of the Open Source Program must be agreed to by … Systems Architecture – The COSPO will coordinate the design and … the Consolidated Cryptologic Program, the Central Intelligence Agency Program, …
http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/dcid212.htm
3.
PUBLIC REPORT OF THE VICE PRESIDENT’S TASK FORCE ON COMBATTING …
Establish a Consolidated Intelligence Center on Terrorism … FBI investigations and tie up government resources in responding to requests. …. technical collection systems for gathering round-the-clock information on terrorism, …
http://www.population-security.org/bush_report_on_terrorism/bush_report_on_terrorism_3.htm – 65k
4.
decipher information systems Resources | TechRepublic
To meet this need for information, additions to systems are often developed to give consolidated management overviews of the operational information. …
search.techrepublic.com.com/search/decipher+information+systems.html – 54k –
5.
Intelligence Agency Merges Technology Centers | Signal | Find …
The consolidation of GDIP information technology resources across the DIA and … licensing, core servicing and systems management will be consolidated and …
findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5438/is_200604/ai_n21389805 – 37k
6. [PDF]
GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
Automated Case Management System. CATS. Consolidated Assets Tracking System. CCIPS. Computer Crime and Intellectual … Human Resource Information System …
http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/annualreports/summary2001/glossary.pdf – Similar pages
7.
Central Intelligence: Large organizations are moving to …
Feb 27, 2006 … Consolidated business intelligence suites make sense for large corporations but adoption … Sign up to receive Business Intelligence Resource Alerts … Basto is working to implement a statewide BI system for the approximately 1000 … So it’s very difficult to integrate case information,  he says. …
http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=108951 – 115k
8. [PDF]
Security and Intelligence Agencies Financial Statement 2007-08 HC 872
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
security, management information systems, risk and configuration management. … preparation of those resource accounts. My audit of the consolidated …
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf
9.
Article – MIPB – U of MI
“We rely too much on others to bring information to us, and too often don’t …. a consolidated joint human resources system limits redundancies as well as … Next, the consolidated intelligence human resources department must respond …
http://www.universityofmilitaryintelligence.us/mipb/article.asp?articleID=621&issueID=47 – 39k –
10.
The Need for an Effective Budget Structure and Process
The present system does not permit resource-saving trade-off analysis: for example, …. Information on intelligence programs has not been organized to … allowing for the creation of a consolidated Community-wide data base that …
http://www.access.gpo.gov/intelligence/int/int011.html – 35k

Searches related to: Consolidated Intelligence Resource Information System

1.
Abbreviations and Acronyms — Central Intelligence Agency
CIO Chief Information Officer. CIPB Consolidated Intelligence Program Budget. CIRIS Consolidated Intelligence Resource Information System …
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi…/books…intelligence…intelligence…/glossary.htm – 48k
2.
business intelligence and financial accounting and human resources …
Cinepolis wanted to integrate separate financial information systems to attain … needed a Business Intelligence solution to help it prepare consolidated …     search.techrepublic.com.com/search/business+intelligence+and+financial+accounting+and+human+resources.html – 65k
3.
Consolidated Information Systems
2006 Consolidated Information Systems. All rights reserved. Menu provided by f-source.com, All Rights Reserved. Flash menu extensions for dreamweaver users …
http://www.onlinecis.com/ – 11k
4.
Date: Sat, 21 May 1994 22:08:50 edt From:  Dale Wharton  <dale …
May 21, 1994 … Computer-Aided Tactical Information System CEB Combined Effects Bomblet … CIRIS Consolidated Intelligence Resources Information System …
massis.lcs.mit.edu/archives/glossaries/military.acronyms – 12k
5.
Consolidated Issue Facility – What does CIF stand for? Acronyms …
Consolidated Integrated Support Facility A Consolidated Intelligence Program A Consolidated Intelligence Resources Information System …
acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/Consolidated+Issue+Facility – 32k
6.
Business Intelligence systems
The information system is designed to support timely collection and analysis of … by generating the consolidated information resource for operational and …
http://www.fors-dc.biz/pls/portal/url/page/fdc_biz/solutions_fdc/bi – 26k
7.
Intelligence Agency Merges Technology Centers – SIGNAL Magazine
The consolidation of GDIP information technology resources across the DIA and the … hardware, licensing, core servicing and systems management will be consolidated … The U.S. Department of Defense Intelligence Information System has …
http://www.afcea.org/SIGNAL/articles/anmviewer.asp?a=1112&z=181 – 49k
8.
Northrop Grumman Awarded U.S. Army Biometric Intelligence Resource …
With this new system, intelligence analysts will be able to better share information among organizations, making it easier to connect the dots and …
http://www.stockhouse.com/News/USReleasesDetail.aspx?n=7221355 – 63k
9.
data center and defense information systems agency Resources | BNET
Defense Information Systems Agency Combats Data Center Complexity with Aperture Vista … decentralized information technology framework to a consolidated, … the Department of Defense Intelligence Information System Way Ahead, the. …
resources.bnet.com/topic/data+center+and+defense+information+systems+agency.html – 44k
10.
C.I.S.F.A.M.: Consolidated Information System for Famine …
The project has reviewed the existing data-banks and information systems of the UN … Global Resources Information Database (GRID), – World Food Program, … International de Calcul et d’Intelligence Artificielle (LICIA), Paris, …
nzdl.sadl.uleth.ca/cgi-bin/library?e=d-00000-00—off-0aedl–00-0–0-10-0—0…4…

Searches related to: Consolidated Intelligence Resource Information System

http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=Consolidated+Intelligence+Resource+Information+System

***

Alexander Haig
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alexander Haig
59th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 22, 1981 – July 5, 1982
President     Ronald Reagan
Deputy     William P. Clark
Walter John Stoessel, Jr.
Preceded by     Edmund Muskie
Succeeded by     George Shultz
5th White House Chief of Staff
In office
1973 – 1974
President     Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
Preceded by     H.R. Haldeman
Succeeded by     Donald Rumsfeld
7th Supreme Allied Commander Europe
In office
December 15, 1974 – July 1, 1979
Preceded by     Gen. Andrew Goodpaster
Succeeded by     Gen. Bernard W. Rogers
4th Deputy National Security Advisor
In office
1970 – 1973
President     Richard Nixon
Preceded by     Robert Komer
Succeeded by     Brent Scowcroft
Born     December 2, 1924 (1924-12-02) (age 84)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Political party     Republican
Spouse     Patricia Haig
Alma mater     University of Notre Dame
United States Military Academy
Columbia Business School
Georgetown University
Profession     Soldier, Civil servant
Religion     Roman Catholic
Military service
Service/branch     United States Army
Rank     General
Battles/wars     Korean War
Vietnam War
Awards     Distinguished Service Cross
Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star
Bronze Star
Combat Infantryman Badge
Purple Heart
For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation).

Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. (born December 2, 1924) is a retired four-star General in the United States Army who served as the U.S. Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan and White House Chief of Staff under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.[1] In 1973 Haig served as Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, the number two ranking officer in the Army.[2] Haig served as the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, commanding all U.S. and NATO forces in Europe. Haig is a veteran of the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and is a recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross, the Army’s second highest medal for heroism, as well as the Silver Star with Oak Leaf Cluster and the Purple Heart.[3]
Contents

* 1 Education
* 2 Serves with MacArthur; heroism in Korea
* 3 Pentagon assignments
* 4 Distinguished Service Cross in Vietnam
* 5 1969–1972: Kissinger’s military assistant, Army Vice Chief of Staff
* 6 1973–1974: White House Chief of Staff for Nixon and Ford
* 7 1974–1979: NATO Supreme Commander, assassination attempt
* 8 Retires from Army, enters private sector
* 9 1981-82: Secretary of State for President Reagan
o 9.1  I am in control here
o 9.2 1982 Falklands War
o 9.3 1982 Israeli – Lebanon Conflict
* 10 1988 Republican presidential nomination
* 11 Military Awards
* 12 Current
* 13 Family
* 14 In popular culture
* 15 Quotes
* 16 Further reading
* 17 See also
* 18 References
* 19 External links

Education

Haig attended St. Joseph’s Preparatory School in Philadelphia and graduated from Lower Merion High School in Ardmore, Pennsylvania. He then went to the University of Notre Dame for one year, before transferring to and graduating from West Point in 1947. He studied business administration at Columbia Business School in 1954 and 1955. He also received a Masters degree in International Relations from Georgetown University in 1961, where his thesis focused on the role of the military officer in the making of national policy.

Serves with MacArthur; heroism in Korea

As a young officer, Haig served on the staff of General Douglas MacArthur in Japan. In the early days of the Korean War, Haig was responsible for maintaining General MacArthur’s situation map and briefing MacArthur each evening on the day’s battlefield events.[4] Haig later saw combat in the Korean War (1950-51) with the X Corps, led by MacArthur’s Chief of Staff, General Edward Almond.[3] During the Korean War, Haig earned two Silver Stars for heroism and a Bronze Star with  V. [5] Haig participated in seven Korean War campaigns, including the Battle of Incheon, the Battle of Chosin Reservoir (a.k.a  The Frozen Chosen ), and the evacuation of Hungnam.[4]

Pentagon assignments

Haig later served as a staff officer in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCSOPS) at the Pentagon (1962-64), and then was appointed Military Assistant to Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes in 1964. Haig then was appointed Military Assistant to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. He continued in that service until the end of 1965, whereupon he took command of a Battalion of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division in Vietnam.

Distinguished Service Cross in Vietnam

On May 22, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Haig was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the nation’s second highest medal for heroism, by General William Westmoreland as a result of his actions during the battle of Ap Gu in March 1967.[6] During the battle, then Lt. Colonel Haig’s troops (of the 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division (United States) became pinned down by a Viet Cong force that outnumbered U.S. forces by a three to one margin. In an attempt to survey the battlefield, Haig boarded a helicopter and flew to the point of contact. His helicopter was subsequently shot down. Two days of bloody hand-to-hand combat ensued. An excerpt from Haig’s official Army citation follows:

When two of his companies were engaged by a large hostile force, Colonel Haig landed amid a hail of fire, personally took charge of the units, called for artillery and air fire support and succeeded in soundly defeating the insurgent force…the next day a barrage of 400 rounds was fired by the Viet Cong, but it was ineffective because of the warning and preparations by Colonel Haig. As the barrage subsided, a force three times larger than his began a series of human wave assaults on the camp. Heedless of the danger himself, Colonel Haig repeatedly braved intense hostile fire to survey the battlefield. His personal courage and determination, and his skillful employment of every defense and support tactic possible, inspired his men to fight with previously unimagined power. Although his force was outnumbered three to one, Colonel Haig succeeded in inflicting 592 casualties on the Viet Cong…  (HQ US Army, Vietnam, General Orders No. 2318 (May 22, 1967)[7]

Haig was also awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Purple Heart during his tour in Vietnam.[6] Haig was eventually promoted to Colonel, and became a brigade commander of the 1st Infantry Division (United States) in Vietnam.

[edit] 1969–1972: Kissinger’s military assistant, Army Vice Chief of Staff
Alexander Haig returned to the continental United States at the end of his one-year tour, to become Regimental Commander of the Third Regiment of the Corps of Cadets at the USMA, West Point, under the also newly-arrived Commandant, Brigadier General Bernard Rogers. (Both had served together in the 1st Infantry Division, Rogers as Assistant Division Commander and Haig as Brigade Commander.) In 1969, he was appointed as Military Assistant to the Presidential Assistant for National Security Affairs, Henry Kissinger, a position he retained until 1970, when President Richard Nixon promoted Haig to Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. In this position, Haig helped South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu to negotiate the final cease-fire talks in 1972. Haig continued in this position until 1973, when he was appointed to be Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, a post he held until the last few months of President Nixon’s presidency, when he served as White House Chief of Staff.

1973–1974: White House Chief of Staff for Nixon and Ford
Chief of Staff Haig (far right), Sec. of State Kissinger, Rep. Ford and President Richard Nixon meet on October 13, 1973 regarding Ford’s upcoming appointment to Vice-President.

Alexander Haig served as White House Chief of Staff during the height of the Watergate affair from May 1973 until September 1974, taking over the position from H.R. Haldeman, who resigned on April 30, 1973, while under pressure from Watergate prosecutors.

Haig played a large  crisis management  role as the Watergate scandal unfolded. Haig has been largely credited with keeping the government running while President Nixon was preoccupied with Watergate.[1] Haig also played an instrumental role in finally persuading Nixon to resign. In his 2001 book  Shadow,  author Bob Woodward describes Haig’s role as the point man between Nixon and then Vice President Gerald Ford during the final days of Watergate. According to the book, Haig played a major behind-the-scenes role in the delicate negotiations of the transfer of power from President Nixon to President Ford.

Haig remained White House Chief of Staff during the early days of the Ford Administration until Donald Rumsfeld replaced him in September 1974. By that time, Ford, in a highly controversial move, had pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed as president. Author Roger Morris, a former colleague of Haig’s on the National Security Council, early in Nixon’s first term, wrote in his book Haig: The General’s Progress, that when Ford pardoned Nixon, he in effect pardoned Haig as well. Haig had been a persistent solicitor of clemency for Nixon.[8]

1974–1979: NATO Supreme Commander, assassination attempt
Gen. Haig as SACEUR, photo taken on June 1, 1977

Haig served as the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), and Commander in Chief, US European Command (CinCUSEUR), the Commander of NATO forces in Europe, from 1974 to 1979. An assassination attempt on Haig was unsuccessful in Mons, Belgium on June 25, 1979. During the attack, a land mine blew up under the bridge on which Haig’s car was traveling, narrowly missing Haig’s car but wounding three of his bodyguards in a following car.[9] Authorities later attributed responsibility for the assassination attempt to the Red Army Faction (RAF), also known as Baader-Meinhof-group. In 1993 a German Court sentenced Rolf Clemens Wagner, a former Red Army Faction Terrorist, to life imprisonment for the assassination attempt.[9]

Retires from Army, enters private sector

Alexander Haig, as a four-star general, retired from the Army in 1979, and moved on to civilian employment. In 1979, he became President, Chief Executive Officer (CEO), and Director of United Technologies, Inc., a job he retained until 1981.

1981-82: Secretary of State for President Reagan

In January 1981, Haig was tapped by President Ronald Reagan to be Secretary of State, and he began confirmation hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Much of the hearing focused on Haig’s role during Watergate. Haig was confirmed by a Senate vote of 93-6.[10]

I am in control here
Secretary of State Alexander Haig speaks to the press about the attempted assassination on President Ronald Reagan

In 1981, after the March 30 assassination attempt on Reagan, Haig asserted before reporters  I am in control here  as a result of Reagan’s hospitalization.
“     Constitutionally, gentlemen, you have the President, the Vice President and the Secretary of State in that order, and should the President decide he wants to transfer the helm to the Vice President, he will do so. He has not done that. As of now, I am in control here, in the White House, pending return of the Vice President and in close touch with him. If something came up, I would check with him, of course.     ”

——Alexander Haig, Alexander Haig, autobiographical profile in TIME Magazine, April 2, 1984[11]

Rather than being seen as an attempt to allay the nation’s fear, the quotation became seen as a laughable attempt by Haig to exceed his authority.[12]

Haig would have been incorrect if this were an interpretation of the U.S. Constitution concerning both the presidential line of succession and the 25th Amendment, which dictates what happens when a president is incapacitated. The holders of the two offices between the Vice President and the Secretary of State, the Speaker of the House (at the time, Tip O’Neill) and the President pro tempore of the Senate (at the time, J. Strom Thurmond), would be required under U.S. law (3 U.S.C. § 19) to resign their positions in order for either of them to become acting President. This was an unlikely event considering that Vice-President Bush was merely not immediately available. Haig’s statement reflected political reality, if not necessarily legal reality. Haig later said,
“     I wasn’t talking about transition. I was talking about the executive branch, who is running the government. That was the question asked. It was not, ‘Who is in line should the President die?’     ”

—— Alexander Haig, Alexander Haig interview with 60 Minutes II April 23, 2001

1982 Falklands War
Main article: Falklands War

In April 1982 Haig conducted shuttle diplomacy between the governments of Argentina in Buenos Aires and the United Kingdom in London after Argentina invaded the Falklands Islands. Negotiations broke down and Haig returned to Washington on April 19. The British fleet then entered the war zone.

1982 Israeli – Lebanon Conflict

Al Haig’s report to US president Ronald Reagan on Saturday January 30, 1982, shows that Haig feared that the Israelis might, at the slightest provocation, start a war against Lebanon.[13]

Haig critics have accused him of  greenlighting  the Israeli Invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Haig denies this and says he urged restraint.[14]

Haig resigned abruptly in July 1982. A military hawk, Haig caused some alarm with his suggestion that a  nuclear warning shot  in Europe might be effective in deterring the Soviet Union.[15] His tenure as Secretary of State was often characterized by his clashes with the more moderate Defense Secretary, Caspar Weinberger.

1988 Republican presidential nomination

Haig unsuccessfully ran for the Republican Party nomination for President in 1988. He was a fierce critic of the more moderate George H.W. Bush, and speculation was that he sought the Presidency in part because of that. When he withdrew from the race, he gave his support to the presidential campaign of Senator Robert Dole of Kansas.

Military Awards

Qualification Badges

* Combat Infantryman Badge

Decorations

* Distinguished Service Cross
* Defense Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster
* Silver Star with Oak Leaf Cluster
* Distinguished Flying Cross with Oak Leaf Cluster
* Bronze Star with  V
* Air Medal
* Purple Heart

Service Medals

* National Defense Service Medal with Bronze Service Star
* Korean Service Medal
* Vietnam Service Medal
* United Nations Service Medal
* Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal

Current –

Haig was the host for several years of the television program World Business Review. He now hosts 21st Century Business, with each program a weekly business education forum that includes business solutions, expert interview, commentary and field reports.[16] Haig is co-chairman of the American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus, along with Zbigniew Brzezinski and Stephen J. Solarz. Haig is a member of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) Board of Advisors. Haig was a founding Board Member of America Online.[17] On January 5, 2006, Haig participated in a meeting at the White House of former Secretaries of Defense and State to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials.[18] On May 12, 2006, Haig participated in a second White House meeting with 10 former Secretaries of State and Defense. The meeting including briefings by Donald Rumsfeld and Condoleezza Rice, and was followed by a discussion with President George W. Bush.[19] Haig published his memoirs, entitled Inner Circles: How America Changed The World, in 1992.

Family

Alexander Haig is the father of author Brian Haig. Haig’s brother, Frank, is a Jesuit priest. He served as seventh president of Le Moyne College in Syracuse, New York, and is now teaching physics at Loyola College in Maryland. Haig’s older sister; Regina Haig Meredith is a practicing attorney licensed in Pennsylvania and is New Jersey co-founding Partner of the firm Meredith, Meredith, Chase and Taggart, located in Princeton and Trenton, New Jersey.

In popular culture
Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. Please relocate any relevant information into appropriate sections or articles. (November 2008)

Haig has been portrayed by the following actors in film and television productions:[20]

* John Pochna in the 1982 film Inchon.
* Stanley Grover in the 1987 Warner Bros. Television drama The Betty Ford Story.
* David Ogden Stiers in the 1989 US television drama The Final Days.
* Matt Frewer in the 1995 Canadian TV drama Kissinger and Nixon.
* Powers Boothe in Oliver Stone’s 1995 film Nixon.
* Richard Dreyfuss in the 2001 US television drama The Day Reagan Was Shot.
* Colin Stinton in the 2002 BBC production of Ian Curteis’s controversial The Falklands Play.
* Bill Smitrovich in the 2003 CBS/Showtime miniseries The Reagans.
* The punk band Dead Kennedys refer to Haig in the song We’ve Got A Bigger Problem Now.
* In a 1995 episode of The Simpsons Chief Wiggum shows the press a Mug shot of Homer Simpson wearing a shirt with the slogan  Haig in ’88 .

Quotes

* In 1980, Spiro Agnew published a memoir in which he implied that, in 1973, Richard Nixon and Haig had planned to assassinate him if Agnew refused to resign the Vice-Presidency, and that Haig told him  to go quietly … or else. [21]
* Defending himself against accusations of lying in 1983, Haig is quoted as saying,  That’s not a lie, it’s a terminological inexactitude. [22]

* After the assassination attempt on President Reagan:  As of now, I am in control, here, at the White House.

Further reading

* Dress Grey, by Lucian K. Truscott IV, 1978, ISBN 0385134754. Truscott, scion of a longtime military family (his grandfather Lucian Truscott Jr. was an important World War II general), was a cadet at West Point during Haig’s late 1960s stint there; this book is a novel, in which a thinly-disguised Haig is portrayed as a central character in a murder and cover-up mystery at West Point. Truscott had earlier (1974) spoken out in The Village Voice, about problems at West Point.
* Haig: The General’s Progress, by Roger Morris (American writer), Playboy Press, 1982, ISBN 0872237532. Morris, a respected author, was a colleague of Haig’s on the National Security Council, early in President Richard Nixon’s first term. Morris presents important material on Haig’s early life and Army career, as well as deeper and darker material than the official line, on the often seamy dealings of the Nixon White House, including Watergate.
* The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House, by Seymour Hersh, Summit Books, New York, 1983, ISBN 0671506889. The book focuses on U.S. foreign policy, directed mainly from the White House by Nixon and Henry Kissinger during Nixon’s first term; since Haig eventually became Kissinger’s deputy during that era, there is also plenty of material on Haig here, often at variance with the official, sanitized versions.

See also
United States Army portal

References

1. ^ a b  Alexander Haig, MSN Encarta . http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761585441.
2. ^  ALEXANDER M. HAIG, Assistant to the President: Files, 1973-74 From 1974-79 . http://www.ford.utexas.edu/library/guides/Finding%20Aids/Haig,%20Alexander%20-%20Files.htm.
3. ^ a b  Premier Speakers Bureau . http://premierespeakers.com/alexander_haig.
4. ^ a b  LESSONS OF THE FORGOTTEN WAR . http://www.historycentral.com/Documents/HaigKorea.html.
5. ^  UT Biography . https://my.tennessee.edu/portal/page?_pageid=91,55081&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL.
6. ^ a b  West Point Citation . http://www.aogusma.org/aog/awards/DGA/96-Haigl.htm.
7. ^  Full Text Citations For Award of The Distinguished Service Cross, U.S. Army Recipients – Vietnam . http://www.homeofheroes.com/valor/1_Citations/07_RVN-dsc/dsc_07RVN-armyH.html.
8. ^ Haig: The General’s Progress, by Roger Morris (American writer), Playboy Press, 1982, p. 320-325.
9. ^ a b  German Guilty in ’79 Attack At NATO on Alexander Haig . The New York Times. November 25, 1993. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE2DB113AF936A15752C1A965958260.
10. ^  AP: Rice Confirmed Despite Dems’ Criticisms . http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0126-10.htm.
11. ^ Alexander Haig, Time Magazine, April 2, 1984, p. 22 of 24 page article, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,954230,00.html, retrieved on 2008-05-21
12. ^  HuffingtonPost: I’m in charge here . http://www.huffingtonpost.com/blake-fleetwood/bush-does-impersonation-o_b_19366.html?page=2.
13. ^ Ronald Reagan edited by Douglas Brinkley (2007) The Reagan Diaries Harper Collins ISBN 978-0-06-0876005 p 66 Saturday, January 30
14. ^  Time Magazine: Alexander Haig . http://jcgi.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,952421,00.html.
15. ^ Waller, Douglas C. Congress and the Nuclear Freeze: An Inside Look at the Politics of a Mass Movement, 1987. Page 19.
16. ^  World Business Review with Alexander Haig . http://www.21cbtv.com/. Retrieved on 2008-12-17.
17. ^  Business Wire AOL-TIme Warner announces its board of directors . http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2001_Jan_12/ai_69075111. Retrieved on 2008-12-17.
18. ^  President George W. Bush poses for a photo Thursday, Jan. 5, 2006 in the Oval Office with former Secretaries of State and Secretaries of Defense from both Republican and Democratic administrations, following a meeting on the strategy for victory in Iraq. . The White House. January 5, 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/01/images/20060105_d-0300-1-515h.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-17.
19. ^  Bush discusses Iraq with former officials . http://www.upi.com/SecurityTerrorism/view.php?StoryID=20060512-111719-8658r.
20. ^  Alexander Haig (Character) . IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0036406/. Retrieved on June 25.
21. ^ Agnew, Spiro T::  Go quietly … or else . Morrow, 1980. ISBN 0-688-03668-6.
22. ^ Rutledge, Leigh W.::  Would I Lie To You? . Plume, 1998. ISBN 0-425-27931-3. Page 81.

External links
Sister project     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Alexander Haig

* The Day Reagan was Shot article on Haig
* The Falklands: Failure of a Mission critique of Haig’s mediation efforts
* Portrait of Haig by Margaret Holland Sargent

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Persondata
NAME     Haig, Alexander
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION     United States Army general
DATE OF BIRTH     December 2, 1924
PLACE OF BIRTH     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Haig
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***

***
Stephen J. Solarz
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Stephen J. Solarz
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York’s 13th district
In office
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1993
Preceded by     Bertram L. Podell
Succeeded by     Nydia Velázquez
Born     September 12, 1940 (1940-09-12) (age 68)
New York City
Political party     Democratic

Stephen Joshua Solarz is a former United States Congressional Representative from New York. Solarz was both an outspoken critic of President Ronald Reagan’s deployment of Marines to Lebanon in 1982 and a cosponsor of the 1991 Gulf War Authorization Act during the Presidency of George H. W. Bush.

Born in New York City, September 12, 1940, Solarz attended public schools in New York City and later received a B.A. from Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass. in 1962 and an M.A. in public law and government from Columbia University in 1967. Solarz taught political science at Brooklyn (N.Y.) College, 1967–1968. He served in the New York State Assembly from 1969 to 1975. He served as a delegate to the Democratic National Mid-term Convention in 1974.

Solarz was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democrat to the 94th and to the eight succeeding Congresses (January 3, 1975–January 3, 1993). On July 18, 1980, he became the first American public official to visit North Korea since the end of the Korean War, and the first to meet with Kim Il-sung.[1] In 1992 he was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination to the One Hundred Third Congress. Thereafter he was appointed by President Bill Clinton as chairman of the Central Asian-American Enterprise Fund and served from 1993 to 1998.

Since then he has remained active with the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. He is also a member of the Intellibridge Expert Network and vice-chairman of International Crisis Group. Solarz is also co-chairman of the American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus, along with Zbigniew Brzezinski and Alexander Haig.

Sibel Edmonds Case
Solarz’s photograph was listed in Sibel Edmonds’ State Secrets Privilege Gallery [1] alongside photos of seventeen other prominent US officials including Brent Scowcroft, Richard Perle, Dennis Hastert, Marc Grossman, and Douglas Feith. Sibel Edmonds is a former FBI translator and whistleblower who uncovered serious criminality by leading US officials, involving the nuclear black market, narcotics trafficking, terrorism and money laundering. The details of Edmonds’ case have been buried using the State Secrets Privilege. Sibel Edmonds circumvented the State Secrets Privilege gag by simply publishing the photographs of these public officials on her website [2]. Other websites [3] put names to those photographs.

External links

* Stephen J. Solarz, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
* APCO Worldwide Professional biography.
* NNDB Profile
* Immigration Votes: NumbersUSA
* For Solarz, a Career Ends in Grief and Relief
* “When To Go In”, magazine article by Solarz
* Biography From International Crisis Group
* “Arms for Morocco?”, magazine article by Solarz

References

1. ^ Facts on File 1980 Yearbook p 547

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_J._Solarz

***
****
Douglas J. Feith (born July 16, 1953) served as the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy for United States President George W. Bush from July 2001 until he resigned from his position effective August 8, 2005. His official responsibilities included the formulation of defense planning guidance and forces policy, United States Department of Defense (DoD) relations with foreign countries, and DoD’s role in U.S. Government interagency policymaking. A member of the neoconservative[1][2][3] movement, his tenure in that position was marked by controversy.

Upon his resignation, Feith joined the faculty of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, as a Professor and Distinguished Practitioner in National Security Policy, for a two year stint despite strong objections from the student body and faculty. His contract was not renewed due to strong opposition from members of the faculty, despite  really good  teaching reviews.[4] Currently, Feith is the Director of the Center for National Security Strategies and a Senior Fellow at the Hudson Institute, a conservative think-tank.[5]
Contents

* 1 Early life
* 2 Career
* 3 Views and publications
o 3.1 War and Decision
* 4 Professional praise
o 4.1 Former Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld
o 4.2 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Ret.) Air Force General Richard Myers
o 4.3 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Marine General Peter Pace
o 4.4 National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley
* 5 Professional criticism
o 5.1 Director of the CIA, Michael Hayden
o 5.2 Former National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice
o 5.3 Former Secretary of State Colin Powell
o 5.4 Former Pentagon Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski (ret)
o 5.5 Former Director of the CIA, George Tenet
o 5.6 Former Commander Coalition Forces in Iraq, Gen. Tommy Franks (ret)
o 5.7 Former Coalition Provisional Authority Official General Jay Garner (Ret.)
o 5.8 Former Chief of Staff to the Secretary of State, Larry Wilkerson
o 5.9 Former CENTCOM Deputy Director, Lt. General Michael DeLong
* 6 Accusations and rebuttals
o 6.1 1982 NSC alleged firing and security clearance controversy
o 6.2 Counter Terrorism Evaluation Unit
o 6.3 Office of Special Plans
+ 6.3.1 Actions Feith authorized at the Office of Special Plans concerning Iraq
+ 6.3.2 Actions Feith authorized at the Office of Special Plans concerning Iran
+ 6.3.3 Investigations of the Office of Special Plans and of Feith
+ 6.3.4 Defense Department Inspector General Report Issued
o 6.4 Subordinate’s involvement in the Lawrence Franklin espionage scandal
* 7 See also
* 8 Footnotes
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
o 10.1 Biographies
o 10.2 Editorials
o 10.3 Press releases and news articles

Early life

Feith was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was one of three siblings born to Rose and Dalck Feith. His father, Dalck, was a member of the Betar, a Revisionist Zionist youth organization, in Poland, and a Holocaust survivor who lost his parents and seven siblings in the Nazi concentration camps. He came to the United States during World War II, and became a successful businessman, a philanthropist, and a donor to the Republican party, and imbued his son with strong and lifelong opinions about government and international relations. Years later, Feith noted:  [Neville] Chamberlain wasn’t popular in my house .[6]

Feith grew up in Elkins Park, part of Cheltenham Township, a Philadelphia suburb. Feith came of age during the tumultuous Civil Rights and Vietnam War era. He attended Philadelphia’s Central High School. Of that, Feith wrote  It’s a good school. The class that I was in at Central was the most talented group of kids that I ever went to school with, including college and law school. [7]

Feith attended Harvard University for his undergraduate degree and graduated magna cum laude in 1975. While at Harvard, Feith says he  benefited especially from the lectures and books of Professor Richard Pipes ,[8] the head of Harvard’s Russian Research Center. Feith later said of his tutelage under Pipes:  We were part of a rather small minority in Cambridge who thought that working to bring about the collapse of the Soviet Union was not only a noble pursuit, but a realistic project. [8] Feith also cites the works of philosophers John Stuart Mill and Edmund Burke as two major intellectual influences. He continued on to the Georgetown University Law Center, receiving his J.D. magna cum laude in 1978.

Pipes ultimately provided Feith with his initial entry into government. Pipes had joined the Reagan administration’s National Security Council in 1981 to help carry out the  project  Pipes and his students had conceived.[9] Feith joined the NSC that same year, working under Pipes. Before that, he worked for three years as an attorney with the law firm Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP.

Feith has expressed ambivalence about the overall intellectual pedigree Harvard gives its students. In an address on March 3, 2005 to Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government he said,  I want to reassure the students in the audience: a Harvard degree does not have to be a liability. In conservative political circles, I’ve found, it may require some explaining. [10]

Married with four children, Feith makes his home in the Washington suburb of Bethesda, Maryland.

Career

Feith began his career as an attorney in private practice, and first entered government as a Middle East specialist on the National Security Council under Ronald Reagan in 1981. He transferred from the NSC Staff to Pentagon in 1982 to work as Special Counsel for Richard Perle, who was then serving as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger promoted Feith in 1984 to Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Negotiations Policy and, when Feith left the Pentagon in 1986, Weinberger gave him the highest Defense Department civilian award, the Distinguished Public Service medal.

During his time in the Pentagon in the Reagan administration, Feith was instrumental in getting the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Weinberger and Shultz all to recommend (successfully) to the President not to ratify changes to the Geneva Conventions. The changes, known as Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, would have allowed non-state militants to be treated as combatants and prisoners of war even if they had engaged in practices that endangered non-combatants or otherwise violated the laws of war. Reagan informed the United States Senate in 1987 that he would not ratify Protocol I. At the time, both the Washington Post and the New York Times editorialized in favor of Reagan’s decision to reject Protocol I as a revision of humanitarian law that protected terrorists.[citation needed]

Upon leaving the Pentagon, Feith co-founded, with Marc Zell, the Washington, DC law firm of Feith & Zell. Three years later, Feith was retained as a lobbyist by the Turkish government. Among other clients, his firm represented defense corporations Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman. Feith left the firm in 2001, following his nomination as Undersecretary of Defense for Policy.

As Under Secretary, Feith continued to champion US respect for the Geneva Conventions, e.g. his Op-Ed article  Conventional Warfare  in the Wall Street Journal on May 24, 2004. When the logic of Reagan’s decision on Protocol I was applied by Bush in 2001 in designating Al Qaeda fighters as  enemy combatants  or  unlawful combatants  rather than as  prisoners of war  a passionate debate ensued (and continues) as to whether one is undermining or supporting the Geneva Conventions by designating combatants as  terrorists  and denying detainees POW status.

Following his government service, Feith was employed by the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, where he taught a course on the Bush administration’s anti-terrorism policy. He came to Georgetown’s School of Foreign Service after leaving Stanford’s Hoover Institution and was appointed by School of Foreign Service Dean, Ambassador Robert Gallucci.[11] However, his hiring  caused an uproar among the faculty  and two years later, his contract was not renewed.[4]

Feith has also set up a personal website (www.dougfeith.com) to counter what he sees as spurious and unfounded claims about his tenure in government. It primarily deals with Inspector-General’s Thomas Gimble’s 2005 report that called Feith’s actions in critiquing CIA intelligence  inappropriate , although not illegal.

Views and publications

Like his father, Feith is a Republican, and has contributed money to various party candidates over the years.[12] Sympathetic to the neoconservative wing of the party, he has over the last 30 years published many works on U.S. national security policy. His work on US–Soviet détente, arms control and Arab–Israeli issues generated considerable debate.

Feith’s writings on international law and on foreign and defense policy have appeared in The Wall Street Journal, Commentary, The New Republic and elsewhere. He has contributed chapters to a number of books, including James W. Muller’s Churchill as Peacemaker, Raphael Israeli’s The Dangers of a Palestinian State and Uri Ra’anan’s Hydra of Carnage: International Linkages of Terrorism, as well as serving as co-editor for Israel’s Legitimacy in Law and History.

Feith has long advocated a policy of  peace through strength . He was an outspoken skeptic of U.S.-Soviet détente and of the Oslo, Hebron and Wye Processes on Palestinian-Israeli peace. In particular, he criticized the Oslo Accords and the Camp David peace agreement mediated by former President Carter between Egypt and Israel. In 1997, he published a lengthy article in Commentary, titled  A Strategy for Israel . In it, Feith argued that the Oslo Accords were being undermined by Yasser Arafat’s failure to fulfill peace pledges and Israel’s failure to uphold the integrity of the accords it had concluded with Arafat. Furthermore, he was an opponent of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, the International Criminal Court and the Chemical Weapons Convention which he criticized as ineffective and dangerous to U.S. interests.

In 1998, Feith was one of a number of U.S. officials who signed an open letter to President Bill Clinton calling for the United States to oust Saddam Hussein. Feith was part of a group of former national security officials in the 1990s who supported Ahmad Chalabi and the Iraqi National Congress and encouraged the U.S. Congress to pass the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998. Congress approved the Act, and Clinton signed it into law.

Feith generally favors US support for Israel and has promoted US-Israeli cooperation. He was a member of the study group which authored a controversial report entitled A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm,[13] a set of policy recommendations for the newly elected Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The report was published by the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies without an individual author being named. According to the report, Feith was one of the people who participated in roundtable discussions that produced ideas that the report reflects. Feith pointed out in a September 16, 2004 letter to the editor of the Washington Post that he was not the co-author and did not clear the report’s final text. He wrote,  There is no warrant for attributing any particular idea [in the report], let alone all of them, to any one participant.

Feith also served on the board of the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), a think tank that promotes a military and strategic alliance between the United States and Israel.[14]

Feith was one of 18 founding members of the organization One Jerusalem to oppose the Oslo peace agreement. Its purpose is  saving a united Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel.  He is also Director of Foundation for Jewish Studies, which  offers in-depth study programs for the adult Washington Jewish community that cross denominational lines.

Feith told The New Yorker in 2005,  When history looks back, I want to be in the class of people who did the right thing, the sensible thing, and not necessarily the fashionable thing, the thing that met the aesthetic of the moment .[15]

Feith was interviewed by the CBS news magazine 60 Minutes in a segment that was aired on April 6, 2008.[16] During this interview he promoted his newly released memoir, War and Decision and defended the decision making that led to the US invasion of Iraq in 2003.

In a response to the question on why the United States invaded Iraq, Feith responded,  The President decided that the threats from the Saddam Hussein regime were so great that if we had left him in power, we would be fighting him down the road, at a time and place of his choosing.

Feith explained that attacking Iraq was necessary even though the U.S. government realized that Hussein had nothing to do with the 9/11 attacks, because of the need for the U.S. to exercise its right to  anticipatory self-defense.

What we did after 9/11 was look broadly at the international terrorist network from which the next attack on the United States might come. And we did not focus narrowly only on the people who were specifically responsible for 9/11. Our main goal was preventing the next attack.

Regarding the false claims of the Bush Administration that Iraq was producing weapons of mass destruction, Feith concedes,  It is true that there was a serious error that the CIA made in saying that we would find WMD stockpiles. And it was a terrible mistake for the administration to have made those stockpiles in any way a part of the case for war. I don’t think we needed to.

Feith also concedes that he and his colleagues didn’t realize that sending a smaller, mobile force to topple Saddam would make it difficult to establish order after he fell.  The looting that arose in the immediate aftermath of the overthrow of Saddam … was a problem that the coalition forces had to deal with. I think we paid a very large price for the fact that, you know, our forces did not get that problem under control.

Regarding whether he’s happy about the current situation in Iraq, Feith states,  I don’t think anybody can be happy.  We’ve, we’ve, we’ve had terrible losses. We have the Americans who have lost their lives, and Iraqis who have lost their lives. Our coalition partners. It’s been a costly war.

But Feith still feels that invading Iraq was the right thing to do.  I think the president made the right decision given what he knew. And given what we all knew. And to tell you the truth, even given what we’ve learned since.

War and Decision
Main article: War and Decision

On April 8, 2008, Feith’s memoir, War and Decision: Inside the Pentagon at the Dawn of the War on Terrorism, was published by HarperCollins.

Professional praise

Former Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld

Doug Feith, of course, is without question, one of the most brilliant individuals in government. He is – he’s just a rare talent. And from my standpoint, working with him is always interesting. He’s been one of the really the intellectual leaders in the administration in defense policy aspects of our work here. [17]

When Feith left the Defense Department in 2005, Secretary Donald Rumsfeld highlighted the following accomplishments:[18]

* A plan to revamp America’s Global Defense Posture – move troops, move families, move contractors, and facilities from where they were at the end of World War II to the end of the Cold War to where they’re needed and usable
* A NATO Response Force to counter threats and to deal with crises
* New security relationships in Central Asia and South Asia;
* Helping to fashion a new National Security Defense Strategy that helps guide DoD in planning assumptions for the war on terrorism as well as other responsibilities.
* The training and equipping of foreign forces;
* The creation of an Office of Post-conflict Reconstruction in the Department of State; and
* The Global Peace Operations Initiative.

In his speech, Rumsfeld said:

Years from now, unfortunately it may be many years, accurate accounts of what’s taking place these past four years will be written and it will show that Doug Feith has performed his duties with great dedication, with impressive skill and with remarkable vision during this perilous and indeed momentous period in the life of our country.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Ret.) Air Force General Richard Myers –

Richard Myers credited Feith with a  great perspective  and  great respect for the military.

In planning the war with Iraq, Feith  looked at implications of various actions that others might not think about , Myers said.  Doug is very bright and brings a very good strategic view to the table. He has solved some real problems. [19]

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Marine General Peter Pace –

United States Marine Corps General Peter Pace, now the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, worked closely with Feith, co-chairing with him the Defense Department’s Campaign Planning Committee (CAPCOM).

At Feith’s farewell-from-government ceremony on August 8, 2005, Pace as then vice-chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said:

Doug Feith is a patriot. It irritates me, not that anyone would question his thoughts or his policies – that is absolutely fair game – but that anyone would question his loyalty or his motives. I have watched this man for four years. He cares only about what is best for the United States. He works hard to understand as much as he can about the policy arena, and he works hard to articulate what he believes to be true.[20]

The New Yorker May 9, 2005 (p. 36) interviewed Pace about Franks’ criticism [see below] and reported:  Pace, who calls Feith a ‘true American patriot,’ said he did not understand Franks’ attack. ‘This is not directed at any individual,’ Pace said, ‘but the less secure an individual is in his thought processes and in his own capacities, the more prone they were to be intimidated by Doug, because he’s so smart.’  Pace believes  Early on, [Feith] didn’t realize that the way he presented his positions, the way he was being perceived, put him in a bit of a hole. But he changed his ways.

The same article reported on Rumsfeld’s reaction to Franks:

Feith’s most prominent defender is Rumsfeld, who told me that Feith is  one of the brightest people you or I will ever come across. He’s diligent, very well read, and insightful.  Donald Rumsfeld, Feith’s former boss, is also General Pace’s superior, and appointed both Feith and Pace to their posts. Donald Rumsfeld explained Feith’s trouble with Franks this way:  If you’re a combatant commander and you’re in the area of operations and you’re hearing from people in Washington, what you’re hearing is frequently not on point to what you’re worrying about at the moment, just as the reverse is also true’ [21]

National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley –

In a letter to Feith on the day of his resignation from government, August 8, 2005, Stephen Hadley wrote:[22]

Your efforts in developing the war on terrorism strategy, the global defense posture, the President’s June 24, 2002, Middle East speech, and moving forward the president’s agenda on advancing freedom and democracy are among your many significant accomplishments.

For the last four years, you and your fine staff have provided outstanding support to Secretary Rumsfeld and the President.

Your intellectual leadership within the interagency has helped us meet the challenges that face our nation at this critical time. But equally important, you have provided an example of honesty, decency, and integrity that have made you a valued colleague and friend to us all.

Professional criticism

Director of the CIA, Michael Hayden –

At Central Intelligence Agency Director Michael Hayden’s Senate confirmation hearing, Senator Carl Levin asked nominee Hayden about Feith’s Office of Special Plans:

Senator Carl Levin:  Were you comfortable with Mr. Feith’s office[23][24] approach to intelligence analysis?
CIA Director Michael Hayden:  No, sir, I wasn’t. I wasn’t aware of a lot of the activity going on, you know, when it was contemporaneous with running up to the war. No, sir, I wasn’t comfortable. [25]

The June 27, 2006 Wall Street Journal ran an article called  Hayden Corrects the Record.  It pointed out that though Levin drew this comment from Hayden when the General was speaking extemporaneously, Hayden corrected the record afterward to clarify that his comments were not meant to say that Feith’s work was wrong, misleading or inaccurate. According to the Wall Street Journal,  General Hayden has now publicly confirmed what he had previously said in private conversations with Mr. Feith and with Arizona Senator Jon Kyl: To wit, that he did not intend those remarks as Senator Levin has spun them. In a letter to Mr. Kyl, General Hayden concedes that as former Director of the National Security Agency  I did not have any significant personal contact with Mr. Feith or his office and only occasionally saw the product of their work.

Hayden’s letter adds that  the issues I attempted to address were focused on broad questions of analytic tradecraft, not characterizing the work of Mr. Feith’s office let alone attempting to address questions of lawfulness or even appropriateness. My comments about ‘wrong,’ ‘inaccurate,’ and ‘misleading’ were attached to a broader discussion of analytic challenges and not to any specific activities, including those under Mr. Feith.

Former National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice –

According to the long-running Washington newsletter, The Nelson Report, edited by Christopher Nelson, quoting an anonymous source, Feith was standing in for Rumsfeld at a 2003 interagency ‘Principals’ Meeting’ debating the Middle East, and ended his remarks on behalf of the Pentagon. Then-National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice said,  Thanks Doug, but when we want the Israeli position we’ll invite the ambassador. [26][27]

Former Secretary of State Colin Powell –

In Bob Woodward’s book Plan of Attack, then-United States Secretary of State Colin Powell called Feith’s operation at the Pentagon the  Gestapo  office, alleging that it amounted to a separate, unchecked governing authority within the Pentagon.[28]

Soon after publication of the book, Powell said:

I don’t recall saying that, but it is a terrible term to use and it is out of place, completely out of place. I have known Doug Feith for many years. We have agreed on many issues and disagreed on some. And I just regret that that has gotten into the literature and become a fact.[29]

An unnamed Bush administration official said to reporters from Newsday that  Secretary of State Colin Powell complained directly to Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld several days ago about Feith’s policy shop conducting missions that countered US policy. [30]

Former Pentagon Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski (ret) –

Lieutenant Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski, who was a Desk Officer in Feith’s Policy organization, spoke of Feith’s style:

He was very arrogant , describing what it was like to work with him.  He doesn’t utilize a wide variety of inputs. He seeks information that confirms what he already thinks. And he may go to jail for leaking classified information to The Weekly Standard. [31]

Kwiatkowski believes an article that appeared in The Weekly Standard included a classified memo written by Feith alleging ties between Saddam Hussein and al Qaeda.

Former Director of the CIA, George Tenet –

The chapter  No Authority, Direction, or Control  of George Tenet’s memoir deals with the prewar government debate about alleged connections between Iraq and al-Qaeda. According to the Washington Post, Tenet’s memoir paints an  unflattering portrait of Feith as a man eager to manipulate intelligence to push the country to war. [32] Tenet refers to Feith’s office as  Team Feith , writing that he saw their criticisms about the CIA’s Iraq-al Qaeda work as  complete crap.  He added that  when the Pentagon inspector general issued a report in February 2007 calling some of Feith’s efforts ‘inappropriate’, Feith shot back. He said peddling his alternative intelligence was simply an exercise in ‘good government.’ Nonsense (Tenet wrote). This was an example of bad government  (Tenet, page 348).

Feith reviewed Tenet’s memoir and responded to the allegations about his work in the Wall Street Journal on May 4.[33] On Tenet’s account of the bureaucratic differences over Iraq-al Qaeda issues, Feith writes:  Mr. Tenet devotes a chapter to the matter of Iraq and al Qaeda, giving it the title: ‘No Authority, Direction or Control.’ The phrase implies that we argued that Saddam exercised such powers – authority, direction and control – over al Qaeda. We made no such argument. Rather we said that the CIA’s analysts were not giving serious, professional attention to information about ties between Iraq and al Qaeda. The CIA’s assessments were incomplete, nonrigorous and shaped around the dubious assumption that secular Iraqi Baathists would be unwilling to cooperate with al Qaeda religious fanatics, even when they shared strategic interests. This assumption was disproved when Baathists and jihadists became allies against us in the post-Saddam insurgency, but before the war it was the foundation of much CIA analysis.

Former Commander Coalition Forces in Iraq, Gen. Tommy Franks (ret) –

Before the war in Iraq, the Iraqi National Congress proposed recruiting a brigade of Free Iraqi Forces to enter Iraq with the Americans. Feith supported the idea behind the project. United States Army General Tommy Franks did not, as reported in the book Cobra II:  Franks remained unenthusiastic, to say the least. After a briefing from [Feith’s aide Bill] Luti on his pet project, Franks turned to Feith in a Pentagon corridor, letting him know where he stood: ‘I don’t have time for this fucking bullshit,’ Franks exclaimed. [34]

Franks, according to Plan of Attack, says of Feith:  I have to deal with the fucking stupidest guy on the planet almost every day.  (p.281).[35][36] In his autobiography, American Soldier, Franks describes a conversation with his subordinates who were upset with Rumsfeld, Feith and Paul Wolfowitz; Franks tells them,  Here’s the deal, guys. I know OSD – Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz, and Feith – are demanding a lot. But they are not the enemy. Don’t start thinking good guys-bad guys. We’re all on the same side.  They could see I was serious.  I’ll worry about OSD, all of them – including Doug Feith, who’s getting a reputation around here as the dumbest fucking guy on the planet , I continued.  Your job is to make me feel warm and fuzzy. Look, we’re all professionals. Let’s earn our pay. [37]

On the April 14, 2006 edition of Hardball with Chris Matthews, Franks changed his assessment of Feith:

MATTHEWS: What did you think on a scale of one to 10 of the military expertise, of the civilians surrounding Secretary Rumsfeld, the people like Wolfowitz and Feith? How would you on a scale of 1 to 10, where would you put their military savvy?

FRANKS: I would put the dipstick at oh — with a reasonable degree of understanding, I would put Doug Feith in a category as a brilliant man with some military understanding, but both of these gentlemen were apt to think out of the box. And candidly, Chris, for all I know, maybe that’s what Don Rumsfeld wanted them to do.

MATTHEWS: Were they ideologues or were they analysts?

FRANKS: In my personal [opinion], they were analysts. Now, that does not imply that I’m making some statement that they were not ideologues, maybe so, but that’s not the way that I saw them.[38]

Former Coalition Provisional Authority Official General Jay Garner (Ret.) –

The former Director of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for the Coalition Provisional Authority, General Jay Garner, reported to Feith for five months following the invasion of Iraq. As quoted in Thomas E. Ricks’s book Fiasco, Garner said of Feith:  I think he’s incredibly dangerous. He’s a smart guy whose electrons aren’t connected, so he arc lights all the time. He can’t organize anything.

Former Chief of Staff to the Secretary of State, Larry Wilkerson –

Regarding Feith and his colleague, David Wurmser, Wilkerson has stated:

A lot of these guys, including Wurmser, I looked at as card-carrying members of the Likud party, as I did with Feith. You wouldn’t open their wallet and find a card, but I often wondered if their primary allegiance was to their own country or to Israel. That was the thing that troubled me, because there was so much that they said and did that looked like it was more reflective of Israel’s interest than our own.[39]

In 2005, Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, Powell’s chief of staff, publicly stated he could  testify to  Franks’ 2004 comment, and added  Seldom in my life have I met a dumber man. [40][41]

Former CENTCOM Deputy Director, Lt. General Michael DeLong –

In an interview with PBS on February 14, 2006, General Michael DeLong was asked about the information coming from Feith’s office in the lead-up to the Iraq war. He replied:

Feith wasn’t somebody we enjoyed working with, and to go much further than that would probably not be a good thing. To be honest, we blew him off lots of times. Told the secretary that he’s full of baloney, his people working for him are full of baloney. It was a real distraction for us, because he was the number three guy in the Department of Defense.[42]

Accusations and rebuttals –

1982 NSC alleged firing and security clearance controversy

It has been alleged by former National Security Council Intelligence Director Vincent Cannistraro and author Stephen Green that Douglas Feith involuntarily left the NSC in March 1982 and lost his security clearance after he fell under Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) suspicion for passing classified material to Israeli embassy officials who were not entitled to receive it.[43][44][45] This would have required the Bush administration to reissue Feith his clearance before bringing him into the Pentagon.[44] This version of events is disputed by the NSC head at the time, Judge William Clark. When a Montana newspaper reported this accusation, Clark, who was Reagan’s National Security Adviser at the relevant time, wrote a September 22, 2005 letter to the editor[46] to correct the record:

Your article cites a Mr. Cannistraro to the effect that Mr. Feith was fired for wrongdoing from President Reagan’s National Security Council in 1982. I was President Reagan’s National Security Advisor at the time and I tell you that is untrue. Mr. Feith served honorably on my staff and went on to serve well at the Pentagon under Secretary Cap Weinberger. Because of his fine record, President George W. Bush hired him as his Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

Counter Terrorism Evaluation Unit

Feith oversaw the Counter Terrorism Evaluation Unit, established to find links between terrorist organizations and their state sponsors. The group issued a report about connections between Iraq and al-Qaida that Secretary of State Donald Rumsfeld requested Feith deliver to CIA Director George Tenet in August 2002. The report has been widely discredited. Tenet told a congressional committee in March 2004 that the report was not reliable. Daniel Benjamin, former director of counterterrorism at the National Security Council, wrote that, far from proving Saddam-Osama ties,  the document lends substance to the frequently voiced criticism that some in the Bush administration have misused intelligence to advance their policy goals. [2]

Office of Special Plans –

Feith led the controversial Office of Special Plans (OSP) at the Pentagon from September 2002 to June 2003.[47] This now defunct intelligence gathering unit has been accused of manipulating intelligence to bolster support for the 2003 US invasion of Iraq.[48] According to The Guardian,  This rightwing intelligence network [was] set up in Washington to second-guess the CIA and deliver a justification for toppling Saddam Hussein by force. [49] According to Kwiatkowski, the Office of Special Plans was  a propaganda shop  and she personally  witnessed neoconservative agenda bearers within OSP usurp measured and carefully considered assessments, and through suppression and distortion of intelligence analysis promulgate what were in fact falsehoods to both Congress and the executive office of the president. [50][51] Senator Carl Levin, in an official report on the Office of Special Plans, singles Feith out as providing to the White House a large amount of Iraq-Al Qaeda allegations which, post-invasion, turned out to be false.[52] Disarmament expert George Perkovich of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace told National Public Radio in 2004,  By all accounts, things in Iraq have gone very, very badly. Doug Feith should have been fired a long time ago for incompetence. [53]

According to The Guardian, the Office of Special Plans kept an extremely low profile, but was able to do the work of a much larger, high-profile organization:

There was a mountain of documentation to look through and not much time. The administration wanted to use the momentum gained in Afghanistan to deal with Iraq once and for all. The OSP itself had less than 10 full-time staff, so to help deal with the load, the office hired scores of temporary  consultants . They included lawyers, congressional staffers, and policy wonks from the numerous rightwing thinktanks in Washington. Few had experience in intelligence.  Most of the people they had in that office were off the books, on personal services contracts. At one time, there were over 100 of them,  said an intelligence source. The contracts allow a department to hire individuals, without specifying a job description. As John Pike, a defence analyst at the thinktank GlobalSecurity.org, put it, the contracts  are basically a way they could pack the room with their little friends .  They surveyed data and picked out what they liked,  said Gregory Thielmann, a senior official in the state department’s intelligence bureau until his retirement in September.  The whole thing was bizarre. The secretary of defence had this huge defence intelligence agency, and he went around it.  In fact, the OSP’s activities were a complete mystery to the DIA and the Pentagon.  The iceberg analogy is a good one,  said a senior officer who left the Pentagon during the planning of the Iraq war.  No one from the military staff heard, saw or discussed anything with them. [49]

Actions Feith authorized at the Office of Special Plans concerning Iraq

A source of Iraqi WMD intelligence was overseas  back-channel  meetings with foreign citizens, which Feith authorized.[54] According to Newsday and The Boston Globe, these foreigners included former Iran-Contra figures[55] and agents of Iraqi politician Ahmad Chalabi[56] who were shopping[57] WMD[23] intelligence to the Office of Special Plans.[58].

As Kwiatkowski described, this unvetted WMD information was then  stovepiped  to the White House outside of established intelligence review safeguards for use in building support for the war.[59] Post invasion, the Iraq Survey Group found Iraq had no stocks of WMD, and had not produced WMD since 1991.[60]

These accounts conflict with the official findings of U.S. House and Senate inquiries into these matters. As noted a March 14, 2004 Washington Post article entitled  Feith’s Analysts Given a Clean Bill :  Neither the House nor Senate intelligence committees…which have been investigating prewar intelligence for eight months, have found support for allegations that Pentagon analysts went out and collected their own intelligence…. Nor have investigators found that the Pentagon analysis about Iraq significantly shaped the case the administration made for going to war.  The subjects of these investigations would be investigated again in 2006 by the Pentagon Inspector General (see below).

Actions Feith authorized at the Office of Special Plans concerning Iran

The  back-channel  meetings Feith authorized dealt not only with Iraq, but also with Iran. When Powell learned that Feith was authorizing secret meetings with former Iran-Contra figures such as arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar to investigate options for regime change in Iran, he angrily complained on August 9, 2003 directly to Rumsfeld and then Rice about Feith conducting unauthorized missions that were contrary to official U.S. policy. A senior administration official said the US Government had learned about the unauthorised talks  accidentally , and that it was unsettling  the government hadn’t learnt the lessons of last time around , referring to the secret contacts and rogue operations that led to Iran-Contra.[61]

Feith’s authorization of contact with Manuchar Ghorbanifar was also controversial. The CIA said that Ghorbanifar  should be regarded as an intelligence fabricator , and put him under a burn notice, warning other intelligence agencies not to use him.[62]

Investigations of the Office of Special Plans and of Feith

Officially, Feith is currently under investigation by the Pentagon’s Inspector General and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI).[57] Republican Intelligence Committee Chairman Pat Roberts began the investigation when he wrote to the Pentagon Inspector General asking him to start the review:

The Committee is concerned about persistent and, to date, unsubstantiated allegations that there was something unlawful or improper about the activities of the Office of Special Plans within the office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy … I have not discovered any credible evidence of unlawful or improper activity, yet the allegations persist.  In an attempt to lay these allegations to rest once and for all, he requested the Inspector General to  initiate an investigation into the activities of the Office of Special Plans during the period prior to the initiation of Operation Iraqi Freedom to determine whether any of [its] activities were unlawful or improper; … [that is,] whether the personnel assigned to the Office of Special Plans, at any time, conducted unauthorized, unlawful, or inappropriate intelligence activities.  Senator Levin has asked the Inspector General to look at the activities of the OUSDP generally, and not just the OSP. The SSCI is awaiting the outcome of the DOD Inspector General’s review. [63] Sources within the SSCI report Feith and the Defense Department have been less than helpful to their investigation.[44]

As of March 2006 the news organisation Rawstory reports Pat Roberts, head of the Senate Intelligence Committee, was not allowing a complete investigation of Feith and his role at his Office of Special Plans.  One former intelligence official suggested that part of the reason for deferring the Feith inquiry was its sensitivity. A Feith investigation might unravel a bigger can of worms, the source said [64]

The Chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Jay Rockefeller twice alleged that the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy or Feith may have engaged in unlawful activities,[65] Phase II of the Senate Report of Pre-war Intelligence on Iraq  found nothing to substantiate that claim; nothing unlawful about the  alleged  rogue intelligence operation in the PCTEG, nothing unlawful about the Office of Special Plans, and nothing unlawful about the so-called failure to inform Congress of alleged intelligence activities. [65] The previous year, the chairman released a press statement claiming that it appeared that the offices were  not in compliance with the law. [65]

Defense Department Inspector General Report Issued

Tasked to examine a briefing that members of Feith’s Policy office delivered in summer-fall 2002 to Secretary Rumsfeld, CIA Director Tenet and White House officials including Steve Hadley and Scooter Libby, the Defense Department Inspector General Thomas Gimble found on February 9, 2007 that Feith’s office did nothing unlawful, unauthorized or that attempted to mislead Congress[66] But, the Policy briefing’s criticisms of the CIA’s intelligence work were found by Gimble to be  inappropriate  because they were  inconsistent with the consensus of the intelligence community. [67]

The Policy briefing in question  did not provide the most accurate analysis of intelligence to senior decision makers , Gimble argued, at a time when the White House was moving toward war with Iraq.[68]

According to the Washington Post, Feith’s  office had asserted in a briefing given to Cheney’s chief of staff in September 2002 that the relationship between Iraq and al-Qaeda was ‘mature’ and ‘symbiotic,’ marked by shared interests and evidenced by cooperation across 10 categories, including training, financing and logistics. Instead, the CIA had concluded in June 2002 that there were few substantiated contacts between al-Qaeda operatives. The contrary conclusions reached by Feith’s office – and leaked to the conservative Weekly Standard magazine before the war were publicly praised by Dick Cheney as the best source of information on the topic, a circumstance the Pentagon report cites in documenting the impact of what it described as ‘inappropriate’ work. [69]

In February 2007, Feith launched an Internet website, dougfeith.com, following the Defense Department’s Inspector General report on pre-war activities of the Pentagon’s policy organization. The report,  spawned a lot of inaccurate commentary by politicians and misreporting by journalists,  and Feith said he launched the website,  to provide accurate information and sound commentary on the IG report controversy. I will use it also to provide reliable news items and other material about the work of the policy organization during my tenure as Under Secretary.
Feith’s undergraduate work at Harvard and National Security Council position under Professor Richard Pipes in the 1970s and 80’s presages present-day controversy over intelligence critiques. At University, Feith was involved with  Team B  analysis: or critiques of existing intelligence.[9] In the late 1970s, many American conservatives believed the Soviet Union was a qualitatively graver threat than US intelligence agencies believed. These fears later proved unfounded. Feith applied a similar ideological lens to existing intelligence regarding Iraq.[70][71]

The response to the Inspector General’s report has been determined along partisan lines.[72][73]
The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page. (February 2008)
Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved.

Subordinate’s involvement in the Lawrence Franklin espionage scandal

A subordinate of Feith’s, Larry Franklin, was convicted, and sentenced to 12 years in Federal prison in 2005 for charges in an espionage scandal. Franklin was accused and convicted of passing classified information to an Israeli diplomat and Steven Rosen, an employee of the Israeli AIPAC lobby. A reporter for the Asia Times wrote in September 2004 that the ongoing FBI counter-espionage probe into improper transmission of classified information to AIPAC from 1999 to shortly before the 2003 Iraq Invasion could involve Feith.[45] Feith has not publicly commented on the investigation.[56] Franklin was one of 1,500[74] employees at Feith’s Pentagon office, and officially worked six layers of bureaucracy beneath Feith. However, while leading the Office of Special Plans (OSP), Feith used Larry Franklin repeatedly for sensitive meetings involving foreign citizens, overseas.[54]

According to The Guardian, Feith’s office had an unconventional relationship with Israel’s intelligence services:

The OSP was an open and largely unfiltered conduit to the White House not only for the Iraqi opposition. It also forged close ties to a parallel, ad hoc intelligence operation inside Ariel Sharon’s office in Israel specifically to bypass Mossad and provide the Bush administration with more alarmist reports on Saddam’s Iraq than Mossad was prepared to authorise.

None of the Israelis who came were cleared into the Pentagon through normal channels , said one source familiar with the visits. Instead, they were waved in on Feith’s authority without having to fill in the usual forms.

The exchange of information continued a long-standing relationship Feith and other Washington neo-conservatives had with Israel’s Likud party.[49]

Also in September 2004, writing in an op-ed for the Gulf News, Adel Safty, the UNESCO Chair of Leadership and President of the School of Government and Leadership, Bahcesehir University in Istanbul, writes,  the FBI may be pursuing the wrong guy. Franklin is working for a more fanatical supporter of Israel with a higher security clearance: Under Secretary of Defence for Policy Douglas Feith, in his support for the extremist elements of the Israel’s Likud party, played a crucial role in getting the USA to wage war against Iraq, and is trying to get it to intervene against Iran. Feith’s services and loyalty to the Israeli extremists make the FBI investigation of Franklin’s spy activities pale in insignificance. [75]

Feith has been defended by Frank Gaffney, the head of the Center for Security Policy and a Feith friend since they served together in the Reagan administration. Gaffney told the Philadelphia Inquirer,  To construe Doug as this sort of running dog of the Jewish state, a Zionist proxy in the Pentagon, is totally false and deeply offensive. [53]

See also

Lobbying in the United States

Footnotes

1. ^  Feith, Douglas J. , Current Biography, H.W. Wilson, 2008
2. ^ a b  Douglas Feith: What has the Pentagon’s third man done wrong? Everything. , Slate, May 20, 2004
3. ^  Insider: Iraq Attack Was Preemptive , CBS News, April 6, 2008
4. ^ a b Kamen, Al (2008-04-23).  Feith and Hope . In the Loop (Washington Post): pp. A19. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/22/AR2008042202465.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
5. ^ Official Bio, Hudson Institute website.
6. ^ Goldberg, Jeffery (May 9, 2005).  A Little Learning: What Douglas Feith knew, and when he knew it. . The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/articles/050509fa_fact. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
7. ^ Feldman, William (April 14, 2005).  In Defense of America, he’s third in line . Northeast Times. http://www.northeasttimes.com/2005/0414/kids.html. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
8. ^ a b Feith, Douglas (April 23, 2004).  Defense, democracy and the war on terrorism . US Department of Defense. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PAH/is_2004_April_23/ai_116585447. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
9. ^ a b Defense, democracy and the war on terrorism – Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Douglas J. Feith – Transcript | US Department of Defense Speeches | Find Articles at BNET.com
10. ^ Douglas J. Feith, Civil Liberties, Civil Society and Civility
11. ^ Faculty’s Chilly Welcome for Ex-Pentagon Official – New York Times
12. ^ NEWSMEAT ? Douglas Feith’s Federal Campaign Contribution Report
13. ^ A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm
14. ^ The Men From JINSA and CSP, by Jason Vest, 9/2/02
15. ^ Letter from Washington: A Little Learning: The New Yorker
16. ^ Insider: Iraq Attack Was Preemptive
17. ^ DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary Rumsfeld Interview with Barry Schweid, Associated Press
18. ^ DefenseLink Speech:
19. ^ SignOnSanDiego.com > In Iraq – Rumsfeld defends aide against attack by Gen. Franks
20. ^ DefenseLink Speech:
21. ^ Letter from Washington: A Little Learning: The New Yorker
22. ^ http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2005/sp20050808-1841.html
23. ^ a b Annals of National Security: The Stovepipe: The New Yorker
24. ^ CIA Hearings May Bring Oversight Debate
25. ^ Transcript: Hearing on the Nomination of Gen. Michael Hayden to be Director of the CIA, Washington Post, Thursday, May 18, 2006
26. ^ Saving Feith
27. ^ Jim Lobe,  Feith Leaving Pentagon – Twilight of the Neo-Cons? , Inter Press Service, January 27, 2005
28. ^ washingtonpost.com: Bush Began to Plan War Three Months After 9/11
29. ^ Interview on APTV with Barry Schweid and George Gedda
30. ^ Knut Royce and Timothy M. Phelps,  Secret Talks With Iranian Arms Dealer , Newsday (8 August 2003).
31. ^ Article | The American Prospect
32. ^ Teaching Recent History From Opposite Perspectives – washingtonpost.com
33. ^ Douglas J. Feith
34. ^ AEI – Short Publications – Who Lost Iraq? It’s Not Who You Think
35. ^ The condensed Bob Woodward. – By Bryan Curtis – Slate Magazine
36. ^ The Long March to Baghdad – Council on Foreign Relations
37. ^ Tommy Franks, American Soldier, p. 362.
38. ^ ‘Hardball with Chris Matthews’ for April 14 – Hardball with Chris Matthews – MSNBC.com
39. ^ Article | The American Prospect
40. ^ Colonel Finally Saw Whites of Their Eyes
41. ^  Pentagon Capers , segment on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, Comedy Central, February 13, 2007. Retrieved on March 21, 2008.
42. ^ FRONTLINE: the dark side: interviews: lt. gen. michael delong | PBS
43. ^ [1][dead link]
44. ^ a b c The Raw Story | Pentagon investigation of Iraq war hawk stalling Senate inquiry into pre-war Iraq intelligence
45. ^ a b Asia Times – Asia’s most trusted news source for the Middle East
46. ^ http://www.billingsnews.com/story?storyid=18196&issue=285
47. ^ Office of Special Plans: Information and Much More from Answers.com
48. ^ Annals of National Security: Selective Intelligence: The New Yorker
49. ^ a b c Special investigation: The spies who pushed for war on Iraq | World news | The Guardian
50. ^ [2][dead link]
51. ^ The Lie Factory
52. ^ Preface
53. ^ a b Steve Goldstein,  As Iraq struggles, critics zero in on Pentagon aide , Philadelphia Inquirer (28 September 2004) A1.
54. ^ a b The Raw Story | Senate Intelligence Committee stalling pre-war intelligence report
55. ^ Pentagon Officials Hold Secret Talks With Iranian Arms Dealer
56. ^ a b Wider FBI Probe Of Pentagon Leaks Includes Chalabi (washingtonpost.com)
57. ^ a b 2d probe at the Pentagon examines actions on Iraq – The Boston Globe
58. ^  Iran-Contra II?  by Joshua Micah Marshall, Laura Rozen, and Paul Glastris
59. ^ Annals of National Security: The Stovepipe: The New Yorker
60. ^ FOXNews.com – Report: No Iraq WMDs Made After ’91 – Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum
61. ^ Knut Royce and Timothy M. Phelps,  Secret Talks With Iranian Arms Dealer , Newsday (Long Island, NY), August 8, 2003
62. ^ Asia Times -Veteran neo-con adviser moves on Iran
63. ^ http://rpc.senate.gov/_files/Feb0706DoDIntellMS.pdf
64. ^ The Raw Story | Prewar intelligence probe grinds towards end as parties accuse each other of delay
65. ^ a b c   Senate Report on Intelligence Activities Relating To Iraq Conducted By The Policy of Counterterrorism Evaluation Group and the Office of Special Plans Within The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy  (PDF). http://intelligence.senate.gov/080605/phase2b.pdf.
66. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,,-6403435,00.html
67. ^ David S. Cloud and Mark Mazzetti,  Pentagon Group Criticized for Prewar Intelligence Analysis , New York Times, February 9, 2007. Retrieved on March 21, 2008.
68. ^ Ex-Pentagon official calls prewar intelligence review ‘good government’ – USATODAY.com
69. ^ Hussein’s Prewar Ties To Al-Qaeda Discounted – washingtonpost.com
70. ^ Rumsfeld’s plan to connect Saddam and al-Qaida – By Fred Kaplan – Slate Magazine
71. ^ It’s Time to Bench  Team B
72. ^  Review of Pre-Iraqi War Activities by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy  (PDF). United States Department of Defense Office of Inspector General. February 10, 2007. http://www.dodig.mil/IGInformation/archives/Unclass%20%20Executive%20Summary.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
73. ^ Cloud, David (February 10, 2007).  Inquiry on Intelligence Gaps May Reach to White House . New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/10/washington/10feith.html?em&ex=1171256400&en=d3f38b78d0ae254d&ei=5087. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
74. ^ The New York Times > Washington > Campaign 2004 > F.B.I. Is Said to Brief Pentagon Bosses on Spy Case; Charges Are Possible
75. ^ Adel Safty,  Spying for Israel: Got the Wrong Guy , Gulf News (13 September 2004).

Further reading

* [http://fora.tv/2008/10/23/Douglas_Feith_War_and_Decision War and Decision: Ford Hall Forum

Boston, MA October 23, 2008] a video of a talk by Douglas Feith 1hr and 42min.

* Maureen Dowd,  The Dream is Dead,  The New York Times, 12 December 2007
* Vanity Fair editor Craig Unger on the development of the Office of Special Plans
* Special Plans: the blogs on Douglas Feith and the faulty intelligence that led to war by Allison Hantschel, Wilsonville, Oregon: William, James & Co., September 2005 ISBN 1-59028-049-0
* Deadly Dogma: How Neoconservatives Broke the Law to Deceive America by Smith, Grant F., Institute for Research: Middle Eastern Policy, 2006, ISBN 0-9764437-4-0.
* Clear Ideas vs. Foggy Bottom by Melanie Kirkpatrick, The Wall Street Journal August 5, 2003, p. A8.
* White House Learned of Spy Probe in 2001 by Curt Anderson, Associated Press, September 3, 2004.
* Chain of Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib by Seymour Hersh, New York: Harper Collins. 2004. ISBN 0-06-019591-6.
* Israel’s Legitimacy in Law and History Feith, Douglas J., et al; ed. Siegel, Edward M.; assoc.ed. Barrekette, Olga; Proceedings of the Conference on International Law and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (New York, October 21, 1990), Sponsored by The Louis D. Brandeis Society of Zionist Lawyers, Center for Near East Policy Research, 1993, ISBN 0-9640145-0-5.
* A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm by David Wurmser, 1996
* Plan of Attack by Bob Woodward, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004, ISBN 0-7432-5547-X.
* A Dangerous Appointment: Profile of Douglas Feith, Undersecretary of Defense under Bush by James J. Zogby, Middle East Information Center, April 18, 2001
* Israeli Settlements: Legitimate, Democratically Mandated, Vital to Israel’s Security and, Therefore, in U.S. Interest, The Center for Security Policy, Transition Brief No. 96-T 130, December 17, 1996

External links

Biographies

* Douglas Feith’s personal website
* Douglas Feith biography, from The Jewish Virtual Library
* Profile: Douglas Feith a timeline of Feith’s Iraq policies at Center for Cooperative Research

Editorials

Editorials and opinion columnists, in reverse chronological order:

* The Dream Is Dead (Commentary on Doug Feith) by Maureen Dowd, New York Times, December 12, 2007.
* Vindicating Douglas Feith, New York Sun editorial, February 12, 2007.
* Douglas Feith’s  inappropriate  hyping of the case for the Iraq War by former senior CIA political analyst Kathleen Christison, Adbusters, May-June, 2007.
* Who’s Spinning Intel? Captured Iraqi documents tell a different story by Thomas Jocelyn, April 13, 2007.
* Who’s Misleading Whom? by Rich Tucker, Townhall.com, March 9, 2007.
* Borking Doug Feith, by Robert Blackwill and Ed Rogers, The Washington Times, March 8, 2007.
* Feith on Trial: Facts don’t matter to Carl Levin, by Mario Loyola, National Review, February 27, 2007.
* The Misuses of Intelligence, by Michael Barone, The Washington Times, February 19, 2007.
* Doug Feith Deserves Our Thanks, by Hugh Hewitt, abcnews.com, February 12, 2007.
* Senator Ahab, Wall Street Journal editorial, February 12, 2007.
* Intelligence Games, by Andrew McCarthy, National Review, February 9, 2007.
* Hayden’s Heroes, Wall Street Journal editorial, May 31, 2006.
* Moby Feith, Wall Street Journal editorial, October 25, 2004.
* Spy probe scans neo-cons’ Israel ties by Jim Lobe, Asia Times, September 2, 2004.
* Douglas Feith: What has the Pentagon’s third man done wrong? Everything. by Chris Suellentrop, Slate, Thursday, May 20, 2004.
* Douglas Feith’s federal campaign contribution report at NewsMeat, 1986-present.

Press releases and news articles

* The spies who pushed for war by Julian Borger The Guardian, July 17, 2003
* The Department of Defense the Office of Special Plans and Iraq Pre-War Intelligence by Jon Kyl, Republic Policy Committee, US Senate, February 7, 2006
* Report on the U.S. Intel communities assesments on Iraq by U.S. Senate
* Speech: Farewell Ceremony for Douglas Feith by Rumsfeld, Pentagon Auditorium, Washington, DC, Monday, August 8, 2005
* Weapons of Mass Destruction by The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the U.S.
*  A Little Learning: What Doug Feith Knew and When He Knew It  by Jeffrey Goldberg, The New Yorker, 2005-05-09
* Conservatives Press for Stronger Campus Presence by D. Pierce Nixon, The Hoya, January 31, 2006
* Gallucci Considers Feith for SFS Appointment by Caitlin Moran, The Hoya, February 9, 2006
* FBI probes DOD office by Richard Sale, The Washington Times, August 24. 2004
* Wider FBI Probe Of Pentagon Leaks Includes Chalabi by Robin Wright and Thomas E. Ricks, Washington Post, September 3, 2004
* Pentagon investigation of Iraq war hawk stalling Senate inquiry into pre-war Iraq intelligence by Larisa Alexandrovna, Raw Story, January 30, 2006
* 2d probe at the Pentagon examines actions on Iraq by Bryan Bender, Boston Globe, August 31, 2004
* Mazzetti, Mark  Contentious Defense Official to Depart . Los Angeles Times, January 27, 2005

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Preceded by
Walter B. Slocombe     United States Department of Defense
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
2001–2005     Succeeded by
Eric S. Edelman

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_Feith

***

***

Feith’s first job in government came shortly after he graduated from Harvard, as an intern to a subcommittee chaired by Senator Henry (Scoop) Jackson, whose office was a locus of neoconservative thought. Apart from tours at the National Security Council and the Pentagon during the Reagan Administration (he was a top aide to the neoconservative Richard Perle, who was then an assistant secretary of defense), he has spent his professional life in the private practice of law—he received a law degree from Georgetown University—and as an insistent advocate of neoconservative causes.

Feith, who announced earlier this year that he will be leaving his post by this summer—he said he hopes to write a book about his experiences—has not often met the reigning aesthetic of Washington. It has been Feith’s job, as the top policy adviser to Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and his departing deputy, Paul Wolfowitz, to help build the intellectual framework for the Bush Administration’s campaign against terrorism. His detractors see him as an ideologue who manipulated intelligence to bring about the invasion of Iraq. His main nemesis on Capitol Hill, Senator Carl Levin, a Michigan Democrat who serves on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, told me that Feith deceived not only the White House but Congress as well. Yet the criticism of Feith in Washington goes beyond his ideology, to his competence. Even some fellow-neoconservatives, who have been lacerating in their criticism of Rumsfeld for his management of postwar Iraq, have asked whether Feith is better at reading history than at shaping it. “I don’t know whether Feith deserves more praise for supporting George W. Bush’s foreign policy or more criticism for being an agent of Rumsfeld,” William Kristol, the editor of the Weekly Standard, said.

Douglas J. Feith, who is the UnderSecretary of Defense for Policy, lives in one of the better Maryland suburbs, on a street of large and unhandsome Colonial homes. The interior of Feith’s house has space and light, but it is furnished in a mostly expedient manner; Feith and his wife, Tatiana, have four children—ages eight to twenty-one—and the house feels very much theirs.

The exception is Feith’s library. It is apparent that he has devoted considerable care and money to its design and, in particular, to its collection, which numbers at least five thousand volumes. The floors and shelves are dark oak, and the walls are covered in hunter-green wallpaper. The library is not in the style of the high-station Washington bureaucrat who wants to telegraph his indispensability; there are few photographs of Feith in the company of potentates and prime ministers and presidents. Instead, Feith has filled the room with images of figures who have earned his admiration. Busts of Washington and Lincoln sit on the shelves; Churchill scowls in the direction of Feith’s desk. A black-and-white portrait of Theodore Herzl, the founder of Zionism, hangs over a green leather couch. In his collection, history has displaced nearly every other subject; fiction—his favorite is Nabokov—has been exiled to the basement. The library is weighted disproportionately to the history of the British Empire, and Feith has spent many hours schooling himself in the schemes and follies of the British on the playing fields of the Middle East.

In conversation, Feith is not often on point. The first time we met, I was prepared to ask about his role in the management of postwar Iraq. Feith, though, preferred to discuss the influence on his thinking of Edmund Burke, the political philosopher who feared instability as much as neoconservatives seem to embrace it. I asked Feith to imagine what Burke would have thought about the Bush Administration’s experiment in Iraq. “Burke warns in his writings about the danger of political abstractions put forward as universal principles,” Feith said. Burke, he continued, “wrote brilliantly and bitterly about the French Revolution and the danger to a society of a bunch of people thinking they could remake society rationally and get rid of all the institutions that have grown up over centuries and reflect the distilled wisdom of numerous people.” But the Bush Administration, Feith added, did nothing of the sort.

To draft Burke into the Bush Cabinet is typical of Feith: counterintuitive and clever, maybe too clever. He rejected the idea that Bush was seeking to remake Iraq in America’s image: “I believe that what makes President Bush’s policy of democracy promotion better, wiser, more careful than what one could describe as starry-eyed Wilsonianism is precisely the recognition that we should not be taking the particulars of our political views and our institutions and trying to impose them in places where there is not fertile soil.” He also said that the idea of “Shiite democracy,” a system in which clerics would play a large role, does not frighten him. “In different parts of the world, clerics play a larger or smaller role in the political process. The idea that there may be a country where clerics play a larger role in the political process than they do in America is not inherently antidemocratic or alarming,” he said. “What the President talks about is that it is the nature of man to want to be free. I don’t think that violates Burke’s warnings.”

Feith’s library includes a large selection of books on Zionism, but he did not linger there. “I’m not looking to aggravate a distortion about me,” Feith said. The distortion, he said, is that his religion, or at least his longtime support for right-wing Israeli leaders, has affected his policy recommendations to Rumsfeld. Feith dismisses this criticism as a willful misunderstanding of his motives. “My interest in democratization predates the focus on the Middle East,” he says. Rumsfeld, for his part, derides the idea that the Administration was manipulated by its sub-Cabinet-level Jewish officials. “I suppose the implication of that is that the President and the Vice-President and myself and Colin Powell just fell off a turnip truck to take these jobs,” he said.

One afternoon, I asked Feith what had gone wrong in Iraq.

“Your assumption is that everything went wrong,” he replied.

I hadn’t said that, but I spoke of the loss of American lives—more than fifteen hundred soldiers, most of whom died after the declared end of major combat operations. This number, I said, strikes many people as a large and terrible loss.

“Based on what?” Feith asked. “It’s a large sacrifice. It’s a serious loss. It’s an absolute disaster for the families. Nobody can possibly deny how horrible the loss is for the families involved. But this was an operation to prevent the next, as it were, 9/11, the next major attack that could kill tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of Americans, and Iraq is a country of twenty-five million people and it was a major enterprise.”

Before the war, the Administration argued that the overthrow of the Baath regime would prevent a marriage of Al Qaeda terrorists to Saddam’s chemical and biological weapons. But after the fall of Saddam the United States and its coalition partners discovered that Saddam had apparently destroyed his stockpiles of unconventional weapons, and the Administration has been unable to prove a close operational relationship between Al Qaeda and the Iraqi regime.

I asked Feith if he would have recommended the invasion of Iraq if he knew then what he knows now.

“The main rationale was not based on intelligence,” Feith said. “It was known to anyone who read newspapers and knew history. Saddam had used nerve gas, he had invaded his neighbors more than once, he had attacked other neighbors, he was hostile to us, he supported numerous terrorist groups. It’s true that he didn’t have a link that we know of to 9/11. . . . But he did give safe haven to terrorists.”

**
The largest controversy of Feith’s Pentagon career concerned his role in the lead-up to the war. Feith created two new units within his policy shop: the Office of Special Plans and the Policy Counterterrorism Evaluation Group. Special Plans was the name given to a new subregional office focussed on Iraq. The Ian Fleming-like label was chosen, Feith said, to obscure its mission; at the time, the Bush Administration was publicly pursuing a diplomatic solution to the Iraq crisis, and the Pentagon did not want to advertise that it was engaged in planning for postwar Iraq. The eighteen members of the Special Plans staff prepared strategies on a range of issues that America would face after an invasion: repairing Iraq’s economy and oil industry, the training of a new police force, war-crimes trials, the reorganization of the Iraqi government. The State Department, meanwhile, named its own planning program in a more straightforward way: its Future of Iraq project was also a study of problems anticipated in postwar Iraq. The two programs were not well coördinated; partisans of the State Department have accused the Pentagon of ignoring its planning effort. Feith told me he did not ignore the State Department effort, which he called “a bunch of concept papers.”

The Policy Counterterrorism Evaluation Group was devoted to alternative intelligence analysis; it employed a rotating staff of two people who were asked to read intelligence data provided by the C.I.A. in order to find unexamined connections between state sponsors of terrorism and terrorist groups. Feith said, “I went to these two guys and said, ‘Read the intelligence so you can tell me what I need to know about, so I can develop a strategy and policies for dealing with terror networks.’ ” Most of the work of this unit was soon focused on looking for evidence of ties between Al Qaeda and Saddam. The analysts looked at data from old intelligence reports and concluded that the C.I.A. had overlooked or downplayed evidence of an operational relationship; they prepared a presentation for Feith.

Rumsfeld instructed Feith to offer the briefing to George Tenet, who was then the director of the C.I.A., and Feith’s analysts made the presentation to C.I.A. officials in August of 2002. Several weeks later, the analysts made a more aggressive presentation to White House officials. They included the assertion that the leader of the September 11th hijackers, Mohamed Atta, met with an agent of Iraqi intelligence in Prague shortly before the attacks.

Feith’s Democratic critics accused the counterterrorism group of providing the Administration with incorrect intelligence to buttress its case that Saddam and Al Qaeda were in league. “He was giving the Administration analysis that they wanted to hear,” Senator Levin told me. “It was misleading, it was deceptive, it was based on feeble information.” Feith’s view is that the analysts were simply involved in alternative analysis—an idea that has become increasingly popular as Washington looks for ways to improve its ability to read intelligence.

Although the work of the Policy Counterterrorism Evaluation Group has been a preoccupation for many opponents of the Bush Administration, Feith’s work in Special Plans had far more significance. In his library, I asked Feith what the Office of Special Plans planned. He began by disagreeing with the prevailing wisdom in Washington: that the crises of the past two years—the insurgency, the embitterment of Iraqis toward the United States, the civilian and military casualties—were in many cases preventable. He even disagreed with the notion that they were as serious as many Americans believe them to be.

“There’s a paradox I’ve never been able to work out,” he said. “It helps to be deeply knowledgeable about an area—to know the people, to know the language, to know the history, the culture, the literature. But it is not a guarantee that you will have the right strategy or policy as a matter of statecraft for dealing with that area. You see, the great experts in certain areas sometimes get it fundamentally wrong.”

I asked Feith if he was talking about himself, and he said, “I am talking about myself in the following sense: expertise is a very good thing, but it is not the same thing as sound judgment regarding strategy and policy. George W. Bush has more insight, because of his knowledge of human beings and his sense of history, about the motive force, the craving for freedom and participation in self-rule, than do many of the language experts and history experts and culture experts.”

Letter from Washington
A Little Learning
What Douglas Feith knew, and when he knew it.
by Jeffrey Goldberg May 9, 2005

http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/05/09/050509fa_fact?currentPage=all

***
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a former United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, and President of the World Bank. He is currently a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships,[2] and chairman of the US-Taiwan Business Council.[3]

As Deputy Secretary of Defense, he was  a major architect of President Bush’s Iraq policy and … its most hawkish advocate. [4][5][6][7] After serving two years, he resigned as president of the World Bank Group  ending a protracted and tumultuous battle over his stewardship, sparked by a promotion he arranged for his companion. [8][9]
Contents

* 1 Personal history
o 1.1 Post-secondary education
+ 1.1.1 Cornell University
+ 1.1.2 University of Chicago
* 2 Career
o 2.1 Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
o 2.2 Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs
o 2.3 State Department Director of Policy Planning
o 2.4 State Department Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
o 2.5 Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia
o 2.6 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
o 2.7 Out of office
o 2.8 Deputy Secretary of Defense
o 2.9 President of the World Bank
* 3 Recent controversies
o 3.1 Wolfowitz’s economic arguments pertaining to the Iraq War
o 3.2 Wolfowitz’s relationship with Shaha Riza
o 3.3 Wolfowitz’s leadership of the World Bank Group
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 External links

Personal history

The second child of Jacob  Jack  Wolfowitz (1910–1981) and Lillian Dundes, Paul Wolfowitz  was born in Brooklyn, New York, into a Polish Jewish immigrant family, and grew up mainly in Ithaca, New York, where his father was a professor of statistical theory at Cornell University. [10][11]  In addition to being prolific in research  and  very well read,  according to Shelemyahu Zacks, Jacob Wolfowitz  fought at the time for the liberation of Soviet Jewry. He was a friend and strong supporter of the state of Israel, AIPAC member and had many friends and admirers there. [12] Strongly influenced by his father, according to Eric Schmitt, Paul Wolfowitz became  a soft-spoken former aspiring-mathematician-turned-policymaker … [whose] world views … were forged by family history and in the halls of academia rather than in the jungles of Vietnam or the corridors of Congress … [His father] … escaped Poland after World War I. The rest of his father’s family perished in the Holocaust. [13] (Here Eric Schmitt is mistaken as Jacob Wolfowitz simply emigrated.)

