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Edgewood Arsenal experiments
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Edgewood Arsenal experiments (also known as Project 112) are said to be related to or part of CIA mind control programs after World War II, like MKULTRA. Journalist Linda Hunt, citing records from the National Archives, revealed that eight German scientists worked at Edgewood under Project Paperclip: see  Secret Agenda: the United States Government, Nazi Scientists and Project Paperclip  St. Martin’s Press, 1991;  ABC PrimeTime Live,  Operation Paperclip, 1991, and hearings before the House Judiciary Committee, 1991. The experiments were performed at the Edgewood Arsenal, northeast of Baltimore, Maryland, and involved the use of hallucinogens such LSD, THC, and BZ, in addition to biological and chemical agents. Experiments on human subjects utilizing such agents goes back to at least World War I. In the mid-1970s, in the wake of many health claims made from exposure to such agents, including psychotropic and hallucinogenic drugs administered in later experiments, Congress began investigations of misuse of such experiments, and inadequate informed consent given by the soldiers and civilians involved.

The Edgewood experiments took place from approximately 1952-1974 at the Bio Medical Laboratory, which is now known as the U. S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. The volunteer would spend the weekend on-site. They would perform tests and procedures (math, navigation, following orders, memory and interview) while sober. The volunteer would then be dosed by a scientist and perform the same tests. These tests occurred in the building/hospital under the care of doctors and nurses. At times the tests would be taken outside to study the effects while in the field. For example the volunteer would have to guard a check point while under the influence to see what effects certain drugs had on the patient.

A pamphlet produced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Effects from Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Weapons (Oct. 2003), discusses the Edgewood Arsenal Experiments in some detail:

Renewed interest led to renewed human testing by the Department of Defense (DoD), although ultimately on a much smaller scale. Thus, between 1950 and 1975, about 6,720 soldiers took part in experiments involving exposures to 254 different chemicals, conducted at U.S. Army Laboratories at Edgewood Arsenal, MD (NRC 1982, NRC 1984, NAS 1993). Congressional hearings into these experiments in 1974 and 1975 resulted in disclosures, notification of subjects as to the nature of their chemical exposures, and ultimately to compensation for a few families of subjects who had died during the experiments (NAS 3). These experiments were conducted primarily to learn how various agents would affect humans (NRC 1982). Other agencies including the CIA and the Special Operations Division of the Department of the Army were also reportedly involved in these studies (NAS 1993). Only a small number of all the experiments done during this period involved mustard agents or Lewisite. Records indicate that between 1955 and 1965, of the 6,720 soldiers tested, only 147 human subjects underwent exposure to mustard agent at Edgewood (NRC 1982). According to the 1984 NRC review, human experiments at DoD’s Edgewood Arsenal involved about 1,500 subjects who were experimentally exposed to irritant and blister agents including:

* lachrymatory agents, e.g., CN;

* riot control agents, e.g., CS;

* chloropicrin (PS);

* Diphenylaminochlorarsine (DM, Adamsite);

* other ocular and respiratory irritants; and

* mustard agents.

For example, from 1958 to 1973 at least 1,366 human subjects underwent experimental exposure specifically with the riot control agent CS at Edgewood Arsenal (NRC 1984). Of those involved in the experiments:

* 1,073 Subjects were exposed to aerosolized CS;

* 180 Subjects were exposed dermally;

* 82 subjects had both skin applications and aerosol exposures;

and finally

* 31 subjects experienced ocular exposure via direct CS application to their eyes.

Most of these experiments involved tests of protective equipment and of subjects’ ability to perform military tasks during exposure.

The report cites three earlier studies for its data, namely;

* Veterans at Risk: Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite
* Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents, Volume 1, Anticholinesterases, and Anticholinergics. (1982). Commission on Life Sciences. The National Academies Press
* Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure To Chemical Agents, Volume 2: Cholinesterase Reactivators, Psychochemicals and Irritants and Vesicants (1984) Commission on Life Sciences. The National Academies Press.

The Veterans Affairs pamphlet, written to aid government clinicians in understanding the presence of various symptoms in presenting patients at their clinics and hospitals, also discusses the use of psychoactive drugs on human subjects:

About 260 subjects were experimentally exposed to various psychochemicals including phencyclidine (PCP), and 10 related synthetic analogs of the active ingredient of cannabis (NRC 1984). The NRC report also mentions human experiments involving exposure of 741 soldiers to LSD (NRC 1984).

The Vanderbilt University Television News Archive has two videos about the experiments, both from a  July 17, 1975 NBC Evening News segment . In one, NBC newsman John Chancellor reports on how Norman Augustine, then-acting Secretary of Army, ordered a probe of Army use of LSD in soldier and civilian experiments. In a separate piece, by reporter Tom Pettit, Major General Lloyd Fellenz, from Edgewood Arsenal, explains how the experiments there were about searching for humane weapons, adding that the use of LSD was unacceptable.

A Washington Post article, dated July 23, 1975, by Bill Richards ( 6,940 Took Drugs ) reported that a top civilian drug researcher for the Army said a total of 6,940 servicemen had been involved in Army chemical and drug experiments, and that, furthermore, the tests were proceeding at Edgewood Arsenal as of the date of the article. A Government Accounting Office May 2004 report, Chemical and Biological Defense (p. 24), states that there even more victims of the experimental program, a number that may never be completely known:

We also reported that the Army Chemical Corps conducted a classified medical research program for developing incapacitating agents. This program involved testing nerve agents, nerve agent antidotes, psycho chemicals, and irritants. The chemicals were given to volunteer service members at Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland; Dugway Proving Ground, Utah; and Forts Benning, Bragg, and McClellan. In total, Army documents identified 7,120 Army and Air Force personnel who participated in these tests.15 Further, GAO concluded that precise information on the scope and the magnitude of tests involving human subjects was not available, and the exact number of human subjects might never be known.

GAO explains at the outset of their report the rationale for the study:

In the 1962-74 time period, the Department of Defense (DOD) conducted a classified chemical and biological warfare test program —- Project 112 —- that might have exposed service members and civilian personnel to chemical or biological agents. In 2000 the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) began obtaining information from DOD about the program. Concerned that veterans and others might have health problems from exposure during Project 112 and similar DOD tests, Congress required DOD in the 2003 Defense Authorization Act to identify Project 112 tests and personnel potentially exposed—service members and the number of civilian personnel—and other chemical and biological tests that might have exposed service members.

Finally, it appears there were similar experiments conducted at the UK Ministry of Defence establishment at Porton Down, Wiltshire, into at least the 1970s. See the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives at King’s College London.

External links

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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgewood_Arsenal_experiments
Categories: History of the United States government | Military psychiatry | Mind control | Military history of the United States | Central Intelligence Agency operations | Psychedelic research | Biological warfare | Chemical warfare | Human experimentation in the United States

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgewood_Arsenal_experiments

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http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=740&page=1

http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9136&page=1

**

http://www1.va.gov/environagents/docs/USHInfoLetterIL10-2005-004_March_14_2005.pdf

http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04410.pdf

We also reported that the Army Chemical Corps conducted a classified medical research program for developing incapacitating agents. This program involved testing nerve agents, nerve agent antidotes, psycho chemicals, and irritants. The chemicals were given to volunteer service members at Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland; Dugway Proving Ground, Utah; and Forts Benning, Bragg, and McClellan. In total, Army documents identified 7,120 Army and Air Force personnel who participated in these tests.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgewood_Arsenal_experiments

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Black site
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In military terminology, a black site is a location at which a black project is conducted. Recently the term has gained notoriety in describing secret prisons operated by the Central Intelligence Agency, generally outside of US territory and legal jurisdiction. It can refer to the facilities that are controlled by the CIA used by the US in its War on Terror to detain alleged unlawful enemy combatants.[1]

US President George W. Bush acknowledged the existence of secret prisons operated by the CIA during a speech on September 6, 2006.[2][3] A claim that the black sites existed was made by The Washington Post in November 2005 and before this by human rights NGOs.[4]

Many European countries[who?] have officially denied they are hosting black sites to imprison terrorists or cooperating in the US extraordinary rendition program. Not one country has confirmed that it is hosting black sites. However, an EU report adopted on February 14, 2007 by a majority of the European Parliament (382 MEPs voting in favour, 256 against and 74 abstaining) stated the CIA operated 1,245 flights and that it was not possible to contradict evidence or suggestions that secret detention centres were operated in Poland and Romania.[1][5]

In early 2009, the U.S. administration ordered the black sites to be closed.

Contents

* 1 Official Recognition of Black Sites
o 1.1 2006 Bush announcement
o 1.2 2007 Red Cross report to the U.S. government
o 1.3 2009 closure of black sites by U.S.
* 2 Controversy over the Legality and Secrecy of Black Sites
o 2.1 Legal status of black site detainees
o 2.2 Legal authority for black site operation
o 2.3 Public information about black site operation
+ 2.3.1 Representations by the Bush administration
+ 2.3.2 Information derived from investigative reporting
* 3 Specific Facts Surrounding Black Sites
o 3.1 Detainees
+ 3.1.1 Khaled el-Masri
+ 3.1.2 Imam Rapito
+ 3.1.3 Dr. Aafia Siddiqui
o 3.2 Suspected black sites
+ 3.2.1 Asia
+ 3.2.2 Middle East
+ 3.2.3 Africa
+ 3.2.4 Indian Ocean
+ 3.2.5 Europe
+ 3.2.6 Mobile sites
* 4 Media and investigative history
o 4.1 Media
+ 4.1.1 The Washington Post December 2002
+ 4.1.2 Human Rights Watch March 2004 report
+ 4.1.3 Village March 2005 report
+ 4.1.4 Washington Post November 2005 article
+ 4.1.5 Human Rights Watch’s report
+ 4.1.6 BBC December 2006 report
+ 4.1.7 New Yorker August 2007 article
+ 4.1.8 September 2007 media reports to present
o 4.2 European investigations
+ 4.2.1 Spain investigations
+ 4.2.2 France investigations
+ 4.2.3 Portugal investigations
+ 4.2.4 Other European investigations
+ 4.2.5 The Onyx-intercepted fax
+ 4.2.6 The European Parliament’s February 14, 2007 report
o 4.3 Obama administration
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links

Official Recognition of Black Sites

Black sites operated by the U.S. government and its surrogates were first officially acknowledged by President George Bush in fall, 2006. The International Committee of the Red Cross reported details of black site practices to the U.S. government in early 2007, and the contents of that report became public in March, 2009. President Barack Obama ordered the black sites closed in January, 2009.

2006 Bush announcement

On September 6, 2006 President Bush publicly admitted the existence of secret prisons[6] and announced that many of the detainees held there were being transferred to Guantanamo Bay.[7]

2007 Red Cross report to the U.S. government

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) prepared a report based on interviews with black site detainees, conducted between October 6 and 11 and December 4 and 14, 2006, after their transfer to Guantanamo.[8] The report was submitted to Bush administration officials.

On March 15, 2009, Mark Danner provided a report in the New York Review of Books (with an abridged version in the New York Times) describing and commenting on the contents of the ICRC report.[9][10] According to Danner, the report was marked  confidential  and was not previously made public before being made available to him. Danner provided excerpts of interviews with detainees, including Abu Zubaydah, Walid bin Attash, and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. Danner also provided excerpts of the ICRC report characterizing procedures used at the black sites, dubbed  an alternative set of procedures  by President George Bush, and discussed whether they fit the definition of torture.

2009 closure of black sites by U.S.
Search Wikisource     Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Message from the Director: Interrogation Policy and Contracts

Newly inaugurated President Barack Obama issued an executive order closing the CIA’s black sites on January 23, 2009.[11] In April, 2009, CIA director Leon Panetta announced that the  CIA no longer operates detention facilities or black sites,  in a letter to staff and that  [r]emaining sites would be decommissioned . He also announced that the CIA was no longer allowing outside  contractors  to carry out interrogations and that the CIA no longer employed controversial  harsh interrogation techniques .[12][13][14] Panetta informed his fellow employees that the CIA would only use interrogation techniques authorized in the US Army interrogation manual, and that any individuals taken into custody by the CIA would only be held briefly, for the time necessary to transfer them to the custody of authorities in their home countries, or the custody of another US agency.

Controversy over the Legality and Secrecy of Black Sites

Black sites are embroiled in controversy over the legal status of the detainees held there, the legal authority for the operation of the sites (including the collaboration between governments involved), and full (or even minimal) disclosure by the governments involved.

Legal status of black site detainees

An important aspect of black site operation is that the legal status of black site detainees is not clearly defined.

The revelation of such black sites adds to the controversy surrounding US government policy regarding those whom it describes as  unlawful enemy combatants . According to government sources, the detainees are broken into two groups. Approximately 30 detainees are considered the most dangerous or important terrorism suspects and are held by the CIA at black sites under the most secretive arrangements.

The second group is more than 70 detainees who may have originally been sent to black sites, but were soon delivered by the CIA to intelligence agencies in allied Middle Eastern and Asian countries such as Afghanistan, Morocco, and Egypt.

A further 100 ghost detainees kidnapped in Europe and  rendered  to other countries must be counted, according to Swiss senator Dick Marty’s report of January 2006. This process is called  extraordinary rendition . Marty also underlined that European countries probably had knowledge of these covert operations. Furthermore, the CIA apparently financially assists and directs the jails in these countries.

While the US and host countries have signed the United Nations Convention Against Torture, CIA officers are allowed to use what the agency calls  enhanced interrogation techniques . These have been alleged to constitute  severe pain or suffering  under the UN convention, which would be a violation of the treaty and thus US law.

Legal authority for black site operation

There is little or no stated legal authority for the operation of black sites by the United States or the other countries believed to be involved. In fact, the specifics of the network of black sites remains controversial.

The United Nations has begun to intervene in this aspect of black sites.

The fourteen European countries Marty listed as collaborators in  unlawful inter-state transfers  are Britain, Germany, Isle Of Man, Italy, Sweden, Bosnia, Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Spain, Cyprus, Ireland, Greece, Portugal, Romania and Poland. Named airport bases include Glasgow Prestwick Airport (Britain), Shannon (Ireland), Ramstein and Frankfurt (Germany), Aviano Air Base (Italy), Palma de Mallorca Airport (Spain), Tuzla Air Base (Bosnia-Herzegovina), Skopje (Republic of Macedonia), Athens (Greece), Larnaca (Cyprus), Prague (Czech Republic), Stockholm, as well as Rabat (Morocco) and Algiers (Algeria) [15].

Polish Prime Minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz characterized the accusation as  libel , while Romania similarly said there was no evidence. Britain’s Tony Blair said that the report  added absolutely nothing new whatever to the information we have. [16][17] Poland and Romania received the most direct accusals, as the report claims the evidence for these sites is  strong.  The report cites airports in Timis,oara, Romania, and Szymany, Poland, as  detainee transfer/drop-off point[s].  Eight airports outside Europe are also cited.

On May 19, 2006, the United Nations Committee Against Torture (the U.N. body that monitors compliance with the United Nations Convention Against Torture, the world’s anti-torture treaty) recommended that the United States cease holding detainees in secret prisons and stop the practice of rendering prisoners to countries where they are likely to be tortured. The decision was made in Geneva following two days of hearings at which a 26-member U.S. delegation defended the practices.[18] PDF file of report

Public information about black site operation
The U.S. government does not provide information about the operation of black sites, and for a period of time did not provide information about the existence of black sites.

Representations by the Bush administration

Responding to the allegations about black sites, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice stated on December 5 that US had not violated any country’s sovereignty in the rendition of suspects, and that individuals were never rendered to countries where it was believed that they might be tortured. Some media sources have noted her comments do not exclude the possibility of covert prison sites operated with the knowledge of the  host  nation,[19] or the possibility that promises by such  host  nations that they will refrain from torture may not be genuine.[20] On September 6, 2006 President Bush finally publicly admitted the existence of the secret prisons[6] and that many of the detainees held there were being transferred to Guantanamo Bay[7].

In December 2002, The Washington Post reported that  the capture of al Qaeda leaders Ramzi Binalshibh in Pakistan, Omar al-Faruq in Indonesia, Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri in Kuwait and Muhammad al Darbi in Yemen were all partly the result of information gained during interrogations.  The Post cited  U.S. intelligence and national security officials  in reporting this.[21]

On April 21, 2006, Mary O. McCarthy, a longtime CIA analyst, was fired for allegedly leaking classified information to a Washington Post reporter, Dana Priest, who was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for her revelations concerning the CIA’s black sites. Some have speculated that the information allegedly leaked may have included information about the camps.[22] McCarthy’s lawyer, however, claimed that McCarthy  did not have access to the information she is accused of leaking.  [23] The Washington Post posited that McCarthy  had been probing allegations of criminal mistreatment by the CIA and its contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan , and became convinced that  CIA people had lied  in a meeting with US Senate staff in June 2005.[24]

In a September 29, 2006 speech, President Bush stated:  Once captured, Abu Zubaydah, Ramzi Binalshibh, and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed were taken into custody of the Central Intelligence Agency. The questioning of these and other suspected terrorists provided information that helped us protect the American people. They helped us break up a cell of Southeast Asian terrorist operatives that had been groomed for attacks inside the United States. They helped us disrupt an al Qaeda operation to develop anthrax for terrorist attacks. They helped us stop a planned strike on a U.S. Marine camp in Djibouti, and to prevent a planned attack on the U.S. Consulate in Karachi, and to foil a plot to hijack passenger planes and to fly them into Heathrow Airport and London’s Canary Wharf. [25]

On July 20, 2007 President Bush made an executive order banning torture of captives by intelligence officials.[26]

In a September 7, 2007 public address to the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, rare for a sitting Director of Central Intelligence, General Michael Hayden praised the program of detaining and interrogating prisoners, and credited it with providing 70 percent of the National Intelligence Estimate on the threat to America released in July. Hayden said the CIA has detained fewer than 100 people at secret facilities abroad since 2002, and even fewer prisoners have been secretly transferred to or from foreign governments. In a 20-minute question-and-answer session with the audience, Hayden disputed assertions that the CIA has used waterboarding, stress positions, hypothermia and dogs to interrogate suspects — all techniques that have been broadly criticized.  That’s a pretty good example of taking something to the darkest corner of the room and not reflective of what my agency does  Hayden told one person from a human rights organization. [27]
Information derived from investigative reporting

The vast majority of information that has been provided to the public about black sites has been the result of investigative reporting. For full details, see the section below on the media and investigative history.

Specific Facts Surrounding Black Sites

As discussed in the preceding section, many of the facts surrounding black sites remain controversial. The identity of detainees and the location of sites are known with varying degrees of certainty, though many facts have been discovered in substantial detail.

Detainees
Main article: Detainees in CIA custody
The list of those thought to be held by the CIA include suspected al-Qaeda members Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, Nurjaman Riduan Isamuddin, Ramzi Binalshibh and Abu Zubaydah. The total number of ghost detainees is presumed to be at least one hundred, although the precise number cannot be determined because fewer than 10% have been charged or convicted. However, Swiss senator Dick Marty’s memorandum on  alleged detention in Council of Europe states  stated that about 100 persons have been kidnapped by the CIA on European territory and subsequently rendered to countries where they may have been tortured. This number of 100 persons does not overlap, but adds itself to the U.S.-detained 100 ghost detainees.[28]

A number of the alleged detainees listed above were transferred to the U.S.-run Guantanamo Bay prison on Cuba in the fall of 2006. With this publicly announced act, the United States government de facto also acknowledged the existence of secret prisons abroad in which these prisoners were held.

Khaled el-Masri
Main article: Khalid El-Masri

Khalid El-Masri is a German citizen who was detained, flown to Afghanistan, interrogated and allegedly tortured by the CIA for several months, and then released in remote Albania in May 2004 without having been charged with any offense. This was apparently due to a misunderstanding that arose concerning the similarity of the spelling of El-Masri’s name with the spelling of suspected terrorist Khalid al-Masri. Germany had issued warrants for 13 people suspected to be involved with the abduction, but dropped them in September, 2007.

On October 9, 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court declined without comment to hear an appeal of El-Masri’s civil lawsuit against the United States, letting stand an earlier verdict by a federal district court judge, which was upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Those courts had agreed with the government that the case could not go forward without exposing state secrets. In May 2007, Masri was committed to a psychiatric institution after he was arrested in the southern German city of Neu-Ulm on suspicion of arson. His attorney blamed his troubles on the CIA, saying the kidnapping and detention had left Masri a  psychological wreck. [29]
Imam Rapito
Main article: Imam Rapito affair

The CIA abducted Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (also known as Abu Omar) in Milan and transferred him to Egypt where he was allegedly tortured and abused. Hassan Nasr was released by Egyptian justice in February 2007, who considered his detention  unfounded,  and has not been indicted for any crime in Italy. Ultimately, twenty-six Americans and nine Italians have been indicted with a trial pending.

Dr. Aafia Siddiqui
Main article: Aafia Siddiqui

The defense for Dr. Aafia currently under trial in the US has alleged that she was held and tortured in a secret US facility at Baghram for several years. The case of Dr. Aafia gained notoriety due to the allegations of Yvon Ridley in her book  the grey lady of baghram

Suspected black sites

The U.S. and suspected CIA  black sites       Extraordinary renditions allegedly have been carried out from these countries      Detainees have allegedly been transported through these countries      Detainees have allegedly arrived in these countries Sources: Amnesty International[30], Human Rights Watch, Black sites article on Wikipedia[citation needed]

Asia

In Thailand, the Voice of America relay station in Udon Thani was reported to be a black site. Former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra has denied these reports.[31]

Middle East

In Afghanistan, the prison at Bagram Air Base was initially housed in an abandoned brickmaking factory outside Kabul known as the  Salt Pit  [32], but later moved to the base some time after a young Afghan died of hypothermia after being stripped naked and left chained to a floor. During this period, there were several incidents of torture and prisoner abuse, though they were related to non-secret prisoners, and not the CIA-operated portion of the prison. At some point prior to 2005, the prison was again relocated, this time to an unknown site. Metal containers at Bagram Air Base were reported to be black sites.[33] Some Guantanamo detainees report being tortured in a prison they called  the dark prison , also near Kabul.[34] Also in Afghanistan, Jalalabad and Asadabad have been reported as suspected sites.[35]
In Iraq, Abu Ghraib was disclosed as also working as a black site, and was the center of an extensive prisoner abuse scandal.[36] Additionally, Camp Bucca (near Umm Qasr) and Camp Cropper (near the Baghdad International Airport) were reported.

The Israeli newspaper Haaretz reported Al Jafr prison in Jordan as a black site.[37]

Black sites have also been reported in Alizai, Kohat,[35] and Pesha-war, Pakistan. The Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram reported in December 2001 that 275 prisoners, charged with illegally entering Pakistan, were interrogated by the FBI and CIA at Kohat prison, writing that while Pakistani Taliban were questioned by Pakistan’s intelligence agency, the Arabs were  at the mercy of the FBI and CIA. [38]

Africa

Some reported sites in Egypt, Libya, and Morocco [39][40], as well as Djibouti [41] The al-Tamara interrogation centre, five miles outside the Moroccan capital, Rabat, is cited as one such site.[42]

On January 23, 2009, The Guardian reported that the CIA ran a secret detention center in Camp Lemonier in Djibouti, a former French Foreign Legion base.[11]

Indian Ocean

The U.S. Naval Base in Diego Garcia was reported to be a black site, but UK and U.S. officials initially attempted to suppress these reports.[43][44] However, it has since been revealed by Time Magazine and a  senior American official  source that the UK isle was indeed used by the US as a secret prison for  war on terror  detainees.

While the revelation is expected to cause considerable embarrassment for both governments, UK officials may face considerable exposure since they had previously quelled public outcry over US detainee abuse by falsely reassuring the public no US detainment camps were housed any on UK bases or territories. The UK may also face liabilities over apparent violations of international treaties. [45]

Europe

Several European countries (particularly the former Soviet satellites and republics) have been accused of and denied hosting black sites: the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Armenia, Georgia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan[8]. Slovak ministry spokesman Richard Fides said the country had no black sites, but its intelligence service spokesman Vladimir Simko said he would not disclose any information about possible Slovak black sites to the media.[citation needed] EU Justice commissioner Franco Frattini has repeatedly asserted suspension of voting rights for any member state found to have hosted a CIA black site.

The interior minister of Romania, Vasile Blaga, has assured the EU that the Mihail Koga (lniceanu Airport was used only as a supply point for equipment, and never for detention, though there have been reports to the contrary. A fax intercepted by the Onyx Swiss interception system, from the Egyptian Foreign Ministry to its London embassy stated that 23 prisoners were clandestinely interrogated by the U.S. at the base.[46][47][48] In 2007, it was disclosed by Dick Marty (investigator) that the CIA allegedly had secret prisons in Poland and Romania.[49]

There are other reported sites in Ukraine[50], who denied hosting any such sites [51], and the Republic of Macedonia.[8]

In June 2008 a New York Times article claimed citing unnamed CIA officers that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was held in a secret facility in Poland near Szymany Airport, about 100 miles north of Warsaw and it was there where the he was interrogated and the waterboarding was applied. It is claimed that waterboarding was used about 100 times over a period of two weeks before Khalid Sheikh Mohammed began to cooperate.[52]

In September 2008 two anonymous Polish intelligence officers made the claims about facilities being located in Poland in the Polish daily newspapewr Dziennik. One of them stated that between 2002 and 2005 the CIA held terror suspects inside a military intelligence training base in Stare Kiejkuty in north-eastern Poland. The officer said only the CIA had access to the isolated zone, which was used because it was a secure site far from major towns and was close to a former military airport. Both the then Prime Minister, Leszek Miller, and President, Aleksander Kwasniewski, knew about the base, the newspaper reported. However the officer said it was unlikely either man knew if the prisoners were being tortured because the Poles had no control over the Americans’ activities. [53]

On January 23, 2009 The Guardian reported that the CIA had run black sites at Szymany Airport in Poland, Camp Eagle in Bosnia and Camp Bondsteel in Kosovo.[11]

Mobile sites

* U.S. warship USS Bataan[54][55][56]- By definition as a U.S. military vessel, this is not technically a  black site  as defined above. However, it has been used by the United States military as a temporary initial interrogation site (after which, prisoners are then transferred to other facilities, possibly including black sites).

* N221SG a Learjet 35
* N44982 a Gulfstream V[57][58] (also known as N379P)
* N8068V a Gulfstream V
* N4476S a Boeing Business Jet[59][60]

* On May 31, 2008 The Guardian reported that the human rights group Reprieve said up to seventeen US Naval vessels may have been used to covertly hold captives.[61][62] In addition to the USS Bataan The Guardian named: USS Peleliu and the USS Ashland, USNS Stockham, USNS Watson, USNS Watkins, USNS Sister, USNS Charlton, USNS Pomeroy, USNS Red Cloud, USNS Soderman, and USNS Dahl; MV PFC William B Baugh, MV Alex Bonnyman, MV Franklin J Phillips, MV Louis J Huage Jr and MV James Anderson Jr. The Ashland was stationed off the coast of Somalia, in 2007, and, Reprieve expressed concern it had been used as a receiving ship for up to 100 captives taken in East Africa.

Media and investigative history

Media

The Washington Post December 2002

The Washington Post on December 26, 2002 reported about a secret CIA prison in one corner of Bagram Air Force Base (Afghanistan) consisting of metal shipping containers.[3] On March 14, 2004, The Guardian reported that three British citizens were held captive in a secret section (Camp Echo) of the Guantánamo Bay complex.[63] Several other articles reported the retention of ghost detainees by the CIA, alongside the other official  enemy combatants . However, it was the revelations of the Washington Post, in a November 2, 2005 article, that would start the scandal. (below)[64]

Human Rights Watch March 2004 report
Further information: Enduring Freedom – Abuses by US Forces in Afghanistan

A report by the human rights organization Human Rights Watch, entitled Enduring Freedom – Abuses by US Forces in Afghanistan, states that the CIA has operated in Afghanistan since September, 2001[65]; maintaining a large facility in the Ariana Chowk neighborhood of Kabul and a detention and interrogation facility at the Bagram airbase.

Village March 2005 report

In the 26 February-4 March 2005 edition of Ireland’s Village magazine, an article titled  Abductions via Shannon  claimed that Dublin and Shannon airports in Ireland were  used by the CIA to abduct suspects in its ‘war on terror’ . The article went on to state that a Boeing 737 (registration number N313P, later reregistered N4476S)  was routed through Shannon and Dublin on fourteen occasions from 1 January 2003 to the end of 2004. This is according to the flight log of the aircraft obtained from Washington DC by Village. Destinations included Estonia (1/11/03); Larnaca, Sale, Kabul, Palma, Skopje, Baghdad, Kabul (all 16 January 2004);Marka (10 May 2004 and 13 June 2004). Other flights began in places such as Dubai (2 June 2003 and 30 December 2003), Mitiga (29 October 2003 and 27 April 2004), Baghdad (2003) and Marka (8 February 2004, 4 March 2004, 10 May 2004), all of which ended in Washington DC.

According to the article, the same aircraft landed in Guantanamo on September 23, 2003  having travelled from Kabul to Szymany (Poland), Mihail Koga(lniceanu (Romania) and Salé (Morocco).  It had been used  in connection with the abduction in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia, of Khalid El-Masri, a German citizen of Lebanese descent, on 31 December 2003, and his transport to a US detention centre in Afghanistan on 23 January 2004.

In the article, it was noted that the aircraft’s registration showed it as being owned by Premier Executive Transport Services, based in Massachusetts, though as of February 2005 it was listed as being owned by Keeler and Tate Management, Reno, Nevada (US). On the day of registration transference, a Gulfstream V jet (number N8068V) used in the same activities, was transferred from Premier Executive Transport Services to a company called Baynard Foreign Marketing.

Washington Post November 2005 article

A story by reporter Dana Priest published in The Washington Post of November 2, 2005, reported:  The CIA has been hiding and interrogating some of its most important alleged al Qaeda captives at a Soviet-era compound in Eastern Europe, according to U.S. and foreign officials familiar with the arrangement. [66] According to current and former intelligence officials and diplomats, there is a network of foreign prisons that includes or has included sites in several European democracies, Thailand, Afghanistan, and a small portion of the Guantánamo Bay prison in Cuba – this network has been labeled by Amnesty International as  The Gulag Archipelago , in a clear reference to the novel of the same name by Russian writer and activist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.[67][68]

The reporting of the secret prisons was heavily criticized by members and former members of the Bush Administration. However, Dana Priest states no one in the administration requested that the Washington Post not print the story. Rather they asked they not publish the names of the countries in which the prisons are located.[67]  The Post has not identified the East European countries involved in the secret program at the request of senior U.S. officials who argued that the disclosure could disrupt counter-terrorism efforts .[69]

Human Rights Watch’s report

On November 3, 2005, Tom Malinowski of the New York-based Human Rights Watch cited circumstantial evidence pointing to Poland and Romania hosting CIA-operated covert prisons. Flight records obtained by the group documented the Boeing 737 ‘N4476S’ leased by the CIA for transporting prisoners leaving Kabul and making stops in Poland and Romania before continuing on to Morocco, and finally Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.[70][71] Such flight patterns might corroborate the claims of government officials that prisoners are grouped into different classes being deposited in different locations. Malinowski’s comments prompted quick denials by both Polish and Romanian government officials as well as sparking the concern of the International Committee of the Red Cross ( ICRC ), who called for access to all foreign terrorism suspects held by the United States.

The accusation that several EU members may have allowed the United States to hold, imprison or torture detainees on their soil has been a subject of controversy in the European body, who announced in November 2005 that any country found to be complicit could lose their right to vote in the council.[72]

Amnesty International November 2005 report

On November 8, 2005, rights group Amnesty International provided the first comprehensive testimony from former inmates of the CIA black sites.[73] The report, which documented the cases of three Yemeni nationals, was the first to describe the conditions in black site detention in detail. In a subsequent report, in April 2006, Amnesty International used flight records and other information to locate the black site in Eastern Europe or Central Asia.
BBC December 2006 report

On 28 December 2006, the BBC reported that during 2003, a well-known CIA Gulfstream aircraft implicated in extraordinary renditions, N379P, had on several occasions landed at the Polish airbase of Szymany. The airport manager reported that airport officials were told to keep away from the aircraft, which parked at the far end of the runway and frequently kept their engines running. Vans from a nearby intelligence base (Stare Kiejkuty) met the aircraft, stayed for a short while and then drove off. Landing fees were paid in cash, with the invoices made out to  probably fake  American companies. [74]

New Yorker August 2007 article

An August 13, 2007 story by Jane Mayer in The New Yorker reported that the CIA has operated  black site  secret prisons by the direct Presidential order of George W. Bush since shortly after 9/11, and that extreme psychological interrogation measures based at least partially on the Vietnam-era Phoenix Program were used on detainees. These included sensory deprivation, sleep deprivation, keeping prisoners naked indefinitely and photographing them naked to degrade and humiliate them, and forcibly administering drugs by suppositories to further break down their dignity. According to Mayer’s report, CIA officers have taken out professional liability insurance, fearing that they could be criminally prosecuted if what they have already done became public knowledge. [75]

September 2007 media reports to present

On September 14, 2007, The Washington Post reported that members of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence had requested the withdrawal of the nomination of John Rizzo – a career CIA lawyer – for the position of general counsel, due to concerns about his support for Bush administration legal doctrines permitting  enhanced interrogation  of terrorism detainees in CIA custody. [76]

On October 4, 2007, The New York Times reported that despite a public legal opinion issued in December 2004 that declared torture  abhorrent,  that shortly after Alberto Gonzales became Attorney General in February 2005 that the Justice Department issued another, secret opinion which for the first time provided CIA explicit authorization to barrage terror suspects with a combination of painful physical and psychological tactics, including head-slapping, simulated drowning and frigid temperatures. Gonzales reportedly approved the legal memorandum on “combined effects” over the objections of James B. Comey, the outgoing deputy attorney general, who told colleagues at the Justice Department that they would all be “ashamed” when the world eventually learned of it. According to The Times report, the 2005 Justice Department opinions remain in effect, and their legal conclusions have been confirmed by several more recent memorandums. [77]

Patrick Leahy and John Conyers, chairmen of the respective Senate and House Judiciary Committees, requested that the Justice Department turn over documents related to the secret February 2005 legal opinion to their committees for review. [78] The chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, John D. Rockefeller IV, wrote to acting attorney general Peter D. Keisler, asking for copies of all opinions on interrogation since 2004.  I find it unfathomable that the committee tasked with oversight of the C.I.A.’s detention and interrogation program would be provided more information by The New York Times than by the Department of Justice,  Rockefeller’s letter read in part. [79] On October 5, 2007, President George W. Bush responded, saying  This government does not torture people. You know, we stick to U.S. law and our international obligations.  The President said that the interrogation techniques  have been fully disclosed to appropriate members of Congress.  [80]

On October 11, 2007, The New York Times reported that CIA director Gen. Michael V. Hayden had ordered an unusual internal inquiry into the work of the agency’s inspector general, John L. Helgerson, whose aggressive investigations of the CIA’s detention and interrogation programs and other matters have created resentment among agency operatives. The inquiry is reportedly being overseen by Robert L. Deitz, a lawyer who served as general counsel at the National Security Agency when General Hayden ran it, and also includes Michael Morrell, the agency’s associate deputy director.

A report by Helgerson’s office completed in the spring of 2004 warned that some CIA-approved interrogation procedures appeared to constitute cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, as defined by the international Convention Against Torture. Some of the inspector general’s work on detention issues was conducted by Mary O. McCarthy, who was fired from the agency in 2006 after being accused of leaking classified information. Helgerson’s office is reportedly nearing completion on a number of inquiries into CIA detention, interrogation, and renditions. [81] Members of the House and Senate intelligence committees expressed concern about the inquiry, saying that it could undermine the inspector general’s role as independent watchdog. Senator Ron Wyden said he was sending a letter to Mike McConnell, the director of national intelligence, asking him to instruct General Hayden to drop the inquiry.[82]

In an October 30, 2007 address to the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, CIA Director General Michael Hayden defended the agency’s interrogation methods, saying,  Our programs are as lawful as they are valuable.  Asked a question about waterboarding, Hayden mentioned attorney general nominee Michael Mukasey, saying,  Judge Mukasey cannot nor can I answer your question in the abstract. I need to understand the totality of the circumstances in which this question is being posed before I can give you an answer.  [83]

On December 6, 2007, the CIA admitted that it had destroyed videotapes recordings of CIA interrogations of terrorism suspects involving harsh interrogation techniques, tapes which critics suggest may have documented the use of torture by the CIA, such as waterboarding. The tapes were made in 2002 as part of a secret detention and interrogation program, and were destroyed in November 2005. The reason cited for the destruction of the tapes was that the tapes posed a security risk for the interrogators shown on the tapes. Yet the department also stated that the tapes  had no more intelligence value and were not relevant to any inquiries . [84] In response, Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Carl Levin, D-Mich., stated:  You’d have to burn every document at the CIA that has the identity of an agent on it under that theory.  Other Democrats in Congress also made public statements of outrage about the destruction of the tapes, suggesting that a violation of law had occurred. [85]

European investigations

After a media and public outcry in Europe concerning headlines about  secret CIA prisons  in Poland and other US allies, the EU through its Committee on Legal Affairs investigated whether any of its members, especially Poland, the Czech Republic or Romania had any of these  secret CIA prisons.  After an investigation by the EU Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, the EU determined that it could not find any of these prisons. In fact, they could not prove if they had ever existed at all. To quote the report,  At this stage of the investigations, there is no formal, irrefutable evidence of the existence of secret CIA detention centres in Romania, Poland or any other country. Nevertheless, there are many indications from various sources which must be considered reliable, justifying the continuation of the analytical and investigative work. [86]

Spain investigations

In November 2005, Spanish newspaper El Pais reported that CIA planes had landed in the Canary Islands and in Palma de Mallorca. An attorney opened up an investigation concerning these landings which, according to Madrid, were made without official knowledge, thus being a breach of national sovereignty.[87][88][89]
France investigations

The prosecutor of Bobigny court, in France, opened up an investigation in order  to verify the presence in Le Bourget Airport, on July 20, 2005, of the plane numbered N50BH.  This instruction was opened following a complaint deposed in December 2005 by the Ligue des droits de l’homme (LDH) NGO ( Human Rights League ) and the International Federation of Human Rights Leagues (FIDH) NGO on charges of  arbitrary detention ,  crime of torture  and  non-respect of the rights of war prisoners . It has as objective to determine if the plane was used to transport CIA prisoners to Guantanamo Bay detainment camp and if the French authorities had knowledge of this stop. However, the lawyer defending the LDH declared that he was surprised that the judicial investigation was only opened on January 20, 2006, and that no verifications had been done before. On December 2, 2005, conservative newspaper Le Figaro had revealed the existence of two CIA planes that had landed in France, suspected of transporting CIA prisoners. But the instruction concerned only N50BH, which was a Gulfstream III, which would have landed at Le Bourget on July 20, 2005, coming from Oslo, Norway. The other suspected aircraft would have landed in Brest on March 31, 2002. It is investigated by the Canadian authorities, as it would have been flying from St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada, via Keflavík in Iceland before going to Turkey [90].

Portugal investigations

Portugal opened an investigation concerning CIA flights in February 2007, on the basis of declarations by Socialist MEP Ana Gomes and by Rui Costa Pinto, a journalist for the Visão review. The Portuguese general prosecutor, Cândida Almeida, head of the Central Investigation and Penal Action Department ( DCIAP ), announced the opening of investigations on February 5, 2007. They center on the issue of  torture or inhuman and cruel treatment,  and are instigated by allegations of  illegal activities and serious human rights violations  made by MEP Ana Gomes to the attorney general, Pinto Monteiro, on January 26, 2007 [91].
Ana Gomes was highly critical of the Portuguese government’s reluctance to comply with the European Parliament Commission investigation into the CIA flights, leading to tensions with Foreign Minister Luís Amado, a member of the her party. She declared that she had no doubt that permission of these illegal flights were frequent during Durão Barroso (2002-2004) and Santana Lopes (2004-2005)’ governments, and that  during the [Socialist] government of José Sócrates [2005-], 24 flights which passed through Portuguese territory  are registered [92]. She has declared herself satisfied with the opening of the investigations, but underlined that she had always claimed that a parliamentary inquiry would be necessary [91].

Journalist Rui Costa Pinto was heard by the  DCIAP  after having written an article, refused by Visão, about flights passing through Lajes Field in the Azores, a Portuguese airbase used by the US Air Force[91].

Approximatively 150  CIA  flights which have flown through Portugal have been identified. [93].

Other European investigations

Report regarding the Egyptian fax intercepted on 10 November 2005 by the Swiss Onyx interception system, as published in the Swiss press.

The European Union (EU) as well as the Council of Europe pledged to investigate the allegations. On November 25, 2005, the lead investigator for the Council of Europe, Swiss lawmaker Dick Marty announced that he had obtained latitude and longitude coordinates for suspected black sites, and he was planning to use satellite imagery over the last several years as part of his investigation. On November 28, 2005, EU Justice Commissioner Franco Frattini asserted that any EU country which had operated a secret prison would have its voting rights suspended.[94]

On 13 December 2005 Dick Marty, investigating illegal CIA activity in Europe on behalf of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, reported evidence that  individuals had been abducted and transferred to other countries without respect for any legal standards . His investigation has found that no evidence exists establishing the existence of secret CIA prisons in Europe, but added that it was  highly unlikely  that European governments were unaware of the American program of renditions. However, Marty’s interim report, which was based largely on a compendium of press clippings has been harshly criticised by the governments of various EU member states.[95] The preliminary report declared that it was  highly unlikely that European governments, or at least their intelligence services, were unaware  of the CIA kidnapping of a  hundred  persons on European territory and their subsequent rendition to countries where they may be tortured [28].

On April 21, 2006 the New York Times reported that European investigators said they had not been able to find conclusive evidence of the existence of European black sites.[96]

On 27 June 2007, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe voted on Resolution 1562 and Recommendation 1801 backing the conclusions of the report by Dick Marty. The Assembly declared that it was established with a high degree of probability that secret detention centres had been operated by the CIA under the High Value Detainee (HVD) program for some years in Poland and Romania.[95]
The Onyx-intercepted fax

In its edition of January 8, 2006, the Swiss newspaper Sonntagsblick published a document intercepted on November 10 by the Swiss Onyx interception system (similar to the UKUSA’s ECHELON system). Purportedly sent by the Egyptian embassy in London to foreign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit, the document states that 23 Iraqi and Afghan citizens were interrogated at Mihail Koga(lniceanu base near Constant,a, Romania. According to the same document, similar interrogation centers exist in Bulgaria, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Ukraine [50].

The Egyptian Foreign Ministry later explained that the intercepted fax was merely a review of the Romanian press done by the Egyptian Embassy in Bucharest. It probably referred to a statement by controversial Senator and Great Romania party leader Corneliu Vadim Tudor.[97]

The Swiss government did not officially confirm the existence of the report, but started a judiciary procedure for leakage of secret documents against the newspaper on 9 January 2006.

The European Parliament’s February 14, 2007 report

The European Parliament’s report, adopted by a large majority (382 MEPs voting in favour, 256 against and 74 abstaining) passed on February 14, 2007 concludes that many European countries tolerated illegal actions of the CIA including secret flights over their territories. The countries named were: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. [1]

The report…

denounces the lack of co-operation of many member states and of the Council of the European Union with the investigation,   Regrets that European countries have been relinquishing control over their airspace and airports by turning a blind eye or admitting flights operated by the CIA which, on some occasions, were being used for illegal transportation of detainees; Calls for the closure of [the US military detention mission in] Guantanamo and for European countries immediately to seek the return of their citizens and residents who are being held illegally by the US authorities; Considers that all European countries should initiate independent investigations into all stopovers by civilian aircraft [hired by] the CIA; Urges that a ban or system of inspections be introduced for all CIA-operated aircraft known to have been involved in extraordinary rendition.  [98][99]

The report criticized a number of European countries (including Austria, Italy, Poland, Portugal and the UK) for their  unwillingness to co-operate  with investigators.and the action of secret services for lack of cooperation with the Parliaments’ investigators and acceptal of the illegal abductions. The European Parliament voted a resolution condemning member states which accepted or ignore the practice. According to the report, the CIA had operated 1,245 flights, many of them to destinations where suspects could face torture. The Parliament also called for the creation of an independent investigation commission and the closure of Guantanamo camp. According to Italian Socialist Giovanni Fava, who drafted the document, there was a  strong possibility  that the intelligence obtained under the extraordinary rendition illegal program had been passed on to EU governments who were aware of how it was obtained. The report also uncovered the use of secret detention facilities used in Europe, including Romania and Poland. The report defines extraordinary renditions as instances where  an individual suspected of involvement in terrorism is illegally abducted, arrested and/or transferred into the custody of US officials and/or transported to another country for interrogation which, in the majority of cases involves incommunicado detention and torture .