As a boy, Wolfowitz devoured books about the Holocaust and Hiroshima—what he calls ‘the polar horrors’ .[4] Speaking of the influence of the Holocaust on his views, Wolfowitz said:

That sense of what happened in Europe in World War II has shaped a lot of my views … It’s a very bad thing when people exterminate other people, and people persecute minorities. It doesn’t mean you can prevent every such incident in the world, but it’s also a mistake to dismiss that sort of concern as merely humanitarian and not related to real interest. [13]

Before first moving to Ithaca, in the fall of 1952 for his father’s new post, the Wolfowitzes lived in Manhattan:  I was born in Brooklyn but we grew up in Manhattan, one block down on Morningside Drive … from the President of Columbia who for part of that time was Dwight Eisenhower. [14][15] After teaching for a year at Cornell, his father took a year long sabbatical and was accompanied by his family, spending half the time at UCLA, and half at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In 1957, Paul Wolfowitz lived in Israel, while his father was a visiting professor at the Israel Institute of Technology (Technion IIT), in Haifa.[12][5]

Wolfowitz took classes at Cornell University while still a student at Ithaca High School.[16] In the mid-1960s, while they were both undergraduate students at Cornell, he met Clare Selgin, who later became an anthropologist. They married in 1968, had three children, lived in Chevy Chase, Maryland, separated in 1999, and, according to some sources, became legally separated in 2001 and divorced in 2002.[10][11][5][17][18]

In late 1999, Wolfowitz began dating Shaha Ali Riza. Their relationship led to controversy later, during his presidency of the World Bank Group.[5][19]

Wolfowitz speaks five languages in addition to English;  Wolfowitz taught himself Arabic in the 1980s, when he was working at the State Department,  and  He also speaks French, German, Hebrew, and Indonesian. [5]

Post-secondary education

Cornell University

Wolfowitz entered Cornell University in 1961, on full scholarship. He was a member of the Telluride Association, a non-profit organization founded in 1910.[11] He lived in the Telluride House through academic year 1962 to 1963, while philosophy professor Allan Bloom served as a faculty mentor living in the house.[11] Schmitt observes that Wolfowitz first  became a protégé of the political philosopher Allan Bloom, and then of Albert Wohlstetter, the father of hard-line conservative strategic thinking at the University of Chicago. [13] In August 1963,  when he was nineteen, he and his mother attended the civil-rights march on Washington organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. and others .[5][11]

Though he  majored in mathematics and chemistry … he was profoundly moved by John Hersey’s Hiroshima and shifted his focus toward politics. ‘One of the things that ultimately led me to leave mathematics and go into political science was thinking I could prevent nuclear war,’ he said. [13]

Wolfowitz graduated in 1965 with a Bachelor’s degree degree in mathematics and chemistry. Against his father’s wishes, Wolfowitz decided to go to graduate school to study politics.[11]

University of Chicago

Following his graduation from Cornell, Wolfowitz attended the University of Chicago in order to study under Leo Strauss. He completed his PhD dissertation under Albert Wohlstetter. In the summer of 1969, Wohlstetter arranged for his students Wolfowitz, Wilson, and Richard Perle to join the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy which was set up by Cold War architects Paul Nitze and Dean Acheson.

From 1970 to 1972, Wolfowitz taught in the Department of Political Science at Yale University, where one of his students was I. Lewis  Scooter  Libby.[20]

In 1972, Wolfowitz earned a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago, writing his doctoral dissertation on  nuclear proliferation in the Middle East .[21]

Career

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
Main article: Team B

In the 1970s Wolfowitz served as an aide to Democratic Senator Henry M. Jackson, who influenced several neoconservatives, including Wolfowitz and Richard Perle. Jackson  was the quintessential ‘Cold War liberal.’ He was an outspoken and influential advocate of increased military spending and a hard line against the Soviet Union, while supporting social welfare programs, civil rights, and the labor movement. [22]

In 1972 U.S. President Richard Nixon, under pressure from Senator Jackson, dismissed the head of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and replaced him with Fred Ikle. Ikle brought in a new team including Wolfowitz. Wolfowitz wrote research papers and drafted testimony, as he had previously done at the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy. He traveled with Ikle to strategic arms limitations talks in Paris and other European cities. He helped dissuade South Korea from reprocessing plutonium that could be diverted into a clandestine weapons program.

Under President Gerald Ford, the American intelligence agencies had come under attack over their annually published National Intelligence Estimate. According to Mann:  The underlying issue was whether the C.I.A. and other agencies were underestimating the threat from the Soviet Union, either by intentionally tailoring intelligence to support Kissinger’s policy of détente or by simply failing to give enough weight to darker interpretations of Soviet intentions.  In an attempt to counter these claims, the newly appointed Director of Central Intelligence, George H.W. Bush authorized the formation of a committee of anti-Communist experts, headed by Richard Pipes, to reassess the raw data. Richard Pipes picked Wolfowitz, to serve on this committee, which came to be known as Team B:  ‘Richard Perle recommended him,’ Pipes says of Wolfowitz today [2003, as quoted by Tanenhaus]. ‘I’d never heard of him.’ [23]

The team’s report, delivered in 1976 and quickly leaked to the press, stated that  All the evidence points to an undeviating Soviet commitment to what is euphemistically called the ‘worldwide triumph of socialism,’ but in fact connotes global Soviet hegemony,  highlighting a number of key areas where they believed the government’s intelligence analysts had got it wrong. According to Jack Davis, Wolfowitz observed later:

The B-Team demonstrated that it was possible to construct a sharply different view of Soviet motivation from the consensus view of the [intelligence] analysts and one that provided a much closer fit to the Soviets’ observed behavior (and also provided a much better forecast of subsequent behavior up to and through the invasion of Afghanistan). The formal presentation of the competing views in a session out at [CIA headquarters in] Langley also made clear that the enormous experience and expertise of the B-Team as a group were formidable.[24]

The work of Team B, the accuracy of its conclusions, and its effects on U.S. military policies remain controversial.[20][25][26]

Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs

In 1977, during the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, Wolfowitz moved to The Pentagon. He was employed as U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs for the U.S. Defense Department, under then U.S. Secretary of Defense Harold Brown.

In early 1980, Wolfowitz resigned from the Pentagon and went to work as a visiting professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. According to the Washington Post;  He said it was not he who changed his political philosophy so much as the Democratic Party, which abandoned the hard-headed internationalism of Harry Truman, Kennedy and Jackson. [1]

State Department Director of Policy Planning

In 1980, following the election of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the newly appointed U.S. National Security Advisor Richard V. Allen put together the administration’s foreign policy advisory team. Allen initially rejected Wolfowitz’s appointment but following discussions, instigated by former colleague John Lehman, Allen offered Wolfowitz the position of Director of Policy Planning at the U.S. State Department.

President Reagan’s foreign policy was heavily influenced by the Kirkpatrick Doctrine, as outlined in a 1979 article in Commentary by Jeanne Kirkpatrick entitled  Dictatorships and Double Standards .

Although most governments in the world are, as they always have been, autocracies of one kind or another, no idea hold greater sway in the mind of educated Americans than the belief that it is possible to democratize governments, anytime, anywhere, under any circumstances…. (But) decades, if not centuries, are normally required for people to acquire the necessary disciplines and habits.

Wolfowitz broke from this official line by denouncing Saddam Hussein of Iraq at a time when Donald Rumsfeld was offering the dictator support in his conflict with Iran. James Mann points out:  quite a few neo-conservatives, like Wolfowitz, believed strongly in democratic ideals; they had taken from the philosopher Leo Strauss the notion that there is a moral duty to oppose a leader who is a ‘tyrant.’  Other areas where Wolfowitz disagreed with the administration was in his opposition to attempts to open up dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and to the sale of Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft to Saudi Arabia.  In both instances,  according to Mann,  Wolfowitz demonstrated himself to be one of the strongest supporters of Israel in the Reagan administration.

Mann stresses:  It was on China that Wolfowitz launched his boldest challenge to the established order.  After Nixon and Kissinger had gone to China in the early 70s, U.S. policy was to make concessions to China as an essential Cold War ally. The Chinese were now pushing for the U.S. to end arms sales to Taiwan, and Wolfowitz used the Chinese incentive as an opportunity to undermine Kissinger’s foreign policy toward China. Instead, Wolfowitz advocated a unilateralist policy, claiming that the U.S. did not need China’s assistance but that the Chinese needed the U.S. to protect them against the far-more-likely prospect of a Soviet invasion of the Chinese mainland. Wolfowitz soon came into conflict with U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig, who had been Kissinger’s assistant at the time of the visits to China. On March 30, 1982, The New York Times predicted that  Paul D. Wolfowitz, the director of policy planning … will be replaced,  because  Mr. Haig found Mr. Wolfowitz too theoretical.  Instead, on June 25, 1982, George Schultz replaced Haig as U.S. Secretary of State, and Wolfowitz was promoted.

State Department Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs

In 1982 the new U.S. Secretary of State George Schultz appointed Wolfowitz as Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs.

Jeane Kirkpatrick, on a visit to the Philippines, had been eagerly welcomed by the dictator Ferdinand Marcos who quoted heavily from her 1979 Commentary article Dictatorships and Double Standards and although Kirkpatrick had been forced to speak-out in favor of democracy the article continued to influence Reagan’s policy toward Marcos. Following the assassination of Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. in 1983 many within the Reagan administration including the President himself began to fear that the Philippines could fall to the communists and the U.S. military would lose its strongholds at Clark Air Force Base and Subic Bay Naval Station. Wolfowitz tried to re-orient the administration’s policy, stating in an April 15, 1985 article in The Wall Street Journal that  The best antidote to Communism is democracy.

In pursuance of this policy Wolfowitz and his assistant Lewis Libby made trips to Manila where they called for democratic reforms and met with non-communist opposition leaders but the approach was still very soft.

Mann points out that  the Reagan administration’s decision to support democratic government in the Philippines had been hesitant, messy, crisis-driven and skewed by the desire to do what was necessary to protect the American military installations.  Following massive street protests, Marcos fled the country on a U.S. Air Force plane and the U.S. recognized the government of Corazón Aquino.

Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia

From 1986 to 1989, during the military-backed government of President Suharto, Wolfowitz was the U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia.[27]
According to Peter J. Boyer, in his New Yorker profile of Wolfowitz,

Wolfowitz’s appointment to Indonesia was not an immediately obvious match. He was a Jew representing America in the largest Muslim republic in the world, an advocate of democracy in Suharto’s dictatorship. But Wolfowitz’s tenure as Ambassador was a notable success, largely owing to the fact that, in essence, he went native. With tutoring help from his driver, he learned the language, and hurled himself into the culture. He attended academic seminars, climbed volcanoes, and toured the neighborhoods of Jakarta. [4]

Sipress and Nakashima report that  Wolfowitz’s colleagues and friends, both Indonesian and American  pointed to the  U.S. envoy’s quiet pursuit of political and economic reforms in Indonesia. [28] According to the Associated Press, however, in their opposition to Wolfowitz’s later appointment to the presidency of the World Bank,  Analysts in Indonesia … say the candidate has a poor track record in other areas crucial to the World Bank, such as fighting graft and respect for human rights. [27]

Dewi Fortuna Anwar, a foreign policy adviser to B J Habibie, Suharto’s successor as head of state (1998–1999), stated  that Wolfowitz was a competent and popular envoy,  and  he was extremely able and very much admired and well-liked on a personal level,  Adding however,  he never intervened to push human rights or stand up to corruption. [27]

As Suzanne Goldenberg observes,

some who acknowledge his popularity also discount the argument that Wolfowitz used his influence as an envoy to press for change. …  It is really too much to claim that he played any kind of role in leading Indonesia to democracy,  says Jeffrey Winters, an expert on Indonesia at Chicago’s Northwestern University, who was in the country at the time….  The real record when you dig into it is that he was very slow to respond to Indonesia’s movement for democracy. Indonesia’s citizens across the spectrum had been struggling against authoritarian rule. They had been tortured. They had been jailed. They had been ruined in various ways, and the Wolfowitz embassy didn’t speak up for them – not once. … He adds:  He had his chance, and he toed the Reagan hawkish line.  The World Bank will be watching for far more than that from Wolfowitz.[10]

Officials involved in the AID program during Wolfowitz’s tenure told Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima of The Washington Post that he  took a keen personal interest in development, including health care, agriculture and private sector expansion  and that  Wolfowitz canceled food assistance to the Indonesian government out of concern that Suharto’s family, which had an ownership interest in the country’s only flour mill, was indirectly benefiting. [28]

In  The Tragedy of Suharto , published in May 1998, in The Wall Street Journal, Wolfowitz states:

Although it is fashionable to blame all of Asia’s present problems on corruption and the failure of Asian values, it is at bottom a case of a bubble bursting, of too many imprudent lenders chasing too many incautious borrowers. But the greed of Mr. Suharto’s children ensured that their father would take the lion’s share of the blame for Indonesia’s financial collapse. The Suharto children’s favored position became a major obstacle to the measures needed to restore economic confidence. Worst of all, they ensured that the economic crisis would be a political crisis as well. That he allowed this, and that he amassed such wealth himself, is all the more mysterious since he lived a relatively modest life.[29]

After the 2002 Bali bombing, on October 18, 2002, then Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz observed that  the reason the terrorists are successful in Indonesia is because the Suharto regime fell and the methods that were used to suppress them are gone. [30]

Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
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Wolfowitz, Gen. Colin Powell (left), and Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf (middle) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.

From 1989 to 1993, Wolfowitz served in the administration of George H.W. Bush as Undersecretary of Defense for Policy, under then U.S. Defense Secretary Dick Cheney.

During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Wolfowitz’s team co-ordinated and reviewed military strategy, raising $50 billion in allied financial support for the operation. Wolfowitz was present with Cheney, Colin Powell and others, on 27 February 1991 at the meeting with the President where it was decided that the troops should be demobilised.

On February 25, 1998, Wolfowitz testified before a congressional committee that he thought that  the best opportunity to overthrow Saddam was, unfortunately, lost in the month right after the war. [31] Wolfowitz added that he was horrified in March as  Saddam Hussein flew helicopters that slaughtered the people in the south and in the north who were rising up against him, while American fighter pilots flew overhead, desperately eager to shoot down those helicopters, and not allowed to do so.  During that hearing, he also stated:  Some people might say—and I think I would sympathise with this view—that perhaps if we had delayed the ceasefire by a few more days, we might have got rid of [Saddam Hussein].

After the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Wolfowitz and his then-assistant Scooter Libby wrote the Wolfowitz Doctrine to  set the nation’s direction for the next century.  At that time the official administration line was  containment , and the contents of Wolfowitz’s plan calling for  preemption  and  unilateralism  which was opposed by Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell and President Bush. Defense Secretary Cheney produced a revised plan released in 1992.

After the election of U.S. President Bill Clinton in 1992, Wolfowitz left government until 2000. During the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush, from 2000 to 2007, many of the ideas in the Wolfowitz Doctrine became part of what is called the Bush Doctrine.

See main article: Project for the New American Century

From 1994 to 2001, Wolfowitz served as Professor of International Relations and Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. He was instrumental in adding more than $75 million to the university’s endowment, developing an international finance concentration as part of the curriculum, and combining the various Asian studies programs into one department. Drawing upon his political and defense experience, he also served as a foreign policy advisor to Bob Dole on the 1996 U.S. Presidential election campaign.[citations needed]

According to Kampfner,  Wolfowitz used his perch at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies as a test-bed for a new conservative world vision.  Wolfowitz was associated with the Project for the New American Century (PNAC); he signed both the PNAC’s June 3, 1997  Statement of Principles ,[32] which begins by stating:

American foreign and defense policy is adrift. Conservatives have criticized the incoherent policies of the Clinton Administration. They have also resisted isolationist impulses from within their own ranks. But conservatives have not confidently advanced a strategic vision of America’s role in the world…. We aim to change this. We aim to make the case and rally support for American global leadership.

and its January 26, 1998  open letter to President Bill Clinton , which begins by stating:  We are writing you because we are convinced that current American policy toward Iraq is not succeeding, and that we may soon face a threat in the Middle East more serious than any we have known since the end of the Cold War. [33]

In February 1998 Wolfowitz testified before a Congressional hearing, stating that the current administration lacked the sense of purpose to  liberate ourselves, our friends and allies in the region, and the Iraqi people themselves from the menace of Saddam Hussein. [34] In his testimony, he lamented the decision at the end of the 1991 Persian Gulf War to call for a ceasefire before attempting to achieve those goals. Wolfowitz urged the administration to support Iraqi opposition groups, in particular the INC of Ahmed Chalabi with arms, intelligence and financing as a way of overthrowing the current regime without risking American troops.[citation needed]

In September 2000 the PNAC produced a 90-page report entitled Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century, advocating the redeployment of U.S. troops in permanent bases in strategic locations throughout the world where they can be ready to act to protect U.S. interests abroad.[35] During the 2000 U.S. Presidential election campaign, Wolfowitz served as a foreign policy advisor to George W. Bush as part of the group led by Condoleezza Rice calling itself The Vulcans.[36]

Deputy Secretary of Defense
From 2001 to 2005, during the George W. Bush administration, Wolfowitz served as U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense reporting to U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld.

The terrorist attacks of 9-11 was a turning point in administration policy, as Wolfowitz later explained:  9/11 really was a wake up call and that if we take proper advantage of this opportunity to prevent the future terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction that it will have been an extremely valuable wake up call,  adding:  if we say our only problem was to respond to 9/11, and we wait until somebody hits us with nuclear weapons before we take that kind of threat seriously, we will have made a very big mistake. [37]

In the first emergency meeting of the U.S. National Security Council on the day of the attacks, Rumsfeld asked,  Why shouldn’t we go against Iraq, not just al-Qaeda?  with Wolfowitz adding that Iraq was a  brittle, oppressive regime that might break easily—it was doable,  and, according to John Kampfner,  from that moment on, he and Wolfowitz used every available opportunity to press the case.  The idea was initially rejected, at the behest of U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, but, according to Kampfner,  Undeterred Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz held secret meetings about opening up a second front—against Saddam. Powell was excluded.  In such meetings they created a policy that would later be dubbed the Bush Doctrine, centering on  pre-emption , American unilateralism, and the war on Iraq, which the PNAC had advocated in their earlier letters.[38]

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the U.S. had to deal immediately with the threat of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan.[38] The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001. Victory was declared on March 6, 2002. On October 10, 2001, George Robertson, then Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, went to the Pentagon to offer NATO troops, planes and ships to assist. Wolfowitz rebuffed the offer, saying:  We can do everything we need to.  Wolfowitz later announced publicly, according to Kampfner,  that ‘allies, coalitions and diplomacy’ were of little immediate concern.
Wolfowitz with New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark at the Pentagon, March 26, 2002.

Ten months later, on January 15, 2003, with hostilities still continuing, Wolfowitz made a fifteen-hour visit to the Afghan capital, Kabul, and met with the new president Hamid Karzai. Wolfowitz stated,  We’re clearly moving into a different phase, where our priority in Afghanistan is increasingly going to be stability and reconstruction. There’s no way to go too fast. Faster is better.  Despite the promises, according to Hersh,  little effort to provide the military and economic resources  necessary for reconstruction was made.[38] This criticism would also re-occur after the U.S. invasion of Iraq later that year.[38]

On April 16, 2002 the National Solidarity Rally for Israel was called in Washington to oppose US pressure on the government of Ariel Sharon. Wolfowitz was the sole representative of the Bush administration to attend, speaking alongside Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and former New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. According to Matthew Engel in The Guardian, the administration had exposed itself to being momentarily characterised as anti-Israel, which would have meant losing votes and financial support.[39] As reported by the BBC, Wolfowitz told the crowd that US President George W. Bush  wants you to know that he stands in solidarity with you .[40] Sharon Samber and Matthew E. Berger reported for Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) that Wolfowitz continued by saying that  Innocent Palestinians are suffering and dying as well. It is critical that we recognize and acknowledge that fact,  before being booed and drowned out by chants of  No more Arafat. [41] According to Engel this may have been a turning point that saw a return to a more pro-Israeli position within the administration as Bush feared being outflanked on the right.[39]

Following the declaration of victory in Afghanistan the Bush administration had started to plan for the next stage of the War on Terror. According to John Kampfner,  Emboldened by their experience in Afghanistan, they saw the opportunity to root out hostile regimes in the Middle East and to implant very American interpretations of democracy and free markets, from Iraq to Iran and Saudi Arabia. Wolfowitz epitomised this view.  Wolfowitz  saw a liberated Iraq as both paradigm and linchpin for future interventions.  The 2003 invasion of Iraq began on March 19.[38]

Prior to the invasion, Wolfowitz had a plan to sell the war to the administration as well as the general public, as he later stated:  For bureaucratic reasons, we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on. [42][15][14][43][44][45]

The job of finding WMD and providing justification for the attack would fall to the intelligence services, but, according to Kampfner,  Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz believed that, while the established security services had a role, they were too bureaucratic and too traditional in their thinking.  As a result  they set up what came to be known as the ‘cabal’, a cell of eight or nine analysts in a new Office of Special Plans (OSP) based in the U.S. Defense Department.  According to an unnamed Pentagon source quoted by Hersh, the OSP  was created in order to find evidence of what Wolfowitz and his boss, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, believed to be true—that Saddam Hussein had close ties to Al Qaeda, and that Iraq had an enormous arsenal of chemical, biological, and possibly even nuclear weapons that threatened the region and, potentially, the United States. [38]

Within months of being set-up, the OSP  rivaled both the CIA and the Pentagon’s Defense Intelligence Agency, the DIA, as President Bush’s main source of intelligence regarding Iraq’s possible possession of weapons of mass destruction and connection with Al Qaeda.  Hersh explains that the OSP  relied on data gathered by other intelligence agencies and also on information provided by the Iraqi National Congress, or I.N.C., the exile group headed by Ahmad Chalabi.  According to Kampfner, the CIA had ended its funding of the I.N.C.  in the mid-1990s when doubts were cast about Chalabi’s reliability.  Nevertheless  as the administration geared up for conflict with Saddam, Chalabi was welcomed in the inner sanctum of the Pentagon  under the auspices of the OSP, and  Wolfowitz did not see fit to challenge any of Chalabi’s information.  The actions of the OSP have led to accusation of the Bush administration  fixing intelligence to support policy  with the aim of influencing Congress in its use of the War Powers Act.[38]

Kampfner outlined Wolfowitz’s strategy for the 2003 invasion of Iraq, which  envisaged the use of air support and the occupation of southern Iraq with ground troops, to install a new government run by Ahmed Chalabi’s Iraqi National Congress.  Wolfowitz believed that the operation would require minimal troop deployment, Hersh explains, because  any show of force would immediately trigger a revolt against Saddam within Iraq, and that it would quickly expand. [38] The financial expenditure would be kept low, Kampfner observes, if  under the plan American troops would seize the oil fields around Basra, in the South, and sell the oil to finance the opposition.

During Wolfowitz’s pre-war testimony before Congress, he dismissed General Eric K. Shinseki’s estimates of the size of the post war occupation force as incorrect and estimated that fewer than 100,000 troops would be necessary in the war. Two days after Shinseki testified, Wolfowitz said to the House Budget Committee on February 27, 2003:

There has been a good deal of comment—some of it quite outlandish—about what our postwar requirements might be in Iraq. Some of the higher end predictions we have been hearing recently, such as the notion that it will take several hundred thousand U.S. troops to provide stability in post-Saddam Iraq, are wildly off the mark. It is hard to conceive that it would take more forces to provide stability in post-Saddam Iraq than it would take to conduct the war itself and to secure the surrender of Saddam’s security forces and his army—hard to imagine.[38]

On October 26, 2003, while in Baghdad staying at the Al-Rashid Hotel Wolfowitz narrowly escaped an attack when six rockets slammed into the floors below his room blowing out the windows and frames.[46] Army Lt. Col. Charles H. Buehring was killed and seventeen other soldiers were wounded.[47] Wolfowitz and his DOD staffers escaped unharmed and returned to the United States on October 28, 2003.

President of the World Bank

In March 2005, Wolfowitz was nominated to be president of the World Bank by U.S. President George W. Bush.[48] Criticism of his nomination appeared in the media.[49] Nobel Laureate in Economics and former chief economist for the World Bank Joseph Stiglitz said:  ‘The World Bank will once again become a hate figure. This could bring street protests and violence across the developing world.’ [50] In a speech at the U.N. Economic and Social Council, economist Jeffrey Sachs also opposed Wolfowitz:  It’s time for other candidates to come forward that have experience in development. This is a position on which hundreds of millions of people depend for their lives … Let’s have a proper leadership of professionalism. [51]
Press conference at G8 Summit (Paul Wolfowitz standing at rear on right)

In the U.S. there was some praise for the nomination. An editorial in The Wall Street Journal states:  Mr. Wolfowitz is willing to speak the truth to power … he saw earlier than most, and spoke publicly about, the need for dictators to plan democratic transitions. It is the world’s dictators who are the chief causes of world poverty. If anyone can stand up to the Robert Mugabes of the world, it must be the man who stood up to Saddam Hussein. [52]

He was confirmed and became president on June 1, 2005. He soon attended the 31st G8 summit to discuss issues of global climate change and the economic development in Africa. When this meeting was interrupted by the July 7, 2005 London bombings, Wolfowitz was present with other world leaders at the press conference given by British Prime Minister Tony Blair.
Several of Wolfowitz’s initial appointments at the Bank proved controversial, including two US nationals (Robin Cleveland and Kevin Kellems) formerly with the Bush administration, whom he appointed as close advisors with $250,000 tax-free contracts.[53] Another appointee, Juan José Daboub was criticized by his colleagues and others for attempts to change policies on family planning and climate change towards a conservative line. [54][55]

Wolfowitz gave special emphasis to two particular issues. Identifying Sub-Saharan Africa as the region most challenged to improve living standards, he traveled widely in the region. He also made clear his focus on fighting corruption. Several aspects of the latter program raised controversy. Overturning the names produced by a formal search process, he appointed a figure linked to the US Republican party to head the Bank’s internal watchdog. Member countries worried that Wolfowitz’s willingness to suspend lending to countries on grounds of corruption was vulnerable to selective application in line with US foreign policy interests. In a debate on the proposed Governance and Anti-Corruption Strategy at the Bank’s 2006 Annual Meetings, shareholders directed Wolfowitz to undertake extensive consultations and revise the strategy to show how objective measures of corruption would be incorporated into decisions and how the shareholders’ representatives on the Bank’s Board would play a key role. Following the consultations and revisions, the Board approved a revised strategy in spring 2007.[5]

Recent controversies

Wolfowitz’s economic arguments pertaining to the Iraq War

On March 27, 2003, Wolfowitz told a Congressional panel that oil revenue earned by Iraq alone would pay for Iraq’s reconstruction after the Iraq war; he testified:  The oil revenues of that country could bring between $50 and $100 billion over the course of the next two or three years. Now, there are a lot of claims on that money, but … We are dealing with a country that can really finance its own reconstruction and relatively soon.”[56][57][7] By March 2005, two years later, oil revenues were not paying for the occupation and reconstruction of Iraq, Wolfowitz’s estimation of 50 to 100 billion US dollars had not materialized, and, in light of his miscalculation, detractors criticized his appointment to head of the World Bank.[58]

Wolfowitz’s relationship with Shaha Riza
Main article: Shaha Riza

After President George W. Bush’s nomination of Wolfowitz as president of the World Bank, journalists reported that Wolfowitz had become involved in a relationship with World Bank Senior Communications Officer (and Acting Manager of External Affairs) for the Middle East and North Africa Regional Office Shaha Ali Riza.[59] According to Richard Leiby, of The Washington Post, Riza is  an Oxford-educated British citizen, was born in Tunisia and grew up in Saudi Arabia. She’s known for her expertise on women’s rights and has been listed on the bank’s Web site as a media contact for Iraq reconstruction issues. [60] According to Leiby and Linton Weeks, in their essay  In the Shadow of a Scandal , Riza’s employment at the World Bank predated Wolfowitz’s nomination as Bank president:  Riza started at the World Bank as a consultant in July 1997 and became a full-time employee in 1999 ; and the relationship between Riza and Wolfowitz pre-dated it as well:

In the early 1990s, Riza joined the National Endowment for Democracy and is credited there with development of the organization’s Middle East program. Wolfowitz was on the endowment’s board—which is how Riza first met him, according to Turkish journalist Cengiz Candar, a friend of the couple.  Shaha was married at the time and Paul was married,  Candar recalled, and it wasn’t until late 1999—after Riza divorced and Wolfowitz had separated from his wife of 30 years, Clare Selgin Wolfowitz—that the couple began dating. [60][19]

When Wolfowitz was being considered for head of the CIA immediately after the 2000 election, Clare Wolfowitz wrote President-elect George Bush a letter telling him that her husband’s relationship with a foreign national—Riza—posed a national security risk.[61][62] It has been reported that Scooter Libby intercepted the letter.[63] Sidney Blumenthal also reported on the letter Clare Wolfowitz wrote:

“     This embittered letter remained a closely guarded secret, although a former high official of the CIA told me about it. Chris Nelson also reported it on April 16 in his widely respected, nonpartisan foreign policy newsletter:  A certain Ms. Riza was even then Wolfowitz’s true love. The problem for the CIA wasn’t just that she was a foreign national, although that was and is today an issue for anyone interested in CIA employment. The problem was that Wolfowitz was married to someone else, and that someone was really angry about it, and she found a way to bring her complaint directly to the President. So when we, with our characteristic innocence, put Wolfowitz on our short-list for CIA, we were instantly told, by a very, very, very senior Republican foreign policy operative, ‘I don’t think so.’ It was then gently explained why, purely on background, of course. Why Wolfowitz’s personal issues weren’t also a disqualification for DOD we’ve never heard.  The Daily Mail of London also reported on his wife’s letter at the time that Wolfowitz was appointed president of the World Bank in 2005. Asked about it by the newspaper, Clare Wolfowitz did not deny it, saying,  That’s very interesting but not something I can tell you about. [64]     ”

According to the profile of Wolfowitz published in the London Sunday Times on March 20, 2005, despite their cultural differences,  Riza, an Arab feminist who confounds portrayals of Wolfowitz as a leader of a ‘Zionist conspiracy’ of Jewish neoconservatives in Washington … [and who] works as the bank’s senior gender co-ordinator for the Middle East and north Africa … not only shares Wolfowitz’s passion for spreading democracy in the Arab world, but is said to have reinforced his determination to remove Saddam Hussein’s oppressive regime. [17]

The reported relationship created further controversy concerning Wolfowitz’s nomination to head the World Bank, because the organization’s own ethics rules preclude sexual relationships between a manager and a staff member serving under that manager, even if one reports to the other only indirectly through a chain of supervision. Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge, in The Daily Mail, quote one World Bank employee’s statement that  Unless Riza gives up her job, this will be an impossible conflict of interest ; the observation of  a Washington insider :  His womanizing has come home to roost … Paul was a foreign policy hawk long before he met Shaha, but it doesn’t look good to be accused of being under the thumb of your mistress ; and Wolfowitz’s response:  If a personal relationship presents a potential conflict of interest, I will comply with Bank policies to resolve the issue. [18]

Wolfowitz initially proposed to the World Bank’s Ethics Committee that he recuse himself from personnel matters regarding Riza, but the committee rejected that proposal.[65] Riza was  seconded to the State Department , or placed on  external assignment,  assigned  a job at the state department under Liz Cheney, the daughter of the vice-president, promoting democracy in the Middle East … [66] She  was also moved up to a managerial pay grade in compensation for the disruption to her career,  resulting in a raise of over $60,000, as well as guarantees of future increases;  The staff association claims that the pay rise was more than double the amount allowed under employee guidelines. [66][67] A promotion and raise had been among the options suggested by a World Bank ethics committee that was set up to advise on the situation.[68] According to Steven R. Weisman, however, in a report published in The New York Times, the then-current chair of the committee emphasized that he was not informed at the time of the details or extent of the present and future raises built into the agreement with Riza.[69] Wolfowitz refers to the controversy concerning his relationship with Riza in his recent statement posted on the website of the World Bank (April 12, 2007).[70]

Wolfowitz’s leadership of the World Bank Group

Beginning early in 2007, Fox News published on its website a series of investigative stories on the World Bank, based in part on leaks to Fox of internal bank documents.[71]

On April 11, 2007, Reuters and Al Kamen, in his column in The Washington Post, reported that Wolfowitz and the World Bank board had hired the Williams & Connolly law firm to oversee an investigation into the leaking of internal bank documents to Fox News.[72][73] Those reports cite an internal memo to the bank staff later posted on the internet, dated April 9, 2007, in which the World Bank’s general counsel, Ana Palacio, states that the Bank’s legal staff was scrutinizing two articles by investigative reporter Richard Behar published on the website of Fox News on January 31 and March 27, 2007.[74] A day after the second report published by Behar, on March 28, 2007, Kamen had disclosed that  Bank records obtained by the Government Accountability Project  documented pay raises in excess of Bank policies given to Shaha Riza[75]

On April 12, 2007 the London Financial Times reported that, in a 2005 memorandum, Wolfowitz had personally directed the Bank’s human resources chief to offer Riza a large pay rise and promotion, according to two anonymous sources who told the Financial Times that they had seen the memo.[76] The memo was part of a package of 102 pages of documents publicly released by the bank on April 14, 2007.[76]

On April 14, 2007, after reviewing the 102-page document package, the Financial Times concluded that it was  a potentially fatal blow  to Wolfowitz.[76] In contrast, Fox News concluded that the new documents might offer Wolfowitz a  new lifeline  in the scandal, because the Bank’s ethics committee had launched a review of the Riza compensation case in early 2006 and concluded that it did not warrant any further attention by the committee.[77]

Media speculations about Wolfowitz quitting his position as president of the World Bank intensified on April 19, 2007 after his failure to attend a high-profile meeting.[78] The controversy about Wolfowitz’s girlfriend Shaha Riza led to disruption at the World Bank when some employees wore blue ribbons  in a display of defiance against his leadership. [79]
World Bank Group’s board of executive directors and staffers complained also that Wolfowitz was imposing Bush Administration policies to eliminate family planning from World Bank programs. According to Nicole Gaouette, in her report published in the Los Angeles Times on April 19, 2007, Juan José Daboub—the managing director whom Wolfowitz had appointed who has also been criticized for overly-conservative policies concerning climate change[55] and  a Roman Catholic with ties to a conservative Salvadoran political party —repeatedly deleted references to family planning from World Bank proposals.[54]

On May 14, 2007 the World Bank committee investigating the alleged ethics violations reported (in part):

*  Mr. Wolfowitz’s contract requiring that he adhere to the Code of Conduct for board officials and that he avoid any conflict of interest, real or apparent, were violated ;
*  The salary increase Ms. Riza received at Mr. Wolfowitz’s direction was in excess of the range established by Rule 6.01 ;
*  The ad hoc group concludes that in actuality, Mr Wolfowitz from the outset cast himself in opposition to the established rules of the institution ; and
*  He did not accept the bank’s policy on conflict of interest, so he sought to negotiate for himself a resolution different from that which would have applied to the staff he was selected to head. [80]

Wolfowitz appeared before the World Bank Group’s board of executive directors to respond on Tuesday, May 15, 2007, and, the following day, on Wednesday, May 16, in another board meeting, its executive directors would  consider the report and make a statement later in the week.  Adams speculates that  With Mr Wolfowitz so far refusing to step down, the board may need to take radical action to break the stalemate. Members have discussed a range of options, including sacking Mr Wolfowitz, issuing a vote of no confidence or reprimanding him. Some board members argue that a vote of no confidence would make it impossible for him to stay in the job. [81] If the World Bank’s board of directors  votes him out,  according to Michael Hirsh, in the May 21, 2007 issue of Newsweek, he would be  the first president dismissed in [its] 62-year history … [82] By mid-afternoon, Wednesday, May 16, 2007, The New York Times, reported that  after six weeks of fighting efforts to oust him as president … Wolfowitz began today to negotiate the terms of his possible resignation, in return for the bank dropping or softening the charge that he had engaged in misconduct … [83] After recent expressions from the Bush administration that it  fully  supported Wolfowitz as World Bank president and its urging a  fair hearing  for him, President Bush expressed  regret  at Wolfowitz’s impending resignation.[84]

On May 17, 2007, in a statement published on its website, the World Bank Group’s board of Executive Directors announced that Paul Wolfowitz would resign as World Bank Group president at the end of June 2007; their statement is followed by a statement from Wolfowitz about his tenure as president and his hopes for the World Bank’s future success.[8][85]

See also

* American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC)
* Full-spectrum dominance
* Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA)
* Joint Vision 2020
* Neoconservatism
* Project for the New American Century
* Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) Board of Advisors
* Wolfowitz Doctrine
* World Bank Group

Notes

1. ^ a b Michael Dobbs,  For Wolfowitz, a Vision May Be Realized , The Washington Post,April 7, 2003, accessed April 16, 2007.
2. ^ Zachary A. Goldfarb,  Wolfowitz Joins Think Tank as Visiting Scholar , online posting, The New Yorker, July 3, 2007, accessed July 3, 2007.
3. ^ US-Taiwan Business Council (2008). Paul D. Wolfowitz. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
4. ^ a b c Peter J. Boyer,  The Believer: Paul Wolfowitz Defends His War , online posting, The New Yorker, November 1, 2004, accessed June 20, 2007 (7 pages).
5. ^ a b c d e f g John Cassidy,  The Next Crusade: Paul Wolfowitz at the World Bank , online posting, The New Yorker, April 9, 2007, accessed May 7, 2007.
6. ^ Cf. Amy Goodman,  Bush Names Iraq War Architect Paul Wolfowitz to Head World Bank , transcript, Democracy Now , March 17, 2005, accessed May 17, 2007.
7. ^ a b Cf. Ibrahim Warde,  Iraq: Looter’s License , 16-22 in America’s Gulag: Full Spectrum Dominance Versus Universal Human Rights, ed. Ken Coates (London: Spokesman Books, 2004), ISBN 0851246915.
8. ^ a b  Statements of Executive Directors and President Wolfowitz , World Bank Group, May 17, 2007, accessed May 17, 2007.
9. ^ Matthew Jones,  Wolfowitz Exit Seen Clearing Way for Progress , Reuters (UK), May 18, 2007, accessed May 18, 2007.
10. ^ a b c Suzanne Goldenberg,  Guardian Profile: Paul Wolfowitz , The Guardian, April 1, 2005, accessed May 1, 2007.
11. ^ a b c d e f David Dudley,  Paul’s Choice , Cornell Alumni Magazine Online 107.1 (July/August 2004), accessed May 17, 2007.
12. ^ a b Shelemyahu Zacks,  Biographical Memories: Jacob Wolfowitz (March 19, 1910–July 16, 1981) , National Academy of Sciences, n.d., accessed May 3, 2007.
13. ^ a b c d Eric Schmitt,  The Busy Life of Being a Lightning Rod for Bush , The New York Times, April 22, 2002, accessed March 24, 2008.
14. ^ a b  U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript  of telephone interview of Paul Wolfowitz, conducted by Sam Tanenhaus,  Presenter: Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz , press release, United States Department of Defense, May 9, 2003, accessed May 2, 2007. [ Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview with Sam Tannenhaus [sic], Vanity Fair. ]
15. ^ a b Sam Tanenhaus,  Bush’s Brain Trust ,  (George W. Bush, Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Weekly Standard Editor William Kristol, former Pentagon official Richard Perle) , Vanity Fair July 2003, AccessMyLibrary, July 1, 2003, accessed May 1, 2007.
16. ^ Associated Press,  Paul Wolfowitz ’65 Sparks Controversy at World Bank , Cornell Daily Sun, April 17, 2007, accessed May 19, 2007.
17. ^ a b  Profile: Paul Wolfowitz: Hawk with a Lot of Loot Needs a Bit of Lady Luck , The Sunday Times, March 20, 2005, accessed April 18, 2007.
18. ^ a b Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge,  Will a British Divorcee Cost ‘Wolfie’ His Job?  The Daily Mail, March 20, 2005, accessed April 14, 2007.
19. ^ a b Linton Weeks and Richard Leiby,  In the Shadow of a Scandal , The Washington Post, May 10, 2007, accessed May 10, 2007. (Page 2 of 3 pages.)
20. ^ a b  Profile: Paul Wolfowitz, Right Web (International Relations Center), updated April 19, 2007, accessed May 21, 2007.
21. ^ Wolfowitz, Paul.  Nuclear Proliferation in the Middle East: The Politics and Economics of Proposals for Nuclear Desalting.  Diss. University of Chicago, 1972.
22. ^ Kit Oldham,  Cyberpedia Library: Jackson, Henry M. ‘Scoop’ (1912–1983): HistoryLink.org Essay 5516 , historylink.org (The Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History), August 19, 2003, accessed May 17, 2007.
23. ^ Sam Tanenhaus,  The Hard Liner:
24. ^ Qtd. by Jack Davis,  The Challenge of Managing Uncertainty: Paul Wolfowitz on Intelligence-Policy Relations , Studies in Intelligence 39.5 (1996): 35-42, accessed May 21, 2007. ( Jack Davis served in the Directorate of Intelligence. ) [Corrected title.]
25. ^  Profile: Richard Pipes , Right Web (International Relations Center), last updated December 12, 2003, accessed May 21, 2007.
26. ^ Tom Barry,  A History of Threat Escalation: Remembering Team B , Right Web, International Relations Center, February 12, 2004, accessed May 21, 2007.
27. ^ a b c AP, http://www.asiademocracy.org/content_view.php?section_id=1&content_id=430  Indonesian Rights Groups Denounce Wolfowitz’ World Bank Nomination ], online posting, Alliance for Reform and Democracy in Asia, March 22, 2005, accessed June 20, 2007.
28. ^ a b Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima,  Jakarta Tenure Offers Glimpse of Wolfowitz , The Washington Post, March 28, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007.
29. ^ Paul Wolfowitz,  The Tragedy of Suharto , The Wall Street Journal, May 27, 1998, accessed April 16, 2007.
30. ^ As qtd. in Scott Burchill,  What the West Wants from Indonesia m Z Magazine, October 1, 2003, accessed June 7, 2007.
31. ^ Transcript of hearing, Committee on International Relations,  U.S. Options in Confronting Iraq , February 25, 1998, accessed April 17, 2007.
32. ^ Elliott Abrams, et al.,  Statement of Principles , Project for the New American Century, June 3, 1997, accessed May 27, 2007.
33. ^ Elliott Abrams, et al.,  Open letter to President Bill Clinton,  Project for the New American Century, January 26, 1998, accessed May 24, 2007.
34. ^ U.S. House Committee on International Relations,  U.S. Options in Confrtonting Iraq , February 25, 1998, accessed April 18, 2007.
35. ^ Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century, Project for the New American Century, September 2000, accessed May 14, 2007.
36. ^ Martin Sieff,  Mission Accomplished: Bush’s Brain Trust Had a Grand Plan for the Middle East. The Results Are Coming Home Every Day in Body Bags , Slate, April 8, 2004, accessed May 19, 2007.
37. ^  U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript  of  Wolfowitz interview with the San Francisco Chronicle , conducted by Robert Collier,  Presenter: Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz , press release, United States Department of Defense, February 23, 2002, accessed May 26, 2007. [ Interview with Robert Collier, San Francisco Chronicle .]
38. ^ a b c d e f g h i Seymour M. Hersh,  Annals of National Security Selective Intelligence: Donald Rumsfeld Has His Own Special Sources. Are they reliable?  The New Yorker, May 12, 2003, accessed May 8, 2007.
39. ^ a b Matthew Engel,  Bush goes to the dogs , The Guardian, April 23, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007.
40. ^  Thousands in US rally for Israel , BBC News, April 15, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007.
41. ^ Sharon Samber and Matthew E. Berger,  Speakers Stick to Consensus Theme at National Solidarity Rally for Israel , United Jewish Communities (JTA), April 15, 2002, accessed May 3, 2007.
42. ^ Qtd. in Associated Press,  Wolfowitz Comments Revive Doubts Over Iraq’s WMD , USA Today, May 30, 2003, accessed May 8, 2007.
43. ^ Danny Postel,  Noble Lies and Perpetual War: Leo Strauss, the Neo-cons, and Iraq , interview with Shadia Drury, Open Democracy, October 18, 2003, rpt. in Information Clearing House, October 18, 2003, accessed May 26, 2007.
44. ^ Cf. Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush’s War on Iraq (New York: Tarcher/Penguin, 2003).
45. ^  Iraq: The War Card . The Center for Public Integrity. http://www.publicintegrity.org/WarCard/Search/Results.aspx?SearchTerms_All=&SearchTerms_Phrase=&SearchTerms_None=&SearchTerms_Person=Wolfowitz&SearchTerms_Subject=WMD&SearchTerms_DateFrom=01%2f29%2f2001&SearchTerms_DateTo=11%2f03%2f2007&SearchTerms_OrderBy=Record_Id&DisplayAll=False. Retrieved on 2008-02-13.
46. ^ Jane Arraf,  Bold, Well-executed Attack , CNN, October 26, 2003, accessed April 18, 2007.
47. ^  DoD Identifies Army Casualty , United States Department of Defense, October 27, 2003, accessed April 18, 2007.
48. ^ Paul Blustein and Peter Baker,  Wolfowitz Picked for World Bank , The Washington Post, March 27, 2005, accessed January 3, 2009.
49. ^ Alan Beattie and Edward Alden,  Shareholders’ dismay at lack of consultation , The Financial Times, March 16, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007.
50. ^ Qtd. in Robert Preston,  Stiglitz Warns of Violence If Wolfowitz Goes to World Bank , The Daily Telegraph, March 20, 2005 (Registration required), rpt. in Common Dreams NewsCenter, March 20, 2005, accessed May 7, 2007. updated Daily Telegraph URL.
51. ^  Many Wary, Some Cheer Wolfowitz Pick , Al Jazeera, April 16, 2007, accessed April 16, 2007.
52. ^  Banking on Wolfowitz: And You Thought Iraq Was Difficult , The Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007, Review & Outlook (Past Featured Article), accessed June 8, 2007.
53. ^ Karen DeYoung,  Wolfowitz Clashed Repeatedly With World Bank Staff: Tenure as President Has Been Rocky , The Washington Post, April 15, 2007: A12, accessed May 1, 2007.
54. ^ a b Nicole Gaouette,  World Bank May Target Family Planning: Repeated Absence of References to Birth Control in Internal Reports Alarms Women’s Health Advocates , The Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2007, accessed May 1, 2007.
55. ^ a b Krishna Guha,  Wolfowitz Deputy Under Fire for Climate Change , The Financial Times, April 24, 2007, updated April 25, 2007, accessed May 2, 2007.
56. ^  The Wolfowitz Chronology: An Examination of the Presumptive World Bank President’s Works on Oil, National Security, Development, Corruption, Human Rights, and Debt  (January 2001 – May 2005), Institute for Policy Studies (May 2005), accessed April 18, 2007.
57. ^ Cf. Gore Vidal,  The Enemy Within , The Observer, October 27, 2002, Review, accessed May 7, 2007, rpt. in lawyersagainstthewar.org, accessed May 7, 2007; rpt. as  Goat Song: Unanswered Questions—Before, During, After 9/11 , Dreaming War: Blood for Oil and the Cheney-Bush Junta (New York: Nation Books/Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2002), ISBN 1560255021 (10), ISBN 978-1560255024 (13).
58. ^ Paul Blustein,  Wolfowitz Strives To Quell Criticism , The Washington Post, March 21, 2005, accessed April 18, 2007.
59. ^ Philip Sherwell,  Special ‘relationship’ Behind US West Asia policy , The Telegraph, August 1, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007.
60. ^ a b Richard Leiby,  Reliable Source: What Will the Neighbors Say? , The Washington Post, March 22, 2007, C-03, accessed May 1, 2007.
61. ^ Will a British divorcee cost ‘Wolfie’ his job?, Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge, The Daily Mail, March 20, 2005.
62. ^ How Cheney took control of Bush’s foreign policy, Craig Unger, Salon.com, November 9, 2007; Interview with Vanity Fair contributing editor Craig Unger, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 12, 2007
63. ^ Libby and Wolfie: A Story of Reacharounds, Ward Harkarvey, The Village Voice, June 14, 2007.
64. ^ Wolfowitz’s tomb, Sidney Blumenthal, Salon.com, May 24, 2007.
65. ^ Greg Hitt,  World Bank Ex-Board Member Disputes Wolfowitz , The Wall Street Journal, May 2, 2007, A8, accessed May 8, 2007 (restricted access; free preview); rpt. 2-2007/  World Bank Ex-Board Member Disputes Wolfowitz , goldnotes.wordpress.com, May 2, 2007, accessed May 8, 2007; cf. Greg Hitt,  Top Wolfowitz Adviser Resigns , The Wall Street Journal, Wall Street Journal Online, May 7, 2007, Washington Wire, accessed May 8, 2007.
66. ^ a b Suzanne Goldenberg,  Wolfowitz Under Fire After Partner Receives Promotion and Pay Rise , The Guardian, April 7, 2007, accessed May 2, 2007.
67. ^ William McQuillen,  Wolfowitz Says He Won’t Quit, Calls Charges ‘Bogus’  (Update2), Bloomberg News, April 30, 2007, accessed May 2, 2007.
68. ^  Ethics Committee Case No 2 and President Papers PDF , World Bank, worldbank.org,  strictly confidential  documents posted online at bicusa.org, April 12, 2007, accessed April 14, 2007.
69. ^ Steven R. Weisman,  Wolfowitz Loses Ground in Fight for World Bank Post , The New York Times, April 27, 2007, accessed May 1, 2007.
70. ^ Paul Wolfowitz,  Statement by Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank Group WB/IMF Spring Meetings 2007 , Worldbank.org, April 12, 2007, accessed May 1, 2007. (Video and audio links.)
71. ^ Richard Behar (2007-02-08).  World Bank Launches Internal Probe to Root Out Leakers . Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,250800,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
72. ^ Reuters,  World Bank Launches Probe Into Leak of Confidential Documents to FOXNews.com , Fox News April 11, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
73. ^ Al Kamen,  Under Flood of Criticism, Looking to Plug a Leak , The Washington Post, April 11, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
74. ^ Richard Behar,  Wolfowitz vs. the World Bank Board: It’s Trench Warfare , Fox News, January 31, 2007 and  World Bank Anticorruption Drive Blunted as China Threatens to Halt Loans , Fox News, March 27, 2007, both accessed May 14, 2007.
75. ^ Al Kamen,  In the Loop: Where the Money Is , The Washington Post, March 28, 2007, accessed May 10, 2007.
76. ^ a b c Krishna Guha and Eoin Callan,  Wolfowitz Laid Out Terms for Partner’s Pay Package , Financial Times, April 12, 2007, accessed May 14, 2007.
77. ^ Richard Behar,  Documents May Give Wolfowitz New Lifeline in World Bank Scandal , Fox News April 14, 2007, accessed May 14, 2007.
78. ^  Wolfowitz Absent As World Bank Board Decides Fate , The Guardian, April 19, 2007, accessed April 20, 2007.
79. ^  Wolfowitz’s Troubles Disrupt World Bank , San Francisco Chronicle, April 20, 2007, accessed April 20, 2007.
80. ^ Reuters,  Wolfowitz Rejects World Bank Ethics Ruling : Bank Committee Determines That President Violated Ethics Standards Over His Girlfriend’s Promotion; Wolfowitz Calls Findings ‘unbalanced’ and ‘flawed’ , online posting, CNNMoney.com ( The Internet home of Fortune, Money, Business 2.0 ), May 15, 2007, accessed November 17, 2008.
81. ^ Richard Adams,  Angry Wolfowitz in Four-letter Tirade , The Guardian Unlimited, May 15, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
82. ^ Michael Hirsh,  With the Best of Intentions , Newsweek, May 21, 2007, accessed November 17, 2008.
83. ^ Steven R. Weisman,  Wolfowitz Said to Be Working On Deal for His Resignation , The New York Times, May 16, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
84. ^ Jeannine Aversa (Associated Press),  White House: Give Wolfowitz Fair Hearing , USA Today, May 9, 2007, accessed November 17, 2008;  Markets: Bush Expresses Regret Over Wolfowitz , The Houston Chronicle, May 17, 2007, accessed November 19, 2008.
85. ^ Steven R. Weisman,  ‘Second Chance’ at Career Goes Sour for Wolfowitz , New York Times, May 18, 2007, accessed May 18, 2007.

Sister project     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Paul Wolfowitz
Sister project     Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Paul Wolfowitz

External links

Official biographical accounts

*  Biography: Paul Wolfowitz: President, The World Bank Group , at web.worldbank.org (World Bank Group). Accessed May 4, 2007.
*  Paul Wolfowitz—Department of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense . Search result in obsolete directory of  The President and His Leadership Team . Accessed May 4, 2007.
*  Paul Wolfowitz, Deputy Secretary of Defense —Archived biography at the United States Department of Defense. Last updated: March 16, 2005. Accessed May 2, 2007.
* Wolfowitz, Paul. Statement by Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank Group WB/IMF Spring Meetings 2007 . Online posting. World Bank Group, Worldbank.org, April 12, 2007. Accessed May 1, 2007. (Video and audio links.)

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Anthony Lake     United States Department of State
Director of Policy Planning
1981 – 1982     Succeeded by
Stephen W. Bosworth
Preceded by
John H. Holdridge     Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
1982 – 1986     Succeeded by
Gaston J. Sigur, Jr.
Preceded by
John H. Holdridge     United States Ambassador
to the Republic of Indonesia
1986 – 1989     Succeeded by
John C. Monjo
Government offices
Preceded by
Fred Ikle     United States Department of Defense
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
1989 – 1993     Succeeded by
Frank G. Wisner
Academic offices
Preceded by
George Packard     Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
1993 – 2001     Succeeded by
Jessica Einhorn
Political offices
Preceded by
Rudy deLeon     United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
2001 – 2005     Succeeded by
Gordon R. England
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
James Wolfensohn     President of the World Bank
2005 – 2007     Succeeded by
Robert Zoellick

Presidents of the World Bank
Eugene Meyer A John J. McCloy A Eugene R. Black, Sr. A George David Woods A Robert McNamara A Alden W. Clausen A Barber Conable A Lewis Thompson Preston A James Wolfensohn A Paul Wolfowitz A Robert Zoellick

Persondata
NAME     Wolfowitz, Paul Dundes
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION     10th President of the World Bank, Deputy Secretary of Defense in the administration of President George W. Bush
DATE OF BIRTH     December 22, 1943
PLACE OF BIRTH     Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz
Categories: 1943 births | Living people | Ashkenazi Jews | Presidents of the World Bank | Directors of Policy Planning | United States Deputy Secretaries of Defense | Ambassadors of the United States | Reagan Administration personnel | American academics | American bankers | American political scientists | Jewish American politicians | Johns Hopkins University faculty | University of Chicago alumni | Cornell University alumni | Polish-American Jews | People from Brooklyn | People from Ithaca, New York

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

***

Richard V. Allen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Richard Vincent Allen (born 1936) was the United States National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1982.

Allen received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Notre Dame. He served as a senior staff member of President Nixon’s National Security Council in 1968 and served various Republican administrations up to and including that of President Reagan.

In November 1981, while serving as Reagan’s National Security Advisor, Allen was accused of receiving a bribe from a Japanese journalist for setting up an interview with First Lady Nancy Reagan, that was done in January 1981. Ronald Reagan said, in his diary, that the Japanese magazine gave cash gifts to people that it interviewed, and that Allen had stepped in to intercept the check to avoid embarrassment for Nancy Reagan, then gave the check to his secretary, who put the check in an office safe. Then when Allen changed offices, the check was found left in the safe. The FBI cleared everyone involved, then the Justice Department began its own investigation, and the story got leaked to the press. Reagan believes it was just political sabotage behind leaking the story.[1] Although the claims were never proven, Allen was eventually pressured into resigning his position.

He is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, and a member of the Heritage Foundation’s Asian Studies Center Advisory Council, the Council on Foreign Relations, the United States Defense Policy Board, the American Alternative Foundation, and the United States National Security Advisory Group. He also serves on the advisory council of the Nixon Center.

Allen is president of the Richard V. Allen Company, a Washington-based consulting services firm. He provides consulting services to international companies and organizations. He currently serves on APCO Worldwide’s Iraq reconstruction task force and is considered one of the most influential lobbyists in Washington for South Korean interests.[2]

Bibliography

* Allen, Richard V. (1969). Yearbook On International Communist Affairs 1968. Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 0-8179-1801-9.

References

1. ^ Reagan, Ronald. edited by Douglas Brinkley The Reagan Diaries 2007. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-0876005
2. ^ APCO @ PR Firms.org

External links

* Richard V. Allen profile, NNDB.
* Statement of Richard Allen before the Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, October 11, 2001.
* Letter to President Bush on the War on Terrorism, signed by Richard V. Allen, September 20, 2001.
* Interview with Miller Center of Public Affairs – Presidential Oral History Program.

Legal offices
Preceded by
Zbigniew Brzezinski     United States National Security Advisor
1981—1982     Succeeded by
William P. Clark, Jr.

National Security Advisors of the United States
Cutler • Anderson • Jackson • Cutler • Gray • Bundy • Rostow • Kissinger • Scowcroft • Brzezinski • Allen • Clark • McFarlane • Poindexter • Carlucci • Powell • Scowcroft • Lake • Berger • Rice • Hadley • Jones
White House Logo

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_V._Allen
Categories: 1936 births | Living people | United States National Security Advisors | United States presidential advisors | Reagan Administration personnel | Heritage Foundation | University of Notre Dame alumni

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_V._Allen

***

Bribery Accusations and Alleged Conflicts of Interest

From 1981 to 1987, Perle was Assistant Secretary of Defense for international security policy in the Reagan administration. In a New York Times article Perle was criticized for recommending that the Army purchase an armaments system from an Israeli company that a year earlier had paid him $50,000 in consulting fees. Perle acknowledged receiving the payment the same month he joined the Reagan administration, but said the payment was for work done before joining the government and that he had informed the Army of this prior consulting work. Perle was never indicted for anything related to the incident. (New York Times, 17 April 1983,  Aide Urged Pentagon to Consider Weapons Made by Former Client , Jeff Gerth. See also New York Times, 21 April 1983,  On buying weapons and influence , Editorial.).

In March 2004, another New York Times article reported that, while chairman of the Defense Policy Board, Perle had contracted with the troubled telecommunications giant Global Crossing to help overcome opposition from the FBI and the Pentagon to the sale of its assets to Hong-Kong-based Hutchison Whampoa. Since the military employed the company’s fiber optics network for communications, the brass argued that sale to a foreign-owned, especially Chinese, corporation would compromise national security. Perle was to be paid $125,000 to promote the deal, with an extra $600,000 contingent fee on its approval. [15] This controversy led to accusations of bribery, and Perle resigned as chairman on March 27, 2003, though he remained on the board. [16]

Perle is also known to have demanded payment for press interviews[17] while he was the chairman of the Defense Policy Board, a practice that has raised accusations of not only ethical, but legal impropriety. [18]

[Excerpted from entry below]

***

Richard Norman Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. He was Chairman of the Board from 2001 to 2003 under the Bush Administration.

He is a member of several think-tanks, such as the Hudson Institute, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) Board of Advisors, the Center for Security Policy (CSP), and (as a resident fellow) the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, as well as the neoconservative Project for the New American Century (PNAC) and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA). He is also a Patron of the Henry Jackson Society. Perle has written extensively on a number of issues; his cited research interests including defense, national security, and the Middle East. Aside from these engagements, Perle is the former co-chairman and director of Hollinger, Inc., a partner of Trireme Partners and a non-executive director of Autonomy.
Contents

* 1 Education and early career
o 1.1 Office of Senator Henry Jackson
o 1.2 Opposition to nuclear arms reduction
o 1.3 Transition into neoconservatism
* 2 War with Iraq
o 2.1 Pre-2003 invasion
o 2.2 Iraq policy regret and Bush criticism
o 2.3 On Iraq Study Group proposals
* 3 Other views on foreign policy
o 3.1 On the United Nations
o 3.2 On Israel
o 3.3 On defense
* 4 Disputed role in Bush Administration
* 5 Business interests and controversies
o 5.1 Bribery Accusations and Alleged Conflicts of Interest
o 5.2 Sibel Edmonds
o 5.3 Unresolved Legal Issues
o 5.4 Seymour Hersh and ‘Lunch with the Chairman’
o 5.5 Iraq oil deal
* 6 Works
* 7 References
* 8 External links

Education and early career

Perle was born in New York to a Jewish family. His family moved to California, and Perle attended Hollywood High School in Los Angeles (his classmates included actor Mike Farrell and singer Ricky Nelson) and later, the University of Southern California, earning a B.A. in International Politics in 1964. As an undergraduate he studied in Copenhagen at Denmark’s International Study Program. He also studied at the London School of Economics and obtained a M.A. in political science from Princeton University in 1967.

Office of Senator Henry Jackson

From 1969 to 1980, Perle worked as a staffer for Democratic Senator Henry M. Jackson of Washington. As a staffer, Perle drafted the Jackson-Vanik amendment to the 1972 International Grain Agreement (IGA), or  Russian Wheat Deal  negotiated by Richard Nixon and the Soviet Union which made for the first time by law a trade agreement contingent upon the fundamental human right of Soviet Jews to emigrate. [2] He was considered as an extremely knowledgeable and influential person in the Senate debates on arms control. By his own admission, Perle acquired the reputation of an influential figure who preferred to work in the background, a reputation that has followed him through the years in both the public and private sectors. At some point (usually said to be during his time in the Reagan Administration) Perle acquired the nickname  The Prince of Darkness , which has been used both as a slur by his critics and as a joke by supporters. (Time, 23 March 1987,  Farewell Dark Prince ) However, he has been quoted saying that;  I really resent being depicted as some sort of dark mystic or some demonic power…. All I can do is sit down and talk to someone….  (The New York Times, 4 December 1977, Jackson Aide Stirs Criticism in Arms Debate, Richard L. Madden)

Opposition to nuclear arms reduction

Perle was considered a hardliner in arms reduction negotiations with the Soviet Union and has stated that his opposition to arms control under the Carter administration had to do with his view that the US was giving up too much at the negotiation table and not receiving nearly enough concessions from the Soviets. Perle called the arms talks under negotiation in the late 1970s  the rawest deal of the century .

Perle’s objection to the arms talks between the Carter administration and the Soviet Union revolved primarily around Carter’s agreement to halt all cruise missile development. Perle is widely credited for spearheading opposition to the treaty, which was never ratified by the Senate.

Transition into neoconservatism

Perle is a self-described neoconservative, like several around Henry M.  Scoop  Jackson, as he told Ben J. Wattenberg in an interview specifically about him becoming a neoconservative.[1]
“     Ben Wattenberg: Now, Scoop was surrounded by people who then and certainly now are called neoconservatives. It’s become a fashionable word now thanks to you and your colleagues because you’re all categorized that way. How did that come into your life, that whole school of thought?
Richard Perle: Well, I think the term has something to do with the sense that those of us who are now called neo-conservatives were at one time liberals, and in this…

Ben Wattenberg: Irving Kristol said a neoconservative is a liberal who’s been mugged by reality.

Richard Perle: Right. And I think that’s a fair description, and I suppose all of us were liberal at one time. I was liberal in high school and a little bit into college. But reality and rigor are important tonics, and if you got into the world of international affairs and you looked with some rigor at what was going on in the world, it was really hard to be liberal and naïve.”

Perle’s book An End to Evil: How to Win the War on Terror which he wrote with fellow neoconservative David Frum in 2004 as a defense of the 2003 invasion of Iraq was described by political scientist Fareed Zakaria as  a useful guide to neoconservative foreign policy.  The book outlines ideas to abandon all Israeli-Palestinian peace processes, invade Syria, strict US domestic surveillance with biometric identity cards and public vigilance to hinder potential terrorist immigrant or terrorist sympathizer threats.[2]

War with Iraq

Pre-2003 invasion

Like many in the neoconservative movement, Perle had long been an advocate of regime change in Iraq. He was a signatory of the 26 January 1998 PNAC Letter sent to US President Bill Clinton that called for the military overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s regime. He also linked Saddam to Osama Bin Laden just a few days after 9/11, proclaiming in an interview on CNN on Sept 16, 2001:  Even if we cannot prove to the standards that we enjoy in our own civil society that they were involved, we do know, for example, that Saddam Hussein has ties to Osama Bin Laden…  [3]

Perle argued that what he referred to as terrorist Abu Nidal’s  sanctuary  in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq was justification for the U.S. military invasion of Iraq. Perle states this in the recent PBS documentary series  America At A Crossroads , and refers to President Bush’s 9/11 speech in which Bush stated:  We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.

Perle came into further prominence due to his role in backing the 2003 invasion, and continues to support the military presence there.

In an interview for  Saddam’s Ultimate Solution , the 11 July 2002 episode of the PBS series Wide Angle, he said:

Saddam is much weaker than we think he is. He’s weaker militarily. We know he’s got about a third of what he had in 1991. But it’s a house of cards. He rules by fear because he knows there is no underlying support. Support for Saddam, including within his military organization, will collapse at the first whiff of gunpowder. Now, it isn’t going to be over in 24 hours, but it isn’t going to be months either.

The US-led coalition defeated the Iraqi military within less than a month of the invasion [4] and the Coalition Provisional Authority disbanded the military and removed Ba’ath party members from authority positions, essentially dissolving the government, as well. Critical government positions were appointed by the CPA[5].

In the leadup to the war, Perle also complained that Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officials were so hostile to defectors brought out of Iraq by the Iraqi National Congress that they refused to interview them and even tried to discredit them. The defectors and the head of the INC, Ahmed Chalabi were discredited not only by the CIA, but by the State Department at the time that Perle was supporting them. Later, the US military raided INC offices and stopped funding to the organization. [6]

Perle advocated invading Iraq with only 40,000 troops, and complained about the calls by then Gen. Eric Shinseki to use 660,000 troops. He preferred a strategy similar to that used in the Afghan war, in which the U.S. would insert SOF (Special Operations Forces), along with some two divisions, to assist native Kurdish and Shi’ite rebels, much as the United States had done with the Northern Alliance against the Taliban. [7] Nevertheless, in an interview he gave Vanity Fair that was excerpted in an article appearing in the 4 November 2006 Los Angeles Times, he denied having a role in the planning of the war. He is reported to have told Vanity Fair,  I’m getting damn tired of being described as an architect of the war. This is not congruent with his signing of the PNAC letter in 1998. I was in favor of bringing down Saddam. Nobody said, ‘Go design the campaign to do that.’ I had no responsibility for that.  The same Los Angeles Times article reports that Perle now believes that his advocacy of the Iraq war was wrong.

Perle was the subject of extensive study in the April 2007 PBS miniseries America at a Crossroads, in which he made a retrospective defense of the Bush administration’s decisions concerning the invasion of Iraq.

In April 2007, Perle was featured on VPRO’s Tegenlicht miniseries The Israel Lobby. Perle denied that the Israel Lobby particularly AIPAC was involved in the case to go to war with Iraq. However, he did suggest that AIPAC is heavily influential in United States elections, further hinting that any congressional challenger of AIPAC-sponsored legislation has minimal re-election chances.

Iraq policy regret and Bush criticism

In a Vanity Fair article that was first published online in November 2006, Perle expressed regret of his support of the invasion and faulted the  dysfunction  in the Bush administration for the troubled occupation.  I think now I probably would have said, ‘Let’s consider other strategies for dealing with the thing that concerns us most, which is Saddam supplying weapons of mass destruction to terrorists’. The decisions did not get made that should have been. They didn’t get made in a timely fashion, and the differences were argued out endlessly. At the end of the day, you have to hold the president responsible.  [8][9][10]

On Iraq Study Group proposals

In a December 2006 interview with Die Zeit, Perle strongly criticized the Iraq Study Group proposals, saying:  I have never seen such a foolish report. … A report that begins with false premises ends with nothing.  [11]

Other views on foreign policy

On the United Nations

Perle is a frequent critic of the United Nations, stating that it is an embodiment of  … the liberal conceit of safety through international law administered by international institutions….  [12] He has also attacked the United Nations Security Council veto power as a flawed concept, arguing that the only time the U.N. utilized force during the Cold War was when  …the Soviets were not in the chamber to veto it . [12]

Furthermore, shortly after the invasion of Iraq, Perle stated that;  in this case international law stood in the way of doing the right thing  [13]. He also argued that there was  no practical mechanism consistent with the rules of the UN for dealing with Saddam Hussein . At the time, these comments provoked controversy among critics of the war, who argued that they contradicted the U.S.’s official stance on the legality of the invasion. [13]

On Israel

Perle chaired a study group that included Douglas Feith and David Wurmser that produced a strategy paper for the incoming Likud Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu:  A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm . The paper’s main recommendations revolved around steering Israel away from Socialist principles, making efforts to become more self-reliant,  nurturing alternatives to Arafat’s exclusive grip on Palestinian society , and working more closely with countries such as Jordan and Turkey. It also stated the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq should be a key objective for the Israeli state, advocated armed incursions into Lebanon, and suggested Arab states should be challenged as undemocratic. Perle has on occasion been accused of being an Israeli agent of influence. It has been reported that, while he was working for Jackson,  An FBI summary of a 1970 wiretap recorded Perle discussing classified information with someone at the Israeli embassy,  writes Paul Findley (They Dare To Speak Out, Chicago, Ill, Lawrence Hill Books 1989). He came under fire in 1983 when newspapers reported he received substantial payments to represent the interests of an Israeli weapons company. Perle denied conflict of interest, insisting that, although he received payment for these services after he had assumed his position in the Defense Department, he was between government jobs when he worked for the Israeli firm.

On defense

Perle advocates pre-emptive strikes, such as in Iraq, as an extension of America’s right to self defense. For example, Perle has expressed support for a theoretical first strike on North Korean and Iranian nuclear facilities.[14]
[edit] Disputed role in Bush Administration

Conservative commentator David Brooks has said that, in his opinion, Perle’s influence in the Bush administration is exaggerated. In a 2004 New York Times article, Brooks wrote that;  There have been hundreds of references … to Richard Perle’s insidious power over administration policy, but I’ve been told by senior administration officials that he has had no significant meetings with Bush or Cheney since they assumed office. If he’s shaping their decisions, he must be microwaving his ideas into their fillings . ‘The Neocon Cabal and Other Fantasies’, 2004 New York Times Co.

Business interests and controversies

Bribery Accusations and Alleged Conflicts of Interest

From 1981 to 1987, Perle was Assistant Secretary of Defense for international security policy in the Reagan administration. In a New York Times article Perle was criticized for recommending that the Army purchase an armaments system from an Israeli company that a year earlier had paid him $50,000 in consulting fees. Perle acknowledged receiving the payment the same month he joined the Reagan administration, but said the payment was for work done before joining the government and that he had informed the Army of this prior consulting work. Perle was never indicted for anything related to the incident. (New York Times, 17 April 1983,  Aide Urged Pentagon to Consider Weapons Made by Former Client , Jeff Gerth. See also New York Times, 21 April 1983,  On buying weapons and influence , Editorial.).

In March 2004, another New York Times article reported that, while chairman of the Defense Policy Board, Perle had contracted with the troubled telecommunications giant Global Crossing to help overcome opposition from the FBI and the Pentagon to the sale of its assets to Hong-Kong-based Hutchison Whampoa. Since the military employed the company’s fiber optics network for communications, the brass argued that sale to a foreign-owned, especially Chinese, corporation would compromise national security. Perle was to be paid $125,000 to promote the deal, with an extra $600,000 contingent fee on its approval. [15] This controversy led to accusations of bribery, and Perle resigned as chairman on March 27, 2003, though he remained on the board. [16]

Perle is also known to have demanded payment for press interviews[17] while he was the chairman of the Defense Policy Board, a practice that has raised accusations of not only ethical, but legal impropriety. [18]

Sibel Edmonds

Perle’s photograph was listed in Sibel Edmonds’ State Secrets Privilege Gallery [3] alongside photos of seventeen other prominent US officials including Brent Scowcroft, Douglas Feith, Dennis Hastert, Lawrence Franklin, and Marc Grossman. Sibel Edmonds is a former FBI translator and whistleblower who uncovered serious criminality by leading US officials, involving the nuclear black market, narcotics trafficking, terrorism and money laundering. The details of Edmonds’ case have been buried using the State Secrets Privilege. Sibel Edmonds circumvented the State Secrets Privilege gag by simply publishing the photographs of these public officials on her website [4]. Other websites [5] put names to those photographs.

Unresolved Legal Issues
This article may contain original research or unverified claims. Please improve the article by adding references. See the talk page for details. (April 2008)

Perle has served as a Director of Hollinger International since June 1994. He is also Co-Chairman of Hollinger Digital Inc. and a Director of Jerusalem Post, both of which are subsidiaries of the Company. He has served as a director of GeoBiotics. On August 31, 2004, a special committee of the Board of Directors investigating the alleged misconduct of the controlling shareholders of Hollinger International submitted the 512-page Breeden Report to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). In the report, Perle is singled out as having breached his fiduciary responsibilities as a company director by authorizing several controversial transactions which diverted the company’s net profit from the shareholders to the accounts of various executives. Perle received over $3 million in bonuses on top of his salary, bringing the total to $5.4 million, and the investigating committee called for him to return the money.

Top Hollinger executives dismissed the report and have filed a defamation lawsuit against the head of the investigating committee, former SEC chairman Richard C. Breeden. However, in 2005, Perle publicly acknowledged he had been served a ‘Wells notice'[19], a formal warning that the S.E.C.’s enforcement staff had found sufficient evidence of wrongdoing to bring a civil lawsuit.

On 28 March 2003, Judicial Watch filed a complaint to the Office of Government Ethics, the Office of the Defense Department Inspector General, the Office of the Homeland Security Inspector General, United States Attorney General John Ashcroft and FBI Director Robert Mueller in the matter of Former Defense Policy Board Chairman Richard N. Perle, Former President Bill Clinton, Former Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, former Democratic National Committee Chairman Terry McAuliffe and Global Crossing.[citation needed] He has also been accused of spying for the Israeli government[20].

Seymour Hersh and ‘Lunch with the Chairman’

In July 2001, George W. Bush appointed Perle chairman of the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, which advises the Department of Defense. On March 9, 2003, journalist Seymour Hersh published an article in The New Yorker titled  Lunch with the Chairman , accusing Perle of a conflict of interest, claiming Perle stood to profit financially by influencing government policy. Hersh’s article alleged that Perle had business dealings with Saudi investors and linked him to the intelligence-related computer firm Trireme Partners LLP, which he claimed stood to profit from the war in Iraq.

That same day, Perle was being interviewed on the issue of Iraq by CNN’s Wolf Blitzer. Shortly before the interview ended, Blitzer quoted  Lunch with the Chairman  and asked for Perle’s response. Perle dismissed the premise of the article and argued that it lacked  any consistent theme . Added Perle;  Sy Hersh is the closest thing American journalism has to a terrorist, frankly.  [21].

On March 11, Perle told the New York Sun as regards Hersh’s article that  I intend to launch legal action in the United Kingdom. I’m talking to Queen’s Counsel right now , [22]. He claimed it was easier to win libel cases in England, and that therefore made this a better location. In the end, Perle did not file any legal case. Instead, on March 27, 2003, he resigned as chairman of the Defense Policy Board, although he still remained a member of the board.[citation needed]

Iraq oil deal

In July 2008, The Wall Street Journal reported that Perle had made plans to invest in oil interests in Iraq, in collaboration with Iraqi Kurdish leaders in northern Iraq.[23]

Works

Perle is author of many articles and three books:

* An End to Evil: How to Win the War on Terror (with David Frum, 2003) ISBN 1-4000-6194-6
* Hard Line (1992) (ISBN 0-394-56552-5)
* Reshaping Western Security (ed.) (1991) (ISBN 0-8447-3790-9)

In 1992 he produced the PBS feature The Gulf Crisis: The Road to War.

In 2007, Perle appeared in the documentary  The Case for War:In Defense of Freedom  presenting his view of the challenges facing the U.S. post 9/11. It was broadcast by PBS in their series America at a Crossroads which generated considerable controversy.[24]

References

1. ^ Wattenberg, Ben J. (2002-11-14).  Richard Perle: The Making of a Neoconservative . Think Tank (TV series). http://www.pbs.org/thinktank/transcript1017.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-30.
2. ^ Kamiya, Gary (2004-01-30).   An End to Evil  by David Frum and Richard Perle . Salon.com. http://dir.salon.com/story/books/review/2004/01/30/frum_perle/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-30.
3. ^ CNN archives, Sept. 16, 2001. Go to the 1 minute 10 second mark to hear Richard Perle make the Osama-Saddam connection 5 days after 9/11.
4. ^ 2003 Iraq war timeline
5. ^ Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–present
6. ^ Iraqi National Congress
7. ^ Corn, David (May 10, 2002).  The Prince of Darkness Explains Iraq . AlterNet. http://www.alternet.org/story/13098/.
8. ^ Rose, David (3 November 2006).  Neo Culpa . Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2006/12/neocons200612.
9. ^  Former hawks now say they wouldn’t back Iraq war . Reuters. November 4, 2006. http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N03417357.htm.
10. ^ Borger, Julian (November 4, 2006).  Neocons turn on Bush for incompetence over Iraq war . The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,1939471,00.html.
11. ^  Perle: US needed ‘Iraqi De Gaulle’ for invasion  (PDF). Gulf News, reprinted at http://www.liberalgrace.com. 14 December 2006. http://www.liberalgrace.com/files/PerleDeGaulle20061214.pdf.
12. ^ a b Perle, Richard (March 21, 2003).  Thank God for the death of the UN . The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,918812,00.html.
13. ^ a b Oliver Burkeman and Julian Borger (3 November 2003).  War critics astonished as US hawk admits invasion was illegal . The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1089158,00.html.
14. ^ Barry James (April 12, 2003).  A strong warning to Syria – Perle, a Pentagon adviser, sees more preemption in future . International Herald Tribune. http://web.archive.org/web/20031202154214/http://www.iht.com/articles/93022.html.
15. ^  Democrat Seeks Inquiry on Bankrupt Firm’s Adviser . New York Times, March 25, 2003. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/25/business/25GLOB.html?ex=1176955200&en=125c7c1498e58adc&ei=5070. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
16. ^  Top Pentagon adviser resigns under fire . CNN.com, March 28, 2003. http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/27/perle.resigns/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
17. ^ Berman, Ari (August 18, 2003).  Payments for Perle . The Nation. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20030818/berman.
18. ^ Section 5 CFR 2635.807 Code of Federal Regulations, Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch
19. ^  Hollinger Director Warned . New York Times, March 24, 2005. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/24/business/media/24perle.html?ex=1162875600&en=df2db54ae8f5a77c&ei=5070. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
20. ^
“     An FBI summary of a 1970 wiretap recorded Perle discussing classified information with someone at the Israeli embassy. He came under fire in 1983 when newspapers reported he received substantial payments to represent the interests of an Israeli weapons company. Perle denied conflict of interest, insisting that, although he received payment for these services after he had assumed his position in the Defense Department, he was between government jobs when he worked for the Israeli firm.     ”

Paul Findley They Dare To Speak Out, p. 160. Cited on [1]
21. ^  CNN Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer, Showdown: Iraq (transcript) . CNN. March 9, 2003. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0303/09/le.00.html.
22. ^  SUING OVER NEW YORKER ARTICLE, . ADAM DAIFALLAH, Staff Reporter of the Sun, The New York Sun, March 12, 2003, Section:National; Page:2. http://daily.nysun.com/Repository/getFiles.asp?Style=OliveXLib:ArticleToMail&Type=text/html&Path=NYS/2003/03/12&ID=Ar00200. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
23. ^ The Wall Street Journal, July 29, 2008
24. ^  PBS Buys a Lot of Arguments for $20 Million . New York Times. 2007-04-01. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/arts/television/01jens.html?_r=2&ref=arts&oref=slogin&oref=slogin.

External links

Sister project     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Richard Perle
Sister project     Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Richard Perle

* Richard Perle interview about SDI for the WGBH series, War and Peace in the Nuclear Age
* AEI – Richard Perle profile as Resident Fellow of the American Enterprise Institute
* Judicial Watch legal complaint March 28, 2003
*  An End to Evil  by David Frum and Richard Perle, Gary Kamiya salon.com, book review, January 30, 2004
* Richard Perle’s Conflict editorial/op-ed in The New York Times March 24, 2003
* Rovian Ways, Nicholas Lemann, August 27, 2007

* Debates, interviews and statements
o We had the very best of intentions Richard Perle in The Guardian May 30, 2007
o  Middle East Peace: Illusion or Reality  Speech to  Chicago Friends of Israel  at The University of Chicago February 28, 2007
o Thank God for the Death of the UN Richard Perle in The Guardian March 21, 2003
o Lunch with the Chairman Seymour Hersh in The New Yorker March 17, 2003
o Saddam’s Ultimate Solution transcript of interview with Richard Perle from PBS Wide Angle July 11, 2002
o Famous Ohio State University Debate – Noam Chomsky vs. Richard Perle, 1988 MP3

* Hollinger
o Hollinger International’s management profiles of current executive officers and directors
o  Report Details ‘Kleptocracy’ at Newspaper Firm  Frank Ahrens in The Washington Post September 1, 2004 about Hollinger
o SEC – Breeden Report Report of Investigation by the Special Committee of the Board of Directors of Hollinger International Inc August 30, 2004

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***

Henry M. Jackson
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Scoop Jackson” redirects here. For the basketball writer, see Scoop Jackson (writer).
Henry Martin Jackson
Henry M. Jackson
United States Senator
from Washington
In office
January 3, 1953 – September 1, 1983
Preceded by     Harry P. Cain
Succeeded by     Daniel J. Evans
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Washington’s 2nd district
In office
January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1953
Preceded by     Monrad C. Wallgren
Succeeded by     Alfred Westland
Born     May 31, 1912(1912-05-31)
Everett, Washington
Died     September 1, 1983 (aged 71)
Everett, Washington
Nationality     American
Political party     Democratic
Spouse     Helen Jackson
Occupation     Lawyer
Religion     Christian

Henry Martin “Scoop” Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator for the state of Washington from 1941 until his death. Jackson was an unsuccessful candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1972 and 1976.

As a Cold War anti-Communist Democrat, Jackson’s political philosophies and positions have been cited as an influence on a number of key figures associated with neoconservatism, including Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle.[1] The Henry Jackson Society is named in his honour.
Contents

* 1 Personal life and early career
* 2 Legislative career
o 2.1 Criticism
* 3 National prominence and presidential campaigns
o 3.1 1972 presidential campaign
o 3.2 1976 presidential campaign
* 4 Legacy
o 4.1 Posthumous honors
o 4.2 Influence on neoconservatism
o 4.3 Jackson Papers controversy
* 5 Quotes
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links

Personal life and early career

Born in Everett, Washington, Jackson went on to graduate with a bachelor’s degree from Stanford University and a law degree from the University of Washington, where he joined the Delta Chi fraternity. In 1935 (the year of his law school graduation) he was admitted to the bar and began to practice law in Everett. He found immediate success, and won election to become the prosecuting attorney for Snohomish County from 1938 to 1940, where he made a name for himself prosecuting bootleggers and gamblers.

In 1961, Jackson, called by Time the Senate’s “most eligible bachelor,”[2] married Helen Hardin, a 28-year old Senate receptionist, but Jackson didn’t move out of his childhood home where he lived with his unmarried sisters for several years. The Jacksons had two children, Anna Marie Laurence and Peter Jackson; Peter is currently a speechwriter for Governor Christine Gregoire.

Jackson was nicknamed “Scoop” by his sister in his childhood, after a comic strip character that he is said to have resembled.

Legislative career

Jackson successfully ran for Congress as a Democrat in 1940 and took his seat in the House of Representatives with the 77th Congress on January 3, 1941. From that date forward, Jackson did not lose a congressional election.

Jackson joined the Army when the United States entered World War II, but left when Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered all Congressmen to return home or resign their seats. As a representative, he visited the Buchenwald concentration camp a few days after its liberation in 1945. He attended the International Maritime Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1945 with the American delegation, and was elected president of the same conference in 1946, when it was held in Seattle, Washington. From 1945 to 1947 Jackson was also the chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs. In the 1952 election, Jackson relinquished his seat in the House for a run at one of Washington’s Senate seats — he won that election, and remained a Senator for over thirty years. Jackson died in office in 1983 after winning re-election for the fifth time in 1982.

Though Jackson opposed the excesses of Joe McCarthy (who had traveled to Washington State to campaign against him in 1952), he also criticized Dwight Eisenhower for not spending enough on national defense, and called for more inter-continental ballistic missiles in the national arsenal. Jackson’s support for nuclear weapons resulted in a primary challenge from the left in 1958, when he handily defeated Seattle peace activist Alice Franklin Bryant before winning re-election with 67 percent of the vote — a total he topped the next four times he ran for re-election.[1][3]

In 1963, Jackson was made chairman of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, which became the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in 1977, a position he held until 1981. In the 1970s, Jackson joined with fellow senators Ernest Hollings and Edward Kennedy in a press conference to oppose President Gerald Ford’s request that Congress end Richard Nixon’s price controls on domestic oil, which had helped to cause the gasoline lines during the 1973 Oil Crisis.[4]

Jackson authored the National Environmental Policy Act and was a leader of the fight for statehood for Alaska and Hawaii. In 1974, Jackson sponsored the Jackson-Vanik amendment in the Senate (with Charles Vanik sponsoring it in the House) which denied normal trade relations to certain countries with non-market economies that restricted the freedom of emigration. The amendment was intended to help refugees, particularly minorities, specifically Jews, to emigrate from the Soviet Bloc. Jackson and his assistant, Richard Perle, also lobbied personally for some people who were affected by this law — among them Anatoly (now Natan) Sharansky. Jackson also led the opposition within the Democratic Party against the SALT II treaty, and was one of the leading proponents of increased foreign aid to Israel.

For decades, Democrats who supported a strong international presence for the United States have been called “Scoop Jackson Democrats”, the term even being used to describe contemporary Democrats such as Joe Lieberman and R. James Woolsey, Jr.[5][6]

Jackson served almost his entire Senate tenure concurrently with his good friend and Democratic colleague Warren G. Magnuson. “Scoop” and “Maggie” — as they affectionately called each other — were one of the most effective delegations in the history of the United States Senate in terms of “bringing home the bacon” for their home state. Washington State received nearly one sixth of public works appropriations, even though it ranked 23rd in population.[7]

Criticism

Jackson was often criticized for his support for the Vietnam War and his close ties to the defense industries of his state. His proposal of Fort Lawton as a site for an anti-ballistic missile system was strongly opposed by local residents, and Jackson was forced to modify his position on the location of the site several times, though he continued to support ABM development. American Indian rights activists then protested Jackson’s plan to give Fort Lawton to Seattle instead of returning it to local tribes, staging a sit-in. In the eventual compromise, most of Fort Lawton became Discovery Park, with 20 acres (81,000 m2) leased to United Indians of All Tribes, who opened the Daybreak Star Cultural Center there in 1977.

Opponents derided him as “the Senator from Boeing”[8] and a “whore for Boeing”[9] because of his consistent support for additional military spending on weapons systems and accusations of wrongful contributions from the company; in 1965, eighty percent of Boeing’s contracts were military.[1][7] Jackson and Magnuson’s campaigning for an expensive government supersonic transport plane project eventually failed.

After his death, critics pointed to Jackson’s support for Japanese American internment camps during World War II as a reason to protest the placement of his bust at the University of Washington.[10] Jackson was both an enthusiastic defender of the evacuation and a staunch proponent of the campaign to keep the Japanese from returning to the Pacific Coast after the war.[11]

National prominence and presidential campaigns

Jackson was not only successful as a politician in Washington State, but also found recognition on the national level, rising to the position of chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 1960 after being considered for the vice presidential ticket spot that eventually went to fellow Senator Lyndon Baines Johnson.

Jackson ran for president twice; his campaigns were noted for the hostile reception they received from the left wing of the Democratic Party. Jackson’s one-on-one campaigning skills, so successful in Washington state, did not translate as well on the national stage, and even his supporters admitted he suffered from a certain lack of charisma.[1][12][13]

1972 presidential campaign

Jackson was little known nationally when he first ran in 1972. George McGovern, who eventually won the nomination, accused Jackson of racism for his opposition to busing, despite Jackson’s longstanding record on civil rights issues. Jackson had the support of Marxist theorist Max Shachtman, an associate of Leon Trotsky.[14] Jackson’s high point in the campaign was a distant third in the early Florida primary, but he failed to stand out of the pack of better known rivals, and only made real news later in the campaign as part of the “Anybody but McGovern” coalition, that raised what would be known as the “Acid, Amnesty and Abortion” questions about McGovern. Jackson suspended active campaigning in May after a weak showing in the Ohio primary and after finishing well behind McGovern, Ed Muskie, George Wallace,and Hubert Humphrey in early primaries. Jackson did reemerge at the August Democratic convention after runner up Humphrey dropped out of the race. Jackson’s name was placed in nomination by Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter and he finished second in the delegate roll call, well behind nominee McGovern.[13][15]

1976 presidential campaign

Jackson raised his national profile by speaking out on Soviet-U.S. relations and Middle East policy regularly, and was considered a front-runner for the nomination when he announced the start of his campaign in February 1975. Jackson received substantial financial support from Jewish-Americans who admired his pro-Israel views, but Jackson’s support of the Vietnam War resulted in hostility from the left wing of the Democratic Party.

Jackson chose to run on social issues, emphasizing law and order and his opposition to busing. Jackson was also hoping for support from labor, but the possibility that Hubert Humphrey might enter the race caused unions to offer only lukewarm support.[1][12][13][16]

Jackson made the fateful decision not to compete in the early Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary, which Jimmy Carter won after liberals split their votes among four other candidates. Though Jackson won the Massachusetts and New York primaries, he dropped out on May 1 after losing the critical Pennsylvania primary to Carter by twelve points and running out of money.[1][12][13][16]

Legacy
Henry M. Jackson’s home Everett, Washington

Jackson died suddenly at the age of 71 in Everett of an aortic aneurysm, shortly after giving a news conference condemning the Soviet attack on Korean Air Lines Flight 007. News reports showed video of Jackson in which he was seen reflexively massaging the left side of his chest while talking, and speculated that this was his reaction to an early symptom of his coming fatal attack.

He was greatly mourned; Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan stated “Henry Jackson is proof of the old belief in the Judaic tradition that at any moment in history goodness in the world is preserved by the deeds of 36 just men who do not know that this is the role the Lord has given them. Henry Jackson was one of those men.” Jackson is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Everett.

Posthumous honors

* Jackson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1984; Ronald Reagan called him “one of the greatest lawmakers of our century,”[17] and stated:

“Scoop Jackson was convinced that there’s no place for partisanship in foreign and defense policy. He used to say, ‘In matters of national security, the best politics is no politics.’ His sense of bipartisanship was not only natural and complete; it was courageous. He wanted to be President, but I think he must have known that his outspoken ideas on the security of the Nation would deprive him of the chance to be his party’s nominee in 1972 and ’76. Still, he would not cut his convictions to fit the prevailing style.

I’m deeply proud, as he would have been, to have Jackson Democrats serve in my administration. I’m proud that some of them have found a home here.”[18]

* In 1983, he was awarded Delta Chi of the Year.
* With his death in office, the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport was initially renamed Henry M. Jackson International Airport, but political resistance to the change led to this being reversed in favor of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. It wasn’t that the public didn’t want to honor the late Senator, but rather leaders in both Seattle and Tacoma (Tacoma, in particular), fearing the loss of convention business, demanded that their cities name be included in the name of the airport. The airport lies between the two cities in the municipality of SeaTac.
* One of Jackson’s last acts as Senator was to sponsor legislation creating what became the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, which was named after him after his death.
* The Jackson family created the Henry M. Jackson Foundation to give grants to nonprofits and educational institutions. Board members have included Richard Perle, Tom Foley, and Jeane Kirkpatrick.[19]
* The University of Washington has named the Jackson School of International Studies in his honor. However, students objecting to Jackson’s hawkish views on the Cold War in the mid-1980s caused the university to move a bust of the senator to the end of an abandoned corridor until it was restored to a more prominent place outside the Jackson School in 2006.[10]
* The US Navy submarine Henry M. Jackson was also named after him, in recognition of his longtime support of the nation’s military.
* In 1994, the Everett School District completed construction of Henry M. Jackson High School in Mill Creek, Washington.
* The Henry M. Jackson Wilderness Area was created in his honor by the 1984 Washington Wilderness Act.
* The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, with the cooperation of the Jackson family, awards a Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson Distinguished Service Award to individuals for their career dedication to U.S. national security. Jackson won the first award in 1982, and it was named after him after his death. Winners include Max Cleland, Joe Lieberman, Dick Cheney, Jane Harman, and Paul Wolfowitz.[20]

Influence on neoconservatism

Jackson believed that evil should be confronted with power.[19] His support for civil rights and equality at home,[10] married to his opposition to détente,[19] his support for human rights[21] and democratic allies,[22] and his firm belief that the United States could be a force for good in the world[23] inspired a legion of loyal aides who went on to propound Jackson’s philosophy as part of neoconservatism.

In addition to Richard Perle, neoconservatives Paul Wolfowitz, Elliott Abrams, Charles Horner, and Douglas Feith were former Democratic aides to Jackson who, disillusioned with the Carter administration, supported Ronald Reagan and joined his administration in 1981, later becoming prominent foreign policy makers in the 21st-century Bush administration. Neoconservative Ben Wattenberg was a prominent political aide to Jackson’s 1972 and 1976 presidential campaigns. Wolfowitz has called himself a “Scoop Jackson Republican” on multiple occasions.[21][24] Many journalists and scholars across the political spectrum have noted links between Senator Jackson and modern neoconservatism.[1][25][26][22][19][27][28][29][30][31]

Jackson’s influence on foreign policy has been cited as foundational to the George W. Bush administration’s foreign policy, and the Iraq War.[32] Jackson biographer Robert Kaufman says “There is no question in my mind that the people who supported Iraq are supporting Henry Jackson’s instincts.”[19]

Peter Beinart, author of The Good Fight: Why Liberals — and Only Liberals — Can Win the War on Terror and Make America Great Again, argues that the Democratic Party should return to Jackson’s values in its foreign policy, criticizing current-day neoconservatives for failing to adopt Jackson’s domestic policy views along with his foreign policy views.[23][26]

In 2005, the Henry Jackson Society was formed at the University of Cambridge, England. The non-partisan British group is dedicated to “pursuit of a robust foreign policy … based on clear universal principles such as the global promotion of the rule of law, liberal democracy, civil rights, environmental responsibility and the market economy” as part of “Henry Jackson’s legacy.”[33] The Society, however, disclaims any neoconservative affiliation.[34]

Jackson Papers controversy

In 2005, twenty-two years after his death, US government officials, including three members of the Central Intelligence Agency, seized and removed several of Senator Jackson’s archived documents housed at the University of Washington.[35][36] Though a team of the university’s staff in 1983 removed all information considered classified at the time, the officials were verifying anything still considered classified, or reclassified since then, had been removed. The documents are pending declassification at the University as of March 2005.[37]

Quotes

* “In matters of national security, the best politics is no politics.”[38]
* “I’m not a hawk or a dove. I just don’t want my country to be a pigeon.”
* “If you believe in the cause of freedom, then proclaim it, live it and protect it, for humanity’s future depends on it.”
* “The richest country in the world can afford whatever it needs for defense.” (1960, campaigning for Kennedy)
* “We all want to put the brakes on the arms race…we all want to achieve arms control…but to those who say we must take risks for peace by cutting the meat from our military muscle, I say you are unwittingly risking war.”[39]
* “When we have something we feel strongly about — and in this case it is civil liberties and freedom and what this nation was founded upon, that we should do something to implement international law — and it is international law now, the right to leave a country freely and return freely — that we should put that issue of principle on the table knowing that the Russians are not going to agree to it.” (1974, opposing détente)[40]
* “I believe that international terrorism is a modern form of warfare against liberal democracies. I believe that the ultimate but seldom stated goal of these terrorists is to destroy the very fabric of democracy. I believe that it is both wrong and foolhardy for any democratic state to consider international terrorism to be ‘someone else’s’ problem…. Liberal democracies must acknowledge that international terrorism is a ‘collective problem.'” (1979, Jerusalem)[41]
* “The danger of Americans being killed, the danger of divisiveness that would accrue from those developments … are all too real. A superpower should not play that kind of role in a cauldron of trouble, because sooner or later we are going to get hurt.” (on Reagan’s 1982 decision to send troops to Lebanon)[30]

See also

* Washington state congressional delegates
* Henry M. Jackson High School

References

1. ^ a b c d e f g Oldham, Kit (August 19, 2003). “Jackson, Henry M. “Scoop””. HistoryLink.org. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=5516.
2. ^ Time: “Time weekly roundup.” Retrieved April 17, 2007.
3. ^ Oldham, Kit (November 1, 2003). “Voters re-elect Senator Henry Jackson and six U.S. Representatives on November 4, 1958.”. HistoryLink.org. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=5583.
4. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The ’70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 321. ISBN 0465041957.
5. ^ Meyerson, Adam. “Scoop Jackson Democrat”, Hoover Institution, Policy Review, 1990.
6. ^ “Media Influence on National Security Decisionmaking”, Brookings Institution, 12-12-2001.
7. ^ a b Boswell, Sharon; Lorraine McConaghy (September 29, 1996). “Twin towers of power”. Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/centennial/september/towers.html.
8. ^ Jason Vest. “The Men From JINSA and CSP”, The Nation, August 15, 2002.
9. ^ Alexander Cockburn. Al Gore: A User’s Manual, pg. 82, 2000.
10. ^ a b c Perry, Nick (May 12, 2006). “”Scoop” out of the shadows”. Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002988731_scoop12m.html.
11. ^ “Part VIII: White Man’s Land”, Eliminationism in America, “Orcinus”, 01-23-2007.
12. ^ a b c David Wilma and Kit Oldham (November 7, 2003). “State voters elect Dixy Lee Ray as first woman governor of Washington, re-elect Senator Henry Jackson and House incumbents, and prefer Ford to Carter on November 2, 1976.”. HistoryLink.org. http://www.washington.historylink.org/output.cfm?file_id=5611.
13. ^ a b c d Salam, Reihan (May 27, 2003). “Double Scoop”. The New Republic Online. http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=express&s=salam052703.
14. ^ Higgins, Jim. More Years for the Locust, (Appendix 1), International Socialist Group, London, 1997.
15. ^ “A Message of Discontent from Wisconsin”, “AllPolitics”, Time, 04-17-1972.
16. ^ a b “Jimmy Carter’s Big Breakthrough”. Time Magazine. May 10, 1976. http://cgi.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/analysis/back.time/9605/10/.
17. ^ “What Would Scoop Jackson Say?”, Fact-O-Rama, Cybercast News Service. Retrieved June 2, 2006.
18. ^ Reagan, Ronald (June 26, 1984). “Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Senator Henry M. Jackson”. medaloffreedom.com. http://www.medaloffreedom.com/HenryJackson.htm.
19. ^ a b c d e Fryer, Alex (January 12, 2004). “Scoop Jackson’s protégés shaping Bush’s foreign policy”. Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2001834779_jackson12m.html.
20. ^ “The Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson Distinguished Service Award”. Jinsa.org. September 21, 2004. http://www.jinsa.org/articles/articles.html/function/view/categoryid/1366/documentid/2173/history/3,2359,2166,1366,2173.
21. ^ a b Wolfowitz, Paul (November 18, 2002). “Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson Distinguished Service Award”. United States Department of Defense. http://www.defenselink.mil/speeches/2002/s20021118-depsecdef.html.
22. ^ a b Borger, Julian (December 6, 2002). “Democrat hawk whose ghost guides Bush”. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,854703,00.html.
23. ^ a b Wasserman, Elizabeth (April 12, 2006). “Beinart Talks Back”. The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200604u/beinart-liberals.
24. ^ “Ronald Reagan Dies”. Paula Zahn Now. CNN. Aired June 5, 2004. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0406/05/pzn.00.html.
25. ^ “Empire builders: Neocon 101”. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/specials/neocon/neocon101.html.
26. ^ a b (dead link?)
27. ^ Kaplan, Lawrence F. “Regime Change”, The New Republic, 02-19-2003.
28. ^ The Washington Times, (broken link).
29. ^ “Pseudo-Random Thoughts”, Jim Miller on Politics, SEANET, 03-2005.
30. ^ a b Harrop, Froma. “Dems Need Another Scoop Jackson”, RealClearPolitics, 11-23-2005.
31. ^ Shribman, David (September 3, 1983). “Senator Henry M. Jackson is dead at 71”. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10713FF395C0C708CDDA00894DB484D81.
32. ^ Morris, Roger (April 6, 2003). “The road the U.S. traveled to Baghdad was paved by ‘Scoop’ Jackson”. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/115505_focus06.shtml.
33. ^ “Statement of Principles”, Henry Jackson Society, March 11, 2005.
34. ^ “Don’t blame ‘Scoop’ for the neocons”, The Guardian, November 23, 2005.
35. ^ (dead link?)
36. ^ Bain, Lara (February 15, 2005). “CIA seizes Sen. Jackson papers”. HeraldNet. http://web.archive.org/web/20061025205103/http://www.heraldnet.com/stories/05/02/15/100loc_jackson001.cfm.
37. ^ Kaste, Martin (March 15, 2005). “CIA’s Seizure of Files Raises Questions”. Morning Edition (National Public Radio). http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4535175.
38. ^ “STATE OF THE UNION: REAGAN REPORTS TO THE NATION; PRESIDENT REAGAN’S SPEECH BEFORE JOINT SESSION OF CONGRESS”. New York Times. February 5, 1986. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DE5DA1331F936A35751C0A960948260&sec=health&pagewanted=3.
39. ^ “Henry “Scoop” Jackson for President 1972 Campaign Brochure”, 4President.org. Retrieved 07-02-2006.
40. ^ “CNN Cold War”, Episode 16: Détente, Episode Script. Retrieved June 2, 2006.
41. ^ Wolfowitz, Paul (November 18, 2002). “Defending the ‘Ancient Dream of Freedom'”. Jinsa.org. http://www.jinsa.org/articles/articles.html/function/view/categoryid/1366/documentid/1839/history/3,2359,2166,1366,1839.

External links

* 1972 presidential campaign brochure
* Henry M Jackson Papers
* Bust of Henry Jackson at US Senate
* Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine
* Henry M Jackson Foundation
* The Henry Jackson Society at the University of Cambridge
* Henry Jackson on Find-A-Grave

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Monrad C. Wallgren     Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Washington’s 2nd congressional district
January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1953     Succeeded by
Alfred Westland
United States Senate
Preceded by
Harry P. Cain     United States Senator (Class 1) from Washington
January 3, 1953 – September 1, 1983
Served alongside: Warren G. Magnuson, Slade Gorton     Succeeded by
Dan Evans
Political offices
Preceded by
Clinton P. Anderson     Chairman of the Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee
1963 – 1977     Committee replaced by
Energy and Natural Resources Committee
New title
Committee replaced Interior and Insular Affairs Committee
Chairman of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee
1977 – 1981     Succeeded by
James A. McClure

United States Senators from Washington
Class 1
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Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_M._Jackson&#8221;
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***

William C. Brown (May 22, 1916 – February 3, 1999) was an American electrical engineer who helped to invent the crossed-field amplifier in the 1950s and also pioneered microwave power transmission in the 1960s.

Brown received his BSEE from Iowa State University in 1937, and his MSEE from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1941. He joined Raytheon in 1940 and began work on their magnetron microwave amplifier products. By 1952 his work on adapting magnetron principles to create a new broadband amplifier resulted in the ‘Amplitron’, today known more commonly as a crossed-field amplifier (CFA). In 1961 Brown published the first paper proposing microwave energy for power transmission, and in 1964 he demonstrated on Walter Cronkite’s CBS Evening News a microwave-powered model helicopter that received all the power needed for flight from a microwave beam. Between 1969 and 1975 Brown was technical director of a JPL-Raytheon program that beamed 30 kilowatts over a distance of 1-mile (1.6 km) at 84% efficiency. He continued to make important contributions to this emerging technology until his retirement from Raytheon in 1994.

Wireless power transmission is not a new idea; Tesla demonstrated  the transmission of electrical energy without wires  that depends upon electrical conductivity as early as 1891. The Tesla effect (named in honor of Tesla) is the archaic term for an application of this type of electrical conduction (that is, the movement of energy through space and matter; not just the production of voltage across a conductor).

External links

* William C. Brown biography at the IEEE Global History Network
* William C. Brown biography on the IEEE MTT-S website

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***

Northrop Grumman Awarded U.S. Army Biometric Intelligence Resource Contract
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORP
NOC | 2/23/2009 8:01:33 AM

RESTON, Va., Feb 23, 2009 (GlobeNewswire via COMTEX News Network) —

The U.S. Army has awarded Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE:NOC) a $36.9 million cost-plus-award-fee contract to enhance the capabilities of the Biometric Intelligence Resource (BIR) system, which uses biometric data, such as fingerprints, facial recognition or iris scans to identify and track individuals of interest in the Global War on Terrorism.
BIR is a massive repository linking disparate biometric intelligence-gathering tools and databases and is currently in use in Iraq and Afghanistan to identify and track terrorists, insurgents or other potential threats. BIR includes data from a variety of biometric-enabled systems, including hand-held devices carried by U.S. military forces while conducting raids in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as systems used to biometrically scan personnel entering overseas military installations or applying for U.S. jobs, and includes data such as fingerprints or DNA samples found on bomb fragments.

Northrop Grumman designed, fielded and accredited the current version BIR system, which includes a service-oriented architecture, and will design and field a significantly enhanced next-generation BIR under the new contract from the Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center, Charlottesville, Va. The contract includes one base year and four one-year options. The next-generation BIR will include biometric-enabled intelligence from a wider variety of U.S. agencies and organizations.

With this new system, intelligence analysts will be able to better share information among organizations, making it easier to connect the dots and significantly enhancing national security,  said Barry Rhine, vice president and general manager of Northrop Grumman’s Command and Control Systems Division.

The next-generation system will recognize when the data on individuals is included in the databases of multiple agencies; keep track of when and where people are encountered, providing a more complete understanding of their movements; and supply greater information on relationships between and among individuals — familial relationships, neighbors, co-workers, and shared addresses or phone numbers, for example.

The Northrop Grumman team includes SAIC, San Diego; Booz-Allen-Hamilton, McLean, Va.; and SPARTA Inc., Lake Forest, Calif.

Northrop Grumman Corporation is a leading global security company whose 120,000 employees provide innovative systems, products, and solutions in aerospace, electronics, information systems, shipbuilding and technical services to government and commercial customers worldwide.

This news release was distributed by GlobeNewswire, http://www.globenewswire.com

SOURCE: Northrop Grumman Corp.

George I. Seffers Northrop Grumman Information Systems (703) 345-8548 george.seffers@ngc.com
(C) Copyright 2009 GlobeNewswire, Inc. All rights reserved.

http://www.stockhouse.com/News/USReleasesDetail.aspx?n=7221355
***
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf

Introduction
This Statement summarises the use of resources by the Security and Intelligence Agencies for the
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Statement of Accounting Officer’s Responsibilities
The Security and Intelligence Agencies have prepared resource accounts for the year ending 31
March 2008 in accordance with the Government Financial Reporting Manual, detailing the resources
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The individual Agency resource accounts are prepared on an accruals basis and must give a true
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procedure for handling such material set down by the Secretary of State under the Intelligence
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As a consequence of these arrangements, the Treasury has directed that a consolidated account
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The Treasury has appointed the Cabinet Secretary as Accounting Officer for the consolidated
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In preparing the financial statement, the Accounting Officer is required within the limitations imposed
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committees. Plans to address weaknesses and ensure continuous improvement of the systems are
in place.
Each agency has an internal audit unit which operates to the Government Internal Audit Standards.
The work of the internal audit units is informed by analyses of risk to which the agencies are
exposed. Annual internal audit plans are based on these analyses. The analyses of risk and the
internal audit plans are endorsed by the Audit Committees in each agency. At least annually, the
Head of Internal Audit (HIA) provides the relevant accounting officer and audit committee with a
report on internal audit activity. The report includes the HIA’s independent opinion on the adequacy
and effectiveness of the agencies’ systems of internal control.
6. Planned Improvements
The agencies’ internal control processes identified areas where, although significant progress has
been made, further improvements are still needed. The principle areas for improvement are (but in
each case only apply to a single agency) procurement, business continuity planning, information
security, management information systems, risk and configuration management. All these areas are
receiving sustained senior management focus and the agencies have implemented measures to
address weaknesses and deliver the required improvements.
7. Information Security
The agencies protect their information, including personal data, to the highest levels required by
national security policies. Whilst internal reviews of information handling procedures have assessed
that the agencies operate suitable and appropriate procedures for protecting data, I am clear that
these procedures need to be continuously and critically reviewed and updated. This area will
continue to demand significant senior management attention. The agencies plan more internal
reviews to support further measures for enhancing the effectiveness of their data security
frameworks.
No protected personal data related incidents were formally reported to the Data Commissioner’s
Office in 2007-08. Prior to the current year, the agencies had focussed their attention to incident
reporting on national security issues.
Sir Gus O’Donnell
Accounting Officer
14 July 2008
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf
***
Security and Intelligence Agencies Financial Statement 2007-08
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf

[PDF]
Security and Intelligence Agencies Financial Statement 2007-08 HC 872
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
security, management information systems, risk and configuration management. … preparation of those resource accounts. My audit of the consolidated …
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc0708/hc08/0872/0872.pdf

***
***

In 1972 U.S. President Richard Nixon, under pressure from Senator Jackson, dismissed the head of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and replaced him with Fred Ikle. Ikle brought in a new team including Wolfowitz. Wolfowitz wrote research papers and drafted testimony, as he had previously done at the Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy. He traveled with Ikle to strategic arms limitations talks in Paris and other European cities. He helped dissuade South Korea from reprocessing plutonium that could be diverted into a clandestine weapons program.

Under President Gerald Ford, the American intelligence agencies had come under attack over their annually published National Intelligence Estimate. According to Mann:  The underlying issue was whether the C.I.A. and other agencies were underestimating the threat from the Soviet Union, either by intentionally tailoring intelligence to support Kissinger’s policy of détente or by simply failing to give enough weight to darker interpretations of Soviet intentions.  In an attempt to counter these claims, the newly appointed Director of Central Intelligence, George H.W. Bush authorized the formation of a committee of anti-Communist experts, headed by Richard Pipes, to reassess the raw data. Richard Pipes picked Wolfowitz, to serve on this committee, which came to be known as Team B:  ‘Richard Perle recommended him,’ Pipes says of Wolfowitz today [2003, as quoted by Tanenhaus]. ‘I’d never heard of him.’ [23]

**
In March 2005, Wolfowitz was nominated to be president of the World Bank by U.S. President George W. Bush.[48]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

***

My note – As I was researching this, I noticed that many of the defense and intelligence contractors have either purchased or extended into electronic medical records tracking and interaction subsystems. Many are the same companies already involved in biometric systems development for intertwining information from business, public and government sources for the purposes of intel.

– cricketdiane, 03-13-09

***

AFX News Limited
TechTeam names Gary Cotshott president, CEO, effective immediately
02.11.08, 10:56 AM ET

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NEW YORK (Thomson Financial) – TechTeam Global Inc. Monday named Gary J. Cotshott president and chief executive, effective immediately.

Cotshott succeeds William C. Brown, who will remain with TechTeam through the end of his contract in an advisory capacity. He will maintain his position on the company’s board.

Cotshott most recently served as senior vice president and general manager of worldwide customer services at NCR (nyse: NCR – news – people ) Corp., a technology and related services company. He is also a 33-year veteran of Dell (nasdaq: DELL – news – people ) Inc.

Shares of the Southfield, Mich.-based information technology and business process outsourcing services company were up 1.3% at $8.10.

Melinda Peer

Copyright Thomson Financial News Limited 2007.

http://www.forbes.com/feeds/afx/2008/02/11/afx4639843.html

***
TechTeam Global Announces Formation of a Global Pharmaceutical Center of Excellence
[Outline] st value from eClinical technologyby offering services such as multil…According to Gary J. Cotshott President and Chief Executive Officer o… We have provided support to customers in the pharmaceutical industry… In the future we foresee the focus of the Center of Excellencebroad…About TechTeam Global Inc. …
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http://www.bio-medicine.org/inc/biomed/medicine-news.asp
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Date:6/23/2008[Outline] [RSS & Subscription]

st value from eClinical technology by offering services such as multilingual help desk, user and application administration, site assessment, site connectivity, hardware provisioning and local study site training. Its service professionals are specially trained in pharma regulatory compliance, clinical trial process and industry standard eClinical applications for functions such as Electronic Data Capture (EDC), Remote Data Capture (RDC) and eDiary.

According to gary J. cotshott, President and Chief Executive Officer of TechTeam Global, pharmaceutical companies, clinical research organizations and industry software vendors will benefit from TechTeam’s new Pharma Center of Excellence.

We have provided support to customers in the pharmaceutical industry for nearly a decade. The decision to create a Pharma Center of Excellence reflects our commitment to the pharmaceutical industry and to meeting its growing needs. We want to ensure that all of the services available to our customers are designed, delivered and managed with careful consideration of the unique needs of this important industry,  said cotshott.

In the future, we foresee the focus of the Center of Excellence broadening to cover the full life sciences industry. As always, we will continue to work closely with our customers as we set priorities and refine our capabilities,  said cotshott.

About TechTeam Global, Inc.

TechTeam Global, Inc. is a worldwide provider of information technology, enterprise support and business process outsourcing services to Fortune 1000 corporations, multinational companies, product providers, small and medium- sized companies, and government entities. TechTeam’s ability to integrate computer services into a flexible, ITIL-based solution is a key element of its strategy. Partnerships with some of the world’s  best-in-class  corporations provide TechTeam with unique expertise and experience in providing information technology support solutions. Fo
‘/> />
SOURCE TechTeam Global, Inc.
Copyright©2008 PR Newswire.
All rights reserved

Related medicine news :

1. TechTeam Global Will Provide Multilingual EDC Support Services for sanofi-aventis recherche & developpement
2. Corbett Selected to Host the Only Midwest Global Awards Judging Competition
3. Tata Consultancy Services to Support Roches Global Capacity Building Initiative
4. Creative Technology Services Enhances its Global Competitiveness with Additional Regulatory Certifications
5. Briefing on a new Web resource to address global drinking water crisis
6. MDS Pharma Services Wins Award for Management of Global Malaria Trial
7. Neusoft Becomes First Global Growth Company Partner of World Economic Forum
8. Resonant Medical Appoints New Vice President of Global Sales
9. Transcept Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to Present at UBS 2007 Global Life Sciences Conference
10. The era of global aging: GSAs annual meeting to present new research on hot topics in aging
11. MEDEX Global Group & Harvard Medical International Join Forces to Create the Most Comprehensive Health Information Resource for International Travelers

http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-1/TechTeam-Global-Announces-Formation-of-a-Global-Pharmaceutical-Center-of-Excellence-22537-2/

***
****

The Northrop Grumman team includes SAIC, San Diego; Booz-Allen-Hamilton, McLean, Va.; and SPARTA Inc., Lake Forest, Calif.

***
President Reagan’s foreign policy was heavily influenced by the Kirkpatrick Doctrine, as outlined in a 1979 article in Commentary by Jeanne Kirkpatrick entitled  Dictatorships and Double Standards .

In early 1980, Wolfowitz resigned from the Pentagon and went to work as a visiting professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. According to the Washington Post;  He said it was not he who changed his political philosophy so much as the Democratic Party, which abandoned the hard-headed internationalism of Harry Truman, Kennedy and Jackson. [1]

State Department Director of Policy Planning

In 1980, following the election of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the newly appointed U.S. National Security Advisor Richard V. Allen put together the administration’s foreign policy advisory team. Allen initially rejected Wolfowitz’s appointment but following discussions, instigated by former colleague John Lehman, Allen offered Wolfowitz the position of Director of Policy Planning at the U.S. State Department.

President Reagan’s foreign policy was heavily influenced by the Kirkpatrick Doctrine, as outlined in a 1979 article in Commentary by Jeanne Kirkpatrick entitled  Dictatorships and Double Standards .

[ Etc.]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

(Richard V. Allen) is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, and a member of the Heritage Foundation’s Asian Studies Center Advisory Council, the Council on Foreign Relations, the United States Defense Policy Board, the American Alternative Foundation, and the United States National Security Advisory Group. He also serves on the advisory council of the Nixon Center.

Allen is president of the Richard V. Allen Company, a Washington-based consulting services firm. He provides consulting services to international companies and organizations. He currently serves on APCO Worldwide’s Iraq reconstruction task force and is considered one of the most influential lobbyists in Washington for South Korean interests.[2]

Bibliography

* Allen, Richard V. (1969). Yearbook On International Communist Affairs 1968. Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 0-8179-1801-9.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_V._Allen

***

Bribery Accusations and Alleged Conflicts of Interest

From 1981 to 1987, Perle was Assistant Secretary of Defense for international security policy in the Reagan administration. In a New York Times article Perle was criticized for recommending that the Army purchase an armaments system from an Israeli company that a year earlier had paid him $50,000 in consulting fees. Perle acknowledged receiving the payment the same month he joined the Reagan administration, but said the payment was for work done before joining the government and that he had informed the Army of this prior consulting work. Perle was never indicted for anything related to the incident. (New York Times, 17 April 1983,  Aide Urged Pentagon to Consider Weapons Made by Former Client , Jeff Gerth. See also New York Times, 21 April 1983,  On buying weapons and influence , Editorial.).

In March 2004, another New York Times article reported that, while chairman of the Defense Policy Board, Perle had contracted with the troubled telecommunications giant Global Crossing to help overcome opposition from the FBI and the Pentagon to the sale of its assets to Hong-Kong-based Hutchison Whampoa. Since the military employed the company’s fiber optics network for communications, the brass argued that sale to a foreign-owned, especially Chinese, corporation would compromise national security. Perle was to be paid $125,000 to promote the deal, with an extra $600,000 contingent fee on its approval. [15] This controversy led to accusations of bribery, and Perle resigned as chairman on March 27, 2003, though he remained on the board. [16]

***

PFIAB was not the only tool in Nixon’s arsenal for dealing with Helms. Kissinger, dissatisfied with substantive intelligence products, used NSC staff colleague Andrew Marshall (from RAND) to do studies of intelligence information support to the NSC, and other NSC staffers, including at one time William Kaufmann of MIT, also worked on intelligence matters.[10] Another instrument of White House intelligence oversight was the budget office, renamed on 1 July 1971 the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), a few of whose officers were the only federal officials apart from the DCI’s staff with cognizance over the budgets of all the intelligence organizations. OMB’s focus was on money and programs, and on the relationship between the two, i.e., cost effectiveness. In 1945, it had helped President Truman decide to create the DCI and CIA. Under Nixon, it proselytized management techniques to cut government costs, including in intelligence programs, and became a locus of intense scrutiny of the Intelligence Community and the DCI’s role in leading it.

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/directors-of-central-intelligence-as-leaders-of-the-u-s-intelligence-community/chapter_4.htm

***

Booz, Allen and Hamilton –

**
Notable residents (McClean, Va) – Mclean,VA

* Sharyn Alfonsi, correspondent for ABC World News, Good Morning America and Nightline
* Pat Buchanan, political analyst.[7]
* Zbigniew Brzezinski, National Security Advisor to Jimmy Carter
* Frank Carlucci, former Secretary of Defense, former chairman of the Carlyle Group
* Dick Cheney, former Vice President of the United States of America
* Lynne Cheney, former Second Lady of the United States
* John Dingell, Dean of the United States House of Representatives
* Senator Byron Dorgan
* Newt Gingrich, former Speaker of the House
* John Sununu, former United States Senator from New Hampshire
* Chuck Hagel, former United States Senator from Nebraska
* Frank Keating, former Governor of Oklahoma
* Senator Ted Kennedy
* Senator Patrick Leahy
* I. Lewis  Scooter  Libby, lawyer, and former chief of staff to Vice President Dick Cheney (2001–2005)
* Correspondent Roger Mudd
* General Colin Powell, former Secretary of State
* Chuck Robb, former U.S. Senator from Virginia
* Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia
* Dwight Schar Founder and Chairman of NVR Inc, America’s seventh-largest homebuilder.[8]
* Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas
* Fred Dalton Thompson – former Senator from Tennessee
* Former Director of the CIA Admiral Stansfield Turner
* World Bank President Robert Zoellick
* Shawn Springs
* Fred Malek
* Roy Schwitters Head of JASON Defense Advisory Group

Former residents:

* Richard Darman, senior Carlyle Group affiliate
* Mark Oliver Everett, musician
* Michael Jordan, professional basketball player.

* Queen Noor of Jordan
* Prince Turki bin Faisal Al Saud, former Saudi Ambassador to the United States
* Kenneth Starr, lawyer who led the impeachment of Bill Clinton
* Eugene H. Trinh, astronaut

McLean is home to the headquarters of USA Today, the nation’s most circulated newspaper.

The CIA headquarters in the community of Langley.

Several major companies are headquartered in McLean including Freddie Mac, Cardinal Bank, Mars, Capital One, Sunrise Senior Living, Gannett, NVR, Bearingpoint, Booz Allen Hamilton, and MicroStrategy.

(Not mentioned here but the company Sparta and other contractors of a similar nature have offices in McLean, Va. and nearby.)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McLean,_Virginia

***
Booz Allen Hamilton, or more commonly Booz Allen or BAH, is a private consulting firm headquartered in McLean, Virginia, with 80 other offices throughout the nation. Ralph Shrader is its Chairman and Chief Executive Officer – the seventh since Edwin Booz founded the firm in Chicago circa 1914, making it one of the nation’s oldest consultancies.

Booz Allen’s core business is contractual work completed on behalf of the US federal government, foremost on defense and homeland security matters, with limited engagements of foreign governments specific to U.S. military assistance programs. In this vein, BAH’s services include strategy design, operations improvement, information technology work, systems engineering, organizational change efforts, modeling and simulation, program management, specialist staff augmentation, assurance and resilience, and economic and business analysis. Booz Allen is somewhat unique in that it competes for business with both pure systems integrators and defense contractors such as SAIC, BAE Systems, and Lockheed Martin, as well as with broader management consulting firms with a considerable stake in the public sector market such as Deloitte, BearingPoint, and Accenture. In 2008, Vault.com, an entity which provides survey based ‘prestige’ rankings of various professional industries, placed Booz Allen Hamilton second only to McKinsey & Company in the category of ‘Technology Consulting Firms’ (the sole grouping it was considered for), indicative of the fact technological issues in the broadest sense pervade a substantial portion of BAH’s revenue stream. (It is worth noting that this rating of Booz Allen Hamilton was prior to the break-up of the firm into separate U.S. government and commercial/international businsses.)

As of July 31, 2008, what was formerly Booz Allen Hamilton’s parent company (which used the BAH name itself) divided into two wholly separate entities, based on a vote by Booz Allen’s senior vice presidents and vice presidents, i.e. partners. As a result, the Booz Allen Hamilton moniker would be retained by the half focusing on U.S. governmental matters, with spinoff Booz & Company taking sole control of its commercial and international portfolio. As a consequence, Booz Allen Hamilton is now majority owned by private equity firm The Carlyle Group, while Booz & Company is owned and operated as a partnership. [2] The split was engendered by several endemic differences between the two business units, namely: profitability (i.e. government work was both more profitable than most of the commercial operations and exhibited less volatile earnings), internal culture (e.g. the government side frequently retained mid-level consultants for several years, whereas the commercial side had greater staff turnover due to an up-or-out policy), and recruiting philosophy (BAH recruited a relatively high proportion of undergraduate degrees and non-business master’s and doctoral degree holders from a wide array of schools compared to Booz & Co. primary focus on elite MBA graduates).
Contents

* 1 History
o 1.1 Formation
o 1.2 Early years
o 1.3 Public years
* 2 Organization
* 3 Recruiting
* 4 Prominent client initiatives
o 4.1 Internal Revenue Service
o 4.2 New South Wales, Australia
* 5 Notable colleagues and alumni
o 5.1 Business
o 5.2 Politics and public service
o 5.3 Other
* 6 Criticisms and controversies
o 6.1 SWIFT
o 6.2 Democracy Now
o 6.3 Homeland Security
* 7 References
* 8 See also
* 9 External links
History

Booz Allen Hamilton traces its roots to Edwin G. Booz. A student at Chicago’s Northwestern University in the early 1900s, Booz received a bachelor’s degree in economics and a master’s degree in psychology, upon completion of his thesis ‘Mental Tests for Vocational Fitness.’ In 1914, Booz established a small consulting firm in Chicago, and, two years later, he and two partners formed the Business Research and Development Company, which conducted studies and performed investigational work for commercial and trade organizations. This service, which Booz labeled as the first of its kind in the Midwest, soon attracted such clients as Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Chicago’s Union Stockyards and Transit Company, and the Canadian & Pacific Railroad. [3]

Formation

After graduating from Northwestern University in Illinois in 1914, Edwin G. Booz developed the business theory that companies would be more successful if they could call on someone outside their own organizations for expert, impartial advice.[4] This theory developed into a new profession — management consulting — and the firm that would bear his name.

Early years

In 1940, the firm was hired to help the United States Secretary of the Navy with World War II preparations, a project that marked the start of a longstanding relationship with the United States Federal Government. Since then, Booz Allen has had a hand in several notable private and public engagements throughout its years, such as advising on the breakup of Ma Bell and helping organize the National Football League in the 1960s. [5]

Public years

In 1970, Booz Allen went public with an initial offering of 500,000 shares at $24 per share. Trading continued through 1976.[6]
Organization

Booz Allen is privately held, which allows it to consider long-range investments that companies beholden to shareholders might not be able to make, Gerencser said. With private ownership, the company can make investment decisions that pay off farther down the road than some of its competitors. ‘As a managing director, I can put investments in place that may provide a return in four or five or six years,’ Gerencser said, adding that, ‘we can often place long-term and even risky bets.’ [1]

The firm was once public in the 1970s.[7], but the partners took the firm private again through one of the first management buyouts (MBO) to allow the firm to consider long-range investments that companies beholden to shareholders might not be able to make.[8] Time magazine named it the most prestigious management firm in the world,[9] with longstanding relationships with federal intelligence agencies, with current and former employees including former Director of Central Intelligence, R. James Woolsey, former CIA employee Miles Copeland, Jr., and former NSA Director Mike McConnell, who is now the second Director of National Intelligence.

Recruiting

In 2007, the firm had roughly 110,000 applicants and 1033 new jobs.[10]

Prominent client initiatives

Internal Revenue Service

Booz Allen was chosen in 1998 to help the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) modernize, and shed its dismal customer-service reputation. Booz Allen’s team developed a strategy for the IRS to reshuffle its 100,000 employees into units focused on particular taxpayer categories: individuals, charities, businesses and so on.  We made some very dramatic changes in the way the IRS is organized , says Booz Allen Chief Executive Officer Dr. Ralph Shrader, an electrical engineering Ph.D. and 28-year company veteran.[11] Despite these confident words, number reports from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) have pointed to mixed performance results at IRS, and notably, poor management of its IT portfolio and its contractors.

New South Wales, Australia

In 1988, the newly elected Greiner State Government commissioned a report into the State Rail Authority (SRA) of New South Wales by American consultants Booz Allen Hamilton. The report, delivered in 1989 recommended widespread job losses, up to 8000, including the withdrawal of staff from 94 country railway stations, withdrawing services on the Nyngan- Bourke line, Queanbeyan – Cooma line and Glen Innes- Wallangarra line, the axing of several country passenger services (the Canberra XPT, the Silver City Comet to Broken Hill and various diesel locomotive hauled services) and the removal of sleeper trains from services to Brisbane and Melbourne. The report also recommended the removal of all country passenger services and small freight operations, but the government did not consider this to be politically feasible.[12] The SRA was divided into business units- CityRail, responsible for urban railways; CountryLink, responsible for country passenger services; FreightRail, responsible for freight services; and Rail Estate, responsible for rail property. Upon the formation of the business units in 1988, CityRail adopted a black and yellow ‘L7’ logo (later to become blue and yellow), and Countylink adopted its present blue and green ‘Mountains’ logo and livery.[13]

Notable colleagues and alumni

Notability follows this general principle: Lead and direct some of the world’s largest corporations, government and other public agencies, emerging growth companies and institutions.[14]

Business
* Jonathan Black – Director, Corporate Affairs, University of Oxford[15]
* Rohit Bhagat – Global Chief Operating Officer, Barclays Global Investors[16]
* Sir (Francis) Christopher Buchan Bland – Chairman of the Royal Shakespeare Company, and former Chairman of British Telecommunications PLC[17][18][19]
* Chipper Boulas – Venture advisor in Paris, France and former Vice President of Corporate Strategy, eBay[citation needed]
* Jonathan S. Bush – President, CEO, and Co-founder of AthenaHealth[20][21]
* Art Collins – Chairman and CEO, Medtronic, Inc.[22]
* Tim Collins – Founder and Chief Executive of Ripplewood Holdings[23]
* Edward C. Davies (Ted) – Managing Partner, Unisys Federal Systems[24][25]
* Karen Fawcett – Director, Standard Chartered Bank Malaysia[26]
* Richard Gay – Senior Vice President of Strategy and Business Operations for VH1 and CMT, MTV Networks[27][28]
* Rhonda Germany – Vice President of Strategy and Business Development, Honeywell[29][30]
* Gerry Horkan – Vice President of Corporate Strategy, Yahoo  Inc.[31]
* Paul Idzik – Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, Barclays PLC[32][33]
* Raymond J.  Ray  Lane – General Partner at Kleiner Perkins Venture Capital Firm; Carnegie Mellon University Trustee, former President and Chief Operating Officer of Oracle Corporation, and inducted to West Virginia Business Hall of Fame[34][35][36][37]
* Edward J. O’Hare – Chief Information Officer for the U.S. General Services Administration’s’s Federal Acquisition Service; former Assistant Commissioner, General Services Administration, and former vice president at Dynanet[38][39]
* Todd Y. Park – Co-founder and Chief Development Officer of Athena Health[20][40][41][42]
* Mark DeSantis, PhD – Chief Executive Officer of ANGLE Technology Consulting and Management and former CEO and President of Formation3 LLC[43][44]
* Stan Scoggins – Vice President of Worldwide Digital Assets, Universal Studios[45][46]
* Deven Sharma – President, Standard & Poor’s and executive vice president for global strategy at The McGraw-Hill Companies[47][48]
* Michael Wolf – Former president and COO of MTV Networks[49][50]

Politics and public service

* Wendy Alexander – Labour Party Leader and Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP).[51][52]
* Karol Joseph  Bo  Bobko – Retired United States Air Force officer and a former USAF and NASA astronaut.[53]
* Keith R. Hall – Director, National Reconnaissance Office (1997-2001); formerly Executive Director for Intelligence Community Affairs[54]
* Steve Isakowitz – Department of Energy Chief Financial Officer. Former Deputy Associate Administrator, NASA, 2002-2005[55][56][57][58]
* William Benjamin  Bill  Lenoir (Ph.D.) – Former NASA astronaut.
* George E. Little – Media Relations, Central Intelligence Agency (2007-)
* John M. McConnell – Director of National Intelligence (2007-); formerly Director of the National Security Agency (1992-96); retired in 1996 as Vice Admiral, United States Navy[59]
* Zoran Jolevski – Ambassador of the Republic of Macedonia in the US.
* Thomas S. Moorman Jr. – Commander, Air Force Space Command (1990-92); Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force (1994-1997)
* Michael C. Mullen – Assistant Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border Protection
* Patrick Gorman – Chief Information Officer (CIO), and Assistant Deputy Director National Intelligence (ADDNI), Strategy, Plans, and Policy, ODNI [4]
* Andrew Turnbull – Member, House of Lords (upper Parliament), United Kingdom (2005-); Head of British Civil Service (2002-2005)
* Melissa Hathaway – Director, National Cyber Security Initiative
* General Frederick Frank Woerner, Jr. – Retired United States Army general and former commander of United States Southern Command.
* R. James Woolsey, Jr. – Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1993-95)
* Dov Zakheim – U.S. government advisor

Other

* Joseph Garber – Author
* Olivia Goldsmith – Author
* David H. Holtzman – Author
* Patricia A. Morrissey – Commissioner, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (presidential appointee)
* Bruce Pasternack – Former President and CEO of Special Olympics International, former Director of Energy Policy for the Federal Energy Administration, Former board member BEA Systems (NASDAQ: BEAS), currently on the board of trustees of Cooper Union and serves as a board member for Codexis, Quantum Corporation (NYSE: QTM) and Symyx Technologies as well. Also, was the author of Results and The Centerless Corporation, books on strategy and business.
* Michael D. Smith – Professor at Carnegie Mellon University

Criticisms and controversies

SWIFT

In 2006 at the request of the Article 29 Working Group, an advisory group to the European Commission (EC), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Privacy International (PI) investigated the U.S. government’s SWIFT surveillance program and Booz Allen’s role therein. The ACLU and PI filed a memo at the end of their investigation which called into question the ethics and legality of a government contractor (in this case Booz Allen) acting as auditors of a government program, when that contractor is heavily involved with those same agencies on other contracts. The basic statement was that a conflict of interest may exist. Beyond that, the implication was also made that Booz Allen may be complicit in a program (electronic surveillance of SWIFT) that may be deemed illegal by the EC.[60][61]

Democracy Now
Another controversy related to some of the senior staff of Booz Allen (past and present) and related to its performance on some specific U.S. intelligence agency contracts was brought to light on 12 January 2007 in an interview conducted by Democracy Now  with Tim Shorrock,[62] an independent investigative journalist, and separately in an article he wrote for the Salon online magazine. Through investigation of Booz Allen employees, Shorrock asserts that there is a sort of revolving-door conflict of interest between Booz Allen and the U.S. government, and between multiple other contractors and the U.S. government in general. Regarding Booz Allen, Shorrock referred to such people as John M. McConnell, R. James Woolsey, Jr., and James R. Clapper, all of whom have gone back and forth between government and industry (Booz Allen in particular), and who may present the appearance that certain government contractors receive undue or unlawful business from the government, and that certain government contractors may exert undue or unlawful influence on government. Shorrock further relates that Booz Allen was a sub-contractor with two programs at the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA), called Trailblazer and Pioneer Groundbreaker, and then asserts two statements: that these programs reveal that many contractors are involved in various intelligence programs of which the media and parts of U.S. Government have now questioned the legality; and that the apparent (assertion made by Shorrock) unsuccessful nature of the programs reveals a lack of competence by both NSA and Booz Allen.[63]

Homeland Security

A June 28, 2007 Washington Post article related how a U.S. Department of Homeland Security contract with Booz Allen increased from $2 million to more than $70 million through two no-bid contracts, one occurring after the DHS’s legal office had advised DHS not to continue the contract until after a review. A Government Accountability Office (GAO) report on the contract characterized it as not well-planned and lacking any measure for assuring valuable work to be completed.

According to the article,

A review of memos, e-mail and other contracting documents obtained by The Washington Post show that in a rush to meet congressional mandates to establish the information analysis and infrastructure protection offices, agency officials routinely waived rules designed to protect taxpayer money. As the project progressed, the department became so dependent on Booz Allen that it lost the flexibility for a time to seek out other contractors or hire federal employees who might do the job for less.

Elaine C. Duke, the department’s chief procurement officer, acknowledged the problems with the Booz Allen contract. But Duke said those matters have been resolved. She defended a decision to issue a second no-bid contract in 2005 as necessary to keep an essential intelligence operation running until a competition could be held.[64]

References

1. ^ a b c d e Washington Technology Federal Sources
2. ^ Booz Allen separate
3. ^ JRANK Booz Allen Hamilton History
4. ^ Booz Allen History
5. ^ Vault Snapshot of Booz Allen Hamilton
6. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton Historical Timeline
7. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton – History of Booz Allen 1970s
8. ^ To counter scrutiny Booz Allen puts ethics first
9. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton – History of Booz Allen 1950s
10. ^ 100 Best Companies to Work For 2008: Booz Allen Hamilton snapshot | FORTUNE
11. ^ Booz Allen’s Sweet Spot, November 24, 2002
12. ^ Moore, M Lagan, B. SRA takes axe to 8000 jobs. Sydney Morning Herald, 14 July, 1989.
13. ^ State Rail Authority of New South Wales
14. ^ Booz Allen Prominent Alum Short List, retrieved November 24, 2007
15. ^ Jonathan Black: Associate Fellow, Director of Corporate Affairs, and Sector Consultant in Media and Management Consulting, retrieved November 24, 2007
16. ^ Barclays Global Investors Appoints Rohit Bhagat as Global Chief Operating Officer, June 21, 2005
17. ^ BT News Release, retrieved on January 12, 2008.
18. ^ SEC and BT, AccountancyAge Publication, January 6, 2005.
19. ^ Pictures, National Portrait Gallery, retrieved January 12, 2008.
20. ^ a b Making Their Mark, Entrepreneur Magazine, 2005
21. ^ 2006 Leadership in the Healthcare Markets, December 5, 2006
22. ^ Collins To Serve On New Department Of Commerce Advisory Panel On Measuring Innovation, Medtronic Media Release, December 6, 2006
23. ^ Business Week Names Tim Collins ’78 A  Star of Asia , July 8, 2002
24. ^ Edward Davies, Managing Partner, Civilian Agencies, Federal Systems Biography, retrieved November 25, 2007
25. ^ [http://veterans.house.gov/hearings/schedule108/mar04/3-17-04/edavies.html House Committee on Veteran’s Affairs: Testimony of Mr. Edward C. Davies (Ted), Managing Partner Unisys U.S. Federal Government Group accompanied by Mr. Joseph Macies, Partner], March 17, 2004
26. ^ Standard Chartered Bank Malaysia Berhad (Company No. 115793 P)(Incorporated in Malaysia) and its subsidiaries: Financial statements for the financial year ended 31 December 2006, retrieved November 25, 2007
27. ^ Richard Gay was named senior vice president of strategy and business operations for VH1 and CMT, July 1, 2004
28. ^ Richard Gay, SVP, Strategy and Business, MTV Networks, retrieved November 25, 2007
29. ^ Honeywell Names Rhonda Germany Vice President, Strategy and Business Development, October 25, 2002
30. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton Alumni Profile: Rhonda Germany of Honeywell International, retrieved November 25, 2007
31. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton Alumni Profile: Gerry Horkan, VP, Strategy, Yahoo , retrieved November 25, 2007
32. ^ Paul Idzik COO at Barclays PLC, Officer since November 2004, retrieved November 25, 2007
33. ^ Barclays PLC Corporate Executives, retrieved from Wikipedia on November 25, 2007
34. ^ Ray Lane, General Partner, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, retrieved January 4, 2008
35. ^ Ray Lane, Former Oracle Executive, Joins MetaMatrix Board of Directors, BNET Research Center, March, 2003
36. ^ Four leaders named to West Virginia Business Hall of Fame, West Virginia University, August 20, 2003
37. ^ Ray Lane Joins Asera Board of Directors, Internet News, November 17, 2000
38. ^ [1], GSA News Releases, September 18, 2007
39. ^ Former GSA official Ed O’Hare to return, Capital Reps Federal e-Newsletter, December 14, 2006
40. ^ Todd Park to Focus On Strategy as Chief Athenista; Elected to Board of Directors, COMTEX News Network, December 14, 2007
41. ^ [2], LinkedIn, retrieved January 4, 2008
42. ^ The Bush Health-Care Solution: No, not Dubya’s. The president’s first cousin Jonathan is an entrepreneur whose company, athenahealth, is trying to free doctors from the nightmare of insurance paperwork so they can get back to practicing medicine., FastCompany.Com, July 2005
43. ^ Mark F. DeSantis, PhD, CEO – ANGLE Technology Consulting and Management – US email: mark.desantis@angletec.com, Carnegie Mellon Heinz School News Release, retrieved January 4, 2008
44. ^ Biography of Dr. Mark DeSantis, President, Formation3 News Release, retrieved January 4, 2008
45. ^ Henry Stuart Conference Studios, The Henry Stuart Marketing Operations Management Symposium, May 9, 2005
46. ^ Speaker Bio, Global Society for Asset Management, November 10, 2003
47. ^ [3], S&P Management Bio, retrieved January 6, 2008
48. ^ McGraw Hill Executive Bio, retrieved January 6, 2008
49. ^ MTV Networks president and operating chief Michael Wolf resigns, International Herald Tribune – Business January 11, 2007
50. ^ Goliath Business, retrieved January 11, 2007
51. ^ Ms. Wendy Alexander MSP, The Scottish Parliament Member Pages, retrieved January 11, 2008.
52. ^ Second chance for Alexander, BBC Scotland News, August 15, 2007.
53. ^ Biographical Data, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, retrieved on January 13, 2008.
54. ^ No Mere Oversight, Center for American Progress, June 2006
55. ^ It Takes a Rocket Scientist – Managing Department of Energy (DOE) Finances, June 2007
56. ^ HEARING BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES UNITED STATES SENATE ONE HUNDRED TENTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION ON THE NOMINATION OF STEVEN J. ISAKOWITZ TO BE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, March 20, 2007
57. ^ NASA Names Steve Isakowitz as New Exploration Systems Directorate Deputy, NASA PRESS RELEASE, January 6, 2005
58. ^ Profile: Steve Isakowitz – The View From the Inside, By Brian Berger, Space News Staff Writer, April 4, 2005
59. ^ President Bush Attends Swearing-In of Mike McConnell as Director of National Intelligence, February 20, 2007
60. ^ ACLU, PI, and SWIFT
61. ^ Booz Allen Not An Independent Check On SWIFT Surveillance, September 27, 2006
62. ^ Mike McConnell, Booz Allen and the Privatization of Intelligence, January 12, 2007

63. ^ The spy who came in from the boardroom: Why John Michael McConnell, a top executive at a private defense contractor, should not be allowed to run our nation’s intelligence agencies.

64. ^ Costs Skyrocket As DHS Runs Up No-Bid Contracts: $2 Million Security Project Balloons to $124 Million, June 28, 2007

See also

* Booz & Company
* Booz Allen Classic
* James L. Allen
* Kellogg School of Management
* List of United States defense contractors
* Value Measuring Methodology

External links

* Booz Allen Hamilton official website
* strategy+business magazine
* Booz Allen Hamilton official German website
* [5]
* Shorrock, Tim.  Carlyle Group May Buy Major CIA Contractor: Booz Allen Hamilton.  Corpwatch, March 8, 2008 (article profiles Booz Allen Hamilton).

Major information technology companies
Cellular hardware
Alcatel-Lucent A Apple A Audiovox A HTC A Kyocera A LG A Motorola A Nokia A Palm A Qualcomm A RIM A Samsung A Sanyo A Sony Ericsson
Conglomerates
Bull A GE A HCL A Hitachi A LG A NCR A Panasonic (JVC, Matsushita) A Philips A Samsung A Siemens (Infineon, Qimonda) A Sony A Thomson A Toshiba A Vivendi A Wipro Infotech A Yamaha
3G Networks
3Com A Alcatel-Lucent A Allied Telesis A Avaya A Ericsson A Huawei A Nokia Siemens A ZTE
Dot-coms
Alibaba A Amazon A AOL A eBay A Expedia A Google A IAC/InterActiveCorp A Monster Worldwide A Yahoo
Semiconductors (General)
AMD A Analog Devices A ATI Technologies A Fairchild A Freescale A Infineon A Intel A Micron A National Semiconductor A NVIDIA A NXP A Renesas A ROHM A Skyworks A STMicroelectronics A Texas Instruments A TSMC
Electronics manufacturers
Celestica A Elcoteq A Emerson A Flextronics A Foxconn A Jabil A Kimball A Plexus A Quanta A Sanmina-SCI A SMTC  A Transcend
IT services
Accenture A ACS A Atos Origin A Avanade A BearingPoint A Booz Allen Hamilton A BT A Capgemini A CGI A Cognizant A CSC A Deloitte A EDS A First Data A Fujitsu A Getronics A HCL Technologies A IBM Global Services A Indra A Infosys A Keane A Logica A Neusoft A PA A Perot A SAIC A Sapient A Satyam A Steria A Syntel A TCS A Tech Mahindra A ThoughtWorks A Tieto A Titan A Unisys A Virtusa A Wipro A Xansa
Network hardware
Brocade  A Cisco Systems A Juniper Networks
Display / DTV
BenQ A Sharp A Sony A Trident Microsystems A ViewSonic
Software
Adobe A CA A Compuware A Corel A IBM A Idealab A Intuit A Microsoft A Oracle A PTC A Red Hat A SAP A Sun Microsystems
Gaming
Activision Blizzard A Namco Bandai Games A EA A Infogrames A Konami A Nintendo A Sega A Sony Computer Entertainment A Take-Two Interactive A Valve Corporation
Computer and server systems
Acer A Apple A Asus A Dell A Hewlett-Packard  A Hitachi  A IBM A BMC Software A Lenovo A NEC A Panasonic A Sony A Sun  A Toshiba
Security
AVG Technologies A ESET A F-Secure A Kaspersky Lab A McAfee A SOFTWIN A Sophos A Symantec A Trend Micro

* Story about Booz Allen Hamilton from Democracy Now , May 19, 2008

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booz_Allen_Hamilton
Categories: Privately held companies of the United States | Companies established in 1914 | Booz Allen Hamilton | Carlyle Group | Defense companies of the United States | Companies based in McLean, Virginia | Consulting

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booz_Allen_Hamilton

***
Booz Allen Hamilton
People related to Booz Allen Hamilton:
Gary D. Ahlquist – SVP & managing partner
Charles F. Allison III – partner
Eduardo Alvarez – VP
Paul F. Anderson – senior adviser
CG Appleby – chief legal officer
Shumeet Banerji – division president
Joan A. Dempsey – VP
Dennis O. Doughty – division president
Joseph E. Garner – SVP
Mark J. Gerencser – SVP
Charles J. Givans – regional director
Keith R. Hall – VP
William Jackson – SVP
Ronald Kadish – VP
Daniel C. Lewis – SVP
Cesare R. Mainardi – division president
Klaus Mattern – SVP
Ralph W. Shrader – chairman & CEO
Frank S. Smith III – chief information officer
Samuel R. Strickland – chief administrative officer
Douglas G. Swenson – CFO
James C. Weinberg – VP
R. James Woolsey – consultant
Dov S. Zakheim – VP
Booz Allen Hamilton past relationships:
Susan E. Engel – VP
Kurt R. Krauss – partner
Raymond J. Lane – senior partner
Olivier Marie – SVP of energy practice
John W. McCarter Jr. – SVP
J. Michael McConnell – svp, director, defense programs
Oscar De Paula Bernardes Neto – senior partner
J. Gary Shansby – senior partner
S. Enders Wimbush – senior associate

http://www.muckety.com/Booz-Allen-Hamilton/5000259.muckety

***
Blackwater USA
People related to Blackwater USA:
Paul Behrends – lobbyist
Richard Cockrum – lobbyist
Anne E. Tyrrell – spokeswoman
Other current Blackwater USA relationships:
C&M Capitolink, LLC – lobby firm
XE – former name

http://www.muckety.com/Blackwater-USA/5016519.muckety

Anne E. Tyrrell
Anne E. Tyrrell personal relations:
R. Emmett Tyrrell Jr. – daughter
Other current Anne E. Tyrrell relationships:
Blackwater USA – spokeswoman
Anne E. Tyrrell connections, once removed:
Anne E. Tyrrell is connected to …
C&M Capitolink, LLC >> through Blackwater USA   >> Map it!
Paul Behrends >> through Blackwater USA   >> Map it!
Richard Cockrum >> through Blackwater USA   >> Map it!
American Spectator >> through R. Emmett Tyrrell Jr.   >> Map it!
Blackwater Worldwide >> through Blackwater USA   >> Map it!

http://www.muckety.com/Anne-E-Tyrrell/27920.muckety

***

Sun-Times Media Group (until recently Hollinger International) NYSE: SVN is the holding company of a Chicago based newspaper group. Thirty percent (and 78% of the voting share) of the group is owned by Canadian based Hollinger Inc. – an 84% controlling stake was owned by controversial Canadian businessman Conrad Black through his Ravelston Corporation Limited. He attempted to sell this stake to the Barclay brothers in January 2004 and the brothers launched a takeover bid for the rest of Hollinger International. However the sale was blocked by a judge in the United States after the company’s board lodged a court action against the sale. Ravelston is currently in receivership.

The Barclay brothers later bought The Telegraph Group which included The Daily Telegraph, The Sunday Telegraph, and The Spectator. On November 16, 2004 the sale of The Jerusalem Post to Mirkaei Tikshoret, a Tel Aviv-based publisher of Israeli newspapers, was announced. CanWest Global Communications, Canada’s biggest media concern, announced it has agreed to take a 50 percent stake in The Jerusalem Post after Mirkaei buys the property. In February, 2006, Hollinger sold substantially all of its Canadian assets.[1] The corporation’s name was changed to Sun-Times Media Group on July 17, 2006.[2]

Assets now include the Chicago Sun-Times in the United States, and various suburban and neighborhood newspapers in the Chicago area, including the Post-Tribune of Northwest Indiana, the Pioneer Press group, the Daily Southtown, the Beacon News-Sun Publications group in the Aurora-Naperville area, The Star (Tinley Park), The Herald News (Joliet) and the Lake County News Sun. It also owns the Centerstage Chicago entertainment site.

Sun-Times newspapers
State     City     Newspaper
Illinois     Algonquin     Algonquin Countryside
Antioch     Antioch Review
Arlington Heights     Arlington Heights Post
Barrington     Barrington Courier-Review
Batavia     The Batavia Sun
Aurora     The Beacon News
Bolingbrook     The Bolingbrook Sun
Buffalo Grove     Buffalo Grove Countryside
Calumet City     Calumet City Star
Cary-Grove     Cary-Grove Countryside
Chicago Heights     Chicago Heights Star
Chicago Ridge     Chicago Ridge Star
Chicago     Chicago Sun-Times
Clarendon Hills     The Clarendon Hill’s Doings
Elgin     The Courier News
Tinley Park     The Daily Southtown
Deerfield     Deerfield Review
Des Plaines     Des Plaines Times
Hinsdale     The Doings – Hinsdale
La Grange     The Doings – La Grange
Oak Brook     The Doings – Oak Brook
Downers Grove     The Downers Grove Sun
Park Ridge     Edgebrook Times Review
Chicago     Edison-Norwood Times Review
Des Plaines     Elk Grove Village Times
Elmwood Park     Elm Leaves
Elmhurst     The Elmhurst Doings
Evanston     Evanston Review
River Forest     Forest Leaves
Fox Valley     The Fox Valley Shopping News
Franklin Park     Franklin Park Herald Journal
Geneva     The Geneva Sun
Glen Ellyn     The Glen Ellyn Sun
Glencoe     Glencoe News
Glenview     Glenview Announcements
Grayslake     Grayslake Review
Gurnee     Gurnee Review
Chicago     Harlem-Irving Times
Hazel Crest     Hazel Crest Country Club Hills Star
Joliet     The Herald News
Highland     Highland Park News
Hoffman Estates     Hoffman Estates Review
Plainfield     The Homer Sun
Lake Forest     Lake Forester
Countryside     Lake in the Hills Countryside
Lake Villa     Lake Villa Review
Lake Zurich     Lake Zurich Courier
Libertyville     Libertyville Review
Lincolnshire     Lincolnshire Review
Plainfield     The Lincoln-Way Sun
Lincolnwood     Lincolnwood Review
Lisle     The Lisle Sun
Maywood     Maywood Herald
Melrose Park     Melrose Park Herald
Morton Grove     Morton Grove Champion
Mount Prospect     Mount Prospect Times
Mundelein     Mundelein Review
Naperville     The Naperville Sun
Lake County     The News Sun
Niles     Niles Herald-Spectator
Northbrook     Northbrook Star
Northlake     Northlake Herald
Oak Park     Oak Leaves
Palatine     Palatine Countryside
Palos Park     Palos Area Star
Park Ridge     Park Ridge Herald Advocate
Plainfield     The Plainfield Sun
River Grove     River Grove Messenger
Rolling Meadows     Rolling Meadows Review
Schaumburg     Schaumburg Review
Skokie     Skokie Review
Chicago     Skyline
St. Charles     The St. Charles Sun
Tinley Park     Tinley Park Star
Vernon Hills     Vernon Hills Review
Wauconda     Wauconda Courier
Burr Ridge     The Weekly Doings
Westchester     Westchester Herald
Western Springs     The Western Springs Doings
Wheaton     The Wheaton Sun
Wheeling     Wheeling Countryside
Wilmette     Wilmette Life
Winnetka     Winnetka Talk
Indiana     Merrillville, (Gary)     The Post-Tribune

Corporate governance

November 17, 2003

* Conrad Black resigns as Chairman after an internal inquiry alleges that Black had received more than $7 million in unauthorized payments of company funds.

January 14, 2004

* Hollinger International files a US$200 million lawsuit against Conrad Black and David Radler.

October 2005

* Gordon A. Paris, Chairman of the Board of Directors, President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
* Paul B. Healy, Vice President, Corporate Development and Investor Relations
* Peter K. Lane, Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
* Robert T. Smith, Treasurer
* James R. Van Horn, Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
* John Cruickshank, Chief Operating Officer, Head of the Chicago Group
* Members of the board of directors: Gordon Paris, Richard Burt, Daniel Colson, Cyrus Freidheim, Henry Kissinger, Shmuel Meitar, John O’Brien, Richard Perle, Graham Savage, Raymond Seitz, and James R. Thompson.

November 2006

* Cyrus Freidheim is hired as President and CEO.

February 2009

* Cyrus Freidheim resigns as CEO after New York-based hedge fund Davidson Kempner forces the ousting of all but one member of the Board of Directors.
* Jeremy Halbreich becomes the new chairman and interim chief executive.

External links

* Sun-Times Media Group official site
* Suburban Chicago News site, including the Aurora Beacon News, Naperville Sun and Sun Group, Joliet Herald News, and Lake County News Sun
* Guardian Unlimited Special Report – Conrad Black, Hollinger and the Telegraph Ongoing archive collection of news and analysis.
* Ketupa.net – Media Profiles: Hollinger, Black & the Barclays Extensive background information, including past and present media holdings.
* U.S. SEC – Breeden Report Complete 512-page copy of the Report of Investigation by the Special Committee of the Board of Directors of Hollinger International Inc.

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun-Times_Media_Group
Categories: Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange | Newspaper companies of the United States | Companies based in Chicago, Illinois

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollinger_International

***
http://www.treasury.gov/press/releases/reports/0010208%20sect%20102.pdf

TARP section 102 which backstops CDOs, credit derivatives and credit default swaps

***

Corporate governance

November 17, 2003

* Conrad Black resigns as Chairman after an internal inquiry alleges that Black had received more than $7 million in unauthorized payments of company funds.

January 14, 2004

* Hollinger International files a US$200 million lawsuit against Conrad Black and David Radler.

October 2005

* Gordon A. Paris, Chairman of the Board of Directors, President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
* Paul B. Healy, Vice President, Corporate Development and Investor Relations
* Peter K. Lane, Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
* Robert T. Smith, Treasurer
* James R. Van Horn, Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
* John Cruickshank, Chief Operating Officer, Head of the Chicago Group
* Members of the board of directors: Gordon Paris, Richard Burt, Daniel Colson, Cyrus Freidheim, Henry Kissinger, Shmuel Meitar, John O’Brien, Richard Perle, Graham Savage, Raymond Seitz, and James R. Thompson.

November 2006

* Cyrus Freidheim is hired as President and CEO.

February 2009

* Cyrus Freidheim resigns as CEO after New York-based hedge fund Davidson Kempner forces the ousting of all but one member of the Board of Directors.
* Jeremy Halbreich becomes the new chairman and interim chief executive.

External links

* Sun-Times Media Group official site
* Suburban Chicago News site, including the Aurora Beacon News, Naperville Sun and Sun Group, Joliet Herald News, and Lake County News Sun
* Guardian Unlimited Special Report – Conrad Black, Hollinger and the Telegraph Ongoing archive collection of news and analysis.
* Ketupa.net – Media Profiles: Hollinger, Black & the Barclays Extensive background information, including past and present media holdings.
* U.S. SEC – Breeden Report Complete 512-page copy of the Report of Investigation by the Special Committee of the Board of Directors of Hollinger International Inc.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollinger_International
***

Conrad Black
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Right Honourable
Conrad Moffat Black,
Baron Black of Crossharbour, OC, PC
Born     August 25, 1944 (1944-08-25) (age 64)
Montreal, Canada
Nationality     British (born Canadian, later renounced)
Spouse     Joanna (Shirley) Hishon (1978-1992)
Barbara Amiel, Baroness Black of Crossharbour (1992—Present)
Children     2 sons, 1 daughter
Occupation     author, columnist, investor
Religion     Catholic

Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour, PC, OC, KCSG (born 25 August 1944, in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian-born British historian and columnist who was for a time the third biggest newspaper magnate in the world.[1] Before investigation by regulators and investors, Black controlled Hollinger International, Inc. Through affiliates, the company published major newspapers including The Daily Telegraph (UK), Chicago Sun Times (USA), Jerusalem Post (Israel), National Post (Canada), and hundreds of community newspapers in North America.

In 2003, following investor complaints, Hollinger International reported to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) about misconduct at the company, including violations of fiduciary obligations by officers.[2] The report accused Black and close colleagues of running a  corporate kleptocracy.  Black resigned under pressure as CEO of Hollinger International. He was subsequently charged with mail and wire fraud and obstruction of justice.

Black was convicted in Illinois U.S. District Court on 13 July 2007 and sentenced to serve 78 months in federal prison, pay Hollinger $6.1 million and a fine of $125,000. Black was found guilty of diverting funds for personal benefit from money due Hollinger International when the company sold certain publishing assets. He also obstructed justice by taking possession of documents to which he was not entitled.[3]
Contents

* 1 Personal relationships and family
* 2 Early life and career
o 2.1 Corporate ownership through holding companies
o 2.2 Dominion pension dispute
o 2.3 Industrial holdings shifted to publishing
o 2.4 Growth and divestment of press holdings
* 3 Lifestyle
* 4 Peerage controversy and citizenship
* 5 Criminal fraud trial
o 5.1 Verdict and sentence
o 5.2 Reaction and consequences
o 5.3 Appeal
o 5.4 Imprisonment
* 6 Books and other publications
* 7 Biographies and portrayal in popular culture
* 8 References
* 9 External links

Personal relationships and family

Conrad Black was born in Montreal to a wealthy family originally from Winnipeg. His father, George Montegu Black, Jr., C.A., was the president of Canadian Breweries Limited, an international brewing conglomerate that had earlier absorbed Winnipeg Breweries (founded by George Black Sr.). Conrad Black’s mother was the former Jean Elizabeth Riley, a daughter of Conrad Stephenson Riley, whose father founded the Great-West Life Assurance Company, and a great-granddaughter of an early co-owner of the Daily Telegraph.

Conrad Black’s first marriage was to Joanna (born Shirley) Hishon of Montreal, who worked as a secretary in his brother Montegu’s brokerage office. The couple had two sons and a daughter.[4] The couple separated in 1991. Their divorce was finalized in 1992; the same year Black married Watford-born journalist Barbara Amiel. Black flattered Amiel, describing her variously as  beautiful, brilliant, ideologically a robust spirit  and  chic, humorous and preternaturally sexy . Courtroom evidence revealed that the couple exchanged over 11,000 emails.[5]

Early life and career

Black was first educated at Upper Canada College (UCC), during which time, at age 8, he purchased shares in General Motors.[5] Six years later, according to Tom Bower’s biography Dancing on the Edge,[6] he was expelled from UCC for selling stolen exam papers. He then attended Trinity College School where he lasted less than a year, being expelled for insubordinate behaviour. Black eventually graduated from a small, now defunct, private school in Toronto called Thornton Hall, continuing on to post-secondary education at Carleton University (History, 1965). For a time, he attended Toronto’s Osgoode Hall Law School of York University; however, his studies ended when he failed exams after first year.[6] He completed a law degree at Université Laval (Law, 1970), and in 1973 completed a Master of Arts degree in history at McGill University.[7] Black’s thesis, later published as a biography, was on Quebec premier Maurice Duplessis.

Biographer George Toombs said of Black’s motivations:  he was born into a very large family of athletic, handsome people. He wasn’t particularly athletic or handsome like they were, so he developed a different skill – wordplay, which he practised a lot with his father. [5] Black became involved in a number of businesses, mainly publishing newspapers, but briefly in mining. In 1966 Black bought his first newspaper, the Eastern Townships Advertiser in Quebec. Following the foundation, as an investment vehicle, of the Ravelston Corporation by the Black family in 1969, Black, together with friends David Radler and Peter G. White, purchased and operated the Sherbrooke Record, the small English language daily in Sherbrooke, Quebec. In 1971, the three formed Sterling Newspapers Limited, a holding company that would acquire several other small Canadian regional newspapers.

Corporate ownership through holding companies

George Black died in June 1976, leaving Conrad and his older brother, Montegu, a 22.4% stake in Ravelston Corp., which by then owned 61% voting control of Argus Corporation, an influential holding company in Canada. Argus controlled large stakes in 7 major Canadian corporations, Labrador Mining, Noranda Mines, Hollinger-Argus, Standard Broadcasting, Dominion Stores, Domtar and Massey-Ferguson.[8]

Through his father’s holdings in Ravelston, Conrad Black gained early association with two of Canada’s most prominent businessmen: John Angus  Bud  McDougald and E. P. Taylor, president and founder of Argus, respectively. Following McDougald’s death in 1978, Conrad Black paid $30-million to take control of Ravelston and thereby, control of Toronto based Argus. This controversial arrangement resulted in accusations that Black had taken advantage of the aging widows of Ravelston Directors McDougald and Eric Phillips. Other observers admired Black for marshaling enough investor support to win control without committing a large block of personal assets.[8]

Some of the Argus assets were already troubled, others did not fit Black’s long term vision. Black resigned as Chairman of the struggling Massey Ferguson company in 1979, after which Argus donated its shares to the employee union.[9] Hollinger Mines was then turned into a holding company that initially focused on resource businesses.[8]

In 1981 Norcen Energy, one of his companies, acquired a minority position in Ohio-based Hanna Mining Co. A filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission stated that Norcen took  an investment position  in Hanna. However, the filing failed to disclose that Norcen’s board planned to seek majority control. Black subsequently was charged by the SEC with filing misleading public statements, charges that were later withdrawn by  consent decree  after Black and Norcen agreed not to break securities laws in the future.

Dominion pension dispute

In 1984, Dominion Stores Ltd. withdrew over $56 million from the Dominion workers’ pension plan surplus without consulting plan members. The firm said it considered the surplus the rightful property of the employer (Dominion Stores Ltd.). = The Dominion Union complained, a public outcry ensued, and the case went to court. The Supreme Court of Ontario eventually ruled against the company, and ordered the company to return the money to the pension fund, claiming that though the most recent language in the plan suggested the employer had ownership of the surplus, the original intention was to keep the surplus in the plan to increase members’ benefits.[10] The company appealed the case all the way to the Supreme Court of Canada, which upheld the lower court’s decision.[11]

Industrial holdings shifted to publishing

Over time, Black focused formerly diverse activities of his companies on newspaper publishing. Argus Corporation, once Canada’s most important conglomerate, divested itself of interests in manufacturing, mining, retailing, banking and broadcasting. This enabled Canadian writer John Ralston Saul to argue in 2008, “Lord Black was never a real  capitalist  because he never created wealth, only dismantled wealth. …his career has been largely about stripping corporations. Destroying them. [12]

Growth and divestment of press holdings

In 1985, Andrew Knight, then editor of The Economist, asked Black to invest in the ailing Telegraph Group. By this investment, Black made his first entry into British press ownership. Five years later, he bought the Jerusalem Post, and subsequently fired the majority of its staff.[13] By 1990, his companies ran over 400 newspaper titles in North America, the preponderance of them small community papers.

Hollinger bought a minority stake in the Southam newspaper chain in 1993 and acquired the Chicago Sun Times in 1994. Hollinger International shares were listed on New York Stock Exchange in 1996, at which time the company boosted its stake in Southam to a control position. Becoming a public company trading in the U.S. has been called  a fateful move, exposing Black’s empire to America’s more rigorous regulatory regime and its more aggressive institutional shareholders. [9]

Under Black, Hollinger launched the National Post in Toronto in 1998. From 1999 to 2000 Hollinger International sold several newspapers in five deals worth a total of US$679-million, a total that included millions of dollars in  non-compete agreements  for Hollinger insiders. Later in the year, Hollinger International announced the sale of thirteen major Canadian newspapers, 126 community newspapers, internet properties and half of the National Post to CanWest Global Communications Corp. Hollinger International sold the rest of the National Post to CanWest in the summer of 2001.

In May 2003, following shareholder complaints, a special committee appointed by Hollinger International directors began investigation of internal financial management, particularly compensation and fees paid directly and indirectly to Ravelston’s and Black’s associates. For example, in 2000, in an illegal and surreptitious arrangement that came to be known as the  Lerner Exchange,  Black acquired Chicago’s Lerner Newspapers and sold it to Hollinger.[14] The subsequent report supported allegations of impropriety and led to criminal investigations and ultimately, the unraveling of Conrad Black’s financial empire.

Black was called before the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in December, 2003 but he refused to answer questions about business dealings, citing his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. [15]

Black attempted to sell controlling interest in Hollinger International to British businessmen David and Frederick Barclay. The Hollinger board of directors sued to halt Black’s proposed transaction. In February, 2004, Delaware judge Leo E. Strine, Jr. barred the sale and wrote in his judgment,  Black breached his fiduciary and contractual duties persistently and seriously… I found Black evasive and unreliable. His explanations of key events and of his own motivations do not have the ring of truth. [16]

Lifestyle

Born to a rich family, Black acquired the family home and 7 acres (28,000 m2) of land in Toronto’s exclusive Bridle Path neighbourhood after his father’s death in 1976. Black and first wife Joanna Hishon maintained luxurious homes in Palm Beach, Toronto and London. After he married Barbara Amiel, he acquired a luxury apartment in New York. Black’s Palm Beach mansion was listed for sale in 2004 at $36 million.[17] He previously owned an apartment on Park Avenue in New York. When sold in 2005, the U.S. Department of Justice seized net proceeds of $8.5 million, pending resolution of court actions.[18]

He also owned a London townhouse in the Kensington district and sold it in 2005 for about US$25 million.[19]

According to biographer Tom Bower,  They flaunted their wealth. [6] Black’s critics, including former Daily Telegraph editor Charles Moore, suggested it was Black’s second wife, Amiel, who pushed him towards a life of opulence, citing extravagant expenditures such as items billed to Hollinger expenses that included $2,463 (£1,272) on handbags, $2,785 in opera tickets, and $140 for Amiel’s  jogging attire. [5]

Black was ranked 238th wealthiest in Britain by the Sunday Times Rich List 2003,[20] with an estimated wealth of £136m. He was dropped from the 2004 list.[21]

Peerage controversy and citizenship

The Canadian Prime Minister originally prevented Black from receiving the British peerage offered on advice of British Prime Minister Tony Blair,[dubious – discuss] to be awarded by Queen Elizabeth II. Jean Chrétien referred to the 1919 Nickle Resolution, by which the Canadian House of Commons resolved that the Canadian Monarch should not confer titular honours on Canadians.

Black said he would accept the peerage as a British citizen instead, but Prime Minister Chrétien asserted nevertheless that the Queen should not bestow a titular honour on a Canadian. Black argued that the strict interpretation of the Nickle Resolution was payback for his political opinions and past criticism of Chrétien and sued him unsuccessfully. On appeal, the Court of Appeal for Ontario stated that the Prime Minister had a constitutional right to advise the Queen on exercising the Royal Prerogative.[22]

In 2001, Black renounced his citizenship of Canada, which he called  an oppressive little world . Eric Reguly wrote in The Times,  The great man fled his native Canada for Britain. He couldn’t wait to leave, he said, because Canada was turning into a Third World dump run by raving socialists. [23] Black’s lawyer, Eddie Greenspan, later stated Black’s citizenship:  was stolen from him  by  spiteful  former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien.[24]

Black was created a life peer as Baron Black of Crossharbour, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Baron Black sat as a member of the British Conservative Party until July 13, 2007, when he was denied the whip (effectively, expulsion from the Conservative benches) because of his conviction.

In September 2006, The Globe and Mail reported Black was taking steps to regain Canadian citizenship.[25] He may have desired this to qualify for prisoner exchange and benefit from Canadian early release policies[26] or to enable him to cross the border following a conviction. In a TVOntario interview, Black claimed,  I always said that I would take my citizenship back, and if it wasn’t for all these legal problems, I would have done it by now.  He told interviewer Steve Paikin that he was working through  normal channels. [27] Black also said,  I have settled into my new life as freedom fighter. It’s very interesting, it’s quite stimulating in a way, but it is an ordeal  [28]

Even without Canadian citizenship, Black continues to be a member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada, to which he was appointed by Governor General Ray Hnatyshyn, on the advice of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, in 1992.[29] The full Privy Council meets very rarely and has no substantive power so the appointment is honorific.

Criminal fraud trial

Conrad Black
Charge(s)     mail fraud, obstruction of justice
Penalty     Sentenced to 6 1/2 years imprisonment
Status     Incarcerated, appeal denied June 25, 2008 by 3-judge panel of 7th US Circuit Court of Appeals

May 2003, New York investment firm Tweedy Browne Co., which had an 18% stake in Hollinger International, demanded the company probe what it alleged to be excessive payments to Conrad Black and David Radler, and demanded  disgorgement  of the funds paid. [30]

In November 2003, under pressure, Black resigned as chief executive of Hollinger. By January 2004 the board of directors of Hollinger obtained Black’s resignation as chairman. Hollinger International filed a $200 million (USD) lawsuit against Black, David Radler and their associated companies.[31]

In August 2004, a special committee of the Board of Directors of Hollinger International Inc. made a report of investigation to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the U.S. District Court. The  Breeden Report  alleged that Black and associates had without proper authorization taken cash and other assets and benefits from Hollinger and had breached their fiduciary duties to Hollinger’s public majority, non-controlling shareholders. [32]

In November 2004, the SEC filed civil fraud lawsuits against Black and several others, alleging the defendants cheated and defrauded shareholders through a series of deceptive schemes and misstatements. [33]. One year later, eight criminal fraud charges were brought by the Chicago U. S. Attorney against Black and three former Hollinger executives. The U.S. Attorney laid four new charges against Black on 15 December 2005, alleging racketeering, obstruction of justice, money laundering and wire fraud. Under the racketeering count, the government sought forfeiture of more than $92,000,000 (USD). The obstruction count related to Black and his chauffeur removing boxes of documents from Hollinger offices in Toronto on June 9, 2005 contrary to a court order that prohibited removal.[34]

The criminal fraud trial of Black and three other Hollinger International executives commenced on 14 March 2007.[35]

Verdict and sentence

After twelve days of deliberation, on 13 July 2007, the jury found Black guilty of three counts of mail and wire fraud and one count of obstruction of justice and acquitted him of nine other charges, including wire fraud and racketeering. The fraud convictions related to money taken by the executives in exchange for their agreements to not compete with a Hollinger unit. Prosecutors said these were sham agreements. [36] Co-accused, Peter Y. Atkinson, John A. Boultbee and Mark Kipnis, were each found guilty of mail and wire fraud (David Radler had already pleaded guilty to fraud).[37]

On November 5, 2007, Judge Amy St. Eve denied Black’s bid for a new trial. On December 10, 2007, Black was sentenced to 78 months in jail.[38] Twelve weeks later, he lost a bid in the Court of Appeals to remain free on bail while appealing his convictions. Black requested to be housed in a minimum security prison camp near Miami but the Bureau of Prisons denied his request and instead ordered him to report to Coleman Federal Correctional Complex near Orlando, Florida on March 3, 2008 to begin serving his sentence. Unless his convictions are overturned on appeal, Black’s projected release date is October, 2013.

Reaction and consequences

Black told journalists he would continue his  long war  against the charges and said  any conviction is unsatisfactory .[39] After the verdicts, Black’s Canadian lawyer Edward Greenspan said,  The heart of their case was lost.  However, former federal prosecutor and SEC enforcement lawyer Jacob Frenkel called it a  stunning victory  for the government and explained how a split verdict  highlights for the appellate court that the jury was very thoughtful and thorough in its deliberations. [40]

Investigators hired by Hollinger companies have been examining more than forty bank accounts which may be, or may have been, held in the name of Black, his wife, or affiliated entities. According to court filings, Ravelston Corp. also had a subsidiary in Barbados called Argent News Inc. and another in Bermuda called Sugra Bermuda Ltd.[41] A report by a special committee of the board of Hollinger International Inc. said Black co-owned two Barbados companies, Moffat Management Inc. and Black-Amiel Management Inc., which both received millions of dollars in payments, the former allegedly owned by Black and his co-defendants, and the latter by Black, his wife and Boultbee.[42] In November, 2007, Sun-Times Media Group (ex-Hollinger) said in a regulatory filing that it had spent $107.7 million on legal fees and indemnification costs for criminal and civil actions involving Black, Boultbee, Kipniss and Atkinson. If appeals are unsuccessful, the company may seek to recover the money.[43]

After the verdict, New Democratic Party of Canada Member of Parliament Charlie Angus publicly called for Black’s expulsion from the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada and for his removal from the Order of Canada. The Toronto Star similarly called for Governor General Michaëlle Jean to remove Black from the Order.[44] Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper stated that Black would have to go through regular channels to attempt to regain his Canadian citizenship, that membership in the Order of Canada is the purview of the Governor General and that decisions about the Privy Council would only take place after the legal process, including appeal, had been completed.[45]

Black’s ability to re-enter Canada is uncertain unless he obtains dispensation from the Canadian Government. Were he to regain residency,  Canadian citizenship can’t be granted to those who are criminally inadmissible and neither the minister nor the Governor in Council (cabinet) can override that,  according to an immigration department spokesperson.[46] The loss of his Canadian citizenship also makes it impossible for Black to be transferred to a Canadian prison where he would be eligible for parole much sooner than if he were to serve time in the United States.[46]

Appeal

Black’s oral arguments were heard June 5, 2008 by a three-judge panel of the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. Andrew Frey argued that Black and his co-defendants did not steal from Hollinger when they authorized individual non-competition payments. Frey asserted that the monies were  management fees  and that Hollinger International shareholders were not hurt by the payments. Appeals judge Richard Posner said,  The bulk of the evidence [in the Hollinger case] has to do with pretty naked fraud. [47] Posner was skeptical about defense arguments that Black did not obstruct justice by removing boxes from his Toronto office, commenting,  The timing was bizarre, the removal of the documents in the middle of an investigation. [48] Three weeks later, on June 25, 2008, the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the convictions[49] in a decision that called some of Black’s conduct at Hollinger  ridiculous [50] and rejected all of the arguments raised by the defense. The appellate court found that  the evidence established a conventional fraud, that is, a theft of money or other property from Hollinger by misrepresentations and misleading omissions …  The panel affirmed the jury’s findings stating that,  It is not as if Black had merely been using his power as controlling shareholder to elect a rubber-stamp board of directors or to approve a merger favorable to him at the expense of the minority shareholders … He was acting in his capacity as the CEO of Hollinger when he ordered (Mark) Kipnis to draft the covenants not to compete and when he duped the audit committee and submitted a false 10-K. [51]

Prosecutor Eric Sussman replied to news of the initial appeal decision saying,  I think at some point in time Mr. Black needs to take a hard look in the mirror and ask who it is that really doesn’t understand the conduct that took place in this case…You’ve got 16 people who have taken a look at the facts and the law in a very detailed and time-consuming way, and they have all reached the same conclusion, which is that he stole money from this company and he tried to obstruct the investigation. [52]

Black added Harvard professor Alan Dershowitz to his law team and asked the 7th Circuit Court to reconsider the appeal decision. August 21, the court declined reconsideration. According to lawyer Andrew Frey, Black has until November 12 to ask the U.S. Supreme Court to hear an appeal. [53] [54][51][55] In June 2008, he ruled out trying to obtain a presidential pardon from George W. Bush,[51] however he later applied for one in November of the same year. [56] The final acts of clemency of Bush’s presidency were announced on his last full day of office, January 19, 2009. Black’s name was not included in the list of commuted sentences.[57][58][59]

On January 9, 2009, it was reported that Black’s lawyers have filed a petition with the U.S. Supreme Court to hear an appeal to overturn his conviction. Jacob Frenkel, a former US prosecutor who has followed the case, told Canadian Press that the appeal was unlikely to succeed saying that it must get through a proverbial door  with such a small crack that the likelihood of getting in is negligible. [60] The Supreme Court is expected to announce its decision on hearing the petition on March 13, 2009.[61]

Imprisonment

In August 2008, Black’s wife, journalist Barbara Amiel, defended her husband in a lengthy article first published by Maclean’s then in The Sunday Times[62]. In a blog published on the Financial Times website, John Gapper writes that this defence had  an entertainingly deranged quality since Lady Amiel (sic) admits no wrong, on behalf of either of the pair, and is contemptuous about almost everyone else’s behaviour [63].

On August 23 2008, Black authored a piece in the National Post about the experience of jail. He still claims to be mistakenly convicted and asserts  The bunk about a lavish lifestyle was disbelieved and rejected by the jury.  He believes that time will show the Canadian and American justice systems were disgraced by his conviction, not him. He adds,  But someone has to resist the putrification of justice in these jurisdictions, and if someone of my means doesn’t, who will?  [64]

Black writes:  If saintly men like Gandhi could choose to clean latrines, and Thomas More could voluntarily wear a hair shirt, this experience won’t kill me.  Robert Fisk, writing in The Independent says,  Now when Uncle Conrad likens himself to the assassinated Mahatma, the apostle of India, that is mere hubris. But when he compares himself to England’s greatest Catholic martyr, a man of saintly honour if ruthless conviction, this is truly weird.  [65]

In 2008 Black wrote to the Canadian Press, commenting that,  I am doing fine. This (Coleman Federal Prison) is a safe and civilized place, and I don’t anticipate any difficulty.  [66]

Books and other publications

As a young man, Black wrote a thesis on Quebec’s controversial long-serving premier, Maurice Duplessis, which was subsequently published in 1977 as a laudatory biography, entitled Duplessis (ISBN 0-7710-1530-5).