Obama administration

On January 22, 2009 new US President Barack Obama signed an executive order requiring the CIA to use only the 19 interrogation methods outlined in the United States Army Field Manual  unless the Attorney General with appropriate consultation provides further guidance.  The order also provided that  The CIA shall close as expeditiously as possible any detention facilities that it currently operates and shall not operate any such detention facility in the future.  [100]

On March 5, 2009, Bloomberg News reported that the United States Senate intelligence committee was beginning a one-year inquiry in the CIA’s detention program.[101]

See also

* Torture chamber
* Extrajudicial prisoners of the United States
* Enemy combatant
* Extraordinary rendition by the United States
* Forced disappearance
* Geneva Conventions
* Ghost detainee
* Political prisoner
* Prisoner of war
* Rendition aircraft
* Rendition
* United Nations Convention Against Torture
* Camp 1391

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60. ^ Brooks, Rosa (November 5, 2005).  Torture: It’s the new American way . Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-brooks5nov05,0,2414917.story?coll=la-news-comment-opinions.
61. ^ Duncan Campbell, Richard Norton-Taylor (June 2, 2008).  US accused of holding terror suspects on prison ships . The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jun/02/usa.humanrights. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
62. ^ Duncan Campbell, Richard Norton-Taylor (June 2, 2008).  Prison ships, torture claims, and missing detainees . The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jun/02/terrorism.terrorism. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
63. ^  Revealed: the full story of the Guantanamo Britons The Observer’s David Rose hears the Tipton Three give a harrowing account of their captivity in Cuba . The Guardian. March 14, 2004. http://www.guardian.co.uk/guantanamo/story/0,13743,1169147,00.html.
64. ^ Priest, Dana (November 2, 2005).  CIA Holds Terror Suspects in Secret Prisons . CNN. pp. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/01/AR2005110101644.html.
65. ^ “Enduring Freedom:” Abuses by U.S. Forces in Afghanistan (Human Rights Watch Report, March 2004)
66. ^ Dana Priest (2005-11-01).  CIA Holds Terror Suspects in Secret Prisons . The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/01/AR2005110101644_pf.html. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
67. ^ a b  Transcript of interview of Andrea Mitchell, Mitch McConnell, Chuck Schumer, Bill Bennett, John Harwood, Dana Priest and William Safire . MSNBC. 2006-06-02. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/13615446/page/6/. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
68. ^  The Consequences of Covering Up . FAIR. November 4, 2005. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=2715.
69. ^ Craig Whitlock (2005-11-03).  U.S. Faces Scrutiny Over Secret Prisons . The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/03/AR2005110300422.html?nav=hcmodule. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
70. ^  Secret Prisons in Poland and Romania? . DW-World. November 4, 2005. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1765288,00.html.
71. ^ Sliva, Jan (November 4, 2005).  Nations Urged to Answer Prison Allegations . MagicValley.com. http://www.magicvalley.com/news_worldnation/?storyid=/dynamic/stories/C/CIA_SECRET_PRISONS.
72. ^ CNews
73. ^ United States of America / Yemen: Secret Detention in CIA  Black Sites , AI Index: AMR 51/177/2005
74. ^ Nick Hawton.  Hunt for CIA ‘black site’ in Poland . BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6212843.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
75. ^ Jane Mayer (2007-08-13).  The Black Sites; A rare look inside the C.I.A.’s secret interrogation program . The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/08/13/070813fa_fact_mayer?currentPage=1. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
76. ^ Joby Warrick (2007-09-14).  Senate Intelligence Panel Seeks CIA Nominee’s Withdrawal . The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/12/AR2007091202353.html. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
77. ^ Scott Shane, David Johnston and James Risen (2007-10-04).  Secret U.S. Endorsement of Severe Interrogations . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/04/washington/04interrogate.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
78. ^ David Johnston (2007-10-04).  Congress Seeks Justice Dept. Documents on Interrogation . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/04/washington/14cnd-interrogate.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
79. ^ David Johnston and Scott Shane (2007-10-05).  Debate Erupts on Techniques used by C.I.A. . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/washington/05interrogate.html?hp=&pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
80. ^ David Johnston and Scott Shane (2007-10-05).  Bush Defends Treatment of Terrorism Suspects . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/washington/05cnd-torture.html?hp=&pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
81. ^ Mark Mazzetti and Scott Shane (2007-10-11).  Watchdog of C.I.A. Is Subject of C.I.A. Inquiry . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/11/washington/12intel.html?pagewanted=print.
82. ^ Mark Mazzetti and Scott Shane (2007-10-12).  C.I.A. Internal Inquiry Troubling, Lawmakers Say . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/12/washington/12cnd-cia.html?pagewanted=print.
83. ^ Sophia Tareen (2007-10-30).  CIA Head Defends Interrogation Practices . Associated Press. http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iPMxKLv8VMTyTbkVgGpLC53w3lQgD8SJTO280. Retrieved 2007-10-31.
84. ^ Mikkelsen, Randall (2007-12-06).  CIA says it made and destroyed interrogation tapes . Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN0654798320071207. Retrieved 2007-12-06.
85. ^ Hess, Pamela (2007-12-07).  Democrats Want Probe of Tape Destruction . Associated Press. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/12/06/national/w132617S54.DTL&tsp=1. Retrieved 2007-12-07.
86. ^ Dick Marty.  Alleged secret detentions in Council of Europe member states . Council of Europe. pp. chapter E: Preliminary analysis of the information already obtained, part C: Secret detention centres. http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/CommitteeDocs/2006/20060124_Jdoc032006_E.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
87. ^  El Gobierno canario pide explicaciones sobre vuelos de la CIA en Tenerife . El Pais. 16 November 2005. http://www.elpais.es/articulo/elpepinac/20051116elpepinac_3/Tes/Canarias%20pide%20explicaciones%20sobre%20las%20escalas%20de%20vuelos%20de%20la%20CIA%20en%20Tenerife.
88. ^  La Fiscalía de Canarias investigará las escalas de vuelos de la CIA en Tenerife y Gran Canaria . El Mundo. 18 November 2005. http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2005/11/18/espana/1132315880.html.
89. ^  Un supuesto avión de la CIA aterriza en la base portuguesa de Azores . Canarias 7. 28 November 2005. http://www.canarias7.es/articulo.cfm?Id=14607&dia=29/11/05.
90. ^ (French) La France enquête sur les avions de la CIA . Le Figaro. February 2, 2006. http://www.lefigaro.fr/france/20060302.FIG000000200_la_france_enquete_sur_les_avions_de_la_cia.html.
91. ^ a b c  Portugal: Renditions: Judicial investigation into CIA flights begins , Statewatch News Online, February 5-6, 2007 (available here) (English)
92. ^ Portugal/CIA.- La Fiscalía General abre una investigación sobre los supuestos vuelos ilegales de la CIA en Portugal, Europa Press, February 5, 2007 (Spanish)
93. ^ Details about  CIA  flights requested to Portuguese government by MEP Ana Gomes. See  Portugal: Evidence of illegal   CIA rendition flights surfacing , Statewatch, October 2006 available here (including documents) (English)
94. ^ Ames, Paul (November 28, 2005).  EU May Suspend Nations With Secret Prisons . ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=1352347.
95. ^ a b Associated Press (2005-12-13).  CIA Prisons Moved To North Africa? . CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/12/13/world/main1121577.shtml?cmp=EM8706. Retrieved 2007-05-23.
96. ^ No Proof of Secret C.I.A. Prisons, European Antiterror Chief Says, New York Times, April 21, 2006
97. ^ Axis Information and Analysis. Eurasian Secret Services Daily Review, 28 November 2005.
98. ^ EU rendition report: Key excerpts, on the BBC News website
99. ^ The report itself, on the European Parliament website
100. ^ Obama issues torture ban Executive Order — Ensuring Lawful Interrogations, The White House, January 20, 2009
101. ^ James Rowley (2009-03-05).  CIA Prisons to Be Evaluated in One-Year Review by Senate Panel . Bloomberg News. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aJchF0ELduak&refer=home. Retrieved 2009-03-15.  mirror

External links

Search Wikisource     Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism

*  CIA Interrogation Centre  The Salt Pit  . Altopix. http://explorer.altopix.com/map/x4ha1r/CIA_Interrogation_Centre_The_Salt_Pit.htm.
* Priest, Dana (May 11, 2004).  Secret World of U.S. Interrogation Long History of Tactics in Overseas Prisons Is Coming to Light . Washington Post. pp. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A15981-2004May10?language=printer.
* Hersh, Seymour M. (May 24, 2005).  The Gray Zone – How a secret Pentagon program came to Abu Ghraib . The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040524fa_fact.
*  U.S. Holding Prisoners in More Than Two Dozen Secret Detention Facilities Worldwide, New Report Says . Human Rights First. June 17, 2004. http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/media/2004_alerts/0617.htm.
* Priest, Dana (December 16, 2004).  At Guantanamo, a Prison Within a Prison CIA Has Run a Secret Facility for Some Al Qaeda Detainees, Officials Say . Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5918-2004Dec16.html.
*  CIA Avoids Scrutiny of Detainee Treatment Afghan’s Death Took Two Years to Come to Light; Agency Says Abuse Claims Are Probed Fully . Washington Post. March 2, 2005. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A2576-2005Mar2.html.
* Priest, Dana (March 3, 2005).  CIA Avoids Scrutiny of Detainee Treatment Afghan’s Death Took Two Years to Come to Light; Agency Says Abuse Claims Are Probed Fully . Washington Post. http://gnn.tv/headlines/1291/CIA_Avoids_Scrutiny_of_Detainee_Treatment.
*  Terror Interrogations Held in Old Soviet Facility . Fox News. November 2, 2005. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,174338,00.html.
* Priest, Dana (November 2, 2005).  Secret prison system detains high-level terrorism suspects . Washington Post. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2002598646_detain02.html.
*  CIA ‘running secret terror jails’ . BBC. November 2, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4400728.stm.
*  CIA ‘has secret terror jails’ . Aljazeera. November 2, 2005. http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/9E6F94FB-130A-49A5-A556-5174AFCA1629.htm.
* Priest, Dana (November 3, 2005).  Policies on Terrorism Suspects Come Under Fire: Democrats Say CIA’s Covert Prisons Hurt U.S. Image; U.N. Official on Torture to Conduct Inquiry . Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/02/AR2005110202988.html?nav=hcmodule.
*  Thailand denies being interrogation site . The Age. November 3, 2005. http://www.theage.com.au/news/World/Thailand-denies-being-interrogation-site/2005/11/03/1130823333738.html.
*  Get out of the torture business – Mistreating detainees is unAmerican and puts our own soldiers at risk . Oregon Live. February 10, 2005. http://www.oregonlive.com/editorials/oregonian/index.ssf?/base/editorial/1130981107165890.xml&coll=7.
* Robinson, Eugene (November 4, 2005).  Out of a Bad Spy Novel . Washington Post. pp. A23. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/03/AR2005110301732.html.
*  ‘Black site’ prisons invite unchecked abuse . News Tribune. November 3, 2005. http://www.thenewstribune.com/opinion/story/5303355p-4808433c.html.
* Silva, Jan (November 4, 2005).  Nations urged to answer prison allegations . Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/04/AR2005110400502.html.
* Brookes, Peter (November 9, 2005).  CIA ‘black sites’: A black eye for U.S. . Philadelphia Inquirer. http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/news/editorial/13116843.htm.
*  Frist concerned more about leaks than secret prisons . CNN. November 10, 2005. http://www.cnn.com/2005/POLITICS/11/10/frist.secretprisons.ap/index.html.
*  The Hunt for Hercules N8183J . Der Spiegel. November 28, 2005. http://service.spiegel.de/cache/international/spiegel/0,1518,387185,00.html.
*  Revealed: the terror prison US is helping build in Morocco . The Sunday Times. February 12, 2006. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2089-2036185,00.html.
* Europe ‘aided US in CIA flights’, BBC News, June 7, 2006
* Secret prisons, human rights and elections
* CIA allegations: MEPs regret Polish authorities’ unwillingness to engage
* EU to vote on CIA flights report, BBC News, February 14, 2007

v • d • e
High Value Captives in the War on Terror
Captives transferred to
Guantanamo Bay from CIA black sites
Mustafa al-Hawsawi, Ahmed Ghailani, Ramzi Binalshibh, Walid bin ‘Attash, Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, Abu Zubaydah, Abu Faraj al-Libbi, Ammar al-Baluchi, Riduan Isamuddin (Hambali), Mohamad Farik Amin, Mohammed Nazir Bin Lep, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Majid Khan, Gouled Hassan Dourad, Abdul Hadi al Iraqi
Unaccounted-for captives
Abdul Aziz, Abdul Rahim al-Sharqawi, Muhammed al-Darbi, Mohammed Omar Abdel-Rahman, Yassir al-Jazeeri, Adil al-Jazeeri, Tariq Mahmood, Hassan Ghul, Musaad Aruchi
Died in custody
Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_site
Categories: Black sites | Central Intelligence Agency operations | Counter-terrorism | Locations in the history of espionage | Detention centers for extrajudicial prisoners of the United States | George W. Bush administration controversies | Human rights abuses | Imprisonment and detention | Prisons | National security | Anti-terrorism policy of the United States | Torture in the United States

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_site

***
***

Operation Midnight Climax
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Operation Midnight Climax was an operation initially established by Sidney Gottlieb and placed under the direction of Narcotics Bureau officer George Hunter White under the alias of Morgan Hall for the CIA as a sub-project of Project MKULTRA, the CIA mind-control research program that began in the 1950s.

The project consisted of a web of CIA-run safehouses in San Francisco, Marin, and New York. It was established in order to study the effects of LSD on unconsenting individuals. Prostitutes on the CIA payroll were instructed to lure clients back to the safehouses, where they were surreptitiously plied with a wide range of substances, including LSD, and monitored behind one-way glass. Several significant operational techniques were developed in this theater, including extensive research into sexual blackmail, surveillance technology, and the possible use of mind-altering drugs in field operations.

The safehouses were dramatically scaled back in 1962, following a report by CIA Inspector General John Earman that strongly recommended closing the facility. The San Francisco safehouses were closed in 1965, and the New York City safehouse soon followed in 1966.

The file destruction undertaken at the order of CIA Director Richard Helms and former MKULTRA chief Sidney Gottlieb in 1972 makes a full investigation of claims impossible. However, many records did survive the purge. News of the story began to leak following a landmark story by New York Times reporter Seymour Hersh on illegal CIA domestic surveillance. This report triggered Senate Subcommittee hearings which investigated MKULTRA, and brought Operation Midnight Climax to light.

In 2009 Strange Science LLC released a HD video series entitled  Operation Midnight Climax,  based on the CIA experiments of the same name. It starred Meredith Salenger, Todd Cahoon, and Quinton Flynn.

References

* Marks, John (1991). The Search for the  Manchurian Candidate . W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
* http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,915244,00.html Mind-Bending Disclosures. Time. Aug. 15 1977
* http://www.strangescience.tv

Stub icon     This United States government-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
v • d • e
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Midnight_Climax
Categories: United States government stubs | Psychedelic research | Mind control | Military psychiatry | Central Intelligence Agency operations

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Midnight_Climax

***

Category:Human rights abuses
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The main article for this category is Human rights abuses.

Contents:         Top  A  0–9  A  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

[+] Human rights abuses
(previous 200) (next 200)
Subcategories

This category has the following 33 subcategories, out of 38 total.
A

*
[+] Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse (1 C, 18 P, 4 F)
*
[+] Crime of aggression (1 C, 17 P)
*
[+] Antisemitic attacks and incidents (4 C, 37 P)

B

*
[+] Black Spring (Cuba) (2 P)
*
[+] Black sites (9 P)
*
[+] Blood diamonds (19 P)

C

*
[+] Collective punishment (2 C, 28 P, 1 F)
*
[+] Crimes against humanity (8 C, 29 P)

D
*
[+] Democides (6 C, 24 P)
*
[+] Dirty War (5 C, 26 P)
*
[+] Dirty wars (10 C, 29 P)

D cont.

*
[+] Discrimination (26 C, 255 P)

E
*
[+] Emergency laws (8 C, 63 P)
*
[+] Ethnic riots (1 C, 25 P)
*
[+] Extrajudicial killings (4 C, 35 P, 1 F)
*
[+] Extraordinary rendition program (1 C, 11 P)

F

*
[+] Forced disappearance (4 C, 33 P)
*
[+] Forced migration (18 C, 97 P)

G

*
[+] Guantanamo Bay detainment camp (1 C, 29 P)

H

*
[+] Historical deletion (2 C, 18 P)
*
[+] Honor killing (2 C, 10 P)
*
[+] Human experimentation (1 C, 7 P)

H cont.
*
[+] Human trafficking (4 C, 27 P)
L

*
[+] Lynchings (2 C, 11 P)

N

*
[+] Nazi eugenics (1 C, 25 P)
O

*
[+] Operation Condor (2 C, 38 P)

P

*
[+] Persecution (12 C, 36 P)
*
[+] Police brutality (5 C, 20 P)
*
[+] Political repression (9 C, 116 P)

R

*
[+] Religious persecution (18 C, 114 P)
*
[+] Religiously motivated violence in the United States (9 C, 34 P)

S

*
[+] Slavery (16 C, 132 P)
*
[+] Human rights abuses in Sri Lanka (1 C, 28 P)

Pages in category  Human rights abuses

The following 167 pages are in this category, out of 186 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).

* Human rights
1
* 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising

2

* 2007–2008 Ethiopian crackdown in Ogaden

A
* Agent Orange
* Ahmed Zaoui
* Homaidan Al-Turki
* Amnesty law
* Ankang (asylum)
* Anti-Slavism
* Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003
* Arbitrary arrest and detention
* Aso Mining forced labor controversy

B

* Bad Nenndorf interrogation centre
* Bagram Theater Internment Facility
* Bagram torture and prisoner abuse
* Wouter Basson
* Battalion 3-16 (Honduras)
* The Black Book of Communism
* Black site
* Blackbirding
* Body cavity search
* Bride kidnapping

C

* CIA transnational human rights actions
* Camp 1391
* Camp Bucca
* Camp Cropper
* Camp Nama
* Camp Whitehorse
* Canada’s role in the invasion of Afghanistan
* Canadian Afghan detainee abuse scandal
* Caning in Singapore
* Capital punishment in India
* Capital punishment in Iran
* Capital punishment in Iraq
* Capital punishment in Pakistan
* Carandiru massacre
* Children’s Aid Society (Canada)
* Civilian casualties of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
* Civilian casualties
* Collective punishment
* Command of Communist Hunting
* Command responsibility
* Communist crime
* Conflict in the Niger Delta
* Congo Free State
* Conspiracy of Silence (Church persecutions)
* Corporal punishment
* Jan Coucke and Pieter Goethals
* Crime against humanity
* Cristero War
* Criticism of the War on Terrorism
* Cruel and unusual punishment
* Cults and governments
* Cummins Unit

D

* DINA
* DOI-CODI

D cont.

* Danube–Black Sea Canal
* Death squad
* Debt bondage
* Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution
* Dekulakization
* Democide
* Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project
* Deprogramming
* The Destruction of Thracian Bulgarians in 1913
* Dictatorship

E

* Ecological migration
* Electroconvulsive therapy
* Eliminationism
* Encounter killings
* Enhanced interrogation techniques
* Estadio Nacional de Chile
* Estadio Víctor Jara
* Ethiopian general election, 2005
* Ethnic cleansing
* Expulsion of Germans after World War II
* Expulsion of Poles by Germany
* Extrajudicial killings and forced disappearances in the Philippines
* Extrajudicial punishment
* Extraordinary rendition by the United States

F

* Faeq al-Mir arrest controversy
* Eynulla Fatullayev
* Forced marriage
* Forced disappearance
* Forced migration
* Freedom Memorial
* Frontier justice

G

* Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación
* German American internment
* Germanisation
* Ghost detainee
* Greek Military Police
* Grupo Colina
* Guantanamo Bay detention camp

H

* HIV trial in Libya
* Hate speech
* House demolition in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
* Human rights in Cuba
* Human Rights Record of the United States
* Human shield
* Human trafficking
* Human trafficking in Australia
* Human zoo

I

* Imbros
* Impunity
* Incarceration
* International public opinion on the war in Afghanistan
* Involuntary commitment
* Involuntary servitude
* Involuntary treatment
* Iraq prison abuse scandals
* Iraq sanctions

I cont.

* Iron Guard death squads
* Italian American internment

J

* Japanese American internment
* Japanese war crimes

K

* Kahrizak detention center
* Khiam detention center
* Kidnapping
* Komsomolskoye massacre
* Kosovo organ theft
* Kulturkampf

L

* La Violencia
* Legality of prostitution
* Legitimacy of the 2003 invasion of Iraq
* Lists of former Guantanamo captives alleged to have returned to terrorism
* London Charter of the International Military Tribunal
* Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency

M

* Eduardo Mathew
* Medical torture
* Military use of children
* Minors detained in the War on Terror
* Saeed Mortazavi
* Muluk murder case

N
* NKVD
* Nanoor massacre
* Nonperson

O

* One-child policy
* Operation Demetrius
* Operation Horseshoe
* Opposition to the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

P

* Paracuellos del Jarama
* David Passaro
* Periodic Report of the United States of America to the United Nations Committee Against Torture
* Pites,ti prison
* Police brutality
* Political repression
* Politicide
* Protests against the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
* Public opinion in Canada on the war in Afghanistan

R

* Rachid Mesli
* Ragging
* Red Terror (Spain)
* Rodrigo Franco Command
* Royal Proclamation of 2003
* Ernst Rüdin

S

* Scandals surrounding the RCMP
* Scorpions (Iraq)
* Second-class citizen
* Secret trial
* S?uz.ba Bezpieczen’stwa
* Social dangerousness
* Somalia Affair
* Soviet deportations from Estonia
* Starlight tours
* Stolen Generations
* Stratocide

(previous 200) (next 200)
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Human_rights_abuses
Categories: Human rights | Abuse | International criminal law | Crimes
Hidden categories: Categories requiring diffusion

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Human_rights_abuses

***

1993 shootings at CIA Headquarters
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

CIA.svg

An attack took place on January 25, 1993 near the entrance of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) headquarters in Langley, Virginia where two CIA employees were killed and three others wounded. The perpetrator, Mir Aimal Kasi, shot CIA employees in their cars as they were waiting at a stoplight.

Kasi fled the country and was placed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list, sparking a four year international manhunt. He was captured by FBI agents in Pakistan in 1997 and rendered back to the United States to stand trial. He admitted that he shot the victims of the attack, and was subsequently found guilty of capital and first-degree murder, and was executed by lethal injection in 2002.

Contents

* 1 Background
* 2 Shootings
* 3 Investigation
* 4 Capture and rendition
* 5 Trial and execution
* 6 Possible vendetta
* 7 Execution
* 8 Victims
* 9 Memorials
o 9.1 Central Intelligence Agency memorial wall
o 9.2 Route 123 Memorial
o 9.3 Lansing Bennett Forest
* 10 References
* 11 See also
* 12 External links

Background
Mir Aimal Kasi, shortly after his capture in 1997
Kasi (Arabic: ??? ????? ??????) was a Pakistani national, born in Quetta, Balochistan[1] on February 10, 1964,[2] and belonging to the Pashtun tribe of Kasi[1]. He went to the US in 1991, taking a substantial sum of cash he had inherited on the death of his father in 1989[1]. He travelled on forged papers he had purchased in Karachi, altering his name to  Kansi , and later bought a fake green card in Miami[3]. He stayed with a Kashmiri friend, Zahed Mir[4], in his Reston, Virginia apartment, and invested in a courier firm[1] for which he also worked as a driver[5]. This work would be decisive in his choice of target:  I used to pass this area almost every day and knew these two left-turning lanes [were] mostly people who work for CIA. [3]

According to Kasi, his first thoughts of an attack came after the purchase of an AK-47 from a Chantilly gun store. The plan soon became  more important than any other thing to [him]. [3]

Shootings

At around 8 a.m. on January 25, 1993, Kasi stopped his brown station wagon behind a number of vehicles waiting at a red traffic light on the eastbound side of Route 123, Fairfax County.[6] The vehicles were waiting to make a left turn into the main entrance of CIA headquarters. Kasi emerged from his vehicle with an AK-47 and proceeded to move among the lines of vehicles, firing into them. Within seconds, he had killed Lansing H. Bennett MD, 66, and Frank Darling, 28. Three others were left with gunshot wounds.[5] Darling was shot first and later received additional gunshot wounds to the head after Kasi shot the other victims.

During his later confession, Kasi said that he’d only stopped firing because  there wasn’t anybody else left to shoot , and that he only shot male passengers because  it would be against [his] religion to shoot females .[5]

He was also surprised at the lack of an armed response:  I thought I will be arrested, or maybe killed in a shootout with CIA guards or police. [3]
Kasi climbed back into his vehicle and drove to a nearby park. After 90 minutes of waiting, it became clear that he was not being actively sought and so he drove back to his Reston apartment[5]. He hid the assault rifle in a green plastic bag under a sofa, went to a McDonald’s for something to eat, and booked himself into a Days Inn for the night. The CNN news reports he watched made it clear that police had misidentified his vehicle and did not have his license plate number.[4] The next morning, he took a flight to Quetta, Pakistan.[1] According to Kasi, he killed American CIA people because,  I was real angry with the policy of the U.S. government in the Middle East, particularly toward the Palestinian people,  Kasi said in a prison interview with CNN affiliate WTTG.[7]

Investigation

An investigative task force (named  Langmur  for  Langley murders ) was drawn together from both the FBI and local Fairfax County police. They began sifting through recent AK-47 purchases in Maryland and Virginia—there had been at least 1,600 over the previous year alone. Mir Aimal Kasi’s name was on the sales slip from a gun store in Chantilly, where he had exchanged another gun for the AK-47[4] just three days before the shootings.[5]

This information provided the first solid lead in the investigation when Kasi’s roommate, Zahed Mir, reported him missing two days after the shootings.[5] He also told police how Kasi would get angry watching CNN reports of attacks on Muslims[4] — in particular, Kasi would later cite the US attacks on Iraq, Israeli killings of Palestinians, and CIA involvement in Muslim countries.[3][5] Although Mir didn’t think much of it at the time, Kasi had said he wanted to do  something big , with possible targets of the White House, the Israeli Embassy and the CIA.[4]

A police search of Kasi’s apartment turned up the hidden AK-47 under the couch. Ballistics tests confirmed it was the weapon used in the shootings, and Kasi became the chief suspect of the investigation.[4]

Kasi was listed as one of the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives.[8] The search was focused on Pakistan, and agents spent the next four years following hundreds of leads, taking them as far afield as Thailand, but to no avail.[4] Kasi would later reveal he had spent this time being sheltered by fellow Pashtun tribesmen, in the border regions of Afghanistan, making only brief visits to Pakistan.[3][5]

Capture and rendition

In May 1997, an informant walked into the US consulate in Karachi and claimed he could help lead them to Kasi. As proof, he showed a copy of a driver license application made by Kasi under a false name but bearing his photograph. Apparently, the Pashtun tribals who had been sheltering Kasi were now prepared to accept the multi-million dollar reward offer for his capture.[9] Other sources claim they were pressured by the Pakistani government.[1]

Kasi was in the Afghan border regions, so the informant was told to lure Kasi into Pakistan where he could be more easily apprehended. Kasi was tempted with a lucrative business offer—smuggling Russian electronic goods into Pakistan—which brought him to Dera Ghazi Khan, in the Punjab province of Pakistan, where he checked into a room at Shalimar Hotel.[9]

At 4 a.m. on the morning of June 15, 1997, an armed team of FBI agents, working with the Pakistani ISI, raided Kasi’s hotel room. His fingerprints were taken on the scene, confirming his identity.

There is some dispute over where Kasi was taken next—US authorities claim it was a holding facility run by Pakistani authorities[5], while Pakistani sources claim it was the US embassy in Islamabad[9] — before being flown to the US on June 17 in a C-141 transport.[5][10]

During the flight, Kasi made a full oral and written confession to the FBI.[5]

Kasi’s extrajudicial rendition was controversial in Pakistan—no formal request for his extradition was made, and no extradition proceedings were initiated.[10] US authorities would later assert the rendition was legal under an extradition treaty signed with the UK, before Partition when India was under colonial rule.[5] Kasi argued against his rendition in court but his assertions were found to have no basis in law. The Court wrote:

…the treaty between the United States and Pakistan contains no provision that bars forcible abductions, nor does it otherwise ‘purport to specify the only way in which one country may gain custody of a national of the other country for the purposes of prosecution.’ Id. at 664 (emphasis added). Nor does the treaty provide that, once a request for extradition is made, the procedures outlined in the treaty become the sole means of transferring custody of a suspected criminal from one country to the other. Finally, because Kasi was not returned to the United States via extradition proceedings initiated under the Extradition Treaty between the United States and Pakistan, Kasi’s reliance upon United States v. Rauscher does not avail him.[11]

Trial and execution

On February 16, 1993, Kasi, then a fugitive, had been charged in absentia. The charges involved capital murder of Darling, murder of Bennett, and three counts of malicious wounding for the other victims, along with related firearms charges.

Kasi was tried by a Virginia state court jury over a period of ten days in November 1997, on a plea of not guilty to all charges. The jury found him guilty, and fixed punishment for the capital murder charge at death.[5] On February 4, 1998, Kasi was sentenced to death for the capital murder of Darling, who was shot at the beginning of the attack and again after the other victims had been shot. Among his other punishments were a life sentence for the first-degree murder of Bennett, multiple 20-year sentences for the malicious woundings, and fines totalling $600,000.[5]

Possible vendetta

Two days before Kasi’s execution on November 12, 2002, four US oil executives and their Pakistani taxi driver were shot dead in Karachi, in what was has been described as a deliberate response to Kasi’s guilty verdict.[12]
Execution

Kasi was executed by lethal injection on November 14, 2002, at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt, Virginia.[13] Kasi’s body was repatriated to Pakistan, his funeral was attended by the entire civil hierarchy of Baluchistan, the local Pakistan Army Corps Commander and the Pakistani Ambassador to the United States, Ashraf Jahangir Qazi.[14]

Victims

The two fatalities of Kasi’s attack were Lansing H. Bennett M.D., 66, and Frank Darling, 28, both CIA employees. Bennett, with experience as a physician, was working as an intelligence analyst assessing the health of foreign leaders.[15] Darling worked in covert operations.[4]

The three people wounded in the attack were Calvin Morgan, 61, an engineer; Nicholas Starr, 60, a CIA analyst; and Stephen E. Williams, 48, an AT&T employee.[4]

Memorials
Central Intelligence Agency memorial wall

The CIA Memorial Wall at their Langley headquarters, on which Bennett and Darling are memorialized

Bennett and Darling were memorialized as the 69th and 70th entries on the CIA’s  memorial wall  of stars in the foyer of the Langley headquarters building,[16] although President Clinton, in an address to the CIA, attributed the two individuals as the 55th and 56th stars.[17]

Route 123 Memorial

The Route 123 Memorial, consisting of a granite wall and two benches facing each other near the site of the shooting, is dedicated to Bennett and Darling.[18] This memorial is illumnated at night. The memorial is not at the exact location of the shooting due to traffic reasons.

An inscription reads:

In Remembrance of Ultimate Dedication to Mission Shown by Officers of the Central Intelligence Agency Whose Lives Have Been Taken or Forever Changed by Events at Home and Abroad.

Dedicato Par Aevum
(Dedicated to Service)
May 2002

The memorial was dedicated May 24, 2002.[18]

Lansing Bennett Forest

A forest was renamed in Bennett’s honor—the Lansing Bennett Forest in Duxbury, Massachusetts, where he was formerly chair of the Duxbury Conservation Commission.[1]

Bennett is buried in the Dennis Village Cemetery, Route 6A, north of Bourne, Massachusetts.

References

1. ^ a b c d e f Baluch, S.  Kasi’s funeral: mourners come in their thousands , DAWN, November 25, 2002.
2. ^ Mir Aimal Kasi. The Clark County Prosecuting Attorney. Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
3. ^ a b c d e f Stein, J.  Convicted assassin: ‘I wanted to shoot the CIA director’ , Salon.com, January 22, 1998.
4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Davis, P. & Glod, M.  CIA Shooter Kasi, Harbinger of Terror, Set to Die Tonight , Washington Post, November 14, 2002.
5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Justice A. Christian Compton, Virginia Supreme Court Opinion on Mir Aimal Kasi, November 6, 1998.
6. ^ Steve Coll,  Ghost Wars , New York: Penguin Books, 2004, pp. 246-247
7. ^ ARCHIVES CNN http://archives.cnn.com/2002/LAW/11/14/cia.killings.execution/
8. ^ FBI-Ten Most Wanted Fugitive-Mir Aimal Kansi
9. ^ a b c Hasan, K.  How Aimal Kasi was betrayed , Daily Times (Pakistan), June 23, 2004.
10. ^ a b Khan, R.  In search of truth , DAWN, November 24, 2002.
11. ^ FindLaw for Legal Professionals – Case Law, Federal and State Resources, Forms, and Code
12. ^ Knowlton, B.  Americans Abroad Face a Rising Risk of Terrorism , International Herald and Tribune, November 21, 1997.
13. ^ Glod, M. & Weiss, E.  Kasi Executed For CIA Slayings, Washington Post, November 15, 2002.
14. ^  Pakistan’s Foreign Policy Predicaments Post 9/11 , South Asia Analyst Group, Paper No. 564, December 12, 2002
15. ^  Lansing Bennett, Physician Slain Outside CIA , Washington Post, January 27, 1993.
16. ^ http://gutenberg.com/eBooks/Government_Documents/CIA_Factbook_on_Intelligence_2002/memorial_stars.html
17. ^ Remarks from President to CIA employees
18. ^ a b CIA virtual tour

See also

* 1993 World Trade Center bombing

External links

* Article about Princeton alumnus, Lansing Bennett, M.D., detailing his medical career, State Department work, CIA work. [2]
* Princeton thesis written by Bennett [3]

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993_shootings_at_CIA_Headquarters
Categories: Deaths by firearm in Virginia | 1993 crimes | 1993 in the United States | Presidency of Bill Clinton | Murder in Virginia | Extraordinary rendition program | History of the United States (1991–present) | Islamic terrorism | Terrorist incidents in 1993 | Terrorist incidents in the United States | Islamist terrorism in the United States | Central Intelligence Agency

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993_shootings_at_CIA_Headquarters

***

Two days before Kasi’s execution on November 12, 2002, four US oil executives and their Pakistani taxi driver were shot dead in Karachi, in what was has been described as a deliberate response to Kasi’s guilty verdict.[12]

***

Americans Abroad Face A Rising Risk Of Terrorism
By Brian Knowlton
Published: Friday, November 21, 1997

When the State Department issued a  worldwide caution  on Wednesday to Americans traveling or living abroad because of the heightened possibility of terrorist violence, it was the fourth such alert issued in only two months.

More warnings can be expected in coming months, experts on terrorism say. Because of a confluence of events and the approach of the year-end holidays, when travel hits a peak and terrorists often have struck, travelers would be ill-advised to become complacent, particularly in Pakistan and parts of the Middle East, these experts say.

Making matters worse, some terrorist groups have shown a longer reach than in the past. Recent attacks also reflect a new taste for revenge against U.S. interests.

The three earlier State Department warnings cited heightened risks to Americans abroad following the conviction of Ramzi Ahmed Yousef in connection with the terrorist bombing of the World Trade Center; the murder conviction of Mir Aimal Kasi for the 1993 shootings outside CIA headquarters; and the issuance Oct. 8 of the annual list of foreign terrorist organizations.

The Kasi and Yousef cases were cited in the alert Wednesday, along with the killing of four Americans in Karachi, Pakistan, Nov. 12 and the terrorist attack Monday in Luxor, Egypt.

Although none of the 58 foreign tourists killed at Luxor was American, the Islamic Group, which claimed responsibility, demanded the freedom of Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, who was convicted in the United States in 1995 for plotting to bomb New York landmarks.

The police in Karachi said they suspected an extremist group called Harkat ul Anasar was seeking revenge for the life sentence imposed in Virginia on Mr. Kasi.

The Karachi attack came a day after a State Department warning that cited the Kasi conviction.

Threats were also made against American interests in Malaysia.
It’s almost a throwback to earlier times, when there was a retaliation after each American action,  said Frank McGuire, a consultant and author on terrorism.

This sort of thing seems to be back with a vengeance.

Middle East terrorist groups like Hamas, Hezbollah and the Islamic Group, which is also known as Jamaa Islamiyya, appear increasingly able to reach far beyond their home bases.

Some groups have supporters and networks around the world,  said Hillary Mann, a specialist on counterterrorism at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy.  There’s an infrastructure that can be called on.
The Islamic Group, for example, was linked to a 1995 attempt to assassinate President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt while he was in Ethiopia, the first time the group was known to have carried out an attack abroad. Individual Malaysians are known to have trained at terrorist camps in Lebanon and Sudan.

Terror groups are using modern technology, including the Internet, to broaden and shift operations to other countries.

It’s a somewhat worrisome trend,  Ms. Mann said,  and qualitatively different from what we’ve seen before.

Just how far some of those groups reach is not clear.

Bernard Reich, a Georgetown University professor who follows terrorism issues, said that he expected the risks to remain focused in Pakistan and Egypt for now.  Latin America,  he said,  is not likely to be a place where a Pakistani terrorist is going to strike an American tourist.

But he would not dismiss the threat in Malaysia, saying,  When these things reach a high visibility, at a time of tension, yes, I take them seriously.

The possible defusing of the recent Iraqi crisis is expected to lower concerns in some regions. But the Kasi and Yousef cases are not over yet, and both have infuriated their supporters.

On Jan. 23, Mr. Kasi will be sentenced for the CIA attack. A jury has recommended the death sentence. And sometime early next year, Mr. Yousef is expected to be sentenced on the charges relating to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.

Mr. Reich emphasizes that odds are in the traveler’s favor, noting that 45 million Americans traveled abroad last year, and only a few hundred were involved in incidents targeting Americans. Still, he and others counsel caution and attention.

The State Department regularly issues alerts about heightened risks of violence, crime, political instability, border unrest, bomb threats to airlines, as well as public health dangers, transportation difficulties or natural disasters.

The information is available by phoning embassies or consulates, or the State Department in Washington (202-647-5225). It is also available at a department Web site on the Internet (http://travel.state.gov), which offers information sheets on every country.

http://www.nytimes.com/1997/11/21/news/21iht-warn.t.html

***
2 ABC Executives Killed
The Washington Post | November 28, 1989 |

A charter bus carrying ABC employees to the National Football League game was struck by a train, killing two and injuring about 25, after it stopped between grade crossing gates, police said.

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***

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***

Interior to Eliminate Royalty-In-Kind Program

By NOELLE STRAUB AND BEN GEMAN of Greenwire
Published: September 16, 2009

This story was updated at 12:42 p.m.

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The scandal-ridden program that allows industry to provide oil and natural gas directly to the Interior Department in lieu of cash royalty payments will be killed, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar said today.

The royalty-in-kind program has been a blemish, in my view, on this department,  Salazar said at a House Natural Resources Committee hearing.  There were allegations of sex and drugs and a whole host of other inappropriate conduct. … My decision is that it’s time for us to end the royalty-in-kind program.

Because the program was created through an administrative action, Salazar said he has the authority to cancel it.

The secretary added that the program was set up at a time when it was thought Interior could make more money by taking product — which Interior then sells — instead of money from oil and gas producers. But he noted that the department does not have a similar program for its timber or grazing assets.

Natural Resources Chairman Nick Rahall (D-W.Va.) has introduced a sweeping bill, H.R. 3534 (pdf), that would overhaul the federal royalty system and make other broad changes to Interior’s regulation of oil and gas drilling on federal lands and waters. Rahall’s bill would also eliminate the royalty-in-kind program.

Bravo, bravo, bravo,  Rahall told Salazar after the announcement.  I do think it will end the opportunity for mischief, or the temptation, and perhaps provide a more decent return for the American taxpayer, so I salute you for that.

A report by the Interior inspector general last year found that 19 employees, nearly one-third of the entire staff of the royalty-in-kind program, socialized with and received a wide array of gifts and gratuities from oil and gas companies with which the agency was conducting official business (E&ENews PM, Sept. 10, 2008). Rahall said the employees  put partying and cozying up with industry officials above getting a fair return for the American taxpayer.

Also, several other outside reviews have found a suite of oversight and enforcement troubles with the program. Federal oil and gas royalties are one of the government’s largest sources of non-tax revenue.

Most recently, a Government Accountability Office report made public this week found that inadequate Interior tracking and verification of natural gas royalties paid in kind are leading to forgone federal revenue (E&ENews PM, Sept. 14). The report cited a host of problems with monitoring and data collection.

Oil industry calls Salazar plan a mistake

Salazar’s decision drew quick criticism from the American Petroleum Institute, the oil industry’s biggest trade group, which argued that it remains a simpler system than calculating cash royalties owed.

Terminating this straightforward method of handling royalty payments runs the risk of raising administrative costs and adding additional layers of paperwork required to determine the value of oil and gas production,  said API President Jack Gerard.
Interior’s Minerals Management Service has similarly argued in the past that the program can simplify royalty collections, lowering administrative costs and avoid conflicts with energy companies over the value of oil and gas produced.

The Project on Government Oversight, a watchdog group that has criticized Interior’s royalties oversight, cheered the decision, alleging the program has been a failure.

Secretary Salazar’s testimony today is a big step to finally ending this gift to industry, and POGO congratulates him for taking this stand. The next important step is ensuring Congress puts the final nail in the RIK coffin so it doesn’t rise again,  Executive Director Danielle Brian said in a statement.

The program began in earnest in the late 1990s with several pilot programs and grew substantially. Of the more than $12 billion in royalties that MMS collected in fiscal 2008, more than half came from the royalty-in-kind program rather than cash payments by producers, according to GAO.

While Rahall cheered the program’s demise, his Senate counterpart — Energy and Natural Resources Chairman Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.) — said he wanted to learn more about the decision.  We need to get a briefing from the department that led to this conclusion,  he said.  It may be the right decision. I haven’t seen the justification. We will be looking into that.

Salazar said he will issue a secretarial order in the next few weeks to end the royalty-in-kind program. The phasing out of the program will take at least a year, because there are contracts in place that must be honored, he added.

The restructuring will be overseen by Wilma Lewis, Interior’s assistant secretary for land and minerals management, and the directors of MMS and the Bureau of Land Management.

More changes to come?

Interior to Eliminate Royalty-In-Kind Program

Published: September 16, 2009

(Page 2 of 2)

Salazar today emphasized that ending the royalty-in-kind program is  only one thing  among many the department needs to tackle, including royalty simplification and creating a new organization and management structure for the federal agencies that oversee energy development on public lands.

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Rahall’s bill would forge a new Interior agency to govern oil and gas leasing on federal lands and overhaul the federal royalty system.

The measure also includes provisions to improve planning for offshore energy development, address wind and solar programs, and boost funding for ocean conservation and land acquisition. It comes largely as a response to a series of scandals and scathing government watchdog reports on the federal agencies that handle oil and gas drilling on public lands.

Salazar said the administration has not had an opportunity to fully analyze the legislation but is in agreement with its primary goals of ensuring a balanced approach to energy development on public lands and dependable oversight of the mineral royalty programs.

Salazar said Rahall’s bill is  absolutely targeted on the right set of issues,  especially those raised by the government watchdog agencies. He added that Interior officials will continue working with the committee  to get the bill to a place where we believe it needs to get. … We do have some ideas we will continue to contribute to try to make the bill a better bill.

He said Interior is developing options to improve coordination with MMS and BLM in leasing and revenue management but stopped short of endorsing Rahall’s proposal to consolidate the two agencies.

The legislation would create the  Office of Federal Energy and Minerals Leasing  to handle onshore and offshore lease sales, inspection, enforcement and revenue collection. It would consolidate the oil and gas, wind, wave and solar programs now carried out by BLM and MMS. The Interior inspector general would take over the current functions of the MMS audit and compliance management section.

Having one agency do the leasing and one agency collect the money is inefficient, unnecessarily complex and potentially costs the American people millions in lost royalties,  Rahall said.

As for the proposed merger of the BLM and MMS, Salazar agreed that there should be an office of energy within Interior that coordinates between the agencies. But he added that how that will be structured or carried out remains to be seen.

Salazar also called for raising onshore royalty rates. He noted that the Bush administration raised offshore rates but that the onshore royalty had not been increased in a long while. He said he’d consider a variable rate that would take into account the amount of risk that companies need to undertake while exploring.

Natural Resources Committee ranking member Doc Hastings (R-Wash.) objected to the proposed consolidation, saying that the legislation would simply create new problems.

This legislation creates a new bureaucracy, it raises the costs of producing energy with higher and new fees, and it potentially adds years of delay to energy development both offshore and on federal lands,  Hastings said.

Reporter Katherine Ling contributed.

Copyright 2009 E&E Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

For more news on energy and the environment, visit http://www.greenwire.com.

http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/09/16/16greenwire-interior-to-eliminate-royalty-in-kind-program-81731.html

***

MI5 Official History just released – covered on CNNI World Reports – 10-06-09
***

Report on Bailouts Says Treasury Misled Public

By LOUISE STORY
Published: October 5, 2009

WASHINGTON — The inspector general who oversees the government’s bailout of the banking system is criticizing the Treasury Department for some misleading public statements last fall and raising the possibility that it had unfairly disbursed money to the biggest banks.

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A Treasury official made incorrect statements about the health of the nation’s biggest banks even as the government was doling out billions of dollars in aid, according to a report on the Troubled Asset Relief Program to be released on Monday by the special inspector general, Neil M. Barofsky.

The report also provides new insight into the way the Treasury allocated billions of dollars to nine of Wall Street’s largest players. The report says that Bank of America appeared to qualify for more aid earlier, under the government plan. That assertion adds another element of intrigue to continuing investigations of the bank’s merger with Merrill Lynch and the role that regulators played in the deal, even as Merrill’s condition deteriorated.

The bailout formula called for banks to get an amount equal to as much as 3 percent of their risk-weighted assets, with aid capped at $25 billion for each institution, according to the report. By size, Citigroup, JPMorgan Chase and Bank of America could have qualified for more, and the first two received $25 billion.

But Bank of America was given only $15 billion in October, since Merrill Lynch was earmarked for $10 billion. The two companies agreed to a merger, though their deal had not yet been approved by regulators or shareholders.

Bank of America ultimately received Merrill’s $10 billion in January — as well as $20 billion in additional bailout funds — but if the bank had not been involved in the Merrill deal, it would probably have received $25 billion at the outset, as did Citigroup and JPMorgan.

Another company in the process of a merger was not treated the same. Wells Fargo was acquiring Wachovia, and it received both companies’ money at the start, according to the inspector general.

Mr. Barofsky’s office also says that regulators were wrong to tell the public last year that the earliest bailout recipients were all healthy.

Former Treasury Secretary Henry M. Paulson Jr., for instance, said on Oct. 14 that the banks were “healthy,” and that they accepted the money for “the good of the U.S. economy.” The banks, he said, would be better able to increase their lending to consumers and businesses.

In truth, regulators were concerned about the health of several banks that received that first bailout, the inspector general writes.