Black published an autobiography in 1993, titled A Life in Progress (ISBN 9781550135206).

While Black was CEO of Hollinger International, the company spent millions of dollars purchasing collections of private papers of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[67]. Black subsequently completed a 1,280-page biography, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Champion of Freedom (ISBN 978-1586481841), in 2003.[68]

In 2004, Black wrote an essay on the possible results had the Japanese not bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941, for the imaginary history book What Might Have Been [69] edited by Andrew Roberts.

Published in 2007, Black’s Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full (ISBN 978-1586485191), is a biography of US President Richard Nixon that runs 1,152 pages. One reviewer wrote that Black provided  exculpatory gloss for seemingly every grimy facet of Nixon’s career. [70]

From jail, Black promises that his next book will tell how his business empire was destroyed while court-protected managers enriched themselves and eradicated shareholder value. He says,  The judiciary and regulators in both countries are complicit in these events. They will have much to answer for. This is the real story, and I will publish it soon.  [71]

In the November issue of Spear’s magazine, Black wrote a diary piece from jail,[72] detailing ‘the putrification of the US justice system’ and how ‘the bloom is off my long-notorious affection for America’.

Biographies and portrayal in popular culture

* The documentary film Citizen Black, which premiered at the 2004 Montreal and Cambridge film festivals, traces Black’s life and filmmaker Debbie Melnyk’s attempts in 2003 to interview Black, and her eventual interview.[73] US prosecutors subpoenad unused footage of a 2003 shareholders meeting for use in Black’s trial.[74]
* Canadian actor Albert Schultz portrayed Black in the 2006 CTV movie Shades of Black.
* Tom Bower’s biography Conrad and Lady Black: Dancing on the Edge (ISBN 0007232349) was published in 2006 by Harper Collins. It was republished in August 2007 with an additional chapter reporting on the trial and its outcomes.
* There is talk of two dramas based on his life: one from Tom Bower and Andrew Lloyd Webber and another from Alistair Beaton.[75]
* The last authorized portrait busts of Conrad Black and Barbara Amiel were created between 2001-2002 by Canadian sculptor Dr. Elizabeth Bradford Holbrook and arranged by noted Canadian artist Christian Corbet.
* A book  Robber Baron: Lord Black of Crossharbour  was published in 2007 by ECW press and written by George Tombs. Isbn 978-1-55022-806-9

References
1. ^ BBC News  Conrad Black: Where did it all go wrong  February 27, 2004
2. ^ [http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/868512/000095012304010413/y01437exv99w2.htm Hollinger Report to the SEC
3. ^ BBC News Business:  Conrad Black convicted of fraud  July 13, 2007
4. ^ thePeerage.com – Main Page
5. ^ a b c d Clark, Andrew:  At some level, he’s still asking the same question as he was when he was seven or eight – who am I?  The Guardian, March 16, 2007
6. ^ a b c Bower, Tom: Conrad & Lady Black – Dancing on the Edge (London: HarperPress, 2006),
7. ^ CBC News:  Conrad Black: Timeline  Updated June 5, 2008
8. ^ a b c Francis, D. (1986). Controlling Interest – Who Owns Canada. Macmillan of Canada. ISBN 0-7715-9744-4.
9. ^ a b Olive, David  A Conrad Black timeline , Toronto Star, March 11, 2007, accessed June 9, 2008
10. ^ Canadian Labour Congress: Dominion Food Stores
11. ^ Randall, Jeff; BBC Money Programme: Nine News: The Rise and Fall of Citizen Black; November 21, 2004
12. ^ Gessell, Paul  Saul’s Ottawa ‘Truths’  The Ottawa Citizen, September 18 2008
13. ^ Hollinger Hell: Jerusalem Post Suit Filed Here
14. ^  Hollinger International Inc – 8-K – EX-99.2 . SEC Info. 2004-08-30. http://www.secinfo.com/dsvr4.1A52.c.htm. Retrieved on 2008-11-17.
15. ^ CBC News  Conrad Black: Timeline
16. ^ Herman, Eric Judge stymies Black  Chicago Sun-Times, February 27, 2004
17. ^ CBC News:  Conrad Black charged . . .   cbcnews.ca November 17, 2005
18. ^ U.S.D.O.J.  Press Release  December 15, 2005
19. ^ Timmons, Heather:  Conrad Black sells London townhouse  International Herald Tribune, May 20 2005
20. ^ The Sunday Times Rich List 2003
21. ^ The Sunday Times Rich List 2004
22. ^ Black v Chrétien: suing a Minister of the Crown for abuse of power, misfeasance in public office and negligence
23. ^ Black is back and ready for a fight… – Times Online
24. ^ Eddie Greenspan ’68 Confident Conrad Black will Win in Court
25. ^ Perkins, Tara  New law could block Black’s citizenship bid globeandmail.com November 26 2005
26. ^ Tedesko, Theresa  Conrad Black’s defence readies for U.S. Supreme Court appeal  Canwest News Service, July 17 2008
27. ^ CBC News: Conrad Black wants to be Canadian again September 26, 2006
28. ^ http://www.newswire.ca/en/releases/archive/September2006/22/c9085.html
29. ^ The Nixon Center: The European Union, Britain and the United States: Which Way to Go?
30. ^ Olive, David  A Conrad Black Timeline  TheStar.com Mar 11, 2007
31. ^ BBC News: Conrad Black: Where did it all go wrong?; February 27, 2004
32. ^ http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/868512/000095012304010413/y01437exv99w2.htm
33. ^ BBC News: Lord Black is charged with fraud; November 15, 2004
34. ^ CTV.ca | Black guilty on 4 charges, including obstruction
35. ^ Waldie, Paul; The Globe and Mail: Trump may testify for Black; March 14, 2007
36. ^ Harris, Andrew  Conrad Black’s Guilty Verdict . . .  Bloomberg.com May 2, 2008
37. ^ CBC News: Conrad Black guilty of obstruction and mail fraud; July 13, 2007
38. ^ CBC News Conrad Black sentenced to 78 months in jail; December 10, 2007
39. ^ Waldie, Paul; The Globe and Mail: Black gets bail – but is confined to U.S.; July 19, 2007
40. ^ Fall of an arrogant fraud: What really brought down the empire of Conrad Black? – Americas, World – Independent.co.uk
41. ^ Wisniewski, Barbara; Chicago Sun Times: The hunt for Conrad’s cash; July 19, 2007
42. ^ Waldie, Paul; McNish, Jacquie; Leeder, Jessica; The Globe and Mail: Global hunt heightens for Black assets; July 19, 2007
43. ^ Waldie, Paul Globe and Mail Report on Business  The legal bill so far…  Nov 22, 2007
44. ^ Editorial; Toronto Star: Strip Black of honour; July 19, 2007
45. ^ CTV News: Harper says he won’t help Black return to Canada; July 18, 2007
46. ^ a b Canadian Press, July 13, 2007
47. ^ Chandler, Susan:  Judges appear cool to Black appeal , Chicago Tribune, June 6, 2008
48. ^ Westhead, Rick,  Court hears Black appeal,  Toronto Star, June 6, 2008
49. ^ Appellate Court Decision
50. ^ Waldie, Paul,  Appeal court rejects all arguments for Black , Globe and Mail, June 25, 2008
51. ^ a b c Westhead, Rick,  Black has one card left to play , Toronto Star, June 26, 2008
52. ^ Bell, Douglas,  Denied: Posner’s wry prose more or less sends Black to jail until 2013 , Toronto Life, June 26, 2008
53. ^ Harris, Andrew  Conrad Black Loses Bid for Appeals Court Rehearing  Bloomberg.com
54. ^ Tedesco, Theresa,  Black’s defence readies for Supreme Court appeal , Financial Post, July 16, 2008
55. ^ Wisniewski, Mary Appeals Court upholds Conrad Black’s conviction  Chicago Sun-Times, June 25, 2008
56. ^ Valdmanis, Richard,  Jailed press baron Black seeks Bush pardon: report , Reuters, Nov. 20, 2008
57. ^ http://www.newsweek.com/id/180448
58. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/01/19/bush-commutes-sentences-border-patrol-agents/
59. ^ Bush fails to pardon Conrad Black, Toronto Star, January 20, 2009
60. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2009/01/09/black-appeal.html
61. ^ http://www.thestar.com/News/Canada/article/595556
62. ^ Conrad and I were betrayed Sunday Times 10 August 2008
63. ^ Barbara Amiel’s laughable defence of Conrad Black John Gapper – Financial Times 11 August 2008
64. ^ Black, Conrad  On strip searches and fellow inmates  National Post, August 23 2008
65. ^ Fisk, Robert  Why do we keep letting the politicians get away with lies  The Independent, August 30 2008
66. ^ Chicago Sun-Times  Conrad Black says prison life ‘safe and civilized’  March 24, 2008
67. ^ Fine Books & Collections Magazine
68. ^ The Lord of Springwood – New York Times
69. ^ ISBN 978-0753818732
70. ^ New Yorker Books Briefly Noted
71. ^ Black, Conrad  On strip searches and fellow inmates  National Post, August 23 2008
72. ^ http://www.spearswms.com/good-life/diary/4411/exclusive-conrad-blacks-jail-diary.thtml
73. ^ DeWolf Smith, Nancy; The Wall Street Journal:  Citizen Black : An entertaining documentary; February 17, 2006
74. ^ Wisniewski, Mary; Chicago Sun Times: Prosecutors to see ‘Citizen Black’ footage; November 23, 2006
75. ^ Pendennis: Oliver Marre | 7 Days | The Observer

External links
Sister project     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Conrad Black

* SEC – Breeden Report Complete 512-page copy of the Report of Investigation by the Special Committee of the Board of Directors of Hollinger International Inc.
* Inmate Locator showing Black’s current location within the Bureau of Prisons system
*  Conrad Black’s apologia for Richard Nixon : a review in the TLS by Anthony Holden, August 8 2007
* Conrad Black profile from NNDB
* Conrad Black profile from RightWeb
* Lord Black of Crossharbour: The Life and Times of Conrad Black CBC, documentary originally aired 24 March 2005
* Conrad Black at IdeaCity on CITY-TV
* A Conrad Black timeline, thestar.com, May 11 2007
* Links to Appeal Court Oral Arguments (mp3) and Opinion (pdf)
* Conrad Black’s full-length jail diary
* From my cell I scent the reeking soul of US justice

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Black
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***
Argus Corporation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Argus Corporation, based in Toronto, Ontario, is an investment and holding company founded in 1945 by its President E. P. Taylor with minority partners Colonel W. Eric Phillips and Wallace McCutcheon and other investors.

Argus was once Canada’s most powerful conglomerate; by the 1970s it controlled Canadian Breweries, Dominion Stores, Hollinger Mines, Crown Trust, Domtar, Standard Broadcasting and Massey-Ferguson, as well as having control or significant shareholdings in other Canadian companies such as Dominion Malting Co., Orange Crush Ltd. and British Columbia Forest Products Limited.

By 1969, E.P. Taylor was satisfied to allow the very capable Bud McDougald to run operations. The company became so powerful that it was a focal point of the 1975 Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration.

Following the death of Bud McDougald, in 1978 his widow sold her shares to Conrad Black which gave him effective voting control. Black and his associates sold off most of the assets. In 2005 Argus controls only Black’s Toronto-based holding company Hollinger Inc. Argus itself is controlled by Ravelston Corporation Limited — itself a holding company controlled until 2005 by Black and his long-time associate David Radler.

See also

* Conrad Black

References

* Argus Corporation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argus_Corporation

***
David Radler
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

F. David Radler (born 1944 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian executive and close associate of Conrad Black for 36 years. Radler was once president of Ravelston Corporation, a privately owned corporation owned by Black and Radler to control their former newspaper empire. Ravelston owned Argus Corporation which in turn controlled Chicago-based Hollinger International. In 2005 14.1% of Ravelston was owned by Radler.
Contents

* 1 Career
* 2 Controversy
* 3 References
* 4 External links

Career

Radler graduated from Queen’s University in 1967 with a Master’s degree in Business Administration.[citation needed] In the 1980s Radler was in charge of the sale of Argus Corporation’s Dominion supermarket chain to The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, or A&P. As well, Radler was once based in Chicago to help Black’s media business — managed under Chicago-based Hollinger International) in the United States– as publisher of the Chicago Sun-Times newspaper and president and chief operating officer of Hollinger International.

Controversy
This article may need to be updated. Please update the article to reflect recent events or newly available information, and remove this template when finished. Please see the talk page for more information.

After buying up the London Daily Telegraph, the Chicago Sun-Times, the Jerusalem Post, the Southam chain of Canadian newspapers and hundreds of small American newspapers, Hollinger International began to suffer from financial strain in the late 1990s. Radler and Black then sold off hundreds of their Canadian and American newspapers. Radler, who has lived in Vancouver, British Columbia, since the early 70’s, created a company called Horizon Publications Inc. This bought up some of the American newspapers owned by Hollinger International.

After controversy developed in 2003-2004 concerning $32,000,000 of ‘non-compete’ payments made to Black and Radler in the sale of Hollinger newspapers, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (and Canadian authorities as well) announced that Black and Radler were under investigation for their involvement.

Radler was eventually charged with five counts of mail fraud and two counts of wire fraud. On September 20, 2005, Radler pleaded guilty in a Chicago court to one count of mail fraud in relation to the ‘non-compete’ payments.

These payments had been diverted by Radler to a company controlled by himself and Black, Horizon Publications Inc. By disguising the payments as ‘non-compete’ payments, non sales proceeds, Radler took advantage of a Canadian tax ruling that made them tax-exempt. The prosecution argued that these moneys belonged to Hollinger International, and had been improperly and secretly diverted to Black and Radler. Radler was sentenced to a fine of $250,000 and a term of 29 months in prison. He began serving his sentence on February 25, 2008 in Pennsylvania, but is expected to request a transfer to the Canadian prison system. He had been assisting the prosecution in the investigation of his former business partner. Black is currently being tried on the many charges; his trial began in Chicago in March 2007. Patrick Fitzgerald is the lead prosecutor in the Black case, and Black is represented by a legal team which includes Toronto lawyer Edward Greenspan.

In the fall of 2005, Queen’s University, Radler’s alma mater, returned the financial donation which Radler had given to its School of Business. It was widely reported at the time that a Toronto hospital had no intention of returning Conrad Black’s financial gift. This prompted some to question the wisdom of Queen’s returning David Radler’s generous donation. The business school, for its part, explained that the charge that Mr Radler had pleaded guilty to was  very serious  and not congruent with the values of the school and those it teaches.

On March 18, 2007, it was reported that Mr. Radler had signed a settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission that will see him pay a penalty of almost US$29 million and prevent him from acting as an officer or director of any public company in the United States. The next day, it was announced that Mr. Radler has settled with the Sun-Times Media Group, agreeing to pay them $64.1 million. The news of the SEC settlement sparked protest from the defense at the Conrad Black trial; the defense claimed that such news would negatively influence the jury.

Radler started serving his 29-month sentence for fraud on February 25, 2008 by reporting to a Pennsylvania prison. He was turned over to Canadian authorities on September 18, 2008. It is believed that he was being held in a penal facility in British Columbia, although this cannot be confirmed.[1]

On Dec. 15, 2008, David Radler was granted a full parole and released from the Canadian penal facility in which he was being held. He served only 10 months of a 29 month sentence. He was released on the grounds that he was unlikely to  commit an offence involving violence  before his sentence expired. The board said it was limited to considering only the matter of physical violence and could not consider the financial devastation caused by his crimes or the many victims of these crimes left in its wake. [2] Mr. Radler is now back at work in his office in Vancouver running his business, the Alberta Newspaper Group.[3]

References

1. ^ http://www.nationalpost.com/related/topics/story.html?id=851886.
2. ^ David Radler released on parole
3. ^ Radler plans to pen a business primer

* Ravelston case
* Guardian Unlimited Special Report – Conrad Black, Hollinger and the Telegraph Ongoing archive collection of news and analysis.
* U.S. SEC – Breeden Report Complete 512-page copy of the Report of Investigation by the Special Committee of the Board of Directors of Hollinger International Inc.
* Black fired, faces $200M lawsuit In 2004 Black faced a number of law suits from investors and others claiming highly inappropriate financial dealings as well as audit fraud concerning circulation at his papers.
* Wrong Way: The Fall of Conrad Black, by Jacquie McNish & Sinclair Stewart, published by Viking Canada/Penguin Group (2004)

External links
Sister project     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: David Radler

* Inmate Locator showing Radler’s current location within the Bureau of Prisons system

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Radler
Categories: 1944 births | British businesspeople | Canadian businesspeople | Canadian fraudsters | Canadian Jews | Living people | Newspaper executives | People from Chicago, Illinois | Queen’s University alumni

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Radler

***

Raymond G. H. Seitz
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Raymond Seitz)

The Honorable Raymond George Hardenbergh Seitz is a former career diplomat and U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom. He was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on December 8, 1940. He graduated from Yale University in 1963, where he was a member of Wolf’s Head Society, with a BA in history, following which he spent 2 years teaching in Dallas, Texas. He joined the US Foreign Service in 1966. He was the first career diplomat in modern history to be made Ambassador to the UK – the post is usually given to a political appointee.
Contents

* 1 Career
* 2 Retirement
* 3 Honorary degrees
* 4 Awards
* 5 Publications
* 6 Trivia
* 7 Notes

Career

* First posting was in Montreal, Canada as Consular Officer.
* In 1968 he was assigned to Nairobi, Kenya as Political Officer, serving concurrently as Vice-Consul in the Seychelle Islands.
* After 2 Years as Principal Officer in Bukavu, Zaire, he returned to the State Department in 1972 to be appointed Director of the Secretariat Staff under Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.
* He subsequently served as Special Assistant to the Director General of the Foreign Service.
* In 1975 he was assigned for the first time to the US Embassy in London as First Secretary.
* In 1978 he received the Director General’s Award for Reporting.
* He returned to Washington 1979 as Deputy Executive Secretary to the Department of State, serving in the offices of Secretaries of State Vance, Muskie, & Haig.
* In October 1981, he became Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs.
* In July 1982, Secretary of State George Schultz appointed him Executive Assistant to the Secretary of State.
* 3 years later, he returned to the London Embassy as Minister.
* In 1986 & 1988 he received the Presidential Award for Meritorious Service.

* President Bush nominated him as Assistant Secretary of State for Europe and Canada in June 1989.
* He served in this capacity until his nomination by the President as Ambassador.
* On completion of his term as Assistant Secretary of State, the Federal Republic of Germany conferred on Ambassador Seitz the Knight Commander’s Cross.
* He was sworn in as ambassador by Secretary of State James Baker on April 25, 1991, and presented his credentials to Queen Elizabeth II on June 25, 1991.
* On May 10, 1994, he simultaneously resigned from his post as Ambassador, and from the US Foreign Service, following a career of 28 years.

Retirement

Since retiring from the foreign service, he has held numerous directorships, governorships, and trusteeships. He was Senior Managing Director at Lehman Brothers International from 1995-1996, and Vice-Chairman from 1996-2003. He has held non-executive directorships on the boards of British Airways, Hong Kong Telecom, Marconi, General Electric Co, Rio Tinto Group and Cable & Wireless. As of November 2004, he is currently on the boards of the Chubb Group, PCCW, and Hollinger International.

He was a trustee of the National Gallery between 1996 and 2001. He is a current governor of the Ditchley Foundation.

He is a former trustee of the Royal Academy of Arts and the World Monuments Fund. He is a former member of the Advisory Council of the Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.

He is married with three children.

Honorary degrees

He has received a number of honorary degrees, among them:

* Honorary Doctor of Public Administration, The American International University in London (Richmond), 1992
* Honorary Doctor of Laws, Reading University (UK), 1992
* Honorary Doctor of Civil Law, University of Durham (UK), 1994
* Honorary Doctor of Laws, Leicester University (UK), 23 July 1999
* Honorary Doctor of Civil Law, University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK), 13 October 1999

He has also received honorary degrees from the universities of Bath, Buckingham, Heriot-Watt, Royal Holloway, Leeds, and the Open University.

Awards

* 1995: Awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal by the Royal Society of Arts.
* 1999: Awarded the Churchill Medal of Honour by the English-Speaking Union.
* 1999: Became the first American citizen ever to be awarded the Freedom of the City of London.
* 2001: Elected as an Honorary Freeman of the Merchant Taylors’ Company.

Publications

He has written several articles for the Daily Telegraph, Sunday Telegraph, The Times and The Literary Review, as well as broadcasting several essays for the BBC. He published his first book, Over Here in 1998, an autobiographical review of his time as Ambassador and life in the UK.

Trivia

Harold Pinter writes that Raymond G. H. Seitz:  had a very good reputation as a rational, responsible and highly sophisticated man. He was greatly respected in diplomatic circles .[1]. However, he also adds the following details of a conversation between Seitz and himself at a meeting at the US embassy in London in the late 1980s.:

The United States Congress was about to decide whether to give more money to the Contras in their campaign against the state of Nicaragua. I was a member of a delegation speaking on behalf of Nicaragua but the most important member of this delegation was a Father John Metcalf.

The leader of the US body was Raymond Seitz (then number two to the ambassador, later ambassador himself). Father Metcalf said: ‘Sir, I am in charge of a parish in the north of Nicaragua. My parishioners built a school, a health centre, a cultural centre. We have lived in peace. A few months ago a Contra force attacked the parish. They destroyed everything: the school, the health centre, the cultural centre. They raped nurses and teachers, slaughtered doctors, in the most brutal manner. They behaved like savages. Please demand that the US government withdraw its support from this shocking terrorist activity.’

Raymond Seitz had a very good reputation as a rational, responsible and highly sophisticated man. He was greatly respected in diplomatic circles. He listened, paused and then spoke with some gravity. ‘Father,’ he said, ‘let me tell you something. In war, innocent people always suffer.’

There was a frozen silence. We stared at him. He did not flinch. Innocent people, indeed, always suffer. Finally somebody said: ‘But in this case  innocent people  were the victims of a gruesome atrocity subsidised by your government, one among many. If Congress allows the Contras more money further atrocities of this kind will take place. Is this not the case? Is your government not therefore guilty of supporting acts of murder and destruction upon the citizens of a sovereign state?’

Seitz was imperturbable. ‘I don’t agree that the facts as presented support your assertions,’ he said. As we were leaving the Embassy a US aide told me that he enjoyed my plays. I did not reply.[2]

Notes

1. ^ http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2005/pinter-lecture-e.html
2. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/2005/dec/08/theatre.nobelprize

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Henry Catto     U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom
1991–1994     Succeeded by
William J. Crowe, Jr.

Flag of the United States United States Ambassadors to the United Kingdom Flag of the United Kingdom
Ministers Plenipotentiary to
the Court of St. James’s
1785-1811

John Adams 1785-1788 A Thomas Pinckney 1792-1796 A Rufus King 1796-1803 A James Monroe 1803-1807 A William Pinkney 1808-1811 A Jonathan Russell (chargé d’affaires) 1811-1812
Envoys Extraordinary and
Ministers Plenipotentiary to
the Court of St. James’s
1815-1893

John Quincy Adams 1815-1817 A Richard Rush 1818-1825 A Rufus King 1825-1826 A Albert Gallatin 1826-1827 A James Barbour 1828-1829 A Louis McLane 1829-1831 A Martin Van Buren 1831-1832 A Aaron Vail (chargé d’affaires) 1832-1836 A Andrew Stevenson 1836-1841 A Edward Everett 1841-1845 A Louis McLane 1845-1846 A George Bancroft 1846-1849 A Abbott Lawrence 1849-1852 A Joseph R. Ingersoll 1852-1853 A James Buchanan 1853-1856 A George M. Dallas 1856-1861 A Charles Adams, Sr. 1861-1868 A Reverdy Johnson 1868-1869 A John Lothrop Motley 1869-1870 A Robert C. Schenck 1871-1876 A Edwards Pierrepont 1876-1877 A John Welsh 1877-1879 A James Russell Lowell 1880-1885 A Edward J. Phelps 1885-1889 A Robert T. Lincoln 1889-1893

Ambassadors Extraordinary
and Plenipotentiary to
the Court of St. James’s
1893-present

Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. 1893-1897 A John Hay 1897-1898 A Joseph Choate 1899-1905 A Whitelaw Reid 1905-1912 A Walter Page 1913-1918 A John W. Davis 1918-1921 A George Harvey 1921-1923 A Frank B. Kellogg 1924-1925 A Alanson B. Houghton 1925-1929 A Charles G. Dawes 1929-1931 A Andrew W. Mellon 1932-1933 A Robert Bingham 1933-1937 A Joseph P. Kennedy 1938-1940 A John G. Winant 1941-1946 A W. Averell Harriman 1946 A Lewis W. Douglas 1947-1950 A Walter S. Gifford 1950-1953 A Winthrop W. Aldrich 1953-1957 A John Hay Whitney 1957-1961 A David K. E. Bruce 1961-1969 A Walter H. Annenberg 1969-1974 A Elliot L. Richardson 1975-1976 A Anne Armstrong 1976-1977 A Kingman Brewster, Jr. 1977-1981 A John J. Louis, Jr. 1981-1983 A Charles H. Price II 1983-1989 A Henry E. Catto, Jr. 1989-1991 A Raymond G. H. Seitz 1991-1994 A William J. Crowe, Jr. 1994-1997 A Philip Lader 1997-2001 A William S. Farish III 2001-2004 A Robert H. Tuttle 2005-

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_G._H._Seitz
Categories: 1940 births | Living people | United States ambassadors to the United Kingdom

* This page was last modified on 31 December 2008, at 17:54.
* All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.)
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Seitz

***

Sun-Times Media Group

November 17, 2003

* Conrad Black resigns as Chairman after an internal inquiry alleges that Black had received more than $7 million in unauthorized payments of company funds.

January 14, 2004

* Hollinger International files a US$200 million lawsuit against Conrad Black and David Radler.

October 2005

* Gordon A. Paris, Chairman of the Board of Directors, President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
* Paul B. Healy, Vice President, Corporate Development and Investor Relations
* Peter K. Lane, Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
* Robert T. Smith, Treasurer
* James R. Van Horn, Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
* John Cruickshank, Chief Operating Officer, Head of the Chicago Group
* Members of the board of directors: Gordon Paris, Richard Burt, Daniel Colson, Cyrus Freidheim, Henry Kissinger, Shmuel Meitar, John O’Brien, Richard Perle, Graham Savage, Raymond Seitz, and James R. Thompson.

November 2006

* Cyrus Freidheim is hired as President and CEO.

February 2009

* Cyrus Freidheim resigns as CEO after New York-based hedge fund Davidson Kempner forces the ousting of all but one member of the Board of Directors.
* Jeremy Halbreich becomes the new chairman and interim chief executive.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollinger_International

***

Allouetta, gentille allouetta. Allouetta, gentille plumerai.

***

Graham Savage
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sir (Edward) Graham Savage CB (born August 31 1886, Erpingham – 1981, Islington) was an English civil servant who largely invented the concept of comprehensive schools and originated the phrase.
Contents

* 1 Career
o 1.1 Comprehensive schools
o 1.2 Outcome of his work
* 2 See also

Career

He became a schoolteacher and later and educational administrator. He became an education officer for London County Council.

Comprehensive schools

In the 1920s he visited America specifically the states of New York and Ohio, and was impressed by the democratic nature of the high schools in terms of social diversity, although overall academic performance of such schools was less well-researched; it was of secondary interest. The Labour Party had been a champion of grammar schools in the 1940s, but by the 1950s had begun to look at Graham Savage’s ideas instead which had been implemented partly in London.

Outcome of his work

In later life he came to realise that the overall lowering of educational standards of comprehensive schools was more than the marginal amount he had predicted in 1928.

See also

* Debates on the grammar school
* Tripartite System
* Anthony Crosland

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham_Savage
Categories: 1886 births | 1981 deaths | English schoolteachers | People from Norfolk | English educationists | English civil servants

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham_Savage

*
***
James Robert Thompson, Jr. (born May 8, 1936), also known as  Big Jim Thompson , was the longest-serving Governor of the U.S. state of Illinois.[1] A Republican, Thompson was elected to four consecutive terms (the first of which was a transitional two-year term, as Illinois changed to an off-Presidential year gubernatorial election), and held the office for 14 years. Many years after leaving public office, he re-entered the spotlight as a member of the 9/11 Commission, gaining notoriety for his strong disagreements with former counter-terrorism czar Richard A. Clarke.[2]
Contents

* 1 Early life and career
* 2 Governor of Illinois
* 3 Private sector career
* 4 Post-gubernatorial political activities
* 5 References
* 6 External links
* 7 Scholarly Secondary Source

Early life and career

Born in Chicago, Illinois, Thompson studied at the University of Illinois at Chicago Navy Pier campus, and received his A.B. from Washington University in St. Louis. He received his J.D. from Northwestern University in 1959.

Prior to becoming governor, he worked in the Cook County state’s attorney’s office, taught at Northwestern University’s law school and was appointed by President Nixon to serve as U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. As a federal prosecutor in the early 1970s, he obtained a conviction against former Governor Otto Kerner, Jr., for his use of improper influence on behalf of the racetrack industry. He also tried and convicted many of Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley’s top aides, most notably Alderman Tom Keane and County Clerk Matt Danaher, on various corruption charges. People like Keane and Danaher, the Mayor’s point man on patronage were also major figures in the Cook County Democratic Party’s political machine. These high-profile cases gave Thompson the celebrity which fueled his run for governor in 1976. To the chagrin of many, Thompson was very bipartisan in his attacks on corruption in Cook County and Chicago. He not only prosecuted ultra high profile Democrats, but also prominent Republicans such as County Commissioner Floyd Fulle and former U. S. Senate candidate, William Renchalier. Organized crime in Chicago was harder for his unit to crack and there were few high profile cases during his era.

Governor of Illinois

In the 1976 election, he won 65 percent of the vote over Democratic Secretary of State Michael Howlett, for a two-year term. Thompson was the first candidate for Governor to receive over 3 million votes, and his tally of 3,000,395 remains the highest number of votes ever cast for a candidate in an election for Governor of Illinois. Thompson was re-elected to a four-year term in 1978 with 60 percent of the vote, defeating State Comptroller Michael Bakalis. In 1982, Thompson was very narrowly re-elected over former U.S. Senator Adlai E. Stevenson III; Thompson decisively defeated him in their re-match four years later. Thompson was accused of hiding the sad shape that Illinois’ economy and budget were in while campaigning, but once elected, calling for an emergency session of the Illinois Legislature to address the crisis.
Governor Thompson observing a military exercise, July 1986

On November 12, 1980, Thompson, by his executive order, instituted a hiring freeze for all state agencies, boards, bureaus, and commissions under his control as governor. The order affected approximately 60,000 state positions. These positions could only be filled if the candidates were first approved by an office created by Thompson, the Governor’s Office of Personnel. The practice essentially consisted of denying the hiring of persons not affiliated with the Republican Party by conducting inquiries into past Republican Party affiliation and possible future pledges of loyalty. Suit was brought and the Supreme Court held this political patronage practice unconstitutional as a violation of the First Amendment rights of low-level public employees in Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinois, 497 U.S. 62 (1990).

In 1993, the State of Illinois Center in Chicago was renamed the James R. Thompson Center to honor the former governor.

Private sector career

Since 1993, Thompson has served as chairman and CEO of Winston & Strawn LLP, a large Chicago law firm. As chairman and CEO of Winston & Strawn, Thompson practices in the area of government relations and regulatory affairs as well as in international and domestic corporate and litigation matters. The firm has lobbied for American Airlines, and he has previously represented United Airlines.[citation needed]

Winston & Strawn is the same firm that represented former Illinois Governor George Ryan pro bono against federal charges relating to the  Licenses-for-Bribes  scandal during Ryan’s tenure as Illinois Governor and Secretary of State. On April 17, 2006, George Ryan was convicted on all 18 counts, which included racketeering, misusing state resources for political gain, and fraud. He was sentenced to 6 1/2 years in federal prison and began serving his sentence on November 7, 2007.

Thompson is also a director and head of the Audit Committee for Hollinger International, the media company founded by convicted fraudster Conrad Black (it is also now the subject of a U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigation).

Post-gubernatorial political activities

In 2002 he was appointed to serve on the 9/11 Commission, where he aggressively questioned Richard Clarke, the former chief counter terrorism adviser on the United States National Security Council.[2] The report of the commission was released on July 22, 2004.

Recently, Thompson came out in support of former New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani’s campaign for the 2008 Republican nomination. He stressed that Giuliani was the only Republican in the field that could win Illinois.

References

1. ^ Winston & Strawn LLP: James Thompson, Partner, Winston & Strawn LLP. Accessed August 12, 2008.
2. ^ a b How Credible Is Clarke?, by Amanda Ripley, TIME, April 4, 2004. Accessed August 12, 2008.

External links

* Thompson’s biography from the 9/11 Commission
* Thompson’s biography from Northwestern University
* Receipt for Thompson’s contribution for Friends of Hillary
* [1]

Scholarly Secondary Source

* Hartley, Robert E. Big Jim Thompson of Illinois (1979).

Political offices
Preceded by
Daniel Walker     Governor of Illinois
1977 – 1991     Succeeded by
Jim Edgar
Preceded by
Scott M. Matheson
Utah     Chairman of the National Governors Association
1983 – 1984     Succeeded by
John W. Carlin
Kansas

Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Illinois
Governors
Bond A Coles A Edwards A Reynolds A Ewing A Duncan A Carlin A Ford A French A Matteson A Bissell A Wood A Yates, Sr. A Oglesby A Palmer A Oglesby A Beveridge A Cullom A Hamilton A Oglesby A Fifer A Altgeld A Tanner A Yates, Jr. A Deneen A Dunne A Lowden A Small A Emmerson A Horner A Stelle A Green A Stevenson A Stratton A Kerner A Shapiro A Ogilvie A Walker A Thompson A Edgar A Ryan A Blagojevich A Quinn
State seal of Illinois

Lieutenant
Governors
Menard A Hubbard A Kinney A Casey A Ewing A Jenkins A Davidson A Anderson A Moore A Wells A McMurtry A Koerner A J. Wood A Marshall A Hoffmann A Bross A Dougherty A Beveridge A Early A Glenn A Schuman A Hamilton A Campbell A Smith A Ray A Gill A Northcott A Sherman A Oglesby A O’Hara A Oglesby A Sterling A Donovan A Stelle A Cross A Dixon A Chapman A Shapiro A Simon A Hartigan A O’Neal A Ryan A Kustra A C. Wood A Quinn A vacant (AG Madigan next in LOS)

Chairs of the National Governors Association
Willson A McGovern A Walsh A Spry A Capper A Harrington A Allen A Sproul A Cox A Trinkle A Brewster A McMullen A Dern A Case A Pollard A Rolph A McNutt A Peery A Cochran A Stark A Vanderbilt A Stassen A O’Conor A Saltonstall A Maw A Martin A Caldwell A Hildreth A Hunt A Lane A Carlson A Lausche A Peterson A Shivers A Thornton A Kennon A Langlie A Stanley A Stratton A Collins A Boggs A McNichols A Powell A Rosellini A Anderson A Sawyer A Reed A Guy A Volpe A Ellington A Love A Hearnes A Moore A Mandel A Evans A Rampton A Ray A Andrus A Askew A Milliken A Carroll A Bowen A Busbee A Snelling A Matheson A J. Thompson A Carlin A Alexander A Clinton A Sununu A Baliles A Branstad A Gardner A Ashcroft A Romer A Campbell A Dean A T. Thompson A Miller A Voinovich A Carper A Leavitt A Glendening A Engler A Patton A Kempthorne A Warner A Huckabee A Napolitano A Pawlenty A Rendell

Members of the 9/11 Commission
Kean (Chair) • Hamilton (Vice chair)
Ben-Veniste • Fielding • Gorelick • Gorton • Kerrey • Lehman • Roemer • Thompson

Logo of the 9-11 Commission

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_R._Thompson
Categories: 1936 births | Living people | Governors of Illinois | 9/11 Commission | Washington University in St. Louis alumni | Northwestern University School of Law alumni | University of Illinois at Chicago alumni | Illinois Republicans | United States Attorneys for the Northern District of Illinois
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_R._Thompson

***
Having examined how the DNI came to be and what it was intended to be, we must now take a hard look at how this concept has worked in practice.

Some Progress

Civilian Joint Duty

Similar to the Goldwater-Nichols joint service requirements, the DNI mandated that intelligence officers seeking to attain senior positions within the community must complete a tour of duty with another intelligence agency in order to be promoted.

Spending a year housed in another agency will not immediately prevent the kinds of turf battles that begin at the senior levels of government.  The value of this program, though, lies in breaking down the institutional chauvinism and cultural biases at the working levels of intelligence agencies.  As they have in the military, these rotations can provide the opportunity for intelligence officers to gain an appreciation of the community as a whole. By ensuring that only those who have gained an appreciation for the needs of the community as a whole and not just those of fragmented agencies reach the senior levels of its agency, this program should go a long way towards ensuring jointness at all levels of the community.

http://www.cnponline.org/ht/display/ContentDetails/i/2418

Cooperation with the Department of Defense

In May, DNI McConnell and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates signed a memorandum of agreement establishing the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence as the Director of Defense Intelligence inside the office of the DNI.  The Memorandum does not change the responsibilities of the Director of Defense Intelligence nor does it change statute.  It does, however, provide the appropriate prism for this and future holders of the position to view their responsibilities.

It is also symbolic of the greater cooperation between the Department of Defense and Director of National Intelligence in recent months.  The value of close coordination between these two for unity within the intelligence community cannot be understated.  For decades, the presence of so many large budget intelligence agencies within the Department placed 85 percent of the intelligence budget outside the control of the Director of Central Intelligence.  Conflicting organizational priorities between the Secretary and Director represented perhaps the greatest obstacle to a unified intelligence community.  The relative lack of tension recently bodes well for the development of a unified community.

Though the development is encouraging, it should be noted that much of this progress seems to be the product of personalities rather than institutions.  At some point in the future, the offices of the Secretary and the Director will be occupied by others with perhaps less similar views on the assignment of intelligence priorities.  Nonetheless, the value of institutional precedent to an organization still in its formative stages should not be discounted.

http://www.cnponline.org/ht/display/ContentDetails/i/2418

***
John Cruickshank Appointed Publisher of The Toronto Star
Wed Nov 26, 2008 5:46pm EST

TORONTO, ONTARIO, Nov 26 (MARKET WIRE) —
Torstar Corporation (TSX: TS.B) announced today that John Cruickshank has
been appointed as the Publisher of the Toronto Star, Canada’s largest
newspaper, effective January 1, 2009. Mr. Cruickshank is the 9th
publisher in the newspaper’s 116-year history.

Mr. Cruickshank, age 55, has enjoyed a distinguished career in newspapers
and television in both Canada and the United States.

He has served as Publisher of CBC News since September, 2007, where he
has been responsible for all English language television, radio and
online news. Before joining the CBC, he was Publisher of the Chicago
Sun-Times and Chief Operating Officer of the Sun-Times Media Group, based
in Chicago, from 2003 to 2007. Prior to being named Publisher of the
Sun-Times, he was Vice President, Editorial from 2000 to 2003.

He is also a former managing editor of the Globe and Mail and former
editor-in-chief of the Vancouver Sun. Under his leadership, the Sun won a
record number of National Newspaper Awards. He has also worked for the
Montreal Gazette and started his journalism career with the Kingston Whig
Standard.

Born and raised in Toronto, Mr. Cruickshank is a graduate of Richview
Collegiate and a graduate of Trinity College at the University of Toronto.

We are very pleased that John Cruickshank has agreed to serve as
Publisher of the Toronto Star,  said Robert Prichard, President and Chief
Executive Officer of Torstar.  He is a skilled and proven leader at the
peak of his game with a passion for newspapers and a distinguished record
as a journalist, editor and publisher. He brings to the Toronto Star a
commitment to journalism of the highest quality, a determination to deal
with difficult times and a confidence that there are winning
opportunities ahead. The Toronto Star will be in outstanding hands during
his tenure as Publisher.

I have had the honour and pleasure of working with John Cruickshank when
I was Publisher of the Vancouver Sun and he was editor-in chief,  said
Don Babick, Interim Publisher of the Toronto Star and a member of
Torstar’s Board of Directors.  The Star is very fortunate to have John as
publisher. He will bring to the Star an in-depth knowledge of the
editorial and business side of the operations.

John Cruickshank is a publisher’s publisher – smart, passionate and
committed to great journalism,  said John Honderich, former Toronto Star
Publisher and Chair of the Torstar Voting Trust.  His continent-wide
experience, proven integrity and leadership ability make him ideal to
lead the Star in these challenging times.

I grew up in this town and I grew up with the Star,  Cruickshank said.
I am thrilled to be coming to the Star. The Star combines the best
readership and circulation with true news quality and a true news
mission. The Star is a great newspaper and it is my ambition that it
remains a great newspaper.

About Torstar Corporation

Torstar Corporation is a broadly based media company listed on the
Toronto Stock Exchange (TS.B). Its businesses include the Star Media
Group led by the Toronto Star, Canada’s largest daily newspaper and
digital properties including thestar.com, toronto.com, Wheels.ca,
Workopolis, Olive Canada Network, and eyeReturn; Metroland Media Group,
publishers of community and daily newspapers in Ontario; and Harlequin
Enterprises, a leading global publisher of books for women.

Contacts:
Investor Inquiries: Torstar Corporation
David Holland
Executive Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer
(416) 869-4031
Email: dholland@torstar.ca
Website: http://www.torstar.com

Media Inquiries: Toronto Star
Bob Hepburn
Director, Community Relations and Communications
(416) 869-4947
Email: bhepburn@thestar.ca
Website: http://www.thestar.com

Copyright 2008, Market Wire, All rights reserved.
Thomson Reuters 2009 All rights reserved

http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS260654+26-Nov-2008+MW20081126

***
L. Marc Zell (born February 24, 1953) is a Washington, DC born attorney, currently based in Israel.

Graduated with an AB from Princeton University (1974) in Germanic Languages and Literatures with a concentration in theoretical linguistics and a JD with honors from University of Maryland at Baltimore (1977). After clerking at the Maryland Court of Appeals for a year (1977-1978), Zell joined Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Kampelman as an associate (1978-1981).

In 1986 he formed the law firm Feith & Zell, P.C. with Douglas Feith, who served later as Undersecretary of Defense for Policy from 2001-2005.

In the 1980s Zell developed an interest in Zionism and after a series of visits to Israel, moved his family to the Jewish settlement Alon Shevut in the West Bank in 1988. [1]

After Douglas Feith left law practice to work at the Pentagon in 2001, Zell partnered with Bernel Goldberg to form Zell, Goldberg & Co with offices in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv and affiliate offices in Washington, DC, Russia and Europe.

In 2003 he joined the Iraqi International Law Group, the first international law firm in Iraq since the founding of the Republic, as Partner for International Marketing. [2][3]

External links

* Profile on FANDZ International Law Group website
* Friends of the family Guardian story about Chalabi family connections from September 2003
* How Ahmed Chalabi conned the neocons A Salon story about Ahmed Chalabi
* L. Marc Zell responds to the above Salon story

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marc_Zell

***

The Rockefeller Commission report reveals excesses committed by the CIA, and the president dismisses Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger and CIA director William E. Colby November 2. The Senate confirms former congressman and Nixon administration cabinet member Donald H. (Harold) Rumsfeld, 43, as secretary of defense November 11; the Chicago-born navy air veteran takes office November 20, and his Nebraska-born, Wyoming-raised White House colleague Richard B. (Bruce) Cheney, 34, becomes Ford’s chief of staff, a position he will hold until January 1977. The Church Committee’s hearings go on and will continue for 18 months (see 1976).

http://www.answers.com/topic/1975

***

In the 1970s, when President Richard Nixon’s policy of detente was under attack by some former military officials and conservative policy intellectuals, Ford administration officials Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld were among those challenging as too soft the CIA’s estimate of Moscow’s military power.

Rumsfeld and Cheney wanted to create a  Team B,  which would have access to the CIA’s data on the Soviets and issue its own conclusions. Cheney, as White House chief of staff, and Rumsfeld, as secretary of Defense, championed Team B, whose members included the young defense strategist Paul Wolfowitz, who a quarter-century later would be one of the chief architects of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[4]

The new CIA director [Bush] was prompted to authorize an alternative unit outside the CIA to challenge the agency’s intelligence on Soviet intentions.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Team_B

As he worked to achieve some practical improvements in the year following the Nixon memorandum, Helms felt continual frustration in what he saw as a mismatch of authority and responsibility. In June 1972, he addressed CIA employees in the agency’s auditorium: “One must recognize that in empowering me to take certain actions…I wasn’t given any strength to do them with.” Seconds later, he revised his remark: “I used a moment ago the word ‘empowered,’ I want to withdraw that. I wasn’t ‘empowered’ to do anything; I was asked to do certain things.” This coda continued to the end of Helms’s time as DCI.

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/directors-of-central-intelligence-as-leaders-of-the-u-s-intelligence-community/chapter_4.htm

***
CSI
CIA Home > Library > Center for the Study of Intelligence > CSI Publications > Books and Monographs > Directors and Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence > Vernon Anthony Walters

Info

Vernon Anthony Walters
Lieutenant General, US Army

TENURE AS DEPUTY DIRECTOR:

* 2 May 1972–2 July 1976
* Acting Director of Central Intelligence, 2 July–4 September 1973

BIRTH:
3 January 1917, New York, New York

EDUCATION:
Stonyhurst College, England

APPOINTED:
2 March 1972 by Presidend Richard M. Nixon; confirmed by Senate, 10 April 1972; sworn in, 2 May 1972

EARLIER CAREER:

* Entered US Army, 2 May 1941
* Member, NATO Standing Group, Washington, 1955-60, with additional duties as staff assistant to President Eisenhower and interpreter to the President, Vice President, and senior State Department and Defense Department officials
* Army Attache, Italy, 1960-62; Brazil, 1962-67; Defense Attache, France, 1967-72
* Promoted to Lieutenant General, March 1972

LATER CAREER:

* Private consultant and lecturer, 1977-81
* Ambassador at Large, 1981-85
* Ambassador to the United Nations, 1985-88
* Ambassador to Federal Republic of Germany, 1989-91
* Private consultant and lecturer since 1991

Historical Document
Posted: Mar 19, 2007 09:37 AM
Last Updated: Jul 07, 2008 11:11 AM

Last Reviewed: Mar 19, 2007 09:37 AM

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/directors-and-deputy-directors-of-central-intelligence/walters.html

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At the same time, he held out little hope for better outside evaluation: “we may have a real problem in effectively carrying out the NSCIC task of providing a continuing review of the Intelligence Community product.” The NSCIC working group had met six times in its first year of operation, and it still seemed, as one internal memorandum noted, to be “feeling its way.”

On the resource side of intelligence, the IRAC had replaced the NIRB, and its work mainly proceeded at staff levels, with Tweedy’s new IC Staff handling the DCI’s equities. By October 1972, the IC Staff had produced a National Intelligence Program Memorandum, to which Secretary of Defense Laird reacted negatively. The staff believed it was the best cut it could make at that time in presenting community programs and costs comprehensively. The USIB welcomed Treasury Department representation at its meetings and continued to operate through its committees and staffs. By January 1973, as Helms’s tenure as DCI was drawing to a close, his IC Staff produced with DOD’s help the National Intelligence Community Planning Guidance for 1975–1980, setting forth overall issues and actions to address them. Helms, in one of his last actions as DCI, forwarded it to Kissinger, noting that it addressed one of the principal goals of the president’s 5 November 1971 memorandum, better community-wide planning.

[ . . . ]

The main area of improvement sought in the OMB paper was earlier and more comprehensive program planning guidance by the DCI. This built upon the DCI’s already recognized role in setting requirements and Helms’s planning initiative in 1969. OMB felt, however, that the DCI’s guidance had to be wider and come earlier in the DOD budget process for it to be effective. A second major area of improvement sought was for the DCI to obtain and use more information from DOD intelligence program chieftans: “The DCI,” it stated, “will need to seek information which in the past has not normally been available” during his program reviews.

In response to Kissinger’s request for a six-month progress report, Helms emphasized bureaucratic mechanisms and studies as the major accomplishments. He reported that his stronger IC Staff now included an NSA officer and others from outside CIA and was participating “on a fairly intimate basis” in the planning and budgetary activities of the various intelligence programs. He noted that the NSCIC had held its initial meeting and set up under his community deputy a working group, which was drawing up a program and doing product and post-mortem community performance reviews.

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/directors-of-central-intelligence-as-leaders-of-the-u-s-intelligence-community/chapter_4.htm

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***
Henry A. Kissinger
Henry A. Kissinger personal relations:
Michael R. Bloomberg – friend
Christopher Hitchens – criticized by
Nancy M. Kissinger – spouse
Brent Scowcroft – friend

Other current Henry A. Kissinger relationships:
American Friends of Bilderberg – director
Aspen Institute – lifetime trustee
Atlantic Council of the United States – director
Center for Strategic and International Studies – trustee
Financial Services Volunteer Corps – director
Horatio Alger Association – member
Institute of International Education – trustee
International Rescue Committee – overseer, trustee
Kissinger Associates, Inc. – founder
Metropolitan Museum of Art – trustee emeritus
Nobel Foundation – Nobel peace prize winner
Paley Center for Media – trustee

Henry A. Kissinger past relationships:
2007 Libby perjury trial – wrote letter of support
2008 Bilderberg conference – participant
L. Paul Bremer III – special assistant
Ann Fleischer – spouse
Gerald R. Ford administration – national security adviser & secretary of state
Harvard University – professor
International House – chairman
Kissinger McLarty Associates – co-founder
Richard M. Nixon administration – national security adviser
Brent Scowcroft – assistant
U.S. Department of State – secretary of state
World Economic Forum 2008 – attendee

http://www.muckety.com/Henry-A-Kissinger/1864.muckety

***

DOD also responded to the president’s November 1971 decision. It issued a press release noting the appointment of a new assistant secretary of defense (intelligence), Albert C. Hall, making it clear that this step resulted from long study within DOD including the Froehlke and Fitzhugh reports as well as from the president’s decision. DOD also stated that either Deputy Secretary Packard or Hall would represent DOD on the new IRAC (the president’s decision had confirmed DIA’s continuing membership on USIB). Finally, it promised “full cooperation and coordination” with DCI Helms as he moved to meet his new Intelligence Community leadership responsibilities.

[ . . . ]

In the 5 November 1971 memorandum, which was addressed to the heads of the departments represented on USIB, the president laid out the overall objectives he had noted in his letter to the DCI and spelled out various aspects of improved DCI leadership in a section entitled “The Necessary Conditions.”

[ . . . ]

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/directors-of-central-intelligence-as-leaders-of-the-u-s-intelligence-community/chapter_4.htm

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Maurice Greenberg was not only the long time Chairman and CEO of American International Group. He is also vice-chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations; good friends with Former Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger; and co-Chairman with Kissinger at the Nixon Center, which has four main programs: National Security Studies, Chinese Studies, U.S.-Russia Relations, and Regional Strategy (Middle East, Caspian Basin, and South Asia).

Well apparently this insurance tycoon Mr. Greenberg has serious connections in every part of the world. You might think that Greenberg’s company AIG is an American company. But that is not quite the case at all. American International Group is a mulit-national corporation that helps Wall Steet over leverage itself on a grand scale, while taking advantage of regulatory arbitrage — loopholes — to run a high-stakes, unregulated, casino-like hedge fund operation in America on top of its traditional life insurance business.

We need to know who A.I.G. is bailing out. It’s time for the Wall Street and Washington elite to stop keeping secrets from the American people.

http://tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com/talk/blogs/energymv/2009/03/we-deserve-to-know-where-aig-i.php

***

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President%27s_Foreign_Intelligence_Advisory_Board

Chairpersons

PIAB chairpersons have been:[7]

* 2006– Stephen Friedman
* 2005 James Langdon, Jr.
* 2001–2004 Lt. Gen. Brent Scowcroft, USAF (Ret.)
* 1997–2001 Hon. Warren B. Rudman
* 1996–1997 Hon. Thomas S. Foley
* 1995–1996 Hon. Warren B. Rudman (Acting)
* 1994–1995 Hon. Les Aspin
* 1993–1994 Adm. William J. Crowe, Jr., USN (Ret.)
* 1991–1993 Adm. Bobby Inman, USN (Ret.) (Acting)
* 1990–1991 Hon. John Tower
* 1982–1990 Amb. Anne Armstrong
* 1976–1977 Mr. Leo Cherne
* 1970–1976 Adm. George Anderson, Jr., USN (Ret.)
* 1968–1970 Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, USA (Ret.)
* 1963–1968 Mr. Clark Clifford
* 1956–1963 Dr. James Killian

See also

* Team B

**

PIAB membership is generally considered public information; for example, the Clinton Administration posted the names of the members on a PFIAB web page.[5] In August 2002, Randy Deitering, the executive director of PFIAB, confirmed that current membership of the board was the same as the list released by the White House press office in October 2001:[6]

* Brent Scowcroft, the chair
* Pete Wilson, a former governor of California
* Cresencio S. Arcos, Jr., an AT&T executive and former US ambassador
* Jim Barksdale, former head of the internet company Netscape
* Robert Addison Day, chairman of the TWC Group, a money management firm
* Stephen Friedman, past chairman of Goldman Sachs
* Alfred Lerner, chief executive of MBNA
* Ray Lee Hunt, scion of the Texas oil fortune
* Rita Hauser, a prominent lawyer
* David Jeremiah, a retired admiral
* Arnold Kanter, a national security official in the George H.W. Bush administration and a founding member of the Scowcroft Group
* James Calhoun Langdon, Jr., a power-lawyer in Texas
* Elisabeth Pate-Cornell, Chair of Management Science and Engineering at Stanford University
* John Harrison Streicker, a real estate magnate
* Philip Zelikow, a National Security Council staffer during the George H.W. Bush administration

***
The Privacy Act of 1974 signed into law by President Ford January 1 gives U.S. citizens the right to request, inspect, and challenge their own federal files; effective September 27, the law bars government agencies from keeping secret records on individuals or collecting information that is not relevant and necessary for them to carry out agency functions. It also provides adequate safeguards to protect records from unauthorized access and disclosure, keeps agencies from sharing information on individuals, and bars them from disclosing personal information except under court order or in certain other limited circumstances (see 1974). President Ford calls former CIA director Richard Helms into the Oval Office January 5 and tells him,  Frankly, we are in a mess.  Helms defends Operation Chaos:  The basic allegation—that we spied on dissidents, stemmed from the charge to me to discover if there was any foreign connection to the dissidents. If you get a name, of course you make a record and open a file in case it is relevant thereafter.  Ford says he plans no witchhunt,  but in this environment I don’t know if I can control it.  He informs Helms that he is appointing a blue ribbon panel headed by Vice President Rockefeller to investigate the agency’s domestic operations. Sen. Frank (Forrester) Church, 50 (D. Idaho) chairs a Senate Select Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (the House of Representatives also appoints such a committee), CIA director William E. Colby supplies the Church Committee with details of the agency’s efforts to sabotage Chile’s economy, Sen. Goldwater (R. Ariz.) and other right-wing politicians attack Colby for cooperating with the Church Committee.

Nixon cronies John Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and Robert Mardian draw prison sentences of up to 8 years each February 21 for their part in covering up White House involvement in the 1972 Watergate break-in.

The Rockefeller Commission report reveals excesses committed by the CIA, and the president dismisses Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger and CIA director William E. Colby November 2. The Senate confirms former congressman and Nixon administration cabinet member Donald H. (Harold) Rumsfeld, 43, as secretary of defense November 11; the Chicago-born navy air veteran takes office November 20, and his Nebraska-born, Wyoming-raised White House colleague Richard B. (Bruce) Cheney, 34, becomes Ford’s chief of staff, a position he will hold until January 1977. The Church Committee’s hearings go on and will continue for 18 months (see 1976).

http://www.answers.com/topic/1975

***
Northrop Grumman designed, fielded and accredited the current version BIR system, which includes a service-oriented architecture, and will design and field a significantly enhanced next-generation BIR under the new contract from the Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center, Charlottesville, Va. The contract includes one base year and four one-year options. The next-generation BIR will include biometric-enabled intelligence from a wider variety of U.S. agencies and organizations.

“With this new system, intelligence analysts will be able to better share information among organizations, making it easier to connect the dots and significantly enhancing national security,” said Barry Rhine, vice president and general manager of Northrop Grumman’s Command and Control Systems Division.

The next-generation system will recognize when the data on individuals is included in the databases of multiple agencies; keep track of when and where people are encountered, providing a more complete understanding of their movements; and supply greater information on relationships between and among individuals — familial relationships, neighbors, co-workers, and shared addresses or phone numbers, for example.

The Northrop Grumman team includes SAIC, San Diego; Booz-Allen-Hamilton, McLean, Va.; and SPARTA Inc., Lake Forest, Calif.

http://www.stockhouse.com/News/USReleasesDetail.aspx?n=7221355

***
SAIC’s board of directors is comprised of men and women who have distinguished themselves in industry, finance, health care, and government service.
Board Members
Ken Dahlberg     Ken Dahlberg
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
Elected 2003

Ken Dahlberg was named the chief executive officer of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on November 3, 2003 and chairman of the board on July 16, 2004. Prior to joining SAIC, Dahlberg served as executive vice president of General Dynamics where he was responsible for the company’s Information Systems and Technology Group.

Dahlberg began his career with Hughes Aircraft in June 1967. He held various engineering, program management and leadership positions with Hughes. At Hughes, he served as president of the division that produced air traffic control hardware, systems and radar; then was president of the division that produced weapons systems, naval systems and tank systems, and later was president of the Sensors and Communications division. When Raytheon acquired Hughes Aircraft in 1997, he became president and chief operating officer of Raytheon Systems Company and oversaw operations of the defense business units. Three years later, he assumed the duties of executive vice president for business development and president of Raytheon International. In this role, he was Raytheon’s principal liaison with its defense customers and directed its international and domestic business development.

Dahlberg received a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Drexel University in 1967, a master’s degree in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California in 1969 and attended the University of California business school for advanced education for executives. He is a director of Teledyne Technologies and the National Defense Industrial Association, and a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the Surface Navy Association, the Association of the United States Army, and a lifetime member of the United States Navy League.
Member Member of the Classified Business Oversight Committee
Member Member of the Ethics & Corp Responsibility Committee
Member Member of the Stock & Acquisition Transactions Committee
France Córdova     France A. Córdova

Elected 2008

Dr. Córdova has served as the President of Purdue University since July 2007. Prior to joining Purdue University, she served as Chancellor of University of California Riverside from 2002 to 2007. From August 1996 to July 2002, Dr. Córdova was Vice Chancellor for Research and Professor of Physics at University of California Santa Barbara. She served as Chief Scientist of National Aeronautics and Space Administration from 1993 to 1996, and headed the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Pennsylvania State University from 1989 to 1993. Dr. Córdova is a member of the board of directors of Edison International.
Member Member of the Human Resources and Compensation Committee
Member Member of the Ethics & Corp Responsibility Committee
Wolfgang Demisch     Wolfgang H. Demisch

Elected 1990

Mr. Demisch has been a principal of Demisch Associates LLC, a consulting firm, since 2003. He was a managing director of Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein, formerly Wasserstein Perella Securities, Inc., from 1998 to 2002. From 1993 to 1998, he was managing director of BT Alex. Brown, and from 1988 to 1993, he was managing director of UBS Securities, Inc.
Member Member of the Audit Committee
Member Member of the Finance Committee
Jere Drummond     Jere A. Drummond

Elected 2003

Mr. Drummond was employed by BellSouth Corporation from 1962 until his retirement in December 2001. He served as vice chairman of BellSouth Corporation from January 2000 until his retirement. He was president and chief executive officer of BellSouth Communications Group, a provider of traditional telephone operations and products, from January 1998 until December 1999. He was president and chief executive officer of BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc. from January 1995 until December 1997. Drummond also serves on the boards of directors of Borg-Warner Automotive, AirTran Holdings, Inc. and Centillium Communications, Inc.
Member Member of the Audit Committee
Committee Chair Chair of the Nominating & Corp. Gov Committee
John Hamre     John J. Hamre

Elected 2005

Dr. Hamre has served as the president and chief executive officer of the Center for Strategic & International Studies, a public policy research institution, since 2000. Dr. Hamre served as U.S. deputy secretary of defense from 1997 to 2000 and under secretary of defense (comptroller) from 1993 to 1997. Hamre is also a member of the board of directors of ChoicePoint, Inc., ITT Industries, Inc., and MITRE Corporation.
Committee Chair Chair of the Classified Business Oversight Committee
Member Member of the Nominating & Corp. Gov Committee
Miriam John     Miriam E. John

Elected 2007

Dr. John retired from Sandia National Laboratories, a science and engineering laboratory, in September 2006, after having served as Vice President of Sandia’s California Division from April 1999 to September 2006. She previously served in a number of managerial and technical roles for Sandia from 1982 to 1999. Dr. John is a member of the Department of Defense’s Defense Science Board and Threat Reduction Advisory Committee, and the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board.
Member Member of the Human Resources and Compensation Committee
Member Member of the Ethics & Corp Responsibility Committee
Anita Jones     Anita K. Jones

Elected 1998

Dr. Jones is the Quarles professor of engineering at the University of Virginia, where she has taught since 1989. From 1993 to 1997, Jones was on leave of absence from the university to serve as director of defense research and engineering in the U.S. Department of Defense. Jones also served as a director of our company from 1987 to 1993.
Member Member of the Audit Committee
Committee Chair Chair of the Ethics & Corp Responsibility Committee
John Jumper     John P. Jumper

Elected 2007

General Jumper retired from the United States Air Force, effective November 1, 2005. From September 2001 through November 2005, General Jumper was Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, serving as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training and equipping of active-duty, guard, reserve and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. As a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Jumper functioned as a military advisor to the Secretary of Defense, National Security Council and the President. General Jumper is also a member of the boards of directors of Goodrich Corporation, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., TechTeam Global, Inc. and Somanetics Corporation.
Member Member of the Audit Committee
Member Member of the Classified Business Oversight Committee
Harry Kraemer     Harry M. J. Kraemer, Jr.

Elected 1997

Mr. Kraemer has been an executive partner of Madison Dearborn Partners, LLC, a private equity investment firm, since April 2005, and has served as a professor at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University since January 2005. Mr. Kraemer previously served as the chairman of Baxter International, Inc., a health-care products, systems and services company, from January 2000 until April 2004, as chief executive officer of Baxter from January 1999 until April 2004 and as president of Baxter from April 1997 until April 2004. Kraemer also served as the senior vice president and chief financial officer of Baxter from November 1993 to April 1997.
Committee Chair Chair of the Audit Committee
Member Member of the Human Resources and Compensation Committee
Edward Sanderson     Edward J. Sanderson, Jr.

Elected 2002

Mr. Sanderson retired from Oracle Corporation in 2002 after having served as an executive vice president since 1995. At Oracle, Sanderson was responsible for Oracle Product Industries, Oracle Consulting, and the Latin American Division. Prior to Oracle, he was president of Unisys World-wide Services and partner at both McKinsey & Company and Accenture (formerly Andersen Consulting).
Committee Chair Chair of the Human Resources and Compensation Committee
Member Member of the Finance Committee
Louis Simpson     Louis A. Simpson

Elected 2006

Mr. Simpson has served as president and chief executive officer, capital operations, of GEICO Corporation, an auto insurer, since May 1993. Mr. Simpson previously served as vice chairman of the board of GEICO from 1985 to 1993. He also serves on the board of directors of VeriSign, Inc. Mr. Simpson previously served as a director of our company from 1999 to 2002.
Committee Chair Chair of the Finance Committee
Member Member of the Nominating & Corp. Gov Committee
A. Young     A. Thomas Young

Elected 1995

Mr. Young retired from Lockheed Martin Corp. in 1995 after having served as an executive vice president from March 1995 to July 1995. Prior to its merger with Lockheed Corporation, Young served as the president and chief operating officer of Martin Marietta Corp. from 1990 to 1995. Young is also on the board of directors of the Goodrich Corporation.
Member Member of the Finance Committee
Member Member of the Nominating & Corp. Gov Committee
Board Meetings

During the fiscal year ended January 31, 2008, the Board of Directors held 13 meetings of the entire board and six meetings of only the independent directors. Average attendance at such meetings of the Board of Directors was 92.3%. During fiscal 2008, all incumbent directors attended at least 88% of the aggregate of the meetings of the Board of Directors and committees of the Board of Directors on which they served. In addition, all directors except Mr. Kraemer attended the 2007 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. It is the Company’s policy that all directors attend our annual meetings.

http://investors.saic.com/directors.cfm

***

Kenneth H. Dahlberg (1917- ) is an American businessman and World War II fighter ace who became a figure involved in the Watergate scandal.

Watergate scandal

During the Watergate investigation by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, chronicled in All the President’s Men, Bernstein traveled to Miami to see Martin Dardis, the head investigator for Dade County District Attorney Richard E. Gerstein. Since most of the Watergate burglars were from Miami, the district attorney’s office had launched an investigation. Dardis showed Bernstein a photostatic copy of a cashier’s check for $25,000 that had been deposited into the bank account of a real estate firm owned by Bernard Barker, one of the Watergate burglars. The check was drawn on a Boca Raton, Florida, bank and was made out to Kenneth H. Dahlberg. Bernstein telephoned this information to Woodward who was back at the Post in Washington, D.C.

Woodward had a research librarian at the Post check the newspaper’s files for any articles mentioning or pictures of Dahlberg. The librarian found a 1967 photograph of Dahlberg with then Vice President Hubert Humphrey, receiving an overdue military decoration.

The search for Dahlberg was narrowed to Minnesota and Woodward located Dahlberg’s telephone number from information and called him at home. At first, Dahlberg did not believe Woodward was actually a reporter. He later called Woodward back and explained that his neighbor, Virginia Piper, had been recently kidnapped and it was an upsetting experience. Dahlberg told Woodward he had the check made out to himself while he was in Florida on business and did not want to carry that much cash around. Dahlberg could not explain how the check got into Barker’s bank account but said it was either given to the Committee to Re-elect the President or to Maurice Stans.
Dahlberg was the midwest finance chairman for the Committee to Re-elect the President during President Richard M. Nixon’s 1972 campaign. In 1968, Dahlberg was the finance chairman for Clark MacGregor’s unsuccessful Senate campaign in Minnesota. MacGregor was later appointed the head of the Committee to Re-elect the President in 1972 after former attorney general John Mitchell had resigned.

It was later learned the $25,000 came from Dwayne Andreas, chief executive officer of Archer Daniels Midland, as an anonymous donation to the Nixon campaign.

Woodward later commented that finding Dahlberg’s check was a turning point in their Watergate investigation because it led to the discovery of how the Watergate burglars were financed through a money-laundering scheme.

Dahlberg was neither accused of nor implicated in any wrongdoing as a result of the Watergate scandal.

It was later after Watergate that it was learned that Martin Dardis was one of five GIs who rescued Dahlberg as a POW after the Battle of the Bulge. It wasn’t until 1991 that Dardis and the other four GIs were honored with Silver Stars for their heroism in rescuing Dahlberg.

In 1970, President Nixon appointed Dahlberg to the board of visitors of the U.S. Air Force Academy. He also served as a trustee to Hamline University.

Dahlberg was shot down three times, the last in February 1945, and became a Prisoner of War for the final three months of the war.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_H._Dahlberg

***
A. Thomas Young

Elected 1995

Mr. Young retired from Lockheed Martin Corp. in 1995 after having served as an executive vice president from March 1995 to July 1995. Prior to its merger with Lockheed Corporation, Young served as the president and chief operating officer of Martin Marietta Corp. from 1990 to 1995. Young is also on the board of directors of the Goodrich Corporation.

http://investors.saic.com/directors.cfm

A. Thomas Young
Former Executive Vice President
Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired)
A. Thomas Young, since retired, was executive Vice President of Lockheed Martin Corporation headquartered in Bethesda, MD. Before assuming that position in March, 1995, Mr. Young was President and Chief Operating Officer of Martin Marietta Corporation. Earlier, he was a Senior Vice President of Martin Marietta Corporation and President of Martin Marietta Electronics & Missiles Group in Orlando, Florida. He joined Martin Marietta in 1982 as Vice President of Aerospace Research and Engineering.

Prior to joining Martin Marietta, Mr. Young was Director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland from 1980 to 1982. During a 12-yeat career with NASA, he served as Deputy Director of the Ames Research Center in California, Director of the Planetary Program in the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., and as Mission Director of the Project Viking Mars landing program at Langley Research Center in Virginia.

Mr. Young has received numerous honors and awards for his contribution to the nation’s space program, including NASA’s highest award, the Distinguished Service Medal, for his role in the Viking project. He also received the Outstanding Leadership Medal for his contributions to the Voyager program, the Meritorious Executive Presidential Rank Award, and the Distinguished Executive Award.

Born in 1938 in Wachapreague, Virginia, Mr. Young received his bachelor of aeronautical engineering degree and a bachelor of mechanical engineering degree in 1964 form the University of Virginia and a master of management degree in 1972 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which he attended as a Sloan Fellow.

Mr. Young is chairman of the National Business Committee for the Arts. He sits on the board of directors for the BFGoodrich Company, Cooper Industries, Inc., Dial Corp. and the Potomac Electric Power Company. He is director of the Virginia Engineering Foundation of the University if Virginia’s School of Engineering and Applied Science.

He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and of the American Astronautical Society, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He also holds and Honorary Doctor of Science degree from Salisbury State University in Maryland.

http://www.nist.gov/director/blueribbon/young.html
National Institute of Standards and Technology

***
Douglas Isbell
Headquarters, Washington, DC                 December 17, 1999
(Phone:  202/358-1753)

RELEASE:  99-147

YOUNG TO LEAD MARS PROGRAM ASSESSMENT TEAM
A. Thomas Young has been named by NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin to chair the Mars Program Independent Assessment Team which will review the agency’s approach to robotic exploration of Mars in the wake of the recent loss of the Mars Polar Lander mission.

Young retired as executive vice president of Lockheed Martin Corp. in 1995. During his career, Young has managed numerous complex, technically challenging programs, including serving as mission director of the 1976 NASA Viking landings on Mars. Young was director of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, from 1980 to 1982, and then joined Martin Marietta Corp. in 1982 as vice president of aerospace research and engineering. He was named president and chief operating officer of Martin Marietta in 1990.

The team will evaluate several recent successful and unsuccessful NASA missions to deep space, including Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Climate Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, Deep Space 1 and Deep Space 2. It will analyze the budgets, content, schedule, management structure and scientific organization of these missions. It will then assess how these roles and responsibilities are related to mission safety, reliability and success.

The assessment team will also review proposed revisions to NASA’s existing Mars exploration program architecture as options are developed by a group at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA.

The team will report their findings to the NASA administrator by mid-March 2000. Other members of the board will be established shortly.

I have asked Tom Young as the leader of this team to dig as deep as he can, ask as many questions as possible, and to operate in a completely independent environment,  Goldin said.  He will have access to every document, every employee, and every NASA resource. We will be open and non-defensive. We will listen and learn.

We have had a string of successes, but we’ve also had a few failures and we must learn from both. This independent review team will provide us with some fundamental guidance about how to continue our bold program for exploring the solar system, and how to make it even better.

The investigation into the likely cause of the apparent failure of the Mars Polar Lander mission will be conducted by an internal peer review at JPL and submitted to the Mars assessment team for their review.

Mars Polar Lander and Mars Climate Orbiter are part of a series of missions in a long-term program of Mars exploration managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL’s industrial partner is Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, CO. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/news/news61.html

***
Louis A. Simpson

Elected 2006

Mr. Simpson has served as president and chief executive officer, capital operations, of GEICO Corporation, an auto insurer, since May 1993. Mr. Simpson previously served as vice chairman of the board of GEICO from 1985 to 1993. He also serves on the board of directors of VeriSign, Inc. Mr. Simpson previously served as a director of our company from 1999 to 2002.
Committee Chair Chair of the Finance Committee
Member Member of the Nominating & Corp. Gov Committee

John P. Jumper

Elected 2007

General Jumper retired from the United States Air Force, effective November 1, 2005. From September 2001 through November 2005, General Jumper was Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, serving as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training and equipping of active-duty, guard, reserve and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. As a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Jumper functioned as a military advisor to the Secretary of Defense, National Security Council and the President. General Jumper is also a member of the boards of directors of Goodrich Corporation, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., TechTeam Global, Inc. and Somanetics Corporation.
Member Member of the Audit Committee
Member Member of the Classified Business Oversight Committee

http://investors.saic.com/directors.cfm

***

Somanetics develops, manufactures and markets the INVOS® Cerebral Oximeter, the only noninvasive patient monitoring system that continuously monitors changes in the blood oxygen levels in the brain commercially available in the U.S.

Somanetics also develops and markets the CorRestore® System for use in cardiac repair and reconstruction, including a procedure called Surgical Ventricular Restoration, or SVR, for the treatment of certain patients with congestive heart failure.

http://somanetics.org/

Arik Anderson
Senior Vice President, R&D and Operations       Bruce J. Barrett
President and Chief Executive Officer
William M. Iacona, C.P.A.
Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Controller and Treasurer       Dominic J. Spadafore
Senior Vice President, U.S Sales and Marketing
Mary Ann Victor, J.D.
Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer and Secretary       Michael D. Wider, Ph.D.
Vice President, Technology and Market Development
Ronald A. Widman
Vice President, Medical Affairs       Pamela A. Winters
Vice President, Quality Assurance

Board of Directors
James I. Ausman, Ph.D.
Bruce J. Barrett
Daniel S. Follis
Robert R. Henry
John P. Jumper
Richard R. Sorensen

2009-

http://somanetics.org/investor/

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Top Executives at Somanetics Corporation

Bruce J. Barrett     CEO/President/Director
Mary Ann Victor     Chief Administrative Officer/Vice President/Secretary
William M. Iacona     CFO/Vice President/Treasurer/Controller
John P. Jumper     Director
Robert R. Henry     Director
Richard R. Sorensen     Director
Arik Anderson     Senior VP, Divisional
Daniel S. Follis     Director
Dominic J. Spadafore     Senior VP, Divisional
James I. Ausman     Director

Richard R. Sorensen
Director
Somanetics Corporation
Troy ,  MI
Sector: HEALTHCARE  /  Medical Appliances & Equipment

52 Years Old
Mr. Sorensen has served as one of our directors since June 2006. Since June 2005, he has served as a financial advisor with UBS Financial Services, Inc., a firm providing financial advisory and brokerage services. From September 1998 to June 2005, he served at Superior Consultant Holdings Corporation, a publicly-traded provider of information technology, consulting and outsourcing to hospitals and healthcare systems, most recently as its Chief Financial Officer from October 2000 to June 2005. Superior Consultant Holdings Corporation merged with Affiliated Computer Services, Inc. in January 2005. Previously he served as an audit partner with Plante & Moran LLP, a professional service firm, including an independent registered public accounting firm, providing tax, assurance and business consulting services in Michigan, Ohio and Illinois. Mr. Sorensen received a BBA degree in accounting from University of Michigan.
Director Compensation (Somanetics Corporation) for 2007
Fees earned or paid in cash     $18,000.00
Stock awards     $0.00
Option awards (in $)     $25,662.00
Non-equity incentive plan compensation     $0.00
Change in pension value and nondisqualified compensation earnings     $0.00
All other compensation     $0.00
Total Compensation     $43,662.00

http://people.forbes.com/profile/richard-r-sorensen/72905

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Richard R. Sorensen Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Richard R. Sorensen has more than 20 years’ experience in the financial industry. He joined Superior Consultant Holdings Corporation as Controller in August of 1998. Previously, he served as a partner of Plante & Moran,LLP, the ninth largest certified public accounting and management consulting firm in the United States. Mr. Sorensen has provided his financial expertise to Superior in an advisory capacity since the company’s inception in 1984. He is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) and a graduate of the University of Michigan.
Tags:
Superior Consultant Holdings Corp. – MI – Management consulting service – Chief Financial Officer
See full job history Richard Sorensen’s Job History

* Superior Consultant Company, Inc.
2005
* Superior Consultant Holdings Corporation
2005
* Plante & Moran, LLP

Richard Sorensen’s Colleagues

216 contacts at Superior Consultant Holdings Corp.

* Richard Helppie
Chief Executive Officer
* Chris Hottinger
Regional Vice President
* Richard Sorensen
Chief Financial Officer

http://www.spoke.com/info/p2m4NV0/RichardSorensen

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***
http://www.secform4.com/insider-trading/1244931.htm

Insider Trading SEC Form 4

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eClinical Trial Support

542 clinical trials. 32 languages. 15,620 sites. TechTeam’s eClinical services provide pharmaceutical firms with support solutions for electronic case report (eCRF ) and electronic patient diaries (eDiary) programs.

TechTeam Global Reports Fourth Quarter 2008 Financial Results – 24th February 2009 ›

TechTeam Awarded $15 Million Contract with Defense Logistics Agency – 14th January 2009 ›

http://www.techteam.com/

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John P. Jumper

Elected 2007

General Jumper retired from the United States Air Force, effective November 1, 2005. From September 2001 through November 2005, General Jumper was Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, serving as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training and equipping of active-duty, guard, reserve and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. As a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Jumper functioned as a military advisor to the Secretary of Defense, National Security Council and the President. General Jumper is also a member of the boards of directors of Goodrich Corporation, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., TechTeam Global, Inc. and Somanetics Corporation.
Member Member of the Audit Committee
Member Member of the Classified Business Oversight Committee

http://investors.saic.com/directors.cfm

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TechTeam is a fast-rising, global market leader for outsourced, multilingual help desk services and specialized IT solutions deployed through a proven single point of contact (SPOC) delivery model.

Brown-Wilson Group, Black Book of Outsourcing, 2008

Our mission-oriented services have provided government agencies from the Department of Defense and Federal Civilian, to state and local municipalities, a best-practices approach to design, management, and optimization of their Information Technology-based initiatives.

TechTeam Government Solutions

Combining best commercial practices with deep government mission understanding, TechTeam Government Solutions delivers tailored solutions from IT services to modeling and simulation.

For 30 years, our reputation has been based on delivering excellence through tailored, agile solutions, and maintaining a foundation of absolute integrity.

We turned our experience from Fortune 1000 companies into solutions for many government agencies including:

[see scrolling list – just about every major government agency]

TechTeam Government Solutions is a leading IT solutions company that provides IT infrastructure support, information assurance, managed services, and application services support to federal, state, and local governments.

Vector Research Center
For Enterprise Performance

*
Supply Chain Engineering
*
Acquisition  & Program Management Support
*
Modeling, Simulation & Optimization Decision Aids
*
Agent-based Complex Adaptive Systems
*
Organizational Change Management

TechTeam Global Inc.

http://www.techteam.com/governmentsolutions/

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TechTeam Global, Inc. is a leading provider of IT outsourcing and business process outsourcing services to large and medium businesses, as well as government organizations. The company’s primary services include service desk, technical support, desk-side support, security administration, infrastructure management, and related professional services. TechTeam also provides a number of specialized, value-added services in specific vertical markets. Founded in 1979, TechTeam has nearly 3,000 employees across the world, providing IT support in 32 languages. TechTeam’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “TEAM.” For more information, call 800-522-4451 or visit http://www.techteam.com.

TechTeam Global Announces New Chairman and Presiding Director
President and CEO Gary J. Cotshott appointed Board Chairman
SOUTHFIELD, Mich., Jan 09, 2009 /PRNewswire-FirstCall via COMTEX News Network/ — TechTeam Global, Inc. (Nasdaq: TEAM), a worldwide provider of information technology, enterprise support and business process outsourcing services, today announced the election of Gary J. Cotshott, the Company’s president and chief executive officer, to the position of chairman of its board of directors. In a related appointment, retired U.S. Air Force Gen. John P. Jumper, former Air Force Chief of Staff, was elected by the board as its presiding director to lead executive sessions of independent members of the board.

Mr. Cotshott replaces Alok Mohan, who is resigning as chairman to rebalance his time across various business and personal interests. Mr. Mohan will continue in his role as a board member.

We are disappointed that Alok has chosen to resign as chairman but are fortunate to have his continued leadership, experience and knowledge on the board. For the past two and a half years, he has worked tirelessly on behalf of the Company and our shareholders,  said Mr. Cotshott.  He has been a key advisor in our strategic, business and management transformation. We are grateful for his contributions and assistance in transforming the business on behalf of all shareholders.

We believe in good governance and Gen. Jumper is an outstanding choice for presiding director,  continued Mr. Cotshott.  He is a respected board colleague with proven leadership skills and the highest standards of integrity.

http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=91039&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1242585&highlight=

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Gary J. Cotshott
Chairman and CEO
David Kriegman
President, TechTeam Government Solutions, Inc.
Kevin Burke
Senior Vice President and General Manager, Americas
Christoph Neut
Senior Vice President and General Manager, EMEA
Kamran Sokhanvari
Senior Vice President and General Manager, Asia/Latin America
Christopher Donohue
Vice President, Strategy, Marketing, and Product Development
Christopher Donohue
Vice President, Strategy, Marketing, and Product Development

As Vice President of Strategy, Marketing, and Product Development, Mr. Donohue has global responsibilities for strategy formulation, offer portfolio management, product development, product and brand marketing, industry analyst relations and corporate communications. He brings 19 years of experience and a strong record of success to his role. Prior to joining TechTeam, he was a key member of the executive leadership team that established and grew Dell’s Managed Services business. Prior to joi…
Robert W. Gumber
Vice President of Service Delivery
Robert W. Gumber
Vice President of Service Delivery

Robert W. Gumber was named as Vice President of Service Delivery in November, 2006. He is responsible for the operational delivery of TechTeam’s services in the Americas and Europe and oversees the following operational components: financial results, customer satisfaction, service level agreement attainment, and performance. Mr. Gumber joined TechTeam in October, 2003 and prior to this appointment served as the Vice President of Operations for Europe.

Prior to TechTeam, Mr. Gumber ow…
Margaret M. Loebl
Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, and Treasurer
Margaret M. Loebl
Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, and Treasurer

Ms. Loebl joined TechTeam in October 2008 as Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer. Prior to joining TechTeam, Ms. Loebl served as Group Vice President of Finance at Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) from 2002 to 2007. In her role at ADM, Ms. Loebl was responsible for treasury, credit, private equity and benefit financing across the company. She also drove a number of best practice initiatives at ADM and is most notably credited with the transformation of the Finance Group …
Armin Pressler
Chief Information Officer, and Facilities
Armin Pressler
Chief Information Officer, and Facilities

Mr. Pressler was an Onvaio co-founder (Onvaio was acquired by TechTeam in 2008) and now serves as TechTeam’s Vice President, Chief Information Officer and Facilities. In this role, Armin is focused on optimizing TechTeam’s global infrastructure and applications suite, as well as integrating the global capacity plan with facilities and infrastructure.

Mr. Pressler brings a strong global technology management track record with 17 years of experience within the IT, call center and life …
Michael A. Sosin
Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary

http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=91039&p=irol-govmanage

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Gary J. Cotshott
Chairman and CEO

Mr. Cotshott joined TechTeam in February 2008 as President and Chief Executive Officer and a Director. Prior to joining TechTeam, Mr. Cotshott was Vice President and General Manager of the Dell Services division of Dell Inc. between 1998 and August 2007. As Vice President and General Manager of Dell Services, Mr. Cotshott led the formation, strategy and development of Dell Services, which grew from $250 million to $5.5 billion in worldwide reported revenue over a nine-year period. Mr. Cotshott began his career at NCR Corporation in 1974. His most recent role at NCR was Senior Vice President and General Manager, Worldwide Customer Services, where he had direct worldwide, line management responsibility for its $2.8 billion services division. He led this organization through a period of significant growth as well as a large scale restructuring of U.S., European and Japanese operations that improved profitability and customer satisfaction.

Kevin Burke
Senior Vice President and General Manager, Americas

In January 2007, Kevin P. Burke joined TechTeam Global as Senior Vice President, Americas. In this capacity, he will be responsible for the day-to-day operations and growth and profitability of the Americas business unit.

Mr. Burke brings more than 20 years of experience in management, operations and sales and marketing in the information technology industry. Prior to joining TechTeam, he was the President and Chief Operating Officer of CrimeCog Technologies, Inc., a criminal justice enterprise software company. From May 2004 through August 2005, Mr. Burke was the Channel Services Manager for Cisco Systems, Inc. and was responsible for the sales, promotion and growth of Cisco’s Remote Operations Services to IBM within North America. He served as a Region Manager for Information Builders, Inc. for two years, where his region led the company in new account acquisition. During the 1990s, Mr. Burke held numerous management positions with Alternative Resource Corporation, including General Manager of its National Technical Services Division, where he was responsible for the profit and loss of the division.

Mr. Burke received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Business Administration from Central Michigan University and a Masters in Business Administration from the University of Detroit.

Christoph Neut
Senior Vice President and General Manager, EMEA

In November 2006, Mr. Christoph Neut was named Senior Vice President, EMEA. In this role, Mr. Neut leads the overall performance, business development and expansion, and management of customer relations and alliances for TechTeam Global in the EMEA region.

Formerly, Mr. Neut was Vice President of Sales and Marketing, EMEA. Under his direction, TechTeam expanded its presence within the European market, captured several key Fortune 1000 customers, launched its near-shore operations in Romania and Poland, and identified and closed several strategic acquisitions and grew the revenue with a CAGR of over 35% annualized since TechTeam started in Europe in 1996. Mr. Neut also serves as an Officer of TechTeam Global, is a Member of the Management Committee of the Global Leadership Team and is the Chairman of the European Board of Directors.

Mr. Neut brings over 15 years of IT outsourcing and business process outsourcing experience to the company. Before joining TechTeam, he held several business development positions in the contact center and services industry. During that time he gained significant expertise in pan-European service models including the operation of multilingual contact centers. Mr. Neut holds a bachelors degree in Law from the Catholic University of Leuven and a master’s degree in International Law from the Universite Libre de Bruxelles.

Robert W. Gumber
Vice President of Service Delivery

Robert W. Gumber was named as Vice President of Service Delivery in November, 2006. He is responsible for the operational delivery of TechTeam’s services in the Americas and Europe and oversees the following operational components: financial results, customer satisfaction, service level agreement attainment, and performance. Mr. Gumber joined TechTeam in October, 2003 and prior to this appointment served as the Vice President of Operations for Europe.

Prior to TechTeam, Mr. Gumber owned and operated a consulting company, RWG and Associates, L.L.C., which provided supply chain consulting services to a prominent automotive supplier industry consortium. He also held numerous supply and manufacturing positions in the automotive industry. During 2001, he was the Director of Material Planning and Logistics at Visteon Corporation. Between 1997 and 2001, Mr. Gumber was Supply Director for Visteon Corporation’s Interior/Exterior Division. There he was responsible for purchasing, supplier quality/technical assistance, material planning and logistics supporting Visteon’s interior/exterior manufacturing operations. Between 1994 and 1997, Mr. Gumber was the Integration Manager for the design of the Ford Production System. From 1991 to 1994, he was Continuous Flow Manufacturing and Inventory Planning Manager of Ford’s Electronics Division. From 1986 to 1991, Mr. Gumber resided in Europe, where he served as Manufacturing Planning and Control Manager for Ford’s European Electronics Operations in Basildon, England and Manufacturing Planning and Control Manager for a “greenfield” electronics plant in Cadiz, Spain.

He holds a Bachelor of Science in Management from Calumet College of St. Joseph, Indiana.

Kamran Sokhanvari
Senior Vice President and General Manager, Asia/Latin America

Mr. Sokhanvari brings 15 years of executive experience leading global service delivery organizations. In his role as Senior Vice President and General Manager of Asia/Latin America, he will aggressively expand TechTeam’s presence in these important markets and lead a cross-business unit initiative to accelerate growth in TechTeam’s software technical support outsourcing business.

Prior to joining TechTeam via the acquisition of Onvaio, the firm he co-founded, Mr. Sokhanvari was at Pinnacle Systems where he was Vice President of Services and Worldwide Operations, building a global call center infrastructure that supported 10 million customers. Prior to Pinnacle, he was Vice President of Global Operations and General Manager of Services at Wind River Systems, where he was responsible for overseeing the company’s operations and delivering services worldwide.