The inspector general said government officials need to be more careful when describing their actions and rationale. In a letter included with the report, the Federal Reserve concurred with Mr. Barofsky’s concern about the statements made last year, but the Treasury Department said that any review of announcements last year “must be considered in light of the unprecedented circumstances in which they were made.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/05/business/economy/05bank.html?_r=1&em

***

Pakistan Petroleum, Oil & Gas, Win Southwest Blocks (Update1)

By Khalid Qayum and Khaleeq Ahmed

Oct. 2 (Bloomberg) — Oil & Gas Development Co., Pakistan’s largest explorer, and Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. won eight licenses to search for oil and gas in southwestern Baluchistan province, where facilities have previously been hit by an insurgency.

Oil & Gas has been awarded five blocks and Pakistan Petroleum, the biggest gas producer, won three out of the total 14 onshore licenses given in Baluchistan on Sept. 30, according to a report by the Petroleum Ministry.

Oil & Gas plans to drill at least nine wells in Baluchistan for the first time in six years, tapping a region that borders Iran and Afghanistan and holds half of Pakistan’s gas reserves, Chief Executive Zahid Hussain said in an interview in July. Pakistan Petroleum has operated Sui, the nation’s biggest gas field, in the province since 1955.

Oil and Gas shares, which account for about one fifth of the benchmark Karachi 100 Index, fell 0.2 percent to 106.85 rupees at 10:39 a.m. local time in Karachi. Pakistan Petroleum shares dropped 1.1 percent to 185.25 rupees.

Pakistan’s government says insurgents have attacked pipelines and key installations in the province in the past. Tribal leaders deny the attacks saying they are demanding royalties on minerals and fuels discovered in their region.

Nawab Akbar Bugti, a Baluch tribal chief, was killed in August 2006 in a military operation ordered by the country’s former military ruler, Pervez Musharraf. Interior Minister Rehman Malik said in April Brahamdagh Bugti, Akbar’s grandson, is now leading the rebellion.

To contact the reporters on this story: Khalid Qayum in Islamabad at kqayum@bloomberg.net; Khaleeq Ahmed in Islamabad at paknews@bloomberg.net.
Last Updated: October 2, 2009 01:33 EDT

http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601091&sid=azCAsJcPATEI

***

Forest Service not completely behind Hidden Gems proposal

Scott Condon
Aspen Correspondent
Glenwood Springs, CO Colorado

The U.S. Forest Service doesn’t believe all the lands targeted for wilderness in the Hidden Gems campaign actually qualify for the special protection, according to the top local official in the agency.

White River National Forest Supervisor Scott Fitzwilliams said the agency is sticking to a finding it made in 2002 that 82,000 acres of the White River qualify as wilderness. Environmentalists are pushing for protection of a significantly larger amount of land in the Hidden Gems Wilderness Campaign. They say their assessment of backcountry lands show an additional 325,000 acres qualify as wilderness in the White River National Forest, and 400,000 acres overall when Bureau of Land Management parcels are added.
Conservationists are butting heads with user groups like mountain bikers and off-road vehicle enthusiasts about the proposal, but the Forest Service has stayed out of the fray.

“We’ve been relatively quiet about it. It’s not our proposal,” said Fitzwilliams, who took the post as the forest supervisor a month ago. He said he has studied the Hidden Gems proposal carefully along with other issues facing the White River. He wants the Forest Service, conservation groups and various forest user groups to concentrate on collaborative projects rather than fight over wilderness. Convincing Congress to protect that much additional land could take years.

“We need to shift. I think it’s a little small, short-sighted anyway, to say the biggest issue we have is we need to make more wilderness,” Fitzwilliams said. “I don’t think that’s the biggest issue in the Roaring Fork Valley.

“We could make (all forest lands) wilderness and the issues are still right here, the ones that are really going to monumentally change the characteristics and natural resources of the valley — like (bark beetles) and the huge fuel build up, development of private land and conservation of open spaces,” he continued.

Disagreement over wilderness qualification
When the White River National Forest staff updated a management plan in 2002 it recommended creation of two new wilderness areas totaling 62,000 acres and additions totaling 20,000 acres to existing wilderness areas.

Fitzwilliams said the agency’s process is designed to provide a “thorough vetting” of issues — such as the qualification of land and potential conflicts.

Wilderness advocates agree that the 82,000 acres targeted by the Forest Service should be protected, but they claim the agency missed some other lands that have wilderness characteristics and provide excellent wildlife habitat. Those additional lands are generally lower in elevation than existing wilderness.
“We’ll have to agree to disagree on the acres beyond the 82,000,” said Sloan Shoemaker, executive director of Wilderness Workshop, the Carbondale-based organization heading the Hidden Gems campaign.

He said the Forest Service assessment of wilderness lands got “politicized” by former U.S. Rep. Scott McInnis, a Republican who represented most of western Colorado earlier this decade. He believes there was pressure to limit protection of roadless lands because those are areas where oil and gas companies want to lease.

Shoemaker acknowledged that the Forest Service and environmentalists can look at the same pieces of ground and reach different conclusions about their worthiness for wilderness.

“There’s some bias in the agency against wilderness,” he said. “Unabashedly we’re looking for places to apply the Wilderness Act.”
Fitzwilliams said he shares Shoemaker’s passion for Wilderness lands. However, he feels the designation should be used sparingly, when lands clearly qualify. Overextending the designation diminishes the special quality of wilderness, he said.

About 750,000 acres of the 2.3 million acre White River National Forest are currently designated wilderness.

Lands leased by oil companies
The debate goes beyond the philosophical. Fitzwilliams said the Hidden Gems proposal poses at least two practical problems. First, it would create wilderness in areas where the Forest Service wants to remove trees killed by bark beetles. Second, the proposal would place the wilderness designation on lands that are leased to oil and gas companies.

Fitzwilliams said a top priority in the White River is forest management in areas where dead trees pose a threat to roads, power lines, campgrounds and other infrastructure. It is also working with communities in Eagle and Summit counties on a plan to remove deadfall and ease the fire risk in the urban interface, areas where the forest and development contact.

Shoemaker said the wilderness planning “is a dynamic process” and that the current proposal is likely to change. Representatives are working with community leaders to understand what projects they foresee. In some cases, the proposed wilderness boundary can be adjusted to allay concerns, he said.

Interference with existing oil and gas leases is another concern for the Forest Service. Fitzwilliams said that five proposed wilderness areas in Hidden Gems would affect 46 oil and gas leases totaling 36,584 acres. Those areas include Assignation Ridge and Thompson Creek southwest of Carbondale as well as East Willow, Hayes Creek and Clear Fork.

The Forest Service doesn’t have the option of ignoring those leases. “Existing oil and gas leases are essentially a binding contract — the lessor has the legal right to the oil and gas resources,” Fitzwilliams said.

Shoemaker said the Hidden Gems proponents were aware of the gas lease issues. Other battles already underway in court and in Congress may resolve the status of many of those leases. Critics of the Bush administration contend it ignored a Clinton administration ruling on roadless public lands. In western Colorado, leases were sold on roadless lands.

“Many of those leases were sold illegally and they shouldn’t exist,” Shoemaker said. If the conservationists prevail, those lands would be withdrawn from leasing opportunity.

“The fact that those leases exist doesn’t detract from the Wilderness characteristics on the ground,” Shoemaker said.

It is unknown if the difference in opinion between Wilderness advocates and the Forest Service will come into play in the Hidden Gems debate. Wilderness can only be approved by an act of Congress. Wilderness Workshop and its allies will shop for a sponsor for a bill after completing the preparation work. Fitzwilliams said the Forest Service typically offers a recommendation bills if asked by Congress.

scondon@aspentimes.com

http://www.postindependent.com/article/20091005/VALLEYNEWS/910049993/1083&ParentProfile=1074

***

Posted on Tue, Oct. 6, 2009

Bomb kills 5 U.N. aides; Taliban group suspected

By Chris Brummitt

Associated Press
ISLAMABAD, Pakistan – A suicide bomber who killed five staffers at the U.N. food agency’s headquarters in Pakistan yesterday was dressed as a security officer and allowed to enter the heavily guarded building after he asked to use the bathroom.

The United Nations announced it was temporarily closing all its offices in Pakistan after the noontime bombing, which blew out windows and left victims lying in pools of blood in the lobby of the three-story World Food Program compound.

This is a heinous crime committed against those who have been working tirelessly to assist the poor and vulnerable on the front lines of hunger and other human suffering in Pakistan,  U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said in Geneva, Switzerland.

Despite the office closures, the U.N. said its Pakistani partner organizations would continue distributing food, medicine, and other humanitarian assistance.
Pakistani authorities launched an investigation into the major security lapse, saying they would question guards who failed to stop the bomber from carrying out the first suicide attack in Islamabad in four months.

The attack came a day after the new Pakistani Taliban leader met reporters close to the Afghan border, vowing more attacks in response to U.S. missile strikes on militant targets in Pakistan. Ending speculation he had been killed, Hakimullah Mehsud denied government claims the militants were in disarray and said his fighters would repel any offensive on their stronghold in South Waziristan.

Authorities blamed Islamic militants for the bombing but did not single out the Taliban. It was unclear whether militants targeted the World Food Program because of its work in Pakistan or were simply looking to kill foreigners or those working with them. The dead were four Pakistanis and an Iraqi.

Extremists in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq seeking to attack high-profile Western targets have shown no hesitation in striking foreign humanitarian agencies, including the U.N., regardless of the work they are doing in relieving the suffering in the countries. A blast in June on a luxury hotel housing many foreign aid workers in Peshawar killed two U.N. staffers.

Sometimes the very nature of their work invites attack. In yesterday’s bombing, insurgents may have believed that by feeding refugees from the fighting in the Swat valley, the WFP is propping up a Pakistani government they see as a U.S. puppet.

The U.N. and various humanitarian agencies, including those funded by the U.S., expanded in Pakistan over the last year to help support its elected government.

The U.N. considers itself a major target in Pakistan. Many of its offices are surrounded by 12-foot-high blast walls. Its staff members are driven in bulletproof cars and not allowed to bring their families with them on assignment in the country.

This was one of the best-protected U.N. centers in all of Pakistan,  said U.N. spokeswoman Michele Montas.

Taliban and allied militants have carried out scores of suicide attacks in Pakistan over the last 21/2 years. Under U.S. pressure, Pakistani security forces have had some success combatting the extremists. Hakimullah’s predecessor, Baitullah Mehsud, was killed in a U.S. drone strike in August.

Yesterday’s bombing was one of at least four major strikes in the last three weeks appear to show Pakistani militants are regrouping and have the capacity to carry out attacks. It took place in a well guarded, upscale residential area close to where President Asif Ali Zardari has a home.

Hassan Abbas, a former official in the Bhutto and Musharraf governments, said the attack is significant because it shows militants can still breach high security zones.
Buzz up  Buzz this story.

http://www.philly.com/inquirer/world_us/20091006_Bomb_kills_5_U_N__aides__Taliban_group_suspected.html

***

Wednesday, October 7th, 2009
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850,000 doctors could be hit by potential data breach from insurer’s stolen laptop

Emil Berry reports on a recent breach that was originally described as affecting  tens of thousands  of people. Now it appears that the breach was much bigger: A file containing identifying information for every physician in the country contracted with a Blues-affiliated insurance plan was on a laptop computer stolen from a BlueCross BlueShield Assn. employee. It is not yet known whether any identity theft has resulted from the data breach. The file included the name, address, tax identification number and national provider identifier number for about 850,000 doctors, Jeff Smokler, spokesman for the Chicago-based Blues association, said Oct. 6. That …
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Porter Goss
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Porter Johnston Goss
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida’s 13th and 14th district
In office
January 3, 1989 – January 3, 1993 (13th)
January 3, 1993 – September 23, 2004 (14th)
Preceded by     Connie Mack III
Harry Johnston
Succeeded by     Dan Miller
Connie Mack IV
19th Director of Central Intelligence/Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
In office
September 24, 2004 – May 5, 2006
President     George W. Bush
Preceded by     George Tenet
Succeeded by     John Negroponte (as DNI)
Michael Hayden (as Director of the CIA
Born     November 26, 1938 (1938-11-26) (age 70)
Waterbury, Connecticut
Political party     Republican
Religion     Christian

Porter Johnston Goss (born November 26, 1938) is an American politician, who was a Director of Central Intelligence and the first Director of the Central Intelligence Agency following the passage of the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, which abolished the DCI position. A CIA officer in Latin America during the Cold War, he served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1989 until he took up his post at the agency.[1]

Goss represented the Florida’s 14th congressional district, which includes Lee County, Fort Myers, Naples, and part of Port Charlotte. He served for a time as the chairman of the House Intelligence Committee. Goss was a cosponsor of the USA PATRIOT Act and was a co-chair of the Joint 9/11 Intelligence Inquiry.

Goss resigned as Director of the CIA on May 5, 2006 in a sit-down press conference with President George W. Bush from the Oval Office[2] On May 8, Bush nominated U.S. Air Force General Michael Hayden to be Goss’s successor.

Goss is an avid organic farmer.[3] According to a September 13, 2004 article in Roll Call, Goss has a farm in Virginia and spends his summers on Fishers Island in Long Island Sound.

Contents

* 1 Education and early CIA career
* 2 Government career
* 3 Career timeline
o 3.1 Intelligence inquiry: September 11, 2001
* 4 Director of CIA
o 4.1 Early change under Goss
o 4.2 Resignation
* 5 References
* 6 External links

Education and early CIA career

Goss was born in 1938 in Waterbury, Connecticut. His father, Richard W. Goss[4], was an executive of the Scovill Manufacturing Company, a corporation controlled by the Goss family.[5] He attended Camp Timanous in Raymond, Maine and was educated at the Fessenden School. In 1956 he graduated from the Hotchkiss School in Lakeville, Connecticut.

Goss went to Yale University, where received his Bachelor of Arts majoring in ancient Greek. (Goss also speaks Spanish and French). He is believed to have been a member of the Book and Snake (1960), a secret society at Yale. He was a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity alongside William H.T. Bush, the uncle of President George W. Bush, and John Negroponte, who served as an Ambassador for George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush, and as Goss’s superior in the post of Director of National Intelligence from 2005 to 2006.[6] Negroponte solicited Goss’s assistance, while Goss was Chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, to get the position as US Ambassador at the UN in the first term of the Bush (43) Administration.
In his junior year at Yale, Goss was recruited by the CIA. He spent much of the 1960s — roughly from 1960 until 1971 — working for the Directorate of Operations, the clandestine services of the CIA. There he first worked in Latin America and the Caribbean and later in Europe. The full details are not known due to the classified nature of the CIA, but Goss has said that he had worked in Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Mexico. A photograph taken in Mexico City in January 1963 allegedly shows Goss with his arm around David Sánchez Morales, at a table with Barry Seal and other CIA members of Operation 40, a U.S.-backed right-wing assassination squad.
Photo allegedly shows Porter Goss in 1963 in the company of Morales, Seal, and others.

Goss, who has said that he has recruited and trained foreign agents, worked in Miami for much of the time. Goss was involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, telling the Washington Post in 2002 that he had done some  small-boat handling  and had  some very interesting moments in the Florida Straits.

Towards the end of his career as a CIA officer, Goss was transferred to Europe, where, in 1970, he collapsed in his London hotel room because of a blood infection in his heart and kidneys. Goss says he does not know what happened, but says that he was not poisoned. Some sources now say that Goss suffered a staph infection. In any case, his health was severely affected, and he retired from the CIA.

Government career

Goss began his political career in 1974, when he was elected to the Sanibel City Council and was elected mayor by the council. In 1983, Bob Graham, then Florida governor, appointed Goss to the Lee County Board of Commissioners.
Rep. Goss talks to the press.

In 1988 Goss ran for Congress in what was then the 13th congressional district of Florida, encompassing Lee, Charlotte, and Sarasota counties. The seat was vacated by Connie Mack III when Mack ran successfully for the U. S. Senate. In the primaries Goss’s main opponent was Louis A.  Skip  Bafalis, a former holder of that congressional seat, which Bafalis had previously relinquished during an unsuccessful campaign for the Florida governorship. Due to his name recognition, Bafalis was the favorite to win the race, however, he only garnered 29% of the vote in the primary to Goss’s 38%, largely due to the fact that Goss’s campaign was much better financed. Goss went on to defeat Bafalis handily in the runoff election. In the general election, Goss faced the former first president of Common Cause, Jack T. Conway. Goss had no trouble winning the general election in the heavily Republican district, and did not have any significant opposition in his seven subsequent elections, as he won them all with more than 70 percent of the vote, and in 2002 he ran unopposed.

He served in Congress for 16 years until his appointment by President George W. Bush to be Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). While in the House, Goss served as chair of the House Intelligence Committee from 1997 until 2005 and the vice-chairman of the House Rules Committee. He also helped establish and served on the Homeland Security Committee. As a congressman, Goss consistently and emphatically defended the CIA and supported strong budget increases for the Agency, even during a time of tight budgets and Clintonian slashes to other parts of the Intelligence budgets. In mid-2004, Goss took a very strong position, during what had already been announced as his last congressional term, urging specific reforms and corrections in the way the CIA carried out its activities, lest it become  just another government bureaucracy.

Goss has a consistently conservative voting record, with the exception of his views towards the environment; Goss supported the Kyoto Protocol and strengthening the Environmental Protection Agency. Most of his major legislation has been intelligence authorization bills, with some local constituent-services bills.

The legislation he sponsored include: a constitutional amendment to establish term limits limiting representatives to no more than three consecutive terms of four years[7]. Major bills sponsored by Goss include a bill to limit Congressional pay raises to no more than Social Security cost-of-living adjustments[8] (unpassed), The Public Interest Declassification Act of 1999[9] (unpassed), and the USA PATRIOT Act.

Career timeline

* CIA Director 22-Sep-2004 to 5-May-2006 (resigned)
* U.S. Congressman, Florida 14th (3-Jan-1993 to 23-Sep-2004, resigned)
* U.S. Congressman, Florida 13th (3-Jan-1989 to 3-Jan-1993)
* Mayor Sanibel, FL (1981–1982)
* Mayor Sanibel, FL (1975–1977)
* CIA employee 1962–1971
* Council on Foreign Relations
* Ripon Society

Intelligence inquiry: September 11, 2001

In August 2001 Goss, Senator Bob Graham (D-FL), and Senator Jon Kyl visited Islamabad, Pakistan. Meetings were held with President Pervez Musharraf and with Pakistan’s military and intelligence officials including the head of Pakistan’s Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) General Mahmud Ahmed, as well as with the Afghan ambassador to Pakistan, Abdul Salam Zaeef. On the morning 11 September, 2001, Goss and Graham were having breakfast with General Ahmad.[10][11] Ahmad’s network had ties to Osama bin Laden and directly funded, supported, and trained the Taliban[12]. They met with Musharraf and Zaeef on the 27th. As reported by Agence France Presse on August 28, 2001, Zaeef assured the US delegation that the Taliban would never allow bin Laden to use Afghanistan to launch attacks on the US or any other country. Goss fully defended the CIA and the Bush administration. With the White House and Sen. Graham, his counterpart in the Senate Intelligence Committee, Goss rebuffed calls for an inquiry in the weeks immediately following September 11.

After growing pressure, Congress established the Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, a joint inquiry of the two intelligence committees, led by Graham and Goss. Goss and Graham made it clear that their goal was not to identify specific wrongdoing: Graham said the inquiry would not play  the blame game about what went wrong from an intelligence perspective, , and Goss said,  This is not a who-shall-we-hang type of investigation. It is about where are the gaps in America’s defense and what do we do about it type of investigation. [13]

The Washington Post reported statements made by Goss on May 17, 2002. Goss said he was looking for  solutions, not scapegoats.  He called the uproar over the President’s Daily Brief of August 6, 2001, Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US,  a lot of nonsense.  He also said,  None of this is news, but it’s all part of the finger-pointing. It’s foolishness.  The Post also reported that Goss refused to blame an  intelligence failure  for September 11, preferring to praise the agency’s  fine work. (Washington Post, May 18, 2002,  A Cloak But No Dagger; An Ex-Spy Says He Seeks Solutions, Not Scapegoats for 9/11 )

The inquiry’s final report was released in December 2002 and focused entirely on the CIA and FBI’s activities, including no information on the White House’s activities. Ray McGovern, a 27-year veteran of the CIA turned Democratic political activist and a frequent commentator on intelligence issues, believed the report showed that Goss gave  clear priority to providing political protection for the president  when conducting the inquiry.

Goss publicly declared his opposition to the creation of an independent 9-11 Commission. A year later, he declined to open committee hearings into the Plame affair, saying:  Somebody sends me a blue dress and some DNA, I’ll have an investigation. [14]

Goss chiefly blames President Bill Clinton for the recent CIA failures. He confided in a reporter:  The one thing I lose sleep about is thinking what could I have done better, how could I have gotten more attention on this problem sooner.  When asked whether he ever brought up his concerns with the administration, Goss claimed he had met three times with President Clinton to discuss  certain problems.  The upshot?  He was patient and we had an interesting conversation but it was quite clear he didn’t value the intelligence community to the degree President Bush does.

As Newsweek[15] and CNN[16] reported, in June 2004, while Chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, in the face of withering attacks by the Democrats against the Bush Administration in a very tightly contested presidential and congressional election year, Goss defended the intelligence community and the Administration in decidedly partisan terms. During floor debate, fending off efforts by the Democrats in the House to cut the intelligence budget, Goss argued that Sen. John Kerry (D-Mass.), the Democratic presidential nominee, did not appreciate the critical need for robust and sustained support for the CIA and the Intelligence Community. Goss noted a 1977 quote of Kerry’s arguing for intelligence budget cuts and calling Kerry’s proposals on nuclear security  dangerously naive.
Director of CIA
Porter Goss addresses the media after President Bush nominated him to be the director of the CIA

Following the June 3, 2004 resignation of CIA director George Tenet, Goss was nominated to become the new director on August 10 by President George W. Bush. The appointment was challenged by some prominent Democrats, including former Vice President Al Gore, Sen. Robert Byrd (D-WV). Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV (D-WV), vice chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, expressed concerns that Goss was too politically partisan, given his public remarks against Democrats while serving as chairman of the House Intelligence Committee. Another Democratic member of the committee, Ron Wyden (D-OR), expressed concerns that given Goss’s history within and ties to the CIA, he would be too disinclined to push for institutional change. In an interview carried out by Michael Moore’s production company on March 3, 2004, Goss described himself as  probably not qualified  for a job within the CIA, because the language skills the Agency now seeks are not languages he speaks and because the people applying today for positions within the CIA’s four directorates have such keen technical and analytic skills, which he did not have when he applied to the Agency in the early 60s. (See below)

The U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee endorsed his nomination by a 12-4 vote on September 20, 2004, and on September 22 he was confirmed by the Senate in a 77-17 vote. Republican senators unanimously backed him, along with many prominent Democrats, including the two Democratic senators from Florida, Bob Graham and Bill Nelson, and Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle.

While at the CIA, Goss reportedly began to reverse the acts of the previous Directors. Goss and others noted in numerous reports and writings their opposition to risk aversion  which is the last thing you want in an intelligence agency. [17]

Early change under Goss

Goss arrived as CIA Director on September 24, 2004. He had promised the US Senate that he would bring change and reform to the CIA.
He brought with him five personal staff that were to implement change that became unpopular with CIA professionals. Goss’s chief of staff, Patrick Murray, is a former federal prosecutor who served as the House Intelligence Committee Chief Counsel for about 6 years, and as its staff director for the final year before coming to the CIA.

Murray also was appointed by President George W. Bush to the position of Associate Deputy Attorney General at the Department of Justice from 2001 to 2003. He served on the Bush-Cheney Transition Team for the Intelligence Community in 2000 through the Inauguration. Goss’s other staff included Dr. J. Jakub, who formerly served as a CIA DI analyst and was trained as an operations officer before leaving the Agency to attend Oxford University, where he obtained his D.Phil. He served on the House Intelligence Committee and for Senator Saxby Chambliss doing oversight work of the CIA and the Intelligence Community since 1998 before rejoining the CIA with Goss in October 2004. Merrell Moorhead worked for Goss for 10 years, seven of them on the House Intelligence Committee, including as the Committee’s Deputy Staff Director, doing oversight and budgetary/programmatic work regarding the CIA.

Almost immediately upon Director Goss’s and his former Congressional staffers arrival, Steve Kappes — the Director of Operations — and his subordinates including Michael Sulick, Kappes’ then-deputy began a series of confrontations with Goss and his personal staff immediately upon their arrival at the CIA.[citation needed] Kappes was rumored to have personally told DO officers that if they were seen or heard to be subservient to the new DCI and his staff their careers would be over. Ultimately, Kappes, Sulick, and Deputy Director John McLaughlin were reported to believe that Goss would back down .

Since Kappes reemergence at the CIA it has been reported that he quit the Agency rather than carry out a request by Goss to reassign Michael Sulick. It is also reported that this incident occurred because the chief of staff, Murray, heatedly admonished Sulick about the then assistant deputy director for counterintelligence, Mary Margaret Graham, about leaked classified information regarding another CIA officer.

Sulick reportedly left the Director’s office, leaving Kappes standing there stony-faced. Murray then made the point that if that was the way Sulick was going to act with the DCI’s chief of staff, Kappes needed to think about reassigning him to New York, because that sort of relationship just could not be good for the CIA or the DCI.[citation needed]

A week later, Kappes and Sulick, recognizing that Goss was going to protect his former Hill staff, announced that they were retiring, John McLaughlin, the then Deputy Director , who Goss reportedly believed had started the whole series of events by appointing Kappes to the DDO position without consulting Goss, announced his departure just two days later.

Following Goss’s departure, both Kappas and Sulick have returned to positions of higher authority in the U.S. Intelligence Community. Kappas is the Deputy Director of the CIA and Sulick was appointed Director of the National Clandestine Service on September 14, 2007.

**Added info – The National Clandestine Service (NCS) serves as the clandestine arm of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the national authority for the coordination, de-confliction, and evaluation of clandestine operations across the Intelligence Community of the United States.https://www.cia.gov/offices-of-cia/clandestine-service/index.html

(cont. from wikipedia entry below)
Resignation

President George W. Bush and Director of National Intelligence John Negroponte (left) accept Goss’s resignation in the Oval Office on May 5, 2006.

On May 5, 2006 Goss’ resignation from the CIA directorship was announced at a joint press briefing with President Bush at the White House. There was speculation in the press concerning the reasons of the sudden announcement.

The Los Angeles Times reported  Goss was pushed out by Negroponte after clashes between them over Goss’ management style, as well as his reluctance to surrender CIA personnel and resources to new organizations set up to combat terrorism and weapons proliferation. [18] Goss carried considerable integrity on the issues relating to the intelligence community, given his service as a CIA officer and as Chairman for 10 years on the House Intelligence Community.[original research?] Negroponte for his part had been an ambassador, and a consumer of intelligence. Goss made the point with Negroponte that pursuing changes Negroponte reportedly desired, in the manner upon which Negroponte reportedly insisted, contradicted the intent of the intelligence reform legislation; this was to add to the capabilities of the existing agencies in the intelligence community, not to detract and diminish those existing capabilities. The Weekly Standard also noted that Goss wanted intelligence analysts to get more exposure to intelligence gathering and Negroponte planned to move them from the CIA over to DNI, farther from intelligence gathering. While the editors of The Weekly Standard sided with Goss in this dispute, they believe Goss was forced out for other reasons:

[W]e are concerned that Goss left, or was eased out, for reasons of greater policy significance. And if this is the case, Goss’s leaving is not a good sign. Goss is a political conservative and an institutional reformer. He is pro-Bush Doctrine and pro-shaking-up-the-CIA.

John Negroponte, so far as we can tell, shares none of these sympathies. Negroponte is therefore more in tune with large swaths of the intelligence community and the State Department. If Negroponte forced Goss out and is allowed to pick Goss’s successor — if Goss isn’t replaced with a reformer committed to fighting and winning the war on terror, broadly and rightly understood — then Goss’s departure will prove to have been a weakening moment in an administration increasingly susceptible to moments of weakness.[19]

Goss was replaced by Negroponte’s Principal Deputy Director for National Intelligence, four-star Air Force General Michael Hayden.

Excerpt from the History of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence[20]

The idea of a Director of National Intelligence (DNI) dates to 1955 when a blue-ribbon study commissioned by Congress recommended that the Director of Central Intelligence should employ a deputy to run the CIA so that the director could focus on coordinating the overall intelligence effort.

Robert Novak’s May 11 column claimed  Goss faced a disintegrating CIA. The major analytic functions were passed to the DNI. Special operations were going over to the Pentagon. Negroponte was no help to Goss. Although bizarre reasons for Goss’s resignation have been floated on the Internet, sources say Negroponte simply suggested his time was up.

Goss is now an active speaker on the lecture circuit.

References

1. ^ Article I, Section 6 of the Constitution states that no member serving in the legislative branch of the government (that is, in the House or Senate) may serve in a civil service concurrently: Goss had to resign his House seat in order to assume office as the Director.
2. ^ Jennifer Loven (May 5, 2006).  CIA Director Porter Goss Resigns . Associated Press. http://www.breitbart.com/news/2006/05/05/D8HDP7AG2.html. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
3. ^ [1]
4. ^  Richard W. Goss . New York Times. November 13, 1981. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE6DE1F39F930A25752C1A967948260. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
5. ^  In Naugatuck Valley . Time. January 6, 1930. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,882278,00.html. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
6. ^ Joshua Micah Marshall (May 7, 2006).  Big world, small world. . Talking Points Memo. http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/008390.php. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
7. ^  Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to provide for four-year terms for Representatives and to limit the number of consecutive terms Senators and Representatives… . Library of Congress. January 7, 1997. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c105:H.J.RES.16:. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
8. ^  To provide that an annual pay adjustment for Members of Congress may not exceed the cost-of-living adjustment in benefits under title II of the Social Security Act for that year. . Library of Congress. May 4, 1999. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c106:H.R.1669:. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
9. ^  Public Interest Declassification Act of 1999 . Library of Congress. October 27, 1999. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c106:H.R.3152:. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
10. ^ Richard Leiby (May 18, 2002).  A Cloak But No Dagger . Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A36091-2002May17?language=printer. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
11. ^ Ward Harkavy (August 10, 2004).  In the search for intelligence life, Porter Goss is strictly from hunger . Village Voice. http://villagevoice.com/blogs/bushbeat/archive/000273.php. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
12. ^  Pakistan’s support of the Taliban . Afghanistan: Crisis of Impunity: The Role of Pakistan, Russia, and Iran in Fueling the Civil War. Human Rights Watch. July 2001. http://hrw.org/reports/2001/afghan2/Afghan0701-02.htm#P350_92934. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
13. ^ Patrick Martin (March 6, 2002).  Further delay in US congressional investigation into September 11 attacks . World Socialist Web Site. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2002/mar2002/prob-m06.shtml. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
14. ^ Dreyfuss, Robert (2006-05-08).  The Yes Man . The American Prospect. http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=the_yesman. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
15. ^ Michael Hirsch; Michael Isikoff, Mark Hosenball (July 5, 2004).  Secret Agent Man . Newsweek. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5305214/site/newsweek/. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
16. ^ David Ensor (June 24, 2004).  Sources: Goss front-runner for CIA post . CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/24/cia.goss/. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
17. ^ Walter Shapiro (May 6, 2006).  Porter Goss’ spooky demise . Salon. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2006/05/06/goss/. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
18. ^ Greg Miller (May 7, 2006).  CIA Chief’s Ouster Points to Larger Issues . LA Times. http://www.latimes.com/wireless/avantgo/la-na-cia7may07,0,493322.story. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
19. ^ Weekly Standard Editors (May 15, 2006).  The Agency Problem . Weekly Standard. http://weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/012/190waali.asp. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
20. ^  History of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence . Office of the Director of National Intelligence. http://www.odni.gov/aboutODNI/history.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-27.

External links

* Porter Goss at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
* Porter Goss — biography at Spartacus Education
* Porter Goss — biography at NNDB
* Pentagon cheers CIA shake-up
* Goss says CIA leak not worthy of committee action
* GOVEXEC.com: Rep. Porter Goss
* Sources: Goss front-runner for CIA post
* Porter Goss as CIA Director?
* OnTheIssues — Porter Goss
* Opening statement of Porter Goss to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, on September 14, 2004
* U.S. Senate voting record for the confirmation of Porter Goss
* Wikipedia ‘shows CIA page edits’

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Connie Mack, III     Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida’s 13th congressional district
January 3, 1989–January 3, 1993     Succeeded by
Dan Miller
Preceded by
Harry Johnston     Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida’s 14th congressional district
January 3, 1993–September 23, 2004     Succeeded by
Connie Mack IV
Political offices
Preceded by
Larry Combest
Texas
Chairman of the House Intelligence Committee
1997–2004     Succeeded by
Peter Hoekstra
Michigan
Government offices
Preceded by
George J. Tenet     Director of Central Intelligence
September 24, 2004–April 21, 2005     Succeeded by
John Negroponte
(as DNI)
Director of the CIA
September 24, 2004–May 5, 2006     Succeeded by
Michael Hayden

v • d • e
Directors of Central Intelligence and Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence

Sidney Souers A Hoyt Vandenberg A Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter A Walter B. Smith A Allen W. Dulles A John A. McCone A William Raborn A Richard Helms A James R. Schlesinger A William Colby A George H. W. Bush A Stansfield Turner A William J. Casey A William H. Webster A Robert Gates A R. James Woolsey, Jr. A John M. Deutch A George Tenet
Seal of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States
Central Intelligence Agency
Porter J. Goss A Michael Hayden A Leon Panetta
Persondata
NAME     Goss, Porter Johnston
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION     American politician and first Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
DATE OF BIRTH     November 26, 1938
PLACE OF BIRTH     Waterbury, Connecticut
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porter_Goss
Categories: 1938 births | Living people | Directors of the Central Intelligence Agency | George W. Bush Administration personnel | Members of the United States House of Representatives from Florida | People from Waterbury, Connecticut | Florida Republicans | Mayors of places in Florida | United States Army soldiers | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | American spies | Yale University alumni

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porter_Goss

***
Jeb Bush
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jeb Bush

43rd Governor of Florida
In office
January 5, 1999 – January 2, 2007
Lieutenant     Frank Brogan (1999–2003)
Toni Jennings (2003–2007)
Preceded by     Buddy MacKay
Succeeded by     Charlie Crist
Born     February 11, 1953 (1953-02-11) (age 56)
Midland, Texas
Political party     Republican
Spouse(s)     Columba Bush
Residence     Coral Gables, Florida
Alma mater     University of Texas at Austin
Profession     banking, real estate
Religion     Roman Catholic
Signature

John Ellis  Jeb  Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician who served as the 43rd Governor of Florida. He is a prominent member of the Bush family: the younger brother of former President George W. Bush; the older brother of Neil Bush, Marvin Bush and Dorothy Bush Koch; and the second son of former President George H. W. Bush and former First Lady Barbara Bush.

Contents

* 1 Early years
* 2 Family
* 3 Early career
o 3.1 Business experience in Texas and abroad
o 3.2 Business and lobbying experience in Miami
o 3.3 Civic and charitable activities
o 3.4 Religious affiliation
* 4 Political career
o 4.1 Early campaigns
o 4.2 Governor of Florida
+ 4.2.1 Education
+ 4.2.2 Libraries
+ 4.2.3 Environment
+ 4.2.4 Health policy issues
+ 4.2.5 International trade
+ 4.2.6 Lieutenant Governors
+ 4.2.7 Florida Cabinet
+ 4.2.8 Other organizations
* 5 2002 gubernatorial election
o 5.1 The Democratic primary race
o 5.2 The 2002 election results
* 6 Political future
o 6.1 Political bases
o 6.2 Bush’s impact on his political party
o 6.3 Political interests and business activities
o 6.4 Bush as NFL commissioner
o 6.5 Speech at D.C. Summit
o 6.6 Possible run for U.S. Senate
* 7 Electoral history
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links

[edit] Early years

Bush enrolled at Phillips Andover, a private boarding school in Massachusetts, already attended by his brother, George. Bush made the honor roll in his first semester.

When Bush was 17, he went to León, Guanajuato, in Mexico, as part of his school’s student exchange program. He spent his time there teaching English, and it was there that he met his future wife, Columba Garnica Gallo.

Bush attended the University of Texas at Austin, where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a Bachelor’s degree in Latin American Studies in 1973, taking only two and a half years to complete his work, and obtaining generally excellent grades. He had considered a career in Hollywood, but decided instead to pursue politics. He registered for the draft, but the Vietnam War ended before his number came up.

Family

After his early graduation, Bush married Columba Garnica Gallo, on February 23, 1974. Their three children are George P. Bush, Noelle Bush and John Ellis Bush, Jr. Their eldest son, George Prescott Bush (born April 24, 1976 in Texas), went to Gulliver Preparatory School, studied at Rice University, and earned a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Texas. Noelle Lucila Bush (born July 26, 1977 in Texas), their daughter and second child, studied at Tallahassee Community College, graduating in 2000. John Ellis  Jebby  Bush, Jr. (born December 13, 1983 in Miami, Florida), their youngest child, attended The Bolles School, a private boarding and day school in Jacksonville, and then the University of Texas.

John Ellis Bush, Jr., Bush’s youngest son, works for a Miami commercial real estate firm. In October 2007, he endorsed Rudy Giuliani for the 2008 Republican Presidential nomination, and supported the effort as chairman of  Florida Young Professionals for Rudy .[1] On January 29, 2002, according to a police report made public via The Smoking Gun, Noelle Bush attempted to “fraudulently obtain a prescription” at a Walgreens Drug Store located in Tallahassee, Florida.[2] The attending officers, Bob Bascom and Mark E. Dent of the Tallahassee Police Department, ascertained that Bush had telephoned the pharmacy using the name “Noelle Scidmore” in an attempt to obtain Xanax, a prescription drug used to treat anxiety disorders. As a result of her arrest, Bush was ordered by a judge to attend a rehabilitation program at the Center for Drug-Free Living in Orlando, Florida.[3] During her time at the facility, Bush was found in contempt of court after being found in possession of two grams of cocaine, and was sentenced to 10 days in jail.[3] Upon completion of her rehabilitation program, the governor’s press office released a statement on his behalf. “Columba and I are pleased that our daughter Noelle has completed this step, and grateful for the treatment she’s received … . She has worked hard to get here. We are proud of her efforts and love her very much.”[4] Regarding her treatment, Noelle Bush herself told the court “It’s been quite a challenge, and I’m grateful.”[4]

Early career
Business experience in Texas and abroad

Bush went to work in an entry level position in the international division of Texas Commerce Bank, a job he received through James Baker, a long time family friend and chairman of the board of Texas Commerce Bank. Bush assisted in drafting communications for the company’s chairman, Ben Love.

In November 1977, he was sent to the Venezuelan capital of Caracas to open a new operation for the bank. Bush spent about two years there, working in international finance. He eventually worked for the bank’s executive program.

Bush returned to the United States to work without salary on his father’s campaign for the Republican presidential nomination in 1980, explaining:

I wasn’t motivated for politics, I wasn’t motivated because of ideology or anything. My dad’s the greatest man I’ve ever met or will meet; I can predict that fairly confidently. It was payback time, simple as that.

His father ultimately lost the Republican nomination for President that year, but was chosen to be Ronald Reagan’s running mate. That fall, George H.W. Bush was elected Vice President of the United States, and won reelection in 1984. In 1988, the elder Bush won both the Republican Party’s presidential nomination and the election, becoming the nation’s 41st president. In 1992 Bush’s father was defeated for re-election by then-Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton.

Business and lobbying experience in Miami

Following the 1980 presidential election, Bush and his family moved to Miami-Dade County, Florida. He took a job in real estate with Armando Codina, a 32-year-old Cuban immigrant and self-made American millionaire. Codina had made a fortune in a computer business, and then formed a new company, IntrAmerica Investments Inc., to pursue opportunities in real estate.
In 1981, his first year with Codina’s new real estate venture, Bush earned $41,508. He soon became a valuable real estate salesman for Codina and helped him build a very successful property business in Florida.

During Bush’s years in Miami, he was involved in many different entrepreneurial pursuits, including working for a mobile phone company, serving on the board of a Norwegian-owned company that sold fire equipment to the Alaska oil pipeline, becoming a minority owner of the Jacksonville Jaguars, buying a shoe company that sold footwear in Panama, and getting involved in a project selling water pumps in Nigeria.

Codina eventually made Bush his partner in a new development business, which quickly became one of South Florida’s leading real estate development firms. As a partner, Bush received 40% of the firm’s profits.

There have been several allegations of this, but Bush was never on the payroll of Cuban exile Miguel Recarey. Bush worked at locating office spaces for IMC and did so like every other licensed Realtor; commission based on final performance. Jeb was provided with a detailed list of specifications of what was wanted. This included acceptable locations, a range of size and price per square foot parameters. Jeb’s search went on for several months and multiple locations that met the established criteria were actually found by Jeb. Each time, he was provided with a series of reasons why the particular site was not acceptable. In reality, Miguel Recarey was an extremely contradictory fellow, constantly changing his mind. The last property that Jeb Bush brought forth was a deal almost too good to be true: the building was in Coral Gables, right in the middle of the preferred location requested and square foot pricing was well below the going market rate. Miguel found himself in in a difficult predicament and decided to pay Jeb the $75,000 commission, not for purchase of political influence as so many are fond to accuse him of, but for 2 different reasons that don’t appear in the mainstream media: 1) Jeb had performed exactly as requested and he felt he had a legal liability to pay if so challenged. If so, he did not want to be embroiled in a legal fight with the son of an influential politician and be on the wrong side of the argument, 2) He felt he had a moral obligation to pay and had already run out of excuses of why the last property Jeb found would not be acceptable.[5] Recarey, who ran International Medical Centres (IMC), employed Bush as a real estate consultant and paid him a $75,000 fee for finding the company a new location, although the move never took place. Bush did, however, lobby the Reagan/Bush administration vigorously and successfully on behalf of Recarey and IMC.  I want to be very wealthy,  Jeb Bush told the Miami News when questioned during that period.[6]

Civic and charitable activities

After narrowly losing a 1994 election for Governor of Florida against Lawton Chiles, Bush pursued policy and charitable interests. He started a non-profit organization called The Foundation For Florida’s Future, a think tank that stated as its mission influencing public policy at the grassroots level. Jeb met with Noel Serrano, a member of the Latin Chamber of Commerce in 1991. Noel states,  Jeb was always a dedicated Public Servant long before he became Governor  He also  volunteered time to assist the Miami Children’s Hospital, the United Way of Dade County and the Dade County Homeless Trust .[7]
Jeb Bush has also worked with The James Madison Institute, a free market public policy think tank based in Tallahassee, FL. He helped the institute in numerous ways and still has his think tank working in conjunction with it. In June 2008, Jeb’s institute, the Foundation for Excellence in Education,partnered with JMI to hold a summit called  Excellence in Action: A National Summit on Education Reform .[8]

In 1996, The Foundation For Florida’s Future published a book that Bush had co-written, Profiles in Character (ISBN 0-9650912-0-1), a clear parallel to John F. Kennedy’s 1955 book Profiles in Courage. The foundation also published and distributed policy papers, such as  A New Lease on Learning: Florida’s First Charter School , which Bush co-wrote.[9] Bush subsequently wrote the foreword to another book, published by the conservative Heritage Foundation and written by Nina Shokraii Rees, School Choice 2000: What’s Happening in the States (ISBN 0-89195-089-3).

Bush co-founded the first charter school in the State of Florida: Liberty City Charter School, a grades K-6 elementary school.[10] The school is situated in Liberty City, a Miami neighborhood that was the site, in 1980, of the first major race riot since the Civil Rights era.[11] The school’s co-founder, working alongside Bush, was T. Willard Fair, a well-known local black activist and head of the Greater Miami Urban League. The Liberty City Charter School still operates today as a charter school.

Additionally, Bush is an active rock climber, and a strong advocate for climber’s rights.

Religious affiliation

In addition to his business, civic and charitable activities, the Episcopalian Bush converted to Catholicism (1995). He and his wife belonged to the Epiphany Catholic Church in Miami for many years. Bush is also a Third Degree Knight of Columbus according to an August 3, 2004 speech his brother, George W. Bush, made at the 122nd Knights of Columbus Convention in Dallas. The following is an excerpt from the speech:
I’m proud to say that my family has contributed to your ranks. A few years ago, Governor Jeb became a Knight. And he – yes – and he recently took his Third Degree. I’ll see him this weekend. His son is getting married. I’ll pass on the word, aim for the Fourth.

In 2004, Jeb Bush (while still governor) was inducted into the Fourth Degree by Gary L. McLain at a ceremony held Nov. 1. Bush, a member of Father Hugon Council 3521 in Tallahassee, joined Father Hugon Assembly. Jeb Bush Being Knighted 4th Degree

Political career
Early campaigns

Bush got his start in Florida politics as the Chairman of the Dade County Republican Party. Dade County played an important role in the 1986 election of Bob Martinez to the Governor’s office. In return, Martinez appointed Bush as Florida’s Secretary of Commerce. He served in that role in 1987 and 1988, before resigning once again to work on his father’s presidential campaign. In 1989 he served as the campaign manager of Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, the first Cuban-American to serve in Congress. He launched an unsuccessful bid for the Governor’s office in 1994 against incumbent Democratic Governor Lawton Chiles. Bush lost the election by only 63,940 votes out of 4,206,076 that were cast for the major party candidates (2,135,008; 50.8% to 2,071,068; 49.2%). In the same election year, his older brother, George, was elected Governor of Texas.

Governor of Florida
In 1998, Bush defeated the Democratic opponent Lt. Governor Buddy MacKay by over 418,000 votes (2,191,105; 55.3% to 1,773,054; 44.7%) to become Governor of Florida, after courting the state’s moderate voters and Hispanics. Simultaneously, his brother, George W. Bush won a landslide re-election victory for a second term as Governor of Texas, and the Bush brothers became the first siblings to govern two states at the same time since Nelson and Winthrop Rockefeller governed New York and Arkansas from 1967 to 1971. Bush is the first Republican governor of Florida to have served two full four-year terms.

Education

Bush’s administration was marked by a focus on public education reform. His  A+ Plan  mandated standardized testing in Florida’s public schools, eliminated social promotion and established a system of funding public schools based on a statewide grading system using the FCAT test. Bush has been a proponent of school vouchers and charter schools, especially in areas of the state with failing public schools, although to date very few schools have received failing grades from the state. One program that has seen fruition is the Florida Virtual School, a distance-learning program that allows students in rural areas of the state to take Advanced Placement classes for college credit. However, his policies have also been driven by a firm refusal to raise taxes for education, which led Bush to oppose a ballot initiative to amend the Florida Constitution to cap growing school class sizes. Bush said he had  a couple of devious plans if this thing passes .[12][13] Despite his opposition, the amendment passed;[14] Bush’s subsequent suggestions that the amendment be repealed[15] have contributed to criticisms that he has failed to implement it in good faith. A similar concern about new expenditures has led to controversy over whether Florida has provided adequate resources to implement a subsequent voter-approved state constitutional amendment that requires a universal state-financed pre-Kindergarten program.[16]

In higher education, Bush approved three new medical schools during his tenure and also put forth the  One Florida  proposal, an initiative that effectively ended affirmative action admissions programs at state universities.[17] These moves were among the influencing concerns that led to the faculty of the University of Florida to deny Bush an honorary degree, whilst the University of Florida Alumni Association made him an honorary alumnus. North Miami Beach Attorney Larry R. Fleurantin, then a UF law student, on April 1, 2001, wrote an article in the Gainesville Sun challenging Florida Governor Jeb Bush’s Talented 20 Plan, the educational component of  One Florida.  In response to Attorney Fleurantin’s article, on April 7, 2001, Gov. Jeb Bush wrote a column in the Gainesville Sun defending his  One Florida  policy. [18]

Libraries

On May 2006, as part of an unprecedented $448.7-million line-item veto of state funding, Bush slashed a total of $5.8 million in grants to public libraries, pilot projects for library homework help and web-based high-school texts, and funding for a joint-use library in Tampa.[19]

After months of controversy that included thousands of e-mails, petition signatures and hundreds of picketers at the State Capitol, the Florida House voted to ditch Bush’s plan to give the biggest collection at the century-old State Library to Nova Southeastern University.[20]

Environment

Bush signed legislation to protect the Everglades and opposed federal plans to drill for oil off the coast of Florida. In early October 2005, Bush attempted to strike a compromise with fellow Republicans that would allow offshore drilling in an area that stretches 125 miles off Florida’s coastline and give the state legislature the power to permit drilling closer to the state’s coastlines. The compromise was warmly received by some Florida Republicans and U.S. Congressmen, such as bill sponsor Richard Pombo, but has yet to be agreed upon; others including Republican U.S. Senator Mel Martinez, objected to any backtracking on the drilling moratorium. Jeb Bush is skeptical about man-made global warming.

Health policy issues

Bush was involved in the Terri Schiavo case, involving a woman with massive brain damage, who was on a feeding tube for over 15 years, and whose husband and legal guardian, Michael Schiavo, wished to remove the tube. This move was opposed by Terry Schiavo’s parents in the courts. Bush signed  Terri’s Law,  a law passed by the Florida legislature that permitted the Governor to keep Schiavo on life support. The law was ruled unconstitutional by the Florida Supreme Court on September 23, 2004. That decision was appealed to the federal courts. On January 24, 2005, however, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear the case, thus allowing the Florida court’s ruling to stand. Bush took heated criticism from conservatives who were disappointed that he did not take further action to prevent Schiavo from having her feeding tube removed.[21]

Bush oversaw 21 executions as Governor[22] (more than Graham, Martinez and Chiles while they were in office). Bush never agreed to commute any sentence.[23]
Bush also presided over switching from electric chair (the only method of executions until 2000, now optional) to lethal injection, after a botched electrocution of Allen Lee Davis (first inmate executed under his administration and last, to date, electrocuted in Florida). After two previous botched executions (Jesse Tafero in 1990 and Pedro Medina in 1997) Governors Martinez and Chiles along with legislature declined to change methods.[24]

While he is an advocate of capital punishment, Bush suspended all executions in Florida on December 15, 2006, after the execution of Ángel Nieves Díaz was seemingly botched. The execution took 37 minutes to complete, and required a second injection of the lethal chemicals.

International trade

Bush said one of the most important goals of his final two years as Governor was to secure the FTAA Secretariat for Miami.
Lieutenant Governors

Lt. Gov. Frank Brogan, a former fifth-grade teacher, principal, and superintendent, served only one term with Bush. After Brogan remarried, he opted not to serve a second term. Brogan was reelected to a second term in 2002 with Bush and then resigned in March 2003. He and his new wife moved to Boca Raton, where he serves as president of Florida Atlantic University. In Tallahassee, a museum was named in honor of Brogan’s late wife, Mary, who died on June 27, 1999 of breast cancer and, like her husband, was a Florida school teacher.[25]

Following Brogan’s resignation, Bush appointed former Florida Senate President Toni Jennings, with whom he had occasionally disagreed in regards to public policy, as Lieutenant Governor.

Florida Cabinet

As Governor, Bush served as the chairman of the Florida Cabinet, which provides collective governance over part of state government.

Other organizations

Bush was a member of the National Governors Association and the Republican Governors Association.
[edit] 2002 gubernatorial election
Main article: Florida gubernatorial election, 2002

Before Bush’s re-election, no Republican in Florida had ever been re-elected to serve a second term as the state’s Governor. In addition, there was likely no precedent for any Governor to be branded by the opposition as its  Number One Target  for removal from office, as Bush was ranked in 2002. This was not merely a statewide effort to oust the Republican Governor, but a much-publicized goal of the DNC and its highest leadership during the 2002 election cycle.

The Democratic primary race

Bush almost faced Janet Reno in the 2002 Florida Governor’s race. However, a number of other Democratic candidates also wanted to become Florida’s next Governor, including Bill McBride. A prominent litigator with Holland & Knight and a novice candidate, McBride was favored by national Democratic Party leaders in part because of his military background and perceived ability to attract Florida’s more conservative voters.

In the ensuing Democratic primary contest (where only Democratic voters could vote, pursuant to state primary laws), circumstances surrounding McBride’s victory outraged many voters in South Florida. Some voting venues – located in Reno’s urban strongholds of Broward County and Dade County, and operated by Democrats elected as county election officials – reportedly opened hours late, and then ignored Bush’s Executive Order, issued at Reno’s request, to stay open later to accommodate all voters.

The 2002 election results

In the closely watched Florida Governor’s race that attracted national attention, Bush was re-elected in November 2002, becoming the first Republican in the state’s history to be re-elected as Governor. Bush defeated Democratic challenger Bill McBride with 56% to 43%, a greater margin of victory than in Bush’s 1998 campaign for the Governor’s office. Bush also increased the number of counties in his victory column, winning several Florida counties for the very first time. He campaigned all throughout North West Florida in Pensacola and Milton.

In January 2007, Bush became only the second Florida Governor to complete two full four-year terms in office, the first being Democrat Reubin O’Donovan Askew. (Bush was prevented from seeking a third term in the 2006 election, due to term limits under state law.)

Bush made Florida political history not only by becoming the first Republican Governor to ever win re-election in Florida, but also by being the first Florida Governor to select a woman, Toni Jennings, to serve as Florida’s Lieutenant Governor. No woman had ever been appointed or elected to that high office in Florida’s executive branch.

Bush is also the first Governor to hold office while having a brother simultaneously serve as President.

Political future

Due to term limits under state law, Bush was unable to seek a third term as Governor. Some speculated that Bush would run against Florida’s current Democratic senator, Bill Nelson, in the 2006 U.S. Senate election, but he did not; the Republican candidate was Katherine Harris, who lost to Nelson.

Notwithstanding rumors, he did not run for president in the 2008 election.

Political bases

Bush is popular among Cubans in Florida (winning 80 percent of the Cuban vote in 2002) and popular among non-Cuban Hispanics (56 percent in 2002, equaling the 56 percent he won statewide). As a longtime supporter of Israel,[26] Bush also maintains a significant connection to Florida’s Jewish voters. He was endorsed in his two winning Governor races by a national Jewish publication, and won 44 percent of the state’s Jewish vote in the 2002 Governor’s race.[27] Many black voters support his focus on public education and parental choice in education, and a number of Black Republican clubs have risen in Florida.[28] In his re-election in 2002, Bush surprised critics by winning the white female vote in the swing-voting battleground of Central Florida’s I-4 corridor.[29] Most recently, he has reached out extensively to Florida’s Haitian community.

Bush’s impact on his political party

Bush’s appeal to Florida’s highly diverse group of voters, along with his success in expanding the so-called  big tent  of the Florida Republican Party, appear to have propelled him into a commanding political position. Nationwide, American conservatives appear to be positive about Bush, seeing him as committed to upholding core conservative principles.[30]

Throughout his two administrations, Bush’s office touted his record of non–discrimination and rewarding merit, claiming he employed highly qualified women, blacks and other minorities more often in top-level government positions than any previous Florida Governor.

Outside of Florida, fellow Republican leaders throughout the country have sought Bush’s aid both on and off the campaign trail. Bush’s out-of-state campaign visits include Kentucky, where Republican challenger Ernie Fletcher appeared with Bush and won that state’s governorship in 2003,[31] ending a 32-year streak of Democratic governors. In California, after Democratic Governor Gray Davis was ousted in a recall vote, Bush dispatched Florida’s budget director[32] to that state to lead an independent audit of California’s budget, at the request of the state’s newly elected Republican Governor, Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Political interests and business activities

Bush has been active in the neoconservative think tank Project for the New American Century, whose stated goal is to promote American global leadership.

Since 2004, he has been serving a four-year term as a Board Member for the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB).[33] Created by Congress, this board’s purpose is to establish policy on reports examining K-12 students’ academic progress in America’s public and private schools. In 2008, Bush will be serving on the NAGB educational committee focused on Standards, Design and Methodology.

In April 2007, Jeb Bush joined Tenet Healthcare’s board of directors.[34] The following August, Bush joined investment bank, Lehman Brothers, as an adviser in its private equity group.[35]

Bush as NFL commissioner

In May 2006, AP reported that Bush was privately approached to become the next commissioner of the National Football League.[36] This is said to be an interest of his, but it was unknown whether or not he would take the position. The former commissioner, Paul Tagliabue, announced that his tenure would soon be over and he is searching for replacements.  I’m flattered,  Jeb Bush said May 24, 2006 of the NFL’s interest,  but I’m Governor of the state of Florida and I intend to be Governor until I leave – which is January 2007. And I’m not going to consider any other options other than being Governor until I finish .[37] Roger Goodell eventually became the new NFL commissioner.
Speech at D.C. Summit

On January 27, 2007 Bush spoke as the keynote speaker at the National Review Institute’s Conservative Summit in Washington, D.C. speaking about the Democratic take over in Congress. He told political conservatives  we lost, and there are significant reasons that happened, but it isn’t because conservatives were rejected. It’s because we rejected the conservative philosophy in this country. [38] He told them “don’t…abandon conservative principles…we don’t need to be the end all and be all for every special interest group, for every constituent that you like, for every person that’s given a fundraising check to your campaign, for everything that is just wrong about public policy and politics”.[39] In attendance at the summit was former chairman of the Republican National Committee Ed Gillespie who said if he, like Bush, “left office with approval ratings above 60 percent…he might be in Des Moines today [preparing for the presidential primary]”.[38] Bush denied rumors that he would run for President in 2008, but “when questioned did not rule out running as a vice presidential candidate.” He joked about being out of work for the first time in his life but said he is happy for the opportunity to “take a pause.”[39]

Possible run for U.S. Senate

In 2008, Bush indicated that he was considering running in the 2010 U.S. Senate race for the seat being vacated by Mel Martinez, who announced that he would retire at the end of his term.[40][41][42][43][44] But in January 2009, he announced that he would not run for the Senate. [45]

Electoral history
Florida Gubernatorial Election 1994
Party     Candidate     Votes     %      %
Democratic     Lawton Chiles (incumbent)     2,135,008     50.75
Republican     Jeb Bush     2,071,068     49.23
Florida Gubernatorial Election 1998
Party     Candidate     Votes     %      %
Republican     Jeb Bush     2,191,105     55.27
Democratic     Buddy MacKay     1,773,054     44.72
Florida Gubernatorial Election 2002
Party     Candidate     Votes     %      %
Republican     Jeb Bush     2,856,845     56.01
Democratic     Bill McBride     2,201,427     43.16

See also
Florida portal

* Bush family

References

1. ^  Giuliani Picks Up (Jeb) Bush (Jr.) Endorsement , Wall Street Journal Washington Wire, October 18, 2007. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
2. ^  Noelle Bush . The Smoking Gun. pp. 1-4. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/US/01/29/jeb.bush.daughter.drugs/story.noelle.booking.jpg. Retrieved 2006-05-25.
3. ^ a b  Noelle Bush given 10 days in jail for contempt . CNN. 8 August 2002. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/LAW/10/17/noelle.bush/. Retrieved 2006-05-25.
4. ^ a b  Jeb Bush’s Daughter Out of Rehab . Associated Press. 8 August 2003. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/29/national/main326007.shtml. Retrieved 2006-05-25.
5. ^ William Bowles (2003).  International Medical Centers: The Jeb Bush Connection . Information Clearhinghouse. http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article3335.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
6. ^ Duncan Campbell (2002).  The Bush dynasty and the Cuban Criminals . The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,851913,00.html. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
7. ^ [1][dead link]
8. ^  Cato on  Excellence in Action: A National Summit on Education Reform  . Foundation for Excellence in Education. Foundation for Excellence in Education. http://www.excelined.org/Program/ViewPage.aspx?pr=4&pc=21. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
9. ^ (PDF)[dead link]
10. ^ Liberty City Charter School
11. ^  African American Registry: Riot erupts in Liberty City  . Aaregistry.com. http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/895/Riot_erupts_in_Liberty_City. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
12. ^ [2][dead link]
13. ^ [3][dead link]
14. ^  Statutes & Constitution :Constitution : Online Sunshine . Leg.state.fl.us. http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/index.cfm?Mode=Constitution&Submenu=3&Tab=statutes#A09S01. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
15. ^  Devious Plan Ver. 4.0 . Flablog. 2005-02-15. http://www.flablog.net/2005/02/devious-plan-ver-40.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
16. ^ [4][dead link]
17. ^ James, Joni. Jeb Bush on One Florida, St. Petersburg Times, March 18, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
18. ^ . 8:35 p.m. ET (2007-03-24).  Jeb Bush denied one honor, wins another – Politics – MSNBC.com . MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17768626/. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
19. ^  American Libraries – Gov. Jeb Bush Vetoes Florida Library Appropriations . ALA. 2006-05-26. http://www.ala.org/ala/alonline/currentnews/newsarchive/2006abc/may2006ab/bushveto.cfm. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
20. ^  [Libs-Or] Florida library beats bush . Listsmart.osl.state.or.us. 2003-04-05. http://listsmart.osl.state.or.us/pipermail/libs-or/2003-April/000893.html. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
21. ^ [5][dead link]
22. ^  Execution List – Florida Department of Corrections . Dc.state.fl.us. http://www.dc.state.fl.us/oth/deathrow/execlist.html. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
23. ^ Clemency – Death Penalty Information Center.
24. ^ Freedberg, Sydney P. The story of Old Sparky, St. Petersburg Times, September 25, 1999. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
25. ^  The Mary Brogan Museum of Art and Science . Thebrogan.org. 2009-01-17. http://www.thebrogan.org. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
26. ^ Associated Press. State: Gov. Bush declares support for Israel’s fight, St. Petersburg Times, April 27, 2004. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
27. ^ Stewart, Russ. WILL IRAQI VICTORY CONVERT JEWS TO GOP?, Russ Stewart, April 16, 2003. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
28. ^ [6][dead link]
29. ^  The (Finally) Emerging Republican Majority . Weeklystandard.com. http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/003/259yvdec.asp?pg=2. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
30. ^  Fiscal Policy Report Card on America’s Governors: 2002 . Cato.org. 2002-09-20. http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-454es.html. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
31. ^ Wolfe, Charles. As Ky. governor, Fletcher vows to ‘clean up mess’, The Enquirer, November 5, 2003. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
32. ^ Schwarzenegger building team, October 10, 2003. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
33. ^ What is NAGB?[dead link]
34. ^ Koenig, David. Jeb Bush joins Tenet Healthcare’s board, USA Today, May 10, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
35. ^  Lehman hires Jeb Bush as private equity advisor . Reuters.com. 2007-08-30. http://www.reuters.com/article/fundsFundsNews/idUSN3046902620070830. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
36. ^ [7][dead link]
37. ^  Jeb Bush quashes NFL speculation . Usatoday.Com. 2006-05-25. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-05-24-bush-tagliabue_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
38. ^ a b Zachary A. Goldfarb (January 29, 2007).  Jeb Bush preaches to conservative choir at summit . Washington Post. http://www.knoxnews.com/kns/politics/article/0,1406,KNS_356_5312155,00.html.  Retrieved on February 2, 2007
39. ^ a b Nathan Burchfiel (January 29, 2007).  Jeb Bush Calls for Reforms, Return to Civility . CNSNews. http://www.cnsnews.com/news/viewstory.asp?Page=/Politics/archive/200701/POL20070129b.html.  Retrieved on February 2, 2007
40. ^  Jeb: I am considering Senate run – Carol E. Lee and Jonathan Martin . Politico.com. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/1208/16155.html. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
41. ^  Jeb Bush’s Prospects in a Florida Senate Race | Newsweek Politics . Newsweek.com. http://www.newsweek.com/id/172341. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
42. ^ [8][dead link]
43. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/04/us/04brfs-JEBBUSHSHOWS_BRF.html?ref=us
44. ^  Jeb Bush Ponders Florida Senate Run – Marc Ambinder . Marcambinder.theatlantic.com. http://marcambinder.theatlantic.com/archives/2008/12/jeb_bush_ponders_florida_senat.php. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
45. ^  CNN.com: Jeb Bush not running for Senate . Politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com. http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2009/01/06/jeb-bush-not-running-for-senate/. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
Further reading

* Freedberg, Syndey P.  Jeb Bush: The Son Rises Away from Dad’s Shadow.  The Miami Herald, August 15, 1994.
* Huffington, Arianna.  The latest Bush hypocrisy . Salon.com, September 16, 2002.
* Viglucci, Andres and Alfonso Chardy.  Bush and business: Fast success, brushes with mystery . The Miami Herald, October 5, 2002.
* Yardley, William.  Jeb Bush: His early values shape his politics.  The Miami Herald, September 22, 2002.
* Barnes, Fred.  Governor in Chief: Jeb Bush’s remarkable eight years of achievement in Florida.  The Weekly Standard, June 12, 2006.

External links

Search Wikiquote     Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Jeb Bush
Search Wikimedia Commons     Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jeb Bush

* Official website
* Official Florida Web portal
* Office of the Governor
* Official Governor’s portrait and biography from the State of Florida

Political offices
Preceded by
Kenneth H.  Buddy  MacKay, Jr.     Governor of Florida
January 5, 1999 – January 2, 2007     Succeeded by
Charlie Crist
Party political offices
Preceded by
Bob Martinez     Republican Party nominee for Governor of Florida
1994 (lost), 1998 (won), 2002 (won)     Succeeded by
Charlie Crist

v • d • e
Bush family
Prescott Bush ancestors
Dorothy Walker Bush ancestors
Samuel Prescott Bush (1863–1948) • James Smith Bush (1825–1889) • Obadiah Newcomb Bush (1797-1851)
George Herbert Walker (1875–1953) • David Davis Walker (1840–1918) • George E. Walker (1797–1864) • Thomas Walker (1758–1799)
Samuel P. Bush & Flora Sheldon
Prescott Sheldon Bush (m.) Dorothy Wear Walker • Robert Bush • Mary House Bush • Margaret Clement Bush • James Bush
Prescott Bush (1895–1972)
Prescott Bush Jr. • George Herbert Walker Bush (m.) Barbara Pierce • Nancy Walker Bush Ellis • Jonathan James Bush • William Henry Trotter Bush
George H. W. Bush (1924–)
Jonathan Bush (1931–)
George Walker Bush (m.) Laura Lane Welch • Pauline Robinson Bush • Jeb Bush (m.) Columba Garnica Gallo • Neil Mallon Bush (m.) Sharon Smith • Marvin Pierce Bush (m.) Margaret Molster • Dorothy Walker Bush (m. 2nd) Robert P. Koch
Billy Bush (m.) Sydney Davis • Jonathan S. Bush
George W. Bush (1946–)
Jeb Bush (1953–)
Neil Bush (1955–)
Dorothy Koch (1959-)
Barbara Pierce Bush • Jenna Welch Bush (m.) Henry Hager
George Prescott Bush • Noelle Bush
Lauren Bush
Sam LeBlond • Ellie LeBlond • Robert Koch • Gigi Koch
See also
David Davis
The Bush Compound • Buckeye Steel Castings • G. H. Walker & Co. • The Family: The Real Story of the Bush Dynasty • Political line

v • d • e
Governors of Florida
Military (1821)
Jackson
Seal of Florida
Territorial (1822–1845)
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State (since 1845)
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Persondata
NAME     Bush, Jeb
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION     Governor of Florida
DATE OF BIRTH     February 11, 1953
PLACE OF BIRTH     Midland, Texas
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeb_Bush
Categories: 1953 births | Living people | American Roman Catholics | American Roman Catholic politicians | Bolling family | Converts to Catholicism from Anglicanism | English Americans | Irish Americans | Irish-American politicians | Bush family | Children of Presidents of the United States | Converts to Roman Catholicism | FEMA critics | Florida Republicans | George H. W. Bush | Governors of Florida | Phi Beta Kappa Society | People from Houston, Texas | People from Midland, Texas | Phillips Academy alumni | Siblings of Presidents of the United States | State cabinet secretaries of Florida | University of Texas at Austin alumni

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeb_Bush

***

Zapata Corporation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Zapata Corporation (NYSE: ZAP) is a holding company based in Rochester, New York and originating from an oil company started by a group including the former United States president George H. W. Bush. Various writers have alleged links between the company and the United States Central Intelligence Agency.

Contents

* 1 Early business history
* 2 Connections with the CIA
o 2.1 FBI and CIA memos
o 2.2 Allegations by former CIA staff
o 2.3 Allegations of the involvement of a former CIA officer in the foundation of Zapata
o 2.4 Bay of Pigs
o 2.5 Watergate
o 2.6 Iran-Contra affair
* 3 Decline
* 4 Glazer era
* 5 References
o 5.1 Public records
o 5.2 Zapata
o 5.3 George Bush
o 5.4 CIA
o 5.5 Others
* 6 External links

Early business history

The company traces its origins to Zapata Oil, founded in 1953 by future-U.S. President George H. W. Bush, along with his business partners John Overbey, Hugh Liedtke, Bill Liedtke, and Thomas J. Devine. Bush and Thomas J. Devine were oil-wildcatting associates.[1] Their joint activities culminated in the establishment of Zapata Oil.[1] The initial $1 million investment for Zapata was provided by the Liedtke brothers and their circle of investors, by Bush’s father and maternal grandfather—Prescott Bush and George Herbert Walker, and his family circle of friends.
Hugh Liedtke was named president, Bush was vice president; Overbey soon left. In 1954, Zapata Off-Shore Company was formed as a subsidiary of Zapata Oil, with Bush as president of the new company. He raised some startup money from Eugene Meyer, publisher of the Washington Post, and his son-in-law, Phillip Graham.[2][3]

Zapata Off-Shore accepted an offer from an inventor, R. G. LeTourneau, for the development of a mobile but secure drilling rig. Zapata advanced him $400,000, which was to be refundable if the completed rig did not function. If it did function, LeTourneau would get an additional $550,000 together with 38,000 shares of Zapata Off-Shore common stock.

Zapata Corporation split in 1959 into independent companies Zapata Petroleum, headed by the Liedtkes,and Zapata Off-Shore, headed by Bush funded with $800,000.[4] Bush moved his offices and family that year from Midland, Texas to Houston. In 1963, Zapata Petroleum merged with South Penn Oil and other companies to become Pennzoil.

According to a George H. W. Bush-biographer Nicholas King, in the late-1950s and early-1960, Zapata Off-Shore concentrated its business in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Central American coast.[5] The U.S. government began to auction off mineral rights to these areas in 1954. In 1958, drilling contracts with the seven large U.S. oil producers included wells 40 miles (64 km) north of Isabela, Cuba, near the island Cay Sal. In July 1959, Cuba’s Batista government was overthrown by Fidel Castro. Zapata also won a contract with Kuwait.

In 1962, Bush was joined in Zapata Off-Shore by a fellow Yale Skull and Bones member, Robert Gow. By 1963, Zapata Off-Shore had four operational oil-drilling — Scorpion (1956), Vinegaroon (1957), Sidewinder, and (in the Persian Gulf) Nola III.

In 1960, Jorge Diaz Serrano of Mexico was put in touch with Bush by Dresser. They created a new company, Perforaciones Marinas del Golfo, aka Permargo, in conjunction with Edwin Pauley of Pan American Petroleum, with whom Zapata had a previous offshore contract. The deal with Pemargo is not mentioned in Zapata’s annual reports. A Bush spokesman in 1988 claimed the deal only lasted seven months, from March to September 1960. Zapata sold Nola I to Pemargo in 1964.

By 1964, Zapata Off-Shore had a number of subsidiaries, including: Seacat-Zapata Offshore Company (Persian Gulf), Zapata de Mexico, Zapata International Corporation, Zapata Mining Corporation, Zavala Oil Company, Zapata Overseas Corporation, and a 41% share of Amata Gas Corporation.

Bush ran for the United States Senate in 1964 and lost; he continued as president of Zapata Off-Shore until 1966, when he sold his interest to his business partner, Robert Gow, and ran for the U.S. House of Representatives.

In 1966, William Stamps Farish III, age 28, joined the board Zapata Board.

Zapata’s filing records with the U.S.Securities and Exchange Commission are intact for the years 1955-1959, and again from 1967 onwards. However, records for the years 1960-1966 are missing. The commission’s records officer stated that the records were inadvertently placed in a session file to be destroyed by a federal warehouse and that a total of 1,000 boxes were pulped in this procedure. The destruction of records occurred either in October 1983 (according to the records officer) or in 1981 shortly after Bush became Vice President of the United States (according to, Wison Carpenter, a record analyst with the commission).

Connections with the CIA

Various writers have suggested that Zapata Off-Shore, and Bush in particular, cooperated with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) beginning in the late 1950s.

FBI and CIA memos
Memo from FBI Special Agent in Texas, regarding call by  GHW Bush of Zapata Off-Shore Drilling Company  received 75 minutes after JFK’s murder
Memo from J. Edgar Hoover, referring to  Mr. George Bush of the CIA , briefed 24 hours after JFK’s murder

Two Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) memoranda have been offered to show connections between the CIA and George H. W. Bush during his time at Zapata. The first memo names Zapata Off-Shore and was written by FBI Special Agent Graham Kitchel on 22 November 1963, regarding the John F. Kennedy assassination at 12:30 p.m. CST that day. It begins:  At 1:45 p.m. Mr. GEORGE H. W. BUSH, President of the Zapata Off-Shore Drilling Company, Houston, Texas, residence 5525 Briar, Houston, telephonically furnished the following information to writer. .. BUSH stated that he wanted to be kept confidential. .. was proceeding to Dallas, Texas, would remain in the Sheraton-Dallas Hotel.

A second FBI memorandum, written by J. Edgar Hoover, identifies  George Bush  with the CIA. It is dated 29 November 1963 and refers to a briefing given Bush on 23 November. The FBI Director describes a briefing about JFK’s murder  orally furnished to Mr. George Bush of the Central Intelligence Agency. .. [by] this Bureau  on  December 20, 1963.

When this second memorandum surfaced during the 1988 presidential campaign, Bush spokespersons (including Stephen Hart) said Hoover’s memo referred to another George Bush who worked for the CIA.[6] CIA spokeswoman Sharron Basso suggested it was referring to a George William Bush. However, others described this G. William Bush as a  lowly researcher  and  coast and beach analyst  who worked only with documents and photos at the CIA in Virginia from September 1963 to February 1964, with a low rank of GS-5.[7][8][9] Moreover, this G. William Bush swore an affidavit in federal court denying that Hoover’s memo referred to him:

I have carefully reviewed the FBI memorandum to the Director, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State dated November 29, 1963 which mentions a Mr. George Bush of the Central Intelligence Agency. … I do not recognize the contents of the memorandum as information furnished to me orally or otherwise during the time I was at the CIA. In fact, during my time at the CIA, I did not receive any oral communications from any government agency of any nature whatsoever. I did not receive any information relating to the Kennedy assassination during my time at the CIA from the FBI. Based on the above, it is my conclusion that I am not the Mr. George Bush of the Central Intelligence Agency referred to in the memorandum.  (United States District Court for the District of Columbia, Civil Action 88-2600 GHR, Archives and Research Center v. Central Intelligence Agency, Affidavit of George William Bush, September 21, 1988.)

Allegations by former CIA staff

US Army Brigadier General Russell Bowen wrote that there was a cover-up of Zapata’s CIA connections:

Bush, in fact, did work directly with the anti-Castro Cuban groups in Miami before and after the Bay of Pigs invasion, using his company, Zapata Oil, as a corporate cover for his activities on behalf of the agency. Records at the University of Miami, where the operations were based for several years, show George Bush was present during this time.[10]

Another writer[11] quotes four former U.S. intelligence officials saying Bush was involved with the CIA prior to the Bay of Pigs:

Robert T. Crowley and William Corson of the CIA:

Bush was officially considered a CIA business asset, according to Crowley and Corson.  George’s insecurities were clay to someone like Dulles , William Corson said. To recruit young George Bush, Robert Crowley explained, Dulles convinced him that  he could contribute to his country as well as get help from the CIA for his overseas business activities.  [Bush] was, according to Corson,  perfect at talent spotting and looking at potential recruits for the CIA. You have to remember, we had real fears of Soviet activity in Mexico in the 1950s. Bush was one of many businessmen that would be reimbursed for hiring someone the CIA was interested in, or simply carrying a message.  –Chapter 2 page 14

John Sherwood of the CIA:

Bush was at first a tiny part of OPERATION MONGOOSE, the CIA’s code name for their anti-Castro operations. According to the late John Sherwood,  Bush was like hundreds of other businessmen who provided the nuts-and-bolts assistance such operations require… What they mainly helped us with was to give us a place to park people that was discreet.  –Chapter 2 page 16

An anonymous official connected to  Operation Mongoose :

George Bush would be given a list of names of Cuban oil workers we would want placed in jobs… The oil platforms he dealt in were perfect for training the Cubans in raids on their homeland. –Chapter 2 page 16
John Loftus, in his book Secret War quotes former U.S. intelligence officials reporting the same story:
The Zapata-Permargo deal caught the eye of Allan Dulles, who the  old spies  report was the man who recruited Bush’s oil company as a part time purchasing front for the CIA. Zapata provided commercial supplies for one of Dulles’ most notorious operations: the Bay of Pigs Invasion. –Chapter 16 page 368

Finally, according to Cuban intelligence official Fabian Escalante in The Cuba Project: CIA Covert Operations 1959-62, Jack Crichton and George H.W. Bush raised funds for the CIA’s Operation 40.

Tracy Barnes functioned as head of the Cuban Task Force. He called a meeting on January 18, 1960, in his office in Quarters Eyes, near the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, which the navy had lent while new buildings were being constructed in Langley. Those who gathered there included the eccentric Howard Hunt, future head of the Watergate team and a writer of crime novels; the egocentric Frank Bender, a friend of Trujillo; Jack Esterline, who had come straight from Venezuela where he directed a CIA group; psychological warfare expert David A. Phillips, and others. The team responsible for the plans to overthrow the government of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954 was reconstituted, and in the minds of all its members this would be a rerun of the same plan. Barnes talked at length of the goals to be achieved. He explained that Vice-President Richard Nixon was the Cuban  case officer , and had assembled an important group of businessmen headed by George Bush [Snr.] and Jack Crichton, both Texas oilmen, to gather the necessary funds for [Operation 40]. Nixon was a protege of Bush’s father [Prescott], who in 1946 had supported Nixon’s bid for congress. In fact, [Presott] Bush was the campaign strategist who brought Eisenhower and Nixon to the presidency of the United States. With such patrons, Barnes was certain that failure was impossible.  –Page 43-44

Fabian Escalante was in the Department of State Security (G-2) in Cuba in 1960. At the time of the Bay of Pigs, Escalante was head of a counter-intelligence unit and was part of a team investigating a CIA operation called Sentinels of Liberty, an attempt to recruit Cubans willing to work against Castro. His information about Bush apparently comes from a counterintelligence operation against Tracy Barnes of the CIA.

Allegations of the involvement of a former CIA officer in the foundation of Zapata

On January 8, 2007, newly released internal CIA documents revealed that Zapata had in fact emerged from Bush’s collaboration with a covert CIA officer in the 1950s. According to a CIA internal memo dated November 29, 1975, Zapata Petroleum began in 1953 through Bush’s joint efforts with Thomas J. Devine, a CIA staffer who had resigned his agency position that same year to go into private business, but who continued to work for the CIA under commercial cover. Devine would later accompany Bush to Vietnam in late 1967 as a  cleared and witting commercial asset  of the agency, acted as his informal foreign affairs advisor, and had a close relationship with him through 1975.[12]

Bay of Pigs
George Bush on Zapata oil rig, c.1963

The CIA codename for the Bay of Pigs invasion of April 1961 was  Operation Zapata .[13] Through his work with Zapata Off-Shore, Bush is alleged to have come into contact with Felix Rodriguez, Barry Seal, Porter Goss, and E. Howard Hunt, around the time of the Bay of Pigs operation.[14]

CIA liaison officer Col. L. (Leroy) Fletcher Prouty alleges[15] that Zapata Off-Shore provided or was used as cover for two of the ships used in the Bay of Pigs invasion: the Barbara J and Houston. Prouty claims he delivered two ships to an inactive Naval Base near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, for a CIA contact and he suspected very strongly that George Bush must have been involved:

They asked me to see if we could find – purchase – a couple of transport ships. We got some people that were in that business, and they went along the coast and they found two old ships that we purchased and sent down to Elizabeth City and began to load with an awful lot of trucks that the Army was sending down there. We deck-loaded the trucks, and got all of their supplies on board. Everything that they needed was on two ships. It was rather interesting to note, looking back these days, that one of the ships was called the Houston, and the other ship was called the Barbara J. Colonel Hawkins had renamed the program as we selected a name for the Bay of Pigs operation. The code name was  Zapata.  I was thinking a few months ago of what a coincidence that is. When Mr. Bush graduated from Yale, back there in the days when I was a professor at Yale, he formed an oil company, called  Zapata , with a man, Lieddke, who later on became president of Pennzoil. But the company that Lieddke and Mr. Bush formed was the Zapata Oil Company. Mr. Bush’s wife’s name is Barbara J. And Mr. Bush claims as his hometown Houston, Texas. Now the triple coincidence there is strange; but I think it’s interesting. I know nothing about its meaning. But these invasion ships were the Barbara J and the Houston, and the program was  Zapata.  George Bush must have been somewhere around.[16]

John Loftus writes:  Prouty’s credibility, however has been widely attacked because of his consultancy to Oliver Stone’s film JFK.  but notes on page 598 that:  While his credibility has suffered greatly because of his consultancy to Oliver Stone’s film JFK, his recollections about the CIA supply mission have been confirmed by other sources. [17]

Nevertheless, researcher James K. Olmstead claims to have discovered a CIA memorandum which states that the boats were leased, not purchased, by the Garcia Line Corporation with offices in Havana and New York City. The owners were Alfredo Garcia and his five sons. The CIA was using the Rio Escondido for  exfiltrating anti-Castro leaders……prior to 1961 BOP planning.  It had brought out Nino Diaz, and Manolo Ray. Its captain Gus Tirado was well known to the CIA. Eduardo Garcia met with two CIA agents in NYC and D.C. to arrange the use of the Garcia ships for the invasion. The alleged price was $600.00 per day per ship plus fuel, food and personnel.

Eduardo selected and hired 30 men who were  executioners for Batista  Miro Cardona of the Frente and the CIA did not like the choice of men hired to protect the Garcia ships.  Nobody questioned that Eduardo was coming along with the expedition.  I’m going to be in charge of my ships , he said.

Memorandum From the Chief of WH/4/PM, Central Intelligence Agency (Hawkins) to the Chief of WH/4 of the Directorate for Plans (Esterline) The Barbara J (LCI), now enroute to the United States from Puerto Rico, requires repairs which may take up to two weeks for completion. The sister ship, the Blagar, is outfitting in Miami, and its crew is being assembled. It is expected that both vessels will be fully operational by mid-January at the latest. In view of the difficulty and delay encountered in purchasing, outfitting and readying for sea the two LCI’s, the decision has been reached to purchase no more major vessels, but to charter them instead. The motor ship, Rio Escondido (converted LCT) will be chartered this week and one additional steam ship, somewhat larger, will be chartered early in February. Both ships belong to a Panamanian Corporation controlled by the Garcia family of Cuba, who are actively cooperating with this Project. These two ships will provide sufficient lift for troops and supplies in the invasion operation.

The Bay of Pigs operation was directed out of the  Miami Station  (also known as  JM/WAVE ), which was the CIA’s largest station worldwide. It housed 200 agents who handled approximately 2,000 Cubans. Robert Reynolds was the CIA’s Miami station chief from September 1960 to October 1961. He was replaced by career-CIA officer Theodore Shackley, who oversaw Operation Mongoose, Operation 40 (including Porter Goss, Felix Rodriguez, Barry Seal), and others. When Bush became CIA Director in 1976 he appointed Ted Shackley as Deputy Director of Covert Operations. When Bush became Vice President in 1981, he appointed Donald Gregg as his National Security Advisor.

Kevin Phillips[18] discusses George Bush’s  highly likely  peripheral role in the Bay of Pigs events. He points to the leadership role of Bush’s fellow Skull and Bones alumni in organizing the operation. He notes an additional personal factor for Bush: the Walker side of the family (who initially funded Zapata Corporation) had apparently lost a small fortune when Fidel Castro nationalized their West Indies Sugar Co. Edwin Pauley was  known for CIA connections , according to Phillips, it was Pauley who put Pemargo’s Diaz and Bush together.

Watergate

Phillips and others have detailed subsequent involvement by Zapata associates in the Watergate affair. George Bush, as Richard Nixon’s ambassador to the United Nations, urged his former Zapata partner Bill Liedtke to launder $100,000 to the White House plumbers. After Nixon’s 1972 re-election, he appointed Bush as Chairman of the Republican Party National Committee. When the laundering was exposed, those involved included several CIA officials: E. Howard Hunt, Frank Sturgis, Eugenio Martínez, Virgilio González, and Bernard Barker. A discussion of the laundering appears on the Nixon tapes for June 23, 1973.[19]

Iran-Contra affair
Note from Bush to Rodriguez, December 1988
Felix Rodriguez, Porter Goss, Barry Seal, and others, Mexico City 22 January 1963
Michael Maholy alleges[20] that Zapata Off-Shore was used as part of a CIA drug-smuggling ring to pay for arming Nicaraguan Contras in 1986-1988, including Rodriguez, Eugene Hasenfus and others. Mahony claims Zapata’s oil rigs were used as staging bases for drug shipments, allegedly named  Operation Whale Watch.  Mahony allegedly worked for Naval Intelligence, US State Department and CIA for two decades.

Decline

Zapata, under Robert Gow’s direction, acquired a controlling interest in the United Fruit Company in 1969. Robert’s father, Ralph Gow, was on United Fruit’s board of directors.

Gow apparently left Zapata in 1970. He took with him from Zapata Peter C. Knudtzon. Ties to the Bush family continued. In 1971 both Jeb Bush and George W. Bush worked for Gow’s new company, Stratford of Texas (also known as Stratford of Houston). Stratford imported tropical plants. According to Knudtzon, George W. Bush reportedly flew for Stratford to Florida and Guatemala.[21] Stratford evidently had ties to a large commercial plantation in La Democracia, Huehuetenango, Guatemala.

In the 1970s, under chairman and CEO William Flynn, Zapata expanded its business to include subsidiaries in dredging, construction, coal mining, copper mining and fishing.

By the late 1970s, saddled with weak operations, high debt and low return on investment, the company again began undergoing changes in management and direction. Lead by John Mackin, who succeeded William Flynn, the company began selling off some of those businesses and refocused on offshore oil and gas exploration and production.

In 1982 chief operating officer Ronald Lassiter assumed the role of CEO, and presided over a decade of loss-making brought on by the collapse of oil prices. Zapata Off-shore became Zapata Corporation in 1982. Its stock performed poorly. By 1986 Zapata was one of the bad loans that shook the foundations of San Francisco-based Bank of America, with a debt of more than $500 million and a fiscal year loss of $250 million. The company announced several restructurings during those years and managed to stave off bankruptcy, but continued to incur major losses. In 1990 the oil drilling company proposed selling its entire fleet of offshore drilling rigs to focus solely on fishing. The company had not had a profitable quarter in more than five years.

Zapata Offshore continued on as an offshore drilling company until the early 1990s when it was purchased by Arethusa Offshore which a few years later sold the rigs to Diamond Offshore. Still struggling with debt by 1993, Zapata signed a deal with Norex America to raise more than $100 million through a loan and stock sale. But financier Malcolm Glazer, owner of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers NFL franchise and at the time owner of 40 percent of Zapata, did not want his holdings diluted and filed a lawsuit to block the deal.

Glazer era

By 1994 the company had come under Glazer’s control, after a proxy fight. Glazer became chairman of Zapata, replacing Ronald Lassiter, and in 1995 Avram Glazer was named CEO and president of Zapata. De facto headquarters moved from Houston to Rochester, New York. It no longer engaged in exploration, but owned several natural gas service companies. It also produced protein products from the menhaden fish. In subsequent years Zapata sold its energy-related businesses and focused on marine protein.
Between 1998 and 2000, Zapata tried to position itself as an internet media company under the  zap.com  name. The company’s stock boomed and crashed along with other dot-coms, and in 2001 the company conducted a 1 for 10 reverse stock split. The venture was cited by many investment journalists as an example of a company jumping on the internet bandwagon without any relevant experience. This period is probably best remembered for Zapata’s unsolicited (and unsuccessful) takeover bid of the Excite internet portal.[22]

During this period Zapata also built up a controlling stake in Safety Components International, a manufacturer of air bag fabrics and cushions.

On December 2, 2005, Zapata Corporation Chairman, Avie Glazer, announced the sale of 4,162,394 shares, 77.3%, of Safety Components International to Wilbur L. Ross, Jr. for $51.2 million. The company sold its remaining stock in Omega Proteine on December 1, 2006, leaving it with no active subsidiary.

References

1. ^ a b Withheld (sanitized, unclassified document), Central Intelligence Agency (29 November 1975).  Memorandum: To: Deputy Director of Operations; Subject: Messrs. George Bush and Thomas J. . NARA Record Number: 104-10310-10271. http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/viewer/showDoc.do?docId=12758&relPageId=2.
2. ^ Hasty, Michael (February 5, 2004).  Secret admirers: The Bushes and the Washington Post . Online Journal. http://web.archive.org/web/20040405042234/http://onlinejournal.com/Media/020504Hasty/020504hasty.html.
3. ^ Perin, Monica (April 23, 1999).  Adios, Zapata  Colorful company founded by Bush relocates to N.Y. . Houston Business Journal. http://houston.bizjournals.com/houston/stories/1999/04/26/story2.html.
4. ^  Zapata Oil Files, 1943-1983 . George Bush Personal Papers. George Bush Presidential Library. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20070820095146/http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/find/Doncol1/bushpaps.html#Series:%20Zapata%20Oil%20Files,%201943-1983.
5. ^ King, Nicholas (1980). George Bush: A Biography. Dodd Mead. ISBN 0396079199.
6. ^  John Fitzgerald Kennedy . American Patriot Friends Network. http://www.apfn.org/apfn/jfk2.htm.
7. ^  Bush called FBI when JFK died . The Houston Chronicle. December 21, 1991. http://www.newsmine.org/archive/deceptions/assassinations/jfk/bush-calls-fbi-on-jfk-assasination-cia-briefing.txt.
8. ^ [http://www.voxfux.com/features/bush_world_class_criminal.html George Bush: World Class Monster]
9. ^ Date: Thu, 4 January 1996 20:14:32 GMT
10. ^ Russell Bowen (1991). [1]title=The Immaculate Deception: The Bush Crime Family Exposed.
11. ^ Prelude to Terror Joseph J. Trento
12. ^ [2],[3],[4]
13. ^ See Beschloss, p.89
14. ^ Porter & ‘the boys’: Goss Made His  Bones  on CIA Hit Team
15. ^ in the book, UNDERSTANDING SPECIAL OPERATIONS (1989) and on his website
16. ^ Chp 1, Part III: 1961-1963: Prouty’s Military Experiences 1941-1963
17. ^ John-Loftus.com
18. ^ American Dynasty
19. ^ White
20. ^ CONTACT: The Phoenix Project, March 26, 1996
21. ^ Chapter 3: The 1970s
22. ^ Suzanne Galante (May 21, 1998).  Excite rejects Zapata’s bid . CNET News.com. http://news.cnet.com/2100-1001-211454.html.