Christopher Donohue
Vice President, Strategy, Marketing, and Product Development

As Vice President of Strategy, Marketing, and Product Development, Mr. Donohue has global responsibilities for strategy formulation, offer portfolio management, product development, product and brand marketing, industry analyst relations and corporate communications. He brings 19 years of experience and a strong record of success to his role. Prior to joining TechTeam, he was a key member of the executive leadership team that established and grew Dell’s Managed Services business. Prior to joining Dell, Mr. Donohue spent thirteen years at NCR in a variety of leadership roles including sales, account management, marketing and strategic planning. Mr. Donohue has also led a services organization focused on government markets.

Mr. Donohue earned both a BSBA an MBA from The Ohio State University.

Margaret M. Loebl
Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, and Treasurer

Ms. Loebl joined TechTeam in October 2008 as Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer. Prior to joining TechTeam, Ms. Loebl served as Group Vice President of Finance at Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) from 2002 to 2007. In her role at ADM, Ms. Loebl was responsible for treasury, credit, private equity and benefit financing across the company. She also drove a number of best practice initiatives at ADM and is most notably credited with the transformation of the Finance Group that resulted in significant cost savings and the restructuring of the company balance sheet. Prior to ADM, Ms. Loebl held senior financial executive positions at Nike, Inc. and General Motors Corporation, where she began her corporate career. Her background includes significant international roles in addition to roles in financial transactions, financial planning and analysis, business planning, business development/M&A, risk management, and tax. Ms. Loebl received her BA from Wellesley College and her MBA from the University of Chicago.

Armin Pressler
Chief Information Officer, and Facilities

Mr. Pressler was an Onvaio co-founder (Onvaio was acquired by TechTeam in 2008) and now serves as TechTeam’s Vice President, Chief Information Officer and Facilities. In this role, Armin is focused on optimizing TechTeam’s global infrastructure and applications suite, as well as integrating the global capacity plan with facilities and infrastructure.

Mr. Pressler brings a strong global technology management track record with 17 years of experience within the IT, call center and life sciences industries. Prior to Onvaio, he was Chief Information Officer at Wind River Systems, where he drove global IT-business alignment that enabled a new level of business agility. Prior to that, Mr. Pressler was with Dow Chemical as Global e-Business Program Office Leader and was actively involved in the formation and launch of Elemica.com, the global business-to-business backbone for the $600 billion chemical industry. While at Dow Chemical, he held a number of other positions such as managing the applications and systems of the AgroSciences business unit, and leading various Global IT projects.

Michael A. Sosin
Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary

Michael A. Sosin joined TechTeam in 1998 as Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary. Mr. Sosin provides legal advice and counsel to the Board of Directors and senior management on all legal and corporate governance issues facing the Company. In this capacity, he is responsible for developing, participating in the preparation of documentation for, and monitoring the Company’s SEC, NASDAQ, Sarbanes-Oxley, and insider trading compliance, including preparation of Company’s current and periodic reports to the SEC; drafts, reviews and negotiates major contracts for Company; conducts due diligence for, drafts and negotiates major business agreements and relationships with other entities, including mergers and acquisitions; he is involved in managing the Company’s legal affairs internationally, with the Company’s subsidiaries in United Kingdom, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Romania and India; he is responsible for all aspects of risk management for Company from purchasing of insurance to reviewing employment policies and procedures; and he manages all outstanding litigation on behalf of Company. Prior to joining TechTeam, Mr. Sosin was in private practice for 14 years. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan, B.A. 1980, J.D. 1984.

http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=91039&p=irol-govmanage

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Wind River Systems

Wind River Systems
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wind River Systems Inc. Wind River Systems logo
Type     Public (NASDAQ: WIND)
Founded     1981
Headquarters     Alameda, California
Key people     Ken Klein, Chairman, President and CEO
Revenue     US$328.63 million (January 31, 2008)
Employees     1,507 (January 31, 2008)
Website     www.windriver.com

Wind River Systems, Inc. is a publicly owned company providing embedded systems, development tools for embedded systems, middleware, and other types of software. The company was founded in Berkeley, California in 1981 by Jerry Fiddler and David Wilner.
Contents

* 1 Company
* 2 History
* 3 Acquisitions
* 4 References
* 5 External links
* 6 See also

Company

Wind River concentrates on middleware: software and operating systems, for information appliances and devices. Their products are used in cellular phones, auto braking systems, routers, digital cameras, projectors, set-top boxes, traffic signals, Mars Rovers MER-A and MER-B and more. They were the final proprietors of BSD/OS, the commercial BSD operating system.

Among their flagship products are the VxWorks real-time operating system (which began as an add-on to the VRTX operating system in the early 1980s), the Eclipse-based Wind River Workbench IDE (which has superseded the previous Tornado environment) and the Wind River Compiler (formerly the DIAB compiler, bought from the Swedish company Dataindustrier AB). Wind River’s head offices are located at 500 Wind River Way, Alameda, California. As of 2004[update], their strategic theme is device software optimization.

History

In 1999 Wind River bought one of their major competitors, Integrated Systems Inc., makers of pSOS. Wind River has since discontinued the pSOS product line and has recommended existing pSOS customers transition to VxWorks.

Wind River acquired the software assets of Berkeley Software Design Inc. (BSDI) in 2001. These comprised the BSD/OS operating system, plus involvement in the FreeBSD and Slackware Linux open source projects.[1] Wind River dropped sponsorship of Slackware soon afterwards,[2] while the FreeBSD unit was divested as a separate entity in 2002 as FreeBSD Mall, Inc..[3]

Faced with competition from the open source FreeBSD and Linux-based operating systems, Wind River discontinued BSD/OS in December 2003. However, by this time some technology from BSD/OS had been contributed to the open source BSD community.[4]

In 2004 Wind River announced a partnership with Red Hat to create a new Linux-based distribution for embedded devices, and in 2005 Wind River released the first version of its embedded Linux distribution. Wind River has since ended its partnership with Red Hat and now ships its own Linux distribution optimized for embedded Linux development. Wind River Linux supports a variety of embedded device architectures including ARM, MIPS, PPC, in addition to x86. In December 2007 Wind River released Wind River Linux 2.0 a significant update from its previous 1.5 release.

On February 20, 2007, FSMLabs’ embedded market was acquired by Wind River Systems [5]. Wind River maintains the free versions of RTLinux [1] previously offered by FSMLabs; and Wind River committed to continue to offer the FSMLab approach to RTLinux as part of their product line rebranded as Wind River Real-Time Core for Wind River Linux.

On August 7th, 2007, Palm Inc. announced that it had chosen Wind River Systems as the software solution for its (later aborted) Palm Foleo.

In 2008, Wind River cooperated with BMW and Intel to begin development of a Linux-based open-source platform to control in-car electronics.[6]

As of 2008, their competitors include Green Hills Software (makers of the INTEGRITY and velOSity RTOS), QNX Inc. (makers of the QNX Neutrino system), LynuxWorks (makers of the LynxOS RTOS), Mentor Graphics (makers of Nucleus RTOS), and to a lesser extent the real-time and embedded product lines of Microsoft (largely Windows CE and Windows NT Embedded) and various products based on Linux made by MontaVista, TimeSys and others.

Wind River also sponsors the BASIC WonderCup Challenge, a San Francisco Bay Area science knowledge competition for high school students.

Acquisitions

* 1999: Integrated Systems Inc.
* 2000: merge staff of Dragonfly Software Consulting[7]
* 2000: ICEsoft[8] (Bergen, Norway)
* 2000: AudeSi Technologies Inc. (Calgary, Alberta)[9]
* 2001: Berkeley Software Design Inc. (BSDI)
* 2005: ScopeTools business unit from Real-Time Innovations[10]
* 2006: Interpeak AB[11] (Stockholm, Sweden)
* 2007: Assets of FSMLabs (Socorro, New Mexico)
* 2008: MIZI[12] (Seoul, Korea)
* 2009: Tilcon Software Limited[13] (Ottawa, Ontario)

References

1. ^ Wind River to Acquire BSDi Software Assets, Extending Development Platforms to Include Robust UNIX-based Operating Systems for Embedded Devices, Business Wire
2. ^ Slackware Commercial Distribution Left in Doubt as Developers Are Laid Off, Linux Today
3. ^ FreeBSD Mall: Company History
4. ^ Wind River terminating BSD/OS
5. ^ WindRiver press release on RTlinux
6. ^ BMW wants joint effort to develop open-source in-vehicle platform
7. ^ http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/Wind-River-Systems-Inc-355080.html
8. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9405E7DD1131F93BA1575BC0A9669C8B63
9. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0WUB/is_/ai_60478674
10. ^ http://www.windriver.com/news/press/pr.html?ID=1541
11. ^ http://www.eetimes.com/conf/esc/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=183701113&kc=2444
12. ^ http://www.linuxdevices.com/news/NS4529876314.html
13. ^ http://www.embedded-computing.com/news/Mergers+and+Acquisitions/15685

External links

* Company page
* http://www.rtlinuxfree.com/

* Lord of the Toasters an article from Wired magazine
* Wind River’s Linux Transformation an article from CNET

See also

* QNX – RTOS competitor to WindRiver

Open Handset Alliance
Mobile Operators
China Mobile  A KDDI  A NTT docomo  A Sprint Nextel  A T-Mobile  A Telecom Italia  A Telefónica  A Vodafone  A SoftBank A
Software Companies
Ascender Corporation  A eBay  A Esmertec  A Google  A LivingImage  A NMS Communications  A Nuance Communications  A PacketVideo  A SkyPop  A SONiVOX  A Borqs
Semiconductor companies
Audience  A Broadcom  A Intel  A Marvell Technology Group  A Nvidia  A Qualcomm  A SiRF Technology Holdings  A Synaptics  A Texas Instruments  A AKM Semiconductor  A ARM  A Atheros  A Ericsson
Handset Manufacturers
HTC  A LG  A Motorola  A Samsung Electronics  A Asus  A Garmin  A Huawei  A Sony Ericsson  A Toshiba
Commercialization companies
Aplix  A Noser Engineering  A The Astonishing Tribe  A Wind River Systems  A Omron Software  A Teleca
See also
Android  A T-Mobile G1  A Dalvik virtual machine
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_River_Systems
Categories: Software companies of the United States | Linux companies | Computer companies of the United States | Companies based in Alameda County, California

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_River_Systems

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Corporate Bios

Board of Directors Bios

With over 50 years combined experience in embedded technology, our leadership team comprise some of the best minds in the industry. Wind River now has four product divisions to better address the rapidly changing needs of our customers. To successfully move the company and embedded technology into the post-PC era, our executive management team has taken on new responsibilities and challenges as part of this change.

Ken Klein
Chairman, President, and CEO

John Bruggeman
Chief Marketing Officer

Ian Halifax
Senior Vice President of Finance and Administration
Chief Financial Officer and Secretary

Barry Mainz
Chief Operating Officer

Tomas Evensen
Vice President and General Manager, Wind River Tools and Common Technologies Product Division
Chief Technology Officer

Scot Morrison
Senior Vice President and General Manager, VxWorks Product Division

Vincent Rerolle
Senior Vice President and General Manager, Linux Product Division

Amit Ronen
Vice President and General Manager, Device Management Product Division

Damian Artt
Senior Vice President of Worldwide Sales and Services

Jeff Loehr
Vice President, Human Resources

http://www.windriver.com/company/bios/

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Ken Klein
Chairman, President, and CEO

Ken Klein is Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, and President of Wind River. With more than 20 years of experience in the software industry, he is working to further extend Wind River’s leadership position by expanding customer and partner initiatives, continuing to drive the market shift from in-house development to commercial software adoption, and delivering innovative, leading-edge products. Target vertical markets include consumer electronics, aerospace and defense, industrial, automotive, medical, and networking equipment. He is responsible for the management of 1,460 employees in 15 countries.

Before joining Wind River, Klein served as Chief Operating Officer and a board member of Mercury Interactive for 12 years. Klein and his team built Mercury from a pre-revenue startup into a software powerhouse with a peak market capitalization of $15B, 2,150 employees, operations in 35 countries, and membership in the NASDAQ 100 and S&P 500. The team went on to grow the company to nearly $1B in annual revenue and to sell to Hewlett-Packard for $5B. Before his tenure at Mercury, Klein held various engineering, marketing, and management roles at Interactive Development Environments, Daisy Systems, and Hughes Aircraft Company.

Klein earned a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering and biomedical engineering from the University of Southern California. He is a USC Distinguished Alumnus, member of the USC School of Engineering Board of Councilors, and founder of USC’s Klein Institute for Undergraduate Engineering Life (KIUEL). He also serves on the boards of AmberPoint and BigFix.

Wind River’s Board of Directors is a diverse group of seasoned professionals with a combination of technology, financial, and operating backgrounds. Please click on each member’s name for a brief profile highlighting the individual’s industry experience.
John C. Bolger
Private Investor; Retired Vice President of Finance and Administration, Cisco Systems, Inc.
Jerry L. Fiddler
Cofounder, Wind River Systems, Inc.
Dr. Narendra (Naren) K. Gupta
Vice Chairman & Director
Grant M. Inman
President, Inman Investment Management
Harvey C. Jones
Chairman and Cofounder, Tensilica, Inc.
Kenneth R. Klein
Chairman, President and CEO, Wind River Systems, Inc.
Standish H. O’Grady
Senior Managing Director, Granite Ventures

http://ir.windriver.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=91814&p=irol-govboard

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Board of Directors

Gary J. Cotshott
Chairman of Board
Charles Frumberg
Director
Seth W. Hamot
Director
Kent Heyman
Director
General John P. Jumper (USAF Ret.)
Director
James A. Lynch
Director
James A. Lynch
Director

Since 1999, Mr. Lynch has been Managing Director of Draper Atlantic and is responsible for, among other things, managing a portfolio of early-stage technology ventures….
Alok Mohan
Director
Alok Mohan
Director

Alok Mohan served as Chief Executive Officer of Santa Cruz Operations, Inc. ( SCO ) from July 1995 until April 1998, when he was appointed the company’s Chairman of the Board. He served as Chairman of SCO until May 2001 when a portion of SCO’s assets were sold to Caldera International, Inc. He continued as Chairman of the Board of Directors of the remaining business, renamed Tarantella, Inc., until it was sold to Sun Microsystems, Inc in 2005. From May 1994 to July 1995, Mr. Mohan served as S…
James G. Roche
Director
James G. Roche
Director

James G. Roche, DBA served as the 20th Secretary of the United States Air Force from June 2001 through January 2005. For the three years prior to his Air Force service, he was Corporate Vice President and President of the Electronic Sensors and Systems Sector of Northrop Grumman Corporation. Secretary Roche held various other positions with Northrop Grumman, which included Corporate Vice President and Chief Advanced Development, Planning, and Public Affairs Officer responsible for the company…
Andrew R. Siegel
Director
Andrew R. Siegel
Director

Andrew R. Siegel has been a Senior Vice President at Roark, Rearden & Hamot Capital Management LLC, an investment management firm that is the general partner of Costa Brava Partnership III, L.P. Since October 2004, Mr. Siegel has also been the founding Managing Member of White Bay Capital Management, an investment management firm. From July 2003 through February 2004, Mr. Siegel was a Financial Adviser to Professional Television Network, a broadcasting company from October 2002 through March …
Richard R. Widgren
Director

http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=91039&p=irol-govboard

Richard R. Widgren
Director

Richard R. Widgren has been a director since May 2005. Mr. Widgren is currently Vice President – Finance, Treasurer, and Chief Financial Officer of Urban Science, Inc., a retail sales channel consulting company, where he began employment in August 2001. From April 2001 through August 2001, he was Chief Financial Officer of Presidion, Inc. Previously, Mr. Widgren service as Vice President – Finance and Corporate Controller of Kelly Services, Inc. Mr. Widgren is a member of the Detroit Medical Center Board of Director, where he serves as the chairman of the Audit Committee.

Andrew R. Siegel
Director

Andrew R. Siegel has been a Senior Vice President at Roark, Rearden & Hamot Capital Management LLC, an investment management firm that is the general partner of Costa Brava Partnership III, L.P. Since October 2004, Mr. Siegel has also been the founding Managing Member of White Bay Capital Management, an investment management firm. From July 2003 through February 2004, Mr. Siegel was a Financial Adviser to Professional Television Network, a broadcasting company from October 2002 through March 2003. In 2001 and 2002, he was an investment banker with Deutsche Bank.

James G. Roche
Director

James G. Roche, DBA served as the 20th Secretary of the United States Air Force from June 2001 through January 2005. For the three years prior to his Air Force service, he was Corporate Vice President and President of the Electronic Sensors and Systems Sector of Northrop Grumman Corporation. Secretary Roche held various other positions with Northrop Grumman, which included Corporate Vice President and Chief Advanced Development, Planning, and Public Affairs Officer responsible for the company’s strategy development and mergers and acquisition strategy. Dr. Roche is a retired Captain in the United States Navy with 23 years of service. He is currently a director of the Orbital Sciences Corporation (NYSE:  ORB ).

Alok Mohan
Director

Alok Mohan served as Chief Executive Officer of Santa Cruz Operations, Inc. ( SCO ) from July 1995 until April 1998, when he was appointed the company’s Chairman of the Board. He served as Chairman of SCO until May 2001 when a portion of SCO’s assets were sold to Caldera International, Inc. He continued as Chairman of the Board of Directors of the remaining business, renamed Tarantella, Inc., until it was sold to Sun Microsystems, Inc in 2005. From May 1994 to July 1995, Mr. Mohan served as Senior Vice President, Operations and Chief Financial Officer of SCO. Prior to joining SCO, Mr. Mohan was employed with NCR Corporation ( NCR ), where he served as Vice President of Strategic Planning and Controller and Vice President and General Manager of the Workstation Products Division at NCR. Mr. Mohan is also the non-executive Chairman of the Board of Directors of Rainmaker, Inc. (NASDAQ:  RMKR ), and he serves on the Board of Directors of Stampede Technologies, Inc. and CrystalGraphics, Inc.

James A. Lynch
Director

Since 1999, Mr. Lynch has been Managing Director of Draper Atlantic and is responsible for, among other things, managing a portfolio of early-stage technology ventures.

General John P. Jumper (USAF Ret.)
Director

General John P. Jumper (USAF Ret.) retired from the United States Air Force effective November 1, 2005. From September 2001 through November 1, 2005, General Jumper was Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, serving as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipage of more than 700,000 active-duty, Guard, Reserve, and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. As a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the general and other service chiefs function as military advisers to the Secretary of Defense, National Security Council, and the President. Between February 2000 and September 2001, General Jumper was the Commander of Headquarters Air Combat Control. General Jumper serves on the Board of Directors of Goodrich Corporation (NYSE:  GR ), and the Board of Directors of Rolls Royce North America.

Kent Heyman
Director

Kent Heyman has been the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Powerhouse Technologies Group, Inc. (OTC:  PWHT ), a publicly traded provider of mobile computing software, since September 2005 and January 2006 respectively. Mr. Heyman was the Chief Executive Officer of ServiceWare Technologies, Inc., a provider of customer relationship management software applications that is now known as Knova Software, Inc. (OTC:  KNVS ), from September 2001 to February 2005, and now serves as the company’s non-executive Chairman. Prior to joining ServiceWare, Mr. Heyman was a founding officer and General Counsel to MPower Communications, Inc., a competitive telecommunications provider.

Seth W. Hamot
Director

Since 1997, Mr. Hamot has been the Managing Member of Roark, Rearden & Hamot Capital Management, LLC (“RRHCM”) and the owner of its corporate predecessor Roark, Rearden & Hamot, Inc. RRHCM is the investment manager to Costa Brava Partnership III L.P. (“Costa Brava”), an investment fund. Mr. Hamot is also the President of Roark, Rearden & Hamot, LLC, the general partner of Costa Brava. Prior to 1997, Mr. Hamot was one of the partners of the Actionvest entities.

Charles Frumberg
Director

Since May 2002, Mr. Frumberg has held the positions of Founder and Managing General Partner of Emancipation Capital, a hedge fund that proactively invests in the technology industry. From July 1998 through April 2002, Mr. Frumberg held the position of Co-Head/Equities at SG Cowen Securities Corp., a United States investment bank with specialists in technology and healthcare. At SG Cowen Securities Corp, Mr. Frumberg was a member of the Office of the CEO, the management committee, the operating committee and the merchant banking committee. Prior to that, Mr. Frumberg was employed at UBS Securities as the Director of Research and the Co-head of Global Research, from November 1991 through April 1998. Before he was employed at UBS Securities, Mr. Frumberg worked for ten years at Mabon Nugent & Co., as both Director of Research and as a software analyst.

Gary J. Cotshott
Chairman of Board

Mr. Cotshott joined TechTeam in February 2008 as President and Chief Executive Officer and a Director. Prior to joining TechTeam, Mr. Cotshott was Vice President and General Manager of the Dell Services division of Dell Inc. between 1998 and August 2007. As Vice President and General Manager of Dell Services, Mr. Cotshott led the formation, strategy and development of Dell Services, which grew from $250 million to $5.5 billion in worldwide reported revenue over a nine-year period. Mr. Cotshott began his career at NCR Corporation in 1974. His most recent role at NCR was Senior Vice President and General Manager, Worldwide Customer Services, where he had direct worldwide, line management responsibility for its $2.8 billion services division. He led this organization through a period of significant growth as well as a large scale restructuring of U.S., European and Japanese operations that improved profitability and customer satisfaction.

***

*
Insider Transactions: TEAM
Date     Name     Shares     Transaction Type     Market Value
03/04/09     ROCHE JAMES G     843     Award of Stock Options     $2,247.47
03/04/09     JUMPER JOHN P     743     Award of Stock Options     $2,247.47
03/04/09     WIDGREN RICHARD R     843     Award of Stock Options     $2,247.47
View All Insider Activity

*
Ownership Breakdown : TEAM
Large Block Holder Type     Number
Institutions     43.00

Mutual Fund     79.00
Other Major     13.00

http://finance.aol.com/company/techteam-global-inc/team/nas

***
3.55  -0.1899     -5.08%
as of 03:59 PM EST on 03/06/2009 in USD  (NASDAQ Delay: 15 mins.)

http://finance.aol.com/company/techteam-global-inc/team/nas/insider-trends

Sentiment for TEAM is POSITIVE
Total dollar value of all insider purchases and sales over 12 months.

TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC
TEAM

August 2008 insider purchases – $80,000

http://finance.aol.com/company/techteam-global-inc/team/nas/insider-trends

***

Homeland Security

A June 28, 2007 Washington Post article related how a U.S. Department of Homeland Security contract with Booz Allen increased from $2 million to more than $70 million through two no-bid contracts, one occurring after the DHS’s legal office had advised DHS not to continue the contract until after a review. A Government Accountability Office (GAO) report on the contract characterized it as not well-planned and lacking any measure for assuring valuable work to be completed.

According to the article,
A review of memos, e-mail and other contracting documents obtained by The Washington Post show that in a rush to meet congressional mandates to establish the information analysis and infrastructure protection offices, agency officials routinely waived rules designed to protect taxpayer money. As the project progressed, the department became so dependent on Booz Allen that it lost the flexibility for a time to seek out other contractors or hire federal employees who might do the job for less.

Elaine C. Duke, the department’s chief procurement officer, acknowledged the problems with the Booz Allen contract. But Duke said those matters have been resolved. She defended a decision to issue a second no-bid contract in 2005 as necessary to keep an essential intelligence operation running until a competition could be held.[64]

SWIFT

In 2006 at the request of the Article 29 Working Group, an advisory group to the European Commission (EC), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Privacy International (PI) investigated the U.S. government’s SWIFT surveillance program and Booz Allen’s role therein. The ACLU and PI filed a memo at the end of their investigation which called into question the ethics and legality of a government contractor (in this case Booz Allen) acting as auditors of a government program, when that contractor is heavily involved with those same agencies on other contracts. The basic statement was that a conflict of interest may exist. Beyond that, the implication was also made that Booz Allen may be complicit in a program (electronic surveillance of SWIFT) that may be deemed illegal by the EC.[60][61]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booz_Allen_Hamilton

***
***

SWIFTNet Mail

SWIFT also offer a secure person-to-person messaging service, SWIFTNet Mail, which went live on 16 May 2007.[7] SWIFT clients can configure their existing email infrastructure to pass email messages through the highly secure and reliable SWIFTNet network instead of the open Internet. SWIFTNet Mail is intended for the secure transfer of sensitive business documents, such as invoices, contracts and signatories, and is designed to replace existing telex and courier services, as well as the transmission of security-sensitive data over the open Internet. Eight financial institutions, including HSBC, FirstRand Bank, Clearstream, DnB NOR, Nedbank, Standard Bank of South Africa and Bear Stearns, as well as SWIFT piloted the service.[8]

Terrorist Finance Tracking Program
Main article: Terrorist Finance Tracking Program

A series of articles published on June 23, 2006, by The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and The Los Angeles Times revealed that the Treasury Department and the CIA, United States government agencies, had a program to access the SWIFT transaction database after the September 11th attacks called the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program.[9]

After these publications SWIFT quickly came under pressure for scrutinizing data privacy of its customers by letting a foreign government agency access sensitive personal data. In September 2006, the Belgian government declared that the SWIFT dealings with U.S. government authorities were, in fact, a breach of Belgian and European privacy laws.[citation needed]

In response, SWIFT is in the process of improving its architecture to satisfy member privacy concerns by implementing the new Distributed Architecture with a two-zone model for storing messages (see Operations centers).

# EU concern at US data transfers BBC News 2007-01-31
# EU press release Swift Affair: European Data Protection Authorities joining efforts

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication ( SWIFT ) operates a worldwide financial messaging network which exchanges messages between banks and other financial institutions. SWIFT also markets software and services to financial institutions, much of it for use on the SWIFTNet Network, and ISO 9362 bank identifier codes (BICs) are popularly known as  SWIFT codes .

The majority of international interbank messages use the SWIFT network. As of November 2008[update], SWIFT linked 8,740 financial institutions in 209 countries.[1] SWIFT transports financial messages in a highly secure way, but does not hold accounts for its members and does not perform any form of clearing or settlement.

SWIFT does not facilitate funds transfer. Financial institutions would need a corresponding banking relationship for financial transactions.[clarification needed] Not all financial institutions have banking business relationships, but rather peripheral. Each financial institution, to exchange banking transactions, must have a banking relationship by either being a bank or affiliating itself with one (or more) so as to enjoy those particular business features.

SWIFT is a cooperative society under Belgian law and it is owned by its member financial institutions. SWIFT has offices around the world. SWIFT headquarters are located in La Hulpe, Belgium, near Brussels. An average of 2.4 million messages, with aggregate value of $2 trillion, were processed by SWIFT per day in 1995.

It was founded in Brussels in 1973, supported by 239 banks in 15 countries. It started to establish common standards for financial transactions and a shared data processing system and worldwide communications network. Fundamental operating procedures, rules for liability etc., were established in 1975 and the first message was sent in 1977.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWIFT

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(Redirected from Pioneer Groundbreaker)

For the related controversy about data-mining of domestic call records see NSA call database.
National Security Agency logo

The NSA warrantless surveillance controversy concerns surveillance of persons within the United States incident to the collection of foreign intelligence by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) allegedly as part of the war on terror. Under this program, referred to by the Bush administration as the  terrorist surveillance program ,[1] the NSA is authorized by executive order to monitor, without warrants, phone calls, e-mails, Internet activity, and text messaging, and other communication involving any party believed by the NSA to be outside the U.S., even if the other end of the communication lies within the U.S. The exact scope of the program is not known, but the NSA is or was provided total, unsupervised access to all fiber-optic communications going between some of the nation’s major telecommunication companies’ major interconnect locations, including phone conversations, email, web browsing, and corporate private network traffic. Shortly before Congress passed a new law in August 2007 that legalized warrantless surveillance, the Protect America Act of 2007, critics stated that such  domestic  intercepts required FISC authorization under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.[2] The Bush administration maintained that the authorized intercepts are not domestic but rather foreign intelligence integral to the conduct of war and that the warrant requirements of FISA were implicitly superseded by the subsequent passage of the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists (AUMF).[3] FISA makes it illegal to intentionally engage in electronic surveillance under appearance of an official act or to disclose or use information obtained by electronic surveillance under appearance of an official act knowing that it was not authorized by statute; this is punishable with a fine of up to $10,000 or up to five years in prison, or both.[4] In addition, the Wiretap Act prohibits any person from illegally intercepting, disclosing, using or divulging phone calls or electronic communications; this is punishable with a fine or up to five years in prison, or both. [5]

Attorney General Alberto Gonzales confirmed the existence of the program, first reported in a December 16, 2005 article in The New York Times.[6][7] The Times had posted the exclusive story on their website the night before, after learning that the Bush administration was considering seeking a Pentagon-Papers-style court injunction to block its publication.[8] Critics of The Times have openly alleged that executive editor Bill Keller had knowingly withheld the story from publication since before the 2004 Presidential election, and that the story that was ultimately first published by The Times was essentially the same one that reporters James Risen and Eric Lichtblau had first submitted at that time.[9] In a December 2008 interview with Newsweek, former Justice Department employee Thomas Tamm revealed himself to be the initial whistle-blower to The Times.[10]

Gonzales stated that the program authorizes warrantless intercepts where the government  has a reasonable basis to conclude that one party to the communication is a member of al Qaeda, affiliated with al Qaeda, or a member of an organization affiliated with al Qaeda, or working in support of al Qaeda.  and that one party to the conversation is  outside of the United States .[11] The revelation raised immediate concern among elected officials, civil right activists, legal scholars and the public at large about the legality and constitutionality of the program and the potential for abuse. Since then, the controversy[12] has expanded to include the press’s role in exposing a classified program, the role and responsibility of Congress in its executive oversight function and the scope and extent of Presidential powers under Article II of the Constitution.
Contents

* 1 Developments
* 2 Background
o 2.1 FISA
o 2.2 NSA surveillance program
o 2.3 Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) Resolution
* 3 Legal issues
o 3.1 Statutory interpretation issues
+ 3.1.1 FISA exclusivity provision
+ 3.1.2 Domestic versus foreign intelligence
+ 3.1.3 Administration’s statutory position
+ 3.1.4 Duty to notify Congress
o 3.2 Constitutional law issues
+ 3.2.1 Article I and II
+ 3.2.2 Fourth Amendment issues
# 3.2.2.1 Border search exception
# 3.2.2.2 Criminal prosecution under the NSA program
# 3.2.2.3 Presidential findings
+ 3.2.3 District Court findings
o 3.3 Corporate confidentiality analysis
o 3.4 Third-party legal analytical arguments
+ 3.4.1 Program is legal or probably legal
+ 3.4.2 Arguing that the program is illegal or probably illegal
* 4 Technical and operational details
* 5 Related issues
o 5.1 Warrantless wiretaps and the history of FISA
o 5.2 Sufficiency of FISA in the war on terror
o 5.3 FISA exclusivity controversy
o 5.4 Separation of powers and Unitary Executive theory
o 5.5 Classified information
+ 5.5.1 Leaking of classified information
+ 5.5.2 Publication of classified information
* 6 Responses and analyses
o 6.1 Administration response to press stories
o 6.2 Congressional response
* 7 Legal developments
o 7.1 Congressionally proposed FISA amendments
o 7.2 FISA court order
o 7.3 FISCR Ruling of August 2008
* 8 See also
o 8.1 References
o 8.2 External links

Developments

In mid-August 2007, a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit heard arguments in two lawsuits challenging the surveillance program. The appeals were the first to reach the court after dozens of civil suits against the government and telecommunications companies over NSA surveillance were consolidated last year before the chief judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, Vaughn R. Walker. One of the cases is a class action against AT&T, focusing on allegations that the company provided the NSA with its customers’ phone and Internet communications for a vast data-mining operation. Plaintiffs in the second case are the al-Haramain Foundation Islamic charity and two of its lawyers.[13][14]

On November 16, 2007, the three judges – M. Margaret McKeown, Michael Daly Hawkins, and Harry Pregerson – issued a 27-page ruling[15] that the charity, the Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation, could not introduce a key piece of evidence in its case because it fell under the government’s claim of state secrets, although the judges said that  In light of extensive government disclosures, the government is hard-pressed to sustain its claim that the very subject matter of the litigation is a state secret. [16]

In an August 14, 2007 question-and-answer session with the El Paso Times newspaper which was published on August 22, Director of National Intelligence Mike McConnell confirmed for the first time that the private sector assisted with the warrantless surveillance program.  Now if you play out the suits at the value they’re claimed, it would bankrupt these companies,  McConnell said, arguing that they deserve immunity for their help.[17] Plaintiffs in the AT&T suit subsequently filed a motion with the court to have McConnell’s admission of corporate cooperation with the NSA admitted as evidence in their case.[18]

The program may face an additional legal challenge in the appeal of two Albany, New York men convicted of criminal charges in an FBI anti-terror sting operation. Their lawyers contend that they have evidence the men were the subjects of NSA electronic surveillance, which was used to obtain their convictions but not made public at trial or made available in response to discovery requests by defense counsel at that time.[19]

In an unusual related legal development, on October 13, 2007, The Washington Post reported that Joseph P. Nacchio, the former CEO of Qwest Communications, is appealing an April 2007 conviction on 19 counts of insider trading by alleging that the government withdrew opportunities for contracts worth hundreds of millions of dollars after Qwest refused to participate in an unidentified National Security Agency program that the company thought might be illegal. According to court documents unsealed in Denver in early October as part of Nacchio’s appeal, the NSA approached Qwest about participating in a warrantless surveillance program more than six months before the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks which have been cited by the government as the main impetus for its efforts. Nacchio is using the allegation to try to show why his stock sale should not have been considered improper.[20] According to a lawsuit filed against other telecommunications companies for violating customer privacy, AT&T began preparing facilities for the NSA to monitor  phone call information and Internet traffic  seven months before 9/11.[21]

On August 17, 2007, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court said it would consider a request filed by the American Civil Liberties Union which asked the intelligence court to make public its recent, classified rulings on the scope of the government’s wiretapping powers. Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly, presiding judge of the FISC, signed an order[22] calling the A.C.L.U.’s motion “an unprecedented request that warrants further briefing.” The FISC ordered the government to respond on the issue by Aug. 31, saying that anything involving classified material could be filed under court seal.[23][24] On the August 31 deadline, the National Security Division of the Justice Department filed a response in opposition to the ACLU’s motion with the court.[25]

In previous developments, the case ACLU v. NSA was dismissed on July 6, 2007 by the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.[26] The court did not rule on the spying program’s legality. Instead, its 65-page opinion[27] declared that the American Civil Liberties Union and the others who brought the case – including academics, lawyers and journalists – did not have the legal standing to sue because they could not demonstrate that they had been direct targets of the clandestine surveillance. Detroit District Court judge Anna Diggs Taylor had originally ruled on August 17, 2006 that the program is illegal under FISA as well as unconstitutional under the First and Fourth Amendments of the United States Constitution.[28][29][30] Judicial Watch, a watchdog group, discovered that at the time of the ruling Taylor  serves as a secretary and trustee for a foundation that donated funds to the ACLU of Michigan, a plaintiff in the case. [31] On February 19, 2008, the U.S. Supreme Court, without comment, turned down an appeal from the American Civil Liberties Union, letting stand the earlier decision dismissing the case.[32]

On September 28, 2006 the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act (H.R. 5825).[33] That bill now has been passed to the U.S. Senate where three competing, mutually-exclusive, bills — the Terrorist Surveillance Act of 2006 (S.2455) (the DeWine bill), the National Security Surveillance Act of 2006 (S.2455) (the Specter bill), and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Improvement and Enhancement Act of 2006 (S.3001) (the Specter-Feinstein bill) — were themselves referred for debate to the full Senate by the Senate Judiciary Committee on September 13, 2006.[34] Each of these bills would in some form broaden the statutory authorization for electronic surveillance, while still subjecting it to some restrictions. The Specter-Feinstein bill would extend the peacetime period for obtaining retroactive warrants to seven days and implement other changes to facilitate eavesdropping while maintaining FISA court oversight. The DeWine bill, the Specter bill, and the Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act (passed by the House) would all authorize some limited forms or periods of warrantless electronic surveillance subject to additional programmatic oversight by either the FISC (Specter bill) or Congress (DeWine and Wilson bills).

On January 17, 2007, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales informed U.S. Senate leaders by letter [3] that the program would not be reauthorized by the President.  Any electronic surveillance that was occurring as part of the Terrorist Surveillance Program will now be conducted subject to the approval of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court,  according to his letter.[35]

On September 18, 2008, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), an Internet-privacy advocacy group, filed a new lawsuit against the NSA, President George W. Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney, Cheney’s chief of staff David Addington, former Attorney General and White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales and other government agencies and individuals who ordered or participated in the warrantless surveillance. They sued on behalf of AT&T customers to seek redress for what the EFF alleges to be an illegal, unconstitutional, and ongoing dragnet surveillance of their communications and communications records. An earlier, ongoing suit by the EFF may be bogged down by the recent changes to FISA provisions, but these are not expected to impact this new case.[36][37]

On January 23, 2009, the administration of President Barack Obama adopted the same position as his predecessor when it urged U.S. District Judge Vaughn Walker to set aside a ruling in Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation et al. v. Obama, et al.[38] The Obama administration also sided with the former administration in its legal defense of July, 2008 legislation that immunized the nation’s telecommunications companies from lawsuits accusing them of complicity in the eavesdropping program, according to testimony by Attorney General Eric Holder.[39]

Background

FISA
Main article: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

The 1978 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) regulates U.S. government agencies’ carrying out of physical searches, and electronic surveillance, wherein the main purpose is the gathering of foreign intelligence information.  Foreign intelligence information  is defined in 50 U.S.C. § 1801 as information necessary to protect the U.S. or its allies against actual or potential attack from a foreign power, sabotage or international terrorism. FISA defines a  foreign power  as a foreign government or any faction(s) of a foreign government not substantially composed of US persons, or any entity directed or controlled by a foreign government. FISA provides for both criminal and civil liability for intentional electronic surveillance under color of law except as authorized by statute.

FISA provides two documents for the authorization of surveillance. First, FISA allows the Justice Department to obtain warrants from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) before or up to 72 hours after the beginning of the surveillance. FISA authorizes a FISC judge to issue a warrant for the electronic cameras if  there is probable cause to believe that… the target of the electronic surveillance is a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power.  50 U.S.C. §1805(a)(3). Second, FISA permits the President or his delegate to authorize warrantless surveillance for the collection of foreign intelligence if  there is no substantial likelihood that the surveillance will acquire the contents of any communication to which a United States person is a party . 50 U.S.C. §1802(a)(1).[40]

NSA surveillance program
Main article: NSA electronic surveillance program

Soon after the September 11, 2001 attacks U.S. President George W. Bush issued an executive order that authorized the National Security Agency (NSA) to conduct surveillance of certain telephone calls without obtaining a warrant from the FISC as stipulated by FISA (see 50 U.S.C. § 1802 50 U.S.C. § 1809 ). The complete details of the executive order are not known, but according to statements by the administration,[41] the authorization covers telephone calls originating overseas from or to a person suspected of having links to terrorist organizations such as al-Qaeda or its affiliates even when the other party to the call is within the US. The legality of surveillance involving US persons and extent of this authorization is at the core of this controversy which has steadily grown to include:

* Constitutional issues concerning the separation of powers and the Fourth Amendment immunities.
* The effectiveness[42] and scope[43] of the program.
* The legality of the leaking and publication of classified information and the implications for U.S. national security arising from the disclosure.
* Adequacy of FISA as a tool for fighting terrorism

Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) Resolution
Main article: Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists

About a week after the 9/11 attacks, Congress passed the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists (AUMF) which authorized the President to  use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons.

The administration has argued[3] that the language used in the AUMF implicitly authorized the President to exercise those powers  incident to the waging of war , including the collection of enemy intelligence, FISA provisions notwithstanding.

Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT), the ranking Democrat on the Senate Judiciary Committee along with lone co-sponsor Senator Ted Kennedy (D-MA) introduced S. Res. 350, a resolution  expressing the sense of the Senate that Senate Joint Resolution 23 (107th Congress), as adopted by the Senate on September 14, 2001, and subsequently enacted as the Authorization for Use of Military Force does not authorize warrantless domestic surveillance of United States citizens. [44][45] This non-binding resolution died in the Senate without being brought up for debate or being voted upon. [46]

Legal issues

The NSA surveillance controversy involves legal issues that fall into two broad disciplines: statutory interpretation and Constitutional law. Statutory interpretation is the process of interpreting and applying legislation to the facts of a given case. Constitutional law is the body of law that governs the interpretation of the United States Constitution and covers areas of law such as the relationship between the federal government and state governments, the rights of individuals, and other fundamental aspects of the application of government authority in the United States.[47]

Statutory interpretation issues

A court of law faced with determining the legality of the NSA program would have to first grapple with the statutory interpretation of FISA itself[48] Since FISA has the potential to raise certain Constitutional conflicts relating to the powers assigned to Congress and the Executive in Articles I and II respectively, the canon of constitutional avoidance requires a court to first determine if the FISA statutes can be  fairly read  to avoid Constitutional conflict.[49] Assuming such an interpretation can be found, the question then turns to whether or not the NSA wiretap authorizations were violative of the statute as so read. Without knowing how a court would resolve the first issue and the classified specifics of the program itself, it is not possible to predict the outcome.

FISA exclusivity provision

18 U.S.C. § 2511(2)(f) provides in relevant part that  the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 shall be the exclusive means by which electronic surveillance, as defined in 50 U.S.C. § 1801(f)… and the intercept of domestic [communications] may be conducted.  The interpretation of this clause is central to the controversy because both sides agree that the NSA program operates outside of the procedural framework provided by FISA. The interpretive conflict arises because other provisions of FISA, including the criminal sanctions subpart 50 U.S.C. § 1809 include an  unless authorized by statute  provision, raising the issue of statutory ambiguity. The administration’s position is that the AUMF is an authorizing statute which satisfies the FISA criteria. Critics contend that by the canon of Ejusdem generis (the doctrine that if ambiguity exists, generic legislative language must yield to specific provisions), the specific provisions of the FISA restrictions supersede the general authority granted by the AUMF. In their letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee[50] a group of law professors and former government officials addressed this issue directly:

the DOJ’s argument rests on an unstated general “implication” from the AUMF that directly contradicts express and specific language in FISA. Specific and “carefully drawn” statutes prevail over general statutes where there is a conflict. Morales v. TWA, Inc., 504 U.S. 374, 384-85 (1992) (quoting International Paper Co. v. Ouelette, 479 U.S. 481, 494 (1987)). In FISA, Congress has directly and specifically spoken on the question of domestic warrantless wiretapping, including during wartime, and it could not have spoken more clearly.

The U.S. Supreme Court faced a similar issue in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld where the government claimed that the AUMF authorized the President to detain U.S. citizens designated as an enemy combatant despite its lack of specific language to that intent and notwithstanding the provisions of 18 U.S.C. § 4001(a) which requires that the United States government cannot detain an American citizen except by an act of Congress. In that case, the Court ruled:

[B]ecause we conclude that the Government’s second assertion [ that §4001(a) is satisfied, because Hamdi is being detained “pursuant to an Act of Congress”–the AUMF ] is correct, we do not address the first. In other words, for the reasons that follow, we conclude that the AUMF is explicit congressional authorization for the detention of individuals .. and that the AUMF satisfied §4001(a)’s requirement that a detention be “pursuant to an Act of Congress”

In Hamdan v. Rumsfeld however, the court rejected the government’s argument that the AUMF implicitly authorized the President to establish military commissions in violation of the UCMJ. The opinion of the Court held:

Neither of these congressional Acts, [AUMF or ATC] however, expands the President’s authority to convene military commissions. First, while we assume that the AUMF activated the President’s war powers, see Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U. S. 507 (2004) (plurality opinion), and that those powers include the authority to convene military commissions in appropriate circumstances, see id., at 518; Quirin, 317 U. S., at 28–29; see also Yamashita, 327 U. S., at 11, there is nothing in the text or legislative history of the AUMF even hinting that Congress intended to expand or alter the authorization set forth in Article 21 of the UCMJ. Cf. Yerger, 8 Wall., at 105 (“Repeals by implication are not favored”)

Determining when explicit congressional authorization is and is not required appears by this decision to require a court to first determine whether an implicit authorization would amount to a  repeal by implication  of the governing Act.

The exclusivity clause also raises a separation of powers issue. (See Constitutional law issues below)

Domestic versus foreign intelligence

The arguments against the legality of the NSA fall into two broad categories, those who argue that FISA raises no Constitutional issues and therefore the NSA program is illegal on its face[51][52] and those who argue that FISA (perhaps purposefully) raises a Constitutional conflict which should be resolved in Congress’ favor.[53]

Common to both of these views is the argument that the participation of  US persons  as defined in FISA 50 U.S.C. § 1801 renders the objectional intercepts  domestic  in nature.[54] Those advocating the  no constitutional issue  position, argue that Congress has the authority it needs to legislate in this area under Article I and the Fourth Amendment[55] while those who see a constitutional conflict[53] acknowledge that the existing delineation between Congressional and Executive authority in this area is not clear[56] but that Congress, in including the exclusivity clause in FISA, meant to carve out a legitimate role for itself in this arena.

The administration holds that an exception to the normal warrant requirements exists when the purpose of the surveillance is to prevent attack from a foreign threat. Such an exception has been upheld at the Circuit Court level when the target was a foreign agent residing abroad[57][58] a foreign agent residing in the US[59][60][61][62]and a US citizen abroad.[63] The warrantless exception was struck down when both the target and the threat was deemed domestic.[64] The legality of targeting US persons acting as agents of a foreign power and residing in this country has not been addressed by the US Supreme Court, but has occurred at least once, in the case of Aldrich Ames.[65]

Administration’s statutory position

The Administration’s position with regard to statutory interpretation, as outlined in the DOJ whitepaper, is to avoid what it has termed the  difficult Constitutional questions  by

* interpreting the FISA  except as authorized by statute  clause to mean that Congress allowed for future legislative statute(s) to provide exceptions to the FISA warrant requirements,[66]
* that the AUMF was such a statute, and
* as such, implicitly provided executive authority to authorize warrantless interception of enemy communication.

This argument, as outlined in the DOJ whitepaper, is based on the language of the AUMF, specifically, the acknowledgment of the President’s Constitutional authority contained in the preamble;  Whereas, the President has authority under the Constitution to take action to deter and prevent acts of international terrorism against the United States , and the language in the resolution itself;

[Be it resolved] [t]hat the President is authorized to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons.

The administration also adds that the program is legal under Title II of the USA PATRIOT Act entitled Enhanced Surveillance Procedures,[citation needed] although it is not relying upon the domestic law enforcement provisions of the PATRIOT Act for authorization of any of the NSA program activities.[citation needed] The President had said prior to this, that Americans’ civil liberties were being protected and that purely domestic wiretapping was being conducted pursuant to warrants under applicable law, including the Patriot Act.[4]

These arguments must be compared to the language of the FISA itself, which states:

Notwithstanding any other law, the President, through the Attorney General, may authorize electronic surveillance without a court order under this subchapter to acquire foreign intelligence information for a period not to exceed fifteen calendar days following a declaration of war by the Congress.
—[67]
Because the law specifically limits the President’s authority to bypass the FISA court in time of war to the first 15 days of the war, the administration’s argument rests on the assumption that the AUMF give the President more power than would a standard declaration of war.

Duty to notify Congress

Under the National Security Act of 1947, §501-503, codified as 50 USC §413-§413b,[68] the President is required to keep Congressional intelligence committees  fully and currently  informed of U.S. intelligence activities,  consistent with … protection from unauthorized disclosure of classified information relating to sensitive intelligence sources and methods or other exceptionally sensitive matters.  For covert actions, from which intelligence gathering activities are specifically excluded in §413b(e)(1), the President is specifically permitted to limit reporting to the so-called Gang of Eight.[69]

The administration contends that with regard to the NSA surveillance program, the administration fulfilled its notification obligations by briefing key members of Congress (thirteen individuals in this case between the 107th and 109th Congressional sessions) have been briefed on the NSA program more than a dozen times[citation needed] but they were forbidden from sharing information about the program with other members or staff.[citation needed]

On January 18, 2006, the Congressional Research Service released a report,  Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions .[70][71] That report found that  [b]ased upon publicly reported descriptions of the program, the NSA surveillance program would appear to fall more closely under the definition of an intelligence collection program, rather than qualify as a covert action program as defined by statute , and, therefore, concluded there was no specific statutory basis for limiting briefings on the terrorist surveillance program to the Gang of Eight[72] However, the report goes on to note in its concluding paragraph[73]that limited disclosure is also permitted under the statute  in order to protect intelligence sources and methods .

Thus, although the specific statutory  Gang of Eight  notification procedure for covert action would not seem to apply to the NSA program, it is not clear if a limited notification procedure intended to protect sources and methods is expressly prohibited. Additionally, should the sources and methods exception apply it will require a factual determination as to whether it should apply to disclosure of the program itself or only to specific sensitive aspects.

Constitutional law issues

The constitutional debate surrounding executive authorization of warrantless surveillance is principally about separation of powers ( checks and balances ). If, as discussed above, no  fair reading  of FISA can be found in satisfaction of the canon of avoidance, these issues will have to be decided at the appellate level, by United States courts of appeals.

Article I and II

Article I vests Congress with the sole authority  To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces  and  To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. . The U.S. Supreme Court has used  the necessary and proper  clause of Article I to affirm broad Congressional authority to legislate as it sees fit in the domestic arena[citation needed] but has limited its application in the arena of foreign affairs. In the landmark Curtiss-Wright decision, Justice Sutherland writes in his opinion of the Court:

The [ powers of the federal government in respect of foreign or external affairs and those in respect of domestic or internal affairs ] are different, both in respect of their origin and their nature. The broad statement that the federal government can exercise no powers except those specifically enumerated in the Constitution, and such implied powers as are necessary and proper to carry into effect the enumerated powers, is categorically true only in respect of our internal affairs.

Article II vests the President with power as  Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States,  and requires that he  shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed .

The U.S. Supreme Court has historically used Article II to justify wide deference to the President in the arena of foreign affairs, but is it 100% relevant? Two historical and recent Supreme Court cases define the secret wiretapping by the NSA. Quoting again from the Curtiss-Wright decision:

It is important to bear in mind that we are here dealing not alone with an authority vested in the President by an exertion of legislative power, but with such an authority plus the very delicate, plenary and exclusive power of the President as the sole organ of the federal government in the field of international relations-a power which does not require as a basis for its exercise an act of Congress, but which, of course, like every other governmental power, must be exercised in subordination to the applicable provisions of the Constitution.

The extent of the President’s power as Commander-in-Chief has never been fully defined, but two U.S. Supreme Court cases are considered seminal in this area.[74][75] -Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer and Curtiss-Wright.

In addition, two relatively new cases, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld and Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, have clarified, and in the case of Hamdan limited, the scope of executive power to detain and try suspected terrorists as enemy combatants.

In Hamdan, the Court’s opinion in footnote 23, rejected the notion that Congress is impotent to regulate the exercise of executive war powers:

Whether or not the President has independent power, absent congressional authorization, to convene military commissions, he may not disregard limitations that Congress has, in proper exercise of its own war powers, placed on his powers. See Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U. S. 579, 637 (1952) (Jackson, J., concurring). The Government does not argue otherwise.

Whether  proper exercise  of Congressional war powers includes authority to regulate the gathering of foreign intelligence, which in other rulings[citation needed] has been recognized as  fundamentally incident to the waging of war , is a historical point of contention between the Executive and Legislative branches.[76][3]

As noted in  Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information , published by The Congressional Research Service:

A review of the history of intelligence collection and its regulation by Congress suggests that the two political branches have never quite achieved a meeting of the minds regarding their respective powers. Presidents have long contended that the ability to conduct surveillance for intelligence purposes is a purely executive function, and have tended to make broad assertions of authority while resisting efforts on the part of Congress or the courts to impose restrictions. Congress has asserted itself with respect to domestic surveillance, but has largely left matters involving overseas surveillance to executive self-regulation, subject to congressional oversight and willingness to provide funds.

The same report makes clear the Congressional view that intelligence gathered within the U.S. and where  one party is a U.S. person  qualifes as domestic in nature and as such completely within their purview to regulate, and further that Congress may  tailor the President’s use of an inherent constitutional power :

The passage of FISA and the inclusion of such exclusivity language reflects Congress’s view of its authority to cabin the President’s use of any inherent constitutional authority with respect to warrantless electronic surveillance to gather foreign intelligence.

The Senate Judiciary Committee articulated its view with respect to congressional power to tailor the President’s use of an inherent constitutional power:

* The basis for this legislation [FISA] is the understanding — concurred in by the Attorney General — that even if the President has an “inherent” constitutional power to authorize warrantless surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes, Congress has the power to regulate the exercise of this authority by legislating a reasonable warrant procedure governing foreign intelligence surveillance

Fourth Amendment issues

The Supreme Court held in Katz v. United States (1967), that the monitoring and recording of private conversations within the United States constitutes a  search  for Fourth Amendment purposes, and therefore the government must generally obtain a warrant before undertaking such domestic wiretapping.

(The law in fact countenances searches without warrant in numerous circumstances, among them (see below): the persons, property, and papers of individuals crossing the border of the United States and those of paroled felons; in prisons, public schools and government offices; and of international mail.)

The protection of  private conversations  has been held to apply only to conversations where the participants have not merely a desire but a reasonable expectation that the conversation is indeed private to themselves and that no party whatsoever is listening in.

In the absence of such a reasonable expectation, the Fourth Amendment does not apply, and surveillance without warrant does not violate it. Privacy is clearly not a reasonable expectation in communications to persons in the many countries whose governments openly intercept electronic communications, and is of dubious reasonability in countries against which the United States is waging war.

The law also recognizes a distinction between domestic surveillance taking place within U.S. borders and foreign surveillance of non-U.S. persons either in the U.S. or abroad.[77] In United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez, the Supreme Court reaffirmed the principle that the Constitution does not extend protection to non-U.S. persons located outside of the United States, so no warrant would be required to engage in even physical searches of non-U.S. citizens abroad.

The U.S. Supreme Court has never ruled on the constitutionality of warrantless searches targeting foreign powers or their agents within the US. There have been, however, a number of Circuit Court rulings[78] upholding the constitutionality of such warrantless searches. In USA v. Osama bin Laden, the Second Circuit noted that  no court, prior to FISA, that was faced with the choice, imposed a warrant requirement for foreign intelligence searches undertaken within the United States.  Assistant Attorney General William Moschella in his written response to questions from the House Judiciary Committee explained that in the administration’s view, this unanimity of pre-FISA Circuit Court decisions vindicates their argument that warrantless foreign-intelligence surveillance authority existed prior to FISA and since, as these ruling indicate, that authority derives from the Executive’s inherent Article II powers, they may not be encroached by statute.[79] In 2002, the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review (Court of Review) met for the first time and issued an opinion (In Re Sealed Case No. 02-001) which seems to echo that view. They too noted all the Federal courts of appeal having looked at the issue had concluded that there was constitutional power for the president to conduct warrantless foreign intelligence surveillance. Furthermore, based on these rulings it  took for granted such power exits  and ruled that under this presumption,  FISA could not encroach on the president’s constitutional power.  Professor Orin Kerr argues in rebuttal that the part of In Re Sealed Case that dealt with FISA (rather than the Fourth Amendment) was nonbinding obiter dicta and that the argument does not restrict Congress’s power to regulate the executive in general.[80]

Harold Koh, dean of Yale Law School, Suzanne Spaulding, former general counsel for the Intelligence Committees of the House and Senate, and former Counsel to the President John Dean, contend that FISA clearly makes the wiretapping illegal,[52] and that the president’s own admissions already constitute sufficient evidence of a violation of the Fourth Amendment (and the criminal penalties of FISA), without requiring further factual evidence. Professor John Eastman, in his analysis, prepared at the behest of the House Judiciary Committee, comparing the CRS and DOJ reports, concluded instead that under the Constitution and ratified by both historical and Supreme Court precedent,  the President clearly has the authority to conduct surveillance of enemy communications in time of war and of the communications to and from those he reasonably believes are affiliated with our enemies. Moreover, it should go without saying that such activities are a fundamental incident of war. [81]

Border search exception

Orin S. Kerr, associate professor of law at The George Washington University Law School[82] and a leading scholar in the subjects of computer crime law and internet surveillance,[83] points to an analogy between the NSA intercepts and searches allowed by the Fourth Amendment under the border search exception.

The border search exception permits searches at the border of the United States  or its functional equivalent.  (United States v. Montoya De Hernandez, 473 U.S. 531, 538 (1985)). The idea here is that the United States as a sovereign nation has a right to inspect stuff entering or exiting the country as a way of protecting its sovereign interests, and that the Fourth Amendment permits such searches. Courts have applied the border search exception in cases of PCs and computer hard drives; if you bring a computer into or out of the United States, the government can search your computer for contraband or other prohibited items at the airport or wherever you are entering or leaving the country. See, e.g., United States v. Ickes, 393 F.3d 501 (4th Cir. 2005) (Wilkinson, J.)…At the same time, I don’t know of a rationale in the case law for treating data differently than physical storage devices. The case law on the border search exception is phrased in pretty broad language, so it seems at least plausible that a border search exception could apply to monitoring at an ISP or telephone provider as the  functional equivalent of the border,  much like airports are the functional equivalent of the border in the case of international airline travel…the most persuasive case on point: United States v. Ramsey, [held] that the border search exception applies to all international postal mail, permitting all international postal mail to be searched.

Criminal prosecution under the NSA program

Evidence gathered without warrant may raise significant Fourth Amendment issues which could preclude its use in a criminal trial. As a general rule of law, evidence obtained improperly without lawful authority, may not be used in a criminal prosecution.[citation needed] The U.S. Supreme Court has never addressed the constitutionality of warrantless searches (which has been broadly defined by SCOTUS to include surveillance) targeting foreign powers or their agents, the admissibility of such evidence in a criminal trial nor whether it is permissible to obtain or use evidence gathered without warrant against US persons acting as agents of a foreign power.[citation needed]

Presidential findings

The National Security Act of 1947[84] requires Presidential findings for covert acts. SEC. 503. [50 U.S.C. 413b] (a) (5) of that act states:  A finding may not authorize any action that would violate the Constitution or any statute of the United States.

District Court findings

On August 17, 2006, Judge Anna Diggs Taylor of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan ruled in ACLU v. NSA that the Terrorist Surveillance Program was unconstitutional under the Fourth and First Amendments and enjoined the NSA from using the program to conduct electronic surveillance  in contravention of [FISA or Title III] .[29] In her ruling,[85] she wrote:

The President of the United States, a creature of the same Constitution which gave us these Amendments, has indisputably violated the Fourth in failing to procure judicial orders as required by FISA, and accordingly has violated the First Amendment Rights of these Plaintiffs as well.

Even some legal experts who agreed with the outcome have criticized the reasoning set forth in the opinion[86] Others have argued that the perceived flaws in the opinion in fact reflect the Department of Justice’s refusal to argue the legal merits of the program (they chose to focus solely on arguments about standing and state secrets grounds).[87]

On October 4, 2006, a panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit unanimously ruled[88] that the government can continue the program while it appeals the lower court decision.[89]

On July 6, 2007 the Sixth Circuit dismissed the case, finding that the plaintiffs had no standing.

The Court found that:[90]

[T]he plaintiffs do not — and because of the State Secrets Doctrine cannot — produce any evidence that any of their own communications have ever been intercepted by the NSA, under the TSP, or without warrants. Instead, they assert a mere belief, which they contend is reasonable and which they label a “well founded belief,”…

Implicit in each of the plaintiffs’ alleged injuries is the underlying possibility — which the plaintiffs label a  well founded belief  and seek to treat as a probability or even a certainty — that the NSA is presently intercepting, or will eventually intercept, communications to or from one or more of these particular plaintiffs, and that such interception would be detrimental to the plaintiffs’ clients, sources, or overseas contacts. This is the premise upon which the plaintiffs’ entire theory is built.

But even though the plaintiffs’ beliefs — based on their superior knowledge of their contacts’ activities — may be reasonable, the alternative possibility remains that the NSA might not be intercepting, and might never actually intercept, any communication by any of the plaintiffs named in this lawsuit.

Corporate confidentiality analysis

Corporate secrecy is also an issue. Wired reported: In a letter to the EFF, AT&T objected to the filing of the documents in any manner, saying that they contain sensitive trade secrets and could be  used to ‘hack’ into the AT&T network, compromising its integrity. [91] However, Chief Judge Vaughn Walker stated, during the September 12, 2008 hearing in the class-action lawsuit filed by the EFF, that the Klein evidence could be presented in court, effectively ruling that AT&T’s trade secret and security claims were unfounded.

Third-party legal analytical arguments

Program is legal or probably legal

* John Eastman, Chapman Law professor and Director of the Claremont Institute Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence, wrote in a letter to House Judiciary Committee Chairman James Sensenbrenner on January 27, 2006, that the Congressional Research Service’s assessment was institutionally biased against the President, ignored key constitutional text and Supreme Court precedent, and that the case made by the Department of Justice in support of the President’s authority to conduct surveillance of enemy communications in time of war was compelling.[81]
* Robert Turner, Associate Director of the Center for National Security Law at the University of Virginia, testified before Congress on March 31, 2006, that  I believe the President has this authority by virtue of his “executive Power” vested in him by Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution. And if he needed any additional authority, the AUMF statute—enacted with but a single dissenting vote in the entire Congress—clearly empowers him to exercise the intelligence-gathering component of his Commander in Chief power as well. [5]
* Michael Stokes Paulsen, Associate Dean, University of Minnesota Law School, in a debate with Professors Heidi Cross and Dale Carpenter entitled Presidential Powers in Time of War

The president’s power as military commander in chief, in time of constitutionally authorized war, of course includes the power to intercept enemy communications, including enemy communications with persons here in the United States who may be in league with the enemy, and to follow the chain of such communications where it leads, in order to wage the war against the enemy and, of vital importance, to protect the nation against further attacks.

* Letter from Senator Pat Roberts to Senator Arlen Specter Senator defending NSA program legality, February 3, 2006

Arguing that the program is illegal or probably illegal

The arguments against the legality of the NSA fall into two broad categories, those who argue that FISA raises no Constitutional issues and therefore the NSA program is illegal on its face[52] and those who argue that FISA (perhaps purposefully) raises a Constitutional conflict which should be resolved in Congress’ favor.[53]

* On February 13, 2006, the American Bar Association (ABA) denounced the warrantless domestic surveillance program, accusing the President of exceeding his powers under the Constitution. The ABA also formulated a policy opposing any future government use of electronic surveillance in the United States for foreign intelligence purposes without obtaining warrants from a special secret court as required by the 1978 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.[6]
* According to a report in The Boston Globe on February 2, 2006 three law professors, David D. Cole (Georgetown University), Richard Epstein (University of Chicago), and Philip Heymann (Harvard), said that what Bush is doing is unprecedented. Bush’s claim that other presidents asserted that wartime powers supersede an act of Congress,  is either intentionally misleading or downright false,  Cole said. He said Bush is misstating the In Re Sealed Case No. 02-001 ruling which supported Congressional regulation of surveillance. Epstein believes the United States Supreme Court would reject the Administration’s argument and said,  I find every bit of this legal argument disingenuous…The president’s position is essentially that (Congress) is not doing the right thing, so I’m going to act on my own.  Professor Heymann, a former deputy US attorney general said,  The bottom line is, I know of no electronic surveillance for intelligence purposes since the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act was passed that was not done under the . . . statute. [92]
* Cole, Epstein, Heynmann and eleven other prominent legal scholars (Beth Nolan, Curtis Bradley, Geoffrey Stone, Harold Hongju Koh, Kathleen Sullivan, Laurence Tribe, Martin Lederman, Ronald Dworkin, Walter Dellinger, William S. Sessions and William Van Alstyne) wrote a letter to Congress that appeared in the New York Review of Books on February 9, 2006.[7] They wrote that  the Justice Department’s defense of what it concedes was secret and warrantless electronic surveillance of persons within the United States fails to identify any plausible legal authority for such surveillance. Accordingly the program appears on its face to violate existing law.  They summarized:

In conclusion, the DOJ letter fails to offer a plausible legal defense of the NSA domestic spying program. If the administration felt that FISA was insufficient, the proper course was to seek legislative amendment, as it did with other aspects of FISA in the Patriot Act, and as Congress expressly contemplated when it enacted the wartime wiretap provision in FISA. One of the crucial features of a constitutional democracy is that it is always open to the President—or anyone else—to seek to change the law. But it is also beyond dispute that, in such a democracy, the President cannot simply violate criminal laws behind closed doors because he deems them obsolete or impracticable.

* Professor Peter Swire, the C. William O’Neill Professor of Law at the Ohio State University Moritz College of Law and Visiting Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress, wrote a detailed  Legal FAQs on NSA Wiretaps  concluding that  [b]ased on the facts available to date, the wiretap program appears to be clearly illegal. [93] Prof. Swire has previously written a very detailed history and analysis of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, published in Volume 72 of the George Washington Law Review, at 1306 (2004) and previously chaired a White House Working Group, including the intelligence agencies, on how to update electronic surveillance law for the Internet Age.
* Robert Reinstein, dean of the law school at Temple University, has asserted that the warrantless domestic spying program is
a pretty straightforward case where the president is acting illegally… When Congress speaks on questions that are domestic in nature, I really can’t think of a situation where the president has successfully asserted a constitutional power to supersede that… This is domestic surveillance over American citizens for whom there is no evidence or proof that they are involved in any illegal activity, and it is in contravention of a statute of Congress specifically designed to prevent this.

*
o Mr. Reinstein asserted that the broad consensus among legal scholars and national security experts is similar to his own analysis, and he predicted that the courts will rule that the program is unconstitutional. New York Times
* Edward Lazarus, author, law professor and former U.S. Supreme Court clerk and federal prosecutor, has argued in articles such as  Warrantless Wiretapping: Why It Seriously Imperils the Separation of Powers, And Continues the Executive’s Sapping of Power From Congress and the Courts , that  Unilateral executive power is tyranny, plain and simple .[94]
* Orin S. Kerr, a professor at The George Washington University Law School, prominent blogger and scholar of the legal framework of electronic surveillance has opined that the issues are complex, but that after his first analysis he concluded that the wiretapping probably does not infringe on Fourth Amendment constitutional rights, though it probably does violate FISA. President Bush has maintained he acted within  legal authority derived from the constitution  and that Congress  granted [him] additional authority to use military force against al Qaeda .[95] However, while the President may argue that the necessary statutory authority to override FISA’s warrant provisions is provided by the authorization to use  all necessary force  in the employment of military resources to protect the security of the United States, and that the use of wiretapping is a qualifying use of force (under the terms of the authorization for the use of military force against al-Qaida as found in Senate Joint Resolution 23, 2001), Kerr believes that this justification is ultimately unpersuasive, as is the argument that the President’s power as the Commander-in-Chief (as derived from Article Two of the United States Constitution) provides him with the necessary constitutional authority to circumvent FISA during a time of war.[96] Kerr cautiously estimates that about eight of the nine Supreme Court justices would agree with him that Article Two cannot trump statutes like FISA.[97]
* Robert M. Bloom, Professor of Law at Boston College, says this in a paper entitled  The Constitutional Infirmity of Warrantless NSA Surveillance: The Abuse of Presidential Power and the Injury to the Fourth Amendment,  published on February 19, 2007, which he co-authored with William J. Dunn, a former Defense Department intelligence analyst, also of BC Law School:[8]

President Bush argues that the surveillance program passes constitutional inquiry based upon his constitutionally delegated war and foreign policy powers, as well as from the congressional joint resolution passed following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. These arguments fail to supersede the explicit and exhaustive statutory framework provided by Congress and amended repeatedly since 2001 for judicial approval and authorization of electronic surveillance. The specific regulation by Congress based upon war powers shared concurrently with the President provides a constitutional requirement that cannot be bypassed or ignored by the President. The President’s choice to do so violates the Constitution and risks the definite sacrifice of individual rights for the speculative gain from warrantless action.

* Glenn Greenwald, constitutional lawyer, author and prominent blogger (Greenwald’s legal blog) arguing that the NSA program is illegal summarized:[9]

Ultimately, though, the entire legal debate in the NSA scandal comes down to these few, very clear and straightforward facts: Congress passed a law in 1978 making it a criminal offense to eavesdrop on Americans without judicial oversight. Nobody of any significance ever claimed that that law was unconstitutional. The Administration not only never claimed it was unconstitutional, but Bush expressly asked for changes to the law in the aftermath of 9/11, thereafter praised the law, and misled Congress and the American people into believing that they were complying with the law. In reality, the Administration was secretly breaking the law, and then pleaded with The New York Times not to reveal this. Once caught, the Administration claimed it has the right to break the law and will continue to do so.

*
o After the Supreme Court’s judgment in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, Greenwald wrote:  The administration’s theories to justify the President’s lawbreaking have always been frivolous. But for those pretending not to recognize that fact, the Supreme Court has so ruled. [10]
* Jordan Paust, Mike and Teresa Baker College Professor of Law at the University of Houston Law Center, rejected the administration’s legal arguments for the NSA program writing:[11]

George W. Bush and US Attorney General Alberto Gonzales claim that domestic spying in manifest violation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) was authorized by Congress in broad language in the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) regarding persons responsible for the 9/11 attacks. Similar claims have been made in a December 22 letter from Assistant Attorney General William Moschella to the leaders of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees. The claims are patently false…

Moreover, any so-called inherent presidential authority to spy on Americans at home (perhaps of the kind denounced in Youngstown (1952) and which no strict constructionist should pretend to recognize), has been clearly limited in the FISA in 18 U.S.C. § 2511(2)(f) and 50 U.S.C. § 1809(a)(1), as supplemented by the criminal provisions in 18 U.S.C. § 2511(1).

* William C. Banks, Professor of Law and Director of the Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism at Syracuse University argued that the NSA program is unconstitutional, writing that  in the unlikely event that legal authority for the NSA program can be found, this domestic spying violates the Fourth Amendment. [12]
* John Dean, Author and former White House Counsel to President Richard Nixon testified before Congress on March 31, 2006, on the issue of censuring George Bush for authorizing the NSA wiretap program, saying  I hope… you will not place the president above the law by inaction. As I was gathering my thoughts yesterday to respond to the hasty invitation, it occurred to me that had the Senate or House, or both, censured or somehow warned Richard Nixon, the tragedy of Watergate might have been prevented. Hopefully the Senate will not sit by while even more serious abuses unfold before it. [13]

Technical and operational details

Because of its highly classified status, little is publicly known about the actual implementation of the NSA domestic electronic surveillance program. Mark Klein, a retired AT&T communications technician, submitted an affidavit including limited technical details known to him personally in support of a class-action lawsuit filed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation in federal district court in San Francisco in January 2006 on behalf of AT&T customers who alleged that they had been damaged by the telecommunications corporation’s cooperation with the NSA. [98] [99]

A January 16, 2004 statement by Mr. Klein includes additional technical details regarding the secret 2003 construction of an NSA-operated monitoring facility in Room 641A of 611 Folsom Street in San Francisco, the site of a large SBC phone building, three floors of which are occupied by AT&T. [100] [101]

According to Klein’s affidavit, the NSA-equipped room uses equipment built by Narus Corporation to intercept and analyze communications traffic, as well as perform data-mining functions.[14]

In an article appearing in the January/February 2008 issue of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers journal of Security and Privacy, noted technology experts from academia and the computing industry analyzed potential security risks posed by the NSA program, based on information contained in Klein’s affidavits as well as those of expert witness J. Scott Marcus, a designer of large-scale IP-based data networks, former CTO at GTE Internetworking and at Genuity, and former senior advisor for Internet Technology at the US Federal Communications Commission.[102] They concluded that the likely architecture of the system created serious security risks, including the danger that such a surveillance system could be exploited by unauthorized users, criminally misused by trusted insiders, or abused by government agents. [103]

Related issues

[edit] Warrantless wiretaps and the history of FISA
Main article: Warrantless searches in the United States

The administration has compared the NSA warrantless surveillance program with historical wartime warrantless searches in the United States, going back to George Washington.[41]

Critics have pointed out that Washington’s surveillance occurred before the existence of the U.S. Constitution, and the other historical precedents cited by the administration were before the passage of FISA, and therefore did not directly contravene federal law.[53] Abuses of electronic surveillance by the federal government such as Project SHAMROCK led to reform legislation in the 1970s.[104] Advancing technology began to present questions not directly addressed by the legislation as early as 1985.[105]

Executive orders by previous administrations including Clinton’s and Carter’s authorized the attorneys general to exercise authority with respect to both options under FISA.[106][107] In Clinton’s executive order, he authorized his attorney general  [pursuant] to section 302(a)(1)  to conduct physical searches without court order  if the Attorney General makes the certifications required by that section .

Sufficiency of FISA in the war on terror

On December 19, 2005, U.S. Dept. of Justice Assistant Attorney General for Legislative Affairs, William Moschella, wrote a letter to the Chairs and Ranking Members of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, defending the NSA program:

As explained above, the President determined that it was necessary following September 11 to create an early warning detection system. FISA could not have provided the speed and agility required for the early warning detection system. In addition, any legislative change, other than the AUMF, that the President might have sought specifically to create such an early warning system would have been public and would have tipped off our enemies concerning our intelligence limitations and capabilities. Nevertheless, I want to stress that the United States makes full use of FISA to address the terrorist threat, and FISA has proven to be a very important tool, especially in longer-term investigations. In addition, the United States is constantly assessing all available legal options, taking full advantage of any developments in the law.

U.S. District Judge Dee Benson of Utah, also of the FISC, stated that he was unclear on why the FISC’s emergency authority would not meet the administration’s stated  need to move quickly.  He and fellow judges on the court attended a briefing in January, called by presiding Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly.[108][109] Reportedly, the court was also concerned about  whether the administration had misled their court about its sources of information on possible terrorism suspects . . . [as this] could taint the integrity of the court’s work. [110]

In part to address this problem, several commentators have raised the issue of whether, regardless how one feels about the authorization issue, FISA needs to be amended to address specific foreign intelligence needs, current technology developments, and advanced technical methods of intelligence gathering, in particular to provide for programmatic approvals of general or automated surveillance of foreign terrorist communications, the results of which could then legally be used as predicate for FISA warrants. In a recent essay, Judge Richard A. Posner opined that FISA “retains value as a framework for monitoring the communications of known terrorists, but it is hopeless as a framework for detecting terrorists. [FISA] requires that surveillance be conducted pursuant to warrants based on probable cause to believe that the target of surveillance is a terrorist, when the desperate need is to find out who is a terrorist.”[111] For other examples, see Fixing Surveillance;[112] Why We Listen,[113] The Eavesdropping Debate We Should be Having;[114] A New Surveillance Act;[115] and A historical solution to the Bush spying issue[116] (the latter setting out a historical perspective on the need for programmatic approval in foreign intelligence surveillance generally). And see Whispering Wires and Warrantless Wiretaps[117] (discussing how FISA is inadequate to address certain technology developments).

During the investigational phase of the 9/11 Commission, a letter[118] written by Special Agent Coleen Rowley, in her capacity as legal council to the FBI’s Minneapolis Field Office, to FBI Director Robert Mueller came to the attention of the committee. In that letter and in subsequent testimony before the commission and the Senate Judiciary Committee, SA Rowley recounted among other things, the manner in which FISA procedural hurdles had hampered the FBI’s investigation of Zacarias Moussaoui (the so called  20th hijacker ) prior to the 9/11 attacks. Among the factors she cited were the complexity of the application and the detailed information required and confusion by field operatives about the standard of probable cause required by the FISC and the strength of the required link to a foreign power. At his appearance before the Senate Judiciary Committee in June, 2002, Director Mueller in response to questions[119] about the Rowley allegations testified that unlike normal criminal procedures, FISA warrant applications are  complex and detailed , requiring the intervention of FBI Headquarters (FBIHQ) personnel trained in a specialized procedure (the  Woods  procedure) to ensure accuracy.

FISA exclusivity controversy

On January 19, 2006 the Department of Justice published a memorandum that stated in part:

For the foregoing reasons, the President—in light of the broad authority to use military force in response to the attacks of September 11 and to prevent further catastrophic attack expressly conferred on the President by the Constitution and confirmed and supplemented by Congress in the AUMF—has legal authority to authorize the NSA to conduct the signals intelligence activities he has described. Those activities are authorized by the Constitution and by statute, and they violate neither FISA nor the Fourth Amendment.

The following day, Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT), the ranking Democrat on the Senate Judiciary Committee along with lone co-sponsor Senator Ted Kennedy (D-MA) introduced S. Res. 350, a resolution  expressing the sense of the Senate that Senate Joint Resolution 23 (107th Congress), as adopted by the Senate on September 14, 2001, and subsequently enacted as the Authorization for Use of Military Force does not authorize warrantless domestic surveillance of United States citizens.  An excerpt of the proposed Leahy-Kennedy resolution follows:[44][45]

Whereas Congress created the FISA court to review wiretapping applications for domestic electronic surveillance to be conducted by any Federal agency;

Whereas the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 provides specific exceptions that allow the President to authorize warrantless electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes (1) in emergency situations, provided an application for judicial approval from a FISA court is made within 72 hours; and (2) within 15 calendar days following a declaration of war by Congress;

Whereas the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 makes criminal any electronic surveillance not authorized by statute;

Whereas the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 has been amended over time by Congress since the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States;
Whereas President George W. Bush has confirmed that his administration engages in warrantless electronic surveillance of Americans inside the United States and that he has authorized such warrantless surveillance more than 30 times since September 11, 2001;

On February 2, 2006 the same 14 constitutional scholars and former government officials responded:

In sum, we remain as unpersuaded by the DOJ’s 42-page attempt to find authority for the NSA spying program as we were of its initial five-page version. The DOJ’s more extended discussion only reaffirms our initial conclusion, because it makes clear that to find this program statutorily authorized would requires rewriting not only clear specific federal legislation, but major aspects of constitutional doctrine. Accordingly, we continue to believe that the administration has failed to offer any plausible legal justification for the NSA program.

On June 29, 2006, in a detainee case Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, the Supreme Court rejected an analogous AUMF argument. Writing for the majority, Justice Stevens, while ruling that  the AUMF activated the President’s war powers, and that those powers include the authority to convene military commissions in appropriate circumstances  (citations omitted), held there was nothing in the AUMF language  even hinting that Congress intended to expand or alter the authorization set forth in Article 21 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice. The distinction drawn by J. Stevens in Hamdan between that case and Hamdi, where the AUMF language was found to override the explicit language regarding detention in 18 U.S.C. § 4001(a) is that the instant case would require a  Repeal by implication  of the UCMJ. How this distinction would be drawn in future cases involving the NSA program is unclear.

Separation of powers and Unitary Executive theory
Further information: Unitary Executive theory, Commander-in-Chief, and Separation of powers

The administration argues that the power to conduct the warrantless surveillance within U.S. borders was granted by the Constitution and by a statutory exemption, as is advocated by the Unitary Executive theory using the interpretation of John Yoo et al. He argues that the President had the  inherent authority to conduct warrantless searches to obtain foreign intelligence information. [120][121]

Article II of the Constitution of the United States of America makes the President  Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States,  and also mandates that he  shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed , where  the Laws  refer to federal statutes passed by Congress. Article I vests Congress with the sole authority  To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces  and  To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.  The president is an officer of the government of the United States,[citation needed] so is subject to Congress’s sole authority to make all laws for carrying the powers of the president into execution, while the president is specifically charged with the duty to take care that those laws be faithfully executed.
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit has ruled that the President’s authority as commander-in-chief extends to the  independent authority to repel aggressive acts…without specific congressional authorization  and without court review of the  level of force selected. [122] Whether such declarations applying to foreign intelligence are in compliance with FISA has been examined by few courts since the passage of the act in 1978.

It is also uncertain whether the allegation that surveillance involves foreign parties suffices to extend law governing the president’s military and foreign affairs powers to cover domestic activities. The Supreme Court voiced this concern in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, ruling that  a state of war is not a blank check for the President when it comes to the rights of the Nation’s citizens.

The Congressional Research Service, a nonpartisan research arm of the Library of Congress, released a detailed report on NSA electronic surveillance,  Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information,  on January 5, 2006, which concluded:

From the foregoing analysis, it appears unlikely that a court would hold that Congress has expressly or impliedly authorized the NSA electronic surveillance operations here under discussion, and it would likewise appear that, to the extent that those surveillances fall within the definition of “electronic surveillance” within the meaning of FISA or any activity regulated under Title III, Congress intended to cover the entire field with these statutes. To the extent that the NSA activity is not permitted by some reading of Title III or FISA, it may represent an exercise of presidential power at its lowest ebb, in which case exclusive presidential control is sustainable only by “disabling Congress from acting upon the subject.” While courts have generally accepted that the President has the power to conduct domestic electronic surveillance within the United States inside the constraints of the Fourth Amendment, no court has held squarely that the Constitution disables the Congress from endeavoring to set limits on that power. To the contrary, the Supreme Court has stated that Congress does indeed have power to regulate domestic surveillance, and has not ruled on the extent to which Congress can act with respect to electronic surveillance to collect foreign intelligence information.
—[76][123][124]

Classified information

Leaking of classified information

Disclosure of classified information is governed by federal statute, 18 USCS §798 (2005). This statute says that

… whoever knowingly and willfully communicates, furnishes, transmits, or otherwise makes available to an unauthorized person, [including by publication,] classified information [relating to] the communication intelligence activities of the United States or any foreign government, [shall be fined or imprisoned for up to ten years.]

This statute is not limited in application to only federal government employees. However, the Code of Federal Regulations suggests the statute may apply primarily to the  [c]ommunication of classified information by Government officer or employee . 50 USCS §783 (2005).

There is a statutory procedure for a  whistleblower  in the intelligence community to report concerns with the propriety of a secret program, The Intelligence Community Whistleblower Protection Act of 1998, Pub. L. 105-272, Title VII, 112 Stat. 2413 (1998). Essentially the Act provides for disclosure to the agency Inspector General, and if the result of that is unsatisfactory, appeal to the Congressional Intelligence Committees. A former official of the NSA, Russ Tice, has asked to testify under the terms of the Intelligence Community Whistleblower Protection Act, in order to provide information to these committees about  highly classified Special Access Programs, or SAPs, that were improperly carried out by both the NSA and the Defense Intelligence Agency.  (Washington Times)

Executive Order 13292, which sets up the U.S. security classification system, provides (Sec 1.7) that  [i]n no case shall information be classified in order to conceal violations of law .

Given doubts about the legality of the overall program, the classification of its existence may not have been valid under E.O. 13292.

Publication of classified information

It is unlikely that the New York Times could be held liable for publishing its article under established Supreme Court precedent. In Bartnicki v. Vopper, 532 U.S. 514, the Supreme Court held that the First Amendment precluded liability for a media defendant for publication of illegally obtained communications that the media defendant itself did nothing illegal to obtain if the topic involves a public controversy. The high court in Bartnicki accepted due to the suit’s procedural position, that interception of information which was ultimately broadcast by the defendant radio station was initially illegal (in violation of ECPA), but nonetheless gave the radio station a pass because it did nothing itself illegal to obtain the information.

Nor could the government have prevented the publication of the classified information by obtaining an injunction. In the Pentagon Papers case, (New York Times Co. v. U.S. (403 US 713)), the Supreme Court held in a 6-3 decision that injunctions against the New York Times publication of classified information (United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by The Department of Defense, a 47 volume, 7,000-page, top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States’ political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945 to 1971) were unconstitutional prior restraints and that the government had not met the heavy burden of proof required for prior restraint.

The 1917 Espionage Act as amended in 1950 forbids unauthorized possession of classified information. Although the Justice Department as a matter of law sees no exemption for the press, as a matter of fact it has refrained from prosecuting:

A prosecution under the espionage laws of an actual member of the press for publishing classified information leaked to it by a government source would raise legitimate and serious issues and would not be undertaken lightly, indeed, the fact that there has never been such a prosecution speaks for itself.

On the other hand, Bill Keller, New York Times Executive Editor, told the Washington Post,

There’s a tone of gleeful relish in the way they talk about dragging reporters before grand juries, their appetite for withholding information, and the hints that reporters who look too hard into the public’s business risk being branded traitors.
—[125]

Responses and analyses

Administration response to press stories

On December 17, 2005, President George W. Bush addressed the growing controversy in his weekly radio broadcast.[15] He stated that he was using his authority as President, as Commander in Chief of the US military, and such authority as the United States Congress had given him, to intercept international communications of  people with known links to al Qaeda and related terrorist organizations . He added that before intercepting any communications,  the government must have information that establishes a clear link to these terrorist networks.  He speculated that had the right communications been intercepted, perhaps the 9/11 attacks could have been prevented. He said the NSA program was re-authorized every 45 days, having at that time been reauthorized  more than 30 times ; it was reviewed by the Justice Department and NSA lawyers  including NSA’s general counsel and inspector general , and Congress leaders had been briefed  more than a dozen times . [16]

In a speech in Buffalo, New York on April 20, 2004, he had said that:

Secondly, there are such things as roving wiretaps. Now, by the way, any time you hear the United States government talking about wiretap, it requires — a wiretap requires a court order. Nothing has changed, by the way. When we’re talking about chasing down terrorists, we’re talking about getting a court order before we do so. It’s important for our fellow citizens to understand, when you think Patriot Act, constitutional guarantees are in place when it comes to doing what is necessary to protect our homeland, because we value the Constitution.
—[126]

And again, during a speech[127] at Kansas State University on January 23, 2006, President Bush mentioned the program, and added that it was  what I would call a terrorist surveillance program , intended to  best… use information to protect the American people , and that:

What I’m talking about is the intercept of certain communications emanating between somebody inside the United States and outside the United States; and one of the numbers would be reasonably suspected to be an al Qaeda link or affiliate. In other words, we have ways to determine whether or not someone can be an al Qaeda affiliate or al Qaeda. And if they’re making a phone call in the United States, it seems like to me we want to know why.
This is a — I repeat to you, even though you hear words,  domestic spying,  these are not phone calls within the United States. It’s a phone call of an al Qaeda, known al Qaeda suspect, making a phone call into the United States […] I told you it’s a different kind of war with a different kind of enemy. If they’re making phone calls into the United States, we need to know why — to protect you.

During a speech[128] in New York on January 19, 2006 Vice President Dick Cheney commented on the controversy, stating that a  vital requirement in the war on terror is that we use whatever means are appropriate to try to find out the intentions of the enemy,  that complacency towards further attack was dangerous, and that the lack of another major attack since 2001 was due to  round the clock efforts  and  decisive policies , and  more than luck.  He stated that:

[B]ecause you frequently hear this called a ‘domestic surveillance program.’ It is not. We are talking about international communications, one end of which we have reason to believe is related to al Qaeda or to terrorist networks affiliated with al Qaeda.. a wartime measure, limited in scope to surveillance associated with terrorists, and conducted in a way that safeguards the civil liberties of our people.

General Michael Hayden.

In a press conference on December 19 held by both Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and General Michael Hayden, the Principal Deputy Director for National Intelligence, General Hayden claimed,  This program has been successful in detecting and preventing attacks inside the United States.  He stated that even an emergency authorization under FISA required marshaling arguments and  looping paperwork around . Hayden also implied that decisions on whom to intercept under the wiretapping program were being made on the spot in real time by a shift supervisor and another person, but refused to discuss details of the specific requirements for speed.[129]

Beginning in mid-January 2006 there was an increase in public discussion on the legality of the terrorist surveillance program by the Administration.[130]

The United States Department of Justice sent a 42 page white paper to Congress on January 19, 2006 stating the grounds upon which it was felt the NSA program was entirely legal, which restates and elaborates on reasoning Attorney General Alberto Gonzales used at the December press conference when the legality of the program was questioned.[131] Gonzales spoke further at Georgetown University January 24, claiming that Congress had given the President the authority to order the surveillance without going through the courts, and that normal procedures to order surveillance were too slow and cumbersome.[132]

General Hayden stressed the NSA respect for the Fourth Amendment, stating at the National Press Club on January 23, 2006 that,  Had this program been in effect prior to 9/11, it is my professional judgment that we would have detected some of the 9/11 al Qaeda operatives in the United States, and we would have identified them as such. [133]

Some sources state that despite the NSA program,  [t]he agency … still seeks warrants to monitor entirely domestic communications. [134] An article from February 5, 2006 in the Washington Post reported that the program had netted few suspects.[43]

In a speech on January 25, 2006, Bush said,  I have the authority, both from the Constitution and the Congress, to undertake this vital program, [135] telling the House Republican Caucus at their February 10 conference in Maryland that  I wake up every morning thinking about a future attack, and therefore, a lot of my thinking, and a lot of the decisions I make are based upon the attack that hurt us. [136]

President Bush reacted to a May 10 domestic call records article in USA Today by restating his position, that it is  not mining or trolling through the personal lives of millions of innocent Americans. [137]

Congressional response
Main article: Congressional response to the NSA warrantless surveillance program

Three days after news broke about the warrantless wiretapping program, a bipartisan group of Senators–Democrats Dianne Feinstein of California, Carl Levin of Michigan, Ron Wyden of Oregon and Republicans Chuck Hagel of Nebraska and Olympia Snowe of Maine, sent a letter dated December 19, 2005 to Judiciary and Intelligence Committees chairmen and ranking members requesting the two committees to  seek to answer the factual and legal questions  about the program.