Public records

* SEC filings of Zapata Corporation
* Zapata Offshore Annual Reports, Microform Reading Room, Library of Congress.
* Transcript and audioof a  smoking gun  tape of Nixon telling Haldeman and Ehrlichman about the  Bay of Pigs  and  Texans.
* National Security Archives documentation of GHW Bush’s CIA involvement in the early 1960s.
* United States District Court for the District of Columbia, Civil Action 88-2600 GHR, Archives and Research Center v. Central Intelligence Agency, Affidavit of George William Bush, September 21, 1988.
* George Bush personal papers

Zapata

*  Adios, Zapata  Colorful company founded by Bush relocates to N.Y. , Houston Business Journal, April 26, 1999
* Franklin, H. Bruce,  Net Losses , Mother Jones, March 2006 – extensive article on role of Menhaded in ecosystem and possible results of overfishing. Retrieved 21 February, 2006

George Bush

* Kevin Philips, Dynasty: Aristocracy, Fortune and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush, (2004), esp. pp.200–208.
* Russell Bowen, The Immaculate Deception: The Bush Crime Family Exposed (1991).
* Joseph McBride,  The Man Who Wasn’t There: ‘George Bush,’ CIA Operative , The Nation, July 16/23, 1988, p. 42.
* Joseph McBride,  Where Was George? , The Nation, August 13/20, 1988, on the whereabouts of GHW Bush on 22 November 1963.
* Nicolas King, George Bush: A Biography.
* Webster Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin, George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography, Chapter 8.2 (1991), and  Bush as a covert CIA operative during the early 1960s . Tarpley and Chaitkin are associated with Lyndon LaRouche.
* Laura Hanning 2004, Study of Evil – A World Reappraised: supporting documents, photos, letters, part III George Herbert Walker Bush
* Anthony L. Kimery,  George Bush and the CIA: In the Company of Friends , Covert Action Quarterly, Summer, 1992.
*  George HW Bush and Felix Rodriguez: the tale of two old friends
* The Mafia, CIA & George [HW] Bush, Pete Brewton, S.P.I. Books, 1992

CIA

* Robert T. Crowley of the CIA (Quoted by Joseph J. Trento) Prelude to Terror (2005)
* William Corson of the CIA (Quoted by Joseph J. Trento) Prelude to Terror (2005)
* John Sherwood of the CIA (Quoted by Joseph J. Trento) Prelude to Terror (2005)

Prelude to Terror Chapter 2 pg. 13 Recruiting George H. W. Bush [5]

* Richard Bissell, Reflections of a Cold Warrior, (Yale University Press, 1996).
* David Atlee Phillips, The Night Watch.
* E. Howard Hunt, Give Us This Day (New Rochelle: Arlington Press, 1973)
* Michael R. Beschloss, The Crisis Years: Kennedy and Khrushchev, 1960-63 (New York: Edward Burlingame Books, 1991), p. 89 refers to  Operation Zapata  as the codename for the Bay of Pigs operation.

Others

* Leroy Fletcher Prouty, The Secret Team (1973).
* Michael Maholy (of Yankton, SD)[6]
* Daniel Yergin, The Prize, (1991).
* Rodney Stich (former FAA investigator) Defrauding America (1994), and The Drugging of America (1999).

External links

* Zapata Corporation

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zapata_Corporation
Categories: Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange | Agriculture companies of the United States | Family businesses

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zapata_Corporation

***

Blackwater Disclosure Adds to CIA Worries
News of ‘Targeted Killing’ Program Precedes Interrogation Report, Possible Probe

You are going to have a hurricane coming through Washington that is aimed right at the intelligence community,  former CIA director Porter J. Goss said. (By Lucian Perkins — The
188 Comments  |  View All »
COMMENTS ARE CLOSED

By R. Jeffrey Smith and Joby Warrick
Washington Post Staff Writers
Friday, August 21, 2009

The disclosure Wednesday of the CIA’s decision five years ago to let a private security contractor help manage its sensitive effort to kill senior al-Qaeda members drew congressional criticism Thursday on the eve of key decisions by the Obama administration that current and former intelligence officials fear could compound the spy agency’s political troubles.
This Story

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Detainees Shown CIA Officers’ Photos
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Blackwater Disclosure Adds to CIA Worries
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Special Report: Blackwater — On Guard and Unregulated

Those decisions include the expected release Monday of newly declassified portions of a 2004 CIA report that questions the legality and effectiveness of the agency’s harsh interrogations at secret prisons. Additionally, Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. may order a probe of possible criminal actions by CIA officers and contractors during those interrogations.
In September, you are going to have a hurricane coming through Washington that is aimed right at the intelligence community,  warned Porter J. Goss, the CIA’s director from September 2004 to May 2006. He noted that a Justice Department inquiry is also pending into whether laws were broken when CIA officers destroyed videotapes of the harsh interrogations.

Democratic House and Senate lawmakers and staff members have already described as inappropriate the Bush administration’s decision to hand management and training responsibility for the CIA’s  targeted killing  efforts to Blackwater USA, and they have reiterated their intent to press for speedier and more complete disclosure by the agency of such activities in the future. CIA Director Leon E. Panetta terminated the program in June, shortly before telling Congress about its existence.
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Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.), chairman of the intelligence committee, sharpened her previous criticism of the program.  It is clear to me that the failure to notify before now constituted a violation of law,  she said in a statement Thursday.

She said she could not address the program’s parameters but emphasized that it  had, in fact, gone beyond the simple planning stage.

I have believed for a long time that the Intelligence Community is over-reliant on contractors to carry out its work,  she said.  This is especially a problem when contractors are used to carry out activities that are inherently governmental.

Democrats have previously pushed to ban the use of contractors to conduct interrogations, and some suggested Thursday that the restriction should extend to hit squads.  There is still too much being done by contractors that ought to be done by government employees,  said a congressional staff member who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the CIA program remains classified.

Goss said he had not been fully briefed on the details of the CIA activities in question, many of which are classified, so he could not confirm the reported involvement of Blackwater, now known as Xe Services LLC. A spokeswoman for the firm did not return a phone call Thursday, but two former intelligence officers familiar with the effort said the company had received millions of dollars for helping train and equip teams to undertake the killings.

Goss alluded to that effort, stating that  my standing orders were ‘field-forward’ mission.

We wanted to catch the people who brought down the trade centers and killed innocent people and wanted to kill more,  he said.  And we wanted to have every possible legal means at our disposal that we could to deal with them. That was certainly in my vision statement, and that is the briefing that was given to members of Congress  during his tenure.

In my view, we should constantly be looking at all our options in terms of national security,  Goss said.  Suppose you got a high-value guy, a terrorist, part of al-Qaeda, a radical fundamentalist trained to kill innocent people, who you cannot talk down from the tree. What happens when you actually find that guy? Do you send the FBI? That’s probably not the best option for the tribal areas  in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

CONTINUED     1    2    Next >

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/08/20/AR2009082004064.html?hpid=topnews

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Breaking News
‘Leaks Arrest’ MP Wins DNA Database Fight

11:54am UK, Thursday August 20, 2009
The MP arrested in a leaks inquiry has won a battle to get his DNA removed from the national database.

Damian Green outside Parliament after learning he will not be prosecuted over leaks

Charges against Tory MP Damian Green were dropped four months ago

Damian Green said it was a  small but significant victory for freedom  but called on the police to delete the details of thousands of other innocent people.

Current rules mean anyone arrested has their DNA stored, even if they are cleared of the offence.

Shadow immigration minister Mr Green was arrested in November after police controversially raided his office in Parliament.

He was accused of  conspiring to commit misconduct in a public office  after allegedly obtaining leaked Home Office documents, but the charges were dropped.

The battle over our DNA records is part of a wider struggle to roll back the database state,  he wrote in the Daily Telegraph.

As citizens of a free country, our personal information belongs to us, not the state.

If we transgress, we lose some rights to privacy. No government has the authority to take away those rights from the innocent as well.

The Conservative MP for Ashford said the four months it took to remove his genetic fingerprint from the database had been fast  by normal standards .

Chief constables have the power to delete the details but not all applications are successful.

Around 800,000 people have their DNA stored, despite not having been convicted.

Ministers are examining a change in the law to cut to 12 years the length of time data from innocent people is held.

It follows a judgement by European human rights judges which said a  blanket  policy breached privacy.

‘Leaks Arrest’ MP Wins DNA Database Fight

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MORE ON THIS STORY: Damian Green MP

* Christopher Galley

Apr 24,2009
Civil Servant Sacked Over Tory Leak
*
Video
Shami Chakrabarti 1:19

Apr 19,2009
Campaigner Wants Search Answers
* Liberty director Shami Chakrabarti

Apr 19,2009
Campaigner Seeks Police Answers
* Liberty director Shami Chakrabarti
Apr 18,2009
Liberties Chief ‘Was Target’ In Police Search
* Christopher Galley
Apr 17,2009
Whistleblower Expects The Sack
*
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Chris Galley with Anna Botting 10:23

Apr 17,2009
In Full: Civil Service Whistleblower
* Damian Green outside Parliament after learning he will not be prosecuted over leaks

Apr 17,2009
Tory MP Reveals Prison Warning
* Damian Green

Apr 16,2009
Leaked Emails: Tory MP Not Charged

Comments to the story

*

Please share with us Tory MP Damian Green how you did it?

I would like to live free. Not in a police state. Not in an EU dictatorship.

We are no longer  Great Britain  we are  EU zones

Posted By :bobby Report This
*

The thing is this government are a bunch of crims and they think that we are the same.

Posted By :Nick Report This
*

Having had my DNA taken by the police whom beleived they had cause in doing. Did such cause me injustice ?? YES I may have

felt offended, the police as far as I was concerned acted wrongly

in that I having committed no crime. However in puting personal feelings aside, having nothing to fear then there should be (NO)
concern that ones DNA being held in a national data base. The benefits far outweigh the loss ( where feelings against such an

national DNA data base coming from lawyers whom convincing

people their human rights are violated, where they truely mean

such DNA evidience is cutting their earnings by 60% where the

court case does not drag on for months, where dealt in a week.

CONCERNS) (ones DNA be left at the scene of a crime where

one framed for a crime .. where DNA results as fingerprints be
held to dispute.. However in taking the larger picture, that all by

law have their DNA in a national data base bring great benefits.

Posted By :william wallace Report This

Read more comments (Page Expands)

*

One leaves DNA almost everywhere, not only when about your daily crimes, er business. The recent news that it will soon be fabricated artifically should invalidate police logic anyway i.e. DNA = guilty. The police database could be compared to misuse of personal data with intent. Where the intent is to complete statistical targets through any means within their limited scope of operation considering they must not infringe real criminals rights..

Posted By :Nigel Report This
*

@PC:

Daily mail? What paper i read is irrelivant, i am just an englishman who wants his freedom back, the freedom that he and his family fought for…..the majority of people recognise that this is fast becoming a police state and europe is a federal state. YOU may feel comfortable with all your personal data in the hands of despots but i am not. I am surprised you didn’t use the worn out phrase  well if you have nothing to hide ….you may wish to read the constitution…this government and previous have broken it and commited treason, there is no getting away from that

Posted By :A noyed Report This
*
‘A noyed’ clearly reads the Daily Mail

People, being arrested and having your DNA on a police operated database is of absolutely NO USE to anyone, unless your DNA is found (in the future) at a crime scene. THAT is then used to bring those responsible to justice. If DNA records are automatically deleted because A) the person is rightly innocent, or B) not enough evidence to convict a person; doesn’t mean those people will not commit an offence in the future. Until that time, their DNA record will not be used for anything.

Posted By :PC Report This

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For Mongolia’s Dukha Tribe, Reindeers Are Way of Life
Separated from Modern World, Reindeer Herders Face Real Threats to Existence

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Aug. 20, 2009

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Officials: Lithuania Hosted Secret CIA Prison To Get  Our Ear
Irresponsible  To Identify Secret Sites, Says CIA; Lithuania Denies Allegation
By MATTHEW COLE
August 20, 2009

A third European country has been identified to ABC News as providing the CIA with facilities for a secret prison for high-value al Qaeda suspects: Lithuania, the former Soviet state.
PHOTO A third European country has been identified to ABC News as providing the CIA with facilities for a secret prison for high-value al Qaeda suspects: Lithuania, the former Soviet state.
Lithuanian President Valdas Adamkus (L) talks to U.S. President George W. Bush after a joint press conference at Society House in Riga, Latvia in this May 7, 2005 file photo.
(Jim Bourg/Reuters)

Former CIA officials directly involved or briefed on the highly classified program tell ABC News that Lithuanian officials provided the CIA with a building on the outskirts of Vilnius, the country’s capital, where as many as eight suspects were held for more than a year, until late 2005 when they were moved because of public disclosures about the program. Flight logs viewed by ABC News confirm that CIA planes made repeated flights into Lithuania during that period.
The CIA told ABC News that reporting the location of the now-closed prison was  irresponsible.

The CIA does not publicly discuss where facilities associated with its past detention program may or may not have been located,  said CIA spokesman Paul Gimigliano.  We simply do not comment on those types of claims, which have appeared in the press from time to time over the years. The dangers of airing such allegations are plain. These kinds of assertions could, at least potentially, expose millions of people to direct threat. That is irresponsible.
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List of 12 Operatives Held in CIA Prisons
More from Brian Ross and the Investigative Team

Former CIA officials tell ABC News that the prison in Lithuania was one of eight facilities the CIA set-up after 9/11 to detain and interrogate top al Qaeda operatives captured around the world. Thailand, Romania, Poland, Morocco, and Afghanistan have previously been identified as countries that housed secret prisons for the CIA.

According to a former intelligence official involved in the program, the former Soviet Bloc country agreed to host a prison because it wanted better relations with the U.S. Asked whether the Bush administration or the CIA offered incentives in return for allowing the prison, the official said,  We didn’t have to.  The official said,  They were happy to have our ear.

Through their embassy in Washington, the Lithuanian government denied hosting a secret CIA facility.

The Lithuanian Government denies all rumors and interpretations about alleged secret prison that supposedly functioned on Lithuanian soil and possibly was used by [CIA],  said Tomas Gulbinas, an embassy spokesman.

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Member Comments (26)
Why Lithuania always has to be described as former Soviet state? if Lithuania was only temporary in Soviet union???? That is so misleading…and therefore people (mostly Americans) always think Lithuanians speak Russian…..and they speak not only a totally different unique language, but even have different culture, and once was a big country. That is so unprofessional and lazy to assume that people do not know Lithuania, and rather  explain  Lithuania as some previous part of Soviet Country…and to those who have never heard about Lithuania give association that Lithuania is one of Slavic countries, while Lithuania is a Baltic country. Please, do something good for your readers – research about Lithuania before you write, and do not just copy what Lithuania is from different, misleading and lazy journalists. Latvia and Lithuania are only two survived Baltic countries, and they are not Slavic, therefore, it is not correct and best way to associate them with Soviet Union. It does not explain a thing. It always just confuse people MORE, and then we get these funny questions,  Oh but I read you were in Soviet union, how come you do not speak Russian??? these questions come up, just because of those like you, who write not in best way describing Lithuania, and therefore mislead people… Lithuania was only occupied by soviets…we simply have nothing that makes as alike…What if everyone would describe Greece as former Italy country? would not that sound funny to even you? That is how funny your description of Lithuanian sounds to Lithuanians…and it is big disgrace to many Lithuanians to always be confused with Slavic countries, and never be recognized in a more precise way – being people of Baltic countries. Please stop this misreadings, our country has a name, and you can find more description of Lithuania anywhere on internet than you need, without tagging misleading remarks. Lithuanians will be thankful, best R.
dewaliuko Aug-27
Lithuanian leaders and people never heard of this. No facts no sources are told in this article? So this article relies on gossiping, ruining countries reputation, without any feedback to it? Unbelievable.
dewaliuko Aug-27
National Security is a top priority for our Country, and should be. Disclosing information of potential and past places of prisons or whatever, should NOT be leaked. Our Security of our Nation will be lacking, and can place us in or more in danger. This is very stupid of this administration to allow this to happen.. might as well tell everyone where our nuckes and other security detail is too  How about where the President and others will go in crisis. This is stupid and will show how weak our Nation is. For shame
SurferDudeUSA Aug-26
View All Comments (26)
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Report: Afghan Bill Allows Husbands to Starve Wives for Refusing Sex

Monday, August 17, 2009

An Afghan bill allowing a husband to starve his wife for refusing sex has become law, the U.K.’s Daily Mail newspaper reported Monday.

The amended version of the bill, which sparked international outrage earlier this year for its treatment of Afghan women, also permits nonconsensual sex within a marriage — a measure critics say condones  marital rape,  according to the newspaper.

An Afghan woman also needs permission from her husband to work — and Afghan fathers and grandfathers are given sole custody of their children under the new law, the newspaper reported.

The original version of the bill, which was struck by Afghan President Hamid Karzai, reportedly required women to have sexual relations with their husbands every four days.

The law applies only to Afghanistan’s Shia minority, which makes up about 15 percent of the country’s population.

Click here to read more on this story from the U.K. Daily Mail.

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Hot Topics »   Health Care in America • Commentary • Political Ticker • more topics »
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Commentary: How insurance firms drive debate

* Story Highlights
* Wendell Potter: In my former job, I helped shape public opinion on health care
* He says insurance companies quietly seek to counter reform measures
* Potter: Industry worked to kill the Clinton health reform plan
* He says he didn’t want to be part of another effort to kill a health care plan
updated 11:16 a.m. EDT, Mon August 17, 2009
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By Wendell Potter
Special to CNN
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Editor’s note: Wendell Potter has served since May 2009 as senior fellow on health care at the Center for Media and Democracy, a nonprofit organization that says it seeks to expose  corporate spin and government propaganda.  After a 20-year career as a corporate public relations executive, Potter left his job last year as head of communications for one of the nation’s largest health insurers, CIGNA Corporation.
Ex-insurance company spokesman Wendell Potter says the industry seeks to drive the health care debate.

Ex-insurance company spokesman Wendell Potter says the industry seeks to drive the health care debate.

(CNN) — Having grown up in one of the most conservative and Republican places in the country — East Tennessee — I understand why many of the people who are showing up at town hall meetings this month are reacting, sometimes violently, when members of Congress try to explain the need for an expanded government role in our health care system.

I also have a lot of conservative friends, including one former co-worker who was laid off by CIGNA several years ago but who nonetheless worries about a  government takeover  of health care.

The most vocal folks at the town hall meetings seem to share the same ideology as my kinfolks in East Tennessee and my former CIGNA buddy: the less government involvement in our lives, the better.

That point couldn’t have been made clearer than by the man standing in line to get free care at Remote Area Medical’s recent health care  expedition  at the Wise County, Virginia, fairgrounds, who told a reporter he was dead set against President Obama’s reform proposal.

Even though he didn’t have health insurance, and could see the desperation in the faces of thousands of others all around him who were in similar straits, he was more worried about the possibility of having to pay more taxes than he was eager to make sure he and his neighbors wouldn’t have to wait in line to get care provided by volunteer doctors in animal stalls. Video Watch Potter interview with Sanjay Gupta »
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Friday morning my former CIGNA buddy sent me an e-mail challenging something he said his wife heard me say in a radio report about my press conference in the Capitol on Wednesday with Rep. Louise Slaughter, D-New York, chairwoman of the House Rules Committee.

She heard you say that these protestors are funded by the insurance companies. Frankly, nothing would surprise me, but certainly not each and every person,  he wrote.  If there was a meeting near me, I certainly would tell my local representative how I feel about this entire subject (and it wouldn’t be pretty), and I certainly am not funded by anyone. So I am ultimately wondering what proof there is that seemingly ordinary Americans are finally protesting what is going in Washington and there are all of these suggestions of a greater conspiracy.

If the radio report had carried more of my remarks, he might have a better understanding of how the health insurance and its army of PR people are influencing his opinions and actions without his even knowing it.

Until I quit my job last year, I was one of the leaders of that army. I had a very successful career and was my company’s voice to the media and the public for several years.

It was my job to  promote and defend  the company’s reputation and to try to persuade reporters to write positive stories about the industry’s ideas on reform. During the last couple of years of my career, however, I became increasingly worried that the high-deductible plans insurers were beginning to push Americans into would force more and more of us into bankruptcy.
The higher I rose in the company, the more I learned about the tactics insurers use to dump policyholders when they get sick, in order to increase profits and to reward their Wall Street investors. I could not in good conscience continue serving as an industry mouthpiece. And I did not want to be part of yet another industry effort to kill meaningful reform.

I explained during the press conference with Rep. Slaughter how the industry funnels millions of its policyholders’ premiums to big public relations firms that provide talking points to conservative talk show hosts, business groups and politicians. I also described how the PR firms set up front groups, again using your premium dollars and mine, to scare people away from reform.

What I’m trying to do as I write and speak out against the insurance industry I was a part of for nearly two decades is to inform Americans that when they hear isolated stories of long waiting times to see doctors in Canada and allegations that care in other systems is rationed by  government bureaucrats,  someone associated with the insurance industry wrote the original script.

The industry has been engaging in these kinds of tactics for many years, going back to its successful behind-the-scenes campaign to kill the Clinton reform plan.
A story in Friday’s New York Times about the origin of the absurdly false rumor that President Obama’s health care proposal would create government-sponsored  death panels  bears out what I have been saying.

The story notes that the rumor emanated  from many of the same pundits and conservative media outlets that were central in defeating Bill Clinton’s health care proposal 16 years ago, including the editorial board of The Washington Times, the American Spectator magazine and Betsy McCaughey, whose 1994 health care critique made her a star of the conservative movement (and ultimately, the lieutenant governor of New York).

The big PR firms that work for the industry have close connections with those media outlets and stars in the conservative movement. One of their PR firms, which created and staffed a front group in the late ’90s to kill the proposed  Patients’ Bill of Rights,  launched a PR and advertising campaign in conservative media outlets to drum up opposition to the bill.

The message: President Clinton  owed a debt to the liberal base of the Democrat Party and would try to pay back that debt by advancing the type of big government agenda on health care that he failed to get in 1994.

The industry goes to great lengths to keep its involvement in these campaigns hidden from public view. I know from having served on numerous trade group committees and industry-funded front groups, however, that industry leaders are always full partners in developing strategies to derail any reform that might interfere with insurers’ ability to increase profits.
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So the next time you hear someone warning against a  government takeover  of our health care system, or that the creation of a public health insurance option would send us down the  slippery slope toward socialism,  know that someone like I used to be wrote those terms, knowing it might turn many of the very people who would benefit most from meaningful reform into unwitting spokespeople for the industry.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Wendell Potter.

All About Health Care Policy • Bill Clinton

Sound Off: Your opinions and comments
InformYourself
updated Mon August 17, 2009
OhioGirl82
updated 7 minutes ago Mr. Potter, you give yourself too much credit. Why do so many  comments  on the UK DailyMail website bash the British NHS? That’s not a PR campaign — that’s fact. Why do Canadian …more

OhioGirl82
updated 7 minutes ago Mr. Potter, you give yourself too much credit. Why do so many  comments  on the UK DailyMail website bash the British NHS? That’s not a PR campaign — that’s fact. Why do Canadians with money choose to come here fo …more
Mr. Potter, you give yourself too much credit. Why do so many  comments  on the UK DailyMail website bash the British NHS? That’s not a PR campaign — that’s fact. Why do Canadians with money choose to come here for treatment? That’s not a PR campaign.

They don’t – when is the last time you heard about any of these countries voting to get rid of their health care system. More right wing distortion. Why are so many American taking  medical vacations  – having surgery in Thailand or India if our system is so great? less
Peter
updated Mon August 17, 2009

I too have lived in both Canada, and the USA, several times, and I too am sick of the outright lies. Frankly, in my experience the health care in Canada has always proven superior to the USA. First rate doctors, tim …more

I too have lived in both Canada, and the USA, several times, and I too am sick of the outright lies. Frankly, in my experience the health care in Canada has always proven superior to the USA. First rate doctors, time to do the work, and a single payer system is a winning combination. Just like with insurance here, you can still pay on your own dime if you want to do your own thing, But it is extremely rare to need to. Usually because someone didn’t get that free second opinion. Canadian doctors aren’t becoming doctors just for the money. Canadian Doctors get a superior education at a reasonable price and most don’t have the inflated ego the excessive earnings here cause. Also, I’ve seen my GP there out perform specialists at the #1 Clinic in the USA. Way out perform. That extra 10 minutes per patient is pretty important. less
Canadian
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Amanda are you working for the insurance companies? LOL
Well here goes my health care is awesome no matter what happens to me for whatever reason I go to the doctor or hospital and they do whatever I need to hel …more
Amanda are you working for the insurance companies? LOL
Well here goes my health care is awesome no matter what happens to me for whatever reason I go to the doctor or hospital and they do whatever I need to help me sure I’ve pre-paid with my taxes but hey my neighbor gets free health care that makes me feel good to see a young child get the care he needs even without insurance and I don’t mind at all now as a human being how could you say that isn’t good? less
Left Coast Mike
updated Mon August 17, 2009
Gee, do you think the  R’ party givesa crap what this honest, industry insider has to say? Not likely. In the end, the spineless Congress will cave in to special interests, the American people will get scewed again, …more

Gee, do you think the  R’ party givesa crap what this honest, industry insider has to say? Not likely. In the end, the spineless Congress will cave in to special interests, the American people will get scewed again, and all the loud-mouthed bullies and thugs sent by Rush and his subordinates in the  R’ party to the town hall meetings will end up bearing the brunt of high costs, lousy care, and a painful, drug-masked last few years of their miserable lives. At least they’ll have their Bibles to read, so no big deal, right? less
phillip anderson
updated Mon August 17, 2009

i would like to see the increased cost breakdown on health insurance and some causes of the out of control condition. how much of the cost is directly tied to liability insurance to cover doctors and hospitals for pos …more

i would like to see the increased cost breakdown on health insurance and some causes of the out of control condition. how much of the cost is directly tied to liability insurance to cover doctors and hospitals for possible errors. special interest groups obviously are controlling this situation and not putting it up for debate. legislators and attorneys may be very interested in keeping this item quite? thanks for listeniing less
afmca
updated Mon August 17, 2009

I find it amazing that all the consevatives are going into their normal reactionary mode and attacking anyone that doesn’t agree with their facts as presented by Limbaugh, Coulter, Gingrich, Palin, Hannity, Dobbs, Th …more

I find it amazing that all the consevatives are going into their normal reactionary mode and attacking anyone that doesn’t agree with their facts as presented by Limbaugh, Coulter, Gingrich, Palin, Hannity, Dobbs, Their lemming like servitude to these corporate spokespeople is just amazing. Start doing your research and start to realize that these people got rich off of keeping us divided and swilling for their corporate masters. less
Newman
updated Mon August 17, 2009
@@DCNative wrote:
I have personal friends from both Canada and Britain who can attest to the long waiting times for care for life-threatening conditions

Hmm, I bet that explains why this country has …more

@@DCNative wrote:
I have personal friends from both Canada and Britain who can attest to the long waiting times for care for life-threatening conditions

Hmm, I bet that explains why this country has a higher life expectancy rate (78.11) than Great Britain (79.01) and Canada (81.23). Or maybe I don’t know how to compare :)

Source:
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2102rank.html less
Solution
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Set up limited liability policies so people covered are limited to how much they can sue for in the case of malpractice. Get rid of the liability and hospitals, doctors, and others can reduce costs. Anyone wishing t …more

Set up limited liability policies so people covered are limited to how much they can sue for in the case of malpractice. Get rid of the liability and hospitals, doctors, and others can reduce costs. Anyone wishing to have a policy that does not establish limits on liability can pay for the additional  feature  out of pocket. It reduces the costs for everyone. Corporations can afford coverage and it makes it more affordable to small business.
Bar anyone who receives care without insurance from the right to sue. They can always refuse treatment and if they are coherant enough to understand they forfeit the right automatically. If people want everyone to have care, then set up a charity and pay for it, but don’t expect everyone else to cover those who want a free ride. At best provide care at a reduced rate that excludes things like transplants, major surgeries, etc. Sorry, but you can’t pay for everything for everyone and health care is a business, not a right. When people find the access to higher quality care is through education and employment, more people will get motivated to pursue both over showing up at the hospital expecting it for free.
Show true  global economics  and open the US market to foreign made drugs. I have yet to hear of masses dying from poor quality foreign drugs. It will create competition and drive prices for drugs in this country down. Those steps alone would cost nothing and resolve a large part of the problem. less
maple syrup
updated Mon August 17, 2009

As a Canadian I can tell you our system isnt perfect but when my kids are sick I call the Dr office and I am in the same day – EVERY TIME.

My wife had a C section for both kids and it didnt cost us a cent …more

As a Canadian I can tell you our system isnt perfect but when my kids are sick I call the Dr office and I am in the same day – EVERY TIME.

My wife had a C section for both kids and it didnt cost us a cent  It was medium risk. If we had to pay, we may have opted to try a riskier natural birth that could have ended very badly.

Our hospitals are clean with top notch staff. If you need a knee you will wait, if you are having a heart attack YOU GO THE FRONT OF THE LINE.

What both countries need is something in-between.

. less
Tom H
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Hey DCNative – I’ve lived in Canada and have many friends there. To them, these protests about  government takeover  are an absolute joke. They wonder how Americans can be so STUPID. Then I remind them that we elected …more

Hey DCNative – I’ve lived in Canada and have many friends there. To them, these protests about  government takeover  are an absolute joke. They wonder how Americans can be so STUPID. Then I remind them that we elected George Bush not once but twice   Question answered   Anyway, I’m sure the insurance companies appreciate you defending the. less
Sam
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Sorry, but I have personal friends from both Canada and Britain who can attest to the long waiting times for care for life-threatening conditions

Sorry, but I have personal friends from the United States who can attest to being denied healthcare because they are sick.

Sorry, but I have personal friends from both Canada and Britain who can attest to the long waiting times for care for life-threatening conditions

Sorry, but I have personal friends from the United States who can attest to being denied healthcare because they are sick. less
Mary
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Hello…. Not one of fhe wizards in Washington could see the financial meltdown coming. Not one of them was smart enough to be proactive. When the banks and the insurance comapnies came running in screaming  The sky …more
Hello…. Not one of fhe wizards in Washington could see the financial meltdown coming. Not one of them was smart enough to be proactive. When the banks and the insurance comapnies came running in screaming  The sky was falling,  these same incompetents who you are willing to trust your health care to, bowed at the feet of the banks and the insurance companies and threw money at them. Now these people are going to protect you from the greed of the insurance companies. Yeah, I believe in Santa Claus and the Easter Bunny, too. If they didn’t intend to force old people to do without the medical treatment that they have been receiving, they wouldn’t have brought up end of life care. You will notice that congress and the president do not include themselves in this great new health care fiasco. That should tell you something about the good deal this is. If it were such a good thing for the citizens, congress would be the first to sign up    They know that if they put congress on this plan, there are a number of them who would need to set up their end of life care conferences. How many members of congress have read this bill? How many people trying to sell it to you have read it? Have you read it? It sounds to me like the people who oppose the bill have read more of it than anyone else. Of course, Congress wouldn’t lie to you, the media wouldn’t lie to you. We know that both the liberals and the conservatives will always tell us the truth. Neither side would lie about something so important. less
Sam
updated Mon August 17, 2009

People in England and Canada are laughing at us. No one in England, Canada, Switzerland, or any other country with national health care is trying to change to the mess of a system that we have. In fact, health care is not an election issue in any of those countries. Why is that?

People in England and Canada are laughing at us. No one in England, Canada, Switzerland, or any other country with national health care is trying to change to the mess of a system that we have. In fact, health care is not an election issue in any of those countries. Why is that? less
joanne
updated Mon August 17, 2009

I guess no one has thought about the health care reform would make us healthy. WE already pay taxes into the system now for those who can not afford health care. It is called Medicaid. We also need to look at our chi …more

I guess no one has thought about the health care reform would make us healthy. WE already pay taxes into the system now for those who can not afford health care. It is called Medicaid. We also need to look at our children when they are no longer on Medicaid and they need care, but have nowhere to turn. Taxes are just another scare tactic. Anyone with any knowledge at all should see that health care has now become limited to a few. We can not let our politicians waste time with the issue and sending out negative out cries. They need to work together. They are suppose to be our elected officials. Why aren’t they spending more time at the table coming up with something that works instead of screaming against it? Makes me wander who’s getting their pockets full for going against the peoples of the USA’s health. It is called putting the money where the mouth is. Corporate has done this for years and acceptance of their money is shown in actions by politicians vs the people. We can learn more by looking up who got what from whom on each elected politician. It is all available at http://www.fec.gov/ less
Rodney Brown
updated Mon August 17, 2009

I have read all this reterhoric about health care all I know is I was created out of LOVE. In that LOVE Iam told to LOVE thy Neighbor as I LOVE thy self. In saying this there is no room for money to tell me what my he …more

I have read all this reterhoric about health care all I know is I was created out of LOVE. In that LOVE Iam told to LOVE thy Neighbor as I LOVE thy self. In saying this there is no room for money to tell me what my heart and respect for others should be. If I think with logic and compassion then is no room for not having UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE FOR EVERY MAN< WOMANless
poorspecimen
updated Mon August 17, 2009
I live in Canada and benefit from the health care plan here.
While not perfect it’s there when I need it, and when both my mother and father were diagnosed with cancer they were given immediate treatment and beca …more

I live in Canada and benefit from the health care plan here.
While not perfect it’s there when I need it, and when both my mother and father were diagnosed with cancer they were given immediate treatment and became survivors. I know some who have had to wait for life saving surgery, but never were in danger of missing it. Local media have delved into the case(s) of the Canadian woman highlighted in the Republican ads and have uncovered less than truthful facts about it. I’m pleased with what I have at a tax rate slightly more than yours – but I can sleep easy at night. Would I like to see improvements – of course – but at least Canada and other nations have taken the bold first steps to make things better. And our insurance companies are still making loads of money – so the ones down there shouldn’t worry…they’ll always find ways to line their pockets with your cash. less
Henry
updated Mon August 17, 2009

By the money, of the money, and for the money, American.. ready to buy insurance companies, health care, and drugs company stocks, if Obama’s heath reform fails.

By the money, of the money, and for the money, American.. ready to buy insurance companies, health care, and drugs company stocks, if Obama’s heath reform fails. less
laughingatthefascists
updated Mon August 17, 2009

it’s a surprise that’s there is still (idiots) scoffing at socialism when capitalism has been working so well – a nation will be judged in how it treats its poor and middle class. In the last 30 years – this is not a …more

it’s a surprise that’s there is still (idiots) scoffing at socialism when capitalism has been working so well – a nation will be judged in how it treats its poor and middle class. In the last 30 years – this is not a democracy – it’s an oligarchy. Some balance toward the other direction – i.e not the top 1% richest – is only reasonable. Making money is great – but not at someone else expense – that is just stealing – not profit  less
to RGA Canadian
updated Mon August 17, 2009

To RGA-Canadian…

Basically you state that all of your procedures since you were a child were paid for by your gov’t plan and you never paid anything out of pocket. I have had this exact same experience h …more

To RGA-Canadian…

Basically you state that all of your procedures since you were a child were paid for by your gov’t plan and you never paid anything out of pocket. I have had this exact same experience here in America, multiple surgeries, paid nothing out of pocket, my private insurance paid for all this. 85% of Americans have had your experience. NEXT you state that you elected to pay $10,000 out of pocket to avoid delays in surgery. Hold on one minute    You paid tons of money, out of pocket, because your gov’t plan did not provide the access you required. That’s exactly what we fear here in America. Sure a gov’t plan COSTS less, but nobody addresses the issues of Quality and Access. For 85% of American’s cost is already low enough, most of us do not pay out of pocket (employer ins., private supplemental ins., etc.) yet we will not allow our Quality or Access to suffer as you have in your system. When I need a surgery, my pricey private insurance pays for it today, and I don’t have to shell out $10k out of pocket to jump the waiting list. But thanks for proving our point  less
JCG
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Hey, DC Native, You can just as easily find horror stories from the US as from Canada and the UK. For my part, every time I’ve talked to a Canadian they have always expressed satisfaction over their health care. And …more

Hey, DC Native, You can just as easily find horror stories from the US as from Canada and the UK. For my part, every time I’ve talked to a Canadian they have always expressed satisfaction over their health care. And they enjoy universal guaranteed coverage and spend only 10% of GDP as opposed to our 17%. less
aceshelman
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Do any of you staunch  capitalism or die  types want to tell everyone why it is desirable for insurance companies to be big wallstreet investment targets? Why? What are they providing by turning fat profits that benef …more

Do any of you staunch  capitalism or die  types want to tell everyone why it is desirable for insurance companies to be big wallstreet investment targets? Why? What are they providing by turning fat profits that benefits this nation? When Investment Bank A buys a bunch of insurance stock, are they using that money to provide better options to you at a lower premium?
For all the money they’re making, i’m only seeing higher premiums and higher deductibles. Let’s hear how their  product  and  service  is improved by them aiming for higher investment marks via increased profits… less
CanadaNative
updated Mon August 17, 2009

To DC Native: Sorry, but I have *never* heard of ‘long waiting times’ for emergency care, including both my grandmothers who fought painful battles with cancer. In the US, they would have been excluded due to ‘pre-e …more

To DC Native: Sorry, but I have *never* heard of ‘long waiting times’ for emergency care, including both my grandmothers who fought painful battles with cancer. In the US, they would have been excluded due to ‘pre-existing conditions,’ meaning we would have had to pay thousands of dollars for treatment. Up here, not only was the care handled quickly, it was FREE. Our families didn’t go bankrupt. We do have wait times yes, but mostly only for elective surgery. I myself had a non-emergency medical issue and was able to get it treated fully in less that a hear and a half, FOR FREE  Now obviously it isn’t ‘free’ per say. We pay higher taxes compared to the US, but is paying higher taxes knowing that whatever happens, I won’t be charged a dime for my medical care worth it? Take it from someone who’s experienced the system. My answer: you’re damned right it is. less
Sofia
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Do not wonder, some of us who oppose Obama’s reform did read this bill and let me tell you that you need to a lawyer to understand that piece of junk. And yes there will be a panels that will be making  recommendation …more

Do not wonder, some of us who oppose Obama’s reform did read this bill and let me tell you that you need to a lawyer to understand that piece of junk. And yes there will be a panels that will be making  recommendations  on the protocol for doctors and will letting us know about options for end of life. I came from socialist country to this wonderful country USA where people are free and now we are on the course to get back to something that we have seen not working because Soviet Union did break up. This person worked for 2 decades for insurance companies and span their truth, not he works for the government and spin their truth. I do not believe a word he is saying. While I agree we need a health reform, Obama is going a totally wrong way. Instead of challenging insurance industry and our law system to stop idiotic law suits, he wants us all on Medicare, system that just denied a medication to my grandma becase she is 95 and too old. This is what we will get once this reform goes thru. Good luck you all living in socialism. less
A concerned citizen
updated Mon August 17, 2009

The health coverage proposal would sound much better if :
a) It was uniform across the entire nation, if we abolished the existing system and established a new one that applies to all citizens, including governme …more

The health coverage proposal would sound much better if :
a) It was uniform across the entire nation, if we abolished the existing system and established a new one that applies to all citizens, including government and private sector workers, students, retirees – all the same;
b) The only role expected of the government would be to reign in insurance companies/doctors/hospital prices;
c) i would offer no exceptions for coverage, no pre-existing conditions, nothing hidden in a lowest possible case somewhere at the end of a 1000-page online policy;
d) it was priced comparable to the current contribution expected of those furtunate to have some insurance offered by employer.

If US governmen presented a similar plan that would offer all-encompassing, non-discriminating (governmnt plans and benefits today are way better than those for the rest of us, sluggers ) – the people of this country would be much more receptive and supportive. Unfortunately, it is always in someone’s interests (gov’t, insurance companies, doctors – to keep us in the dark and make proposals diffcult to interpret.

Lastly, as a naturalized citizen who spent enough years in te forer USSR health ‘realm’, I can testify to the system’s inefficiencies, inadequacies, in some cases – criminal flaws. Yet, it was officially free of charge, and no lengthy forms to fill    less
deborah powell
updated Mon August 17, 2009

I say take away health insurance coverage from Congress and Senate until they find an answer for the millions who can’t afford it. Let them suffer along with the people who put them in office. True they all could affo …more

I say take away health insurance coverage from Congress and Senate until they find an answer for the millions who can’t afford it. Let them suffer along with the people who put them in office. True they all could afford private insurance, but they wouldn’t like it.

Certainly there are many many problems with the health care programs for the poor that currently exist, some of the biggest being that in most states one has to be under 18 years of age or over 65 to receive it, and the lack of preventive care that it covers, yet it is still preferable to nothing at all. Yes, the lines are long etc… etc… but try getting a prescription for antibiotics without seeing a doctor. A simple prescription of antibiotics can and does change peoples lives. Anything is better than nothing

We put Barak Obama in office, not Sara Palin. less
Bobo
updated Mon August 17, 2009

Similar views to the above Canadian poster. I have lived under the Canadian system for as many years as it has been running, ( I live in British Columbia now) and have good service all along. My families relatives are …more

Similar views to the above Canadian poster. I have lived under the Canadian system for as many years as it has been running, ( I live in British Columbia now) and have good service all along. My families relatives are all elderly and have had perferctly good access to whatever they need in a timely fashion, and they have had many major issues to resolve. Also, even if you are behind on your premiums, you can get any service you need. Its the law. By the way, British Columbia, and I guess most other provinces, has a program in place to temporarily lower or eliminate premuims when you have a nose dive in your income, a program my family had to access when I was out of work once. I would not trade this  government run  service for anything. less
Jared
updated Mon August 17, 2009

I am a Canadian and I have lived in Canada for my entire life. Never once did I have to wait any undue amount of time for a serious medical ailment, however, if my malady was non life threatening, I certainly didn’t …more

I am a Canadian and I have lived in Canada for my entire life. Never once did I have to wait any undue amount of time for a serious medical ailment, however, if my malady was non life threatening, I certainly didn’t expect to be at the front of the line. Any comments from  Canadians  who claim their system doesn’t work need to be taken with a grain of salt as it isn’t too hard to claim you’re from Canada when you’re not…or that you have a Canadian  friend  that had problems here. The bottom line is that we Canadians have this crazy notion that no one should need to be bankrupted because they need health care. We also have this crazy notion that our citizens are entitled to free health care, free policing, free fire departments, etc. And guess what, when Jesus healed the sick, he didn’t ask for their health insurance card   It’s time to take a reality pill and see that the anti-public health politicians in the US have had their pockets greased by the HMO lobby for years…legalized bribery. Obama isn’t going far enough IMHO. less
Markie
updated Mon August 17, 2009

I was reading a comment by somebody who mentioned that if people in this country took better care of themselves, the cost of healthcare would be more affordable and so on. This is a good point, but it must be remember …more

I was reading a comment by somebody who mentioned that if people in this country took better care of themselves, the cost of healthcare would be more affordable and so on. This is a good point, but it must be remembered that in corporate America, keeping people ill is considered to be good business. It’s not hard to see how all the junk food manufacturers and fast food outlets with their well paid advertising firms have brainwashed the average American into thinking that going to McDonalds is a great thing to do, for example. Our kids are bombarded with commercials while they watch their cartoons advertising disgustingly sugary cereals designed to keep dentists and insulin manufacturers wealthy. Therefore, in a country driven by profit where wealth is synonymous with happiness, it is easy to see how it is important for corporate America to keep Americans unhealthy so they can  sell  us the cures for the ailments and diseases they have caused by promoting unhealthy eating habits. Ignorant people rail on about Obama being a Marxist and liberals being socialists and so on and so forth, and their ignorant arguments are fueled by the kind of ignorant commentators hired by corporate robber barons such as Rupert Murdoch, who owns Fox News. Once again, it it the gullibility of the average America that corporate America has always banked on, literally, to ensure that the wealth in this country is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small minority of those who are cynical, greedy, and could care less about their fellow human beings, as long as they have their lavish homes and expensive cars and can send their kids to expensive private schools. Corporate America is a large, profit driven parasite that feeds of the blood, literally, of every American who refuses to wake up and smell the pollution. less
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Who’s behind health care reform ad wars?
* Story Highlights
* More than $57 million has been spent on ads trying to influence health care debate
* Ads span the political spectrum with some nonpartisan
* Click on the ads to see the message and what groups are paying for them

updated 10:53 a.m. EDT, Mon August 17, 2009

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Scientists analyze blood to test for toxic airplane air exposure

* Story Highlights
* Results of scientist’s research could expand recognition of  bleed air
* Bleed air is air that passes through the engines of a plane, then into cabin
* Boeing and FAA say air quality on airplanes is as good as in office or home
* Flight attendant Terry Williams believes she is a victim of fumes in cabin air

updated 1:58 p.m. EDT, Mon August 17, 2009

* Next Article in U.S. »

* Read
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By Allan Chernoff and Laura Dolan
CNN

(CNN) — Inside a freezer in a research laboratory at the University of Washington are blood and blood plasma samples from 92 people who suffer from mysterious illnesses, including tremors, memory loss and severe migraine headaches.

Terry Williams hugs her two boys — Jake, left, and Zack — in 2006, before she says toxic cabin air made her sick.

They are mostly pilots and flight attendants who suspect they’ve been poisoned in their workplace — on board the aircraft they fly.
Clement Furlong, University of Washington professor of medicine and genome sciences, leads a team of scientists who have been collecting the samples for 2 ½ years.

Furlong said his team is a few months away from finalizing a blood analysis test that will be able to definitely confirm whether the study participants were indeed poisoned by toxic fumes.

Results of Furlong’s research could expand recognition of what a select group of researchers believes is a largely unrecognized risk of flying: the chance that poisonous fumes enter the cabin.

There’s a danger of inhaling compounds that are coming out of the engine,  said Furlong in his laboratory. See a diagram of how the air is circulated »

The air we breathe on board a plane is a 50-50 mix of filtered, recirculated air and so-called  bleed air  — which bleeds off the engines, and then is pressurized and cooled before being sent into the cabin through vents. If an engine oil seal leaks, aviation engineers and scientists say, the bleed air can become contaminated with toxins.

In 2002 the National Academies of Sciences’ National Research Council reported  contaminant exposures result from the intake of chemical contaminants (e.g., engine lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, deicing fluids and their degradation products) into the Environmental Control System and then into the cabin.
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* Toxic plane air sickens flight attendant, suit says
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Of particular concern are toxic anti-wear agents in the oil, designed to prolong an engine’s life, called tricresyl phosphates.

The engine seals fail and there’s very potent toxins that can come on board,  said Furlong.

Neuropsychologist Sarah Mackenzie Ross of University College London studied 27 British pilots who claimed they had inhaled contaminated air and subsequently had difficulty processing information and slowed reaction times. Her testing confirmed their symptoms.

They did appear to underperform on tasks that required attention, processing speed, reaction time, and what we call executive functioning, which is high-level decision making,  said Ross.

Former flight attendant Terry Williams believes she is a victim of such a  fume event.  She complains of debilitating migraine headaches, tremors, and blind spots in her field of vision.

It’s been so constant and just continues to worsen so it’s extremely frustrating,  said Williams, who is suing Boeing, the owner of McDonnell Douglas, which made the MD-82 aircraft on which she worked.  I’m frustrated that I don’t feel any better and it’s over two years after the exposure.

Boeing told CNN,  It is our belief that air quality on airplanes is healthy and safe.

In its response to Williams’ suit, the company said:  The potential for bleed air contamination has been known through the aviation industry for many years.  But Boeing denies any responsibility for Terry Williams’ illness.

While Williams’ symptoms appear to be quite rare, it appears that fume events occur with regularity.
A British study for the House of Lords found fume events in 1 of every 2,000 flights. In the U.S., airlines are required to report  fume events  to the Federal Aviation Administration. There were 108 such reports last year.

So why wouldn’t more flight attendants, pilots and passengers suffer symptoms?

Furlong said a small percentage of people (how small is not known) appear to be highly sensitive to the most toxic chemicals. They may be genetically disposed to a strong reaction, possessing multiple genes of metabolizing proteins in their livers, or temporarily have high enzyme levels (which can be triggered by prescription drugs) that will act on the inhaled chemicals to magnify their toxicity.

If you happen to be taking a medication that turns on the protein that converts pre-toxin to very potent toxin, you’ve got an issue,  said Furlong.

As a result, someone sitting next to a victim may have inhaled the same contaminated fumes, but not suffer the same reaction.
How might you know that you may have been exposed to a  fume event  while flying? Experts say the telltale sign is a  dirty sock  smell. That’s butyric acid from engine oil, which itself is not highly toxic. But along with it comes the deadly nonodorous compounds tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate and mono-ortho-cresyl phosphate.
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Boeing’s new plane, the 787 Dreamliner, has been designed so that air entering the cabin from outside will not  bleed  off the engines. The company says that’s only for fuel efficiency purposes, not because of any concern about the quality of bleed air in its current fleet of aircraft.

Indeed, Boeing and the FAA say the air quality on airplanes is as good or better than that of the average office building or home.

CNN’s Jessica Ravitz contributed to this report.

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***

http://www.philly.com/inquirer/front_page/20090724_44_arrested_in_N_J__corruption_sweep.html

Posted on Fri, Jul. 24, 2009

44 arrested in N.J. corruption sweep

By Jonathan Tamari

Inquirer Trenton Bureau
Two New Jersey assemblymen, three mayors, and rabbis hailing from Brooklyn to the Shore were among dozens of people arrested yesterday as part of a federal investigation into international money laundering and homegrown political corruption.

***

Michael G. Vickers
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Michael G. Vickers
Michael G. Vickers (born 1953) is the United States Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict. He is a former Army Special Forces non-commissioned officer and officer, as well as a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) paramilitary operations officer from their elite Special Activities Division.[1] While in the CIA, he played a key role in the arming of the resistance to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.[2] His role is featured in George Crile’s 2003 book Charlie Wilson’s War, and in the 2007 movie adaptation in which he is played by actor Christopher Denham.

Career

From 1973 to 1986, Mr. Vickers served as a Special Forces NCO, later as a commissioned officer, and CIA paramilitary operations officer. In the mid-1980s, Vicker’s became involved with Operation Cyclone, the CIA program to arm Islamist Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. He was the head military strategist for the US, coordinating an effort that involved ten countries and providing direction to forces made up of over 500,000 Afghan fighters.[3] Later he was Senior Vice President, Strategic Studies, at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA), during which he provided advice on Iraq strategy to US President George H.W. Bush and his war cabinet.[3] In July 2007 he was confirmed by the United States Senate as Assistant Secretary of Defense, where he is the senior civilian advisor to the US Secretary of Defense on such matters as  counter-terrorism  strategy and operational employment of special operations forces, strategic forces, and conventional forces.[4] In 2004, he wrote an Op-Ed piece for USA Today in which he stated that the United States can be successful in Iraq by using a much smaller force modeled on its deployment Afghanistan.[5]

Personal

Vickers attended the University of Alabama, where he graduated with honors, and went on to attend the Wharton Business School from which he received an MBA. He was also a doctoral candidate under Professor Eliot A. Cohen at The Johns Hopkins University’s Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington DC. He is married with five daughters.[3]

See also

*
Main article: Operation Cyclone
* Charles Wilson (Texas politician)
* Gust Avrakotos
* Howard Hart
* Joanne Herring
* United States Special Operations Command
* Unmanned aerial vehicles (2007 and beyond)
* War in Afghanistan (2001-present)
* Low intensity conflict
* Mini-nuke
* (SADM) or Special Atomic Demolition Munition
* Suitcase nuke
* Force multiplication
* Proxy war
* Fourth generation warfare

References

1. ^ Crile, George (2003). Charlie Wilson’s War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0871138549.
2. ^  Sorry Charlie this is Michael Vickers’s War , Washington Post, 27 December 2007
3. ^ a b c Bio page at the United States Department of Defense
4. ^ Nomination page at Whitehouse.gov
5. ^ For guidance on Iraq, look to Afghanistan: Use fewer U.S. troops, not more

External links

* SOF Advisor – Michael G. Vickers November 14, 2007
* U.S. adapts Cold-War Idea to Fight Terrorists NYTimes March 18, 2008

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_G._Vickers
Categories: 1953 births | Living people | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | Counter-insurgency theorists | Counter-terrorism theorists | Guerrilla warfare theorists | Psychological warfare theorists | Terrorism theorists | United States Army officers | United States Department of Defense officials | Members of the Special Forces of the United States | University of Alabama alumni | University of Pennsylvania alumni | American military writers

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_G._Vickers

***

1141 am
The Roof, the roof, the roof is on fire – report on CNN comment by anchors twice –
10-07-09

***

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Patrick G. Eddington
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Find sources: (Patrick G. Eddington – news, books, scholar)

Patrick Eddington is a former CIA imagery analyst, and currently a lobbyist, private researcher, author, and international security consultant. Eddington resigned in 1996 after working on a book (Gassed in the Gulf) that exposed the gulf war syndrome.
During his tenure at the CIA, his analytical assignments included monitoring the break up of the former Soviet Union; providing military assessments to policy makers on Iraqi and Iranian conventional forces and coordinating the CIA’s military targeting support to NATO during Operation Deliberate Force in Bosnia in 1995.

Eddington’s opinion pieces have appeared in a number of publications, including the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Washington Times, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, and the Army Times, among others. Eddington is a frequent commentator on national security issues for the Fox News Channel, MSNBC, SKY News, CNN, and other domestic and international television networks.

External links

* Eddington home page

Stub icon     This United States biographical article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_G._Eddington
Categories: Living people | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | Gulf War syndrome | American people stubs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_G._Eddington

***

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Grayston Lynch
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Grayston L. Lynch (14 June 1923 in Victoria, Texas – 10 August 2008 in Tampa, Florida) the son of an oil driller, was one of the two CIA agents who commanded the faction of the army that went to war in the Bay of Pigs Invasion. The other agent was William  Rip  Robertson. He was wounded at Normandy, the Battle of the Bulge, and Heartbreak Ridge in Korea; served with the Special Forces in Laos; and received three Purple Hearts, two Silver Stars and one Bronze Star with a  V  for valor, among other awards. He was selected from the elite to become a Paramilitary Operations Officer in the CIA’s famed Special Activities Division in 1960. For his extraordinary heroism at the Bay of Pigs, Lynch was awarded the Intelligence Star, the CIA’s most coveted award. In the six years after the Bay of Pigs, he ran commando raids into Cuba. Lynch retired from the CIA in 1971. [1]

Contents
* 1 Military Service
* 2 Education
* 3 CIA career
* 4 References
* 5 External links

Military Service

Lynch lied about his age and enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1938 and was assigned to 5th Cavalry at Fort Clark, Texas. During World War II he was assigned to the Second Division as platoon sergeant. During D-day he landed at Omaha Beach and then fought in the Battle of the Bulge where he was seriously wounded. He served in the Korean War with the Second Division as Second Lt., promoted to First Lt., wounded at Battle of Bloody Ridge. Later served in Laos with 77th Special Forces Group as Captain, retiring from them in 1960.

Education

Lynch received a BA degree in political science from the University of Maryland, College Park in 1953.

CIA career

In 1960 he joined the CIA working under Theodore Shackley.

Just before midnight on April 16, 1961, Lynch landed in a 12-foot rubber raft to mark the beach for the invasion when he and his men were spotted by a two-man patrol from the Cuban military. Lynch fired, taking both of the men out. When the invasion failed, Lynch volunteered to return to help rescue 41 men from his assault brigade that had landed.  I had never been in combat before,  remembers Amado Cantillo, one of the Navy frogmen with him that night.  It was very scary, but exciting at the same time because we were going to liberate Cuba. The only thing that failed was we didn’t get the air support we were supposed to get. [2]

He’s a born, caring leader – he cared about his men. He lead by doing,  said Cantillo, who lives in Miami. He said Lynch is revered by the Cuban people:  He believed in our cause. He was there, up front all the time. To me, he’s a hero. I just want people to know how great he was. [3]

He wrote a book, Decision for Disaster: Betrayal at the Bay of Pigs, based on his experience leading the rebel Brigade 2506. Lynch is referred to or mentioned in the following books:

Corn,D. Blond Ghost. 1994 (76, 82, 84, 111-2, 117) CounterSpy 1976-12 (11-2) Covert Action Information Bulletin 1978-#1 (8, 11-2) Dinges,J. Landau,S. Assassination on Embassy Row. 1981 (286) Escalante,F. The Secret War. 1995 (64, 137) Freed,D. Death in Washington. 1980 (195) Hersh,S. The Dark Side of Camelot. 1997 (172, 275) Hinckle,W. Turner,W. The Fish is Red. 1981 (vii, 61, 88, 99, 121-2, 341-2) Livingstone,N. The Cult of Counterterrorism. 1990 (362) NameBase NewsLine 1997-01 (10) New York Times 1996-04-29 (A10) Prados,J. Presidents’ Secret Wars. 1988 (185, 204, 265) Russell,D. The Man Who Knew Too Much. 1992 (518) Scott,P.D. Marshall,J. Cocaine Politics. 1991 (27, 29) Turner,W. Rearview Mirror. 2001 (191, 193, 203) Weiner,T. Legacy of Ashes. 2007 (177) Wyden,P. Bay of Pigs. 1979 (83-6, 301) [4]
References

1. ^ Decision for Disaster Betrayal at the Bay of Pigs, Grayston L. Lynch, Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.,Pub. Date: January 2000ISBN 9781574882377
2. ^ http://www.usa-patriotism.com/articles/hp/decorated_hero-01.htm
3. ^ http://www.usa-patriotism.com/articles/hp/decorated_hero-01.htm
4. ^ http://www.namebase.org/main2/Grayston-L-Lynch.html

External links

* Miami Herald article (1998)
* War of Wits Publishing Ltd Biographical Data on Lynch’s own website
* Spartacus Educational

Stub icon     This biographical article related to the United States military is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grayston_Lynch
Categories: United States military personnel stubs | Irregular military | 1923 births | Living people | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | John F. Kennedy | Cold War spies

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grayston_Lynch

***

Billy Waugh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wiki letter w.svg
Please help improve this article by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (January 2007)
William Waugh
Born December 1929 (age 79)
Nickname     Billy,  Mustang
Place of birth     Bastrop, Texas Flag of Texas
Allegiance     United States of America Flag of the United States
Service/branch     United States Army Special Forces
Years of service     1948–1972
Rank     Sergeant Major
Unit     5th Special Forces Group, Studies and Observations Group
Battles/wars     Korean War
Vietnam War
Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (OEF-A)
Awards     SilverStar ribbon.jpg Silver Star
BronzeStar ribbon.jpg Bronze Star
Purple Heart ribbon.jpg Purple Heart (8)
(partial list)
Other work     Central Intelligence Agency

Sergeant Major (SGM) William  Billy  Waugh (US Army-Ret.) (born December, 1929), is a highly decorated American Special Forces soldier and a Central Intelligence Agency Paramilitary Operations Officer who served in the United States military and CIA special operations for more than fifty years. SGM Waugh served in the U.S. Army’s elite Green Berets and the CIA’s famed Special Activities Division.

Contents

* 1 Early life
* 2 Military career
o 2.1 U.S. Army Special Forces
* 3 CIA career
* 4 Education
* 5 Awards and decorations
* 6 External links
* 7 See also
* 8 References

Early life

Waugh was born in Bastrop, Texas on 1 December 1929. In 1945, upon meeting two local Marines who returned from the fighting in World War II, the then-15 year-old Waugh was inspired to enlist in the Marine Corps. Knowing that it was unlikely that he would be admitted in Texas because of his young age, Waugh devised a plan to hitchhike to Los Angeles, where he believed a person had to only be 16 to enlist. He got as far as Las Cruces, New Mexico before he was arrested for having no identification and refusing to give his name to a local police officer. He was later released after securing enough money for a bus ticket back to Bastrop. Now committed to serving in the military once he finished school, Waugh became an excellent student at Bastrop High, graduating in 1947 with a 4.0 grade point average.[1]

Military career

Waugh enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1948, completing basic training at Fort Ord, California in August of that year. He was accepted into the United States Army Airborne School and became airborne qualified in December 1948. In April 1951, Waugh was assigned to the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team (RCT) in Korea.
U.S. Army Special Forces

Shortly after the end of the Korean War, Waugh began training for the Special Forces. He earned the Green Beret in 1954, joining the 10th Special Forces Group (SFG) in Bad Tolz, Germany.

As U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War increased, the United States began deploying Special Forces  A-teams  (Operational Detachment Alpha, or ODA, teams) to Southeast Asia in support of counterinsurgency operations against the Viet Cong, North Vietnamese and other Communist forces. Waugh arrived in South Vietnam with his ODA in 1961, and began working alongside Civilian Irregular Defense Groups (CIDGs) there, as well as in Laos.
Special Forces sleeve insignia, with  Airborne  tab

In 1965, while participating in a commando raid with his CIDG unit on a North Vietnamese Army encampment near Bong Son, Binh Dinh province, Waugh’s unit found itself engaged with much larger enemy force then anticipated. Expecting only a few hundred NVA, it was discovered that a force of Chinese regulars had joined the NVA Elite; combining for almost 4,000 soldiers. While he and his men attempted to retreat from the battle, Waugh received numerous severe wounds to his head and legs. Unconscious, he was taken for dead by NVA soldiers and left alone. Despite his injuries, with the assistance of his teammates Waugh was safely evacuated from the combat zone. He spent much of 1965 and 1966 recuperating at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., eventually returning to duty with 5th SFG in 1966. He received a Silver Star and a Purple Heart (His 6th) for the battle of Bong Son.
Special Forces Regimental Insignia

At this time Waugh joined the Military Assistance Command-Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG). While working for SOG, Waugh helped train Vietnamese and Cambodian forces in unconventional warfare tactics primarily directed against the North Vietnamese Army operating along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

Prior to retirement from U.S. Army Special Forces service, Waugh was senior NCO (non-commissioned officer) of MACV-SOG’s Command & Control North (CCN) based at Marble Mountain on the South China Sea shore a few miles south of Da Nang, Vietnam. Waugh held this Command Sergeant Major role during the covert unit’s transition and name change to Task Force One Advisory Element (TF1AE). Waugh also led the last combat Special reconnaissance parachute insertion by American Army Special Forces High Altitude, Low Opening (HALO) parachutists into denied territory which was occupied by communist North Vietnamese Army (NVA) troops on 22 June 1971.

Waugh retired from active military duty at the rank of Sergeant Major (E-9) on 1 February 1972.
CIA career

Prior to Waugh’s retirement, he worked for the CIA’s elite Special Activities Division starting in 1961. After Waugh retired from the military, he worked for the United States Postal Service until he accepted an offer in 1977 from ex-CIA officer Edwin P. Wilson to work in Libya on a contract to train that country’s special forces. This was not an Agency-endorsed assignment and Waugh might have found himself in trouble with U.S. authorities if it weren’t for the fact that he was also approached by the CIA to work for the Agency while in Libya. The CIA tasked him with surveiling Libyan military installations and capabilities – this was of great interest to U.S. intelligence as Libya was receiving substantial military assistance from the Soviet Union at the time. This additional assignment quite possibly protected Waugh from prosecution after Wilson was later indicted and convicted in 1979 for illegally selling weapons to Libya.[2]

In the 1980s he was assigned to the Kwajalein Missile Range in the Marshall Islands to track Soviet small boat teams operating in the area and prevent them from stealing U.S. missile technology. Some of his more critical assignments took place in Khartoum, Sudan during the early 1990s, where he performed surveillance and intelligence gathering on terrorist leaders Carlos the Jackal and Osama bin Laden with Cofer Black.

At the age of 71, Waugh participated in Operation Enduring Freedom as a member of the CIA team led by Gary Schroen that went into Afghanistan to work with the Northern Alliance to topple the Taliban regime and Al Qaeda at the Battle of Tora Bora. Waugh was in-country from October to December 2001. Waugh spent many years being both a  Blue Badger  (employee) and a  Green Badger  (contractor). He continues to work as a  Green Badger . It is unknown how many missions Waugh was involved in during his career.

Education

In 1985, Waugh was again requested by the CIA for clandestine work. Before he took the offer, he decided to further his education, earning Bachelors Degrees in Business and Police Science from Wayland Baptist University in 1987. He also earned a Masters Degree in Interdisciplinary Studies with a specialization in criminal justice administration (MSCJA) in 1988 from Texas State University (formerly Southwest Texas State), in San Marcos, TX.

Awards and decorations

* 2nd Award  Combat Infantryman Badge (2nd award)
* SilverStar.gif  Silver Star[3]
* Us legion of merit legionnaire rib.png  Legion of Merit
* Bronze Star ribbon.svg  Bronze Star (4 awards)
* Purple Heart BAR.svg  Purple Heart (8 awards)
* Army Commendation Medal ribbon.svg  Army Commendation Ribbon for Valor (4 awards)
* Air Medal ribbon.jpg  Army Air Medal (14 awards)
* Presidential Unit Citation ribbon.svg  Presidential Unit Citation (United States) 2001, Studies and Observations Group
* USASOC Military Free Fall Parachute Badge.jpgHALO Jumpmaster Parachute Badge with Gold Star for Combat, free-fall parachute operation, Vietnam War[4]

External links

* Billy Waugh’s website with information about his memoir Hunting the Jackal
* Waugh’s biography
* Hunting the Jackal: A Special Forces and CIA Soldier’s Fifty Years on the Frontlines of the War Against Terrorism 2004
* Green Berets outfought, outthought the Taliban USA Today 6 January 2002

See also

* Studies and Observations Group
* Bruce Allen Berg

United States Army portal

References

1. ^ Waugh, Billy; Tim Keown (2004). Hunting the Jackal. William Morrow. xix-xxii.
2. ^ Waugh. ibid.. pp. 133–154.
3. ^ Waugh. ibid.. xvi.
4. ^ The image included here is of the basic HALO/HAHO Parachutist Badge.

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Abu Ghraib prison A Axis of evil A Bush Doctrine A CIA run Black sites A Combatant Status Review Tribunal A Enhanced interrogation techniques A Extrajudicial prisoners of the US A Extraordinary rendition A Guantanamo Bay detention camp A Military Commissions Act A NSA electronic surveillance program A President’s Surveillance Program A Protect America Act of 2007 A Unitary executive theory A Unlawful combatant A USA PATRIOT Act
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Persondata
NAME     Waugh, Billy
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION     United States Army soldier
DATE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Waugh
Categories: 1929 births | 2004 books | American military personnel of the Vietnam War | American spies | Members of the Special Forces of the United States | People from Bastrop County, Texas | Recipients of the Silver Star | Recipients of the Bronze Star Medal | Recipients of the Purple Heart medal | Recipients of the Special Forces tab | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | United States Army soldiers | Living people

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Waugh

***

Edwin P. Wilson
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edwin P. Wilson
Born 1928 (age 80–81)
Place of birth     Idaho
Allegiance     Flag of the United States United States of America
Service/branch     United States Marine Corps (USMC)
Years of service     1953-1956
Battles/wars     Korean War
Other work     Work infamously for the Central Intelligence Agency

Edwin P. Wilson (born 1928) was a former CIA officer who was convicted of illegally selling weapons to Libya. It was later found that the United States Department of Justice and the CIA had covered up evidence in the case.

Contents

* 1 Early life
* 2 CIA career
* 3 Arms for Libya controversy
o 3.1 Investigation and conviction
o 3.2 Legal defense
o 3.3 Civil Action
* 4 External links
* 5 References

Early life

Wilson was born to a poor farming family in Idaho. He worked as a merchant seaman, then earned a psychology degree from the University of Portland in 1953.[1] In 1953, he joined the Marines and fought in the last days of the Korean War. He was impressive in the Marines and, when he was discharged in 1956, went to work for the Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA career

His main role for the CIA was setting up front companies, like Consultants International, used to covertly ship supplies around the world for the CIA.[citation needed] As director of these firms, which also conducted legitimate business, he amassed a great deal of money. [1] In 1971 after 15 years with the CIA, he moved to Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI)[2] and at the request of the ONI, offered the assistance of the front companies.[citation needed] He retired on paper from ONI in 1976[2], continuing to run the businesses he had built under the guidance of the CIA, the largest of which was Consultants International. He amassed a fortune of 20 million dollars through these businesses,and continued to offer covert shipping services at the request of the CIA long after his official retirement..[citation needed]

Arms for Libya controversy
In the 1970s, he became involved in dealings with Libya. Wilson claims that a high ranking CIA official Theodore  Blond Ghost  Shackley asked him to go to Libya to keep an eye on Carlos the Jackal, the infamous terrorist, who was living there.[1] At the time, a strict sanctions regime was in place against Libya and the country was willing to pay a great deal for weapons and material. Wilson began conducting elaborate dealings and guns and military uniforms were smuggled into the country. Wilson also recruited a group of retired Green Berets – decorated Vietnam veteran Billy Waugh among them[3] – to go to Libya and train its military and intelligence officers. The Libyans used Wilson’s provisions to advance their interests around the world, including training terrorist cells to build explosive devices inside radios. One cell trained by Wilson’s operatives was the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (PFLF-GC) under the command of a former Syrian Army Officer, Ahmad Jibril.[citation needed] Jibril was suspected of being behind the bombing of Pan Am 103 in Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988.[citation needed] In 1979, a gun that Wilson had arranged to be delivered to the Libyan embassy in Bonn was used to assassinate a prominent dissident. The next year, one of the Green Berets assassinated another dissident in Colorado. Wilson states that he regrets these incidents and had no prior knowledge of them. He states that he was still working for the CIA and his supplying of weapon to the Libyans was an attempt to get close to them and gain valuable intelligence.

The most dramatic deal, and the one that brought Wilson to the attention from the U.S. government, was for some twenty tons of military grade C-4 plastic explosives.[4] This was a massive quantity that was equal to the entire US domestic stockpile.[1] Most of Wilson’s connections were still under the impression that he was working for the CIA and a wide network in the United States supported his actions. The explosives were assembled by a California company and hidden in barrels of oil drilling mud. They were flown to Libya aboard a chartered jet.

Investigation and conviction

After a lengthy investigation by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (then part of the US Department of the Treasury), Wilson was indicted by the US Justice Department for firearms and explosives violations. However, he was in Libya, which would not extradite him. Wilson was very unhappy in Libya, and the Libyans were suspicious of him and he feared for his safety. The prosecutors knew this and they sent a con-man with links to the CIA named Ernest Keiser to convince Wilson that he would be safe in the Dominican Republic.[5] Wilson flew to the Caribbean, but upon arrival was arrested and flown to New York.

He was put on trial four separate times. He was found not guilty of trying to hire a group of Cubans to kill a Libyan dissident. He was found guilty of exporting guns, including the one used in the Bonn assassination, and of shipping the explosives and sentenced to 15 years in prison for the former and 17 years for the latter. While awaiting trial, he allegedly approached a fellow prisoner and attempted to hire him to kill the federal prosecutors. This prisoner was never questioned by anyone outside the CIA. The prisoner instead went to the authorities and they set Wilson up with an undercover agent. The agent taped Wilson hiring him to kill the prosecutors, six witnesses and his ex-wife. In a subsequent trial, he was sentenced to an added twenty-four years in jail for conspiracy to murder. The voice in the recording was never solidly identified as Wilsons.
Legal defense

Wilson’s defence to the Libyan charges was that he was working at the behest of the CIA. The CIA gave the DOJ an affidavit stating that after his retirement he had not been employed directly or indirectly by the agency. The CIA later informed the DOJ that it should not use the affidavit at trial, but the prosecutor Ted Greenberg decided to use it anyway.

While in prison, Wilson campaigned vigorously for his innocence and repeatedly filed Freedom of Information Act requests with the government. Eventually he found information linked to the memo and hired a new lawyer. His lawyer was David Adler, a former CIA officer who had clearance to view classified documents. Adler spent long hours poring through thousands of files and eventually found eighty incidents where Wilson met on a professional basis with the CIA and proof that the CIA had indirectly used Wilson after his retirement.

A federal judge ruled that the prosecution had acted improperly. In October 2003, Wilson’s conviction on the explosives charge was thrown out. Wilson was released from prison on September 14, 2004, after being incarcerated for 27 years.

Civil Action

Wilson filed a civil suit against seven former federal prosecutors, two of whom are now federal judges, and a past executive director of the CIA. On 29 March 2007, U.S. District Judge Lee Rosenthal dismissed his case on the ground that all eight had immunity covering their actions.

External links

* Opinion on Conviction (PDF) US District Judges opinion on the Wilson Conviction
* Judge dismisses Wilson’s civil case
* justice denied article
* Peter Maas. Manhunt: The Incredible Pursuit of a CIA Agent Turned Terrorist (November 5, 2002 ed.). I Books. p. 320. ISBN 0743452682.

References

1. ^ a b c d Peter Carlson (June 22, 2004; Page C01).  International Man of Mystery . washington post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A59212-2004Jun21?language=printer. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
2. ^ a b Michael C. Ruppert (2008).  Ed Wilson’s Revenge:The Biggest CIA Scandal in History Has Its Feet in the Starting Blocks in a Houston Court House . pub. http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ciadrugs/Ed_Wilson_1.html. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
3. ^ Waugh, Billy; Tim Keown (2005). Hunting the Jackal. Avon Books. pp. 133–154.
4. ^ Keith Plocek (May 3, 2007).  Spy Stories . houstonpress. http://www.houstonpress.com/2007-05-03/news/spy-stories/full. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  In particular, Barcella, the former Assistant U.S. Attorney who tracked down Wilson and put him behind bars, pondered the 40,000 pounds of C-4 plastic explosive that Wilson, well schooled by the agency in intrigue and arms dealing, sold to Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi in 1977
5. ^ Eric Margolis (November 10, 2003).  EDWIN WILSON: AMERICA’S MAN IN THE IRON MASK . ericmargolis. http://www.ericmargolis.com/archives/2003/11/edwin_wilson_am.php. Retrieved 2008-06-08.

Persondata
NAME     Wilson, Edwin P.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION     a former CIA officer who was convicted of illegally selling weapons to Libya
DATE OF BIRTH     1928
PLACE OF BIRTH     Idaho
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_P._Wilson
Categories: 1928 births | Living people | American spies | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | United States Marine Corps officers

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_P._Wilson

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Ted Shackley

Theodore G.  Ted  Shackley, Jr. (July 16, 1927 – December 9, 2002) was an American CIA officer involved in many important and controversial CIA operations during the 1960s and 1970s. Shackley, whose nickname was the  Blond Ghost  (because of the deaths which accompanied his station postings) became involved in CIA’s Black Operations. This involved a policy that was later to become known as Executive Action (a plan to remove unfriendly foreign leaders from power). This included a coup d’état that overthrew the Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz in 1954.

At a meeting of this committee (SGA) at the White House on 4th November, 1961, it was decided to call this covert action program for sabotage and subversion against Cuba, Operation Mongoose. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy also decided that General Edward Lansdale (Staff Member of the President’s Committee on Military Assistance) should be placed in charge of the operation. One of Lansdale’s first decisions was to appoint William Harvey as head of Task Force W. Harvey’s brief was to organize a broad range of activities that would help to bring down Castro’s government.

Ted%20Shackley.jpg

Table of Contents
Life in CIA and Black Operations
Vietnam, Laos and the  Phoenix Program
Western Hemisphere Division and Chile
Deputy Director of Covert Operations
Coulumbia
Life After CIA
October Surprise
Iran-Contra Affair
Punishing Daniel Sheehan for Messing with CIA
Prominent Members of Shackley’s Secret Team
Life in CIA and Black Operations
In early 1962 Harvey brought Ted Shackley into the project as deputy chief of JM/WAVE. In April, 1962, Shackley was involved in delivering supplies to Johnny Roselli as part of the plan to assassinate Fidel Castro. Later that year he became head of the station. In doing so, he gained control over Operation 40 or what some now called Shackley’s Secret Team. Shackley was also responsible for gathering intelligence and recruiting spies in Cuba. Most of the anti-Castro Cubans that the CIA managed to infiltrate into Cuba were captured and either imprisoned or executed.

In the autumn of 1963 Ted Shackley and Carl E. Jenkins were using members of Operation 40 in their attempts to try and kill Fidel Castro. According to the interview he gave in 2005:

Gene Wheaton claims it was Jenkins who redirected this team to kill John F. Kennedy.

According to recently released AMWORLD documents it would seem that Shackley and Jenkins continued to use Operation 40 against Castro. In his book, The Crimes of a President, Joel Bainerman argues that during this period “Theodore Shackley headed a program of raids and sabotage against Cuba. Working under Shackley were Thomas Clines, Rafael Quintero, Luis Posada Carriles, Rafael and Raul Villaverde, Frank Sturges, Felix Rodriguez and Edwin Wilson.”
Vietnam, Laos and the  Phoenix Program

In 1966 Shackley was placed in charge of the CIA secret war in Laos. He appointed Thomas G. Clines as his deputy. He also took Carl E. Jenkins, David Morales, Raphael Quintero, Felix Rodriguez and Edwin Wilson with him to Laos. According to Joel Bainerman it was at this point that Shackley and his  Secret Team  became involved in the drug trade. They did this via General Vang Pao, the leader of the anti-communist forces in Laos. Vang Pao was a major figure in the opium trade in Laos. To help him Shackley used his CIA officials and assets to sabotage the competitors. Eventually Vang Pao had a monopoly over the heroin trade in Laos. In 1967 Shackley and Clines helped Vang Pao to obtain financial backing to form his own airline, Zieng Khouang Air Transport Company, to transport opium and heroin between Long Tieng and Vientiane.

According to Alfred W. McCoy (The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade) Shackley and Clines arranged a meeting in Saigon in 1968 between Santo Trafficante and Vang Pao to establish a heroin-smuggling operation from Southeast Asia to the United States.

Shackley employed David Morales to take charge at Pakse, a black operations base focused on political paramilitary action within Laos. Pakse was used to launch military operations against the Ho Chi Minh Trial. In 1969 Shackley became Chief of Station in Vietnam and headed the Phoenix Program. This involved the killing of non-combatant Vietnamese civilians suspected of collaborating with the National Liberation Front. In a two year period, Operation Phoenix murdered 28,978 civilians.

Shackley also brought others into his drug operation. This included Richard L. Armitage, a US Navy official based in Saigon’s US office of Naval Operations, and Major General Richard Secord. According to Daniel Sheehan: “From late 1973 until April of 1975, Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines and Richard Armitage disbursed, from the secret, Laotian-based, Vang Pao opium fund, vastly more money than was required to finance even the highly intensified Phoenix Project in Vietnam. The money in excess of that used in Vietnam was secretly smuggled out of Vietnam in large suitcases, by Richard Secord and Thomas Clines and carried into Australia, where it was deposited in a secret, personal bank account (privately accessible to Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines and Richard Secord). During this same period of time between 1973 and 1975, Theodore Shackley and Thomas Clines caused thousands of tons of US weapons, ammunition, and explosives to be secretly taken from Vietnam and stored at a secret  cache  hidden inside Thailand.

This money, with the help of Raphael Quintero, found its way into the Nugan Hand Bank in Sydney. The bank was founded by Michael Hand, a CIA operative in Laos and Frank Nugan an Australian businessman.

Saigon fell to the NLF in April, 1975. The Vietnam War was over. Richard Armitage was dispatched by Shackley, from Vietnam to Tehran. In Iran, Armitage, set up a secret  financial conduit  inside Iran, into which secret Vang Pao drug funds could be deposited from Southeast Asia. According to Daniel Sheehan: “The purpose of this conduit was to serve as the vehicle for secret funding by Shackley’s  Secret Team,  of a private, non-CIA authorized  Black  operations inside Iran, disposed to seek out, identify, and assassinate socialist and communist sympathizers, who were viewed by Shackley and his  Secret Team  members to be  potential terrorists  against the Shah of Iran’s government in Iran. In late 1975 and early 1976, Theodore Shackley and Thomas Clines retained Edwin Wilson to travel to Tehran, Iran to head up the  Secret Team  covert  anti-terrorist  assassination program in Iran.”
Western Hemisphere Division and Chile

When Shackley was recalled in February, 1972, he was put in charge of the CIA’s Western Hemisphere Division. One of his major tasks was to undermine Philip Agee, an ex-CIA officer who was writing a book on the CIA. The book was eventually published as CIA Diary, but did not include the information that would have permanently damaged the reputation of the CIA.

Shackley also played an important role in the overthrow of Salvador Allende in Chile. As his biographer, David Corn points out:  Salvador Allende died during the coup. When the smoke cleared, General Augusto Pinochet, the head of a military junta, was in dictatorial control… Elections were suspended. The press was censored. Allende supporters and opponents of the junta were jailed. Torture centers were established. Executions replaced soccer matches in Santiago’s stadiums. Bodies floated down the Mapocho River. Due in part to the hard work of Shackley and dozens of other Agency bureaucrats and operatives, Chile was free of the socialists.

Deputy Director of Covert Operations

After Richard Nixon resigned, Gerald Ford brought in George Bush (Senior) as Director of the CIA. This was followed by Shackley being appointed as Deputy Director of Operations. He therefore became second-in-command of all CIA covert activity.

Donald Freed (Death in Washington: The Murder of Orlando Letelier) claims that on 29th June, 1976, Townley had a meeting with Bernardo De Torres, Armando Lopez Estrada, Hector Duran and General Juan Manuel Contreras Sepulveda. The following month Frank Castro, Luis Posada, Orlando Bosch and Guillermo Novo established Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations (CORU). CORU was partly financed by Guillermo Hernández Cartaya, another Bay of Pigs veteran closely linked to the CIA. He was later charged with money laundering, drugs & arms trafficking and embezzlement. The federal prosecutor told Pete Brewton that he had been approached by a CIA officer who explained that:

Cartaya had done a bunch of things that the government was indebted to him for, and he asked me to drop the charges against him.

One Miami police veteran told the authors of Assassination on Embassy Row (1980):  The Cubans held the CORU meeting at the request of the CIA. The Cuban groups… were running amok in the mid-1970s, and the United States had lost control of them. So the United States backed the meeting to get them all going in the same direction again, under United States control.  It has been pointed out that George H. W. Bush was director of the CIA when this meeting took place.

Shackley was hoping to eventually replace Bush as director of the CIA. However, the election of Jimmy Carter was a severe blow to his chances. Carter appointed an outsider, Stansfield Turner, as head of the CIA. He immediately carried out an investigation of into CIA covert activities. Turner eventually found out about Shackley’s “Secret Team”. He was especially worried about the activities of Edwin Wilson and the Nugan Hand Bank.

One of the men Wilson employed was former CIA officer Kevin P. Mulcahy. He became concerned about Wilson’s illegal activities and sent a message about them to the agency. Shackley was initially able to block any internal investigation of Wilson. However, in April, 1977, the Washington Post, published an article on Wilson’s activities stating that he may be getting support from  current CIA employees . Stansfield Turner ordered an investigation and discovered that both Shackley and Thomas G. Clines had close relationships with Wilson. Shackley was called in to explain what was going on. His explanation was not satisfactory and it was made clear that his career at the CIA had come to an end. Richard Helms, reportedly said:

Ted (Shackley) is what we call in the spook business a quadruple threat – Drugs, Arms, Money and Murder.

Columbia

“Bob Haynes” was the alias used by Shackley between 1979 and 1984 with pilots carrying drugs. As Harry Martin reports in the Napa Sentinel:
“[The pilot] also has a number of documents in safekeeping which prove the presence of Shackley in Medellin, not only directing the cocaine cartel, but orchestrating many of the activities in Panama and Costa Rica related to the contra war in Nicaragua, and the large-scale smuggling of cocaine into the United States. Included among them are a handwritten note from Haynes/Shackley directing him to deliver a DC-6A aircraft from the Dominican Republic to Floyd Carlton in Panama “for Col. Robert.”1

Haynes  also furnished the pilot with his business card for INTERKREDIT, with offices in Medellin, Ft. Lauderdale and Amsterdam. INTERKREDIT was the corporate cover under which Shackley conducted business with General Noriega during 1983.

“The pilot has claimed that he functioned as one of an elite group of military intelligence agents with service dating back to World War II, who reported, until his imprisonment in 1984, directly to [former OSS agent and CIA DCI] William Casey, and maintains that he was directly involved with Theodore Shackley in the establishment of the arms network to the contras through Panama in the early 1980s. Among the letters received from Haynes/Shackley was one directing him to acquire a number of planes in the Dominican Republic and Aruba for the network. The list has been verified by the special U.S. Customs team in Miami investigating Munitions Control Board violations as planes they are familiar with having been used in such activities.

In addition to the pilot, witnesses allege Shackley maintained a home in Medellin, Colombia at one point, where he lived with his Colombian wife, Leona Ochoa, sister of cartel kingpin Jorge Ochoa.2h having been used in such activities.”
Life After CIA

After leaving the CIA in September, 1979, Shackley formed his own company, Research Associates International, which specialized in providing intelligence to business. He also joined with Thomas G. Clines, Raphael Quintero, and Ricardo Chavez (another former CIA operative) in another company called API Distributors. According to David Corn (Blond Ghost) Edwin Wilson provided Clines with  half a million dollars to get his business empire going . Shackley also freelanced with API but found it difficult taking orders from his former subordinate, Clines. Shackley also established his own company, Research Associates International, which specialized in providing intelligence to business (in other words he sold them classified information from CIA files).

According to Daniel Sheehan: “In 1976, (Major General) Richard Secord moved to Tehran, Iran and became the Deputy Assistant Secretary of defense in Iran, in charge of the Middle Eastern Division of the Defense Security Assistance Administration. In this capacity, Secord functioned as the chief operations officer for the U.S. Defense Department in the Middle East in charge of foreign military sales of U.S. aircraft, weapons and military equipment to Middle Eastern nations allied to the U.S. Secord’s immediate superior was Eric Van Marbad, the former 40 Committee liaison officer to Theodore Shackley’s Phoenix program in Vietnam from 1973 to 1975.”

From 1977 until 1979, Richard Armitage operated a business named The Far East Trading Company. This company was in fact merely a  front  for Armitage’s secret operations conducting Vang Pao opium money out of Southeast Asia to Tehran and the Nugan Hand Bank in Australia to fund the ultra right-wing, private anti-communist  anti-terrorist  assassination program and  unconventional warfare  operation of Theodore Shackley’s and Thomas Cline’s  Secret Team . (Daniel P. Sheehan’s affidavit).

In his book, The Crimes of a President, Joel Bainerman argues that the  Secret Team  still used the Nugan Hand Bank to hide their illegal profits from drugs and arms. The President of the Nugan Hand Bank was Admiral Earl P. Yates, former Chief of Staff for Strategic Planning of US Forces in Asia. Other directors of the bank included Dale Holmgree (also worked for Civil Air Transport, a CIA proprietary company) and General Edwin F. Black, (commander of U.S. troops in Thailand during the Vietnam War). George Farris (a CIA operative in Vietnam) ran the Washington office of the Nugan Hand Bank and the bank’s legal counsel was William Colby.

The bank grew and had offices or affiliates in 13 countries. According to Jonathan Kwitny, Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA, Crimes of Patriots), the bank did little banking. What it did do was to amass, move, collect and disburse great sums of money.

In 1980 Frank Nugan was found dead in his car. His co-founder, Michael Hand had disappeared at the same time. The Australian authorities were forced to investigate the bank. They discovered that Ricardo Chavez, the former CIA operative who was co-owner of API Distributors with Thomas G. Clines and Rafael Quintero, was attempting to take control of the bank. The Corporate Affairs Commission of New South Wales came to the conclusion that Chavez was working on behalf of Clines, Quintero and Wilson. They blocked the move but they were unable or unwilling to explore the connections between the CIA and the Nugan Hand Bank.

The Secret Team (Shackley, Thomas G. Clines, (Major General) Richard Secord, Ricardo Chavez, Rafael Quintero, Albert Hakim, Edwin Wilson, and Richard L. Armitage set up several corporations and subsidiaries around the world through which to conceal the operations of the  Secret Team . Many of these corporations were set up in Switzerland. Some of these were: (1) Lake Resources, Inc.; (2) The Stanford Technology Trading Group, Inc.; and (3) Companie de Services Fiduciaria. Other companies were set up in Central America, such as: (4) CSF Investments, Ltd. and (5) Udall research Corporation. Some were set up inside the United States by Edwin Wilson. Some of these were: (6) Orca Supply Company in Florida and (7) Consultants International in Washington, D.C. Through these corporations the  Secret Team  laundered hundreds of millions of dollars of secret Vang Pao opium money.

Shackley had still not given up hope that he would eventually be appointed director of the CIA. His best hope was in getting Jimmy Carter defeated in 1980. Shackley had several secret meetings with George H. W. Bush as he campaigned for the Republican nomination (his wife, Hazel Shackley also worked for Bush). Ronald Reagan won the nomination but got the support of the CIA by selecting Bush as his vice president. According to Rafael Quintero, during the presidential campaign, Shackley met Bush almost every week.

It is believed that Shackley used his contacts in the CIA to provide information to Reagan and Bush. This included information that Carter was attempting to negotiate a deal with Iran to get the American hostages released. This was disastrous news for the Reagan/Bush campaign. If Carter got the hostages out before the election, the public perception of the man might change and he might be elected for a second-term.

According to Barbara Honegger, a researcher and policy analyst with the 1980 Reagan/Bush campaign, William Casey and other representatives of the Reagan presidential campaign made a deal at two sets of meetings in July and August at the Ritz Hotel in Madrid with Iranians to delay the release of Americans held hostage in Iran until after the November 1980 presidential elections. Reagan’s aides promised that they would get a better deal if they waited until Carter was defeated.

On 22nd September, 1980, Iraq invaded Iran. The Government of Iran was now in desperate need of spare parts and equipment for its armed forces. Carter now proposed that the US would be willing to hand over supplies in return for the hostages.

Once again, the CIA leaked this information to Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. This attempted deal was also passed to the media. On 11th October, the Washington Post reported rumours of a “secret deal that would see the hostages released in exchange for the American made military spare parts Iran needs to continue its fight against Iraq”.

In October, 1980, Shackley joined the company owned by Albert Hakim (Iranian-American businessman) (he was paid $5,000 a month as a part-time “risk analyst”). Hakim was keen to use Shackley’s contacts to make money out of the Iran-Iraq War that had started the previous month.
October Surprise

A couple of days before the election Barry Goldwater (US senator) was reported as saying that he had information that “two air force C-5 transports were being loaded with spare parts for Iran”. This was not true. However, this publicity had made it impossible for Jimmy Carter to do a deal. Ronald Reagan on the other hand, had promised the Iranian government that he would arrange for them to get all the arms they needed in exchange for the hostages. According to Mansur Rafizadeh, the former U.S. station chief of SAVAK, the Iranian secret police, CIA agents had persuaded Khomeini not to release the American hostages until Reagan was sworn in. In fact, they were released twenty minutes after his inaugural address (October Surprise).
Iran-Contra Affair
The arms the Iranians had demanded were delivered via Israel. By the end of 1982 all Regan’s promises to Iran had been made. With the deal completed, Iran was free to resort to acts of terrorism against the United States. In 1983, Iranian-backed terrorists blew up 241 marines in the CIA Middle-East headquarters.

The Iranians once again began taking American hostages in exchange for arms shipments. On 16th March, 1984, William Francis Buckley, a diplomat attached to the U.S. Embassy in Beirut was kidnapped by the Hezbollah, a fundamentalist Shiite group with strong links to the Khomeini regime. Buckley was tortured and it was soon discovered that he was the CIA station chief in Beirut.

Shackley was horrified when he discovered that Buckley had been captured. Buckley was a member of Shackley’s Secret Team that had been involved with Edwin Wilson, Thomas Clines, Carl E. Jenkins, Raphael Quintero, Felix Rodriguez and Luis Posada, in the CIA “assassination” program.

Buckley had also worked closely with William Casey (now the director of the CIA) in the secret negotiations with the Iranians in 1980. Buckley had a lot to tell the Iranians. He eventually signed a 400 page statement detailing his activities in the CIA. He was also videotaped making this confession. Casey asked Shackley for help in obtaining Buckley’s freedom.

Three weeks after Buckley’s disappearance, President Ronald Reagan signed the National Security Decision Directive 138. This directive was drafted by Oliver North and outlined plans on how to get the American hostages released from Iran and to “neutralize” terrorist threats from countries such as Nicaragua. This new secret counterterrorist task force was to be headed by Shackley’s old friend, General Richard Secord. This was the beginning of the Iran-Contra Affair.

Talks had already started about exchanging American hostages for arms. On 30th August, 1985, Israel shipped 100 TOW missiles to Iran. On 14th September they received another 408 missiles from Israel. The Israelis made a profit of $3 million on the deal.

In October, 1985, Congress agreed to vote 27 million dollars in non-lethal aid for the Contras in Nicaragua. However, members of the Ronald Reagan administration decided to use this money to provide weapons to the Contras and the Mujahideen in Afghanistan.