On January 25, 2006, in response to the administration’s asserted legal justification of the NSA program being based in part on the AUMF, Senators Leahy (D-VT) and Kennedy (D-MA) introduced Resolution 350 to the Judiciary Committee that purported to express a  sense of the Senate  that the AUMF  does not authorize warrantless domestic surveillance of United States citizens . Resolution 350 has not been reported out of committee and has no effect.

In introducing their resolution to committee,[138] they quoted Justice O’Connor’s opinion that even war  is not a blank check for the President when it comes to the rights of the Nation’s citizens.

Additionally, they asserted their opinion that the US DOJ legal justification for the NSA program was a  manipulation of the law  similar to other  overreaching  and  twisted interpretations  in recent times. Leahy and Kennedy also asserted that Attorney General Gonzales  admitted  at a press conference on December 19, 2005, that the Administration did not seek to amend FISA to authorize the NSA spying program because it was advised that  it was not something we could likely get.  (However, as noted below under  Proposed Amendments to FISA , Gonzales has made clear that what he actually said was that such an amendment was  not something [they] could likely get  without disclosing the nature of the program and operational limitations and that it was believed that such disclosure would be damaging to national security.)

Leahy and Kennedy also asserted that in their view the procedures being followed in the NSA program, specifically, the ongoing 45 day reapproval by the Attorney General, the White House Counsel and the Inspector General of the National Security Agency, was  not good enough  because each of these is an executive branch appointees who in turn report directly to the Executive. Finally, they concluded that Congressional and Judicial oversight were fundamental and should not be unilaterally discarded. Resolution 350 has not been reported out of committee.

Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Arlen Specter, in a three-page letter dated June 7, 2006 to Vice President Dick Cheney, to prompt the Administration to provide: input on his proposed legislation, briefings to his committee about the program, and more cooperation with Congressional oversight. Specter also wrote about the Vice President lobbying the other Republican members of the Judiciary Committee about compelling telephone companies to testify about classified information.

More recently, in February, 2008, the Bush Administration backed a new version of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) that would grant telecom companies retroactive immunity from lawsuits stemming from the alleged surveillance. On March 13, 2008 the U.S. House of Representatives held a secret session to discuss classified information relating to the new FISA. On March 14, the House passed a bill that would not grant the immunity sought by the Bush administration.

Legal developments

Congressionally proposed FISA amendments

The Administration has contended that amendment was unnecessary because they believe that the President had inherent authority to approve the NSA program, and that the process of amending FISA might require disclosure of classified information that could harm national security. In response, Senator Leahy said,  If you do not even attempt to persuade Congress to amend the law, you must abide by the law as written. [139] President Bush claims that he can ignore the law because he claims that the Constitution gives him  inherent authority  to do so.[140][141]

However, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales has stated that the Bush administration chose not to ask Congress for an amendment to FISA to authorize such wiretaps explicitly because it would have been difficult to get such an amendment without compromising classified information relating to operational details.  This is not a backdoor approach. We believe Congress has authorized this kind of surveillance. We have had discussions with Congress in the past — certain members of Congress — as to whether or not FISA could be amended to allow us to adequately deal with this kind of threat, and we were advised that that would be difficult, if not impossible. [142] Some politicians and commentators have used this statement — “would be difficult, if not impossible” — to argue that the Administration declined to seek a specific amendment to FISA because the administration believed Congress would have rejected it. However, later in the same briefing Gonzales clarified his earlier remark to say that the administration had been advised that amendment was something they were not likely to get  without jeopardizing the existence of the program.  At another briefing, two days later, Gonzales made this point again:[143]

What I said, or what I surely intended to say, if I didn’t say, is that we consulted with leaders in the congress about the feasibility of legislation to allow this type of surveillance. We were advised that it would be virtually impossible to obtain legislation of this type without compromising the program. And I want to emphasize the addition of, without compromising the program. That was the concern.

Finally, in his written Responses to Questions from Senator Specter in which Specter specifically asked why the administration had not sought to amend FISA to accommodate the NSA program,[144] Gonzales wrote:

[W]e were advised by members of Congress that it would be difficult, if not impossible to pass such legislation without revealing the nature of the program and the nature of certain intelligence capabilities. That disclosure would likely have harmed our national security, and that was an unacceptable risk we were not prepared to take.

Nevertheless, competing legislative proposals to authorize the NSA program subject to Congressional or FISA court oversight have been proposed and have been the subject of Congressional hearings throughout the summer.[145]

On March 16, 2006, Senators Mike DeWine (R-OH), Lindsey Graham (R-SC), Chuck Hagel (R-NE), and Olympia Snowe (R-ME) introduced the Terrorist Surveillance Act of 2006 (S.2455),[146][147] under which the President would be given certain additional limited statutory authority to conduct electronic surveillance of suspected terrorists in the United States subject to enhanced Congressional oversight. Also on March 16, 2006, Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA) introduced The National Security Surveillance Act of 2006 (S.2453),[148][149] which would amend FISA to grant retroactive amnesty[150] for warrantless surveillance conducted under presidential authority and provide FISA court (FISC) jurisdiction to review, authorize, and oversight  electronic surveillance programs.  On May 24, 2006, Senator Specter and Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) introduced the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Improvement and Enhancement Act of 2006 (S.3001) asserting FISA as the exclusive means to conduct foreign intelligence surveillance.

On September 13, 2006, the Senate Judiciary Committee voted to approve all three mutually exclusive bills, thus, leaving it to the full Senate to resolve.[34]

On July 18, 2006, U.S. Representative Heather Wilson (R-NM) introduced the Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act (H.R. 5825). Wilson’s bill would give the President the authority to authorize electronic surveillance of international phone calls and e-mail linked specifically to identified terrorist groups immediately following or in anticipation of an armed or terrorist attack on the United States. Surveillance beyond the initial authorized period would require a FISA warrant or a presidential certification to Congress. On September 28, 2006 the House of Representatives passed Wilson’s bill and it was referred to the Senate.[33]

Each of these bills would in some form broaden the statutory authorization for electronic surveillance, while still subjecting it to some restrictions. The Specter-Feinstein bill would extend the peacetime period for obtaining retroactive warrants to seven days and implement other changes to facilitate eavesdropping while maintaining FISA court oversight. The DeWine bill, the Specter bill, and the Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act (already passed by the House) would all authorize some limited forms or periods of warrantless electronic surveillance subject to additional programmatic oversight by either the FISC (Specter bill) or Congress (DeWine and Wilson bills).

FISA court order

On January 18, 2007, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales told the Senate Judiciary Committee  Court orders issued last week by a Judge of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court will enable the government to conduct electronic surveillance – very specifically, surveillance into or out of the United States where there is probable cause to believe that one of the communicants is a member or agent of al Qaeda or an associated terrorist organization – subject to the approval of the FISA Court. We believe that the court’s orders will allow the necessary speed and agility the government needs to protect our Nation from the terrorist threat. [151] The ruling by the FISA Court was the result of a two-year effort between the White House and the court to find a way to obtain court approval that also would  allow the necessary speed and agility  to find terrorists, Gonzales said in a letter to the top committee members. The  innovative  court order on Jan. 10 will do that, Gonzales wrote. Senior Justice department officials would not say whether the orders provided individual warrants for each wiretap or whether the court had given blanket legal approval for the entire NSA program. The American Civil Liberties Union said in a statement that  without more information about what the secret FISA court has authorized, there is no way to determine whether the NSA’s current activities are lawful. [152] Chip Pitts of Stanford Law School argues that substantial legal questions remain regarding the core NSA program as well as the related data mining program (and the use of National Security Letters), despite the government’s apparently bringing the NSA program within the purview of the FISA law.[153]

FISCR Ruling of August 2008

In August 2008, the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review (FISCR) affirmed the constitutionality of the Protect America Act of 2007 in a heavily redacted opinion released on January 15, 2009, which is only the second such public ruling since the enactment of the FISA Act.[154][155][156][157][158]

See also

* Congressional response to the NSA warrantless surveillance program
* Criticisms of the War on Terrorism
* Data mining
* Deep packet inspection
* ECHELON
* Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
* NSA call database
* Room 641A
* Secure Communication
* Terrorist surveillance program – details of the program itself

References

1. ^ Fox still echoing administration’s  terrorist surveillance program  label; regional newspapers follow suit Media Matters for America, February 08, 2006
2. ^ Article 50 United States Code, Section 1809 (In FISA, subchapter 1)
3. ^ a b c U.S. Department of Justice White Paper on NSA Legal Authorities  Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National Security Agency Described by the President  (pdf) January 19, 2006.
4. ^  US CODE: Title 50, section 1809. Criminal sanctions . http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/50/usc_sec_50_00001809—-000-.html.
5. ^  US CODE: Title 18, section 2511. Interception and disclosure of wire, oral, or electronic communications prohibited . http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002511—-000-.html.
6. ^   Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts  . NYT’s Risen & Lichtblau’s December 16, 2005  Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts . http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/1216-01.htm. Retrieved on February 18.  via commondreams.org
7. ^ Eavesdropping and the Election: An Answer on the Question of Timing – New York Times
8. ^ Lichtblau, Eric (2008-03-26).  The Education of a 9/11 Reporter: The inside drama behind the Times’ warrantless wiretapping story. . Slate. http://www.slate.com/toolbar.aspx?action=print&id=2187498. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.
9. ^ Grieve, Tim (2006-08-14).  What the Times knew, and when it knew it . Salon.com. http://www.salon.com/politics/war_room/2006/08/14/times/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-22.
10. ^ Isikoff, Michael (2008-12-13).  The Fed Who Blew the Whistle . Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/174601/page/1. Retrieved on 2008-12-13.
11. ^ Press Briefing by Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and General Michael Hayden
12. ^  Debate on warrantless wiretapping legality . http://www.cruxlux.com/debate/50/the-warrantless-wiretapping-of-americans-by-the-bush-adminis. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
13. ^ Liptak, Adam (August 16, 2007).  U.S. Defends Surveillance to 3 Skeptical Judges . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/16/washington/16nsa.html.
14. ^ Egelko, Bob (August 16, 2007). [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/08/16/BAPCRJEFN.DTL&type=printable  Classified evidence debated: Court likely to allow suit against AT&T, reject wiretap case ]. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/08/16/BAPCRJEFN.DTL&type=printable.
15. ^  For Publication United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit . United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. November 16, 2007. http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/ca9/newopinions.nsf/99D0C2963ED15AB288257394007C1F36/$file/0636083.pdf?openelement.
16. ^ Lichtblau, Eric (November 17, 2007).  Court Bars Secret Papers in Eavesdropping Case . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/17/washington/17nsa.html?pagewanted=print.
17. ^ Roberts, Chris (August 22, 2007).  Transcript: Debate on the foreign intelligence surveillance act . El Paso Times. http://www.elpasotimes.com/ci_6685679.
18. ^ Nakashima, Ellen (September 1, 2007). [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/31/AR2007083101873.html  AT&T Plaintiffs Cite McConnell Remarks – Admission of Telecom Firms’ Involvement in Warrantless Wiretaps Sought as Evidence ]. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/31/AR2007083101873.html.
19. ^ Liptak, Adam (August 26, 2007).  Spying Program May Be Tested by Terror Case . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/26/us/26wiretap.html.
20. ^ Ellen Nakashima and Dan Eggen (October 13, 2007).  Former CEO Says U.S. Punished Phone Firm – Qwest Feared NSA Plan Was Illegal, Filing Says . The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/12/AR2007101202485_pf.html.
21. ^ Shane, Scott (2007-10-14).  Former Phone Chief Says Spy Agency Sought Surveillance Help Before 9/11 . The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/14/business/14qwest.html?ref=todayspaper. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
22. ^  IN RE MOTION FOR RELEASE OF COURT RECORDS Docket Number MISC 07-01  (PDF). United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. August 17, 2007. http://www.aclu.org/pdfs/safefree/fisc_order_08162007.pdf.
23. ^ Lichtblau, Eric (August 18, 2007).  Court Weighs Making Public Rulings on U.S. Wiretapping . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/18/us/nationalspecial3/18fisa.html.
24. ^ Eggen, Dan (August 18, 2007). [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/17/AR2007081701923_pf.html  Secret Court Asks For White House View on Inquiry – ACLU Seeking Rulings Issued On Warrantless Wiretapping ]. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/17/AR2007081701923_pf.html.
25. ^  OPPOSITION TO THE AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION’S MOTION FOR RELEASE OF COURT RECORDS Docket Number: MISC. 07-01  (PDF). United States Department of Justice National Security Division. August 31, 2007. http://www.aclu.org/pdfs/safefree/dojresponse_fisc_request.pdf.
26. ^  Lawsuit Against Wiretaps Rejected; Case’s Plaintiffs Have No Standing, Appeals Court Rules . The Washington Post. 2007-07-07. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/06/AR2007070600779.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
27. ^ \\ca6cin4\opinions\OPINS.TXT7a0253p-06.txt
28. ^ Findlaw: PDF archive of judicial ruling
29. ^ a b Wired News: Judge Halts NSA Snooping
30. ^ U.S. Judge finds Wiretap Actions Violate the Law (requires subscription)
31. ^  US District Judge Who Presided Over Government Wiretapping Case May Have Had Conflict of Interest . Judicial Watch. 2006-08-21. http://www.judicialwatch.org/printer_5862.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
32. ^  Court Rejects ACLU Challenge to Wiretaps . Associated Press. 2008-02-19. http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jyusZ2V1ACKGV2iJuGVmuPUERi_QD8UTICG00. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
33. ^ a b House Passes Wilson FISA Bill, Press Release, September 29, 2006.
34. ^ a b Conflicting Bills on Warrantless Surveillance Advance in Senate, Secrecy News, September 14, 2006
35. ^ Congressional Record: January 17, 2007, Congressional Record: January 17, 2007
36. ^ http://www.eff.org/files/filenode/jewel/jewel.complaint.pdf
37. ^ http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/09/18/eff_sues_bush/
38. ^ Obama Sides With Bush in Spy Case
39. ^ Obama to Defend Telco Spy Immunity
40. ^  Cornell Law . 50 U.S.C. §1802(a)(1). http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode50/usc_sec_50_00001802—-000-.html#a_1. Retrieved on January 2006.
41. ^ a b US Department of Justice, archived by the Federation of American Scientists (February 6, 2006). Prepared Statement of Hon. Alberto R. Gonzales, Attorney General of the United States. Press release. http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2006_hr/020606gonzales.html.
42. ^ Bergman, Lichtblau, Shane, and Van Natta Jr. (January 17, 2006).  Spy Agency Data After 11 September Led F.B.I. to Dead Ends . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/17/politics/17spy.html.
43. ^ a b Barton Gellman, Dafna Linzer and Carol D. Leonnig (February 5, 2006).  Surveillance Net Yields Few Suspects – NSA’s Hunt for Terrorists Scrutinizes Thousands of Americans, but Most Are Later Cleared . The Washington Post. pp. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/04/AR2006020401373.html.
44. ^ a b  Proposed Resolution  (PDF). Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public Law 107-40) does not authorize warrantless domestic surveillance of United States citizens. http://leahy.senate.gov/press/200601/UpdatedAUMF%20Resolution%201-19.pdf. Retrieved on January 20.
45. ^ a b U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy (January 20, 2006). Leahy On Friday Introduces Resolution Underscoring That Congress Did Not Authorize Illegal Spying On Americans. Press release. http://leahy.senate.gov/press/200601/012006.html.
46. ^ Search Results – THOMAS (Library of Congress)
47. ^ Cornell University – Constitutional law
48. ^ This is a fundamental axiom of jurisprudence. As Justice Marshall put it in Marbury v Madison, It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is .
49. ^ ‘When the validity of an act of the Congress is drawn in question, and even if a serious doubt of constitutionality is raised, it is a cardinal principle that this Court will first ascertain whether a construction of the statute is fairly possible by which the question may be avoided.’ Crowell v. Benson, 285 U.S. 22, 62, 52 S.Ct. 285, 296.8
50. ^ A Response to the Justice Department from Law Professors and Former Government Officials
51. ^ Fourteen constitutional scholars and former government officials wrote a response dated January 9, 2006 to the Department of Justice letter, and transmitted it to Chairs and Ranking Members of the House and Senate concluding that  the Bush administration’s National Security Agency domestic spying program… appears on its face to violate existing law.  Signatories: Beth Nolan, Curtis Bradley, David Cole, Geoffrey Stone, Harold Hongju Koh, Kathleen M. Sullivan, Laurence H. Tribe, Martin Lederman, Philip B. Heymann, Richard Epstein, Ronald Dworkin, Walter Dellinger, William S. Sessions, and William Van Alstyne [1]
52. ^ a b c Spaulding, Suzanne E. (December 25, 2005).  Power Play – Did Bush Roll Past the Legal Stop Signs? . The Washington Post. pp. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/23/AR2005122302050.html.
53. ^ a b c d  Legal memorandum of David S. Kris, former Deputy Attorney General for national security  (PDF). The Washington Post. January 25, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/documents/NSAProgramQuestions.pdf.
54. ^ That Congress sees this as domestic intelligence can be inferred from the CRS position paper, Congress has asserted itself with respect to domestic surveillance, but has largely left matters involving overseas surveillance to executive self-regulation, subject to congressional oversight and willingness to provide funds.
55. ^ See for example,[2]|Cole, Epstein, Heynmann Open Letter to Congress]

Congress indisputably has authority to regulate electronic surveillance within the United States, as it has done in FISA. Where Congress has so regulated, the President can act in contravention of statute only if his authority is exclusive, that is, not subject to the check of statutory regulation.

56. ^ The CRS report itself notes  A review of the history of intelligence collection and its regulation by Congress suggests that the two political branches have never quite achieved a meeting of the minds regarding their respective powers.
57. ^ United States v. Duggan, 743 F.2d 59, 72 (2d Cir. 1984) (citing cases)
58. ^ Justice Dept Supplemental Brief to the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Court of Review
59. ^ CLAY v. UNITED STATES, 403 U.S. 698 (1971)
60. ^ United States v. Brown, 484 F.2d 418 (5th Cir. 1973)
61. ^ United States v. Butenko, 494 F.2d 593 (3rd Cir. 1974)
62. ^ United States v. Truong Dinh Hung, 629 F.2d 908 (4th Cir. 1980)
63. ^ United States v. Bin Laden, 126 F.Supp.2d 264 (S.D.N.Y. 2000)
64. ^ United States v. U.S. District Court
65. ^ York, Byron (December 20, 2005).  Clinton Claimed Authority to Order No-Warrant Searches – Does anyone remember that? . National Review Online. http://www.nationalreview.com/york/york200512200946.asp.
66. ^ fact sheet:The NSA Program to Detect and Prevent Terrorist Attacks – Myth vs Reality
67. ^ 50 U.S.C. sec. 1811 — Authorization during time of war
68. ^ Title 50, Chapter 15, Subchapter III ACCOUNTABILITY FOR INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES, Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School
69. ^ 50 USC §413b.
70. ^  FindLaw  (PDF). Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions. http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/nsa/crs11806rpt.pdf. Retrieved on January 2006.
71. ^ Cumming, Alfred (January 18, 2006).  Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions  (PDF). FAS. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/m011806.pdf.
72. ^  If the NSA surveillance program were to considered an intelligence collection program, limiting congressional notification of the NSA program to the Gang of Eight, which some Members who were briefed about the program contend, would appear to be inconsistent with the law, which requires that the ‘congressional intelligence committees be kept fully and currently informed of all intelligence activities,’ other than those involving covert actions.  – excerpted from the Congressional Research Service publication,Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions
73. ^  The executive branch may assert that the mere discussion of the NSA program generally could expose certain intelligence sources and methods to disclosure, thus making it necessary to limit the number of those knowledgeable of the program in order to reduce the risk of such disclosure occurring.  – excerpted from the Congressional Research Service publication,Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions
74. ^  Any neutral assessment of the important separation of powers questions at issue here warranted a thorough consideration of Curtiss-Wright and the theory of presidential power it recognized (as well as the even more long-standing precedent on which the decision in Curtiss-Wright relied, including The Prize Cases, 67 U.S. (2 Black) 635  – PROFESSOR JOHN C. EASTMAN in his solicited letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee
75. ^  The Steel Seizure Case12 is frequently cited as providing a framework for the courts to decide the extent of the President’s authority, particularly in matters involving national security.  CRS,  Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information
76. ^ a b Congressional Research Service (January 5, 2006) (PDF). Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information. Press release. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/m010506.pdf.
77. ^ David Alan Jordan. Decrypting the Fourth Amendment: Warrantless NSA Surveillance and the Enhanced Expectation of Privacy Provided by Encrypted Voice over Internet Protocol. Boston College Law Review. May, 2006. Last access date January 23, 2007
78. ^ Circuit courts applying Keith to the foreign intelligence context have affirmed the existence of a foreign intelligence exception to the warrant requirement for searches conducted within the United States which target foreign powers or their agents. See United States v. Clay, 430 F.2d 165, 171 (5th Cir.1970); United States v. Brown, 484 F.2d 418, 426 (5th Cir.1973); United States v. Butenko, 494 F.2d 593, 605 (3d Cir.1974); United States v. Buck, 548 F.2d 871, 875 (9th Cir.1977); United States v. Truong Dinh Hung, 629 F.2d 908, 913 (4th Cir.1980)
79. ^ DOJ/Attorney General Gonzales’ responses to the House Judiciary Committee’s oversight questions regarding the NSA Terrorist Surveillance Program, March 24, 2006
80. ^  The Volokh Conspiracy Blog . The NSA Surveillance Program and the Article II Argument. http://volokh.com/posts/1135893533.shtml. Retrieved on December 29.
81. ^ a b House Judiciary Committee (January 27, 2006) (PDF). NSA Eastman Letter. Press release. http://judiciary.house.gov/media/pdfs/nsaeastmanltr.pdf.
82. ^ George Washington Law School Profile
83. ^ Orin Kerr Bibliography at GWU
84. ^  U.S. INTELLIGENCE Community . NATIONAL SECURITY ACT OF 1947. http://www.intelligence.gov/0-natsecact_1947.shtml. Retrieved on January 2006.
85. ^ RulingThe quote is from page 33.
86. ^ Experts Fault Reasoning in Surveillance Decision, N.Y. Times, August 19, 2006.
87. ^ [http://glenngreenwald.blogspot.com/2006/08/grading-law-professors-apologies-due.html  Grading the law professors; apologies due Judge Taylor  by Glenn Greenwald, August 22, 2006.
88. ^ 6th Circuit Court Order
89. ^ Court allows NSA surveillance program during appeal, CNN.com, October 4, 2006
90. ^ http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/nytimes/docs/nsa/aclunsa70607opn.pdf 6th Circuit Court of Appeals Decision [July 6, 2007]
91. ^ http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/04/70619
92. ^ Savage, Charlie (February 2, 2006).  Specialists doubt legality of wiretaps . The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/02/specialists_doubt_legality_of_wiretaps/.
93. ^ Legal FAQs on NSA Wiretaps by Peter Swire, Law Professor at Ohio State University and Visiting Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress January 26, 2006.
94. ^ Warrantless Wiretapping Why It Seriously Imperils the Separation of Powers, And Continues the Executive’s Sapping of Power From Congress and the Courts; Edward Lazarus, FindLaw; Thursday, 22 December 2005.
95. ^ Transcript of Bush Press Conference; White House Office of the Press Secretary; December 19, 2005.
96. ^ Legal Analysis of the NSA Domestic Surveillance Program; Orin S. Kerr, The Volokh Conspiracy blog; December 19, 2005.
97. ^ The NSA Surveillance Program and the Article II Argument; Orin S. Kerr, The Volokh Conspiracy Blog; December 29, 2005.
98. ^ Ryan Singel (2006-04-07).  Whistle-Blower Outs NSA Spy Room . Wired. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/04/70619. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
99. ^ Frontline (2007-01-09).   Spying on the Home Front  – Interview with Mark Klein . Public Broadcasting System. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/homefront/interviews/klein.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
100. ^  AT&T Whistle-Blower’s Evidence . CommonDreams.org Newscenter. 2006-05-17. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0517-10.htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
101. ^  Klein’s  2004 Package   (PDF). PBS Frontline. 2007-05-17. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/homefront/etc/kleindoc.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
102. ^  DECLARATION OF J. SCOTT MARCUS IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFF’S MOTION FOR PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION  (PDF). 2006-03-29. http://www.eff.org/files/filenode/att/SER_marcus_decl.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
103. ^ Steven M. Bellovin, Matt Blaze, Whitfield Diffie, Susan Landau, Peter G. Neumann, and Jennifer Rexford (2008-02-05).  Risking Communications Security: Potential Hazards of the Protect America Act  (PDF). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Security and Privacy. http://www.crypto.com/papers/paa-ieee.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
104. ^  National Security Archive at George Washington University . Wiretap Debate Déjà Vu. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB178/index.htm. Retrieved on 4 February.
105. ^  Princeton University . The OTA Legacy. http://www.wws.princeton.edu/ota/. Retrieved on February 2006.
106. ^  FAS . EXERCISE OF CERTAIN AUTHORITY RESPECTING ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE – EO 12139. http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo12139.htm. Retrieved on January 2006.
107. ^  FAS . FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE PHYSICAL SEARCHES – EO 12949. http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo/eo-12949.htm. Retrieved on January 2006.
108. ^  Judges of secret court briefed on NSA activity . Associated Press. January 10, 2006. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/custom/attack/bal-te.court10jan10,1,4401538.story?coll=bal-attack-headlines.
109. ^ Leonnig, Carol D.; Linzer, Dafna (December 22, 2005).  Judges on Surveillance Court To Be Briefed on Spy Program . The Washington Post. pp. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/21/AR2005122102326.html.
110. ^ Leonnig, Carol D. (January 5, 2006).  Surveillance Court Is Seeking Answers – Judges Were Unaware of Eavesdropping . The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/04/AR2006010401864.html.
111. ^ A New Surveillance Act, Wall Street Journal February 15, 2006
112. ^ K.A. Taipale, James Jay Carafano (January 25, 2006).  Fixing surveillance . The Washington Times. http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/ed012706a.cfm.
113. ^ Bobbitt, Phillip (January 30, 2006).  Why We Listen . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/30/opinion/30bobbitt.html.
114. ^ Bryan Cunnigham, Daniel B. Prieto (February 5, 2006).  The Eavesdropping Debate We Should be Having . The Denver Post. http://bcsia.ksg.harvard.edu/publication.cfm?program=CORE&ctype=article&item_id=1373.
115. ^ Posner, Richard A. (February 15, 2006).  A New Surveillance Act . The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB113996743590074183-search.html.
116. ^ A historical solution to the Bush spying issue; John Schmidt, The Chicago Tribune; February 12, 2006.
117. ^ Taipale, K. A. ((forthcoming, June 2006)).  Whispering Wires and Warrantless Wiretaps: Data Mining and Foreign Intelligence Surveillance . N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Security, No. 8. http://ssrn.com/abstract=889120.
118. ^ Coleen Rowley’s Memo to FBI Director Robert Mueller
119. ^ FBI Director Mueller Explains the Significance of the Woods Procedures
120. ^ Unitary executive theory
* The Unitary Executive: Is The Doctrine Behind the Bush Presidency Consistent with a Democratic State? By JENNIFER VAN BERGEN, Findlaw, January 09, 2006
* The President Does Not Know Best By Elizabeth de la Vega, Tomdispatch.com. Posted January 19, 2006
* Guest Opinion by Roger A. White, Arizona Daily Star, January 22, 2006
* Bush on Trial for Crimes against Humanity By Marjorie Cohn, Truthout, January 24, 2006
* How Much Authority Does the President Possess When He Is Acting as  Commander In Chief ? Evaluating President Bush’s Claims Against a Key Supreme Court Executive Power Precedent By EDWARD LAZARUS, FindLaw, January 5, 2006
* George Bush’s rough justice – The career of the latest supreme court nominee has been marked by his hatred of liberalism by Sidney Blumenthal, The Guardian, January 12, 2006
* Vice President Cheney and The Fight Over  Inherent  Presidential Powers: His Attempt to Swing the Pendulum Back Began Long Before 9/11By John W. Dean, FindLaw,February 10, 2006
* No Checks, Many Imbalances By George F. Will, Washington Post, 16 February 2006
* An Imperial Presidency Based on Constitutional Quicksand By Ivan Eland, January 10, 2006
* How Close Are We to the End of Democracy? by Martin Garbus, Huffington Post, January 20, 2006
* Administration Paper Defends Spy Program Detailed Argument Cites War Powers By Carol D. Leonnig, Washington Post, January 20, 2006
* Scholar Stands by Post-9/11 Writings On Torture, Domestic Eavesdropping By Peter Slevin, Washington Post, December 26, 2005.
121. ^ Ignoring FISA
* George W. Bush as the New Richard M. Nixon: Both Wiretapped Illegally, and Impeachable; Both Claimed That a President May Violate Congress’ Laws to Protect National Security By JOHN W. DEAN, FindLaw, December 30, 2005
* The President’s End Run, Washington Post, January 23, 2006
122. ^ Campbell v. Clinton, 203 F.3d 19 (D.C. Cir. 2000
123. ^ Eggen, Dan (January 19, 2006).  Congressional Agency Questions Legality of Wiretaps . The Washington Post. pp. A05. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/18/AR2006011802158.html.
124. ^ Holtzman, Elizabeth (January 11, 2006).  The Impeachment of George W. Bush . The Nation. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060130/holtzman.
125. ^ Eggen, Dan (March 5, 2006).  White House Trains Efforts on Media Leaks – Sources, Reporters Could Be Prosecuted . The Washington Post. pp. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/04/AR2006030400867.html.
126. ^ The White House (April 20, 2004). President Bush: Information Sharing, Patriot Act Vital to Homeland Security. Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/04/20040420-2.html.
127. ^ The White House (January 23, 2006). President Discusses Global War on Terror at Kansas State University. Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/01/20060123-4.html.
128. ^ The White House (January 19, 2006). Vice President’s Remarks on Iraq and the War on Terror at the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/01/20060119-5.html.
129. ^ The White House (December 19, 2005). Press Briefing by Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and General Michael Hayden, Principal Deputy Director for National Intelligence. Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/12/20051219-1.html.
130. ^  Administration Lays Out Legal Case for Wiretapping Program . The New York Times. January 19, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/19/politics/19cndnsa.html.
131. ^  hotlineblog  (PDF). US Department of Justice White Paper on NSA Legal Authorities. http://hotlineblog.nationaljournal.com/archives/White%20Paper%20on%20NSA%20Legal%20Authorities.pdf. Retrieved on January 19.
132. ^ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales’ speech at Georgetown University January 24, 2006.
133. ^ General Hayden’s address to the National Press Club on January 23, 2006
134. ^ James Risen, Eric Lichtblau (December 16, 2005).  Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/16/politics/16program.html.
135. ^ The White House (January 25, 2006). President Visits National Security Agency. Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/01/20060125-1.html.
136. ^ Loven, Jennifer (February 10, 2006).  Update 19: Bush Reveals Rationale Behind Surveillance . Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/technology/ebusiness/feeds/ap/2006/02/10/ap2517004.html.
137. ^  Bush says U.S. not ‘trolling through personal lives’ . CNN. May 11, 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/05/11/nsa.phonerecords/index.html.
138. ^ The following statements are taken from the Library of Congress records, pages S137 – S139. Online versions: p.137, p.138, p.139 (PDF).
139. ^ U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary (February 6, 2006). Statement of The Honorable Patrick Leahy. Press release. http://judiciary.senate.gov/member_statement.cfm?id=1727&wit_id=2629.
140. ^ http://www.aclu.org/privacy/spying/23279res20051229.html
141. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/01/20060122.html
142. ^ Gonzales; Press Briefing by Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and General Michael Hayden, Principal Deputy Director for National Intelligence; December 19, 2005.
143. ^ Remarks by Homeland Security Secretary Chertoff and Attorney General Gonzales on the USA PATRIOT Act, December 21, 2005.
144. ^ Responses to Questions from Senator Specter, February 2005.
145. ^ FIS linking to 2006 FISA Congressional Hearings material
146. ^ Press Release of Senator DeWine
147. ^ Dewine Bill as introduced
148. ^ Specter Floor Statement
149. ^ Specter Bill as introduced
150. ^ Specter Offers Compromise on NSA Surveillance, Washington Post, June 9, 2006
151. ^  Prepared Opening Remarks of Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales at the Justice Department Oversight Hearing of the Senate Judiciary Committee . Department of Justice. January 18, 2007. http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/speeches/2007/ag_speech_070118.html.
152. ^ Siobhan Gorman (January 18, 2007).  Bush cedes authority on spy program . Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0701180074jan18,1,3952800.story?track=rss.
153. ^ Chip Pitts (March 15, 2007).  The End of Illegal Domestic Spying? Don’t Count on It . Wash. Spec.. http://www.washingtonspectator.com/articles/20070315surveillance_1.cfm. .
154. ^  Court Affirms Wiretapping Without Warrants . New York Times, January 15, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/16/washington/16fisa.html?_r=1&hp. Retrieved on January 16 2009.
155. ^  Court Backs U.S. Wiretapping . Wall Street Journal, January 16, 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123206893587088395.html?mod=googlenews_wsj. Retrieved on January 16 2009.
156. ^  Intelligence Court Releases Ruling in Favor of Warrantless Wiretapping . Washington Post, January 15, 2009. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/15/AR2009011502311.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved on January 16 2009.
157. ^  Court ruling endorses Bush surveillance policy . Associated Press, January 15, 2009. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5g9Q7M6scz4PEW8SuEo_bpOer6ZAQD95NRD1G0. Retrieved on January 16 2009.
158. ^  No. 08-01 IN RE: DIRECTIVE (Redacted) * PURSUANT TO SECTION 105B OF THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE ACT (redacted tect) ON PETITION FOR REVIEW OF A DECISION OF THE UNITED STATES FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE COURT . United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. August 22,2008. http://www.uscourts.gov/newsroom/2009/FISCR_Opinion.pdf?WT.cg_n=FISCROpinion_WhatsNew_homepage. Retrieved on 2009-01-16.

External links

* Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information, Congressional Research Service, January 5, 2006 (HTML)
* U.S. Department of Justice White Paper on NSA Legal Authorities, Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National Security Agency Described by the President,January 19,2006
* Department of Justice Letter to the Senate Select Intelligence Committee 22 December (PDF) via Federation of American Scientists
* Justice Dept Supplemental Brief to the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Court of Review
* The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and Recent Judicial Decisions – Congressional Research Service – April 2005 via Federation of American Scientists
* Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions, Congressional Research Service , January 18, 2006 (HTML)
* FindLaw News Document Archive for National Security Agency (NSA)
* Cornell Law: US CODE Title 50, Chapter 36—Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
* FAS FISA Resource Page
* FISA and Immunity
* Presidential Powers in Time of War, a written exchange between professors at the Univ. of Minnesota School of Law
* Large Cruxlux debate on legality of wiretapping program
* Surveillance law resources, JURIST
* ACLU Complaint (Initial Filing) against the NSA Central Security Serice and Lieutenant General Keith B. Alexander (HTML)
* House Judiciary 20 January 2006 Briefing Statements, Transcript, EFF and ACLU Complaints and Related Action Documents in HTML
* Response by the American Bar Association:
o Letter to George W. Bush (pdf) from ABA President Michael S. Greco, dated 13 February 2006
o Resolution (26-page pdf) from the ABA denouncing the warrantless wiretaps
* David Alan Jordan, Decrypting the Fourth Amendment: Warrantless NSA Surveillance and the Enhanced Expectation of Privacy Provided by Encrypted Voice over Internet Protocol – Boston College Law Review, Vol. 47, 2006
* Commentary Magazine March, 2006 Has the New York Times Violated the Espionage Act?
* Of Bugs, the President, and the NSA– Douglas C. McNabb and Matthew R. McNabb, The Champion.
* EFF Class Action Complaint (Initial Filing) against AT&T (HTML)
* Not Authorized By Law: Domestic Spying and Congressional Consent, JURIST
* Washington Monthly blog post on an opposed conservative reaction
* An Open Letter to George Bush partly on this issue
* T.J. Rodgers. U.S. gets closer to Orwell’s Big Brother, San Jose Mercury News, December 29, 2005.
* FindLaw News Document Archive for National Security Agency (NSA)
* The New York Review of Books: ON NSA SPYING: A LETTER TO CONGRESS(Volume 53, Number 2 A February 9, 2006)
* ALEXANDER COCKBURN and JEFFREY ST. CLAIR, Time-Delayed Journalism: the NYT and the NSA’s Illegal Spying Operation December 17, 2005
* Gabriel Sherman, Why Times Ran Wiretap Story, Defying Bush The New York Observer, December 26, 2005
* Morrison, Trevor W.,  Constitutional Avoidance in the Executive Branch  . Columbia Law Review, Vol. 106, October 2006
* JENNIFER VAN BERGEN, The Unitary Executive: Is The Doctrine Behind the Bush Presidency Consistent with a Democratic State? Findlaw (Monday, 9 January 2006)
* Swire, Peter P.,  The System of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Law  – George Washington Law Review, Vol. 72, 2004
* No Oil for Pacifists, Wiretap Law–Debate and Answer, blog post providing legal and policy analysis, extensively hyperlinked to cases, statutes and articles (30 January 2006)
* C-SPAN videos (require RealPlayer)
* Whistleblower says NSA violations bigger United Press International, February 14, 2006
* Letter from Senator Pat Roberts to Senator Arlen Specter Senator defends NSA program legality, February 3, 2006 via Federation of American Scientists
* Presidential Secrecy and the NSA Spying Controversy, JURIST
* NSA Eavesdropping and the Fourth Amendment, JURIST
* Washington Post’s overview: NSA: Spying at Home
* ACLU v. NSA ruling, which held that the NSA warrantless surveillance program is illegal and unconstitutional and must be halted immediately.
* John St. Clair Akwei VS The National Security Agency
*  NSA warrantless wiretapping is illegal  argument diagram at HonestArgument.com
*  So Judge, How Do I Get That FISA Warrant? : The Policy and Procedure for Conducting Electronic Surveillance, The Army Lawyer, October 1997
* Technician Mark Klein discussing Room 641A on  Countdown , November 7, 2007
* Amicus Filed in NSA Wiretapping Case
* Swedish FRA granted the right to intercept all traffic at exchange points that exchange traffic that crosses Swedish borders

Sister project     Wikinews has related news: Bush authorized NSA surveillance of citizens, bypassing court warrants

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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NSA_warrantless_surveillance_controversy
Categories: Anti-terrorism policy of the United States | Emergency laws | Espionage | George W. Bush administration controversies | National Security Agency | Privacy of telecommunications | National security | United States national security policy | Surveillance scandals | Mass surveillance

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_Groundbreaker

***

Room 641A
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Room 641A is an alleged intercept facility operated by AT&T for the U.S. National Security Agency, beginning in 2003. Room 641A is located in the SBC Communications building at 611 Folsom Street, San Francisco, three floors of which were occupied by AT&T before SBC purchased AT&T. The room was referred to in internal AT&T documents as the SG3 [Study Group 3] Secure Room. It is fed by fiber optic lines from beam splitters installed in fiber optic trunks carrying Internet backbone traffic and, therefore, presumably has access to all Internet traffic that passes through the building.

The room measures about 24 by 48 feet (7.3 m H 15 m) and contains several racks of equipment, including a Narus STA 6400, a device designed to intercept and analyze Internet communications at very high speeds.[1]

The existence of the room was revealed by a former AT&T technician, Mark Klein, and is the subject of a 2006 class action lawsuit by the Electronic Frontier Foundation against AT&T.[2] Klein claims he was told that similar black rooms are operated at other facilities around the country.

Room 641A and the controversies surrounding it were subjects of an episode of  Frontline , the current affairs documentary program on PBS. It was originally broadcast on May 15, 2007. It was also featured on PBS’s NOW on March 14, 2008.
Contents

* 1 Lawsuit
* 2 See also
* 3 References
* 4 External links

Lawsuit
Main article: Hepting v. AT&T

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) filed a class-action lawsuit against AT&T on January 31, 2006, accusing the telecommunication company of violating the law and the privacy of its customers by collaborating with the National Security Agency (NSA) in a massive, illegal program to wiretap and data-mine Americans’ communications. On July 20, 2006, a federal judge denied the government’s and AT&T’s motions to dismiss the case, chiefly on the ground of the States Secrets Privilege, allowing the lawsuit to go forward. On August 15, 2007, the case was heard by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.

An additional case by the EFF was created on September 18, 2008, titled Jewel v. NSA.

See also

* Cabinet noir
* NSA warrantless surveillance controversy
* Signals intelligence

References

1. ^  AT&T Whistle-Blower’s Evidence . Wired. May 17, 2006. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/05/70908. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
2. ^  NSA Multi-District Litigation . Electronic Frontier Foundation. http://www.eff.org/cases/att. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.

External links

* Electronic Frontier Foundation’s web page about NSA’s domestic spying
*  Spying on the Home Front , Frontline episode from May 15, 2007
* Technician Mark Klein discussing Room 641A, Countdown episode from November 7, 2007

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Room_641A
Categories: AT&T | George W. Bush administration controversies | History of cryptography | Locations in the history of espionage | National Security Agency | Privacy of telecommunications

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Room_641A

***

athenahealth
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

athenahealth, Inc. Type     Public (NASDAQ: ATHN)
Founded     1997
Headquarters     Flag of the United States Watertown, MA, USA
Key people     Jonathan S. Bush, CEO, President and Chairman
Carl B. Byers, CFO, Senior Vice President and Treasurer
Industry     Healthcare Technology
Products     Healthcare Billing and Records
Market cap     873 million USD[1]
Revenue     US$100.8 million (2007)
Employees     648 (2008)
Website     athenahealth.com

athenahealth, Inc., (NASDAQ: ATHN) is a publicly traded American company that provides web-based practice management, electronic medical records (EMR), and medical billing services to healthcare practices. It is headquartered in Watertown, Massachusetts, with operational sites in Belfast, and Chennai, India.[2]
Contents

* 1 History
* 2 Products
* 3 Key People[10]
* 4 See also
* 5 External links
* 6 References

History

In 1997, athenahealth co-founders Jonathan Bush and Todd Park started a women’s health and birthing practice in San Diego, California, called Athena Healthcare. Unprepared for how difficult it would be to get reimbursed by insurance companies, they soon faced serious cash flow problems.[3] After searching unsuccessfully for an existing EMR and practice management solution to meet their needs, they decided to form athenahealth, Inc. in order to create their own product. Enlisting the help of Todd’s brother, software developer Ed Park, they began to develop an EMR and financial revenue cycle system with a  rules engine  of dynamic billing rules data.[4]

In 2000, athenahealth introduced athenaCollector, their physician billing and practice management service. In 2006, it launched athenaClinicals, touted as the  first economically sustainable, service-based  electronic medical records (EMR) system.[5] And in August 2008, it announced the acquisition of MedicalMessaging.net.[6]

athenahealth also entered the area of healthcare reform in 2006, working with Physician’s Practice Journal to provide an industry report card for the major insurance companies in the United States.[7] The annual PayerView reports cull billing statistics from athenahealth’s rules engine to deliver performance analysis and insurance company rankings based on payment times, denial rates, transparency, and other metrics.

After years of rapid growth, athenahealth, Inc. announced an initial public offering of its common stock on June 22, 2007.[8], [9] The offering was completed on September 20, 2007, at an offering price of $18 per share. It now trades on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol ATHN.

Products

* athenaCollector
Physician billing and practice management service combining award-winning software, proprietary claims knowledge, and business services.
* athenaClinicals
Integrated electronic medical records (EMR) service, combining software with clinical and payer intelligence.

Key People[10]

* Jonathan Bush, Chairman and CEO
* Carl B. Byers, Senior Vice President, CFO and Treasurer
* Daniel H. Orenstein, Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
* Robert M. Hueber, Senior Vice President, Sales
* Nancy G. Brown, Senior Vice President, Business Development and Government Relations
* Leslie Locke, Senior Vice President of People and Process
* Rob Cosinuke, Senior Vice President and CMO

See also

* Jonathan Bush, Chairman and CEO

External links

* athenahealth, Inc.
* athenahealth PayerView

References

1. ^  Company Profile for athenahealth Inc (ATHN) . http://www.zenobank.com/index.php?symbol=ATHN&page=quotesearch. Retrieved on 2008-10-21.
2. ^  athenahealth, Inc. Factsheet . athenahealth, Inc.. http://www.athenahealth.com/about-us/fact-sheet.php. Retrieved on 2008-10-07.
3. ^  Fights Over Health Claims Spawn a New Arms Race – Insurers and Doctors Try for Upper Hand; Firms Help Both Sides . Wall Street Journal. http://s.wsj.net/public/article/SB117141549626107896-search.html?KEYWORDS=athenahealth+Fights+Over+Health+Claims+Spawn+a+New+Arms+Race+-+Insurers+and+Doctors+Try+for+Upper+Hand+Firms+Help+Both+Sides+&COLLECTION=wsjie/6month. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
4. ^  The Bush Health-Care Solution . Fast Company. http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/96/health-care.html. Retrieved on 2005-07-01.
5. ^  athenahealth Introduces Healthcare Industry’s First Economically Sustainable, Service-Based EMR Offering for Medical Practices . Business Wire. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2006_July_25/ai_n26934679. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
6. ^  athenahealth to Acquire MedicalMessaging.net Assets, Gaining New Patient Communications Service Capabilities . Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/businesswire/feeds/businesswire/2008/08/04/businesswire20080804006081r1.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-04.
7. ^  The Check Is Not in the Mail . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/25/business/25insure.html. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
8. ^  Health Care’s Electronic Elixer? . Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jan2006/tc20060131_011101.htm. Retrieved on 2006-01-31.
9. ^  athenahealth Named One of America’s Fastest Growing Private Companies for the Second Straight Year . Business Wire. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2006_August_29/ai_n26969643. Retrieved on 2006-08-29.
10. ^  athenahealth Management . athenahealth, Inc.. http://investors.athenahealth.com/management.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-11-15.

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athenahealth
Categories: Companies listed on NASDAQ

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athenahealth

***
Jonathan S. Bush
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jonathan S. Bush is the co-founder, Chief Executive Officer, and President of Athenahealth, Inc., a health care technology company founded in 1997.[1]

In 2000, Bush raised more than $10M in venture capital funding to support the company.[2] Athenahealth launched a successful IPO in 2007.[3]

Before founding Athenahealth, Bush served as an associate of J. Bush & Company, Inc, and a consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton, where he was a member of its Managed Care Strategy Group. Bush holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Wesleyan University and a master’s degree in business administration from Harvard University.[1]

He is the son of Jonathan Bush, making him the first cousin of U.S. President George W. Bush[4] and the nephew of U.S. President George H. W. Bush.

References

1. ^ a b Official Athenahealth biography.
2. ^ Oliver Ryan. Jan 22, 2007.  The Bush who pays the bills.  Fortune. Vol. 155, Issue 1.
3. ^ Lynn Cowan. Sep. 21, 2007.  Athenahealth IPO Soars 97%; Year’s Best Debut Adds Some Zest To Slow September.  Wall Street Journal. p. C3.
4. ^ Jennifer Reingold. July 2005.  The Bush [health-care] solution . Fast Company, issue 96.

External links

* Official Athenahealth biography

Bush family
Prescott Bush ancestors
Dorothy Walker Bush ancestors
Samuel Prescott Bush (1863–1948) • James Smith Bush (1825–1889) • Obadiah Newcomb Bush
George Herbert Walker (1875–1953) • David Davis Walker (1840–1918) • George E. Walker (1797–1864) • Thomas Walker (1758–1799)
Samuel P. Bush & Flora Sheldon
Prescott Sheldon Bush (m.) Dorothy Wear Walker • Robert Bush • Mary House Bush • Margaret Clement Bush • James Bush
Prescott Bush (1895–1972)
Prescott Bush Jr. • George Herbert Walker Bush (m.) Barbara Pierce • Nancy Walker Bush Ellis • Jonathan James Bush • William Henry Trotter Bush
George H. W. Bush (1924–)
Jonathan Bush (1931–)
George Walker Bush (m.) Laura Lane Welch • Pauline Robinson Bush • Jeb Bush (m.) Columba Garnica Gallo • Neil Mallon Bush (m.) Sharon Smith • Marvin Pierce Bush (m.) Margaret Molster • Dorothy Walker Bush (m. 2nd) Robert P. Koch
Billy Bush (m.) Sydney Davis • Jonathan S. Bush
George W. Bush (1946–)
Jeb Bush (1953–)
Neil Bush (1955–)
Dorothy Koch (1959-)
Barbara Pierce Bush • Jenna Welch Bush (m.) Henry Hager
George Prescott Bush • Noelle Bush
Lauren Bush
Sam LeBlond • Ellie LeBlond • Robert Koch • Gigi Koch
See also
David Davis
The Bush Compound • Buckeye Steel Castings • G. H. Walker & Co. • The Family: The Real Story of the Bush Dynasty • Political line
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_S._Bush
Categories: 1969 births | Living people | American chief executives | Bush family | Wesleyan University alumni | Harvard Business School alumni

***
SPARTA Inc., Lake Forest, Calif.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from SPARTA, Inc.)

SPARTA, Inc. is a United States defense contractor based in Lake Forest, California. It was started in 1979 and has more than 20 offices around the United States. The acronym, SPARTA, stands for  Systems Planning Analysis Research and Technology Associates.

SPARTA was unusual for a U.S. defense contractor in that it was publicly held but privately traded; it was more than 98% owned by its 1,300 employees. Employees were granted stock options based on various criteria, including corporate profit and individual contribution to bringing in new business. Employees could sell stock back to the company when their options vested, at a price determined by a formula for valuing the company.

Some benefits and company procedures are decided upon by a council of employees which meets usually annually. Slightly fewer than one third of the representatives to the council are elected by the employees.

In January 2008 Cobham plc released that it will purchase SPARTA for USD$416 million.[1] The purchase was approved by SPARTA shareholders in April 2008, but was at that time still subject to U.S. Government approval.[2]

References

1. ^ News Release from Cobham plc website
2. ^ SPARTA SEC 8-K filing, April 11, 2008

External links

* SPARTA, Inc.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPARTA,_Inc.
***
About SPARTA

SPARTA’s core business areas include strategic defense and offense systems, tactical weapons systems, space systems. SPARTA’s major intelligence credentials include intelligence production, computer network operations, and information assurance. We have been recognized nationally in all these areas for our commitment to technical excellence, our innovative approaches, and our dedication to both our employees and customers.

http://www.sparta.com/

***

SPARTA, Inc.
Officers & Directors

Tim Heely
President

J Lowder
Ethics Officer

John Dyer
Chief Technical Officer

David Schreiman
Chief Financial Officer

Ray Gretlein
Chief Information Officer

Jerry Fabian
Director of Business Administration

Jody Chiaro
Director of Human Resources
Missile Defense Sector

Randy Morgan
President

Biff Lyons
Advanced Systems & Technology Operation

Mike Byers
Defense Programs Operation

Jim Snaman
Systems Acquisition Support Operation

Pete Schofield
Technology & Acquisition Support Operation
National Security Systems Sector

Maureen Baginski
President

Doug Price
Applied Comm Tech Operation

Carl Muckenhirn
Information Systems Security Operation

Bill Goodner
Military Systems Operation
Mission Systems Sector

Troy Crites
President

Jim Hansen
Defense Systems & Technology Operation

Alan Johnson
Space & Missile Defense Operation
Composite Products

Paul Oppenheim
Operations Manager

http://www.sparta.com/about/organization.html

* Home
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SPARTA, Inc

* About SPARTA
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SPARTA.com Site Map
About SPARTA

* About SPARTA
* Organization
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Careers

* Careers at SPARTA

Products

* Aerospace Composite Components
* Commander’s Analysis Planning Simulation (CAPS)
* CC Toolbox
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Services

* Information Security Systems
* Logistic Software Verification & Validation
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* Software Development
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* Homeland Security
* Unmanned Aerial Systems

Operations
ISSO: Information Systems Security Operation
About ISSO

* About ISSO
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Programs and Services

* Main Page

Technologies

* Main Page
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* Finished Projects and Archive
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http://www.sparta.com/sitemap/

***

Cobham plc
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cobham plc
Type     Public (LSE: COB)
Founded     1934
Headquarters     Wimborne Minster, England, UK
Key people     David Turner, Chairman
Allan Cooke, CEO
Industry     Defence
Revenue     £1,466.5 million (2008)
Operating income     £128.5 million (2008)
Net income     £95.5 million (2008)
Website     www.cobham.com

Cobham plc (LSE: COB) is a British manufacturing company based in Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

Contents

* 1 History
* 2 Operations
* 3 Sports club
* 4 References
* 5 External links

History

Cobham was founded as Flight Refuelling Limited in 1934 by Sir Alan Cobham, who remained chairman until 1969.

Flight Refuelling Limited was the first contractor to join the Berlin airlift in 1948.[1] The following year the Company developed the ‘probe and drogue’ method of air-to-air refuelling.[1]

In February 2008 Cobham bought the sensor and antenna systems division of BAe Systems for $240 million.[2]

In June 2008 Cobham acquired Sparta Inc., a US defence business, for $416 million.[3]

In September 2008 Cobham completed the purchase of the radio frequency components business of M/A-COM for $425 million.[4]

Operations

The Company is organised into four core technology divisions: Mission Systems, Defence Systems, Avionics and Surveillance, and Aviation Services divisions.

Sports club

The company created Cobham Sports and Social Club, a members club in Merley, near to the main manufacturing site.

References

1. ^ a b Cobham: Our heritage
2. ^ Cobham buys BAe Systems Division The Engineer, 25 February 2008
3. ^ Cobham to purchase Sparta for $416m RF Globalnet, 16 January 2008
4. ^ Tyco Electronics Announces Agreement to Sell Its RF Components and Subsystem Business To Cobham Plc Tyco Press Release, 13 May 2008

External links

* Official site
* Yahoo profile

Companies portal

FTSE 100 companies of the United Kingdom

As of 19 January 2009.

3i A Admiral Group A Alliance Trust A AMEC A Amlin A Anglo American A Antofagasta A Associated British Foods A AstraZeneca A Autonomy Corporation A Aviva A BAE Systems A BG Group A BHP Billiton A BP A BT Group A Balfour Beatty A Barclays A British Airways A British American Tobacco A British Land Company A British Sky Broadcasting Group A Bunzl A Cable & Wireless A Cadbury A Cairn Energy A Capita Group A Carnival A Centrica A Cobham A Compass Group A Diageo A Drax Group A Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation A Experian A FirstGroup A Friends Provident A G4S A GlaxoSmithKline A HSBC A Hammerson A Home Retail Group A ICAP A Imperial Tobacco A Inmarsat A InterContinental Hotels Group A International Power A Invensys A Johnson Matthey A Kazakhmys A Kingfisher A Land Securities Group A Legal & General A Liberty International A Lloyds Banking Group A London Stock Exchange Group A Man Group A Marks & Spencer A Wm Morrison Supermarkets A National Grid A Next A Old Mutual A Pearson A Pennon Group A Prudential A RSA Insurance Group A Randgold Resources A Reckitt Benckiser A Reed Elsevier A Rexam A Rio Tinto Group A Rolls-Royce Group A Royal Bank of Scotland Group A Royal Dutch Shell A SABMiller A Sage Group A J Sainsbury A Schroders A Scottish and Southern Energy A Serco Group A Severn Trent A Shire A Smith & Nephew A Smiths Group A Standard Chartered Bank A Standard Life A Tate & Lyle A Tesco A Thomas Cook Group A Thomson Reuters A TUI Travel A Tullow Oil A Unilever A United Utilities A Vedanta Resources A Vodafone A WPP Group A Whitbread A Wolseley A Xstrata
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Categories: Companies listed on the London Stock Exchange | Companies established in 1934 | Aerospace companies of the United Kingdom | Manufacturing companies of the United Kingdom | Wimborne Minster | Manufacturing company stubs | United Kingdom company stubs | Guided missile stubs

Wikimedia Foundation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobham_plc

***
http://www.cobham.com/home.aspx

***
Schlesinger Study

In 1970 the White House—spurred by House of Representatives Appropriations Committee Chairman George Mahon (D-TX) to find ways to cut intelligence spending—asked James Schlesinger, an assistant director of OMB, to conduct a review of the Intelligence Community. Schlesinger finished his study on 10 March 1971 and sent it out within the executive branch for review. His report stressed the rising costs of collection efforts. He was not concerned about duplication of analytic production (partly because he felt that competition between analytic ideas was a good thing and partly because the monetary costs involved were relatively small), but he believed that there was duplication in collection activities resulting from helter-skelter growth that had not been subjected to sufficiently rigorous cross-program management. The increase in substantive knowledge about the world had not been commensurate with this growth in collection, Schlesinger believed, and indeed he saw the latter as having been substituted for the former. The community had outgrown the structure laid out for it in 1947, Schlesinger judged, and had not carefully enough shaped its activities to achieve its objectives.

The report thus defined the problem as one of inadequacies in decisionmaking about intelligence programs, including a lack of DCI authority and of mechanisms for “governing” the Intelligence Community. The study cited the DCI’s NIPE Staff and the NIRB in positive terms, but also pointedly noted that they could be ignored without penalty. It called USIB a governing body, but one that was not useful in practical management or leadership terms. Finally, it claimed there was inadequate centralization of DOD intelligence programs despite the steps Secretary Laird had taken. The study readily acknowledged that its recommendations on reorganization were, in and of themselves, not solutions to the problems cited. But it did argue that, as had been the case with the 1958 reorganization of DOD, organizational change was a necessary initial step in reaching solutions.

The report’s main recommendation was to redefine and thereby strengthen the DCI’s leadership of the community as a whole. DCIs traditionally had taken the position that they needed to head CIA even if they also wanted to strengthen their community role. Even John McCone, the most community-minded DCI up to the 1970s, depended on the new science and technology directorate he had created within CIA to sustain his role in shaping national reconnaissance programs. And all DCIs depended on CIA’s analysts to provide the substantive products supplied to senior policymakers.

Schlesinger mounted an assault on this viewpoint. He acknowledged that DCIs had too little authority to do the kind of community-wide management he envisaged. But he argued that they had not even used the authority they had, and he depicted them as fatally flawed because of their ties to CIA. Running CIA was, by itself, a fulltime job; indeed, accomplishing just the covert action part of CIA’s mission was a “heavy burden.” Beyond that, the DCI’s multiple roles conflicted with each other. Finally, and perhaps of greatest importance to Schlesinger, the DCI, by virtue of heading and advocating CIA’s collection programs, was part of the problem by being a competitor for resources within a process he supposedly headed: “he cannot be wholly objective in providing guidance for community-wide collection.”

In a May 1971 conversation with Lawrence K. “Red” White, CIA’s executive director-comptroller, and Edward Proctor, CIA’s deputy director for intelligence, Schlesinger made clear that, in this regard, he was not especially concerned with CIA’s clandestine collection efforts. It was the big NRO programs backed by CIA’s Directorate of Science and Technology that were the problem. He cited two major satellite programs developed by CIA as creating problems between the DCI and DOD. He viewed one program as “a complete disaster”; DOD had never been convinced of its value, and yet it was being built. He acknowledged that CIA had been technically justified in advocating the other program, but he still felt the friction caused with DOD was unhelpful. Indeed, in cases like this one, Schlesinger asserted, it was CIA’s withholding of information from DOD that was part of the problem (thus reversing the traditional NIPE Staff complaint that DOD denied the DCI adequate visibility into data on its intelligence programs). In effect, Schlesinger was saying that not only were DCIs ineffectual in containing or managing collection program growth, they were major culprits in pushing it.[11]

The study presented three alternative models for DCI leadership of the Intelligence Community. One was to create a new director of national intelligence who would directly control all national foreign intelligence resources. This option represented centralization in its most complete form. The second was a redefined DCI who would be separated from the duty of running CIA’s clandestine activities (he would retain its analytic production capability in order to fulfill his responsibility of providing national intelligence to the NSC) and would serve as the supreme resource decisionmaker within the community. This option aimed at advancing in the right direction without inviting fears of a too powerful czar. The third alternative was a coordinator of national intelligence who would be a White House or NSC overseer of the Intelligence Community. This option would strengthen the hand of the consumers of intelligence products but would probably not adequately address the study’s concerns regarding community resource management. The pros and cons laid out in the study made clear that the first option had no hope of gaining DOD support, and the third option frankly stated it would not solve the resource management issue. The study also took up the issue of DOD intelligence program management and recommend options for centralizing it, thus adding its weight to the Froehlke and Fitzhugh reports. But communitywide, it concentrated on its new leadership options and mentioned possibly more involvement by high-level consumers of intelligence.

When Schlesinger circulated his report, Helms felt he was under pressure from PFIAB and the White House. In April, Kissinger raised the issue of presidential dissatisfaction with estimates, and he also told Helms that the investigation of intelligence ordered by the president would examine USIB-centered activities as well as potential reductions in budget expenditures. Helms supported his analysts’ work and had confidence in his orderly administrative style, so the White House dissatisfaction may have puzzled as well as pressured him. Perhaps the missing link was the lack of any real personal “connection” between Helms and Nixon, an element vital to the former and difficult for the latter.

Reactions to Study

On 20 April 1971, Helms gave Schlesinger a brief set of CIA comments on the study’s draft DCI leadership options. Overall, the comments suggested that some kind of formal boost to the DCI from the president would be the best practical outcome of the study effort. CIA officers believed the first two options for a new DCI would require congressional action, a bad idea as far as they were concerned. The study itself indicated option three would not be effective, CIA commented, so that meant that none of the options were workable as they stood. Since a true “command” system was out of the question, some sort of a “coordination” solution seemed in order. The CIA comments thus concluded that the best outcome—if supported by the White House and other major players—would be presidential direction to the DCI to this effect. CIA concluded its views with an unsurprising plea not to separate the DCI from CIA (the reasoning was that CIA’s analysis and operations should not be separated from each other and the DCI could not do without its analytic support, hence he needed to remain CIA’s head, although he could delegate more agency leadership to his deputy).

These comments followed closely the inputs received by Helms from his principal subordinates. Bronson Tweedy, by then his deputy for community matters, and Executive Director-Comptroller White had advised Helms not to argue with anything in the report but rather simply accept that improvement in managing the community was needed. “Essentially,” they told Helms, what was needed was “a strong DCI, as in Option 2, with clear and explicit Presidential authority and community staff mechanisms to assist him.” The point was that, as Schlesinger had explained in the report, the charter legislation had established the DCI’s community-based substantive role well but left unaddressed his community-wide resource management role. A presidential directive could make up that gap without brooking the risks of seeking legislation. They also advised the DCI to not tip his hand on any future actions he might wish to take: “you should not get into this until you know what direction the President is going to take.”

The directorate heads at CIA also argued for a positive, general response that did not address the detailed findings. Thomas H. Karamessines, Helms’s operations chief, provided views in line with what was eventually given to Schlesinger. The deputy director for intelligence (in comments signed by both the current DDI, R. J. Smith, and his deputy, Edward Proctor, who became DDI in less than a month) believed that some version of option two was the most logical solution and that the DCI could do little without more help from the president. Carl E. Duckett, the deputy director for science and technology (DDS&T), defended CIA’s NRO work as well managed and made his own radical reorganization suggestion, which CIA did not pass on to OMB.[12]

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/directors-of-central-intelligence-as-leaders-of-the-u-s-intelligence-community/chapter_4.htm

***
http://www.cobham.com/home.aspx

Cobham plc announces that on 6 March 2009 Peter Hooley, Non-executive Director, purchased 5,000 ordinary shares in the company at 185.3 pence per share and that the shares were registered in joint names with his wife, Marianne Hooley. This total amount of shares purchased by Mr and Mrs Hooley represents 0.0004% of the issued ordinary share capital in the company.

Cobham plc – total voting rights

In accordance with the Transparency Directive’s provisions, the company advises that as at the date of this announcement it has:

Ordinary shares

1,141,789,262 ordinary shares of 2.5p nominal value each with voting rights admitted to trading.  No ordinary shares are held in treasury. The total number of voting rights in respect of the ordinary shares is 1,141,789,262.

Preference shares

19,700 preference shares of £1 nominal value each with voting rights admitted to trading.  No preference shares are held in treasury. The total number of voting rights in respect of the preference shares is 19,700.

The above figures may be used by shareholders (and others with notification obligations) as the denominator for the calculations by which they will determine whether they are required to notify their interest in, or a change to their interest in, Cobham plc under the FSA’s Disclosure and Transparency Rules.

This information is provided by RNS
The company news service from the London Stock Exchange
http://www.cobhaminvestors.com/

***

Allan E Cook CBE – (also spelled Allan Cooke, in some places)

Chief Executive

Please click here to read our 2007 CR Report detailing our performance and progress in our Corporate Responsibility activities.

Please direct all feedback to:
James Streater
Director, Corporate Responsibility & Sustainability

(james.streater@cobham.com)

http://www.cobham.com/corporate-responsibility.aspx

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1. CI 102 (pdf 50Kb)
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17. CI 292-2 (pdf 51Kb)
18. CI 108 (pdf 53Kb)
19. CI 108-1 (pdf 187Kb)
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1. CI 120G/S (pdf 54Kb)
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1. Ku-Band (pdf 59Kb)
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1. Ku-Band (pdf 63Kb)
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3. X-Band (pdf 63Kb)
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1. Ku-Band (pdf 53Kb)
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1. Ku-Band (pdf 53Kb)
2. C-Band (pdf 54Kb)
3. X-Band (pdf 53Kb)
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2. Stainless Steel Hardware Kits
3. Standard Hardware Kits
4. Bolt Template Kits
20. Feeds & OMTs
1. Patriot Feeds
2. ADL Feeds
3. Seavey Feeds
4. Multibeam Feed Systems
5. Chaparral Feeds
6. Feedhorn Accessories
21. Prime Focus Feeds
5. Broadcast / Prime Focus Antennas
1. 3.1m Prime Focus Antenna System
1. KU Band (pdf 2282Kb)
2. C Band (pdf 2289Kb)
2. 3.8m Prime Focus Antenna System
1. KU Band (pdf 2307Kb)
2. C Band (pdf 2306Kb)
3. 4.5 m Prime Focus Antenna System
1. C Band (pdf 2335Kb)
2. KU Band (pdf 2303Kb)
4. 5.0m Prime Focus Antenna System
1. KU Band (pdf 737Kb)
2. C Band (pdf 37Kb)
3. X Band (pdf 744Kb)
5. 6.3 m Band Prime Focus Antenna System
1. C Band (pdf 744Kb)
2. KU Band (pdf 37Kb)
3. X Band (pdf 37Kb)
6. 7.5 m Band Prime Focus Antenna System
1. C Band (pdf 37Kb)
2. KU Band (pdf 736Kb)
3. X – Band (pdf 805Kb)
6. DBS / DTH / Offset Antennas
1. 46cm (pdf 50Kb)
2. 60cm (pdf 53Kb)
3. 76cm
1. 76cm Ku-Band (pdf 603Kb)
4. 90cm
1. 90cm Ku-Band (pdf 83Kb)
5. 1.2 m
1. Ka Band (pdf 81Kb)
2. Ku Band (pdf 81Kb)
6. 1.5 m
1. Ku Band (pdf 49Kb)
7. 1.8 m
1. C Band (pdf 73Kb)
2. Ku Band (pdf 72Kb)
3. X Band (pdf 72Kb)
7. Mobile VSAT Systems
1. 1.8m Mobile VSAT
1. Ku Band (pdf 72Kb)
2. C Band (pdf 73Kb)
3. X Band (pdf 72Kb)
8. Transmit-Receive Micro Terminals Antennas
3. Media
1. News
1. Patriot Antenna Systems Receives GSA Schedule (pdf 61Kb)
2. Satellite Today reports Patriot’s GSA Schedule (pdf 32Kb)
2. Gallery
4. Distributors
1. Broadband Design and Engineering, Inc
2. Procomsat
3. Allen Communications
4. VEC S.R.L.
5. InterTronic Solutions, Inc.
6. Jonsa Ellies (Aust.) Pty Ltd
7. Spectrum Communication Systems, Inc.
8. Electronica Industrial Columbia S.A.
9. M & J Communications Ltd.
10. Cobham France – Salies
11. Elexo
12. V C Gaur
13. PT TeleNet
14. Militram
15. COMTELSAT de MEXICO, S.A. de C.V.
16. NICE New International Communications Electronics
17. Channel Tek
18. SATCAB – Satellite E Cabo TV, LDA.
19. BIP Corporation
20. TTA Telecom LLC
21. Richardson Electronics Pte. Ltd. (1)
22. Space TV
23. ESSA, Equipos y Sistemas S.A.
24. MEconnect
25. Mega Hertz
26. Arris/Telewire
27. Abraham Antenna Service
28. Advanced Media Technologies
29. Broadcasters General Store
30. Multicom
31. Broadcast Richardson
32. Nickless Schirmer & Co.
33. Pivotal Satellite
34. Superior Satellite Engineers
35. Power & Telephone Supply
36. Harris Corporation
37. Tulsat
38. Toner Cable
39. TVC Communications
40. IsoTropic
41. Global Communications
5. FAQ
6. Type Approvals
7. Tradeshows
8. Contact Us
6. Pretoria
1. Cobham Advanced Technologies
2. Capability
1. Engineering and Marketing
7. Products and Services
8. Contact Us
5. Technology
2. Products and Services
2. Defence Systems
1. About Us
1. Antenna Systems
1. Heinävaara
1. Mast Systems
2. About Us
3. Products and Services
1. EXL-masts
1. EXL195
2. EXL167
2. EXB-Masts
3. EX-Masts
1. EX141
2. EX128
3. EX105
4. TR-masts
5. TM-masts
6. Tripods
7. Accessories
8. Ancillaries
1. Antenna Pointing Devices
2. Antenna Brackets
3. Transportation kits
9. Telescopic Masts
4. Contacts
5. News and Events
1. IDEX 2009, Abu Dhabi
2. LAAD 2009, Rio de Janeiro
2. Marlow
1. Chelton Limited
2. Products and Services
1. Airborne Antenna Solutions
2. Airborne Cockpit Avionics
3. Airborne Comms Systems
4. Airborne Discharges
5. Airborne Intercom Avionics
6. Airborne Interference Cancellation
7. Airborne Nav Systems
8. Airborne SAR
9. Airborne SATCOM Systems
10. Land Interference Cancellation
11. Land Manpack Antennas
12. Land Masts
13. Land Radio Relay Antennas
14. Land Vehicle Antennas
15. Land Wire Antennas
3. About Us
4. Contact Us
3. Lewisville
1. Chelton Inc
2. Products and Services
1. Engineering and Marketing Support in the USA
3. Contact Us
2. Defence Communications
1. Blackburn
1. cdc
2. Products and Services
1. Tactical C4I
1. IDSS
1. IDSS brochure (pdf 1761Kb)
2. Eagle Radio
1. Eagle Radio brochure (pdf 1657Kb)
2. Vehicle Intercom Systems
1. ROVIS (AN/VIC-3) – Medium and Heavy Armour
1. ROVIS (AN/VIC-3) brochure (pdf 1687Kb)
2. LV2 – Light Vehicles and Armour
1. LV2 brochure (pdf 1670Kb)
3. Contact Us
3. Microwave Systems
2. Products and Services
3. Mission Systems
1. About Us
1. Life Support
2. Mission Equipment
1. Products and Services
2. Contact Us
3. Wimborne
1. Flight Refuelling Limited
2. Products and Services
1. Mission Equipment Customer Support Services
2. Air-to-Air Refuelling
1. Refuelling Systems
1. 90X Series Pods & 80X Series Fuselage Refuelling Units (pdf 219Kb)
2. 500 and 700 Series Refuelling Pods (pdf 248Kb)
3. 754 Series Buddy Refuelling System (pdf 271Kb)
4. 900E Series Wing Air Refuelling Pods (pdf 232Kb)
2. Probes
1. Telescopic and Actuated Probes (pdf 257Kb)
3. Drogues
3. Weapons Carriage and Release
1. Air-to-Ground
1. Twin Rail Air to Ground Missile Launcher – AGML II (pdf 249Kb)
2. Triple Rail Air to Ground Missile Launcher – AGML III (pdf 236Kb)
3. Carrier Bomb Light Stores – CBLS 2000 (pdf 82Kb)
4. Heavy Duty Ejector Release Unit – ERU-120 (pdf 205Kb)
5. Light Duty Ejector Release Unit – ERU-119 (pdf 1819Kb)
2. Air-to-Air Capability
1. Advanced Missile Launcher – AML (pdf 192Kb)
2. Missile Eject Launcher – MEL (pdf 242Kb)
3. Multi-Missile Launcher – MML (pdf 255Kb)
3. Auxillary Mission Equipment
4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems
3. Customer Support Services
4. Contact Us
2. Products and Services
3. Media
1. News
1. #261 COBHAM ESTABLISHES MISSION EQUIPMENT CENTRES OF EXCELLENCE (pdf 34Kb)
4. Aviation Services
1. About Us
1. Aviation Services Australia
1. Capabilities
2. Adelaide
1. National Jet
2. National Air Support
3. Surveillance Australia
4. Products and Services
1. Turnkey aerial surveillance
2. Law enforcement and national security
3. Homeland security
4. Qantas regional jet fleet
5. Start-up passenger airlines
6. Australia air Express
7. BAE 146QT
8. High capacity air transport services
9. Fly in / fly out operations
3. Contact Us
2. Aviation Services Joint Ventures
1. Capabilities
3. Aviation Services UK
1. Braunschweig
1. AFI Flight Inspection Gmbh
2. About Us
3. Products and Services
2. Christchurch
1. FR Aviation Ltd
2. FRA Services Ltd
3. Products and Services
1. Electronic Warfare Training
2. Threat Simulation
3. Military aircraft maintenance and support
4. Air-land integration
5. Mission rehearsal
6. Aerospace Concept, design and certification
7. On-site Technical Aviation Services
8. Flight trials equipment/flight test aircraft
9. Target Towing
10. Air traffic management
11. Aviation Platform modification and fleet embodiment
4. Maintenance Facilities
1. Castle Donnington
2. Forres
3. Lincoln
4. Perth
3. Darlington
1. FR Aviation Limited
2. Products and Services
4. Darlington DTV
1. Cobham Flight Inspection Limited
2. Products and Services
1. Flight Inspection Services
1. Services
2. Systems
3. Benefits
3. Contact Us
5. Capabilities
6. Contact Us
2. Capabilities
3. Media
1. News
1. #251 COBHAM SELECTED BY AGUSTAWESTLAND FOR JOINT MODIFICATION SERVICE (PDF 100Kb)
5. Key Facts
6. Capabilities
7. Global Locations
8. Company Structure
9. Our Brand
10. Heritage
11. Suppliers
1. About SC21
2. Investor Relations
3. Media
1. News
1. #276 PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2008 (pdf 232Kb)
2. #275 COBHAM SECURES RESOURCE INDUSTRY CONTRACTS WORTH AUD$90M (pdf 52Kb)
3. #274 Change of Joint Broker (pdf 42Kb)
4. #273 COBHAM PLC LONDON INVESTOR SEMINAR (pdf 49Kb)
5. #272 COBHAM WINS $8.6M AWARD TO DEVELOP CYBERSECURITY TEST AND EVALUATION TECHNOLOGY WITH DARPA (pdf 58Kb)
6. #271 COBHAM SECURES US$26M SMALL DIAMETER BOMB CARRIAGE ORDER (pdf 32Kb)
7. #270 COBHAM HELICOPTER JOINT VENTURE SECURES CONTRACT WORTH £29M (pdf 61Kb)
8. #269 COBHAM SECURITY SPECIALIST APPOINTED TO OBAMA-BIDEN TRANSITION TEAM (pdf 45Kb)
9. #268 COBHAM APPOINTS MICHAEL HAGEE NON-EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR (pdf 59Kb)
10. #267 RETIREMENT OF NON-EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR GORDON PAGE CBE (pdf 42Kb)
11. #266 INTERIM MANAGEMENT STATEMENT (pdf 81Kb)
12. #265 COBHAM PLC LONDON INVESTOR SEMINAR
13. #264 COBHAM SECURES US$37M CONTRACT FOR US NAVY EW TRANSMITTERS (pdf 58Kb)
14. #263 COBHAM COMPLETES PURCHASE OF GMS IN THE USA FOR US$26 MILLION (PDF 100Kb)
15. #262 COBHAM COMPLETES PURCHASE OF M/A-COM, A GLOBAL LEADER IN MICROWAVE SYSTEMS FOR US$425 MILLION (PDF 100Kb)
16. #260 APPOINTMENT OF PRESIDENT COBHAM DEFENCE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DIVISION (PDF 100Kb)
17. #259 COBHAM REACHES AGREEMENT TO ACQUIRE US INTELLIGENCE AND SURVEILLANCE COMPANY FOR $26 MILLION (PDF 100Kb)
18. #258 COBHAM TO PROVIDE RADIO AND AUDIO INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR A350 XWB (PDF 100Kb)
19. COBHAM 2008 INTERIM RESULTS PRESENTATION (PDF 100Kb)
20. #257 INTERIM RESULTS FOR THE HALF YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 2008 (PDF 100Kb)
21. #256 COBHAM TECHNOLOGY HELPS BLOCK 60 F-16 SCORE DIRECT HIT IN TESTING (PDF 100Kb)
22. #255 COBHAM AWARDED KOREA AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES KT-1 OBOGS CONTRACT (PDF 100Kb)
23. #254 COBHAM SELECTED FOR CH-53K FUEL TANK INERTING SYSTEM (PDF 100Kb)
24. #253 400th SMALL DIAMETER BOMB CARRIAGE SYSTEM ENTERS SERVICE (PDF 100Kb)
25. #252 GORDON PAGE HONOURED WITH CURTIS SWORD BY AVIATION WEEK (PDF 100Kb)
26. #248 COBHAM COMPLETES NEGOTIATIONS FOR US NAVY TRANSMITTER CONTRACTS (PDF 100Kb)
27. #250 COBHAM SECURES USAF VARIABLE SPEED DROGUE CONTRACT (PDF 100Kb)
28. #249 COBHAM SECURES US$20M LAUNCH ORDER FOR PHANTOM PARACHUTIST OXYGEN SYSTEM (PDF 100Kb)
29. #247 COBHAM TEAMS WITH GA-ASI TO PROVIDE UAV WHOLE LIFE SUPPORT TO UK MOD (PDF 100Kb)
30. #246 COBHAM PREFERRED BIDDER FOR MFTS FIXED WING REAR CREW TRAINING (PDF 100Kb)
31. #245 COBHAM BUSINESS UNIT RECEIVES US DOD VALUE ENGINEERING AWARD (PDF 100Kb)
32. #244 COBHAM HELICOPTER JOINT VENTURE SECURES CONTRACTS WORTH £55M (PDF 100Kb)
33. #243 COBHAM COMPLETES PURCHASE OF US INTELLIGENCE AND MISSILE DEFENCE COMPANY (PDF 100Kb)
34. #242 COBHAM REACHES AGREEMENT TO PURCHASE M/A-COM, A GLOBAL LEADER IN RADIO FREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE, FOR US$425 MILLION (PDF 100Kb)
35. #241 INTERIM MANAGEMENT STATEMENT (PDF 100Kb)
36. #240 COBHAM ACQUIRES MMI RESEARCH FOR UP TO £16.6 MILLION (PDF 100Kb)
37. #239 COBHAM DELIVERS FINAL SENTINEL AIRCRAFT TO BORDER PROTECTION COMMAND (PDF 100Kb)
38. #238 COBHAM AWARDED FSTA AIR TO AIR REFUELLING CONTRACTS WORTH £150M (PDF 100Kb)
39. #237 COBHAM ENTERS FTSE 100 (PDF 100Kb)
40. #236 COBHAM AWARDED US$54M CONTRACT FOR DIGITAL VEHICLE INTERCOM SYSTEMS (pdf 27Kb)
41. #235 PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2007 (pdf 145Kb)
42. #234 COBHAM EQUIPMENT SELECTED FOR USAF TANKER PROGRAMME (pdf 27Kb)
43. #233 COBHAM COMPLETES US$240 MILLION PURCHASE OF SURVEILLANCE AND ATTACK BUSINESS (pdf 32Kb)
44. #232 COBHAM REACHES AGREEMENT TO PURCHASE US INTELLIGENCE AND MISSILE DEFENCE COMPANY FOR $416 MILLION (pdf 49Kb)
45. #231 COBHAM COMPLETES PURCHASE OF S-TEC IN THE USA FOR US$38 MILLION (pdf 28Kb)
46. #230 ALLAN COOK APPOINTED CBE (pdf 26Kb)
47. #229 COBHAM REACHES AGREEMENT TO PURCHASE US SURVEILLANCE AND ATTACK BUSINESS FOR US$240 MILLION (pdf 35Kb)
48. #228 Trading Update (pdf 93Kb)
49. #227 £9M ROYAL MALAYSIAN AIR FORCE ORDER FOR SU-30 REFUELLING
50. #226 COBHAM REACHES AGREEMENT TO PURCHASE S-TEC IN THE USA FOR US$38 MILLION (pdf 29Kb)
51. #225 DEPUTY CHAIRMAN APPOINTED (pdf 43Kb)
52. EADS North America and Cobham Select Bridgeport, West Virginia for an Aerial Refueling Center of Excellence (pdf 44Kb)
53. #224 WALLOP DEFENSE SYSTEMS CONTINGENT CONSIDERATION (pdf 27Kb)
54. #223 COBHAM SELECTED BY BOEING FOR KC-767 ADVANCED TANKER TEAM (pdf 28Kb)
55. #222 COBHAM AWARDED CONTRACTS FOR DIGITAL VEHICLE INTERCOM SYSTEMS AND NAVAL ANTENNAS (pdf 30Kb)
56. COBHAM 2007 INTERIM RESULTS REPORT (pdf 712Kb)
57. #221 COBHAM LAUNCHES EAGLE CLOSE COMBAT RADIO (pdf 29Kb)
58. COBHAM 2007 INTERIM RESULTS PRESENTATION (pdf 3884Kb)
59. #220 COBHAM 2007 INTERIM RESULTS (pdf 158Kb)
60. #219 COBHAM COMPLETES PURCHASE OF PATRIOT ANTENNA SYSTEMS IN THE USA FOR UP TO $45M
61. #218 COBHAM DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVES QUEEN’S AWARD FOR ENTERPRISE
62. #217 COBHAM SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS ANTENNA SYSTEM SELECTED FOR B787
63. #216 COBHAM TO SUPPLY OXYGEN SYSTEM FOR C-27J JOINT CARGO AIRCRAFT
64. #215 COBHAM CARRIAGE SYSTEM ACHIEVES FIRST SUCCESSFUL SDB II WEAPON DROP
65. #214 COBHAM CONTINUES INVESTMENT IN 2nd GENERATION PNEUMATIC WEAPON SYSTEM
66. #212 COBHAM DELIVERS FIRST AIR REFUELLNG PROBE FOR F-35 LIGHTNING II
67. #213 COBHAM WINS US$8M ORDER FOR STRYKER VEHICLE MICROCLIMATE COOLING
68. #211 COBHAM GPS/WAAS RECEIVER SUCCESSFULLY PASSES EXTREME FLIGHT TESTS
69. #210 COBHAM DELIVERS 1,000th POD
70. #209 AGM STATEMENT
71. #208 COBHAM ACQUIRES PATRIOT ANTENNA SYSTEMS
72. #207 COBHAM SECURES £9M CONTRACT EXTENSION FOR CYPRUS

OPERATION
2. Exhibitions
1. 2008 AUSA Annual Meeting & Exposition
2. Farnborough International 2008
3. AUSA Winter Symposium 2008
4. Satellite 2008
5. Heli-Expo 2008
6. Singapore Airshow 2008
7. Defexpo India 2008
8. AFCEA West 2008
9. NBAA 2008
10. European Microwave Week
3. Image Library
4. Products and Services
5. Corporate Responsibility
1. Our Approach
2. Our Performance
6. Careers
1. Graduates

Last Modified: Tuesday, September 16, 2008:7:52 PM

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© Cobham plc, Brook Road, Wimborne, Dorset, BH21 2BJ, UK.
Telephone: +44 (0) 1202 882020 Fax: +44 (0) 1202 849401
Registered in England & Wales: Number 30470
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***
[prime directives are not coming from here – they are coming from UK or EU? Or Saudi?]

***
Company information
Updated monthly
Company address         Brook Road, Wimborne, BH21 2BJ, United Kingdom
Company website         http://www.cobham.com/
Market cap (in millions)*         £2,089.47
Listing/Admission to trading         20 December 1954
Trading system         SETS
Market         UK Main Market
*The market capitalisation of companies reflects the London listed element only. These figures are approximate and are subject to change. Last updated: 06-Mar-2009
Trading information
06-Mar-2009
FTSE Index         FTSE 100; FTSE 350; FTSE ALL-SHARE; FTSE techMARK 100; FTSE techMARK All-Share; FTSE 350 EX INVESTMENT TRUSTS; FTSE 350 LOW YIELD; FTSE ALL-SHARE EX INVESTMENT TRUSTS;
FTSE Sector         Aerospace & Defense
FTSE Sub-sector         Aerospace
Country of share register         GB
Segment         SET1
MiFID status         Regulated Market
Exchange market size         20000
SEDOL         B07KD36
ISIN number         GB00B07KD360

COB   COBHAM PLC

http://www.londonstockexchange.com/en-gb/pricesnews/prices/system/detailedprices.htm?sym=GB00B07KD360GBGBXSET1B07KD36COB

***

Executive directors
Name Job title
Cook, Mr Allan E Chief Executive
Stevens, Mr Andrew J Chief Operating Officer
Tucker, Mr Warren G Finance Director

Non-executive directors
Name Job title
Beresford, Mr Marcus D
Hagee, Mr Michael W
Hooley, Mr Peter
Patterson, Dr John S
Ronald, Mr Mark H
Turner, Mr David J Chairman

Recent director dealings for COB
Date Director Action Cur Price Number dealt Amount
06-Mar-2009 Mr P Hooley Buy GBP 1.85 5,000 9,250.00
04-Sep-2008 Mr G Francis Page Sell GBP 2.30 700,000 1,610,000.00
07-Jul-2008 Mr G Francis Page Buy GBP 1.87 476 890.12
21-May-2008 Mr G Francis Page Buy GBP 2.13 1,700,000 3,621,000.00
01-Apr-2008 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 0.00 281,439 0.00
01-Apr-2008 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 2.02 278,619 562,810.38
01-Apr-2008 Mr A J Stevens Award GBP 0.00 208,112 0.00
01-Apr-2008 Mr A J Stevens Award GBP 2.02 205,058 414,217.16
Date Director Action Cur Price Number dealt Amount
01-Apr-2008 Mr W G Tucker Award GBP 0.00 193,285 0.00
01-Apr-2008 Mr W G Tucker Award GBP 2.02 190,450 384,709.00
31-Mar-2008 Mr G Francis Page Sell GBP 2.00 1,776,580 3,553,160.00
10-Mar-2008 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 2.01 78,157 157,095.57
10-Mar-2008 Mr W G Tucker Award GBP 2.01 48,723 97,933.23
10-Mar-2008 Mr A J Stevens Award GBP 2.01 28,761 57,809.61
06-Mar-2008 Mr D John Turner Buy GBP 1.93 20,000 38,600.00
18-Dec-2007 Mr G Francis Page Buy GBP 1.91 250 477.50
15-Oct-2007 Dr J S Patterson Buy GBP 2.06 5,000 10,300.00
01-Oct-2007 Mr G Francis Page Buy GBP 1.94 372 721.68
13-Sep-2007 Mr W G Tucker Buy GBP 1.89 13,250 25,042.50
13-Sep-2007 Mr A E Cook Buy GBP 1.88 5,277 9,920.76
10-Jul-2007 Mr A E Cook Buy GBP 2.11 711 1,500.21
10-Jul-2007 Mr W G Tucker Buy GBP 2.11 711 1,500.21
10-Jul-2007 Mr A J Stevens Buy GBP 2.11 711 1,500.21
02-Jul-2007 Mr G Francis Page Div re GBP 2.03 17 34.51
12-Jun-2007 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 0.00 251,174 0.00
12-Jun-2007 Mr A J Stevens Award GBP 0.00 184,859 0.00
12-Jun-2007 Mr W G Tucker Award GBP 0.00 171,690 0.00
10-May-2007 Mr A J Hannam Buy GBP 2.13 704 1,499.52
26-Mar-2007 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 2.05 261,164 534,080.38
26-Mar-2007 Mr A J Stevens Award GBP 2.05 192,543 393,750.44
26-Mar-2007 Mr W G Tucker Award GBP 2.05 178,826 365,699.17
08-Jan-2007 Mr A J Hannam Buy GBP 1.98 15,000 29,700.00
18-Dec-2006 Mr G Francis Page Buy GBP 1.88 158 297.04
04-Dec-2006 Mr A J Stevens Lapsed GBP 0.00 253,810 0.00
06-Nov-2006 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 1.53 4,620 7,068.60
06-Nov-2006 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 1.53 4,620 7,068.60
02-Oct-2006 Mr G Francis Page Buy GBP 1.83 309 565.47
21-Sep-2006 Mr A J Stevens Buy GBP 1.81 6,500 11,765.00
07-Aug-2006 Mr W G Tucker Lapsed GBP 0.00 162,170 0.00
07-Jul-2006 Mr A J Stevens Buy GBP 1.70 5,850 9,945.00
09-Jun-2006 Mr A J Stevens Buy GBP 1.56 2,850 4,446.00
24-May-2006 Mr W G Tucker Buy GBP 1.63 15,384 24,999.00
10-May-2006 Mr W G Tucker Buy GBP 1.92 788 1,510.99
10-May-2006 Mr A E Cook Buy GBP 1.92 788 1,510.99
10-May-2006 Mr A J Stevens Buy GBP 1.92 788 1,510.99
10-May-2006 Mr A J Hannam Buy GBP 1.92 788 1,510.99
20-Apr-2006 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 1.85 269,789 499,999.95
20-Apr-2006 Mr A J Stevens Award GBP 0.00 208,021 0.00

Date Director Action Cur Price Number dealt Amount
20-Apr-2006 Mr A J Stevens Award GBP 1.85 202,341 374,998.58
20-Apr-2006 Mr W G Tucker Award GBP 1.85 186,154 344,999.21
20-Apr-2006 Mr A E Cook Award GBP 0.00 138,681 0.00
20-Apr-2006 Mr W G Tucker Award GBP 0.00 95,690 0.00
27-Mar-2006 Mr A E Cook Lapsed GBP 0.00 351,600 0.00
27-Mar-2006 Mr A J Hannam Lapsed GBP 0.00 196,010 0.00
22-Dec-2005 Mr G Francis Page Div re GBP 1.70 158 268.60
03-Oct-2005 Mr G Francis Page Buy GBP 1.58 336 529.94

***
5 day volume history for COB
Date Volume (000s) Value (£000s) Number of Trades
02-Mar-2009 4,481.48 8,577.23 2,575
03-Mar-2009 7,968.45 14,692.47 4,475
04-Mar-2009 6,412.89 12,012.07 3,386
05-Mar-2009 7,836.32 14,725.97 4,157
06-Mar-2009 5,706.38 10,535.35 3,590
Total 32,405.51 60,543.08 18,183
Average (dialy) 6,481.10 12,108.62 3,637

5 year volume history for COB
Date Volume (000s) Value (£000s) Number of Trades
09-Mar-2003 – 08-Mar-2004 108,734.88 125,331.06 16,260
09-Mar-2004 – 08-Mar-2005 150,745.82 198,428.74 61,862
09-Mar-2005 – 08-Mar-2006 866,390.45 1,357,930.27 101,758
09-Mar-2006 – 08-Mar-2007 1,356,926.66 2,491,740.92 173,219
09-Mar-2007 – 08-Mar-2008 1,601,298.72 3,198,010.72 346,644
09-Mar-2008 – 08-Mar-2009 1,454,914.60 2,877,198.97 532,604
Total 5,539,011.13 10,248,640.67 1,232,347
Average (yearly) 923,168.52 1,708,106.78 205,391

Profit and loss account 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Operating Income
Group turnover & share of
J.V.
1,466.50 1,061.10 1,012.10 970.30 832.30
Share of J.V sales – – – – –
Group turnover 1,466.50 1,061.10 1,012.10 970.30 832.30
Gross profit 458.00 343.80 332.90 288.10 238.90
Other operating income – – – – –
Net other gains -59.50 -5.70 10.80 – –
Total operating income 1,407.00 1,055.40 1,022.90 970.30 832.30
Operating Expenses (by
function)
Cost of sales -1,008.50 -717.30 -679.20 -682.20 -593.40
Selling, marketing &
distribution
-76.00 -61.30 -57.10 -54.70 -46.10
Administrative expenses -200.00 -116.80 -102.60 -83.40 -53.30
Research & development -71.00 -55.00 -49.10 -41.20 -37.90
Depreciation (property,
plant & equipment)
-32.60 -35.30 -36.00 -44.50 -42.60
Amortisation of intangibles -48.40 -14.70 -9.60 -18.20 -3.30
Impairment of goodwill – – – – –
One-off items (by function) – – – – –
Other operating costs (by
function)
– – – – –
Total operating expenses
(by function)
-1,284.50 -895.40 -838.90 -820.30 -692.80
Operating Profit
Operating profit (as
calculated)
122.50 160.00 184.00 150.00 139.50
Operating profit (as
stated)
128.50 165.80 188.70 153.10 142.10
EBIT (as calculated) 122.50 160.00 184.00 150.00 139.50
Interest & other financial
income
56.50 49.00 47.20 31.60 23.40
Interest & other financial
expense
-64.30 -41.30 -50.70 -58.70 -31.10
Net interest -7.80 7.70 -3.50 -27.10 -7.70
Share of profit from
associates
6.00 5.80 4.70 3.10 2.60
One-off items (previously
exceptionals)
– – – – –
Profit on ordinary
activities before tax
120.70 173.50 185.20 126.00 134.40
Tax -28.10 -47.30 -50.70 -35.30 -38.10
Profit on ordinary
activities after tax
92.60 126.20 134.50 90.70 96.30
Profit attributable to minority
interests
0.10 0.30 0.20 0.50 0.30

Profit and loss account 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Profit attributable to equity
shareholders
95.40 131.70 148.10 97.60 100.30
Ordinary dividends -52.70 -43.80 -39.70 -35.80 -32.30
Other dividends – – – – –
Retained profit 42.70 87.90 108.40 61.80 68.00
EPS basic 8.38 11.61 13.13 8.71 9.00
EPS diluted 8.34 11.55 13.00 8.66 8.94
Dividend per share 4.96 4.50 3.75 3.41 3.10
Balance sheet 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Fiscal year end 31-12-08 31-12-07 31-12-06 31-12-05 31-12-04
Duration (months) 12 12 12 12 12
Accounting format IFRS IFRS IFRS IFRS IFRS
Non-Current Assets
Intangible assets – 94.30 100.80 104.10 25.00
Goodwill – 381.80 381.80 424.00 380.60
Total intangible assets 1,211.80 476.10 482.60 528.10 405.60
Property, plant and
equipment
291.10 203.80 187.60 202.80 237.80
Retirement benefit assets – – – – –
Deferred tax assets 9.00 8.30 6.90 6.80 –
Assets held for sale – – – – –
Available-for-sale financial
assets
– – – – –
Derivative financial assets 0.70 7.00 8.60 4.50 –
Financial assets held at fair
value through P&L
– – – – –
Financial assets held to
maturity
– – – – –
Trade and other receivables 22.20 10.70 9.20 8.50 7.30
Investments in
JVs/associates
16.90 18.80 15.70 14.70 14.20
Other non-current asset
investments
13.00 7.20 6.40 4.00 4.10
Total non-current assets 1,564.70 731.90 717.00 769.40 669.00
Current Assets
Inventories 246.80 170.10 160.20 167.20 183.90
Trade and other receivables 357.40 236.60 182.60 208.50 221.90
Cash and cash equivalents 311.00 444.50 364.30 251.80 176.00
Assets held for sale 66.00 – – 18.10 –
Available-for-sale financial
assets
– – – – –
Derivative financial assets 1.10 4.90 7.00 1.70 0.00
Financial assets held at fair
value through P&L
– – – –

Balance sheet 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Financial assets held to
maturtiy
– – – – –
Available for sale assets – – – – –
Other fair value assets – – – – –
Other current assets – – – – –
Total current assets 994.90 858.90 717.30 649.40 584.00
Total assets 2,559.60 1,590.80 1,434.30 1,418.80 1,253.00
Equity
Share capital 28.50 28.40 28.30 28.10 27.90
Share premium account 103.90 98.80 94.20 87.50 81.60
Revaluation reserve – – – – –
Other reserves 37.20 19.30 7.10 24.30 -6.60
Retained earnings 678.60 657.20 585.30 445.70 430.30
Equity shareholders funds 848.20 803.70 714.90 585.60 533.20
Minority interests 0.10 0.30 0.20 0.50 0.30
Total equity 848.80 804.10 715.00 587.10 534.50
Non-Current Liabilities
Long term borrowings -128.40 -123.50 -132.20 -151.60 -151.30
Deferred tax liabilities -58.00 -22.50 -25.60 -8.80 -16.10
Derivative financial
instruments
-67.10 -1.90 -2.50 -2.00 0.00
Financial liabilities held at
fair value through P&L
– – – – –
Other financial instruments – – – – –
Retirement benefit
obligations
-51.20 -37.20 -29.60 -81.00 -69.10
Other liabilities/provisions -63.40 -40.90 -30.70 -28.70 -36.10
Total non-current
liabilities
-368.10 -226.00 -220.60 -272.10 -272.60
Current Liabilities
Short term borrowings -823.90 -243.10 -231.20 -276.90 -188.60
Trade creditors -333.80 -220.60 -182.60 -174.20 -209.70
Current tax payables -45.10 -65.30 -45.10 -48.10 -45.40
Derivative financial
instruments
– – – – –
Financial liabilities held at
fair value through P&L
– – – – –
Other financial instruments -19.40 – – -14.20 –
Other liabilities/provisions -75.20 -29.50 -38.00 -42.70 -2.20
Total current liabilities -1,342.70 -560.70 -498.70 -559.60 -445.90
Net current assets -347.80 298.20 218.60 89.80 138.10
Total assets less current
liabilities
1,216.90 1,030.10 935.60 859.20 807.10
Total liabilities -2,559.60 -1,590.80 -1,434.30 -1,418.80 -1,253.00

Balance sheet 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Pension surplus/deficit
(including prepayment)
– -37.20 -29.60 -81.00 -69.10
Pension surplus/deficit
(excluding prepayment)
– – – – –
Cash flow 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Fiscal year end 31-12-08 31-12-07 31-12-06 31-12-05 31-12-04
Duration (months) 12 12 12 12 12
Accounting format IFRS IFRS IFRS IFRS IFRS
Cash Flows from Operating
Activities
Cash generated from
operations
315.50 199.20 192.40 210.30 164.70
Interest paid -39.60 -16.50 -27.60 -23.60 -11.60
Income tax paid -58.20 -23.30 -46.20 -39.20 -22.90
Other inflow/outflow from
operating activities
– – – – –
Net cash generated from
operating activities
217.70 159.40 118.60 147.50 130.20
Cash Flows from Investing
Activities
Acquisition of subsidiary,
net of cash acquired
-610.30 -14.30 -23.70 -191.30 -69.50
Disposal of subsidiary, net
of cash acquired
-6.30 5.10 86.40 149.40 –
Net acquisitions, &
disposals, net of cash
required
-616.60 -9.20 62.70 -41.90 -69.50
Purchases of property, plant
and equipment
-52.00 -67.40 -52.90 -38.90 -40.60
Proceeds from sale of
property, plant and
equipment
3.40 25.50 15.20 6.40 1.10
Net cash from investments
in property, plant &
equipment
-48.60 -41.90 -37.70 -32.50 -39.50
Purchases of intangible
assets
-6.40 -0.70 -1.70 -5.70 -0.30
Purchases of short term
securities
– – – – –
Purchases of available for
sale financial assets
– – – – –
Total purchases of
investments
– – – – –
Proceeds from sale of
available for sale financial
assets
– – – – 0.20
Proceeds from sale of
investments in other
companies
– – – 1.00 -4.30
Total proceeds from sales
of investments
– – – 1.00 -4.10
Loans granted to related
parties
– – – –

Cash flow 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Loan repayments received
from related parties
– – – – –
Interest received 33.50 17.60 20.30 11.90 4.30
Dividends received 8.90 3.20 4.30 1.20 5.00
Other inflow/ outflow from
investing activities
-2.20 -12.20 -11.50 -24.00 –
Net cash generated from
investing activities
-631.40 -43.20 36.40 -90.00 -104.10
Cash Flows from Financing
Activities
Proceeds from borrowings 388.30 89.30 78.60 136.10 4.50
Repayments of borrowings -48.80 -97.00 -82.10 -12.80 -4.40
Dividends paid to
company’s shareholders
-52.70 -43.80 -39.70 -35.80 -32.30
Dividends paid to minority
interests
– – – -0.30 -0.30
Other inflow/ outflow from
financing activities
4.10 4.70 6.90 6.10 4.90
Net cash generated from
financing activities
290.90 -46.80 -36.30 93.30 -27.60
Cash Flows for the Year
Net increase in cash and
bank overdrafts
-122.80 69.40 118.70 150.80 -1.50
Exchange gains and losses
on cash and bank
overdrafts
-4.80 2.20 -4.90 2.00 -3.20
Net increase in cash for the
year
-127.60 71.60 113.80 152.80 -4.70
Cash and bank overdrafts
at beginning of period
432.00 360.40 246.60 93.80 106.10
Cash and bank overdrafts at
end of period
304.40 432.00 360.40 246.60 101.40
Performance ratios 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Fiscal year end 31-Dec-2008 31-Dec-2007 31-Dec-2006 31-Dec-2005 31-Dec-2004
Duration 12 12 12 12 12
Market Capitalisation 2,333.16 2,372.89 2,190.56 1,903.25 13,727.09
Enterprise value – – – – –
Closing price 205.50 209.00 193.75 169.50 –
P/E ratio – – – – –
P/FCF ratio – – – – –
P/BV ratio – – – – –
Return on assets(%) – – – – –
Debt/equity ratio 1.12 0.46 0.51 0.73 0.64
Current ratio 0.74 1.53 1.44 1.16 1.31
Operating margin 8.35 15.08 18.18 15.46 16.76
Book value per share 74.71 70.79 63.23 52.15 48.05
Capital employed 1,216.90 1,030.10 935.60 859.20 807.10
Performance ratios 2008 (£m) 2007 (£m) 2006 (£m) 2005 (£m) 2004 (£m)
Return on Capital
employed(%)
– – – – –
Gearing 52.89 31.33 33.70 42.25 38.93
Net gearing 43.05 -10.73 -0.13 23.18 23.51
Quick ratio – – – – –
Beta 0.56 0.50 1.52 0.90 0.70
The information contained in this report is supplied by the London Stock Exchange and by additional information providers (identified in
the report). While all reasonable efforts have been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in the report, it cannot be
guaranteed. No liability is accepted by the London Stock Exchange and/or by any of the additional information providers for any errors or
omissions and no third parties have any rights or remedies in respect of this information against the London Stock Exchange and/or the
additional information providers. This report does not constitute financial or investment advice. The use of the information contained in this
report is subject to the terms and conditions of the contract with the London Stock Exchange pursuant to which this report was supplied to
you. You should consult the provisions of the contract before making further use of this report. This report is subject to the copyright of the
London Stock Exchange and of the additional information providers – each for the information identified in this report as provided by it.

Company Profile for
COBHAM PLC ORD 2.5P
Generated on 09-Mar-2009 at 05:10
Time/date Headline Source
07:00 05-Mar-2009 Preliminary Results RNS
12:17 03-Mar-2009 Holding(s) in Company RNS
07:32 26-Feb-2009 BRIEF-Cobham wins resource industry contracts worth A$90M AFX
07:00 26-Feb-2009 Contract Wins RNS
16:22 20-Feb-2009 Holding(s) in Company RNS
09:29 19-Feb-2009 Holding(s) in Company RNS
Last 10 trades for COB (up to yesterdays close)
Time/date Price Volume Trade value Type
17:07:16 06-Mar-2009 186.92 2080 3,887.85 Ordinary Trade
17:07:00 06-Mar-2009 183.00 227041 415,485.03 Ordinary Trade
16:37:40 06-Mar-2009 183.63 71012 130,400.76 Negotiated Trade
16:35:05 06-Mar-2009 183.00 489620 896,004.60 Uncrossing Trade
16:29:54 06-Mar-2009 183.20 680 1,245.76 Automatic Trade
16:29:54 06-Mar-2009 183.20 3383 6,197.66 Automatic Trade
16:29:49 06-Mar-2009 182.70 700 1,278.90 Automatic Trade
16:29:48 06-Mar-2009 182.70 800 1,461.60 Automatic Trade
16:29:46 06-Mar-2009 182.90 150 274.35 Automatic Trade
16:29:46 06-Mar-2009 182.70 200 365.40 Automatic Trade
Executive directors
Name Job title
Cook, Mr Allan E Chief Executive
Stevens, Mr Andrew J Chief Operating Officer
Tucker, Mr Warren G Finance Director
Non-executive directors
Name Job title
Beresford, Mr Marcus D
Hagee, Mr Michael W
Hooley, Mr Peter
Patterson, Dr John S
Ronald, Mr Mark H
Turner, Mr David J Chairman

Price data for COB (up to yesterdays close)
Cur +/- % +/- Open Volume High Low Last close
GBX 0.50 0.27 184.20 5,706,379 187.40 182.40 183.00 on 06-Mar-2009
Latest 10 news stories for COB
Time/date Headline Source
10:20 05-Mar-2009 Total Voting Rights RNS
10:03 05-Mar-2009 Holding(s) in Company RNS
09:23 05-Mar-2009 Glance-STOCKS NEWS EUROPE-Cobham up after 2008 results AFX
07:28 05-Mar-2009 BRIEF-Cobham 2008 profit up 18 pct, markets robust AFX

Company information for COB
Company address Brook Road, Wimborne, BH21 2BJ, United Kingdom
Company website http://www.cobham.com/
Market cap (in millions)* £2,089.47
Listing/Admission to trading 20-Dec-1954
Trading system SETS
Market UK Main Market
Activities A group engaged in the development; delivery and support of
advanced aerospace and defence systems in the air; on land; at sea
and in space
Auditor PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Financial advisor Merrill Lynch & Co Inc
Broker UBS; Merrill Lynch & Co Inc
Solicitor Allen & Overy LLP
Registrar Equiniti Ltd
Trading information for COB
FTSE index FTSE 100; FTSE 350; FTSE ALL-SHARE; FTSE techMARK 100;
FTSE techMARK All-Share; FTSE 350 EX INVESTMENT TRUSTS;
FTSE 350 LOW YIELD; FTSE ALL-SHARE EX INVESTMENT
TRUSTS;
FTSE sector Aerospace & Defense
FTSE sub-sector Aerospace
Country of share register GB
Segment SET1
MiFID status Regulated Market
Exchange market size 20000
SEDOL B07KD36
ISIN GB00B07KD360

***

http://www.londonstockexchange.com/en-gb/pricesnews/investorcentre/companyprofile/CompanyProfileResults.htm?token=755E5B13030B4D3448445A4B415E770B08134C574B63535D58171545745E5D46590B1F36

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Allen Communications

Whittier, CA
Tel: +562 902-7691

http://www.cobham.com/about-cobham/avionics-and-surveillance/about-us/satcom/albion/distributors/allen-communications.aspx

http://www.alncom.com/
a subsidiary of Allen Holdings, Inc.

Welcome to Allen Communications Satellite Uplink Services

Allen Communications is a California based contractor providing a wide range of professional communication services to the broadcast, satellite, Maintenance and private industries. Allen Communications is a licensed and bonded contractor, CA 753254. Our personnel offer over 60 years of combined experience in the industry.Broadcast Centers We take pride in our ability to provide our customers with quality products and excellent service.

Services include: full turn key systems, site development, system design, Construction engineering, permitting, project management, installation and sales of new, used and reconditioned equipment, equipment rental & maintenance, relocation, appraisals, and FCC licensing assistance.
Photo Gallery
Allen Communications specializes in satellite systems for International and Domestic use, professional video and audio systems, television distribution systems, microwave systems, subcontract services, RF and private radio networks.

Consulting

Weither it is a small VSAT terminal or a Full Turnkey Teleport Project, we can assist you with the development of any or all aspect(s) of your project.
Engineering

We have the resources required for the research, analysis and development of today’s satellite communications systems.
Project Management

Allen Communications has an experienced management team to assist you in coordinating your next satellite communications project.
Construction

From permitting, civil works, excavation & grading, electrical work to complete antenna installations, we have the experience in all aspects of the contruction portion of your next project
Broadcast Centers

Allen Communications is a pioneer in TV and Video broadcast centers.  We have designed and deployed many major video and broadcast facilities.
Integration

When your network demand a multi-vendor or multi-protocol, multi-service integrated solutions, count on Allen Communications to make all the pieces fit.
Satellite Uplink Services

When circumstance demand data services in remote areas or when you organization needs a uplink provider, Allen Communications can provide you with uplink facilities almost anywhere on earth.
Maintenance/Field Services

Your network is only as good as the people who service it, why risk expensive hardware and network outages to sub standard maintenance and field service.  Trust the experienced professional at Allen Communications to manage and maintain your network in the most demanding environments

Founded in 1988, Allen Communications has designed, deployed and maintained turn key Satellite and VHF/UHF systems for over 16 years. We provide outstanding service to organizations and companies with an unparalleled commitment to excellence. It is this commitment that has helped us grow to one of the world’s leaders in satellite communications.

Our goal is to work closely with our clients and apply our technical expertise to their challenges, and provide the best possible solution. We pride ourselves on our ability to listen and ask questions, to understand your business and your needs.

Experience has taught us, although technology changes, our core values of premier customer service and leading edge technical expertise will always remain the heart of our business.

Our clients are as diverse as their applications; we provide services for government, private sector corporations as well as internet service providers and global telecoms. No matter the size of the customer we provide them the solution they need within their budget.

http://www.alncom.com/company.asp

***
Allen communications clientele ranges from small start up companies, to Satellite Teleport Facilities and the US Department of Defense. We’ve provided services from simple installations of 2.4 meter antenna’s to construction & integration of full turn key teleports to deinstallation, relocation and reinstallation of customer antenna’s from one part of the world to the other. Our customers know once they’ve chosen Allen Communications for their project, they have the confidence and peace of mind we will serve their every need.

***

ALLEN HOLDINGS INC
10813 EL ARCO DR
WHITTIER, CA 90603
2003 Government Contracts
Awarded to this Contractor/Location
Defense Department

Government Contractor Info

Download the entire list of Defense Contracts for this contractor from 2000 – 2007
To a Spreadsheet or Other File Type
Government Contractor/
Address     ALLEN HOLDINGS INC
10813 EL ARCO DR
WHITTIER, CA 90603
Dollar Amount of Defense Contracts Awarded to this Contractor from 2000 to 2007    $291,015
Number of Defense Contracts Awarded to this Contractor from 2000 to 2007    2
Industry Classification    Satellite Telecommunications
Type of Business Entity    Other Small Business (SB) Performing in the United States
Women-Owned Business    No
HUB Zone Representation    No
Ethnic Group    No Representation
Veteran-Owned Small Business    —
Govt Contracts (Defense) – Count/$ Dollar Amount
2007    0/$0
2006    0/$0
2005    0/$0
2004    0/$0
2003    2/$291,015
2002    0/$0
2001    0/$0
2000    0/$0

Download the entire list of Defense Contracts for this contractor from 2000 – 2007
To a Spreadsheet or Other File Type

Defense Contract List
for the Year 2003
for this Contractor     (* Contract Dollar Amounts and Defense Dept Contract IDs are available with data download)
Contract Dollar Amount    *
Defense Dept Contract ID/Number    *
Product/Service    Miscellaneous Communication Equipment
Government Contracting Office    T-ASA, March Contracting Office     Principal Place of Performance    Hauppauge, New York
(Suffolk County)
Claimant Program    ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
Weapon System    NOT DISCERNABLE OR CLASSIFIED
From Date    4/3/2003    To Date    4/3/2003
Contract Dollar Amount    *
Defense Dept Contract ID/Number    *
Product/Service    Telephone and Telegraph Equipment
Government Contracting Office    FLEET & INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY CENTER     Principal Place of Performance    Whittier, California
(Los Angeles County)
Claimant Program    ALL OTHER SUPPLIES AND EQUIPME
Weapon System    NOT DISCERNABLE OR CLASSIFIED
From Date    9/30/2003    To Date    9/30/2003

(* Contract Dollar Amounts and Defense Dept Contract IDs are
available with data download)

Search
Defense Contractors:
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http://www.governmentcontractswon.com/department/defense/allen_holdings_inc_603232224.asp?yr=03

***
Results 11 – 20 of about 448 for  Allen Holdings, Inc. . (0.29 seconds)
Search Results

1.
SEC Info – Allen & Co Inc/Allen Holding Inc – SC 13D/A – Cypress …
AND ALLEN & COMPANY INCORPORATED Principal Occupation (i.e., Business Position with Allen Holdings Inc. Name xx Address and Allen & Company Incorporated) …
http://www.secinfo.com/dSeTg.61s.htm – 61k – Cached – Similar pages
2.
Tampa Bay Investor Group to Make Significant Investment in Gunn …
Sep 4, 2008 … Incorporated, has signed an agreement to purchase a significant interest in Gunn Allen Holdings, Inc., the parent company of Tampa-based …
http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS232461+04-Sep-2008+BW20080904 – 56k – Cached – Similar pages
3.
Gunn Allen Holdings, Inc. in Tampa, Florida, USA
Gunn Allen Holdings, Inc., Tampa, Florida, USA, Investment holding companies, except banks, Offices of Other Holding Companies.
finance.zibb.com/profile/gunn+allen+holdings,+inc./us/florida/tampa/336341313/20483459 – Similar pages
4.
Mint Portal – ALLEN HOLDINGS, INC.
ALLEN HOLDINGS, INC. … ALLEN HOLDINGS, INC. Private company. Also known as name. ALLEN COMMUNICATIONS. CONTACT INFORMATION. Location, WHITTIER, California …
mintportal.bvdep.com/MintPortal-FKDKGIAINHDICIDINHCICICIEI.urk – Similar pages
5.
Mint Portal – GUNN ALLEN HOLDINGS, INC.
GUNN ALLEN HOLDINGS, INC. … GUNN ALLEN HOLDINGS, INC. Private company. CONTACT INFORMATION. Location, TAMPA, Florida, United States of America …
mintportal.bvdep.com/MintPortal-FKDKAIHINHAIAIJINHFIBICIFI.urk – Similar pages
6.
Allen Holdings Inc – Whittier, CA
Allen Holdings Inc – Whittier, CA. … Allen Holdings Inc. Address. 10813 El Arco Drive 6337. Whittier, CA 90603. Contact. (562) 902-7691; Official Website …
http://www.contractspot.com/contractor/Allen_Holdings_Inc/1/871180 – 10k – Cached – Similar pages
7.
Business Name Search
DBA, ALLEN HOLDINGS INC, 753254, WHITTIER, Active. DBA, ALLEN HOME BUILDERS INC, 439171, PALO ALTO, Active. DBA, ALLEN HOMER, 300412, LE GRAND, Expired …
www2.cslb.ca.gov/CSLB_LIBRARY/Name+Search.asp?… – 32k – Cached – Similar pages
8.
E-Cruiter.com To Acquire U.S. Human Resources Firm Allen And …
Inc. (NASDAQ:ECRU) – a leading provider of human capital management solutions – today announced that it has acquired Paula Allen Holdings Inc., …
http://www.allbusiness.com/company-activities-management/company-structures-ownership/6093644-1.html – 75k – Cached – Similar pages
9. [PDF]
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
Allen Holdings, Inc., 9 OCAHO no. 1059 (2000), 2000 WL. 33113959, I observed that OCAHO case law had not yet elucidated the specific requirements of the …
http://www.usdoj.gov/eoir/OcahoMain/publisheddecisions/Looseleaf/Volume9/1078.pdf – Similar pages
10.
CRYSTAL ALLEN HOLDING INC.–CONTACT–
CRYSTAL ALLEN HOLDINGS INC. HUNTLAW BUILDING , GEORGE TOWN, GRAND CAYMAN, CAYMAN ISLANDS Overseas Agents: UK@crystal-holding.com A USA@crystal-holding.com …
http://www.crystal-holding.com/index5.htm – Similar pages

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=%22Allen+Holdings,+Inc.%22&start=10&sa=N

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SPARTA leads a team, tailored to each customer?s requirements, strengthened by our partners? specialized products and services. Some of our partners include:

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***
http://www.sparta.com/sitemap/

SPARTA was unusual for a U.S. defense contractor in that it was publicly held but privately traded; it was more than 98% owned by its 1,300 employees. Employees were granted stock options based on various criteria, including corporate profit and individual contribution to bringing in new business. Employees could sell stock back to the company when their options vested, at a price determined by a formula for valuing the company.

Some benefits and company procedures are decided upon by a council of employees which meets usually annually. Slightly fewer than one third of the representatives to the council are elected by the employees.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPARTA,_Inc.

***
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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPARTA_Inc.

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***

Gary J. Cotshott
* President and Chief Executive Officer
* TechTeam Global, Inc.

Professional Biography
Organization    Position    Status
TechTeam Global, Inc.    President and Chief Executive Officer     Current
TechTeam Global, Inc.    Board of Directors     Current
Dell Inc.    Vice President and General Manager, Dell Services    Former

Recent News About Gary J. Cotshott

* TechTeam Positioned by Leading Analyst Firm in Leaders Quadrant for both 2009 Help Desk Outsourcing and Desktop Outsourcing Magic Quadrants [PR Newswire]
* TechTeam Positioned by Leading Analyst Firm in Leaders Quadrant for both 2009 Help… [Reuters]

**All Executive profile data provided by Dow Jones & Co., Inc.

http://phoenix.bizjournals.com/gen/executive.html?excode=bce2b0620b744c19a84a2864407232b9

***
People Filing Results – GARY J. COTSHOTT
Form Type    Company Name    Received
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    2/24/2009
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    1/15/2009
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    12/30/2008
10-Q     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    11/10/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    11/5/2008
4     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    11/5/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    10/7/2008
N-PX     LORD ABBETT SECURITIES TRUST    8/25/2008
N-PX     TOUCHSTONE STRATEGIC TRUST    8/25/2008
4     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    8/22/2008
N-PX     TAMARACK FUNDS TRUST    8/20/2008
N-PX     LOTSOFF CAPITAL MANAGEMENT INVESTMENT TRUST    8/20/2008
10-Q     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    8/11/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    8/8/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    8/6/2008
10-K/A     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    6/25/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    6/18/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    6/5/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    5/28/2008
10-Q     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    5/12/2008

http://google.brand.edgar-online.com/PeopleFilingResults.aspx?PersonID=2407016&PersonName=GARY%20J.%20COTSHOTT

People Filing Results – GARY J. COTSHOTT
Form Type    Company Name    Received
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    5/9/2008
DEF 14A     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    4/4/2008
10-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    3/17/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    2/20/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    2/20/2008
3     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    2/14/2008
8-K     TECHTEAM GLOBAL INC    2/14/2008
10-K405     NCR CORP    3/19/1997
10-K     NCR CORP    3/18/1998

***
Orange County is the headquarters of many Fortune 500 companies including Ingram Micro (#69) and First American Corporation (#312) in Santa Ana, Western Digital (#439) in Lake Forest and Pacific Life (#452) in Newport Beach. Irvine is the home of numerous start-up companies and also is the home of Fortune 1000 headquarters for Allergan, Broadcom, Epicor, Standard Pacific and Sun Healthcare Group. Other Fortune 1000 companies in Orange County include Beckman Coulter in Fullerton, Quiksilver in Huntington Beach and Apria Healthcare Group in Lake Forest. Irvine is also the home of notable technology companies like PC-manufacturer Gateway Inc., router manufactuer Linksys and Activision Blizzard, one of the biggest video game developers in the country. Many regional headquarters for international businesses reside in Orange County like Mazda, Toshiba, and Hyundai. Fashion is another important industry to Orange County. Oakley, Inc., the renowned sunglasses company, is headquartered in the Foothill Ranch area of Orange County. The sexy shoe company Pleaser USA, Inc. is located in Fullerton. St. John is headquartered in Irvine. Wet Seal is headquarted in Lake Forest. Restaurants such as Del Taco, Wahoo’s Fish Tacos, Taco Bell, In-N-Out Burger, Claim Jumper, and Carls Jr. have headquarters in Orange County.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_County,_California

SPARTA Inc.
Lake Forest, Calif. – Orange, County

***
Lake Forest, California
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

City of Lake Forest, California
Official seal of City of Lake Forest, California
Seal
Location of Lake Forest within Orange County, California.
Location of Lake Forest within Orange County, California.
Coordinates: [show location on an interactive map] 33°38?30?N 117°41?27?W? / ?33.64167°N 117.69083°W? / 33.64167; -117.69083
Country     United States
State     California
County     Orange
Government
– Mayor     Mark Tettemer
Area
– Total     12.6 sq mi (32.7 km2)
– Land     12.5 sq mi (32.3 km2)
– Water     0.1 sq mi (0.3 km2)
Elevation     400 ft (148 m)
Population (2007)
– Total     78,243
– Density     6,274/sq mi (2,422.4/km2)
Time zone     PST (UTC-8)
– Summer (DST)     PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes     92609, 92610, 92630, 92679
Area code(s)     949
FIPS code     06-39496
GNIS feature ID     1656503
Website     city-lakeforest.com
El Toro, California  redirects here. For the decommissioned military base, see Marine Corps Air Station El Toro. For other uses of  El Toro , see El Toro.

Lake Forest is a city in Orange County, California, United States. The population was 78,243 as of 2007.[1] With 6,274 inhabitants per square mile (2,422 /km2), it is currently the most densely populated city in South Orange County.

Lake Forest incorporated as a city on December 20, 1991. Since being incorporated, it has expanded its limits to include the communities of Foothill Ranch and Portola Hills. Foothill Ranch and Portola Hills are master planned developments that brought new homes and commercial centers to the Eastern boundary of Lake Forest throughout the 1990s. Lake Forest (along with its neighboring cities Mission Viejo and Irvine) is ranked as one of the safest cities in the country. The private research firm Morgan Quitno ranked Lake Forest as the 15th safest city and another firm later ranked Lake Forest 10th in 2007 in the United States.

The city has two lakes from which the city gets its name. The lakes are man-made, and condominiums and custom homes ranging from large to small line their shores. The Lake Forest Beach and Tennis Club and Sun and Sail Club feature tennis courts, gyms, basketball courts, barbecue pits, volleyball courts, multiple swimming pools, saunas, hot tubs and club houses for social events. The  forest  for which the city is also named lies in the area between Ridge Route, Jeronimo, Lake Forest and Serrano roads, and consists mostly of Eucalyptus trees. It began in the 1900s when a local landowner, Dwight Whiting, planted 400 acres of Eucalyptus groves in the vicinity of Serrano Creek as part of a lumber operation. In the late 1960s, the Occidental Petroleum company developed a residential community in and around the Eucalyptus groves which had long since expanded and grown much more dense.
Contents

* 1 EL Toro Road Business Corridor Revitalization
* 2 Notable Businesses and Organizations
* 3 Parks and Education
* 4 Geography
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Government & Politics
* 7 Notable residents
* 8 References
* 9 External links

EL Toro Road Business Corridor Revitalization

El Toro Road at the Interstate 5 Freeway was the epicenter of the Saddleback Valley from the late 1800s to the end of the twentieth century. However, the area gradually deteriorated, and most of the shops closed or moved to other cities. After years of planning, the City has worked with the property owners of some aging strip malls and developed the  Arbor at Lake Forest  commercial district. The new center can now compete with large shopping centers in cities that surround Lake Forest.

Notable Businesses and Organizations

The city is home to the headquarters of eyewear manufacturer Oakley, Inc.; in flight entertainment provider Panasonic Avionics; hard-drive maker Western Digital; telecommunications software developer Greenlight Wireless Corp.; barbecue retailer Barbeques Galore; medical equipment maker Apria Healthcare; and skateboarding companies Sole Technology, Inc., Etnies, and Tilly’s; among others. In addition, one of the county’s most famous churches and the largest independent church in California, Saddleback Church (pastor, Rick Warren), is located in Lake Forest.

Parks and Education

Lake Forest is also home to two county parks. Whiting Ranch in the eastern part of the city was the site of an infamous mountain lion mauling in 2004 that captured the West Coast news media.[2]

Heritage Hill historical park is home to some of the oldest buildings in the county, including the Serrano Adobe, the old El Toro School House, and St. Georges Episcopal Church.

Lake Forest has one high school, El Toro High School. The high school was opened in 1973. It has established itself as one of the top schools in Southern California, along with the other three comprehensive high schools in the Saddleback Valley Unified School District. The mascot is a bull and its teams are known as the Chargers. School colors are blue and gold.

Lake Forest is served by two libraries of the Orange County Public Library.

Geography

Lake Forest is located at [show location on an interactive map] 33°38?30?N 117°41?27?W? / ?33.64167°N 117.69083°W? / 33.64167; -117.69083 (33.641642, -117.690733)[3].

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 32.7 km² (12.6 mi²). 32.3 km² (12.5 mi²) of it is land and 0.3 km² (0.1 mi²) of it (0.95%) is water.

El Toro/Lake Forest/Portola is located in the heart of the Saddleback Valley. It is also in the northern section of South Orange County.

It has two man-made lakes identified by the clubhouses on the lakes: the Beach and Tennis Club (Hidden Lakes, formerly Lake I) and the Sun and Sail Club (Lake II).

Demographics

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 58,707 people, 20,008 households, and 14,745 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,814.8/km² (4,698.8/mi²). There were 20,486 housing units at an average density of 633.3/km² (1,639.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 76.02% White, 1.83% African American, 0.50% Native American, 9.70% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 7.51% from other races, and 4.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.59% of the population.

There were 20,008 households out of which 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.3% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.31.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.6 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $90,084, and the median income for a family was $100,829.[5] Males had a median income of $52,019 versus $37,100 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,583. About 3.2% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over.

Government & Politics

Marine Corps Air Station El Toro was located one mile (1.6 km) from the city of Lake Forest in the city of Irvine. At one time, El Toro was considered a military town, but the city blossomed independently in the 1980s and 1990s and the base closed in 1999.

Of the 40,352 registered voters in Lake Forest; 25.8% are Democrats and 53.4% are Republicans. The remaining 20.8% either declined to state political affiliation or are registered with one of the many minor political parties. Richard Dixon serves as Lake Forest’s mayor and Mark Tettemer is Mayor Pro Tem. The three other city council members are Kathryn McCullough, Marcia Rudolph, and Peter Herzog.

In the state legislature Lake Forest is located in the 33rd Senate District, represented by Republican Dick Ackerman, and in the 70th Assembly District, represented by Republican Chuck DeVore. Federally, Lake Forest is located in California’s 48th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +8[6] and is represented by Republican John Campbell.

Notable residents

* Erika Cook, Winner of the reality television show Endurance 4
* Ginger Reyes, American rock bassist with the bands Smashing Pumpkins and Halo Friendlies
* Chris Jacobsen (CJ), Season 3 contestant of the reality television show Top Chef
* Kathryn McCullough, in 1994 became the first African American mayor in Orange County.

References

1. ^ Gives information on 2007 populations of cities.
2. ^ CBS news article on the attack.
3. ^  US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990 . United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
4. ^  American FactFinder . United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
5. ^  2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates . US Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=16000US0633000&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US06%7C16000US0633000&_street=&_county=lake+forest&_cityTown=lake+forest&_state=04000US06&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=160&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=ACS_2006_SAFF&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=.
6. ^  Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest? . Campaign Legal Center Blog. http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-85.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.

External links

* Official City of Lake Forest Homepage
* Friends of Portola is a website that discusses issues affecting the Portola Hills area of the City of Lake Forest
* Lake Forest Hills is a weblog about the communities of Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest, and Portola Hills
* The Etnies Skatepark Of Lake Forest

* Lake Forest, California is at coordinates [show location on an interactive map] 33°38?30?N 117°41?27?W? / ?33.641642°N 117.690733°W? / 33.641642; -117.690733? (Lake Forest, California)Coordinates: [show location on an interactive map] 33°38?30?N 117°41?27?W? / ?33.641642°N 117.690733°W? / 33.641642; -117.690733? (Lake Forest, California)

Municipalities and communities of
Orange County, California
County seat: Santa Ana
Cities

Aliso Viejo | Anaheim | Brea | Buena Park | Costa Mesa | Cypress | Dana Point | Fountain Valley | Fullerton | Garden Grove | Huntington Beach | Irvine | La Habra | La Palma | Laguna Beach | Laguna Hills | Laguna Niguel | Laguna Woods | Lake Forest | Los Alamitos | Mission Viejo | Newport Beach | Orange | Placentia | Rancho Santa Margarita | San Clemente | San Juan Capistrano | Santa Ana | Seal Beach | Stanton | Tustin | Villa Park | Westminster | Yorba Linda

Orange County map
CDPs

Coto de Caza | Las Flores | Rossmoor | Tustin Foothills
Unincorporated communities

Ladera Ranch | Midway City | Modjeska Canyon | Orange Park Acres | Santa Ana Heights | Santiago Canyon | Silverado | Sunset Beach | Trabuco Canyon
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Forest,_California
Categories: Cities in Orange County, California | Lake Forest, California

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Forest,_California

***
San Clemente is a city in Orange County, California, United States. As of 2005, the city population was 65,900. Located six miles (10 km) south of San Juan Capistrano at the southern tip of the county, it is roughly equidistant from San Diego and Los Angeles. The north entrance to Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton (known as the  Christianitos Gate ) is located in San Clemente.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Clemente,_California

***

Government

* George Allen, Former United States Senator (Virginia)
* Louis Caldera, Former United States Secretary of the Army
* Ronald B. Cameron, Congressman
* James Ferguson, Air Force General
* Jacob F. Gerkens – First Chief of the LAPD
* Gabriel Green, Write-in United States presidential candidate
* Lou Henry Hoover, Wife of President Herbert Hoover
* Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States Played football at Whittier High School and Whittier College
* Pat Nixon, Wife of President Richard Nixon
* Pío Pico, Last Mexican Governor of Alta California

Miscellaneous

* Milo Burcham, Aviator/Test Pilot
* Tricia Nixon Cox – Daughter of President Nixon
* Francis A. Nixon, Father of President Richard Nixon
* Nadya Suleman, mother of the Suleman octuplets (born January 26, 2009)
* Kerry Thornley, Founder of Discordianism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whittier,_California

***

[ also in Whittier, Calif. – Allen Communications subsidiary of Allen Holdings, Inc. Which is owned by Cobham – UK]

***
Coast Guard continues search near San Clemente Island for possible plane crash survivors
10:33 AM | March 7, 2009

Rescue crews on the water and in the air continued their search this morning for possible survivors of a plane that crashed into the ocean Friday afternoon about 25 miles east of San Clemente Island.

Boaters on a civilian vessel, the Good Samaritan, contacted the Coast Guard on Friday, reporting that they had seen a plane crash into the water, authorities said.

Coast Guard rescues teams conducted a search of the area and discovered an oil slick and a debris field that appeared to be pieces of an aircraft.

It is unclear how many passengers may have been on the plane, but a spokesman with the Federal Aviation Administration said that a pilot had checked out a single-engine Cessna 172 from the Golden Wings Flying Club at Montgomery Field in San Diego.

The pilot said he was taking a round trip to French Valley but did not file a flight plan. The FAA said no mayday calls were reported in the San Diego area.

Coast Guard officials were planning an 11 a.m. news conference.

— Kimi Yoshino

http://www.google.com/webhp?hl=en

***

http://www.techteam.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booz_Allen_Hamilton

***
<a href= http://companies.jrank.org/pages/604/Booz-Allen-Hamilton-Inc.html >Booz Allen & Hamilton Inc. Business Information, Profile, and History</a>

Other Free Encyclopedias :: Company History :: Company Profiles Vol 13
Booz Allen & Hamilton Inc. Business Information, Profile, and History

8283 Greensboro Drive
McLean, Virginia 22102
U.S.A.

Booz Allen & Hamilton Inc., a pioneer in the development of the consulting industry, is recognized as an international management and technology consulting firm offering business strategy, operations, technology, and systems consulting services through more than 50 offices worldwide. Involved in such areas as environmental services, computer systems, space research, transportation, weapons technology, human resources, telecommunications systems, health care, and management, the firm has two major businesses: the Worldwide Commercial Business provides management consulting services to major corporations, and the Worldwide Technology Business provides technology consulting and systems development services primarily to government clients, but also to some commercial clients.

Booz Allen & Hamilton traces its roots to Edwin G. Booz. A student at Chicago’s Northwestern University in the early 1900s, Booz received a bachelor’s degree in economics and a master’s degree in psychology, upon completion of his thesis ‘Mental Tests for Vocational Fitness.’ In 1914, Booz established a small consulting firm in Chicago, and, two years later, he and two partners formed the Business Research and Development Company, which conducted studies and performed investigational work for commercial and trade organizations. This service, which Booz labeled as the first of its kind in the Midwest, soon attracted such clients as Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Chicago’s Union Stockyards and Transit Company, and the Canadian & Pacific Railroad.

During World War I, Booz was drafted as a private but moved quickly through the ranks by performing personnel work and helping the Army reorganize its bureaus’ business methods. Booz left the service in March 1919 as a major in the Inspector General’s Office and returned to Chicago to start a new firm, Edwin G. Booz, Business Engineering Service. One of Booz’s first clients after the war was Sewell Avery of the State Bank & Trust Company of Evanston, Illinois, who helped Booz get a loan for his new venture. In return, Booz conducted a bank survey for Avery.

During the early 1920s, Booz’s client list grew to include Harris Trust and Savings Bank in Chicago, the Walgreen Company, and Booz’s alma mater, Northwestern University. In 1924, Booz changed the name of his firm to Business Surveys, to more accurately reflect his firm’s focus: business surveys and subsequent analysis and recommendations. Unlike other early ‘efficiency-engineering’ consulting firms, Booz adopted a personnel-oriented, applied-psychology approach that included interviewing employees as part of the process of studying the organizational structures of companies.

In 1925, Booz hired his first permanent, full-time assistant, George Fry, another Northwestern alumnus. That year, Business Surveys began working for U.S. Gypsum Company (then under the direction of Sewell Avery), which remained a staple client throughout the decade. Other Business Surveys clients during the latter half of the 1920s included the Chicago Tribune, Hart Schaffner & Marx, The Chicago Association of Commerce, Eversharp, Inc., Stock Yards National Bank, and Chicago Daily News publisher Walter Strong, who agreed on Booz’s recommendation to build a newspaper office across the river from the Civic Opera House.

In 1929, Booz moved his own office into the new Chicago Daily News Building and hired a third consultant, James L. Allen, who had just graduated from Northwestern. By 1931, Avery was back on Business Surveys’ client list, this time as chairperson of Montgomery Ward, which was losing sales to the new retail operations of Sears, Roebuck and Company. Booz took an office just down the hall from Avery, where he worked full-time and pioneered the ‘multi-vector’ executive appraisal method, which used cross-checking independent criteria in evaluating and hiring managers.

By 1936, Booz had helped push Montgomery Ward back in the black. Informing the company that Avery had been its central problem, Booz resigned from the assignment and returned to his firm’s office, where Allen had recently resigned and Booz Surveys itself was in need of organization. By February of that year, Booz had persuaded Allen to return and had hired another consultant, Carl Hamilton. The firm then became a partnership and adopted a new name: Booz, Fry, Allen & Hamilton. The following year, the firm moved into the new Field Building in Chicago, where it would remain for the next 44 years before relocating its headquarters to New York City and taking more modern space for its Chicago operations.

By the late 1930s, the firm’s marketing brochure was promising ‘independence that enables us to say plainly from the outside what cannot always be said safely from within.’ The firm was also providing executive recruiting services for its clients, which during the late 1930s included the Chicago Title and Trust Company, the University of Chicago, General Mills, and the Washington Post. During this period, Booz personally conducted the first-ever study of a nationwide institution, the American National Red Cross, which propelled the firm into institutional consulting.

Booz, Fry, Allen & Hamilton entered the 1940s with a significant midwestern client base and a newly established New York branch office. In 1940, the firm expanded into military consulting, when U.S. Navy Secretary Frank Knox, former publisher of the Chicago Daily News, hired the company to assess the Navy’s preparedness for a major war and to evaluate the Navy’s shipyards, telephone systems, and intelligence operations.

After the United States entered the war, the firm continued to work for the Navy, as well as for the Army and the War Production Board. By 1942, a growing percentage of the firm’s billings came from government and military assignments. The firm’s increasing interest in work for the government, which Fry denounced as the wrong market for a consulting service, led to friction with Booz and in the midst of the feud a frustrated Allen again left the firm. Fry resigned from the partnership in December 1942 to start his own consulting business, and Allen returned early the following year to a renamed partnership–Booz Allen & Hamilton, where he was asked to help mold the firm’s organizational structure and chair a newly established executive committee.

By war’s end, Booz Allen had nearly 400 clients throughout the country being served by offices in Chicago, New York, and a new Los Angeles location. In 1946, Hamilton died, and, the following year, Booz retired, leaving Allen as chairperson of the firm’s governing board. The firm’s early postwar work included assignments for S.C. Johnson (known as Johnson Wax) and Radio Corporation of America (RCA), whose chairperson, General David Sarnoff, initially hired Booz Allen to do an organizational survey of RCA. During the late 1940s, Booz Allen also worked for RCA’s subsidiary, National Broadcasting Company (NBC), conducting studies of NBC’s radio/record division and the young television industry.

Booz Allen’s work for the federal government and its military organizations continued in peacetime, and, in 1947, the firm received an Air Force contract to conduct the government’s original production management study on guided missiles. Between 1949 and 1955, Booz Allen landed nearly two dozen of these so-called Wright Field assignments, which included a study of Air Force contractors’ missile production capabilities.

Booz Allen entered the 1950s as one of only a few management consultant firms in the United States. During the early 1950s, the firm continued to build on its traditional midwestern manufacturing client base, which grew to include Maytag, Parker Pen, Johnson Wax, and Cessna, a small-airplane manufacturer. In 1951, Edwin G. Booz died, leaving behind a pioneering company on the verge of international expansion and diversification.

In 1953, Booz Allen landed its first international contract, an assignment to study and help reorganize land-ownership records for the newly established Philippine government. About the same time, the firm began helping reorganize the government of Egypt’s customs operations and a government-owned Egyptian textile manufacturer. By the mid-1950s, Booz Allen had created an international subsidiary and moved into Italy to conduct studies of a nationalized steel company and state-owned oil company.

In 1955, a group of key Booz Allen partners formed Booz Allen Applied Research, Inc. (BAARINC) as a separate corporate entity. Utilizing the Wright Field studies on missile production as a foundation, BAARINC was designed to launch the firm’s diversification into the intelligence arena and was formed around a Booz Allen team of guided missile specialists. BAARINC was soon hired by the federal government to help determine where the Soviet Union was manufacturing missiles and to compile a so-called Red Book, which outlined technical problems Soviets experienced in developing weaponry. During the late 1950s, Booz Allen also worked with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)–helping to determine the best way to reach the moon–and served on a Navy task force which developed PERT, or the Program Evaluation and Review Technique designed to improve the planning and production of the Polaris submarine missile.

By the close of the decade, Booz Allen was, in the words of a 1959 Time article, ‘the world’s largest, most prestigious management consultant firm,’ having served three-fourths of the country’s largest businesses, two-thirds of the federal government’s departments, and most types of nonprofit institutions during its first 46 years. During the 1950s, the firm’s number of partners grew from 12 to 60, while its total professional staff increased to more than 500, one-third of which were spe-cialists.

In 1962, in order to establish profit sharing and retirement plans for its partners, Booz Allen became a private corporation, and the partnership that had governed the firm legally was dissolved (although the term ‘partner’ continued to be used). That year, James Allen became the new corporations’s chairperson and passed the reigns of active leadership to Charlie Bowen, who was named president. Between 1962 and 1964, BAARINC acquired two subsidiaries, Designers for Industry (renamed Design & Development) and Foster D. Snell Laboratory. Shortly thereafter, BAARINC also became a Booz Allen subsidiary, bringing to the firm a client list that included IBM, Abbott Labs, United Airlines, and the U.S. Department of the Interior.

During this time, Booz Allen’s nonfederal government work included a study on the efficiency of the Nassau County, Louisiana, government and a study of the Chicago public school system. In the corporate arena, Booz Allen helped Johnson Wax expand in Europe, aided Deere & Company in a restructuring, and orchestrated the merger of Rockwell Standard and North American Aviation, resulting in formation of North American Rockwell Corp.

Overseas expansion continued as well, with Booz Allen deployed to evaluate a variety of European industries, including British heavy industry and consumer goods manufacturers and West German and Scandinavian steel producers. Booz Allen was also engaged in a series of assignments for the World Bank to help the governments of Brazil, Argentina, and Venezuela develop steel industries. Moreover, Booz Allen was hired by the Algerian government to help it develop an integrated oil operation which could operate in the world marketplace; similar assignments soon followed in Iran, Abu Dhabi, and Saudi Arabia.

During the Vietnam War, Booz Allen conducted studies for Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, including a series of feasibility studies involving the so-called Supersonic Transport plane. Booz Allen also provided the U.S. military with assessments of communications equipment during the firm’s first ‘field work’ assignment, in which consultants accompanied military patrols in gathering information on the use of American communications equipment by Vietnamese allies.

By 1969, Booz Allen–the largest consulting firm in the United States–had more than 15 major or project offices on five continents, generating annual revenues of $55 million and earnings of $3.5 million. Having experienced explosive growth during the decade, Booz Allen considered going public, launching a brief debate regarding the ethics of public ownership of a business that stressed confidentiality.

The following year, James Allen retired, Bowen was named chairperson and chief executive, and James W. Taylor became president. In January 1970, the firm went public, following the lead of Arthur D. Little, Inc., which had initiated public ownership of large consulting firms a year earlier. The Booz Allen public offering was designed to help the company diversify by giving the firm the ability to acquire specialized companies through stock swaps. Between 1969 and 1972, Booz Allen purchased several small specialty consulting firms. These acquisitions included firms involved in transportation, household chemicals, airport management, real estate, market research, and television advertising testing. The market research, airport, and chemicals operations were later spun off. In 1972, the firm also established a Japanese subsidiary.

During the early 1970s, BAARINC was hired by NASA to assess the ability of a $100 million satellite to orbit the earth for one year. BAARINC predicted the satellite would fail within four days, which it did, building BAARINC’s reputation in space systems work and leading to a subsequent assignment to test a redesigned satellite, which met Booz Allen specifications and stayed in orbit for 18 months.

During this time, Booz Allen’s government assignments leveled off and then declined, as did commercial work during this ‘energy crisis’ period when consultants became a discretionary budget item for many companies. As a result, Booz Allen’s profit margins suffered, and its stock prices slid, as government billings were cut in half and profits from Europe became nearly nonexistent.

In 1973, with the firm in decline, Taylor was asked to resign and Bowen named James Farley as Taylor’s successor. Farley formed a cabinet of advisors comprised of unit business heads, and then expanded that team concept with the establishment of a larger operating council, which included the firm’s principal managers. The company then made its officers owners, allowing each officer to buy a certain percent of Booz Allen stock. The firm also stepped up its push into international markets–via such avenues as a new Italian subsidiary–and increased its diversification into specialized markets.

In 1976, after four years of gradually buying back its stock, Booz Allen again became a private company in a final buyout that paid outside shareholders $7.75 a share, considerably less than the $24 per share price Booz Allen’s stock debuted at earlier in the decade. Farley was named chairperson and chief executive, and John L. Lesher became president. The retirement of Bowen that year marked the close of a quick turnaround for Booz Allen, which saw its billings rise from $54 million in 1972 to $100 million by the end of 1976.

During the mid and late 1970s, Booz Allen conducted studies of the telecommunications market and the Bell telephone system for AT&T and was engaged in a seven-year assignment for the city of Wichita, Kansas, to help establish a prototype municipal computer information system, which brought the firm national recognition. Booz Allen’s expanded work in communications electronics and commercial telecommunications led the firm into new, specialized markets, including communications security, strategic and national command and control systems, and intelligence systems. One result of this increasing technological diversification was a contract to work on the Tri-Service Tactical Communications Program, which involved the coordination of U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force communications.

In 1978, BAARINC changed its name to Public Management & Technology Center (later becoming known simply as the Technology Center) and refocused its office automation, manufacturing technology, and space systems services, leading to work on the commercialization of space stations. PMTC diversified into new markets–including nuclear survivability, electronic systems engineering, avionics, and software verification and validations–and began offering clients cost containment and flexible pricing options. Key contracts for PMTC during the late 1970s included Navy assignments to help develop the Trident missile and help rebuild Saudi Arabia’s navy.

During this time, Booz Allen also helped Chrysler Corporation in its historic turnaround by devising a plan to secure federal loan guarantees for the automaker and then by serving as a troubleshooter after the federal bailout, monitoring the company’s performance for the federal loan guarantee board. Booz Allen also helped orchestrate Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation’s acquisition of Marine Midland after providing HSBC with a comprehensive study of the American banking network.

By 1980, Booz Allen’s annual revenues had climbed to $180 million, having more than tripled in a decade, and the company was running a close second in U.S. consulting service billings to Arthur Andersen. The Navy remained one of Booz Allen’s principal clients during the 1980s, while Warner-Lambert Company also became an important corporate client, helping to launch the firm into health care consulting. Overseas, Booz Allen entered the decade engaged in oil and steel industry work in West Africa, Indonesia, and Nigeria, while also employed in Zambia to help consolidate that country’s copper mining industry.

By 1983, recessionary conditions and an oil glut led to a profit slump for Booz Allen. The following year, Farley stepped down from his posts as chairperson and chief executive, returning to client work before becoming president of MONY Financial Services. Before leaving Booz Allen, however, Farley established a firm-wide competition to select his successor in what proved to be, according to a 1988 Forbes article, a divisive and distracting ten-month process. Ultimately, Michael McCullough, president of PMTC since its 1978 reorganization, was chosen to succeed Farley. Under McCullough, PMTC had remained a bright spot in Booz Allen operations as commercial consulting lagged, generating annual billings of more than $100 million by 1984, while developing information systems for such clients as the U.S. Postal Service and the U.S. House of Representatives.

Also in the early 1980s, Booz Allen provided extensive services to AT&T, helping develop a strategic repositioning program for its divestiture of the local Bell operating companies.

During the mid-1980s, Booz Allen’s commercial consulting work began to wane, and rival McKinsey & Company became the powerhouse of general management consulting, and Arthur D. Little grew into a leader in technology consulting. Booz Allen relied increasingly on government work. By 1987, government accounts–with the lowest profit margin in the consulting field–represented nearly one-third of Booz Allen’s $340 in annual revenues at a time when defense spending was increasingly being targeted for budget cuts.

McCullough responded to Booz Allen’s mid-1980s slump by restructuring the firm around industries rather than traditional geographic boundaries and emphasizing a multi-disciplinary approach to business problems, utilizing technical specialists in tandem with management consulting experts. McCullough’s approach at the time was relatively untried, with most firms specializing in either management or technology. In 1989, the company launched a major expansion program of its computer systems integration (CSI) services for commercial clients, in an effort to expand its presence in the commercial computer systems and technology market. Booz Allen entered the commercial systems integration field at a time when CSI was the fastest growing segment of the consulting field, and also one of the toughest to crack; Booz Allen had to compete with both computer manufacturers and technology consulting firms.

In 1990, William F. Stasior, a senior executive from Booz Allen’s technology business, was named president of the firm. The following year, Stasior assumed the additional duties of chairperson and chief executive, after McCullough returned to consulting as a senior partner, having spearheaded a six-year transition from a regional strategy to one increasingly focused on international operations and technology.

In 1991, Booz Allen acquired the major assets of Advanced Decision Systems Inc., a California-based artificial intelligence company, which became a Booz Allen division. By this time, Booz Allen’s multi-disciplinary approach to business problems had become known in the firm as ‘Theory P.’ Named for its emphasis on integrating people and process, Theory P represented a problemsolving approach concerned less with how departments operated independently and more with how they worked together to produce goods and services. This strategy was adopted by other major companies, including Hewlett-Packard, Corning Glass Works, and Ford Motor Company.

During the early 1990s, Booz Allen also began offering its clients a type of corporate war game that simulated competition among companies and served as a business strategy tool. In 1993, Booz Allen was hired by the U.S. Agency for International Development to devise a strategy to lead a consortium of firms in the privatization of civilian and defense industries in 11 newly independent states of the former Soviet Union.

That year, two reports prepared by Booz Allen took center stage in the Delaware Supreme Court. The first, which Paramount Communications had used to inform their decision on whether to be acquired by Viacom Inc., revealed that Paramount and Viacom together would generate nearly ten times more profit than a Paramount merger with QVC Network Inc., which was also vying to acquire Paramount. In December 1993, the Booz Allen report on possible merger combinations–which included confidential data from Viacom but not QVC–was introduced as evidence in a legal battle between Viacom and QVC over the Paramount acquisition; Paramount sought a reversal of a court decision ruling that it had illegally rejected a QVC offer. Following the Delaware Supreme Court ruling in favor of QVC, Booz Allen prepared a subsequent report with confidential information from QVC, which resulted in the same conclusions as the first study.

As it moved into the mid-1990s, Booz Allen’s business was equally split between technology services and systems development and commercial management consulting. While the firm had remained profitable (even in the sluggish 1980s, when its ranking among the top U.S. consulting firms fell from second to sixth or seventh), its percentage of the consulting industry’s market in the future appeared to be dependent upon Booz Allen’s ongoing merger of high-tech consulting and general management consulting.

Principal Subsidiaries: Booz Allen & Hamilton Health Care Inc; Booz Allen & Hamilton Acquisition Services.
Related information about Booz Allen Hamilton

Booz Allen is a private company with corporate headquarters in McLean, Virginia.

Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. is one of the oldest strategy consulting firms in the world. competes with strategy firms like McKinsey & Company, The Boston Consulting Group, Bain & Company, Arthur D.

Booz Allen Hamilton Inc., is incorporated in Delaware as a privately held corporation, wholly owned by its approximately 250 officers. The Firm was once public in the 1970s during its height of fame (Time magazine named it the most prestigious management firm in the world), but the Partners took the Firm private again through one of the first management buyouts (MBO) after realizing that meeting quarterly numbers was not necessarily good for client relationships. Booz Allen has numerous geographic subsidiaries around the world, with a concentration in the United States, Europe, and the Far East, notably in Japan and Greater China.

With more than 17,000 employees on six continents, and double digit growth rates over the past six years thanks to its solid public sector business, the firm generated annual total sales of over $3.5 billion in FY2005. Booz Allen’s notable breakthrough ideas include the PERT management technique and the product lifecycle theory. It was also responsible for coining the phrase ‘supply chain management’
History

Upon graduating from Northwestern University in 1914, Edwin G. and the firm that would bear his name, Booz Allen Hamilton (from the BoozAllen.com website).

Mr. Booz was soon joined by his co-founder, James L. Bradlees

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Nichols Research Corporation Business Information, Profile, and History

4040 S. Memorial Parkway
P.O. Box 400002
Huntsville, Alabama 35802-1326
U.S.A.

Company Perspectives:

To stand the test of time, a structure must rest on a firm foundation and contain the other support structures necessary to withstand stress and accept future changes. The building of Nichols Research Corporation (NRC) has created a financially sound and nationally recognized company with firm and growing business bases in information technology and traditional technology services markets.

Our foundation is built on a vision of the future, detailed planning by our management team, and commitment to quality. This foundation provides the solid structure for continued growth and diversification in the government and commercial information technology markets, especially healthcare information services, while maintaining our commitment to, and success in, our traditional government and systems technology services markets.

Nichols Research Corporation has diversified beyond its core business of providing technology services to the defense industry and to U.S. military and government agencies, including the Department of Defense (DoD) and intelligence agencies. With the slowdown on defense spending in the 1990s, Nichols has expanded its business to include commercial and civilian clients such as Federal Express, AT&T, and the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta. Through a series of acquisitions, Nichols has also applied its technology expertise to the burgeoning information technology (I/T) needs of the health care market. Nichols’s emphasis on systems technology, however, has enabled the company to continue to improve its defense-related revenues, despite defense-spending slowdowns, and build a more than $1 billion backlog by 1996. In that year, Nichols surprised the defense community by winning two of four DoD High Performance Computing Modernization major shared resource center contracts, together worth more than $300 million over eight years. Nevertheless, increases in Nichols’s commercial business has enabled the company to decrease its reliance on defense spending. Of the company’s $242 million in 1996 revenues, defense work accounted for some 55 percent, down from more than 90 percent in the mid-1980s. The company’s health care business already accounts for seven percent of revenues, with that segment expected to grow by 30 percent before the turn of the century. Founders Chris Horgen and Roy Nichols continue to play active roles in the company’s leadership. Horgen is chairman and chief executive officer; Nichols is vice-chairman, senior vice-president, and chief technical officer. Michael Mruz, with a background in computer services, joined the company as president and chief operating officer in 1994.

In keeping with its diversification, Nichols operates under four business units. Nichols Federal oversees the company’s defense contracts, including sensor systems and technology; missile and air defense systems and technologies; space surveillance and avionics; army tactical systems and technologies; and intelligence programs. Major clients include the U.S. Army, Air Force, and Navy and NASA, as well as the Australian Defense Force. Nichols guidance systems, for example, could be seen in action during the Persian Gulf War, controlling the Patriot air defense missile system. Nichols is also actively involved in upgrading the Patriot system. The other Nichols units are involved in I/T work. Nichols InfoFed works with nondefense government agencies at the federal and state levels. Nichols InfoTec pursues contracts from commercial telecommunications and transportation firms. Nichols Select specializes in the health care and insurance industries.

Star Wars Success in the 1980s

Nichols Research Corporation was founded by former McDonnel Douglas employees Chris Horgen and Roy Nichols in 1976. The pair set up shop in a 1,200-square-foot office in Huntsville, Alabama, the site of the Army Strategic Defense Command and the Army’s Redstone Arsenal, and a city with a history as a defense center going back to World War I. Starting with about $30,000 in capital (most of which went to purchasing a desktop computer), the company’s initial focus was on providing research and development of optical technology and sensor systems for the military and for the space program. With the signing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty in the early 1970s, the country’s defense initiatives turned toward a greater reliance on surveillance systems. Nichols’s optical technology expertise quickly enabled the company to win contracts. In 1976, Nichols won its first DoD contract, as well as subcontracts with six prime defense contractors engaged in the growing strategic defense area. The company’s first-year revenues were $300,000.

Nichols’s optical expertise positioned the company for steady growth into the 1980s. By then, with the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan, the DoD’s thrust turned to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), also known as the Star Wars program. This effort, which called for the deployment of a space-based surveillance and weapons system, was part of an overall acceleration of defense spending designed to secure the United States’ lead in the long-standing Cold War. Hundreds of companies, large and small, lined up to participate in the initial development phase of the SDI program, which was budgeted at $19 billion for its first five years, with full deployment eventually expected to be worth more than $1 trillion. Nichols’s optical sensor expertise placed it in a prime position to take part in the SDI  gold rush.

In 1983, when SDI funding began, the company won a contract to study the use of optical sensors for tracking missile launchings and for determining whether a missile actually carried an armed warhead or was merely launched as a decoy. SDI helped launch Nichols’s revenues into orbit: In 1983, the company posted slightly less than $7 million in sales and a net profit of $315,000. By 1986, the company’s revenues had grown to $28 million, and Nichols posted net earnings of $1.34 million. As Roy Nichols told Newsweek,  Our growth would be 10 to 15 percent less without SDI.  By then, SDI contracts and subcontracts with other SDI contractors, such as Sparta, Inc., a Huntsville neighbor competing to become principal architect of the SDI system, contributed about 86 percent to Nichols’s annual sales.

Nichols went public in 1987 after a year that saw the company’s revenues jump by 38 percent. Nominal contract awards reached $38 million, with options worth $55 million, raising the company’s backlog to $78 million with options. Three new SDI contracts with the U.S. Army contributed to the company’s growth that year. Nichols was awarded prime contractor status for the Defense System Survivability Analysis contract, worth $7.8 million with options; prime contractor for the $6.3 million Wide Field of View Optical Technology Program; and subcontractor for Teledyne Brown Engineering for a Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance contract worth $9 million with options. By then, however, Nichols began to take its first steps to lessen its reliance on SDI, which was coming under increasing attack by a skeptical Congress. Beyond Star Wars, the company was also gaining new customers among the government’s defense agencies, with tactical business contracts with White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. In addition, the company was profiting from the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program, which directed crucial defense dollars to smaller companies while also introducing these companies to new customers among government agencies, winning 15 contract awards in 1987.

The following year, Nichols recorded still stronger growth. Contract awards totaled $118 million, and its backlog reached $136 million with options. By then, the company’s staff had grown to 500, and the company had moved to new headquarters in Huntsville. Nichols also made its first acquisition, of Radiometrics, Inc., which added prototype development and measurement capacity to the company’s base of expertise, as well as new customers, including the Army Missile Command and NASA. SDI continued to play a major role in the company’s growth and included subcontractor awards with Martin Marietta and General Electric worth more than $28 million.

The company’s revenues neared $43 million in 1988 and continued the company’s unbroken string of profitability, with a net income of $2.3 million. Nichols’s growth was also enabling it to bid on, and win, larger contracts, both as prime contractor and as subcontractor. The company expanded its conventional defense business, with the U.S. Army providing four major contracts in tactical and theater weapons. Nichols’s contributions included work on the Fiber Optic Guided Missile Program; Foreign Missile Subsystems and Technology Analysis; Guidance and Control Support; and a contract under the Combined Allied Defense Experiment. Three years later the company’s work would gain worldwide recognition with the outbreak of the Persian Gulf War, as Patriot missiles, controlled by Nichols’s guidance systems, took out Iraqi Scud missiles.

Post-Cold War Growth

The acceleration of U.S. defense spending in the 1980s was responsible, directly or indirectly, for the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Communist Era in 1989. Although SDI itself became a casualty of the ending of the Cold War, its threat or promise, although never actually fulfilled, spurred the Eastern Bloc on its own spending program, bankrupting the Soviet economy and opening the way to demands for greater freedoms and free market systems. The spending spree had also taken its toll on the U.S. economy, pushing the country into the red to the tune of more than $1 trillion. With the collapse of the Cold War, the DoD came under increasing budget pressures and the 1990s presented a picture of massive cuts in defense spending.

By the start of the 1990s, however, Nichols’s diversification efforts were well under way. Unlike larger companies such as Rockwell and Martin Marietta, Nichols’s emphasis was on software, over hardware, and the company was taking a leading role in setting many technical standards in the defense market. The company had successfully extended its business beyond SDI into the tactical arena, with contracts with the Army, Air Force, Navy, NASA, and the intelligence agencies providing more than one-third of the company’s $54 million in 1989 revenues; by 1990, the company’s tactical contract awards totaled more than its strategic awards for the first time in Nichols’s history. The company was also winning larger awards than ever before, including $63 million in intelligence contracts, an area of DoD spending that was less likely to become a victim of the budget cuts. Nichols also enjoyed success in picking up options on its existing contracts. In 1990, the company placed nearly $500 million in contract bids, and its revenues swelled to $75 million, providing a net income of $3.8 million. Adding to the company’s stability as the defense industry faced the uncertainty of the new decade was Nichols’s strong backlog of nearly $270 million in contracts in 1990.

That backlog grew to $467 million by 1992, including the company’s largest contract award in its history, of $66 million to provide systems engineering and technical support to the SDI Organization’s Ground-Based Interceptor program. Defense spending continued to form 95 percent of the company’s revenues, which topped $90 million in 1991. Already, however, SDI contracts formed only 50 percent of Nichols’s total revenues, which climbed past $117 million in 1992. Net income neared $6 million. The company made a new acquisition that year, of Utah-based Astech, which boosted the company’s intelligence software capability. Nichols was poised for even stronger growth. As one analyst told Defense News,  This is one of the few defense companies out there for whom you could say business is booming.

Despite its strong defense performance, boosting revenues to $159 million in 1993, Nichols was already making plans to move the company into the civilian and commercial arena, particularly by leveraging its I/T experience into contracts for commercial computer services. Toward this end, the company eyed the health care industry, which, in terms of information technology, lagged some 20 years behind the banking and finance industries, offering Nichols the opportunity to gain strong market share in what would inevitably become a multibillion dollar business. Information technology was also seen as an important factor in Nichols’s defense growth, as I/T was becoming an increasingly significant factor in government defense spending.

The company’s diversification moves came at the right time. In 1994, Nichols recorded its first declines in its history, with revenues dropping to $143 million and net income falling to $6.5 million. To step up its I/T growth, Nichols set out to expand the company with a series of acquisitions that would bring additional, and crucial, I/T capacity. In July 1994, the company announced its intention to acquire Communications and Systems Specialists, a $6 million company based in Maryland that specialized in computer simulations and I/T services for NASA and the intelligence agencies. Nichols followed that acquisition with that of Computer Services Corporation, based in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1995, adding that company’s base of health care information services. A third acquisition followed soon after, when the company picked up another Alabama firm, Conway Computer Group, which provided software and I/T services to the insurance industry, including workers’ compensation cases, risk management, underwriting, and other insurance areas. These acquisitions helped raised Nichols’s revenues to $170 million in 1995; they also helped the company secure prime commercial contracts, including a more than $10 million contract with Federal Express for multimedia training services and a $35.8 million contract with the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta for computer support services.

Entering its 1996 fiscal year, Nichols had already raised its I/T capacity to 35 percent of the company’s revenues. Its defense work, however, continued to be strong: In April 1996, the company won the first of four DoD contracts for upgrading the agency’s consolidated supercomputing centers. One month later, the company surprised the defense industry by winning the second of the four contracts. Together, the two contracts were worth more than $300 million over eight years. Meanwhile, Nichols was continuing to expand through acquisitions. In June 1996, the company purchased Advanced Marine Enterprises, Inc., a maker of advanced simulation and virtual reality technology for naval and marine applications. The company also picked up 20 percent of TXEN, Inc., a database management provider for the health care, insurance, and third-party administrator markets. Nichols announced its intention to purchase the rest of TXEN in June 1997. Nichols also teamed with Medifinancial Solutions, Inc. of New Jersey to form Healthshares L.L.C, a joint venture engaged in providing integrated information systems and support services to the health care industry.

Nichols’s expansion efforts quickly proved profitable. The company ended its 1996 fiscal year with $242.3 million, up 42 percent over the year before, generating $9.4 million in net income. And, with a backlog of $1 billion in contracts and another $500 million in options as well as plans to make more than $1 billion in new bids in its 1997 fiscal year, Nichols’s growth seemed certain to continue beyond the turn of the century.

Principal Subsidiaries: Communications & Systems Specialists, Inc.; Conway Computer Group; Computer Services Corporation; TXEN, Inc. (19.9%); Healthshares L.L.C (50%).

http://companies.jrank.org/pages/3013/Nichols-Research-Corporation.html

***
<a href= http://companies.jrank.org/pages/3710/Science-Applications-International-Corporation.html >Science Applications International Corporation Business Information, Profile, and History</a>

SAIC
Science Applications International Corporation Business Information, Profile, and History

10260 Campus Point Drive
San Diego, California 92121
U.S.A.

Science Applications International Corporation is a leading U.S. specialty technology company. Its activities have traditionally been related primarily to the defense industry, but the organization also develops technology and provides research for a wide range of environmental, security, data processing, transportation, and other applications. The unique enterprise boasts a long track record of success as a high-tech hothouse and brain trust. Science Applications has played a pivotal role in the development of many of the technologies that have made the U.S. defense complex the most advanced in the world. From atomic weapons systems designed in the 1970s to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI or  Star Wars ) launched in the 1980s, the company has supplied important brain power. Largely because of its focus on defense, but also because it is has always been privately owned, Science Applications has traditionally operated as a very secretive, low-profile company that shunned publicity and diffused little information about its operations or activities. Only since the late 1980s, when it began to diversify away from the defense sector, did the organization gradually allow greater public exposure.

Science Applications was founded in 1969 by Dr. J. Robert Beyster, a nuclear physicist. Beyster was working at General Atomic Co. (later called GA Technologies Inc.) before he jumped ship to establish his own venture. He and a team of about 20 employees managed to generate revenues from research and development contracts during their first year of about $250,000. Beyster and his associates would parlay that early success into a $1 billion-plus company with thousands of employees around the world by the 1980s. Although little is known about the specifics of the company’s early projects, it is clear that its technological expertise was sought by U.S. defense and energy establishments. For two decades after the startup, in fact, Science Applications’ stock price rose at an impressive compound annual rate of 27 percent.

Beyster attributed his company’s stunning growth during the 1970s and 1980s to a simple set of management principles to which he adhered: hire the smartest people; give employees authority and a voice in company operations; build business in areas where the company is most capable; and get out of areas where the company is weak. That guiding philosophy had evolved over time, as Beyster observed his competitors and labored to avoid the pitfalls that brought them down. Specifically, Beyster noted that many companies in high-tech industries languished after following the traditional route of attracting venture capital and then taking the company public by selling stock in the market.

Beyster saw that those companies, after going public, typically suffered a loss of talent, because the entrepreneurial atmosphere that had attracted that talent was effectively obliterated by the oppressive influence of outside investors. Thus, he decided early to resist the temptation of outside investment. Beyster was able to get financial backing during the startup from a local lending manager at Bank of America in La Jolla, California. In addition, Science Application raised about $200,000 in capital through a private placement of stock, a move that Beyster later regretted. He learned from the experience and later bought back all of the shares for a pricey $2 million.  I began to learn, if you don’t need the money, it’s much better to have the equity stand in the hands of the people of the company,  Beyster remarked.

Thus, an important element of Science Application’s strategy became its compensation system, whereby employees were granted ownership in the company, in addition to salaries and benefits. Beyster started out using the compensation system to reward people who brought in new business. He soon realized that he could also use the system to motivate engineers, technicians, secretaries, and others. Every quarter, employees were rewarded, according to their performance, with the opportunity to buy more stock in the company. The net result was that all of the company’s employees had a vested interested in the performance of the overall organization and were therefore willing to work to ensure its success.

In addition to giving talented employees a reason to stay at the company (they had to sell their stock if they quit), Beyster profited by adhering to a philosophy of employee empowerment that would become the hallmark of the top management gurus beginning in the mid-1980s. Science Applications became a company made up almost entirely of engineers and technicians, having no marketing department or outside sales force, and only a thin top layer of management. The lack of a traditional management structure forced employees to become their own bosses and create their own profit centers. They basically had to find and bring jobs into the company, and then organize and complete the projects. One employee described the company as  a farmers market with central heat,  meaning that Science Applications supplied the financial, administrative, and management support, while individuals and groups within the company autonomously operated their own ventures.

By the early 1980s Science Applications was generating about $300 million in annual sales and capturing healthy profits. Sales jumped to $420 million in 1985–a 19 percent gain over the previous year–and net income grew to $14.5 million. Those gains were partly the result of increased spending by the Federal Government, particularly on defense. Indeed, in 1985 Science Applications was garnering nearly 90 percent of its total revenue from federal contracts and about two-thirds just from the Department of Defense. By category, the company’s projects were roughly broken down into national security (65 percent of company sales), energy (15 percent), and environmental protection (ten percent), with miscellaneous projects accounting for the remainder of sales.

Science Applications’ growth by the mid-1980s was impressive, particularly given the fact that it was primarily a service company that developed, rather than manufactured, technology. The company did produce a few products. It built some high-tech military items like a personal computer adapted for battlefield use, and even tried to sell shrink-wrapped software products in the consumer market (the effort failed partly because of a weak marketing and distribution system). But its emphasis was on the research, design, and development of cutting-edge systems and software for clients ranging from the Central Intelligence Agency to the Department of Energy.

Examples of projects for which Science Applications had been hired included the design of nuclear submarines and subsystems, research into artificial intelligence, nuclear energy systems, and the locating and construction of toxic waste disposal sites. Among the company’s biggest contracts by the mid-1980s was the $191 million job of packaging an electronic warfare system for an undisclosed foreign navy. Illustrating the wide scope of the organization’s activities was its contract to design the yacht that American Dennis Connor sailed to victory to recapture the America’s Cup. Science Applications designed and tested more than 40 scale models of 12-meter ship hulls before settling on the design for the famed Stars & Stripes.

Among the more intriguing projects with which Science Applications was involved were a bevy of high-tech, futuristic undertakings reminiscent of James Bond techno-frills. For example, the company operated a Soviet studies institute in Denver, Colorado, that was designed to aid the Pentagon in developing war strategies and plans. Various endeavors at the center included the research of military uses for the Arctic, designing a flight simulator for the B-1B bomber, and developing a space/air craft (the transatmospheric vehicle) that could fly along the fringes of space and reach any point on the globe within 90 minutes.

While Beyster’s simple operating strategy was still producing stellar results in the mid-1980s, he realized that the organization was going to have to adapt if it was going to succeed in the late 1980s and 1990s. Part of the change was being forced by the evolving nature of some federal contracts, which were becoming larger in scope. For example, the massive Star Wars project, for which Science Applications was hired, required that the company suspend its entrepreneurial team approach and bring together several groups to work in a more structured environment. To that end, Beyster felt the need to add a new chief financial officer and a controller to the executive ranks, and to focus on developing more skilled managers that could oversee huge projects.
Furthermore, Beyster realized that the company’s system of marketing was becoming obsolete. In the past, the company had secured most of its projects directly from government officials. It didn’t have to bid on the jobs because it was often the only company that possessed the technology necessary to complete a particular project. That situation began to change in the 1980s when more companies started vying for lucrative government contracts, and when the Federal Government started clamping down on the contracting process and requiring companies like Science Applications to submit fixed-price, competitive bids for jobs.

While Beyster tweaked operating and management systems, he left the proven compensation system intact. Furthermore, he continued to evade publicity; even by the late 1980s the company’s main offices (in La Jolla, California, and McLean, Virginia) bore no outside mark or reference disclosing the company’s name or purpose. The overall strategy seemed to work, as Science Application’s sales rose to 43 percent in 1986 to $600 million. Revenues continued to rise rapidly in 1987, by which time the company was employing 7,000 workers in 17 cities around the United States. Those workers owned about 90 percent of Science Applications’ stock.

The defense contracting industry was stifled beginning in the late 1980s and throughout the early 1990s by marked reductions in federal spending, particularly on defense. It was that slowdown that proved the value of Science Applications’ flexible and entrepreneurial management system. When the defense contracts began drying up, the large but nimble Science Applications organization quickly adapted. To sustain its federal contracts, the company began emphasizing technologies that complemented the governments new cost-cutting and efficiency approach. At the same time, it began to aggressively market its services to the private sector, often drawing on technology developed for the government.

Among the new contracts secured during the early 1990s, was a $200 million contract to develop a hospital information system for the Veteran’s Administration, and a $150 million agreement with NASA to study natural and human-induced changes (including global warming) in the global environment. It also won a job to provide a workstation-based score-reporting system for the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. Ballard Power Systems, of Canada, hired Science Applications to develop the world’s first fuel-cell-powered transit bus. And IBM and J.B. Hunt Transport Inc. contracted the company to help design a system that communicated, via satellite and hand-held bar code readers, the status of freight on the road. At the same time, Science Applications was able to land a few of the major military contracts that were still available, such as a $200 million deal to help design a system for the U.S. Army’s Missile Command (MICOM).

Science Applications’ spate of new civilian and military contracts allowed it to increase sales substantially to $1.29 billion in 1992, about $33 million of which was netted as income. Its work force by that time had grown to 14,500 worldwide. While it made impressive advances in the marketplace, the company was less successful in court. The year 1992, in particular, brought a string of temporary legal setbacks. First, a former executive filed a bias suit against the firm. Then, a former rocket scientist was sentenced to two-and-a-half years in prison for illegally exporting  Star Wars  technology to Japan and South Africa. Finally, another Science Applications ex-employee won a $3.17 million wrongful termination and gender-bias suit against the company.
Despite those hurdles, Science Applications achieved strong growth going into the mid-1990s. Sales rose to a record $1.7 billion in 1994 (fiscal year ended January 31, 1994) and profits hit $41.5 million, as the company’s work force increased to 17,000. In 1995, moreover, revenues grew to $1.9 billion and net income increased to $49 million. Those figures represented 26 successive years of revenue and profit growth, thus solidifying Science Applications’ status as one of the most successful employee-owned companies in the United States.

A diversity of new projects at Science Applications in the mid-1990s included: the development of combat simulators that integrated virtual reality technology for the U.S. Army; the creation of a new office in Mexico to provide environmental protection services; the creation of an inspection systems designed to detect smuggled explosives and drugs; and a $1 billion contract to computerize military health records. Beyster, the company’s founder, was still chairman of the board going into 1996.
Related information about Science Applications International Corporation

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is the largest
employee-owned research and engineering firm in the United States. As of 2006, SAIC employed over 43,000 employees and reported $7.8 billion in revenue, making it number 285 on the Fortune 500 list.

Although SAIC is a large technology firm with numerous federal, state, and private sector clients, its traditional expertise has been supporting the United States Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community, including the National Security Agency. Other large contracts include their lead on a contract for information technology for the 2004 Olympics in Greece and from 2001 to 2005, SAIC was the primary contractor for the FBI’s failed Virtual Case File project http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/17/AR2006081701485.html.

Dr. Beyster founded SAIC on the principles of employee ownership: that those who care about the value of a company (the shareholders) should be the same as the people responsible for producing that value (the employees). In May 2005, under the new CEO, the company changed its external tagline from An Employee-Owned Company to From Science to Solutions, retaining the former for internal communications.

On September 1, 2005, SAIC announced that its Board of Directors had decided to conduct an initial public offering (IPO) of common stock worth in excess of US$1.7 billion, with a proposed NYSE listing under the symbol SAI.

http://companies.jrank.org/pages/3710/Science-Applications-International-Corporation.html

***
Ken Dahlberg
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
Elected 2003
Ken Dahlberg was named the chief executive officer of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on November 3, 2003 and chairman of the board on July 16, 2004. Prior to joining SAIC, Dahlberg served as executive vice president of General Dynamics where he was responsible for the company’s Information Systems and Technology Group.

Dahlberg began his career with Hughes Aircraft in June 1967. He held various engineering, program management and leadership positions with Hughes. At Hughes, he served as president of the division that produced air traffic control hardware, systems and radar; then was president of the division that produced weapons systems, naval systems and tank systems, and later was president of the Sensors and Communications division. When Raytheon acquired Hughes Aircraft in 1997, he became president and chief operating officer of Raytheon Systems Company and oversaw operations of the defense business units. Three years later, he assumed the duties of executive vice president for business development and president of Raytheon International. In this role, he was Raytheon’s principal liaison with its defense customers and directed its international and domestic business development.

Dahlberg received a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Drexel University in 1967, a master’s degree in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California in 1969 and attended the University of California business school for advanced education for executives. He is a director of Teledyne Technologies and the National Defense Industrial Association, and a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the Surface Navy Association, the Association of the United States Army, and a lifetime member of the United States Navy League.
Member Member of the Classified Business Oversight Committee
Member Member of the Ethics & Corp Responsibility Committee
Member Member of the Stock & Acquisition Transactions Committee

http://investors.saic.com/directors.cfm

Kenneth C. Dahlberg is an American engineer and corporate executive. Dahlberg is CEO, chairman of the board, and president of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). He became CEO on November 3, 2003 and chairman of the board on July 16, 2004.[1]

Dahlberg majored in electrical engineering at Drexel University and the University of Southern California, where he received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in 1967 and 1969, respectively.[1][2]

In 1967 he started his career with Hughes Aircraft, where he held various engineering, program management and leadership positions and served successively as president of three different corporate divisions. After Raytheon acquired Hughes in 1997, he became president and chief operating officer of Raytheon Systems Company. In 2000, he became executive vice president for business development and president of Raytheon International.[1]

Before joining SAIC, he was a vice president at General Dynamics.

References

1. ^ a b c Ken Dahlberg, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, SAIC website, accessed March 4, 2009
2. ^ CEO Compensation #314 Kenneth C Dahlberg, Forbes.com, 04.30.08, accessed March 4, 2009

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_C._Dahlberg

***

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SAIC gets government contract up to $900M

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updated 8:15 a.m. ET, Thurs., March. 5, 2009

SAN DIEGO – Science Applications International Corp. said Thursday it received a contract from the U.S. Strategic Command for technical assistance and support services.