The following month, Shackley traveled to Hamburg where he met General Manucher Hashemi, the former head of SAVAK’s counterintelligence division at the Atlantic Hotel. Also at the meeting on 22nd November was Manuchehr Ghorbanifar (Israeli agent, but Israel denies it). According to the report of this meeting that Shackley sent to the CIA, Ghorbanifar had “fantastic” contacts with Iran.

At the meeting Shackley told Hashemi and Ghorbanifar that the United States was willing to discuss arms shipments in exchange for the four Americans kidnapped in Lebanon. The problem with the proposed deal was that William Francis Buckley was already dead (he had died of a heart-attack while being tortured).

Shackley recruited some of the former members of his CIA Secret Team to help him with these arm deals. This included Thomas Clines, Rafael Quintero, Ricardo Chavez and Edwin Wilson of API Distributors. Also involved was Carl E. Jenkins and Gene Wheaton of National Air. The plan was to use National Air to transport these weapons.
In May 1986 Wheaton told William Casey, director of the CIA, about what he knew about this illegal operation. Casey refused to take any action, claiming that the agency or the government were not involved in what later became known as Irangate.

Wheaton now took his story to Daniel Sheehan, a left-wing lawyer. Wheaton told him that Tom Clines and Ted Shackley had been running a top-secret assassination unit since the early 1960s. According to Wheaton, it had begun with an assassination training program for Cuban exiles and the original target had been Fidel Castro.
Gene Wheaton also contacted Newt Royce and Mike Acoca, two journalists based in Washington. The first article on this scandal appeared in the San Francisco Examiner on 27th July, 1986. As a result of this story, Congressman Dante Facell wrote a letter to the Secretary of Defense, Casper Weinberger, asking him if it  true that foreign money, kickback money on programs, was being used to fund foreign covert operations.  Two months later, Weinberger denied that the government knew about this illegal operation.

On 5th October, 1986, a Sandinista patrol in Nicaragua shot down a C-123K cargo plane that was supplying the Contras. Eugene Hasenfus, an Air America veteran, survived the crash and told his captors that he thought the CIA was behind the operation. He also provided information on two Cuban-Americans running the operation in El Savador. This resulted in journalists being able to identify Rafael Quintero and Felix Rodriguez as the two Cuban-Americans mentioned by Hasenfus. It gradually emerged that Thomas Clines, Oliver North, Edwin Wilson and Richard Secord were also involved in this conspiracy to provide arms to the Contras.

On 12th December, 1986, Daniel Sheehan submitted to the court an affidavit detailing the Irangate scandal. He also claimed that Shackley and Thomas Clines were running a private assassination program that had evolved from projects they ran while working for the CIA. Others named as being part of this assassination team included Rafael Quintero, Richard Secord, Felix Rodriguez and Albert Hakim. It later emerged that Gene Wheaton and Carl E. Jenkins (of National Air) were the two main sources for this affidavit.

It was eventually discovered that President Ronald Reagan had sold arms to Iran. The money gained from these sales was used to provide support for the Contras, a group of guerrillas engaged in an insurgency against the elected socialist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. Both the sale of these weapons and the funding of the Contras violated administration policy as well as legislation passed by Congress.

Ted Shackley died in Bethesda, Maryland, in December 2002. His autobiography, Spymaster: My Life in the CIA, was published in April, 2005.
Punishing Daniel Sheehan for Messing with CIA

On 23rd June, 1988, Judge James L. King ruled that Daniel Sheehan’s allegations were  based on unsubstantiated rumor and speculation from unidentified sources with no firsthand knowledge . In February, 1989, Judge King ruled that Sheenan had brought a frivolous lawsuit and ordered his Christic Institute to pay the defendants $955,000. This was one of the highest sanction orders in history and represented four times the total assets of the Christic Institute.
Prominent Members of Shackley’s Secret Team

* Albert Hakim
* David Morales
* Donald Gregg
* Edwin Wilson
* Frank Sturges
* Felix Rodriguez
* Luis Posada Carriles
* Rafael Quintero
* Ricardo Chavez
* Richard Armitage
* Richard Secord
* Thomas Clines

Also See

* Mafia List
* Nugan Hand Bank
* William King Harvey
* Spearhead Ltd
* Eugene Tafoya
* Frank E. Terpil
* Russell S. Bowen

Footnotes
1. Harry V. Martin, Lars C. Hansson, “Noriega,” Napa Sentinel series, 1995.
2. Harry V. Martin, Lars C. Hansson, “Noriega,” Napa Sentinel series, 1995.
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Footnote 1.
Harry V. Martin, Lars C. Hansson, “Noriega,” Napa Sentinel series, 1995.
(click to scroll to footnotes)
Footnote 2.
Harry V. Martin, Lars C. Hansson, “Noriega,” Napa Sentinel series, 1995.
(click to scroll to footnotes)

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Pakistan Awards 41 Blocks for Oil, Gas Exploration

by Hamza Khan posted on Thursday: 01 October, 2009

Pakistan awarded licenses for 41 blocks to companies including BP Plc., Eni SpA and Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. to search for oil and gas in the south Asian country, in a bid to attract investment in the energy sector.

“The successful bidders will be issued licenses within 15 days,” G.A. Sabri, special secretary at the Islamabad-based Petroleum Ministry said today in a phone interview. The companies bid yesterday for 41 blocks out of 53 offered by the government, he said.
Pakistan Petroleum, the nation’s biggest gas producer, won 13 licenses, the most, while Oil & Gas Development Co., Pakistan’s largest explorer, will get six blocks, he said. Pakistan Oilfield Ltd., the third biggest exploration company, will get two licenses while BP and ENI will be issued two and one licenses, respectively, he said.
One of the winners, Eni SpA (E) won an exploration license for Pakistan’s onshore Sukhpur block and is in long-term talks with Islamabad to bring gas from the Caspian Sea to Pakistan, India and China, Chief Executive Paolo Scaroni said Wednesday after a meeting in Rome with a Pakistani delegation.

Eni’s partners at Sukhpur block will be Royal Dutch Shell PLC (RDSA) and local player Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. (PPL.KA), the company in a statement Wednesday.

This block is very promising and its close to the other two producing areas in which we operate,  Scaroni said, adding Eni aims to bring gas from Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan to Pakistan, India and China.

Eni has been present in Pakistan since 2000 and is the biggest international company operating in the country in terms of exploration and production of gas, with an equity production of 56,000 barrels a day, the company said in its statement.

http://www.isb.pakistanleague.org/index.php/news/69-pakistan-awards-41-blocks-for-oil-gas-exploration

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by – Hamza Khan

***

William  Rip  Robertson
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William  Rip  Robertson was an American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operative.

Robertson was born in Texas. During World War II he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps and served in the Pacific Theater. He later entered the CIA and served as a counterintelligence agent.

He was assigned to the Executive Action operation that was designed to remove unsatisfactory (to the CIA) foreign leaders from power. One such action was the overthrow of the head of Guatemala Jacobo Arbenz in 1954. Later Robertson was discovered to be responsible for ordering a British ship bombed, he had misidentified it as a Russian ship. Afterwards he was deemed an outcast by the CIA. He then worked as an advisor to Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza Garcia. Prior to the Bay of Pigs invasion he resumed work for the CIA. During the battle he commanded the ship Barbara J while Grayston Lynch commanded the ship Blagar.

Robertson died in 1973 in Laos due to the effects of malaria.

See also
World War II portal
United States Marine Corps portal

References

Spartacus Educational – William Robertson
Persondata
NAME     Robertson, William  Rip
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION     United States Marine
DATE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_%22Rip%22_Robertson
Categories: 1973 deaths | People from Texas | American military personnel of World War II | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | Deaths from malaria | Infectious disease deaths in Laos | United States Marines

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_%22Rip%22_Robertson

***

Wilson, Edward Bloom and Donald Thresher were indicted for conspiracy to make an illegal shipment of twenty tons of C-4 plastic explosives from Houston, Texas to Tripoli, Libya in October 1977. Bloom and Thresher were severed. Bloom was separately tried and convicted; Thresher pled guilty to a misdemeanor charge.

http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/732/732.F2d.404.83-2125.html

***

Clark Clifford
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clark Clifford

9th United States Secretary of Defense
In office
February 29, 1968 – January 20, 1969
President     Lyndon B. Johnson
Deputy     Paul H. Nitze
Preceded by     Robert McNamara
Succeeded by     Melvin Laird
2nd White House Counsel
In office
1946 – 1950
President     Harry S. Truman
Preceded by     Samuel Irving Rosenman
Succeeded by     Charles S. Murphy
Born     December 25, 1906(1906-12-25)
Fort Scott, KS, U.S.
Died     October 10, 1998 (aged 91)
Political party     Democratic
Spouse(s)     Margery Kimball  Marny  Clifford (1931-1998, died 2000)
Alma mater     Washington University
Profession     Lawyer Political adviser
Military service
Service/branch     United States Navy
Years of service     1944-1946
Rank     Captain

Clark McAdams Clifford (December 25, 1906 – October 10, 1998) was a highly influential American lawyer who served Presidents Truman, Kennedy, Johnson and Carter, serving as United States Secretary of Defense for Johnson.

Contents

* 1 Early life and career
* 2 Presidential advisor
* 3 Secretary of Defense
* 4 Vietnam
* 5 Special presidential emissary to India
* 6 Bank of Credit and Commerce International
* 7 Portrayal in popular culture
* 8 External links
* 9 Notes

Early life and career

Clifford was born in Fort Scott, Kansas. He attended college and law school at Washington University, and built a solid reputation practicing law in St. Louis, Missouri between 1928 and 1943. He served as an officer with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946, reaching the rank of captain and serving as assistant naval aide and then naval aide to President Truman, for whom he became a trusted personal adviser and friend.

Presidential advisor

Clifford went to Washington, D.C., first to serve as Assistant to the President’s Naval Advisor, after the naming of a personal friend from Missouri as the President’s Naval Advisor. Following his discharge from the Navy, he remained at Truman’s side as White House Counsel from 1946-1950, as Truman came rapidly to trust and rely upon Clifford.

Clifford was a key architect of Truman’s campaign in 1948, when he pulled off a stunning upset victory over Republican nominee Thomas Dewey. Clifford encouraged Truman to embrace a left wing populist image in hope of undermining the impact on the race of third party Progressive candidate Henry A. Wallace, who had served as FDR’s Vice-President 1941-45. Clifford also believed that a strong pro-civil rights stance, while sure to alienate traditional Southern Democrats, would not result in a serious challenge to the party’s supremacy in that region. This prediction was foiled by Strom Thurmond’s candidacy as a splinter States’ Rights Democrat, but Clifford’s strategy nonetheless helped win Truman election in his own right and establish the Democratic Party’s position in the Civil Rights Movement. In his role as presidential advisor, perhaps his most significant contribution was his successful advocacy, along with David Niles, of prompt 1948 recognition of the new state of Israel.[1]

After leaving the government in 1950, Clifford practiced law in Washington, D.C., but continued to advise Democratic Party leaders. One of his law clients was U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy, and Clifford tried to assuage Truman’s suspicion of Kennedy and his father, Joseph P. Kennedy.

In 1960, Clifford was a member of President-elect Kennedy’s Committee on the Defense Establishment, headed by Stuart Symington. In May 1961, Kennedy appointed Clifford to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, which he chaired beginning in April 1963 and ending in January 1968.

After President Lyndon B. Johnson took office in November 1963 following Kennedy’s assassination, Clifford served frequently as an unofficial White House Counsel and sometimes undertook short-term official duties, including a trip with General Maxwell Taylor in 1967 to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

Secretary of Defense

On January 19, 1968, President Johnson announced his selection of Clifford to succeed Robert McNamara as United States Secretary of Defense. Clifford estimated that, in the year just prior to his appointment, he had spent about half of his time advising the President and the other half working for his law firm.
Young clark clifford.jpg

Widely known and respected in Washington and knowledgeable on defense matters, Clifford was generally hailed as a worthy successor to McNamara. Many regarded the new secretary as more of a hawk on Vietnam than McNamara, and thought his selection might presage an escalation of the U.S. military effort there. Clifford attempted to allay such fears when, responding to a query about whether he was a hawk (favoring aggressive military action) or a dove (favoring a peaceful resolution to the Vietnam War), he remarked,  I am not conscious of falling under any of those ornithological divisions.

The new Secretary did not change the management system McNamara had installed at The Pentagon, and for the most part assigned internal administration to Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul H. Nitze. Clifford made no effort to depart from McNamara’s policies and programs on such matters as nuclear strategy, NATO, and military assistance, but he favored the Sentinel Anti-ballistic missile system, to which McNamara had given only lukewarm backing. Clifford wanted to deploy the system, and supported congressional appropriations for it. One important effect of Sentinel construction, he thought, would be to encourage the Soviet Union to enter arms control talks with the United States. Indeed, before Clifford left office, the Johnson administration made arrangements for negotiations that eventually led to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty of 1972.

Clifford continued McNamara’s highly-publicized Cost Reduction Program, announcing that over $1.2 billion had been saved in fiscal year (FY) 1968 as a result of the effort. Faced with a congressionally-mandated reduction of expenditures in FY 1969, Clifford suspended the planned activation of an infantry division and deactivated 50 small ships, 9 naval air squadrons, and 23 Nike-Hercules missile launch sites.

By the time Clifford became secretary, Defense Department work on the FY 1969 budget was complete. It amounted in total obligational authority to $77.7 billion, almost $3 billion more than in FY 1968. The final FY 1970 budget, which Clifford and his staff worked on before they left office after the election of Richard Nixon to the Presidency, amounted to $75.5 billion TOA.

Vietnam
Clifford took office committed to rethinking President Johnson’s Vietnam policies, and Vietnam policy consumed most of his time. He had argued against escalation in 1965 in private counsel with the President, but then provided public support for the President’s position once the decision was made. At his confirmation hearing, he told the Armed Services Committee of the United States Senate that the limited objective of the United States was to guarantee to the people of South Vietnam the right of self-determination. He opposed ending the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam at the time, but acknowledged that the situation could change. In fact, on March 31, 1968, just a month after Clifford arrived at the Pentagon, President Johnson, in an effort to get peace talks started, ordered the cessation of bombing north of the 20th parallel, an area comprising almost 80 percent of North Vietnam’s land area and 90 percent of its population. In the same address, Johnson announced that he would not be a candidate for reelection in 1968, surprising everyone, Clifford included. Soon the North Vietnamese agreed to negotiations, which began in Paris in mid-May 1968. Later, on October 31, 1968, to encourage the success of these talks, the President, with Clifford’s strong support, ordered an end to all bombing in North Vietnam.
Clifford, like McNamara, had to deal with frequent requests for additional troops from military commanders in Vietnam. When he became secretary, the authorized force in Vietnam was 525,000. Soon after moving into his Pentagon office, Clifford persuaded Johnson to deny General William Westmoreland’s request for an additional 206,000 American troops in Vietnam.

At the end of March 1968, however, the president agreed to send 24,500 more troops on an emergency basis, raising authorized strength to 549,500, a figure never reached. Even as he oversaw a continued buildup, Clifford preferred to emphasize the points President Johnson had made in his March 31, 1968 address: that the South Vietnamese army could take over a greater share of the fighting, that the administration would place an absolute limit on the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam, and that it would take steps, including the bombing restrictions, to reduce the combat level.

Eventually Clifford moved very close, with Johnson’s tacit support, to the views McNamara held on Vietnam just before he left office—no further increases in U.S. troop levels, support for the bombing halt, and gradual disengagement from the conflict. By this time Clifford clearly disagreed with Secretary of State Dean Rusk, who believed, according to The Washington Post,  that the war was being won by the allies  and that it  would be won if America had the will to win it.  After he left office, Clifford, in the July 1969 issue of Foreign Affairs, made his views very clear:  Nothing we might do could be so beneficial… as to begin to withdraw our combat troops. Moreover… we cannot realistically expect to achieve anything more through our military force, and the time has come to begin to disengage. That was my final conclusion as I left the Pentagon….  Clifford received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Johnson on the President’s last day in office, January 20, 1969.

Although the Johnson Administration ended under the cloud of the Vietnam War, Clifford concluded his short term as Secretary of Defense with his reputation actually enhanced. He got along well with the United States Congress, and this helped him to secure approval of at least some of his proposals. He settled into his duties quickly and efficiently, and capably managed the initial de-escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam; indeed, he apparently strongly influenced Johnson in favor of a de-escalation strategy. As he left office to return to his law practice in Washington, Clifford expressed the hope and expectation that international tensions would abate, citing the shift in the Vietnam confrontation from the battlefield to the conference table, and the evident willingness of the Soviet Union to discuss limitations on strategic nuclear weapons.

Special presidential emissary to India

Clifford’s legal practice and lobbying work made him wealthy, and he was considered one of Washington’s  superlawyers  due to the reach of his influence and seemingly limitless connections. Clifford’s office overlooked the White House, emphasizing his long experience in the capital. Clifford was renowned for his seemingly-effortless charm, style, tact and discretion.

In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed him as special presidential emissary to India. Clifford made waves by threatening the newly-established regime of Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran with war for its intransigence in negotiating the release of the hostages seized from the U.S. embassy in Tehran.

Bank of Credit and Commerce International
Main article: Bank of Credit and Commerce International

In 1991, Clifford’s memoirs Counsel to the President (co-authored with Richard Holbrooke, later U.S. ambassador to the United Nations) were published just as his name was implicated in the unfolding Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) scandal. The scandal focused on the criminal conduct of the international bank and its control of financial institutions nationwide.

The bank was found by regulators in the United States and the United Kingdom to be involved in money laundering, bribery, support of terrorism, arms trafficking, the sale of nuclear technologies, the commission and facilitation of tax evasion, smuggling, illegal immigration, and the illicit purchases of banks and real estate. The bank was found to have at least $13 billion unaccounted for.

Clifford served as chairman of First American Bankshares, which grew to become the largest bank in Washington, D.C.. Robert Morgenthau, the district attorney of Manhattan, disclosed that his office had found evidence that the parent company of Clifford’s bank was secretly controlled by BCCI. Morgenthau convened a grand jury to determine whether Clifford and his partner, Robert A. Altman, had deliberately misled federal regulators when the two men assured them that BCCI would have no outside control. An audit by Price Waterhouse revealed that contrary to agreements between First American’s nominal investors and the Federal Reserve, many of the investors had borrowed heavily from BCCI. Even more seriously, they had pledged their First American stock as collateral, and when they didn’t make interest payments, BCCI took control of the shares. It was later estimated that in this manner, BCCI had ended up with 60 percent or more of First American’s stock.

Clifford’s predicament worsened when it was disclosed he had made about $6 million in profits from bank stock that he had bought with an unsecured loan from BCCI. The grand jury handed up indictments, and the U.S. Justice Department opened its own investigation. Clifford’s assets in New York, where he kept most of his investments, were frozen.
Clifford insisted that he had no knowledge of illegal activity at First American, and insisted that he himself had been deceived about the extent of BCCI’s involvement. However, both Morgenthau and federal regulators argued that Clifford should have known.

The  Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate,  prepared by U.S. senators John Kerry and Hank Brown, noted that a key strategy of  BCCI’s successful secret acquisitions of U.S. banks in the face of regulatory suspicion was its aggressive use of a series of prominent Americans,  Clifford among them.[2] Clifford, who prided himself on decades of meticulously ethical conduct, summed his predicament up when he sadly told a reporter from the New York Times,  I have a choice of either seeming stupid or venal.  Most observers believed the former, and concluded that Clifford had not paid sufficiently close attention to the bank or its management structure.
Indictments against Clifford were set aside because of his failing health. After a final, frail appearance in the 1997 PBS documentary Truman, Clifford died in 1998 from natural causes at age 91. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia.[3]

Portrayal in popular culture

* Tony Goldwyn portrayed Clark M. Clifford in the 1995 HBO movie Truman.
* Donald Sutherland portrayed Clifford in the 2002 HBO movie Path to War.

External links

* Oral History Interviews with Clark M. Clifford, Truman Presidential Library
* Transcript, Clark M. Clifford Oral History Interview, 3/13/69, by Joe B. Frantz, Internet Copy, LBJ Library. Accessed 3 April 2005.
* Interview about the Berlin Blockade for the WGBH series, *War and Peace in the Nuclear Age

Notes

1. ^ Truman Adviser Recalls May 14, 1948 Decision to Recognize Israel, Richard H. Curtiss, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, May, June 1991
2. ^ http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1992_rpt/bcci/
3. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/cclifford.htm

Political offices
Preceded by
Robert McNamara     United States Secretary of Defense
Served Under: Lyndon B. Johnson
1968–1969     Succeeded by
Melvin Laird
Legal offices
Preceded by
Samuel Irving Rosenman     White House Counsel
1946-1950     Succeeded by
Charles Murphy

v • d • e
United States Secretaries of Defense
Forrestal • Johnson • Marshall • Lovett • Wilson • McElroy • T. Gates • McNamara • Clifford • Laird • Richardson • Schlesinger • Rumsfeld • Brown • Weinberger • Carlucci • Cheney • Aspin • Perry • Cohen • Rumsfeld • R. Gates
Seal of the United States Department of Defense

v • d • e
Cabinet of President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)
Vice President
None (1963-1965) • Hubert Humphrey (1965-1969)
Lyndon Baines Johnson, thirty-sixth President of the United States
Secretary of State
Dean Rusk (1963-1969)
Secretary of the Treasury
C. Douglas Dillon (1963-1965) • Henry H. Fowler (1965-1968) • Joseph W. Barr (1968-1969)
Secretary of Defense
Robert McNamara (1963-1968) • Clark Clifford (1968-1969)
Attorney General
Robert F. Kennedy (1963-1964) • Nicholas Katzenbach (1965-1966) • Ramsey Clark (1967-1969)
Postmaster General
John A. Gronouski (1963-1965) • Lawrence O’Brien (1965-1968) • W. Marvin Watson (1968-1969)
Secretary of the Interior
Stewart Udall (1963-1969)
Secretary of the Agriculture
Orville Freeman (1963-1969)
Secretary of Commerce
Luther H. Hodges (1963-1965) • John Thomas Connor (1965-1967) • Alexander Buel Trowbridge (1967-1968) • C. R. Smith (1968-1969)
Secretary of Labor
W. Willard Wirtz (1963-1969)
Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare
Anthony J. Celebrezze (1962-1965) • John William Gardner (1965-1968) • Wilbur Joseph Cohen (1968-1969)
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Robert Clifton Weaver (1963-1968) • Robert Coldwell Wood (1969)
Secretary of Transportation
Alan Stephenson Boyd (1967-1969)

v • d • e
White House Counsels
Rosenman • Clifford • Murphy • Stephens • Shanley • Morgan • Kendall • Sorensen • Feldman • Serner • Temple • Colson • Dean • Garment • Casselman • Buchen • Lipshutz • Cutler • Fielding • Wallison • Culvahouse • Gray • Nussbaum • Cutler • Mikva • Quinn • Davis • Ruff • Nolan • Gonzales • Miers • Fielding • Craig
US-WhiteHouse-Logo.svg
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clark_Clifford
Categories: United States Secretaries of Defense | White House Counsels | American people of the Vietnam War | United States Navy officers | People from Bourbon County, Kansas | Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients | Burials at Arlington National Cemetery | Washington University in St. Louis alumni | 1906 births | 1998 deaths
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clark_Clifford

***

********

Pakistan’s foreign office spokesman had confirmed that there was a heavy influx of foreigners aiding the Taliban and that weapons were coming from the adjacent country of Afghanistan. Many Pakistani defence analysts and experts had publicly accused India, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, of aiding the Taliban to destablize Pakistan. On May 19, 2009, the Pakistan Army captured three foreign fighters from Mingora District. According to the Pakistani Army, all these foreign fighters were Libyan nationals. The Pakistani Army also captured five Saudi nationals during the search operation.

**

Operation Black Thunderstorm
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Operation Black Thunderstorm
Part of the War in North-West Pakistan
Date     April 26, 2009–June 14, 2009 [1]
Location     Swat,Buner,Lower Dir,Shangla, Pakistan
Result     Minor Decisive Pakistan Army Victory; Ongoing Operation.
Belligerents
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan Army Infantry SSG Commandos

Flag of Pakistan Pro-government tribes[2]
Flag of Afghanistan TTP

Flag of Jihad.svg TNSM
Commanders
Flag of Pakistan Lt Gen Masood Aslam

Flag of Pakistan Maj Gen Ijaz Awan
Flag of Jihad.svg Maulana Fazlullah
Flag of Jihad.svg Sufi Muhammad  #
Maulana Ameer Izzat #  ?[3]
Syed Wahab #[4]
Maulana Muhammad Alam #  ?[3]
Strength
15,000 Regular
300+ SSG commando     5,000
Casualties and losses
128 killed,
95 captured (18 rescued),
317 wounded
(Military claim),
~15 SSG wounded,
~5 SSG KIA     1,475 killed (23 foreign militants), 114 captured
(Military claim)
Unknown number of civilians killed
3.4 million displaced
[hide]
v • d • e
War in North-West Pakistan
Wana – Lal Masjid – Mir Ali – 1st Swat – Sararogha Fort – Bajaur – Angoor Ada – Black Thunderstorm (2nd Swat) – Rah-e-Nijat – Khyber Pass
American airstrikes
Damadola – Chenagai – Daande Darpkhel – Miranshah – Baghar Cheena – Laghman – Shrawangai Nazarkhel
2009 refugee crisis in Pakistan

Operation Black Thunderstorm[5] was an operation that commenced on April 26, 2009 conducted by the Pakistani Army, with the aim of retaking Buner, Lower Dir, Swat and Shangla districts from the Taliban after the militants took control of them since the start of the year.[6]

Contents

* 1 Background
* 2 Operation
o 2.1 Attack on Lower Dir
o 2.2 Attack on Buner
o 2.3 Operation Rahe Rast
o 2.4 Battle for Mingora
o 2.5 Alleged capture of Sufi Muhammad and other leaders
o 2.6 Sporadic fighting
* 3 Casualties
* 4 Later revelations about the Swat deal
* 5 Foreign Involvement
* 6 References

Background

A temporary ceasefire was called in the Malakand region on February 16, 2009.[7] The provincial government agreed to allow the implementation of Sharia in the region once violence had stopped.[7][8][9] Muhammad traveled to Swat to discuss peace with Fazlullah and his followers,[10] who agreed to observe the ceasefire.[11][9][8] On February 24, 2009 Muslim Khan, spokeperson of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) publicly announced that his group would observe an indefinite ceasefire.[12] The ANP sent the bill to President Asif Ali Zardari, who delayed signing it into law until the  the writ of the government [had] been established. [13] Soon after that the militants expanded their territory into other districts and by mid-April they took Buner, Lower Dir and Shangla. With the Taliban takeover the militants came within 60 miles (100 kilometers) of the capital of Pakistan, Islamabad.[14] This raised the alarm among western countries, particularly the United States, that a collapse of the country and a Taliban takeover was playing out. And the government was highly criticized for making peace deals with the militants. Under pressure from Washington, the Pakistani government launched an operation in late April to retake all territory lost in the previous months.

Operation
Attack on Lower Dir

Operation Toar Tander-I (Black Thunderstorm-I) began in Lower Dir as the Frontier Corps (FC) killed 26 Taliban, including key commanders Maulana Shahid and Qari Quraish.
The operation was launched on April 26, after the Taliban, in violation of the peace agreement, attacked security forces and government officials and closed roads for the movement of government and FC convoys. In some villages, the Taliban had looted shops and tortured villagers to gain their support, adding that a jirga had also been forced to back them.

Officials said the forces were gaining ground against the Taliban and their hideouts in Kalkot, Islam Dara and Hoshyari Dara were targeted. Paramilitary troops and helicopter gunships bombed suspected Taliban bases during the operation. Eight soldiers and around 50 militants were killed in two days of fighting. The operation mostly cleared the Lower Dir district of Taliban forces by April 28. However, the military was still fighting with pockets of militant resistance in the coming weeks.[15][15]

Attack on Buner

The second phase of the operation started the same day as fighting in Lower Dir was dying down. The Pakistan Army’s push to retake control of Buner, which was only 100 km away from the capital city Islamabad, started. Pakistani SSG commandos swarmed down ropes from helicopters to enter the town of Daggar, which lies in the strategically important Buna valley to the northwest of Islamabad, killing nearly 50 militants [16]. Pakistan Army leaders hoped to trap about 500 militants in between the airdropped troops and a second force that is advancing on the ground towards Taliban positions at the valley’s entrance. The fate of 75 police officers taken hostage by the Taliban in Buner the previous night remained unclear. 18 were rescued the next day but the others were still prisoners. The operation in Daggar came on the third day of the Army’s offensive to roll back the Taliban advance that had caused concern not just in Islamabad – which is just 65 miles away – but also in Washington. Major General Athar Abbas, a military spokesman, told reporters in Rawalpindi that the Army and Frontier Corps paramilitary units launched the operation in Buner district, building on a several-day offensive in the region. Abbas said an estimated 450 to 500 Taliban are believed active in Buner, many believed to be engaged in  criminal activities.
The US had been repeatedly pressing the Pakistan government to take action, fearful that the militants were gaining too much ground and might even use Buner as a bridgehead for an attack on the capital city.[17][18]

On May 2, another 10 soldiers were captured in Buner. The military confirmed that some 87 militants and four soldiers had been killed in fighting in the district between April 28 and May 4. The military also stated that its troops were confronted during the fighting with wave attacks of suicide car-bombers. At least 27 suicide bombers were killed in the fighting. By May 5, troops started to push back the Taliban militants in Buner.[19][20]

Operation Rahe Rast
Main article: Second Battle of Swat

On May 5, the third phase of the operation started as troops stormed the militant-held valley of Swat. The name of this sub-operation of Black Thunderstorm has been referred to as Operation Rah e Raast in Urdu[citation needed] (the name of the whole operation is Rahe Rast never was Thunderstorm  ). In more than a month of fighting, by June 15, 106 soldiers and 1,040 militants were killed. Militant fighters were holed up in the emerald mines and in the main town of Swat district, Mingora. The mines were secured by the Army by May 7, but the militants were still holding their positions in Mingora and on a strategic hilltop overlooking the town. Meanwhile, on May 7, in Lower Dir, which was previously declared clear of the Taliban by the military, militants overran a paramilitary fort killing three paramilitary soldiers and capturing 10 policemen. On May 10, troops attacked a Taliban training camp at Banai Baba in Shangla district, which is just east from Swat. In the fighting at Banai Baba the military reported killing 150 militants for the loss of two soldiers. At the same time as the fighting in Shangla, some sporadic fighting was still continuing in Lower Dir where, over four days, 109 more militants were killed. Also, further west, in the Mohmand agency, a group of 300 militants attacked a military outpost, in the fighting that ensued 26 militants were killed and 14 soldiers were wounded. On May 12, Pakistani commandos were inserted by helicopters into the Piochar area, a rear-support base for the militants, in the northern part of the Swat valley to conduct search-and-destroy operations.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

By May 15, the Army claimed that Buner was finally completely cleared of Taliban forces, however artillery bombardment of Taliban positions in the hills was still ongoing. And it was reported that the Taliban were more dug in and in larger numbers in Buner than the military previously assumed. Meanwhile, the Pakistani military continued with their push up the Swat valley. As the military approached Mingora, the Taliban were digging in for a  bloody urban battle  against the Pakistani army in a hotly disputed city in the north-western part of the country. The Taliban began concentrating forces in Mingora – digging trenches, laying mines and taking positions on rooftops.

Stratfor, a private firm that describes itself as a global intelligence company, mentioned that it is not clear if the Pakistani military is trained and even equipped to go into a situation like that, adding that even the United States military  would have to think twice  about such an offensive. Pakistani military spokesman Major General Athar Abbas, who is the spokesman for Pakistan’s army said the military intends to drive the Taliban out of the contested area, even if the kind of fighting resembles that of the Battle of Stalingrad. He said that the whole resolve of the government and the military is to once and for all finish the Taliban from the Swat valley. The army has about 15,000 troops on the ground and is estimated that there are still over 5,000 Taliban fighters in the area.[28]

On May 17, heavy street fighting started in the towns of Kanju and Matta and the Army was slowly advancing towards Mingora. Also, a few days later fighting started in the area of the Takhtaband bridge for control of this crossing point.[29] On May 20, a key town in Buner was captured by the Army. The Army captured Sultanwas in fighting which, according to the military, killed one soldier and 80 militants, another nine soldiers were wounded.[30] By May 23, Kanju, Matta and the Takhtaband bridge had been secured by the military, but fighting was still going on in Takhtaband itself and the Buner and Dir districts, where nine more militants were killed. Meanwhile, the military was surrounding the main militant base in the Peochar Valley.[31]

Battle for Mingora
On May 23, the battle for the capital of Swat, Mingora, started. The street fighting was heavy and it was street-to-street and hand-to-hand. Fighters had dug themselves into bunkers built into hotels and government buildings. On the first day of the battle, fighting was mainly in the center of the city, at the central bus terminal and along the main road near the city’s primary gateway.[32] By the next day, the military captured several intersections and three squares, including Green Square, which had been known as  Bloody Intersection , because the Taliban were dumping bodies of people who they executed at that location. Intense fighting was going on in the Nawa Kilay neighbourhood and the western suburb of Qambar.[33]

By May 27, the military took control of 70 percent of the city, including the city’s airport, and Taliban forces across Swat were in retreat, but fighting was still continuing. At the same time, in continuing battles in Lower Dir and Shangla, three more soldiers and eight militants were killed.[34]

On May 29, the Army cleared Aman Kot and the Technical Institute College on the Mingora-Kokarai road in Mingora. On the same day, the village of Peochar in the Peochar Valley, as well as the town of Bahrain in the north of Swat, had been taken by the military.[35]

On May 30, the Pakistani military had taken back the city of Mingora from the Taliban, calling it a significant victory in its offensive against the Taliban. However, some sporadic fighting was still continuing on the city’s outskirts. Also, sporadic fighting was continuing in the rest of Swat and in the Shangla district where on June 2, two soldiers and five militants were killed.[36][37][38]

In the battle for Mingora 286 militants were killed.[39]

Alleged capture of Sufi Muhammad and other leaders

On June 4, it was reported that Sufi Muhammad, the founder of Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi or TNSM, was arrested in Amandarra along with other militant leaders.[40] In the coming days there was confusion over this claim since the Taliban themselves said that Muhammad was missing. However, several days later it was confirmed that Muhammad was not captured and was in hiding, while two of his aides were captured by the Army. Those two aides, Muhammad Maulana Alam and Ameer Izzat Khan, were killed when militants attacked the prison transport they were in on June 7. On 26 July 2009, the government confirmed the arrest of Sufi Mohammad for encouraging violence and terrorism.[41][42]

Sporadic fighting

By this point, the Pakistan Military was in control of much of Swat, however sporadic fighting still continued, especially in the Upper Dir District.[43] After a bomb explosion in Hayagai Sharki village’s masjid in Dir, which killed 38 civilians,[43] local tribesmen, between 1,000 and 1,500, formed a Lashkar (citizen’s militia) and retaliated against the Taliban and TNSM by taking up arms and surrounding almost 300 militants.[43] In support of the Lashkars, the Pakistan Military sent its helicopter gunships to the villages of Shatkas and Ghazi Gai where the heaviest fighting was ongoing.[44][45] Paramilitary soldiers also set up mortars on high ground above the villages.[44][46]

On June 12, troops captured the town of Chuprial in Swat in a major battle that left 39 militants and 10 soldiers dead. This was the last major battle, and one of the most bloody, of the operation.[47]

On June 14, the operation ended with Pakistani troops consolidating their positions in the four districts and going after the remaining pockets of resistance, primarily in the Swat valley.[1]

Casualties
Main article: 2009 refugee crisis in Pakistan

In all, according to the military, 128 soldiers and at least 1,475 militants were killed and 317 soldiers were wounded during operation Black Thunderstorm. 95 soldiers and policemen were captured by the militants, 18 of them were rescued while the fate of the others remained undetermined. 114 militants were captured, including some local commanders. Furthermore, a team of Special Services Group commandos was engaged to complete this deadly operation. [47][48][49][50][51][52] At least 23 of the militants killed were foreigners.[53]

Later revelations about the Swat deal

On May 13, 2009, Pakistan’s ambassador to the United States Husain Haqqani revealed on The Daily Show to Jon Stewart that Pakistan’s decision to strike a peace deal with Taliban militants earlier, which effectively ceded control of large swathes of the country’s northwest, was all part of a cunning plan to fool the Taliban, which is now coming to fruition with the commencement of Operation Black Thunderstorm. The ambassador mentioned to Jon Stewart that President Asif Ali Zardari’s signing of the Nizam-e-Adl Regulation, which was the Swat peace deal, was nothing more than a trick to lure the Taliban from the mountains and countryside to the main towns where it would be much easier for the Pakistani military to kill or capture them.

[President Zardari] did something very smart. When he was with President Obama recently, he explained it. He actually told the American government that I’m going to do this deal to try and prove to those within Pakistan, and in Pakistan’s state apparatus, who think that these guys can be negotiated with — I will negotiate with them only to prove that you can’t negotiate with them, because they will break the deal. And as soon as they broke the deal, the army is back in, the fighting is going on, and you can see the results. [54]

The Swat peace-deal was heavily criticised by Hillary Clinton when she accused Pakistan’s government of abdicating to the Taliban in agreeing to impose Islamic law in the Swat valley.[55] However, Clinton was unaware[original research?] that the Pakistani Government was simply using  reverse psychology,  as Jon Stewart phrased it, on the Taliban.[54][56][57]

Foreign Involvement

Pakistan’s foreign office spokesman had confirmed that there was a heavy influx of foreigners aiding the Taliban and that weapons were coming from the adjacent country of Afghanistan. Many Pakistani defence analysts and experts had publicly accused India, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, of aiding the Taliban to destablize Pakistan. On May 19, 2009, the Pakistan Army captured three foreign fighters from Mingora District. According to the Pakistani Army, all these foreign fighters were Libyan nationals. The Pakistani Army also captured five Saudi nationals during the search operation.

In Khybar Pass, a police raid on a local house resulted in the arrest of 20 Tajik nationals. In heavy fighting in Malakand Division, Pakistani commandos killed five Uzbek fighters. Many Pakistani political parties, such as PML-N, accused India, of providing economic and financial support to the Taliban. According to a White house press release, the United States and NATO were working with Pakistan to find out who’s providing the financial support and what routes were they using to smuggle the weapons. According to the Daily Jang’s investigative report, a large amount of Afghan National Army’s weapons was stolen by the Taliban, and also the report claimed that there is no formal security for their weapons depos. Daily Jang also cited that a large number of Uzbeks and Tajiks were freely crossing Afghanistan’s border into Pakistan to fight against Pakistan.

Parliamentarian Khawaja Muhammad Asif of PML-N held a press conference in the Parliament media lounge, where he warned Afghan President Hamid Karzai. He said that  Karzai became President with the support of Pakistan . He also warned him that Afghanistan should not play with Pakistan’s security. After the convincing evidence, Pakistan, along with United States and NATO, found out the significant routes that were using to supply heavy weaponry to Talibans. Pakistan blocked the routes successfully. On May 20, in Khyber Pass, Pakistani SSG Commandos confronted a large numbers of foreign fighters and Taliban. After a heavy fighting, Pakistani Commandos killed a number of Taliban and foreign fighters, various reports stated that foreign fighters were Uzbek and Tajik nationals. Pakistani Commandos also recovered a large amount of weaponry in a truck. Pakistani commandos were also able to secure NATO’s supply trucks that were targeted by the Taliban.

Aftermath The Taliban suffered many losses and lost key territories in Swat, and such. They also were forced to leave Pakistan, and probably move to Afghanistan. Pakistan greatly benefited, as bombings were decreased almost none, and Pakistan is now focusing on rebuilding its economy, which has been going smoothly.

References

1. ^ a b http://dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=20096\15\story_15-6-2009_pg7_13
2. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090608/ap_on_re_as/as_pakistan
3. ^ a b http://pakobserver.net/200906/12/Articles01.asp
4. ^ http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=91512
5. ^ 26 killed as troops hit Taliban hideouts in Dir Daily Times
6. ^ http://www.cosmopolis.ch/english/politics/107/obama_foreign_policy_e0107.htm
7. ^ a b Jan, Delawar (2009-02-17).  Nizam-e-Adl Regulation for Malakand, Kohistan announced  (in English). The News International. http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=20372. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
8. ^ a b  Pakistan agrees Sharia law deal . BBC News. 2009-02-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7891955.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
9. ^ a b Ali, Zulfiqar; Laura King (2009-02-17).  Pakistan officials allow Sharia in volatile region  (in English). Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-pakistan-pact17-2009feb17,0,6631935.story. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
10. ^  Pakistan Blasted for Creating Taliban Safe Haven With Islamic Law Deal  (in English). Fox News. 2009-02-17. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,494446,00.html. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
11. ^  Top Pakistani militant released . BBC News. 2008-04-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7359523.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
12. ^ Perlez, Jane (2009-02-24).  Taliban Accepts Pakistan Cease-Fire . New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/25/world/asia/25pstan.html. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
13. ^ Khan, M Ilyas (2009-04-15).  Doubts remain as Sharia bill signed . Islamabad: BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7998390.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
14. ^ Defiant Taliban Forces Advance To Within 60 Miles of Islamabad
15. ^ a b http://www.csmonitor.com/2009/0428/p99s01-duts.html
16. ^ http://www.thecitizen.co.za/index/article.aspx?pDesc=1,1,22&type=top&File=newsmlmmd.b74b163deb04cf0580d3b37b6aaabe38.a1.xml
17. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6190513.ece
18. ^ http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-tc-nw-pakistan-attack-0429apr29,0,1708792.story
19. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90851/6650759.html
20. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90851/6649943.html
21. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/05/07/2563218.htm?section=justin
22. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8037281.stm
23. ^ http://www.kwqc.com/Global/story.asp?S=10327270
24. ^ http://www.seattlepi.com/national/1104ap_as_pakistan.html
25. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/05/10/pakistan.swat.taliban.fighting/index.html?eref=ib_topstories
26. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/World/Pakistan/Fighting-flares-in-northwest-Pakistan-230-Taliban-killed/articleshow/4506410.cms
27. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2009-05-11-pakistan_N.htm
28. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/05/14/pakistan.refugees.aid/index.html
29. ^ http://bigpondnews.com/articles/World/2009/05/19/Pakistan_troops_in_Taliban_urban_warfar_333492.html
30. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2009-05-20-pakistan-taliban-battle_N.htm?csp=34
31. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/05/23/pakistan.fighting/index.html?eref=ib_topstories
32. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/05/23/AR2009052301775.html?wprss=rss_world
33. ^ http://au.news.yahoo.com/a/-/world/5591994
34. ^ http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/270435,six-troops-29-taliban-killed-in-pakistans-swat-valley–summary.html
35. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/04-army-clears-militant-stronghold-of-peochar-qs-06
36. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/05/30/pakistan.mingora/index.html
37. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/8075136.stm
38. ^ http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/271389,pakistan-army-rescues-scores-of-cadets-others-missing–summary.html
39. ^ http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/ASAZ-7SGGZA?OpenDocument
40. ^ http://www.geo.tv/6-4-2009/43492.htm Banned NSM confirms Maulana Sufi’s arrest
41. ^  Pakistan holds pro-Taliban cleric . BBC News. 2009-07-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8169385.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
42. ^  Sufi Mohammad arrested: NWFP Information Minister . Dawn Media Group. 2009-07-26. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/04-outlawed-tnsm-chief-sufi-mohammad-arrested-qs-17. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
43. ^ a b c http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8088621.stm
44. ^ a b http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8091945.stm
45. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/provinces/04-military-sends-gunships-support-anti-taliban-militia-qs-09 Military sends gunships to support Upper Dir tribesmen
46. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/provinces/04-military-sends-gunships-support-anti-taliban-militia-qs-09 Military sends gunships to support Upper Dir tribesmen
47. ^ a b http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=17457
48. ^ http://au.news.yahoo.com/a/-/world/5660449/tribesmen-kill-28-taliban-militants-in-nw-pakistan/
49. ^ http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/273047,pakistan-pounds-militants-after-moderate-clerics-murder–summary.html
50. ^ http://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=707
51. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90851/6670186.html
52. ^ http://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/Asia/20090609/1271347.html
53. ^ http://www.presstv.ir/classic/detail.aspx?id=95000&sectionid=351020401
54. ^ a b http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/14/pakistans-daily-show-diplomacy/?hp
55. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSTRE53L69J20090422?feedType=RSS&feedName=politicsNews
56. ^ http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22143
57. ^ http://www.weeklystandard.com/weblogs/TWSFP/2009/05/pakistans_peace_accords_embrac.asp

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Black_Thunderstorm
Categories: Conflicts in 2009 | Operations involving Pakistani special forces | 2009 in Pakistan | Al-Qaeda activities | Military history of Pakistan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Black_Thunderstorm

***

http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/profiles/mujahideen_shura_council.htm

Mujahideen Shura Council

Details
Center of Gravity    Iraq
[Yellow Bullet]     Scope    National
Leader    Abu Ayyub al-Masri
[Green Bullet]     Status    Active
[Green Bullet]     Status    Supported by al-Qaeda
Possibly the same as    Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Former leader    Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Key members    Abdullah bin Rashid
Formed    2005

Narrative and Notes
[Green Bullet]     Reliable    Unclear if AKA for Al-Qaeda in Iraq or some kind of umbrella organization comprising al-Qaeda and other Sunni insurgent groups.

Key to bullets
[Green Bullet] High confidence
[Yellow Bullet] Some confidence
[Red Bullet] Low confidence
[Black Bullet] No confidence
Page maintained by John Lumpkin
Click here for a disclaimer and detailed explanation of the confidence ratings.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/profiles/mujahideen_shura_council.htm

***

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Pakistan Nuclear Weapons
A Brief History of Pakistan’s Nuclear Program

Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program was established in 1972 by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who founded the program while he was Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources, and later became President and Prime Minister. Shortly after the loss of East Pakistan in the 1971 war with India, Bhutto initiated the program with a meeting of physicists and engineers at Multan in January 1972.