The multiple-award, indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract has a one-year base period, four one-year options and is capped at a maximum of $900 million, SAIC said.

Under the contract, SAIC said it will provide technical analysis and studies for programs and strategies as needed to U.S. Strategic Command.

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29527039/

***
Sociological factors
People experiencing homelessness living in cardboard boxes in Los Angeles, California.

Some poverty in the United States is the result of social institutions which contribute to and sustain poverty. [41] Some claim that poverty is also the product of deindustrialization. As the U.S. shifts from a manufacturing, industrial society to a service-oriented, high-tech society, many of the blue-collar jobs that required little education but paid well are disappearing or being outsourced.[41] Rural areas, such as Appalachia, suffer losses of mining jobs.

Controversy

There has been significant disagreement about poverty in the United States; particularly over how poverty ought to be defined. Using radically different definitions, two major groups of advocates dispute whether or not more resources are needed to help lessen poverty. Liberals consistently claim that more resources are needed to alleviate poverty. Conservatives often argue that the condition of the poor does not presently require more resources but rather an allocation that encourages a temporary dependence upon the American social safety net.

Much of the debate about poverty focuses on statistical measures of poverty and the clash between advocates and opponents of welfare programs and government regulation of the free market.

Concerns regarding accuracy

In recent years, there have been a number of concerns raised about the official U.S. poverty measure. In 1995, the National Research Council’s Committee on National Statistics convened a panel on measuring poverty. The findings of the panel were that  the official poverty measure in the United States is flawed and does not adequately inform policy-makers or the public about who is poor and who is not poor.

Understating poverty

Many sociologists and government officials have argued that poverty in the United States is understated, meaning that there are more households living in actual poverty than there are households below the poverty threshold.[48] A recent NPR report states that as much as 30% of Americans have trouble making ends meet and other advocates have made supporting claims that the rate of actual poverty in the US is far higher than that calculated by using the poverty threshold.[48] While the poverty threshold is updated for inflation every year, the basket of goods used to determine what constitutes being deprived of a socially acceptable miniumum standard of living has not been updated since 1955. As a result, the current poverty line only takes goods into account that were common more than 50 years ago, updating their cost using the Consumer Price Index. Mollie Orshansky, who devised the original goods basket and methodology to measure poverty, used by the U.S. government, in 1963-65, updated the goods basket in 2000, finding that the actual poverty threshold, i.e. the point where a person is excluded from the nation’s prevailing consumption patterns, is at roughly 170% of the official poverty threshold.[1] According to John Schwarzt, a political scientist at the University of Arizona,

The official poverty line today is essentially what it takes in today’s dollars, adjusted for inflation, to purchase the same poverty-line level of living that was appropriate to a half century ago, in 1955, for that year furnished the basic data for the formula for the very first poverty measure.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_the_United_States

***

Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989)
Vice President
George H. W. Bush (1981–1989)
Ronald Reagan, fortieth President of the United States
Secretary of State
Alexander M. Haig, Jr. (1981–1982) • George P. Shultz (1982–1989)
Secretary of the Treasury
Donald T. Regan (1981–1985) • James A. Baker, III (1985–1988) • Nicholas F. Brady (1988–1989)
Secretary of Defense
Caspar W. Weinberger (1981–1987) • Frank C. Carlucci (1987–1989)
Attorney General
William French Smith (1981–1985) • Edwin Meese III (1985–1988) • Richard L. Thornburgh (1988–1989)
Secretary of the Interior
James G. Watt (1981–1983) • William P. Clark, Jr. (1983–1985) • Donald P. Hodel (1985–1989)
Secretary of Agriculture
John R. Block (1981–1986) • Richard E. Lyng (1986–1989)
Secretary of Commerce
Malcolm Baldrige, Jr. (1981–1987) • C. William Verity, Jr. (1987–1989)
Secretary of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan (1981–1985) • William E. Brock (1985–1987) • Ann Dore McLaughlin (1987–1989)
Secretary of Health and Human Services
Richard S. Schweiker (1981–1983) • Margaret M. Heckler (1983–1985) • Otis R. Bowen (1985–1989)
Secretary of Education
T. H. Bell (1981–1985) • William J. Bennett (1985–1988) • Lauro F. Cavazos (1988–1989)
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Samuel R. Pierce, Jr. (1981–1989)
Secretary of Transportation
Andrew L. Lewis, Jr. (1981–1983) • Elizabeth H. Dole (1983–1987) • James H. Burnley IV (1988–1989)
Secretary of Energy
James B. Edwards (1981–1983) • Donald P. Hodel (1983–1985) • John S. Herrington (1985–1989)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Haig

***

34. DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER 1953-1961

Bringing to the Presidency his prestige as commanding general of the victorious forces in Europe during World War II, Dwight D. Eisenhower obtained a truce in Korea and worked incessantly during his two terms to ease the tensions of the Cold War. He pursued the moderate policies of  Modern Republicanism,  pointing out as he left office,  America is today the strongest, most influential, and most productive nation in the world.

Born in Texas in 1890, brought up in Abilene, Kansas, Eisenhower was the third of seven sons. He excelled in sports in high school, and received an appointment to West Point. Stationed in Texas as a second lieutenant, he met Mamie Geneva Doud, whom he married in 1916.

In his early Army career, he excelled in staff assignments, serving under Generals John J. Pershing, Douglas MacArthur, and Walter Krueger. After Pearl Harbor, General George C. Marshall called him to Washington for a war plans assignment. He commanded the Allied Forces landing in North Africa in November 1942; on D-Day, 1944, he was Supreme Commander of the troops invading France.

After the war, he became President of Columbia University, then took leave to assume supreme command over the new NATO forces being assembled in 1951. Republican emissaries to his headquarters near Paris persuaded him to run for President in 1952.

I like Ike  was an irresistible slogan; Eisenhower won a sweeping victory.

Negotiating from military strength, he tried to reduce the strains of the Cold War. In 1953, the signing of a truce brought an armed peace along the border of South Korea. The death of Stalin the same year caused shifts in relations with Russia.

New Russian leaders consented to a peace treaty neutralizing Austria. Meanwhile, both Russia and the United States had developed hydrogen bombs. With the threat of such destructive force hanging over the world, Eisenhower, with the leaders of the British, French, and Russian governments, met at Geneva in July 1955.

The President proposed that the United States and Russia exchange blueprints of each other’s military establishments and  provide within our countries facilities for aerial photography to the other country.  The Russians greeted the proposal with silence, but were so cordial throughout the meetings that tensions relaxed.

Suddenly, in September 1955, Eisenhower suffered a heart attack in Denver, Colorado. After seven weeks he left the hospital, and in February 1956 doctors reported his recovery. In November he was elected for his second term.

In domestic policy the President pursued a middle course, continuing most of the New Deal and Fair Deal programs, emphasizing a balanced budget. As desegregation of schools began, he sent troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, to assure compliance with the orders of a Federal court; he also ordered the complete desegregation of the Armed Forces.  There must be no second class citizens in this country,  he wrote.

Eisenhower concentrated on maintaining world peace. He watched with pleasure the development of his  atoms for peace  program–the loan of American uranium to  have not  nations for peaceful purposes.

Before he left office in January 1961, for his farm in Gettysburg, he urged the necessity of maintaining an adequate military strength, but cautioned that vast, long-continued military expenditures could breed potential dangers to our way of life. He concluded with a prayer for peace  in the goodness of time.  Both themes remained timely and urgent when he died, after a long illness, on March 28, 1969.

For more information about President Eisenhower, please visit
Dwight D. Eisenhower Library and Museum

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/dwightdeisenhower/

***

Dwight D. Eisenhower
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Semi-protected
Eisenhower  redirects here. For The Slip’s album, see Eisenhower (album).
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
Vice President     Richard Nixon
Preceded by     Harry S. Truman
Succeeded by     John F. Kennedy
1st Supreme Allied Commander Europe
In office
April 2, 1951 – May 30, 1952
Preceded by     Post Created
Succeeded by     Gen. Matthew Ridgway
1st Military Governor of the American Occupation Zone in Germany
In office
May 8 – November 10, 1945
Preceded by     Post Created
Succeeded by     Gen. George Patton (acting)
Born     October 14, 1890(1890-10-14)
Denison, Texas, United States
Died     March 28, 1969 (aged 78)
Washington, D.C., United States
Birth name     David Dwight Eisenhower
Nationality     United States
Political party     Republican
Spouse     Mamie Doud Eisenhower
Children     Doud Dwight Eisenhower,
John Sheldon David Doud Eisenhower
Alma mater     U.S. Military Academy
West Point, New York, United States
Occupation     Soldier
Religion     Presbyterian
Signature     Dwight D. Eisenhower’s signature
Military service
Service/branch     United States Army
Years of service     1915–1953, 1961–1969
Rank     General of the Army
Commands     Europe
Battles/wars     World War II
Awards     Army Distinguished Service Medal with four oak leaf clusters,
Legion of Merit,
Order of the Bath,
Order of Merit,
Legion of Honor
(partial list)
Eisenhower with his wife Mamie on the steps of St. Mary’s University of San Antonio, Texas in 1916, where Eisenhower was at the time a football coach.
Part of the 1912 West Point football team. Cadet Eisenhower 2nd from left; Cadet Omar Bradley 2nd from right.

Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general in the United States Army. During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.[1]

As President, he oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, kept up the pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War, made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority, launched the Space Race, enlarged the Social Security program, and began the Interstate Highway System. He was the last World War I veteran to serve as U.S. president.
Contents

* 1 Early life and family
o 1.1 Religion
o 1.2 Education
o 1.3 Athletic career
* 2 Early military career
* 3 World War II
* 4 Aftermath of World War II
o 4.1 Occupation of Germany
o 4.2 Columbia University and NATO
o 4.3 Entry into politics
* 5 Presidency 1953–1961
o 5.1 Interstate Highway System
o 5.2 Eisenhower Doctrine
o 5.3 Civil rights
o 5.4 Judicial appointments
+ 5.4.1 Supreme Court
+ 5.4.2 Other courts
o 5.5 States admitted to the Union
o 5.6 End of presidency
* 6 Post-presidency
o 6.1 Death and funeral
o 6.2 Legacy
* 7 Tributes and memorials
* 8 Awards and decorations
o 8.1 United States awards
o 8.2 International awards
o 8.3 Other honors
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
o 11.1 Military career
o 11.2 Civilian career
o 11.3 Primary sources
* 12 External links

Early life and family
Eisenhower family home, Abilene, Kansas

Eisenhower was born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas,[2] the first president born in that state. He was the third of seven sons[3] born to David Jacob Eisenhower and Ida Elizabeth Stover, of German, English and Swiss ancestry. The house in which he was born has been preserved as Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site and is operated by the Texas Historical Commission.

He was named David Dwight and was called Dwight; he reversed the order of his given names when he entered West Point,[4], which is also where he received his nickname,  Ike .[5]

Eisenhower’s paternal ancestors can be traced back to Hans Nicolas Eisenhauer, whose surname is German for  iron worker. [6] Hans Eisenhauer and his family emigrated from Karlsbrunn (Saarland), Germany to Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1741. Descendants made their way west. Eisenhower’s family settled in Abilene, Kansas in 1892. His father David Eisenhower was a college-educated engineer.[7] Eisenhower graduated from Abilene High School in 1909.[8]

Eisenhower married Mamie Geneva Doud (1896–1979) of Denver, Colorado on July 1, 1916. The couple had two sons. Doud Dwight Eisenhower was born September 24, 1917, and died of scarlet fever on January 2, 1921, at the age of three.[9] Their second son, John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower, was born the following year on August 3, 1922; John served in the United States Army (retiring as a brigadier general from the Army reserve), became an author, and served as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971. John, coincidentally, graduated from West Point on D-Day, June 6, 1944, and was married to Barbara Jean Thompson in a June wedding in 1947. John and Barbara had four children: Dwight David II  David , Barbara Ann, Susan Elaine and Mary Jean. David, after whom Camp David is named, married Richard Nixon’s daughter Julie in 1968.

Religion

Eisenhower’s paternal ancestor, Hans Nicholas Eisenhauer, was probably of Lutheran or Reformed Protestant practice.[citation needed] Eisenhower’s mother, Ida E. Stover Eisenhower, previously a member of the River Brethren sect of the Mennonites, joined the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society (now more commonly known as Jehovah’s Witnesses) between 1895 and 1900, when Eisenhower was a child.[10] The Eisenhower home served as the local meeting hall from 1896 to 1915.

When Eisenhower joined the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York in 1911, his ties to Jehovah’s Witnesses were weakened because of the group’s anti-militarist stance.[11][12] By 1915, his parents’ home no longer served as the meeting hall. All the men in the household abandoned the Witnesses as adults. Some hid their previous affiliation.[13][14] At his death in 1942, Eisenhower’s father was given funeral rites as though he remained a Jehovah’s Witness. Eisenhower’s mother continued as an active Jehovah’s Witness until her death. Despite their differences in religious beliefs, Eisenhower enjoyed a close relationship with his mother.

Eisenhower was baptized, confirmed, and became a communicant in the Presbyterian Church in a single ceremony on February 1, 1953, just 12 days after his first inauguration.[15] He is the only president known to have undertaken these rites while in office. Eisenhower was instrumental in the addition of the words  under God  to the Pledge of Allegiance in 1954, and the 1956 adoption of  In God We Trust  as the motto of the US, and its 1957 introduction on paper currency. In his retirement years, he was a member of the Gettysburg Presbyterian Church.[16] The chapel at his presidential library is intentionally inter-denominational.

He questioned Billy Graham about how people can be certain they are going to Heaven after death.[17]

Eisenhower was sworn into office with his personal West Point Bible, open to Psalm 33:12, at both his 1953 and 1957 inaugural ceremonies. Additionally for 1953, he included the Bible that George Washington had used in 1789 (belonging to St. John’s Masonic Lodge No. 1), opened to II Chronicles 7:14.[18][19]

Education

Dwight D. Eisenhower attended Abilene High School in Abilene, Kansas and graduated with the class of 1909.[8] He then took a job as a night foreman at the Belle Springs Creamery.[20]

After Dwight worked for two years to support his brother Edgar’s college education, a friend urged him to apply to the Naval Academy. Though Eisenhower passed the entrance exam, he was beyond the age of eligibility for admission to the Naval Academy.[21]

Kansas Senator Joseph L. Bristow recommended Dwight for an appointment to the Military Academy in 1911, which he received.[21] Eisenhower graduated in the upper half of the class of 1915.[22] The 1915 class was known as  the class the stars fell on , because 59 members eventually became general officers.

Athletic career

Eisenhower long had aspirations of playing professional baseball:
“     When I was a small boy in Kansas, a friend of mine and I went fishing and as we sat there in the warmth of the summer afternoon on a river bank, we talked about what we wanted to do when we grew up. I told him that I wanted to be a real major league baseball player, a genuine professional like Honus Wagner. My friend said that he’d like to be President of the United States. Neither of us got our wish.[23]     ”

At West Point, Eisenhower tried out for the baseball team but did not make it. He would later say that  not making the baseball team at West Point was one of the greatest disappointments of my life, maybe my greatest. [23] But Eisenhower did make the football team. He started as a varsity running back and linebacker in 1912. In a bit of a fabled match-up, he even tackled the legendary Jim Thorpe in a 1912 game.[24] The next week however, Eisenhower would hurt his knee after being tackled around the ankles, which he would soon worsen and permanently damage on horseback and in the boxing ring.[25] He would later serve as junior varsity football coach and yell leader.

Controversy persists over whether Eisenhower played minor league (semi-professional) baseball for Junction City in the Central Kansas League the year before he attended West Point and played amateur football there.

In 1916, while stationed at Fort Sam Houston, Eisenhower was football coach for St. Louis College, now St. Mary’s University.[26][27]

Early military career
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See also: Military career of Dwight D. Eisenhower

Eisenhower enrolled at the United States Military Academy at West Point in June 1911. His parents were against militarism, but did not object to his entering West Point because they supported his education. Eisenhower was a strong athlete and enjoyed notable successes in his competitive endeavors. In 1912, a spectacular Eisenhower touchdown won praise from the sports reporter of the New York Herald, and he even managed, with the help of a linebacker teammate, to tackle the legendary Jim Thorpe. In the very next week, however, his promising sports career ended when he incurred a severe knee injury.
Memorial To Eisenhower at West Point.

Eisenhower graduated in 1915. He served with the infantry until 1918 at various camps in Texas and Georgia. During World War I, Eisenhower became the #3 leader of the new tank corps and rose to temporary (Bvt.) Lieutenant Colonel in the National Army. He spent the war training tank crews in Pennsylvania and never saw combat. After the war, Eisenhower reverted to his regular rank of captain (and was promoted to major a few days later) before assuming duties at Camp Meade, Maryland, where he remained until 1922. His interest in tank warfare was strengthened by many conversations with George S. Patton and other senior tank leaders; however their ideas on tank warfare were strongly discouraged by superiors.[28]

Eisenhower became executive officer to General Fox Conner in the Panama Canal Zone, where he served until 1924. Under Conner’s tutelage, he studied military history and theory (including Karl von Clausewitz’s On War), and later cited Conner’s enormous influence on his military thinking. In 1925–26, he attended the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,[29] and then served as a battalion commander at Fort Benning, Georgia until 1927.
The Eisenhowers by the Malecón in Manila, Philippines

During the late 1920s and early 1930s Eisenhower’s career in the peacetime Army stagnated; many of his friends resigned for high paying business jobs. He was assigned to the American Battle Monuments Commission, directed by General John J. Pershing, then to the Army War College, and then served as executive officer to General George V. Mosely, Assistant Secretary of War, from 1929 to 1933. He then served as chief military aide to General Douglas MacArthur, Army Chief of Staff, until 1935, when he accompanied MacArthur to the Philippines, where he served as assistant military adviser to the Philippine government. It is sometimes said that this assignment provided valuable preparation for handling the challenging personalities of Winston Churchill, George S. Patton and Bernard Law Montgomery during World War II. Eisenhower was promoted to lieutenant colonel (in a non-brevet status) in 1936 after sixteen years as a major. He also learned to fly, although he was never rated as a military pilot. He made a solo flight over the Philippines in 1937.

Eisenhower returned to the U.S. in 1939 and held a series of staff positions in Washington, D.C., California and Texas. In June 1941, he was appointed Chief of Staff to General Walter Krueger, Commander of the 3rd Army, at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas. He was promoted to brigadier general on October 3, 1941[30]. Although his administrative abilities had been noticed, on the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II he had never held an active command and was far from being considered as a potential commander of major operations.

World War II
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Eisenhower (seated, middle) with other US Army officers, 1945. From left to right, the front row includes Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges, and Gerow.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Eisenhower was assigned to the General Staff in Washington, where he served until June 1942 with responsibility for creating the major war plans to defeat Japan and Germany. He was appointed Deputy Chief in charge of Pacific Defenses under the Chief of War Plans Division, General Leonard T. Gerow, and then succeeded Gerow as Chief of the War Plans Division. Then he was appointed Assistant Chief of Staff in charge of Operations Division under Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall. It was his close association with Marshall that finally brought Eisenhower to senior command positions. Marshall recognized his great organizational and administrative abilities.[31]

In 1942, Eisenhower was appointed Commanding General, European Theater of Operations (ETOUSA) and was based in London. In November, he was also appointed Supreme Commander Allied (Expeditionary) Force of the North African Theater of Operations (NATOUSA) through the new operational Headquarters A(E)FHQ. The word  expeditionary  was dropped soon after his appointment for security reasons. In February 1943, his authority was extended as commander of AFHQ across the Mediterranean basin to include the British 8th Army, commanded by General Bernard Law Montgomery. The 8th Army had advanced across the Western Desert from the east and was ready for the start of the Tunisia Campaign. Eisenhower gained his fourth star and gave up command of ETOUSA to be commander of NATOUSA. After the capitulation of Axis forces in North Africa, Eisenhower remained in command of the renamed Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO), keeping the operational title and continued in command of NATOUSA redesignated MTOUSA. In this position he oversaw the invasion of Sicily and the invasion of the Italian mainland.
Eisenhower speaks with U.S. paratroopers of the 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944.

In December 1943, it was announced that Eisenhower would be Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. In January 1944, he resumed command of ETOUSA and the following month was officially designated as the Supreme Allied Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), serving in a dual role until the end of hostilities in Europe in May 1945. In these positions he was charged with planning and carrying out the Allied assault on the coast of Normandy in June 1944 under the code name Operation Overlord, the liberation of western Europe and the invasion of Germany. A month after the Normandy D-Day landings on June 6, 1944, the invasion of southern France took place, and control of the forces which took part in the southern invasion passed from the AFHQ to the SHAEF. From then until the end of the War in Europe on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower through SHAEF had supreme command of all operational Allied forces2, and through his command of ETOUSA, administrative command of all U.S. forces, on the Western Front north of the Alps.

As recognition of his senior position in the Allied command, on December 20, 1944, he was promoted to General of the Army equivalent to the rank of Field Marshal in most European armies. In this and the previous high commands he held, Eisenhower showed his great talents for leadership and diplomacy. Although he had never seen action himself, he won the respect of front-line commanders. He dealt skillfully with difficult subordinates such as Omar Bradley and Patton, and allies such as Winston Churchill, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and General Charles de Gaulle. He had fundamental disagreements with Churchill and Montgomery over questions of strategy, but these rarely upset his relationships with them. He negotiated with Soviet Marshal Zhukov[32], and such was the confidence that President Franklin D. Roosevelt had in him, he sometimes worked directly with Stalin, much to the chagrin of the British High Command who disliked being bypassed. During the advance towards Berlin, he was notified by General Bradley that Allied forces would suffer an estimated 100,000 casualties before taking the city. The Soviet Army sustained 80,000 casualties during the fighting in and around Berlin, the last large number of casualties suffered in the war against Nazism.[33][34]

It was never certain that Operation Overlord would succeed. The seriousness surrounding the entire decision, including the timing and the location of the Normandy invasion, might be summarized by a second shorter speech that Eisenhower wrote in advance, in case he needed it. Long after the successful landings on D-Day and the BBC broadcast of Eisenhower’s brief speech concerning them, the never-used second speech was found in a shirt pocket by an aide. It read:

Our landings in the Cherbourg-Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based on the best information available. The troops, the air and the Navy did all that bravery and devotion to duty could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone.

Aftermath of World War II

Occupation of Germany

Eisenhower served as Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from 1945–48.
Eisenhower as General of the Army.
The Supreme Commanders on June 5, 1945 in Berlin: Bernard Montgomery, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Georgy Zhukov and Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.

Following the German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower was appointed Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone, based in Frankfurt am Main. Germany was divided into four Occupation Zones, one each for the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Upon full discovery of the death camps that were part of the Final Solution (Holocaust), he ordered camera crews to comprehensively document evidence of the atrocity for use in the war crimes tribunals. He made the decision to reclassify German prisoners of war (POWs) in U.S. custody as Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEFs), thus depriving them of the protection of the Geneva convention. As DEFs, their food rations could be lowered and they could be compelled to serve as unfree labor (see Rheinwiesenlager). Eisenhower was an early supporter of the Morgenthau Plan to permanently remove Germany’s industrial capacity to wage future wars. In November 1945 he approved the distribution of 1000 free copies of Morgenthau’s book Germany is Our Problem, which promoted and described the plan in detail, to American military officials in occupied Germany. Historian Stephen Ambrose draws the conclusion that, despite Eisenhower’s later claims the act was not an endorsement of the Morgenthau plan, Eisenhower both approved of the plan and had previously given Morgenthau at least some of his ideas about how Germany should be treated.[35] He also incorporated officials from Morgenthau’s Treasury into the army of occupation. These were commonly called  Morgenthau boys  for their zeal in interpreting the occupation directive JCS 1067, which had been heavily influenced by Morgenthau and his plan, as strictly as possible.[36]

Columbia University and NATO
In 1948, Eisenhower became President of Columbia University.[37] In December 1950, he took leave from the university when he became the Supreme Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and given operational command of NATO forces in Europe. Eisenhower retired from active service on May 31, 1952, and resumed the university presidency, which he held until January 1953.

1948 also was the year that Eisenhower’s memoir, Crusade in Europe, was published.[38] It is widely regarded as one of the finest U.S. military memoirs.

Entry into politics
Main article: United States presidential election, 1952

After his many wartime successes, Eisenhower was a great hero in the U.S. He was unusual for a military hero as he never saw the front line in his life. The nearest he came to being under enemy fire was in 1944 when a German fighter strafed the ground while he was inspecting troops in Normandy. Eisenhower dove for cover like everyone else and after the plane flew off, a British brigadier helped him up and seemed very relieved he was not hurt. When Eisenhower thanked him for his solicitude, the brigadier deflated him by explaining  my concern was that you should not be injured in my sector. [citation needed]

Not long after his return in 1952, a  Draft Eisenhower  movement in the Republican party persuaded him to declare his candidacy in the 1952 presidential election to counter the candidacy of non-interventionist Senator Robert Taft. (Eisenhower had been courted by both parties in 1948 and had declined to run then.) Eisenhower defeated Taft for the nomination but came to an agreement that Taft would stay out of foreign affairs while Eisenhower followed a conservative domestic policy. Eisenhower’s campaign was noted for the simple but effective slogan  I Like Ike  and was a crusade against the Truman administration’s policies regarding  Korea, Communism and Corruption. [39] Truman, formerly a friend of Eisenhower’s, never forgave him for not denouncing Senator Joseph McCarthy during the 1952 campaign.[39] Truman said he had previously thought Eisenhower would be a great President, but  he has betrayed almost everything I thought he stood for. [39]

Eisenhower promised during his campaign to go to Korea himself and end the war there. He also promised to maintain both a strong NATO commitment against Communism and a corruption-free frugal administration at home. He and his running mate Richard Nixon, whose daughter later married Eisenhower’s grandson David, defeated Democrats Adlai Stevenson and John Sparkman in a landslide, marking the first Republican return to the White House in 20 years,[39] with Eisenhower becoming the last President born in the 19th century. Eisenhower, at 62, was the oldest man to be elected President since James Buchanan in 1856.[40] Eisenhower was the only general to serve as President in the 20th century, and the most recent President to have never held elected office prior to the Presidency. The other Presidents not to have sought prior elected office were Zachary Taylor, Ulysses S. Grant, William Taft, and Herbert Hoover.

Presidency 1953–1961
Main article: Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower
From left to right: Nina Kukharchuk, Mamie Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev and Dwight Eisenhower at a state dinner in 1959
Francisco Franco and President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Madrid in 1959
Wernher von Braun briefs President Eisenhower in front of a Saturn 1 vehicle at the Marshall Space Flight Center dedication on September 8, 1960.

Throughout his presidency, Eisenhower preached a doctrine of dynamic conservatism.[citation needed] He continued all the major New Deal programs still in operation, especially Social Security. He expanded its programs and rolled them into a new cabinet-level agency, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, while extending benefits to an additional ten million workers. His cabinet, consisting of several corporate executives and one labor leader, was dubbed by one journalist,  Eight millionaires and a plumber. [41]

Eisenhower won his second term in 1956 with 457 of 531 votes in the Electoral College, and 57.6% of the popular vote.

Interstate Highway System
Main article: Interstate Highway System

One of Eisenhower’s enduring achievements was championing and signing the bill that authorized the Interstate Highway System in 1956.[42] He justified the project through the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 as essential to American security during the Cold War. It was believed that large cities would be targets in a possible future war, and the highways were designed to evacuate them and allow the military to move in.

Eisenhower’s goal to create improved highways was influenced by his involvement in the U.S. Army’s 1919 Transcontinental Motor Convoy. He was assigned as an observer for the mission, which involved sending a convoy of U.S. Army vehicles coast to coast.[43][44] His subsequent experience with German autobahns during World War II convinced him of the benefits of an Interstate Highway System. Noticing the improved ability to move logistics throughout the country, he thought an Interstate Highway System in the U.S. would not only be beneficial for military operations, but be the building block for continued economic growth.[45]

Eisenhower Doctrine

After the Suez Crisis, the United States became the protector of most Western interests in the Middle East. As a result, Eisenhower proclaimed the  Eisenhower Doctrine  in January 1957. In relation to the Middle East, the U.S. would be  prepared to use armed force…[to counter] aggression from any country controlled by international communism.  On July 15, 1958, he sent just under 15,000 soldiers to Lebanon (a combined force of Army and Marine Corps) as part of Operation Blue Bat, a non-combat peace keeping mission to stabilize the pro-Western government. They left in October of the same year.

In addition, Eisenhower explored the option of supporting the French colonial forces in Vietnam who were fighting an independence insurrection there. However, Chief of Staff Matthew Ridgway dissuaded the President from intervening by presenting a comprehensive estimate of the massive military deployment that would be necessary.

Civil rights

Eisenhower supported the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka U.S. Supreme Court decision, in which segregated ( separate but equal ) schools were ruled to be unconstitutional. The very next day he told District of Columbia officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country in integrating black and white public school children.[46][47] He proposed to Congress the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 and signed those acts into law. Although both Acts were weaker than subsequent civil rights legislation, they constituted the first significant civil rights acts since the 1870s. The  Little Rock Nine  incident of 1957 involved the refusal by Arkansas to honor a Federal court order to integrate the schools. Under Executive Order 10730, Eisenhower placed the Arkansas National Guard under Federal control and sent Army troops to escort nine black students into an all-white public school. The integration did not occur without violence. Eisenhower and Arkansas governor Orval Faubus engaged in tense arguments.

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Eisenhower appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

* Earl Warren, 1953 (Chief Justice)
* John Marshall Harlan II, 1954
* William J. Brennan, 1956
* Charles Evans Whittaker, 1957
* Potter Stewart, 1958

Other courts
Main article: Dwight D. Eisenhower judicial appointments

In addition to his five Supreme Court appointments, Eisenhower appointed 45 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 129 judges to the United States district courts.

States admitted to the Union

* Alaska – January 3, 1959 49th state
* Hawaii – August 21, 1959 50th state

End of presidency
Eisenhower with President Kennedy on retreat in 1962
Official White House portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

In 1961, Eisenhower became the first U.S. president to be  constitutionally forced  from office, having served the maximum two terms allowed by the 22nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The amendment was ratified in 1951, during Harry S. Truman’s term, but it stipulated that Truman would not be affected by the amendment.

Eisenhower was also the first outgoing President to come under the protection of the Former Presidents Act (two then living former Presidents, Herbert Hoover and Harry S. Truman, left office before the Act was passed). Under the act, Eisenhower was entitled to receive a lifetime pension, state-provided staff and a Secret Service detail.[48]

In the 1960 election to choose his successor, Eisenhower endorsed his own Vice-President, Republican Richard Nixon against Democrat John F. Kennedy. He thoroughly supported Nixon over Kennedy, telling friends:  I will do almost anything to avoid turning my chair and country over to Kennedy. [39] However, he only campaigned for Nixon in the campaign’s final days and even did Nixon some harm. When asked by reporters at the end of a televised press conference to list one of Nixon’s policy ideas he had adopted, he joked,  If you give me a week, I might think of one.  Kennedy’s campaign used the quote in one of its campaign commercials. Nixon lost narrowly to Kennedy. Eisenhower, who was the oldest elected President in history at that time, thus handed power over to the youngest elected President.[39]

On January 17, 1961, Eisenhower gave his final televised Address to the Nation from the Oval Office.[49] In his farewell speech to the nation, Eisenhower raised the issue of the Cold War and role of the U.S. armed forces. He described the Cold War saying:  We face a hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose and insidious in method…  and warned about what he saw as unjustified government spending proposals and continued with a warning that  we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex… Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.

Because of legal issues related to holding a military rank while in a civilian office, Eisenhower resigned his permanent commission as General of the Army before entering the office of President of the United States. Upon completion of his Presidential term, his commission on the retired list was reactivated and Eisenhower again was commissioned a five-star general in the United States Army.[50]

Post-presidency

Eisenhower retired to the place where he and Mamie had spent much of their post-war time, a working farm adjacent to the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In 1967, the Eisenhowers donated the farm to the National Park Service and since 1980 it has been open to the public as the Eisenhower National Historic Site[51]. In retirement, he did not completely retreat from political life; he spoke at the 1964 Republican National Convention and appeared with Barry Goldwater in a Republican campaign commercial from Gettysburg.[52]
Eisenhower leaving the White House after a visit with President Johnson in 1967

Death and funeral

Eisenhower died of congestive heart failure on March 28, 1969 at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington D.C. The following day his body was moved to the Washington National Cathedral’s Bethlehem Chapel where he lay in repose for twenty-eight hours. On March 30, his body was brought by caisson to the United States Capitol where he lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda. On March 31, Eisenhower’s body was returned to the National Cathedral where he was given an Episcopal Church funeral service. That evening, Eisenhower’s body was placed onto a train en route to Abilene, Kansas. His body arrived on April 2, and was interred later that day in a small chapel on the grounds of the Eisenhower Presidential Library. Eisenhower is buried alongside his son Doud who died at age 3 in 1921, and his wife, Mamie, who died in 1979.[53]

Legacy

After Eisenhower left office, his reputation declined and he was seen as having been a  do-nothing  President. This was partly because of the contrast between Eisenhower and his young activist successor, John F. Kennedy. He was criticized for his reluctance to support the civil rights movement to the degree which activists wanted, his handling of the 1960 U-2 incident and the international embarrassment,[54][55] the Soviet Union’s perceived leadership in the Arms race and the Space race, and his failure publicly to oppose McCarthyism. In particular, Eisenhower was criticized for failing to defend George Marshall from attacks by Joseph McCarthy, though he privately deplored McCarthy’s tactics and claims.[56] Such omissions were held against him during the liberal climate of the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time, however, Eisenhower’s reputation has risen. In recent surveys of historians, Eisenhower often is ranked in the top 10 among all US Presidents.

Tributes and memorials
The bronze statue of Eisenhower that stands in the rotunda as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection[57]

Eisenhower’s picture was on the dollar coin from 1971 to 1978.[58] Nearly 700 million of the copper-nickel clad coins were minted for general circulation, and far smaller numbers of uncirculated and proof issues (in both copper-nickel and 40% silver varieties) were produced for collectors.[58] He reappeared on a commemorative silver dollar issued in 1990, celebrating the 100th anniversary of his birth, which with a double image of him showed his two roles, as both a soldier and a statesman.[58] The reverse of the commemorative depicted his home in Gettysburg.[58] As part of the Presidential $1 Coin Program, Eisenhower will be featured on a gold-colored dollar coin in 2015.[59]

He is remembered for ending the Korean War. USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, the second Nimitz-class supercarrier, was named in his honor.

The Eisenhower Expressway (Interstate 290), a 30-mile (48 km) long expressway in the Chicago area, was renamed after him.

The British A4 class steam locomotive No. 4496 (renumbered 60008) Golden Shuttle was renamed Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1946. It is preserved at the National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, Wisconsin.

Eisenhower College was a small, liberal arts college chartered in Seneca Falls, New York in 1965, with classes beginning in 1968. Financial problems forced the school to fall under the management of the Rochester Institute of Technology in 1979. Its last class graduated in 1983.

The Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California was named after the President in 1971.

The Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, located at Fort Gordon near Augusta, Georgia, was named in his honor.[60]

In February 1971, Dwight D. Eisenhower School of Freehold Township, New Jersey was officially opened.[61]

The Eisenhower Tunnel was completed in 1979; it conveys westbound traffic on I-70 through the Continental Divide, 60 miles (97 km) west of Denver, Colorado.

In 1983, The Eisenhower Institute was founded in Washington, D.C., as a policy institute to advance Eisenhower’s intellectual and leadership legacies.

In 1989, U.S. Ambassador Charles Price and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher dedicated a bronze statue of Eisenhower in Grosvenor Square, London. The statue is located in front of the current US Embassy, London and across from the former command center for the Allied Expeditionary Force during World War II, offices Eisenhower occupied during the war. [62]

In 1999, the United States Congress created the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, which is in the planning stages of creating an enduring national memorial in Washington, D.C., across the street from the National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall.

On May 7, 2002, the Old Executive Office Building was officially renamed the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. This building is part of the White House Complex, west of the West Wing. It currently houses a number of executive offices, including ones for the Vice President and his or her spouse.[63]

A county park in East Meadow, New York (Long Island) is named in his honor.[64] In addition, Eisenhower State Park on Lake Texoma near his birthplace of Denison is named in his honor; his actual birthplace is currently operated by the State of Texas as Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site.

Many public high schools and middle schools in the U.S. are named after Eisenhower.

There is a Mount Eisenhower in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains in New Hampshire.

A tree overhanging the 17th hole that always gave him trouble at Augusta National, where he was a member, is named in his honor.

The Eisenhower Golf Club at the United States Air Force Academy, a 36-hole facility featuring the Blue and Silver courses and which is ranked #1 among DoD courses, is named in Eisenhower’s honor.

Awards and decorations

United States awards
Stamp issued by the USPS in 1969 commemorating Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dollar coin issued by the United States Mint from 1971–78 commemorating Eisenhower
Eisenhower receiving the Civitan International World Citizenship Award in 1966

In Order of Precedence

* Army Distinguished Service Medal with four oak leaf clusters
* Navy Distinguished Service Medal
* Legion of Merit
* Mexican Border Service Medal
* World War I Victory Medal
* American Defense Service Medal
* American Campaign Medal
* European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver and four bronze service stars
* World War II Victory Medal
* Army of Occupation Medal with  Germany  clasp
* National Defense Service Medal (2 awards)

He was offered the Medal of Honor, but turned it down. He was also an honorary member of the Boy Scouts of America’s Tom Kita Chara Lodge #96.

International awards

List of citations bestowed by other countries.[65]

* Argentine Order of the Liberator San Martin, Great Cross
* Belgian Order of Léopold
* Belgian Croix de Guerre/Belgisch Oorlogskruis
* Brazil Campaign Medal
* Brazil War Medal
* Brazilian Order of Military Merit, Grand Cross
* Brazilian Order of Aeronautical Merit, Grand Cross
* Brazilian National Order of the Southern Cross
* British Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross
* British Order of Merit
* British Africa Star with  8  and  1  numerical devices.
* Chilean Chief Commander of the Order of Merit
* Chinese Order of Yun Hui, Grand Cordon
* Chinese Order of Yun Fei, Grand Cordon
* Czechoslovakian Order of the White Lion
* Czechoslovakian Golden Star of Victory
* Danish Order of the Elephant
* Ecuadorian Star of Abdon Calderon
* Egyptian Order of Ismal, Grand Cordon
* Ethiopian Order of Solomon
* French Croix de Guerre
* French Legion of Honor.[66]
* French Order of Liberation
* French Military Medal
* Greek Order of George I with swords
* Guatemalan Cross of Military Merit, First Class
* Haitian Order of Honor and Merit, Grand Cross
* Italy Military Order of Italy, Knight Grand Cross
* Italy Order of Malta
* Luxembourg Medal of Merit
* Luxembourg War Cross
* Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle, First Class
* Mexican Medal of Civic Merit
* Mexican Order of Military Merit
* Moroccan Order of Ouissam Alaouite
* Netherlands: Order of the Netherlands Lion, Knight Grand Cross
* Norwegian Order of St. Olav
* Pakistani Nishan-e-Pakistan, or Order of Pakistan, First Class
* Panama Order of Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Grand Cross
* Panama Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero, Grand Master (collar grade)
* Philippines Distinguished Service Star
* Philippines Shield of Honor Medal, Chief Commander
* Philippines Order of Sikatuna, Raja (First Class)
* Polish Cross of Grunwald
* Polish Order of Polonia Restituta
* Polish Virtuti Militari
* Soviet Order of Suvorov
* Soviet Order of Victory
* Tunisian Order of Nichan Iftikhar, Gand Cordon

Other honors

* In 1966, Eisenhower was the second person to be awarded Civitan International’s World Citizenship Award.[67]
* Eisenhower’s name was given to a variety of streets, avenues, etc., in cities around the world, including Paris, France.
* In December 1999, Eisenhower was listed on Gallup’s List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century.

See also
World War I portal
World War II portal

* Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower
* Mamie Eisenhower, wife of Dwight D. Eisenhower
* Atoms for Peace, a speech to the U.N. General Assembly in December 1953
* Eisenhower National Historic Site
* Eisenhower Presidential Center
* Historical rankings of United States Presidents
* History of the United States (1945-1964)
* Kay Summersby
* Military-industrial complex, a term made popular by Eisenhower
* Mount Eisenhower
* People to People Student Ambassador Program
* German Americans
* Thomas E. Stephens Portrait painter (Gallery of Presidents, Smithsonian) and friend of Eisenhower

References

Specific references:

1. ^  Dwight D. Eisenhower . Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-2057/Dwight-D-Eisenhower. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
2. ^  Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower . Eisenhower Presidential Center. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/quick_links/DDE_Mamie_general_bio.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
3. ^  Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower . whitehouse.gov. The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/de34.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-06.
4. ^ Eisenhower, David (May 2007).  World War II and Its Meaning for Americans . http://www.pfri.org. Foreign Policy Research Institute. http://www.fpri.org/footnotes/129.200705.eisenhower.ww2meaningamericans.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-06.
5. ^ Dwight D. Eisenhower from the website of the National Portrait Gallery
6. ^  EISENHOWER – Name Meaning & Origin . The New York Times Company. geneaology.about.com. http://genealogy.about.com/library/surnames/e/bl_name-EISENHOWER.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-06.
7. ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 13–14
8. ^ a b  Public School Products . Time. 1959-09-14. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,865992,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-06.
9. ^ Berger-Knorr, Lawrence. The Pennsylvania Relations of Dwight D. Eisenhower. p. 8.
10. ^ Smith, Gary Scott, (2006). – Faith and the Presidency: From George Washington to George W. Bush. – Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. – ISBN 0195300602. – Retrieved: 2008-05-24
11. ^ The Watchtower-2002, p.159 |  They Are No Part of the World  Worship the Only True God | © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
12. ^ Reasoning From the Scriptures –1985, p. 138 | “Neutrality” | © Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
13. ^ Bergman, Jerry (December 1999).  Why President Eisenhower Hid His Jehovah’s Witness Upbringing . JW Research Journal 6 (2). http://www.seanet.com/~raines/eisenhower.html.
14. ^ Jehovah Witnesses Abilene Congregation. – Dwight D. Eisenhower Library. – Eisenhower Presidential Center. – (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). – Retrieved: 2008-05-23
15. ^ Eisenhower Presidential Trivia. – (c/o Archive.org. – Archive Date: 2007-06-12). – Eisenhower Presidential Center. – Retrieved: 2008-05-24
16. ^  Gettysburg Presbyterian Church . Gettysburg. http://www.gettysburg.com/communit/gpc.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
17. ^ Gibbs, Nancy; and Michael Duffy. –  Billy Graham, Pastor In Chief . – TIME. – August 9, 2007. – Retrieved: 2008-06-07
18. ^ President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953. – Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. – U.S. Senate.
19. ^ President Dwight David Eisenhower, 1957. – Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. – U.S. Senate.
20. ^  Eisenhower: Soldier of Peace . TIME. 1969-04-04. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,839998-3,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
21. ^ a b  Biography: Dwight David Eisenhower . Eisenhower Foundation. http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/biodde.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
22. ^  Dwight David Eisenhower . Internet Public Library. http://www.ipl.org/div/potus/ddeisenhower.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
23. ^ a b  President Dwight D. Eisenhower Baseball Related Quotations . Baseball Almanac. http://www.baseball-almanac.com/prz_qde.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
24. ^ Botelho, Greg (1912-07-15).  Roller-coaster life of Indian icon, sports’ first star . CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/europe/07/09/jim.thorpe/. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
25. ^  Ike and the Team . Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial. http://www.eisenhowermemorial.org/stories/Ike-and-team.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
26. ^  Eisenhower BOQ 1915 . Fort Sam Houston. http://ameddregiment.amedd.army.mil/fshmuse/tour8.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
27. ^  Lt Eisenhower and Football Team . Fort Sam Houston. http://ameddregiment.amedd.army.mil/fshmuse/eisen_football.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
28. ^ Sixsmith 1973, p. 6
29. ^ Bender, Mark C. (1990).  Watershed at Leavenworth . U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/bender/bender.asp. Retrieved on 2008-09-06.
30. ^ The Eisenhowers: The General
31. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6.
32. ^ Memoir of Eisenhower’s translator for the Potsdam Conference meetings with Zhukov Paul P. Roudakoff (1955-07-22).  Ike and Zhukov . Collier’s Magazine.
33. ^ D’Este 2002, pp. 694–96
34. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (2000). Eisenhower and Berlin, 1945: The Decision to Halt at the Elbe.
35. ^ Ambrose, Stephen (1983). Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect (1893–1952). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 422.
36. ^ Petrov, Vladimir (1967). Money and conquest; allied occupation currencies in World War II.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 228–229.
37. ^ Stephen E. Ambrose, Eisenhower, New York, Touchstone Books, 1990, pp 234–235, ISBN 0-671-70107-X
38. ^ Crusade in Europe, Doubleday; 1st edition (1948), 559 pages, ISBN 1125300914
39. ^ a b c d e f Gibbs, Nancy (November 10, 2008).  When New President Meets Old, It’s Not Always Pretty . TIME. http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1857862,00.html.
40. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The ’70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 7. ISBN 0465041957.
41. ^  The Flavor of the New . Time. 1969-01-24. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,900543-1,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-28.
42. ^  The cracks are showing . The Economist. 2008-06-26. http://www.economist.com/obituary/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8447241. Retrieved on 2008-10-23.
43. ^  The Last Week – The Road to War . USS Washington (BB-56). http://www.usswashington.com/dl30au39h1.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
44. ^  About the Author . USS Washington (BB-56). http://usswashington.com/worldwar2plus55/index.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
45. ^  “Interstate Highway System” . Eisenhower Presidential Center. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/dl/InterstateHighways/InterstateHighwaysdocuments.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
46. ^ Eisenhower 1963, p. 230
47. ^ Parmet 1972, pp. 438–439
48. ^  Former Presidents Act . National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/about/laws/former-presidents.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
49. ^  Dwight D. Eisenhower Farewell Address . USA Presidents. http://www.usa-presidents.info/speeches/eisenhower-farewell.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
50. ^ Eisenhower Archives. Post Presidential Years. Quote:  President Kennedy reactivated his commission as a five star general in the United States Army. With the exception of George Washington, Eisenhower is the only United States President with military service to reenter the Armed Forces after leaving the office of President.
51. ^ Eisenhower National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)
52. ^  Johnson vs. Goldwater . The Living Room Candidate. http://livingroomcandidate.movingimage.us/election/index.php?nav_action=election&nav_subaction=overview&campaign_id=168. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
53. ^  Dwight D. Eisenhower . Eisenhower Presidential Center. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/quick_links/funeral/DDE_funeral.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
54. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The ’70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 27. ISBN 0465041957.
55. ^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (2008-06-06).  Presidential Lies and Deceptions . US News and World Report. http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/politics/2008/06/06/presidential-lies-and-deceptions.html.
56. ^  Presidential Politics . Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/34_eisenhower/eisenhower_politics.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
57. ^  Dwight D. Eisenhower . http://www.aoc.gov. Architect of the Capitol. http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/eisenhower.cfm. Retrieved on November 29, 2008.
58. ^ a b c d Yeoman, R.S. (2007). Kenneth Bressett. ed. 2008 Guide Book of United States Coins (61st ed.). Atlanta: Whitman Publishing. pp. 218, 294. ISBN 0794822673.
59. ^  Presidential Dollar Coin Release Schedule . United States Mint. http://usmint.gov/mint_programs/$1coin/index.cfm?action=schedule. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
60. ^  History of Eisenhower Army Medical Center . Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20070203232831/http://www.ddeamc.amedd.army.mil/Visitor/history.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
61. ^  Eisenhower Middle School History . Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. http://www.freeholdtwp.k12.nj.us/eisenhower/history.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
62. ^  Statue of President Eisenhower in Grosvenor Square . http://www.usembassy.org.uk. US Embassy. http://www.usembassy.org.uk/grsvnrsq/eisen.html. Retrieved on March 2, 2009.
63. ^ The White House. Eisenhower Executive Office Building. Construction Chronology & Historical Events for the Eisenhower Executive Office Building
64. ^  Eisenhower Park . Nassau County, New York. http://www.nassaucountyny.gov/agencies/Parks/WhereToGo/active/eisenhower.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
65. ^  Eisenhower Decorations and Awards . Eisenhower Presidential Center. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/quick_links/military/decorations_awards_medals/Eisenhower_decorations_awards.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
66. ^ Eisenhower, John S. D.. Allies.
67. ^ Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. pp. 97.

General references:

* Ambrose, Stephen (1983), Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect (1893–1952), New York: Simon & Schuster .
* D’Este, Carlo (2002), Eisenhower: A Soldier’s Life .
* Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1963), Mandate for Change, 1953–1956 .
* Parmet, Herbert S. (1972), Eisenhower and the American Crusades .
* Sixsmith, E. K. G. (1973), Eisenhower, His Life and Campaigns .

Further reading

Military career

* Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890–1952 (1983);’
* Bacque, James. Other Losses (2d. rev. ed., 1999)
* Eisenhower, David. Eisenhower at War 1943–1945 (1986), detailed study by his grandson
* Irish, Kerry E.  Apt Pupil: Dwight Eisenhower and the 1930 Industrial Mobilization Plan , The Journal of Military History 70.1 (2006) 31–61 online in Project Muse.
* Pogue, Forrest C. The Supreme Command (1996) official Army history of SHAEF
* Weigley, Russell. Eisenhower’s Lieutenants. Indiana University Press, 1981. Ike’s dealings with his key generals in WW2

Civilian career

* Albertson, Dean, ed. Eisenhower as President (1963).
* Alexander, Charles C. Holding the Line: The Eisenhower Era, 1952–1961 (1975).
* Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890–1952 (1983); Eisenhower. The President (1984); one volume edition titled Eisenhower: Soldier and President (2003). Standard biography.
* Bowie, Robert R. and Richard H. Immerman; Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy, Oxford University Press, 1998.
* Damms, Richard V. The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953–1961 (2002).
* David Paul T. (ed.), Presidential Nominating Politics in 1952. 5 vols., Johns Hopkins Press, 1954.
* Divine, Robert A. Eisenhower and the Cold War (1981).
* Greenstein, Fred I. The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader (1991).
* Harris, Douglas B.  Dwight Eisenhower and the New Deal: The Politics of Preemption  Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997.
* Harris, Seymour E. The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy (1962).
* Krieg, Joann P. ed. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Soldier, President, Statesman (1987). 24 essays by scholars.
* McAuliffe, Mary S.  Eisenhower, the President , Journal of American History 68 (1981), pp. 625–632.
* Medhurst, Martin J. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Strategic Communicator Greenwood Press, 1993.
* Pach, Chester J. and Elmo Richardson. Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1991). Standard scholarly survey.

Primary sources

* Boyle, Peter G., ed. The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence, 1953–1955 University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
* Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe (1948), his war memoirs.
* Eisenhower, Dwight D. The White House Years: Waging Peace 1956-1961, Doubleday and Co., 1965.
* Eisenhower Papers 21 volume scholarly edition; complete for 1940–1961.
* Summersby, Kay. Eisenhower was my boss (1948) New York: Prentice Hall; (1949) Dell paperback.

External links
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* Papers and Records of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
* Extensive essay on Dwight D. Eisenhower (with shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs)
* 1952 Ike for President TV Ad
* Full audio of Eisenhower speeches via the Miller Center of Public Affairs (UVa)
* Eisenhower’s Secret White House Recordings via the Miller Center of Public Affairs (UVa)
* Audio clips of Eisenhower’s speeches
* Dwight David Eisenhower biography
* Eisenhower Chronology World History Database
* Eisenhower Presidential Library & Museum, including Home and Tomb
* Essay: Why the Eisenhower administration embraced nuclear weapons (PDF)
* Farewell Address (Wikisource)
* Guardians of Freedom – 50th Anniversary of Operation Arkansas, by ARMY.MIL
* First Inaugural Address
* Original Document: D-Day Statement from Dwight D. Eisenhower
* Original Document:  In Case of Failure  D-Day Statement from Dwight D. Eisenhower
* Second Inaugural Address
* Spartacus Educational Biography
* The Arms of Dwight David Eisenhower
* The Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission
* The Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum
* The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921–1969, CHAPTER XXIX, Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower, State Funeral, March 28-April 2, 1969 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark
* The Presidential Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower (searchable online)
* White House biography
* Thaw in the Cold War: Eisenhower and Khrushchev at Gettysburg, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan
* TIME Magazine Cover: Dwight D. Eisenhower, April 4, 1969
* Eisenhower’s report on operation Torch
* Works by Dwight D. Eisenhower at Project Gutenberg
* ‘The American Presidency: Transformation and Change – Dwight Eisenhower’, lecture overview of EIsenhower’s presidency by Vernon Bogdanor, Gresham College, March 18, 2008 (available in text, audio and video formats).
* The Eisenhower Center for American Studies
* Eisenhower Center Studies on War and Peace
* Papers of Pearlie and Michael J. McKeough (Military Aid at AFHQ and SHAEF and Eisenhower’s enlisted aid, respectively), Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
* Dr. Thomas W. Mattingly Medical History of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
* Papers of Fannie Belle Taylor Richardson (Eisenhower Family Geneology), Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library

Military offices
Preceded by
Maj. Gen. James E. Chaney     Commanding General of U.S. Army Europe
1942 – 1943     Succeeded by
Lt. Gen. Frank M. Andrews
Preceded by
Gen. Jacob L. Devers     Commanding General of U.S. Army Europe
1944 – 1945     Succeeded by
Gen. Joseph T. McNarney
New title     Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone in Germany
1945     Succeeded by
Gen. George S. Patton
Preceded by
Gen. George Marshall     Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1945 – 1948     Succeeded by
Gen. Omar Bradley
New title     Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO)
1949 – 1952     Succeeded by
Gen. Matthew Ridgway
Academic offices
Preceded by
Frank D. Fackenthal¹     President of Columbia University
1948 – 1953     Succeeded by
Grayson L. Kirk
Political offices
Preceded by
Harry S. Truman     President of the United States
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961     Succeeded by
John F. Kennedy
Party political offices
Preceded by
Thomas Dewey     Republican Party presidential candidate
1952, 1956     Succeeded by
Richard Nixon
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Herbert Hoover     People who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda
March 30, 1969 – March 31, 1969     Succeeded by
Everett Dirksen
Notes and references
1. http://www.encyclopedia.com

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Cabinet of President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)
Vice President
Richard Nixon (1953-1961)
Dwight D. Eisenhower, thirty-fourth President of the United States
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John Foster Dulles (1953-1959) • Christian A. Herter (1959-1961)
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Secretary of the Treasury
George M. Humphrey (1953-1957) • Robert B. Anderson (1957-1961)
Attorney General
Herbert Brownell, Jr. (1953-1957) • William P. Rogers (1957-1961)
Postmaster General
Arthur E. Summerfield (1953-1961)
Secretary of the Interior
Douglas McKay (1953-1956) • Fred A. Seaton (1956-1961)
Secretary of the Agriculture
Ezra Taft Benson (1953-1961)
Secretary of Commerce
Sinclair Weeks (1953-1958) • Lewis L. Strauss (1958-1959) • Frederick H. Mueller (1959-1961)
Secretary of Labor
Martin P. Durkin (1953) • James P. Mitchell (1953-1961)
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
Oveta Culp Hobby (1953-1955) • Marion B. Folsom (1955-1958) • Arthur S. Flemming (1958-1961)

Notable figures of the Cold War
United States
Harry S. Truman A George Marshall (Secretary of State) A Dwight D. Eisenhower A John F. Kennedy A Lyndon B. Johnson A Richard Nixon A Henry Kissinger (Secretary of State) A Gerald Ford A Jimmy Carter A Ronald Reagan A George H. W. Bush
Soviet Union
Joseph Stalin A Nikita Khrushchev A Leonid Brezhnev A Yuri Andropov A Konstantin Chernenko A Mikhail Gorbachev A Boris Yeltsin A Andrei Gromyko (foreign minister) A Anatoly Dobrynin (ambassador to the U.S.)
United Kingdom
Winston Churchill A Clement Attlee A Ernest Bevin (foreign secretary) A Harold Macmillan A Harold Wilson A Margaret Thatcher
West Germany
Konrad Adenauer A Willy Brandt A Helmut Schmidt A Helmut Kohl
People’s Republic of China
Mao Zedong A Zhou Enlai (Premier) A Hua Guofeng  A Deng Xiaoping A Zhao Ziyang (General Secretary)
France
Charles de Gaulle A Alain Poher A Georges Pompidou A Valéry Giscard d’Estaing A François Mitterrand
Eastern Europe
Enver Hoxha (Albania) A Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) A Imre Nagy (Hungary) A Nicolae Ceaus,escu (Romania) A Alexander Dubc(ek (Czechoslovakia) A Erich Honecker (East Germany) A Lech Wa?e;sa (Poland) A Pope John Paul II (Poland/Vatican City)
Far East
Chiang Kai-shek A Chiang Ching-kuo (Republic of China) A Syngman Rhee A Park Chung-hee (South Korea) A Kim Il-sung (North Korea) A Ho Chi Minh (North Vietnam) A Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam) A Pol Pot (Cambodia) A Indira Gandhi A Jawaharlal Nehru (India) A Sukarno A Suharto (Indonesia) A Ferdinand Marcos A Imelda Marcos (Philippines)
Latin America
Fidel Castro (Cuba) A Che Guevara (Argentina/Cuba) A Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua) A Salvador Allende A Augusto Pinochet (Chile)
Middle East
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi A Ayatollah Khomeini (Iran) A Saddam Hussein (Iraq) A Gamal Abdel Nasser A Anwar El Sadat (Egypt) A Muammar al-Gaddafi (Libya) Menachem Begin (Israel)
Africa
Patrice Lumumba A Mobutu Sese Seko (Congo/Zaire) A Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) A Agostinho Neto A José Eduardo dos Santos A Jonas Savimbi (Angola) A Mengistu Haile Mariam (Ethiopia)
Timeline of events A Portal A Category

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh (1927) A Walter Chrysler (1928) A Owen D. Young (1929) A Mahatma Gandhi (1930) A Pierre Laval (1931) A Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) A Hugh Samuel Johnson (1933) A Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934) A Haile Selassie I (1935) A Wallis Simpson (1936) A Chiang Kai-shek / Soong May-ling (1937) A Adolf Hitler (1938) A Joseph Stalin (1939) A Winston Churchill (1940) A Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941) A Joseph Stalin (1942) A George Marshall (1943) A Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944) A Harry S. Truman (1945) A James F. Byrnes (1946) A George Marshall (1947) A Harry S. Truman (1948) A Winston Churchill (1949) A The American Fighting-Man (1950)
[hide]

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) A Elizabeth II (1952) A Konrad Adenauer (1953) A John Foster Dulles (1954) A Harlow Curtice (1955) A Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) A Nikita Khrushchev (1957) A Charles de Gaulle (1958) A Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) A U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960) A John F. Kennedy (1961) A Pope John XXIII (1962) A Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963) A Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) A William Westmoreland (1965) A The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) A Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) A The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968) A The Middle Americans (1969) A Willy Brandt (1970) A Richard Nixon (1971) A Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972) A John Sirica (1973) A King Faisal (1974) A American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Carol Sutton / Susie Sharp / Addie Wyatt (1975)
[show]

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter (1976) A Anwar Sadat (1977) A Deng Xiaoping (1978) A Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) A Ronald Reagan (1980) A Lech Wa?e;sa (1981) A The Computer (1982) A Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) A Peter Ueberroth (1984) A Deng Xiaoping (1985) A Corazon Aquino (1986) A Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) A The Endangered Earth (1988) A Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) A George H. W. Bush (1990) A Ted Turner (1991) A Bill Clinton (1992) A The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F.W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993) A Pope John Paul II (1994) A Newt Gingrich (1995) A David Ho (1996) A Andrew Grove (1997) A Bill Clinton / Kenneth Starr (1998) A Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) A George W. Bush (2000)
[show]

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) A The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002) A The American Soldier (2003) A George W. Bush (2004) A The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005) A You (2006) A Vladimir Putin (2007) A Barack Obama (2008)
Persondata
NAME     Eisenhower, Dwight David
ALTERNATIVE NAMES     Ike (common referent)
SHORT DESCRIPTION     United States general and President
DATE OF BIRTH     October 14, 1890(1890-10-14)
PLACE OF BIRTH     Denison, Texas
DATE OF DEATH     March 28, 1969
PLACE OF DEATH     Washington, D.C.

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower
Categories: Eisenhower administration cabinet members | 1890 births | 1969 deaths | American 5 star officers | American anti-communists | American military personnel of World War I | American military personnel of World War II | German-Americans | American Presbyterians | Army Black Knights football players | Cold War leaders | Companions of the Liberation | Deaths from cardiovascular disease | Dwight D. Eisenhower | Eisenhower family | Former Jehovah’s Witnesses | German-American politicians | History of the United States (1945–1964) | Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Dutch Lion | Légion d’honneur recipients | Members of the Order of Merit | Military-industrial complex | Operation Overlord people | People from Dickinson County, Kansas | People from Pennsylvania | Pennsylvania Republicans | People from Texas | American people of the Korean War | American university and college presidents | Presidents of Columbia University | Presidents of the United States | Moderates | Recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal | Recipients of Polonia Restituta | Recipients of the Legion of Merit | Recipients of the Order of Victory | Recipients of Virtuti Militari | Croix de guerre (Luxembourg) recipients | Republican Party (United States) presidential nominees | United States presidential candidates, 1952 | United States presidential candidates, 1956 | NATO Supreme Allied Commanders | Time magazine Persons of the Year | United States Army Chiefs of Staff | United States Army generals | United States Military Academy alumni | United States military governors | Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath | Médaille militaire recipients

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* This page was last modified on 8 March 2009, at 05:54.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower

***

Leaders of the United States Army
Senior Officer /
Commanding General
Washington A Knox A Doughty A Harmar A Clair A Wayne A Wilkinson A Washington A Hamilton A Wilkinson A Dearborn A Brown
Macomb A Scott A McClellan A Halleck A Grant A Sherman A Sheridan A Schofield A Miles
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Chiefs of Staff
Young A Chaffee A Bates A Bell A Wood A Wotherspoon A Scott A Bliss A March A Pershing A Hines A Summerall A MacArthur A Craig A Marshall A Eisenhower A Bradley A Collins A Ridgway A Taylor A Lemnitzer A Decker A Wheeler A Johnson A Westmoreland A Palmer A Abrams A Weyand A Rogers A Meyer A Wickham A Vuono A Sullivan A Reimer A Shinseki A Schoomaker A Casey
Vice Chiefs of Staff
Collins A Haislip A Hull A Bolte A Palmer A Lemnitzer A Decker A Eddleman A Hamlett A Abrams A Haines A Palmer A Haig A Weyand A Kerwin A Kroesen A Vessey A Wickham A Thurman A Brown A RisCassi A Sullivan A Reimer A Peay A Tilelli A Griffith A Crouch A Shinseki A Keane A Casey A Cody A Chiarelli

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Ridgway

***
Operation Blue Bat

Tension in the Middle East began to increase in 1957, when it seemed as though Syria was about to fall to communism. Acting on his recent increased commitment to the region, and in order to protect neighboring Turkey, Iraq, and Jordan, President Eisenhower approved the deployment of USAF fighters from Germany to Adana. The crisis quickly abated, but set the stage for the next upheaval the following year in Lebanon.

Lebanese Moslems rebelled and rioted over fears that the delicate balance between Christianity and Islam in the Lebanese government was in peril. Adding to the regional tension, leftist Iraqi officers assassinated their nation’s king and prime minister on 14 July 1958. This prompted the President of Lebanon and the King of Jordan to request military assistance from the US.

The purpose of Operation Blue Bat in Lebanon was to bolster the pro-Western Lebanese government of President Chamoun against internal opposition and threats from Syria and the United Arab Republic. The plan was to occupy and secure the Beirut International Airport, a few miles south of the city, then to secure the port of Beirut and approaches to the city. The operation involved approximately 14,000 men, including 8,509 Army personnel and 5,670 officers and men of the Marine Corps.

Army participation was conducted by USAREUR under the February 1958 revision of its Emergency Plan (EP) 201. The plan called for a task force (Army Task Force 201) to cope with any emergencies in the Middle East. The task force consisted of two airborne battle groups reinforced with minimum essential combat sand service support elements. The task force would comprise five echelons, four of which were actually committed to the operation in Lebanon.

While both Army and Marine forces were ordered to Lebanon on 15 July, only Marine units made assault landings. Army forces from USAREUR did not close in Beirut until 19 July. On this date, Force ALPHA, composed of 1 reinforced airborne battle group and the task force command group (1,720 personnel) arrived at Beirut by air. Since combat did not develop in Lebanon, Force BRAVO, a second airborne battle group and the advance headquarters of the task force (1,723 personnel) never left its station in Germany.

Force CHARLIE, containing combat, combat support and combat service units, left Germany by sea and air on 19 July and closed at Beirut by 25 July. According to EP 201, Force CHARLIE contained the main headquarters, the task force artillery (2 airborne batteries of 105-mm. howitzers), 1 section of a 762-mm. rocket battery, and the headquarters element—an airborne reconnaissance troop, an engineer construction company, the advance party of the task force support command, an evacuation hospital unit, elements of an airborne support group, and an Army Security Agency detachment. Political considerations subsequently eliminated the 762-mm rocket battery from the operations in Lebanon.

Force DELTA comprised the sea-tail of the airborne battle group, including 2 light truck companies, a section of a 762-mm. rocket battery, an engineer construction battalion (-), an antiaircraft artillery (AW) battery, technical service support units, and a military police unit. This echelon left Germany on 26 July and closed in Beirut from 3 to 5 August.

Force ECHO, a 90-mm. gun tank battalion, was to move by sea, according to EP 201. Its embarkation was delayed at Bremerhaven pending a decision whether to send one tank company or the entire battalion. Leaving Germany on 22-23 July, the echelon arrived at Beirut on 3 August 1958.

By 5 August, all major ATF-201 forces had reached Beirut and the bulk of their equipment and initial resupply had arrived or was en route. By 26 July, the Marines had deployed, in and around Beirut, four battalion landing teams and a logistical support group.

Besides authorizing the Navy’s Sixth Fleet to conduct air operations and to land Marines in Beirut, the President ordered Tactical Air Command (TAC) Composite Air Strike Force Bravo to deploy from the US to Incirlik AB. The strike force, under command of Maj Gen Henry Viccellio, was in place by 20 July. It consisted of F-100s, B-57s, RF-101s, RB-66s, and WB-66s. These aircraft and supporting personnel overwhelmed the facilities at Incirlik, which also supported cargo and transport aircraft deploying an Army battalion from Germany to Lebanon. As no ground fighting involving Americans broke out, the strike force flew missions to cover troop movements, show-of-force missions over Beirut, aerial reconnaissance sorties, and leaflet drops. The Air Force had no tactical controllers in Lebanon, therefore the Navy established procedures for all tactical aircraft involved in the operation.

All operations had gone according to plan. Stable conditions were maintained until a new government was installed in Lebanon. American troops left in October, after the tension diminished.

The absence of opposition, and the underlying problem of whether such contingency forces should be supplied by USAREUR or STRAC in the United States, were factors in the Lebanon operation. The major logistical problems developed primarily from the non-combat status of the task force. The airlift of a Marine battalion from the continental United States to the objective area demonstrated that such a movement was both feasible and expeditious. It further pointed up the difficulty of reconciling the need for a USAREUR contingency force for the Middle East when STRAC was being maintained for this very purpose.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/blue_bat.htm

***
U.S. Business and Immigration Law
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Updated USCIS EB-5 Regional Center List – December 2008

The Immigrant Investor (EB-5) Pilot Program is designed to encourage foreign investment by providing a vehicle for investment in the form of an economic unit called a “Regional Center.” The Regional Centers are private or public entities that have received government approval to participate in the program. They enable the amassing and pooling of capital for targeted investment in designated regions in the United States.

For the Investor, these Regional Centers are attractive because they allow for a less restrictive job creation requirement. Instead of having to prove direct job creation, the investor may show indirect job creation through such methods as economic and statistic forecasting tools.

The required investment amount is $1 million, or $500,000 if located in a rural or targeted employment area. In addition, Regional Centers typically charge additional amounts in fees.

In December 2008 USCIS released an updated Regional Center list, with quite a few changes to the participants. Several new regional centers popped up around the country, while others disappeared from the list. In addition, those centers on the list which previously had been flagged due to administrative matters pending with UCSIS, apparently have been rectified. In total, USCIS says it has approved about 32 centers and has 12-15 applications pending.

As the status of these Regional Centers as participants in the Pilot Program can change, before investing any money, verify the center is still approved and active in the Pilot Program.

For more information on the EB-5 Immigrant Investor visa see our other article EB – 5 Permanent Residency through Investment.

Please note that this pilot program expires at the end of September 2008 unless reinstated. The program was temporarily extended until March 6, 2009 as part of Congress’ continuing budge resolution, but is awaiting Congressional approval for reinstatement for beyond that date.

In alphabetical order by state, the Regional Centers deemed “active” include:

ALABAMA

Alabama Center for Foreign Investment Regional Center

Address: RSA Union, 100 North Union Street, Suite 682, Montgomery, AL 36104

Phone/Fax: (334) 954-3111/(334) 954-3112

Website: http://www.eb5alabama.com
Email: director@acfi-alabama.com; gc@acfi-alabama.com

Geographic Area: State of Alabama.

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Heavy and light manufacturing; agriculture; high technology; construction; hospitality, resort and service industries (hotels, restaurants, resorts, golf courses, entertainment, and the like); schools, health care facilities, and infrastructure; and cruise line support services.

Point of Contact: Ronald Drinkard, Executive Director; Boyd Campbell, General Counsel

CALIFORNIA

California Consortium for Agricultural Export

Address: 333 Grand Avenue, 25thFloor, Los Angeles, CA 90071

Phone/Fax: (213) 892-6367/(213) 892-2267

Website: http://www.ccax.com/

Email: sspencer@ccax.com

Geographic Area: Nine Counties in Central California known as the San Joaquin Valley.

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: An agricultural investment program purchasing and converting fallow or row crop lands into permanent commercially viable fruit and/or nut trees and grape vines for the domestic and export markets, wineries, and elevator platform machinery manufacturing.

Point of Contact: Susan Spencer, President; Kelly Spencer, Director of Marketing & Investor Relations

CMB Export LLC

Address: Midwest Executive Offices, 4507 49th Ave. Moline, IL 61265

Phone/fax: 800-238-8022

Website: http://www.cmbeb5visa.com/

Email: Pat@CMBEB5Visa.com

Geographic Area: The development area is related to former military bases located in the counties of Sacramento, San Bernardino and Riverside, CA.
Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Export activity related to development of military bases; air cargo, sea port development as export centers.

Point of Contact: Patrick F. Hogan, President, Corona Professional Center, 400 S. Ramona Avenue, Suite 212AA, Corona, CA 91719

El Monte Regional Center

Address: 10501 Valley Blvd., # 1888 El Monte, CA 91731

Website: http://www.InvestmentImmigrationLaw.com

Point of Contact: Jean Lang, Exec. V.P.

Los Angeles Film Regional Center

Address: CanAm Enterprises, LLC, c/o Thomas Rosenfield, 32 Court Street, Suite 1501, Brooklyn, NY 11201

Website: http://www.CanAmenterprises.com

Email: tom@canamenterprises.com

Geographic Area: All projects will be located within the set of contiguous census tracts in Los Angeles County designated as a targeted employment area (TEA) by the California Employment Development Department (EDD) acting as the designated state agency by the Governor of the State of California

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity:  Investments in the motion picture and television industry in Los Angeles County, California.

Point of Contact: Thomas Rosenfield

Imperial Regional Center

Address: 150 N. Santa Ana Ave, Ste. 300, Arcadia, CA 91006

Email: linda@lindalau.net

Point of Contact: James Lo, Pacificland International Development Inc. c/o Linda Lau, Esq.

Southeast Los Angeles Regional Center (SELARC)

Address: SELARC Development, LLC, 2440 Hacienda Blvd. # 223, Hacienda Heights, CA 91745
Email: Dbrearly@SELARC.com

Geographic Area: City of Vernon

Focus of Economic Growth Activity: Food products, apparel manufacturing, transportation and warehousing, household furniture and furnishings.

Point of Contact: David B. Brearley, Esq.

California Investment Immigration Fund, LLC

Address: 12688 Chapman Ave. #3313, Garden Grove, CA 92840

Email: china@great-nation.com

Point of Contact: Tat Chan

Regional Center Management – Los Angeles

Address: 270 S. Hanford St, Ste 100, Seattle, WA 98134

Point of Contact: Henry Liebman

Regional Center Properties, Southern California

Address: 5160 Birch Street, Suite 200, New Port Beach, CA 92660

Point of Contact: Mamey, Paparell & Yale-Loehr

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, (WASHINGTON, DC)

Capital Area Regional Center (CARC)

Address: 1801 K Street NW, Suite 201 L, Washington, DC 20006

Phone/Fax: (202) 349-9848; (202) 355-1399

Website: http://www.cornerstoneia.comGeographic Area: Legal boundaries of the District of Columbia (Washington, DC) and the contiguous adjacent areas of Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties in Maryland, Arlington and Fairfax counties in Virginia, and the city of Alexandria, VA.

Focus of Economic Growth Activity: Mixed hotel, retail, office and residential space; a soccer stadium; conference center space, and industrial space.

Point of Contact: Michael R. Sears; John Tung

EB-5 America

Address: 1806 11th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001

Email: Morris@EB5America.com

Point of Contact: David Morris, Esq.

FLORIDA

Lake Buena Vista Regional Center

Address: 15657 Apopka Vineland Road, Orlando, FL 32821; 1725 University Dr., #420, Coral Springs, FL 33071

Phone/Fax: (407) 238-9301/(407) 238-9716

Website: http://www.eb5greencardusa.com/

Geographic Area: Orange, Osceola, Lake and Seminole Counties.

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Leisure and hospitality

Point of Contact: Samuel Sutton

Palm Beach Regional Center

Address: Phillips Pt., W. Tower, 777 South Fagler Drive, Suite 800, West Palm Beach, FL 33401

Phone: (561) 644-1717

Website: http://wtcpalmbeach.com/

Email: hadd5353@bellsouth.net

Geographic Area: Palm Beach

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Port and cargo warehousing and distribution center; intermodal traffic and cargo distribution center; manufacturing and research facilities; commercial and office space; film and TV production.

Point of Contact: Luis Haddad, President

HAWAII

DBEDT Hawaii Regional Center

Address: DBEDT, No. 1 Capitol District Bldg, 5th Floor, Diamond Head Wing, 250 South Hotel Street, Honolulu, HI 96813

Phone/Fax: 718-624-7850

Website: http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt

Email: Info@hawaiifund.com

Geographic Area: Within the State of Hawaii

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Tourism (Hawaii’s major export); industries identified as export-related.

Point of Contact: Cy Feng, email: cfeng@dbedt.hawaii.gov; Tom Rosenfield, CanAm Enterprises, LLC, 32 Court Street, Ste 1501, Brooklyn, NY 11201

IOWA

Iowa Department of Economic Development (IDED)

Address: 200 East Grand Avenue, Des Moines, Iowa 50309

Phone/Fax: (515)242-4700/(515)242-4809

Website: http://www.iowalifechanging.com/

Geographic Area: 77 Rural and Small Urban Counties in Iowa.

Focus of Economic Growth Activity: Dairy farming

Point of Contact: Mike Tramontina, Director

KANSAS

Kansas Bio-Fuel Regional Center, LLC

Address: Kansas Biofuel Regional Center, LLC, 915 Wilshire Boulevard, #2050, Los Angeles, CA 90017

Phone/Fax: (213) 380-2828/(213) 380-0570
Geographic Area: Twenty-one (21) counties located in the southwest region of the State of Kansas.

Focus of Economic Growth Activity: Building and operation of fuel grade ethanol production facilities within the geographic bounds of the regional center.

Point of Contact: Justin M. Lee and Thomas E. Kent, Esqs.

LOUISIANA

Mayor’s Office of Economic Development (New Orleans)

Address: 3421 N. Causeway Boulevard, Suite 301 New Orleans, LA 70002

Phone/Fax: 504-658-0919

Website: http://www.nobleoutreach.com/

Email: Bhungerford@NobleOutReach.com; Tmilbrath@NobleOutReach.com

Geographic Area: Orleans Parish and the City of New Orleans

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Leasehold Improvements to Fixed Asset Commercial Buildings Sector; Mobile Medical Services Facilities Sector; Commercial Lodging, Hotels, and Hospitality Sector; Mixed-use Real Estate Construction-Reconstruction Sector; Mixed-use Residential Lease and Rental Properties Sector; Arts and Sciences Industry Sector; Harbor Facilities Sector; Gaming and Casinos Sector; and Marine Sector (Commercial Fishing, Processing, Packing, and Shipping Facilities)

Points of Contact: William B. Hungerford Jr., President; Timothy O. Milbrath, V.P.

Noble Coastal Ventures – Louisiana Mississippi Regional Center

Address: 20203 Goshen Rd, Ste 302, Gaithersburg, MD 20879

Email: Bhungerford@NobleOutReach.com; Tmilbrath@NobleOutReach.com

Points of Contact: William B. Hungerford Jr., President; Timothy O. Milbrath, V.P.

Gulf Coast Funds Management, LLC

Address: 202 East State Street, Suite, 700 Ithaca, New York 14850

Point of Contact: Stephen Yale-Loehr; Taylor Berry

NEW YORK

New York City Regional Center, LLC

Address: 299 Broadway Ste 1518 New York, NY 10007

Point of Contact: Paul Levinsohn

PENNSYLVANIA

Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation

Address: 2600 Centre Square West, 1500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102-2126

Phone/Fax: (215)496-8020; (215)977-9618

Website: http://www.pidc-pa.org/; http://www.canamenterprises.com/

Email: info@www.pidc-pa.org

Geographic Area: Philadelphia County, PA

Focus of Economic Growth Activity: Tourism convention and visitor services through the hotel, restaurant and hospitality industry; commercial office space renovation and leasing; merchandise import and export sales; investment in high-tech start up companies as well as information and bio-tech enterprises; and trucking and warehousing and transportation enterprises.

Point of Contact: Peter Longstreth, President; Thomas Rosenfeld, Attorney

Pennsylvania Department of Community & Economic Development Regional Center

Address: Can Am Enterprises, LLC 32, Court Street, # 1501, Brooklyn, NY 11201

Phone/Fax: 718-624-7850

Website: http://www.CanAmenterprises.com

Geographic Area: The contiguous geographic area encompassing the following 23 counties of western Pennsylvania: Erie, Crawford, Mercer, Venango, Lawrence, Butler, Clarion Beaver, Armstrong, Allegheny, Indiana, Westmoreland, Washington, Greene, Fayette, Somerset, Cambria, Blair, Bedford, Warren, Forest, Jefferson and Clearfield. Also, within the above defined contiguous geographic area, the delineated Targeted Employment Areas (TEAs) within the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA); delineated TEAs within the city of Pittsburgh; and delineated TEAs within the Erie and Johnstown, Pennsylvania SMSAs.
Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Concentrating on financing projects and developing commercial enterprises in the following eight target industries: Tourism and hospitality; technology; transportation; manufacturing and trade; health services; agriculture and food production; higher education; and leasehold improvements to commercial office & mixed-use spaces.

Points of Contact: Dennis Yablonsky, Secretary or James Rowley, Deputy Secretary Dept. of Community & Economic Development; Thomas Rosenfeld, Esq., President and Chief Executive Officer, CanAm Enterprises, LLC.

SOUTH CAROLINA

Carolina Center for Foreign Investment RC

Address: P.O. Box 2487, 101 N. Main St., #1400, Greenville, SC 29602

Email: Aballew@furmanco.com

Point of Contact: Allen Ballew

SOUTH DAKOTA

South Dakota International Business Institute Dairy Economic Development Region (SDIBI–DEDR)

Address: 1200 South Jay Street, Aberdeen South Dakota 57401-7198

Phone/Fax: (605) 773-5032; (605) 773-3256

Website: http://www.sd-exports.org/eb-5

Geographic Area: The 44 rural counties in eastern South Dakota.

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Projects to date have included agricultural-related development, in particular establishing dairy farms and a beef processing plant.

Point of Contact: Joop Bollen, Director

TEXAS/OKLAHOMA

Southwest Bio-Fuel Regional Center, LLC (SWBRC)

Address: 915 Wilshire Blvd, Suite #2050, Los Angeles, CA 90017

Phone/Fax: (213) 380-2898/(213) 380-0570
Geographic Area: The contiguous geographic area encompasses the 40 counties located in the northwest region of Texas, to include Dallam, Sherman, Hansford, Lipscomb, Ociltree, Hartley, Moore, Hutchinson, Roberts, Hemphill, Oldham, Potter, Carson, Gray, Wheeler, Deaf Smith, Randall, Armstrong, Donley, Collingsworth, Parmer, Castro, Swisher, Briscoe, Hall, Childress, Hardeman, Bailey, Lamb, Hale, Floyd, Motley, Cottle, Foard, Cochran,  Hockley, Lubbock, Crosby, Dickens, and King counties, and 9 counties located in the western region of the State of Oklahoma, to include Cimarron, Texas, Beaver, Ellis, Roger Mills, Beckham, Greer, Harmon, and Jackson.

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: The development and operation of fuel grade ethanol production facilities.

Point of Contact: Justin M. Lee, President and CEO

Global Century Development

Address: 11205 Bellaire Blvd. Suite B-33, 77072-2545, Houston, TX

Email: dnip888@sbcglobal.net

Geographic Area: The contiguous geographic area of Houston’s Chinatown encompassing the Tax Increment Reinvestment Zone #15 (TIRZ), a 60-block area bounded by Preston Street on the North, Dowling Street on the East, St. Joseph parkway on the South, and Chartres Street on the West.

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Concentrating on financing and developing commercial and mixed-use real estate in the following five target industries: hotel and hospitality; retail; mixed use residential; commercial office; restaurant & entertainment.

Points of Contact: Mr. Dan Nip, President, Global Century Development Group-I, LP; H. Richard Sindelar III, Esq., Tindall & Foster, P.C.

VERMONT

Vermont Agency of Commerce and Community Development

Address: National Life Bldg., Drawer 20, Montpelier, VT 05620

Phone: (802) 828-5202

Website: http://www.dca.state.vt.us/indexnew.html

Geographic Area: State of Vermont

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Export-related companies; tourism, hospitality and commercial resorts development.

Point of Contact: Kevin L. Dorn, Secretary

WASHINGTON

American Life Seattle RC/Golden Rainbow/ Freedom Fund

Address: American Life Inc., 270 S. Hanford St., Ste. 100, Seattle, WA 98134

Phone/fax: 206-624-5622

Website: http://www.AmLife.us

Email: jo@americanlifeinc.com; henry@americanlifeinc.com

Geographic Area: 1) As Golden Rainbow Freedom Fund, air cargo and manufacturing facility in Jackson County, Oregon; 2) As Gateway: City of Seattle Neighborhood Reinvestment Area in Seattle, Washington

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Air and ocean cargo facilities; and manufacturing; warehouses.

Point of Contact: Henry Liebmann, President – American Life, Inc.

Point of Contact: Henry Liebmann, President – American Life, Inc.

American Life Ventures – Everett, Washington

Address: American Life Inc., 270 S. Hanford St., Ste. 100, Seattle, WA 98134

Website: http://www.AmLife.us

American Life Ventures – Tacoma, Washington

Address: American Life Inc., 3223 Third Ave., South, Ste. 200, Seattle, WA 98134

Website: http://www.AmLife.us

Whatcom Opportunities Regional Center, Inc. (WORC, Inc.)

Address: 1305 11th Street Suite 304 Bellingham, WA 98225

Phone: 360-201-3933

Website: http://www.worc.biz/

Email: info@worc.biz

Geographic Area: The legal boundaries which constitute Whatcom County, Washington.

Focus of Economic Growth Activity: Capital investments and job creation in assisted living facilities for the elderly within Whatcom County.

Point of Contact: K. David Andersson, President

Aero-Space Port International Group [ASPI Group]

Address: 1600 Lind Ave. SW, Suite 220, Renton, WA 98055

Phone/fax: 206-241-8000; 243-3000

Website: http://www.aspigroup.com/

Email: Achen@aspicgroup.com

Geographic Area: Within ASPI Group, located at Grant County International Airport in Moses Lake

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: High tech, agricultural and other export products to Europe and Pacific Rim countries through international air cargo facilities.

Point of Contact: Andy Chin, Executive Vice President & CFO; Kim Foster, Corporate Counsel

WISCONSIN

Metropolitan Milwaukee Association of Commerce (MMAC)

Address: 756 N. Milwaukee Street, Milwaukee, WI 53202

Phone/fax: 414-287-4100

Website: http://www.mmac.org/

Email: Tsheehy@mmac.org

Geographic Area: The seven (7) counties of southeastern Wisconsin: Kenosha, Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Racine, Walworth, Washington, and Waukesha (including Targeted Employment Areas within the cities of Racine and Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Focus of Export/Economic Growth Activity: Business and professional services; financial activities and business process services; health services and medical technology; manufacturing; printing and printing support; wholesale trade and distribution; and hospitality and entertainment.

Point of Contact: Timothy R. Sheehy, President; Peter Beitzel, Vice President Metropolitan Milwaukee Assoc. of Commerce

Possibly related posts: (automatically generated)

* Revised EB-5 Regional Center List; 2 New Projects in FL

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EB – 5 Permanent Residency through Investment

Overview

Permanent residency (green card) is available to foreign nationals who are investing in a new commercial enterprise that will benefit the U.S. economy and create needed employment opportunities within the United States.
General Requirements

Where must the money be invested?

The foreign national Investor must be investing in a “new commercial enterprise.”  The regulations consider any one of the following activities to constitute a “new commercial enterprise:”

• creating a new business;

• investing in a business that was established after Nov. 29, 1990;

• purchasing a business that was established prior to Nov. 29, 1990 and simultaneously or subsequently restructuring or reorganizing the business such that a new commercial enterprise results; or

• investing in a business that was established prior to Nov. 29, 1990 and expanding it by 40 percent of the pre-investment number of employees or net worth.

How much money?

To qualify, the Investor must invest at least:

• $1 million anywhere in the United States; or

• $500,000 in an area where 1) the unemployment rate exceeds the national average unemployment rate by 150% as designated by the State or 2) a rural area. A rural area is an area outside of a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) or an area outside of a city or town having a population of 20,000 or more. MSAs are designated by the Office of Management and Budget.

Also, the money must come from a “lawful source of funds,” which means the Investor should have extensive documentation how he or she obtained the money, whether it be earnings, a gift from family, the sale of property, etc.

How many jobs?

The rationale behind providing for this type of immigration is to improve the U.S. economy. As such, the criteria for establishing whether an investment will qualify focuses on job creation. In general, the regulations state that if the Investor is starting a new business, or buying at existing business, at least 10 new full-time positions must be created. In the case, however, of an Investor who is expanding an existing business where a 40 percent increase in employees or net worth must be shown, if the net worth requirement cannot be met, then the Investor mush show a 40 percent increase in employees, meaning potentially more than 10 jobs must be created.

If investing in a “troubled business,” instead of hiring 10 people, the employment criteria can be met by maintaining the number of existing employees at no less than the pre-investment level for a period of at least two years. A “troubled business” is one that has been in existence for at least two years and that has lost 20 percent of its net worth over the past 12 to 24 months.

What is the Investor’s role in the enterprise?

The regulations state the Investor must have more than a passive role in the business. The Investor must be active, either through the exercise of day-to-day managerial control or through policy formulation. The regulations state that serving on the board of directors, as a corporate officer, or as a limited partner meet this criteria.

It should be noted that the Investor is not required to live in the area where the money is being invested.

Other eligibility criteria

The new enterprise must “benefit” the U.S. economy. This fact generally can be established by showing the entity provides goods or services to the U.S. market. If, however, the entity is a consulting firm exclusively serving clients overseas, that activity may not be sufficient to support a petition.

Special Pilot Program/Regional Centers

The Immigrant Investor Pilot Program is designed to encourage foreign investment by providing a vehicle for investment in the form of an economic unit called a “Regional Center.” The Regional Centers are private or public entities that have received government approval to participate in the program. They enable the amassing and pooling of capital for targeted investment in designated regions in the United States.

For the Investor, these Regional Centers are attractive because they allow for a less restrictive job creation requirement. Instead of having to prove direct job creation, the investor may show indirect job creation through such methods as economic and statistic forecasting tools.

Please note that this pilot program expires in November 2008 unless reinstated.

For a list of active Regional Centers, please see our other article on this blog listing the Regional Centers for the EB-5 Immigrant Investor Pilot Program.

Family Members

Dependent family members (spouse and children under age 21) may be included in the Investor’s immigration petition.

Application Process