India’s 1974 testing of a nuclear  device  gave Pakistan’s nuclear program new momentum. Through the late 1970s, Pakistan’s program acquired sensitive uranium enrichment technology and expertise. The 1975 arrival of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan considerably advanced these efforts. Dr. Khan is a German-trained metallurgist who brought with him knowledge of gas centrifuge technologies that he had acquired through his position at the classified URENCO uranium enrichment plant in the Netherlands. Dr. Khan also reportedly brought with him stolen uranium enrichment technologies from Europe. He was put in charge of building, equipping and operating Pakistan’s Kahuta facility, which was established in 1976. Under Khan’s direction, Pakistan employed an extensive clandestine network in order to obtain the necessary materials and technology for its developing uranium enrichment capabilities.

In 1985, Pakistan crossed the threshold of weapons-grade uranium production, and by 1986 it is thought to have produced enough fissile material for a nuclear weapon. Pakistan continued advancing its uranium enrichment program, and according to Pakistani sources, the nation acquired the ability to carry out a nuclear explosion in 1987.
# Pakistan Nuclear Weapons – A Chronology
Nuclear Tests

On May 28, 1998 Pakistan announced that it had successfully conducted five nuclear tests. The Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission reported that the five nuclear tests conducted on May 28 generated a seismic signal of 5.0 on the Richter scale, with a total yield of up to 40 KT (equivalent TNT). Dr. A.Q. Khan claimed that one device was a boosted fission device and that the other four were sub-kiloton nuclear devices.

On May 30, 1998 Pakistan tested one more nuclear warhead with a reported yield of 12 kilotons. The tests were conducted at Balochistan, bringing the total number of claimed tests to six. It has also been claimed by Pakistani sources that at least one additional device, initially planned for detonation on 30 May 1998, remained emplaced underground ready for detonation.

Pakistani claims concerning the number and yields of their underground tests cannot be independently confirmed by seismic means, and several sources, such as the Southern Arizona Seismic Observatory have reported lower yields than those claimed by Pakistan. Indian sources have also suggested that as few as two weapons were actually detonated, each with yields considerably lower than claimed by Pakistan. However, seismic data showed at least two and possibly a third, much smaller, test in the initial round of tests at the Ras Koh range. The single test on 30 May provided a clear seismic signal.

DEVICE     DATE     YIELD
[announced]     YIELD
[estimated]
[boosted device?]     28 May 1998     25-36 kiloton     total 9-12 kiloton
Fission device     28 May 1998     12 kiloton
Low-yield device     28 May 1998     sub-kiloton     —
Low-yield device     28 May 1998     sub-kiloton     —
Low-yield device     28 May 1998     sub-kiloton     —
Fission device     30 May 1998     12 kiloton     4-6 kiloton
Fission device     not detonated     12 kiloton     —
This table lists the nuclear tests that Pakistan claims to have carried out in May 1998 as well as the announced yields. Other sources have reported lower yields than those claimed by Pakistan. The Southern Arizona Seismic Observatory reports that the total seismic yield for the May 28th tests was 9-12 kilotons and that the yield for the May 30th tests was 4-6 kilotons.

According to a preliminary analysis conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, material released into the atmosphere during an underground nuclear test by Pakistan in May 1998 contained low levels of weapons-grade plutonium. The significance of the Los Alamos finding was that Pakistan had either imported or produced plutonium undetected by the US intelligence community. But Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and other agencies later contested the accuracy of this finding.

These tests came slightly more than two weeks after India carried out five nuclear tests of its own on May 11 and 13 and after many warnings by Pakistani officials that they would respond to India.

Pakistan’s nuclear tests were followed by the February 1999 Lahore Agreements between Prime Ministers Vajpayee and Sharif. The agreements included confidence building measures such as advance notice of ballistic missile testing and a continuation of their unilateral moratoria on nuclear testing. But diplomatic advances made that year were undermined by Pakistan’s incursion into Kargil. Under US diplomatic pressure, Prime Minister Sharif withdrew his troops, but lost power in October 1999 due to a military coup in which Gen. Pervez Musharraf took over.
#
Satellite Imagery of Pakistan’s May 28 and May 30 nuclear testing sites
Nuclear Infrastructure

Pakistan’s nuclear program is based primarily on highly enriched uranium (HEU), which is produced at the A. Q. Khan research laboratory at Kahuta, a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility. The Kahuta facility has been in operation since the early 1980s. By the early 1990s, Kahuta had an estimated 3,000 centrifuges in operation, and Pakistan continued its pursuit of expanded uranium enrichment capabilities.

In the 1990s Pakistan began to pursue plutonium production capabilities. With Chinese assistance, Pakistan built the 40 MWt (megawatt thermal) Khusab research reactor at Joharabad, and in April 1998, Pakistan announced that the reactor was operational. According to public statements made by US officials, this unsafeguarded heavy water reactor generates an estimated 8-10 kilotons of weapons grade plutonium per year, which is enough for one to two nuclear weapons. The reactor could also produce tritium if it were loaded with lithium-6. According to J. Cirincione of Carnegie, Khusab’s plutonium production capacity could allow Pakistan to develop lighter nuclear warheads that would be easier to deliver with a ballistic missile.

Plutonium separation reportedly takes place at the New Labs reprocessing plant next to Pakistan’s Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (Pinstech) in Rawalpindi and at the larger Chasma nuclear power plant, neither of which are subject to IAEA inspection.
Nuclear Arsenal

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) estimates that Pakistan has built 24-48 HEU-based nuclear warheads, and Carnegie reports that they have produced 585-800 kg of HEU, enough for 30-55 weapons. Pakistan’s nuclear warheads are based on an implosion design that uses a solid core of highly enriched uranium and requires an estimated 15-20 kg of material per warhead. According to Carnegie, Pakistan has also produced a small but unknown quantity of weapons grade plutonium, which is sufficient for an estimated 3-5 nuclear weapons.

Pakistani authorities claim that their nuclear weapons are not assembled. They maintain that the fissile cores are stored separately from the non-nuclear explosives packages, and that the warheads are stored separately from the delivery systems. In a 2001 report, the Defense Department contends that  Islamabad’s nuclear weapons are probably stored in component form  and that  Pakistan probably could assemble the weapons fairly quickly.  However, no one has been able to ascertain the validity of Pakistan’s assurances about their nuclear weapons security.

Pakistan’s reliance primarily on HEU makes its fissile materials particularly vulnerable to diversion. HEU can be used in a relatively simple gun-barrel-type design, which could be within the means of non-state actors that intend to assemble a crude nuclear weapon.

The terrorist attacks on September 11th raised concerns about the security of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal. According to press reports, within two days of the attacks, Pakistan’s military began relocating nuclear weapons components to six new secret locations. Shortly thereafter, Gen. Pervez Musharraf fired his intelligence chief and other officers and detained several suspected retired nuclear weapons scientists, in an attempt to root out extremist elements that posed a potential threat to Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal.

Concerns have also been raised about Pakistan as a proliferant of nuclear materials and expertise. In November, 2002, shortly after North Korea admitted to pursuing a nuclear weapons program, the press reported allegations that Pakistan had provided assistance in the development of its uranium enrichment program in exchange for North Korean missile technologies.
Foreign Assistance

In the past, China played a major role in the development of Pakistan’s nuclear infrastructure, especially when increasingly stringent export controls in western countries made it difficult for Pakistan to acquire materials and technology elsewhere. According to a 2001 Department of Defense report, China has supplied Pakistan with nuclear materials and expertise and has provided critical assistance in the construction of Pakistan’s nuclear facilities.

In the 1990s, China designed and supplied the heavy water Khusab reactor, which plays a key role in Pakistan’s production of plutonium. A subsidiary of the China National Nuclear Corporation also contributed to Pakistan’s efforts to expand its uranium enrichment capabilities by providing 5,000 custom made ring magnets, which are a key component of the bearings that facilitate the high-speed rotation of centrifuges.

According to Anthony Cordesman of CSIS, China is also reported to have provided Pakistan with the design of one of its warheads, which is relatively sophisticated in design and lighter than U.S. and Soviet designed first generation warheads.

China also provided technical and material support in the completion of the Chasma nuclear power reactor and plutonium reprocessing facility, which was built in the mid 1990s. The project had been initiated as a cooperative program with France, but Pakistan’s failure to sign the NPT and unwillingness to accept IAEA safeguards on its entire nuclear program caused France to terminate assistance.

According to the Defense Department report cited above, Pakistan has also acquired nuclear related and dual-use and equipment and materials from the Former Soviet Union and Western Europe.
Intermittent US Sanctions

On several occasions, under the authority of amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act, the U.S. has imposed sanctions on Pakistan, cutting off economic and military aid as a result of its pursuit of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. suspended sanctions each time developments in Afghanistan made Pakistan a strategically important  frontline state,  such as the 1981 Soviet occupation and in the war on terrorism.
Pakistan’s Nuclear Doctrine

Several sources, such as Jane’s Intelligence Review and Defense Department reports maintain that Pakistan’s motive for pursuing a nuclear weapons program is to counter the threat posed by its principal rival, India, which has superior conventional forces and nuclear weapons.

Pakistan has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). According to the Defense Department report cited above,  Pakistan remains steadfast in its refusal to sign the NPT, stating that it would do so only after India joined the Treaty. Consequently, not all of Pakistan’s nuclear facilities are under IAEA safeguards. Pakistani officials have stated that signature of the CTBT is in Pakistan’s best interest, but that Pakistan will do so only after developing a domestic consensus on the issue, and have disavowed any connection with India’s decision.

Pakistan does not abide by a no-first-use doctrine, as evidenced by President Pervez Musharraf’s statements in May, 2002. Musharraf said that Pakistan did not want a conflict with India but that if it came to war between the nuclear-armed rivals, he would  respond with full might.  These statements were interpreted to mean that if pressed by an overwhelming conventional attack from India, which has superior conventional forces, Pakistan might use its nuclear weapons.
Sources and Resources

* UN Nuclear Chief Warns of Global Black Market Mohammed ElBaradei commenting on questions raised by the Khan confession, February 6, 2004.
* Abdul Qadeer Khan  Apologizes  for Transferring Nuclear Secrets Abroad, broadcast on Pakistani television, February 4, 2004.

* Documents Indicate A.Q. Khan Offered Nuclear Weapon Designs to Iraq in 1990: Did He Approach Other Countries? By David Albright and Corey Hinderstein, February 4, 2004

*

Deadly Arsenals, chapter on Paksitan – by Joseph Cirincione, John B.Wolfsthal and Miriam Rajkumar (Carnegie, June 2002). The chapter discusses Pakistan’s WMD, missile and aircraft capabilities. It also presents the strategic context of the nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan and the history of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program, touching on foreign assistance from China and on-and-off US economic assistance.
*

Proliferation: Threat and Response, Jan. 2001 – A Defense Department report on the status of nuclear proliferation in South Asia. It includes a brief historical background on the conflict between India and Pakistan as well as an assessment of their nuclear capabilities, chem/bio programs, ballistic missile programs and other means of delivery.
*

ENHANCING NUCLEAR SECURITY IN THE COUNTER-TERRORISM STRUGGLE: India and Pakistan as a New Region for Cooperation – by Rose Gottemoeller, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, August 2002. This working paper explores possible cooperative programs that could enhance the security of Pakistan and India’s nuclear arsenals, in order to prevent the diversion of dangerous materials into the hands of terrorists or rogue state leaders.
*

Pakistan’s Nuclear Forces, 2001  from NRDC Nuclear Notebook, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists Jan/Feb 2002. A Two-page update on the state of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal. It makes rough estimates of the number of nuclear weapons and the amount of fissile material in Pakistan’s possession and touches on fissile material production capabilities. Also included is a brief discussion of delivery mechanisms such as aircraft and missiles.
*

Monterey Institute Resource Page on India and Pakistan – last updated July 7, 2000. This page has many useful links to relevant maps, news articles and analytical pieces on India and Pakistan’s nuclear programs.
*

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace – Pakistan resources
*

Pakistan Nuclear Weapons – A Chronology – a timeline of the Pakistan’s Nuclear Development program since 1965.
*

The Threat of Pakistani Nuclear Weapons  – a CSIS report by Anthony H. Cordesman (Last updated Nov. 2001). – This report tells the history of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program and discusses China role in its development. It also lists recent US intelligence reports on Pakistan’s activities.
*

From Testing to Deploying Nuclear Forces: The Hard Choices Facing India and Pakistan – Gregory S. Jones. (Rand, 2000).  This issue paper describes the requirements for a nuclear deterrent force in general terms, discusses how the Indian-Pakistani nuclear relationship is affected by China, and then considers the specific decisions that still must be made in India and Pakistan.
*

Pakistan Nuclear Update, 2001 – Wisconsin Project. This three-page document provides a brief summary of Pakistan’s main nuclear sites and an update on developments in Pakistan’s nuclear program.
*

Securing Pakistan’s Nuclear Arsenal: Principles for Assistance – by David Albright, Kevin O’Neill and Corey Hinderstein, Oct. 4, 2001. An ISIS issue brief on the potential threats to the security of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal.
*

The May 1998 India and Pakistan Nuclear Tests – by Terry C. Wallace, Southern Arizona Seismic Observatory (SASO), 1998. This technical paper provides a seismic analysis of India and Pakistan’s 1998 nuclear tests. It concludes that Pakistan’s May 28 tests had a seismic yield of 9-12 kt, and the May 30 test had a yield of 4-6 kt. An updated web page on this report can be found here
*

Satellite Imagery of Pakistan’s May 28 and May 30 nuclear testing sites, hosted on the Center for Monitoring Research Commercial Satellite Imagery Page
*

Pakistan’s Nuclear Dilemma  – September 23 2001, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Transcripts from a Carnegie panel on developments in Pakistan in the aftermath of the Septempber 11th attacks. The panel included three speakers — Shirin Tahir-Kheli, George Perkovich and Rose Gottemoeller– and was moderated by Joseph Cirincione.
*

Chapter on Pakistan, from Tracking Nuclear Proliferation: A Guide in Maps and Charts, 1998 by Rodney W. Jones, Mark G. McDonough, with Toby F. Dalton and Gregory D. Koblentz (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment, July 1998). This chapter documents the history of Pakistan’s nuclear program and tracks the development of its nuclear infrastructure. It also covers in detail the sanctions the US imposed on Pakistan in light of these developments, as well Pakistan’s missile program.
*
U.S. Appears to be Losing Track of Pakistan’s Nuclear Program  and  U.S. Now Believes Pakistan to use Khushab Plutonium in Bomb Program  By Mark Hibbs July, 1998. Two brief articles written in the aftermath of Paksistan’s 1998 nuclear tests — they discuss Pakistan’s weapons grade uranium and plutonium production capacities and the implications for its nuclear arsenal.
*
U.S. Labs at Odds on Whether Pakistani Blast Used Plutonium,  by Dana Priest Washington Post Sunday, January 17, 1999; Page A02. This article discusses the controversy over the preliminary analysis carried out by Los Alamos National Laboratory, which found that plutonium traces had been released into the atomosphere during Pakistan’s May 30th underground nuclear test. Scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Labs contested the accuracy of this finding and alleged that Los Alamos had contaminated and then lost the air sample. At the time, Los Alamos’ findings were highly controversial because they implied that Pakistan had obtained plutonium either though imports or indigenous production, and there was uncertainty about Pakistan’s plutonium production capabilities. It is now public knowledge that Pakistan can produce and isolate plutonium at its Khusbab reactor and at the New Labs and Chasma separation facilities.
*

NUCLEARISATION OF SOUTH ASIA AND ITS REGIONAL AND GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS Munir Ahmed Khan REGIONAL STUDIES Autumn 1998

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Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pakistan
Location of Pakistan
Nuclear program start date     1 January 1972
First nuclear weapon test     28 May 1998
Last nuclear test     30 May 1998
Largest yield test     25-36 kT (PAEC claim) [1]
Total tests     6 detonations
Peak stockpile     70-90 warheads
(2009 estimate) [2][3]
Current stockpile     70-90 warheads
(2009 estimate) [2][3]
Maximum missile range     2,500 km (Shaheen-II) [4]
NPT signatory     No

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Pakistan began focusing on nuclear development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. This program, known as Project-706, would reach fruition under President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development program was in response to neighboring India’s development of nuclear weapons. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan. It was here that Bhutto rallied Pakistan’s scientists to build the atomic bomb for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Pakistani nuclear scientist, Munir Ahmad Khan (a U.S. trained scientist), as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), who till then had been working as Director of Nuclear Power and Reactor Division at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. This marked the beginning of Pakistan’s pursuit of nuclear capability. Following India’s surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus.[citation needed]

Consequently, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, a metallurgical engineer, working at the Dutch research firm URENCO, also joined Pakistan’s nuclear weapons-grade Uranium enrichment program. The uranium enrichment program had been launched in 1974 by PAEC chairman Munir Ahmad Khan as Project-706. A.Q. Khan joined the project in the spring of 1976 and was made Project-Director in July 1976 after taking over from another nuclear scientist, Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood. In 1983, Khan was convicted by a Dutch court in absentia for stealing the blueprints, though the conviction was overturned on a legal technicality.[5]

Through the late 1970s, Pakistan’s program acquired sensitive uranium enrichment technology and expertise. The 1975 arrival of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan considerably advanced these efforts. Dr. Khan is a German-trained metallurgist who brought with him knowledge of gas centrifuge technologies that he had through his position at the classified URENCO uranium enrichment plant in the Netherlands. He was put in charge of building, equipping and operating Pakistan’s Kahuta facility, which was established in 1976. Under Khan’s direction, Pakistan employed an extensive clandestine network in order to obtain the necessary materials and technology for its developing uranium enrichment capabilities.[3]

On 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India’s second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Chagai Hills in the Chaghai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the base having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. Pakistan’s fissile material production takes place at Kahuta and Khushab/Jauharabad, where weapons-grade plutonium is made by the scientists.[6]

Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Program was established in 1974 when the Directorate of Technical Development (DTD) was set up in PAEC by chairman Munir Ahmad Khan.Munir Ahmad Khan was credited as the one of the pioneers of Pakistan’s atomic bomb by a recent study from the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), London’s dossier on Pakistan’s nuclear program. DTD was assigned the task of developing the implosion design, trigger mechanism, physics calculations, high-speed electronics, high-precision chemical and mechanical components, high explosive lenses for Pakistan’s nuclear weapons. The DTD had come up with its first implosion design of a nuclear weapon by 1978 which was then improved and later tested on 11 March 1983 when PAEC carried out Pakistan’s first successful cold test of a nuclear device.

Between 1983 and 1990, PAEC carried out 24 more cold tests of various nuclear weapon designs. DTD had also developed a miniaturized weapon design by 1987 that could be delivered by all Pakistan Air Force fighter aircraft.[7]

Contents

* 1 Nuclear weapons
o 1.1 Origins
o 1.2 Initial refusal to start a nuclear programme
o 1.3 The Civilian Nuclear Programme
o 1.4 Policy
o 1.5 Protection
o 1.6 Modernisation and Expansion
* 2 Infrastructure
o 2.1 Uranium Infrastructure
o 2.2 Plutonium Infrastructure
o 2.3 Arsenal
o 2.4 Second strike capability
o 2.5 Foreign assistance
o 2.6 Doctrine
o 2.7 U.S. aid in guarding the nuclear weapons
o 2.8 National Security Council
* 3 Weapons development agencies
o 3.1 National Engineering & Scientific Commission (NESCOM)
o 3.2 Ministry of Defense Production
o 3.3 Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)
o 3.4 Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Commission (SUPARCO)
o 3.5 Precision Engineering Complex (PEC)
o 3.6 Ministry of Industries & Production
* 4 Delivery systems
o 4.1 Missiles
o 4.2 Aircraft
* 5 Notes
* 6 See also
* 7 External links

Nuclear weapons
See also: Project-706

Origins

In February 1948, the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah announced:
“     The weak and the defenseless in this world invite aggression from others. The best way we can serve peace is by removing the temptation from the path of those who think we are weak and, for that reason, they can bully or attack us. That temptation can only be removed if we make ourselves so strong that nobody dare entertain any aggressive designs against us. Pakistan has come to stay and no power on earth can destroy it.[8][9]     ”

In 1972, in response to India’s Smiling Buddha nuclear tests, Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto announced:
“     If India builds the bomb, we will eat grass and leaves for a thousand years, even go hungry, but we will get one of our own. The Christians have the bomb, the Jews have the bomb and now the Hindus and the Sikhs have the bomb. Why not the Muslims too have the bomb?[10][11]     ”

Initial refusal to start a nuclear programme

Pakistan’s civilian nuclear programme started in 1956 under the Government of Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. When President Ayub Khan imposed martial law in Pakistan, the Pakistani civilian nuclear programme was frozen until 1972. On December 11 1965, President Ayub Khan had a brief meeting with Pakistani nuclear engineer Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan (late) at the Dorchester Hotel in London. The meeting was arranged by the then foreign minister of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. During the meeting, Munir Ahmad Khan told President Ayub Khan that Pakistan must acquire the necessary facilities that would give the country a nuclear deterrent capability, which were available free of safeguards and at an affordable cost. Munir Ahmad Khan also told President Ayub Khan that there were no restrictions on nuclear technology, that it was freely available, and that India and Israel were moving forward in deploying it.
Munir Ahmad Khan estimated the cost of nuclear technology at that time. Because things were less expensive, the then costs were not more than $150 million. President Ayub Khan listened to him very patiently, but at the end of the meeting, Ayub Khan remained unconvinced. Ayub Khan clearly refused Munir Ahmad Khan’s offer and said that Pakistan was too poor to spend that much money. Moreover, President Ayub Khan mentioned that if Pakistan ever needed the bomb, Pakistan could somehow acquire it off the shelf.[12]

The Civilian Nuclear Programme
Main article: Nuclear power in Pakistan

Pakistan’s civilian nuclear programme started in 1956 when the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was established, with the initial target of capitalizing on the U.S-Pakistan’s quest for acquiring the sensitive nuclear technology. U.S President Eisenhower’s  Atoms for Peace Programme , and its first chairman was Dr. Nazir Ahmad[13]. In 1961, PAEC set up a Mineral Centre at Lahore and a similar multidisciplinary Centre was set up in Dhaka, in the then East Pakistan. With these two centers, the basic research work started[13].

The first thing that was to be undertaken was the search for Uranium. This continued for about 3 years from 1960 to 1963. Uranium deposits were discovered in the Dera Ghazi Khan district and the first-ever national award was given to the PAEC. Mining of Uranium began in the same year. Dr. Abdus Salam and Dr. I. H. Usmani also sent a large number of scientists to pursue doctorate degrees in the field of Nuclear Technology and nuclear reactor technology. In December 1965, then-Foreign Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto visited Vienna where he met with known Pakistani nuclear engineer, Munir Ahmad Khan. At a Vienna meeting on december, Munir A. Khan informed Bhutto about the statue of Indian nuclear programme[13].

The next landmark under Dr. I. H. Usmani, was the establishment of PINSTECH – Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, at Nilore near Islamabad. The principal facility there was a 5 MW research reactor, commissioned in 1965 and consisting of the Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor (PARR-1), which was upgraded to 10 MW under Munir Ahmad Khan in 1990. A second Atomic Research Reactor, PARR-2, was a Pool-type, light-water, 27-30 kW, training reactor that went critical in 1989 under Munir Ahmad Khan. Both reactors were provide by the United States[13]. Canada build Pakistan’s first civil-purpose nuclear power plant[13].

The PAEC in 1970 began work on a pilot-scale plant at Dera Ghazi Khan for the concentration of uranium ores. The plant had a capacity of 10,000 pounds a day[14].

Dr. I. H. Usmani’s contribution to the nuclear programme is fundamental to the development of atomic energy for civilian purposes as he established PINSTECH, that subsequently developed into Pakistan’s premier nuclear research institution. In addition to sending hundreds of young Pakistanis abroad for training, he laid the foundations of the Muslim world’s first nuclear power reactor KANUPP, which was inaugurated by Munir Ahmad Khan in 1972. Thus, Usmani laid solid groundwork for the civilian nuclear programme[15]

On September 3, 2004, Pakistan signed an agreement with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). According to the media sources in Pakistan, IAEA has mandated Pakistan to extensively use and establish more nuclear power plants to use nuclear energy for civilian purposes in agriculture, industrial, health, education, environment, energy and power sectors [16].

Policy

Pakistan acceded to the Geneva Protocol on 15 April 1960, the Biological Weapons Convention in 1974 and the Chemical Weapons Convention on 28 October 1997.In 1999 Pakistan signed the Lahore Accords with India, agreeing on a bilateral moratorium on nuclear testing. However, Pakistan, like India and Israel, is not a signatory of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and, consequently, not bound by any of its provisions.

Protection

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton informed that Pakistan has dispersed its nuclear weapons throughout the country, increasing the security so that they could not fall into terrorist hands. Her comments came as new satellite images released by the ISIS suggested Pakistan is increasing its capacity to produce plutonium, a fuel for atomic bombs. The institute has also claimed that Pakistan has built two more nuclear reactors at Khoshab increasing the number of plutonium producing reactors to three.[17]

In May 2009, during the anniversary of Pakistan’s first nuclear weapons test, former Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif claimed that Pakistan’s nuclear security is the strongest in the world.[18] According to Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistan’s nuclear safety program and nuclear security program is the strongest program in the world and there is no such capability in any other country for radical elements to steal or possess nuclear weapons[19].

Modernisation and Expansion

Pakistan is increasing its capacity to produce plutonium at its Khushab nuclear facility, a Washington-based science think tank has reported.[20] Estimated Pakistani nuclear weapons is probably in the neighborhood of more than 200 by the end of 2009. “The sixth Pakistani nuclear test (May 30, 1998) at Kharan was a successful test of a sophisticated, compact, but powerful bomb designed to be carried by missiles. The Pakistanis are believed to be spiking their plutonium based nuclear weapons with tritium. Only a few grams of tritium can result in an increase of the explosive yield by 300% to 400%.”[21]. Citing new satellite images of the facility, the Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) said the imagery suggests construction of the second Khushab reactor is “likely finished and that the roof beams are being placed on top of the third Khushab reactor hall”.[22]

Infrastructure
Uranium Infrastructure

Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development program is based, primarily, on highly-enriched uranium (HEU))[1], which is produced at the Khan Research Laboratories at Kahuta, a Zippe centrifuge-based uranium-enrichment facility. The Kahuta facility has been in use since the early 1980s. By the early 1990s, Kahuta had an estimated 3,000 centrifuges in operation, and Pakistan has continued its pursuit of expanded uranium-enrichment capabilities.

Plutonium Infrastructure

In the mid 1980s, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission began to pursue Plutonium production capabilities. Consequently Pakistan built the 40-50 MW (megawatt, thermal) Khushab Research Reactor at Joharabad, and in April 1998, Pakistan announced that the nuclear reactor was operational. The Khushab reactor project was initiated in 1986 by PAEC chairman Munir Ahmad Khan, who informed the world that the reactor was totally indigenous, i.e. that it was designed and built by Pakistani scientists and engineers. Various Pakistani industries contributed in 82% of the reactor’s construction. The Project-Director for this project was Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood. According to public statements made by the U.S. Government officials, this heavy-water reactor can produce up to 8 to 10 kg of plutonium per year with increase in the production by the development of newer facilities,[23] sufficient for at least one nuclear weapon.[24] The reactor could also produce tritium if it were loaded with lithium-6, although this is unnecessary for the purposes of nuclear weapons, because modern nuclear weapon designs use 6Li directly. According to J. Cirincione of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Khushab’s Plutonium production capacity has allowed Pakistan to develop lighter nuclear warheads that would be easier to deliver to any place in the range of the ballistic missiles.[citation needed]

Plutonium separation takes place at the New Labs Reprocessing Plant, which was completed by 1981 by PAEC and is next to the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) near Islamabad, which is not subject to IAEA inspections and safeguards.
Television screenshot of the first known Pakistani Nuclear Test, 28 May 1998.

In late 2006, the Institute for Science and International Security released intelligence reports and imagery showing the construction of a new plutonium reactor at the Khushab nuclear site. The reactor is deemed to be large enough to produce enough plutonium to facilitate the creation of as many as  40 to 50 nuclear weapons a year. [25][26][27] The New York Times carried the story with the insight that this would be Pakistan’s third plutonium reactor[28], signaling a shift to dual-stream development, with Plutonium-based devices supplementing the nation’s existing HEU stream to atomic warheads.

Arsenal

Pakistani IRBMs on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Karachi, Pakistan.
A truck-mounted launch system (TEL) armed with 4 Babur cruise missiles on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Karachi, Pakistan.
Truck-mounted IRBMs on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Karachi, Pakistan.

The U.S.-based Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) estimated that Pakistan had built 24–48 HEU-based nuclear warheads with HEU reserves for 30-52 additional warheads.[29][30] In 2003, the U.S. Navy Center for Contemporary Conflict estimated that Pakistan possessed between 35 and 95 nuclear warheads, with a median of 60.[31]

The NRDC’s and the Carnegie Foundation’s estimates of approximately 50 weapons are from 2002–03 estimations. In 2000, U.S. Military intelligence estimated that Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal may be as large as 100 warheads.[32] The actual size is hard for experts to gauge owing to the extreme secrecy which surrounds the program in Pakistan. In recent developments, retired Brig. General Feroz Khan, previously second in command at the Strategic Arms Division of Pakistans’ Military told a Pakistani newspaper the nation has  about 80 to 120 genuine warheads,  and also revealed that Pakistan has decoy or dummy warheads to complicate any designs by aggressors.[33][34]

Pakistan tested plutonium capability in the sixth nuclear test of 30 May 1998 at Kharan. In this test the most compact and sophisticated design, made to be carried by small delivery vehicles such as MIRV and cruise missiles, was tested. Compactness can also be an issue when small aircraft such as fighter-bombers are being used as delivery vehicles, unless the platform happens to be a dedicated strategic bomber.

The critical mass of a bare mass sphere of 90% enriched uranium-235 is 52 kg. Correspondingly, the critical mass of a bare mass sphere of plutonium-239 is 8–10 kg. The bomb that destroyed Hiroshima used 60 kg of U-235 while the Nagasaki Pu bomb used only 6 kg of Pu-239. Since all Pakistani bomb designs are implosion-type weapons, they will typically use between 15–25 kg of U-235 for their cores. Reducing the amount of U-235 in cores from 60 kg in gun-type devices to 25 kg in implosion devices is only possible by using good neutron reflector/tamper material such as beryllium metal, which increases the weight of the bomb. And the uranium, like plutonium, is only usable in the core of a bomb in metallic form. Add about 50 or so chemical high-explosive lenses, triggering circuits, and outer aluminium casing, all this adds to the overall weight of the device. Therefore if a bomb has to use only U-235, that will impose serious restrictions on the amount of U-235 that can be used, and the size of the bomb itself, thus restricting its explosive yield. True PAEC did develop bomb designs that could be carried by all PAF aircraft, but after years of effort and R&D, and then too, there were serious limitations on the further extent of miniaturization of the bombs. If uranium is used as bomb fuel, it cannot be miniaturized beyond a certain point.

However, only 2–4 kg of plutonium is needed for the same device that would need 20–25 kg of U-235. Additionally, a few grams of tritium (a by-product of plutonium production reactors and thermonuclear fuel) can increase the overall yield of the bombs by a factor of three to four. “The sixth Pakistani nuclear test (May 30, 1998) at Kharan was a successful test of a sophisticated, compact, but powerful bomb designed to be carried by missiles. The Pakistanis are believed to be spiking their plutonium based nuclear weapons with tritium. Only a few grams of tritium can result in an increase of the explosive yield by 300% to 400%.”[21]

A whole range and variety of weapons using Pu-239 can be easily built, both for aircraft delivery and especially for missiles (in which U-235 cannot be used). So if Pakistan wants to be a nuclear power with an operational deterrent capability, both first and second strike, based on assured strike platforms like ballistic and cruise missiles (unlike aircraft), the only solution is with plutonium, which has been the first choice of every country that built a nuclear arsenal.

As for Pakistan’s plutonium capability, it has always been there, from the early 1980s onwards. There were only two problems. One was that Pakistan did not want to be an irresponsible state and so did not divert spent fuel from the safeguarded KANUPP for reprocessing at New Labs. This was enough to build a whole arsenal of nuclear weapons straight away. So PAEC built its own plutonium and tritium production reactor at Khushab, beginning in 1985. The second one was allocation of resources.

Ultra-centrifugation for obtaining U-235 cannot be done simply by putting natural uranium through the centrifuges. It requires the complete mastery over the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, beginning at uranium mining and refining, production of uranium ore or yellow cake, conversion of ore into uranium dioxide UO2 (which is used to make nuclear fuel for natural uranium reactors like Khushab and KANUPP), conversion of UO2 into uranium tetrafluoride UF4 and then into the feedstock for enrichment (UF6).

The complete mastery of fluorine chemistry and production of highly toxic and corrosive hydrofluoric acid and other fluorine compounds is required. The UF6 is pumped into the centrifuges for enrichment. The process is then repeated in reverse until UF4 is produced, leading to the production of uranium metal, the form in which U-235 is used in a bomb.

It is estimated that there are approximately 10,000-20,000 centrifuges in Kahuta. This means that with P2 machines, they would be producing between 75–100 kg of HEU since 1986, when full production of weapons-grade HEU began. Also the production of HEU was voluntarily capped by Pakistan between 1991 and 1997, and the five nuclear tests of 28 May 1998 also consumed HEU. So it is safe to assume that between 1986 and 2005 (prior to the 2005 earthquake), KRL produced 1500 kg of HEU. Accounting for losses in the production of weapons, it can be assumed that each weapon would need 20 kg of HEU; sufficient for 75 bombs as in 2005.

Pakistan’s first nuclear tests were made in May 1998, when six warheads were tested. It is reported that the yields from these tests were 12kt, 30 to 35kt and four low-yield (below 1 kt) tests. From these tests Pakistan can be estimated to have developed operational warheads of 20 to 25kt and 150kt in the shape of low weight compact designs and may have 300–500kt [35] large-size warheads. The low-yield weapons are probably in nuclear bombs carried on fighter-bombers such as the Dassault Mirage III and fitted to Pakistan’s short-range ballistic missiles, while the higher-yield warheads are probably fitted to the Shaheen series and Ghauri series ballistic missiles.[35]

Second strike capability

According to a US congressional report, Pakistan has addressed issues of survivability in a possible nuclear conflict through second strike capability. Pakistan has been dealing with efforts to develop new weapons and at the same time, have a strategy for surviving a nuclear war. Pakistan has built hard and deeply buried storage and launch facilities to retain a second strike capability in a nuclear war.[36]

It was confirmed that Pakistan has built Soviet-style road-mobile missiles, state-of-the-art air defences around strategic sites, and other concealment measures. Pakistan has also built hard and deeply buried storage and launch facilities to retain a second strike capability in case of a nuclear war. In 1998, Pakistan had ‘at least six secret locations’ and since then it is believed Pakistan may have many more such secret sites. In 2008, the United States admitted that it did not know where all of Pakistan’s nuclear sites are located. Pakistani defence officials have continued to rebuff and deflect American requests for more details about the location and security of the country’s nuclear sites.[37]

Foreign assistance

Historically, China is alleged to have played a major role in the establishment of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development infrastructure, especially, when increasingly stringent export controls in the western countries made it difficult for Pakistan to acquire nuclear materials and technology from elsewhere. Additionally, Pakistani officials have supposedly been present to observe at least one Chinese nuclear test. In a recent revelation by a high-ranking former U.S. official, it was disclosed that China had allegedly transferred nuclear technology to Pakistan and conducting Proxy Test for it in 1980.[38] According to a 2001 Department of Defense report, China has supplied Pakistan with nuclear materials and has provided critical technical assistance in the construction of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development facilities, in violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, of which China is a signatory.[39]

In 1986, Pakistan and China signed a civilian nuclear technology agreement in which China would supply Pakistan a civil-purpose nuclear technology. A grand ceremony was held in Beijing where Pakistan’s then Foreign Minister Sahibzada Yaqub Khan signed on behalf of Pakistan in the presence of Munir Ahmad Khan and Chinese Prime Minister. Therefore, in 1989, Pakistan reached agreement with China for the supply of a 300MW CHASHNUPP-1 nuclear power plant.

In February, 1990, President François Mitterrand of France visited Pakistan and announced that France had agreed to supply a 900 MWe nuclear power reactor to Pakistan. However, after the Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto (late) was dimissed in August, 1990, the French nuclear power plant deal went into cold storage and the agreement could not be implemented due to financial constraints and the Pakistani government’s apathy. Also in February 1990, Soviet Ambassador to Pakistan, V.P. Yakunin, says that the USSR is considering a request from Pakistan for the supply of a nuclear power plant. The soviet and French civilian nuclear power plant was on its way during 1990s. However, Bob Oakley, the U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan, expressed U.S. displeasure at the recent agreement made between France and Pakistan for the sale of a nuclear power plant[40]. After the U.S. concerns the civilian-nuclear technology agreements were cancelled by France and Soviet Union.

Doctrine

Pakistan’s motive, as stated by its former President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1985, for pursuing a nuclear weapons development program is to counter the threat posed by its principal rival, India.[3]

Pakistan has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). According to the U.S. Defense Department report cited above,  Pakistan remains steadfast in its refusal to sign the NPT, stating that it would do so only after India joined the Treaty. Consequently, not all of Pakistan’s nuclear facilities are under IAEA safeguards. Pakistani officials have stated that signature of the CTBT is in Pakistan’s best interest, but that Pakistan will do so only after developing a domestic consensus on the issue, and have disavowed any connection with India’s decision.

The organization authorized to make decisions about Pakistan’s nuclear posturing is the NCA. Here is a link showing NCA of Pakistan. [1] It was established in February 2000. The NCA is composed of two committees that advise the present President of Pakistan, on the development and deployment of nuclear weapons; it is also responsible for war-time command and control. In 2001, Pakistan further consolidated its nuclear weapons infrastructure by placing the Khan Research Laboratories and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission under the control of one Nuclear Defense Complex.

It has been recently reported by the Pakistani Press namely Jang that Pakistan has the ability to MIRV its missiles. This has been seen as possibly one of the greatest achievement to date for Pakistan. It has also been reported that Pakistan would likely MIRV its Shaheen-II and Ghauri II missiles.

U.S. aid in guarding the nuclear weapons

From the end of 2001 the United States has provided material assistance to aid Pakistan in guarding its nuclear material, warheads and laboratories. The cost of the program has been almost $100 million. Specifically the USA has provided helicopters, night-vision goggles and nuclear detection equipment.[41]

Pakistan turned down the offer of Permissive Action Link (PAL) technology, a sophisticated  weapon release  program which initiates use via specific checks and balances, possibly because it feared the secret implanting of  dead switches . But Pakistan is since believed to have developed and implemented its own version of PAL and U.S. military officials have stated they believe Pakistan’s nuclear weaponry to be well secured.[42][43][44]

National Security Council

* National Command Authority
* Ministry of Defence
* Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC)
* Strategic Planning Directorate (SPD – ex CDD)

Weapons development agencies
National Engineering & Scientific Commission (NESCOM)

* National Development Complex (NDC), Islamabad
* Pakistan Missile Organization (PMO), Khanpur
* Air Weapon Complex (AWC), Hasanabdal
* Maritime Technologies Complex (MTC), Karachi

Ministry of Defense Production

* Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF), Wah
* Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC), Kamra
* Defense Science and Technology Organization (DESTO), Chattar

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

* Directorate of Technical Development
* Directorate of Technical Equipment
* Directorate of Technical Procurement
* Directorate of Science & Engineering Services
* Institute of Nuclear Power, Islamabad
* Pakistan Institute of Science & Technology (PINSTECH)
* New Laboratories, Rawalpindi
* Pilot Reprocessing Plant
* PARR-1 and PARR-2 Nuclear Research Reactors
* Center for Nuclear Studies (CNS), Islamabad
* Computer Training Center (CTC), Islamabad
* Nuclear Track Detection Center (Solid State Nuclear Track Detection Center)
* Khushab Reactor, Khushab
* Atomic Energy Minerals Centre, Lahore
* Hard Rock Division, Peshawar
* Mineral Sands Program, Karachi
* Baghalchur Uranium Mine, Baghalchur
* Dera Ghazi Khan Uranium Mine, Dera Ghazi Khan
* Issa Khel/Kubul Kel Uranium Mines and Mills, Mianwali
* Multan Heavy Water Production Facility, Multan, Punjab
* Uranium Conversion Facility, Islamabad
* Golra Ultracentrifuge Plant, Golra
* Sihala Ultracentrifuge Plant, Sihala
* Directorate of Quality Assurance,Islamabad
* New Labs Nilore,Islamabad

Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Commission (SUPARCO)

* Aerospace Institute, Islamabad.
* Computer Center, Karachi.
* Control System Laboratories.
* Sonmian Satellite Launch Center, Sonmiani Beach.
* Instrumentation Laboratories, Karachi.
* Material Research Division.
* Quality Control and Assurance Unit.
* Rocket Bodies Manufacturing Unit.
* Solid Composite Propellant Unit.
* Liquid Composite Propellant Unit
* Space and Atmospheric Research Center (space Center), Karachi
* Static Test Unit, Karachi
* Tilla Satellite Launch Center, Tilla, Punjab

Precision Engineering Complex (PEC)
Ministry of Industries & Production

* State Engineering Corporation (SEC)
* Heavy Mechanical Complex Ltd. (HMC)
* Peoples Steel Mills Limited, Karachi.

Delivery systems
Missiles

Below is a list of all known missiles, either in development or operational with Pakistan’s armed forces, that are believed to be capable of carrying a non-conventional (nuclear) payload.
Pakistan’s Nuclear Capable Missiles Name/Designation     Class     Range
(varies with payload weight)     Payload     Status
Hatf-I     SRBM     100 km     500 kg     Operational
Abdali     SRBM     180 km     500 kg     Operational
Ghaznavi     SRBM     290 km     500 kg     Operational
M-11     SRBM     300 km     500 kg     Operational
Shaheen-I     SRBM     750 km     850 kg     Operational
Ghauri-I     MRBM     1,500 km     750 kg     Operational
Ghauri-II     MRBM     2,300 km     750-1,200 kg     Operational
Shaheen-II     IRBM     2,500 km     700 kg     Operational [4]
Ghauri-III     IRBM     3,500+ km     1,200+ kg     Under Development
Shaheen-III     IRBM     4,500+ km     1,200+ kg     Under Development
Babur (Hatf 7)     Cruise Missile     700 km     500 kg     Operational
Ra’ad (Hatf 8)     Air Launched Cruise Missile     350 km     500 kg     Operational

Aircraft

The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) is believed to have practised  toss-bombing  in the 1990s, a method of launching weapons from fighter-bombers which can also be used to deliver nuclear warheads. The PAF has two units (No. 16 Sqn and No. 26 Sqn) operating around 50 of the Chinese-built Nanchang A-5C, believed to be the preferred vehicle for delivery of nuclear weapons due to its long range. The others are various variants of the Dassault Mirage III and Dassault Mirage 5, of which around 156 are currently operated by the Pakistan Air Force. The PAF also operates some 46 F-16 fighters, the first 32 of which were delivered in the 1980s and believed by some to have been modified for nuclear weapons delivery.

It has also been reported that an air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) with a range of 350 km has been developed by Pakistan, designated Hatf 8 and named Ra’ad ALCM, which may theoretically be armed with a nuclear warhead. It was reported to have been test-fired by a Dassault Mirage III fighter and, according to one Western official, is believed to be capable of penetrating some air defence/missile defence systems.[45]

Notes

1. ^ a b http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/pakistan/nuke/index.html
2. ^ a b http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/f828323447768858/fulltext.pdf
3. ^ a b c d http://www.fas.org/blog/ssp/2009/08/pakistan2009.php
4. ^ a b http://www.missilethreat.com/missilesoftheworld/id.54/missile_detail.asp
5. ^  A.Q. Khan . http://www.globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/pakistan/khan.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
6. ^  Pakistan Nuclear Weapons . http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/pakistan/nuke/index.html. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
7. ^ http://www.defencejournal.com/2000/june/chagai.htm
8. ^ http://groups.google.com.pk/group/paknationalists/web/jinnah-pakistans-grey-wolf
9. ^ http://www.quaid.gov.pk/speech25.htm
10. ^ http://www.weeklyblitz.net/index.php?id=295
11. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-152972617.html
12. ^ http://www.pakdef.info/nuclear&missile/speech_munirahmed.html
13. ^ a b c d e http://pakdef.info/forum/archive/index.php?t-8346.html
14. ^ http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/congress/1989/890516-cr.htm
15. ^ Pakistan’s Nuke History: Part1 From A PAEC Perspective
16. ^ http://www.pakissan.com/english/news/newsDetail.php?newsid=6791
17. ^ http://www.apakistannews.com/pakistan-builds-2-more-reactors-isis-117565
18. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=20095\29\story_29-5-2009_pg7_1
19. ^ http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=180186
20. ^ http://www.bu.edu/globalbeat/nucwatch/nucwatch071798.html
21. ^ a b http://www.1913intel.com/2008/12/27/the-dangers-of-india-pakistan-war/
22. ^ http://www.expressbuzz.com/edition/story.aspx?Title=Pakistan+building+third+nuclear+reactor+at+Khushab&artid=pQqZ2l/ffuU=&SectionID=oHSKVfNWYm0=&MainSectionID=oHSKVfNWYm0=&SectionName=VfE7I/Vl8os=&SEO=
23. ^  Uranium Institute News Briefing 00.25 14 – 22 June 2000 . Uranium Institute. 2000. http://www.world-nuclear.org/nb/nb00/nb0025.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-07.
24. ^ Key Issues: Nuclear Energy: Issues: IAEA: World Plutonium Inventories
25. ^ BBC NEWS | World | South Asia | Pakistan nuclear report disputed
26. ^ Pakistan Expanding Nuclear Program – washingtonpost.com
27. ^ BBC NEWS | World | South Asia | Pakistan ‘building new reactor’
28. ^ U.S. Group Says Pakistan Is Building New Reactor – New York Times
29. ^ Federation of American Scientists
30. ^ Center for Defense Information
31. ^  US Navy Strategic Insights. Feb 2003 . US Navy. 2003. http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/feb03/southAsia2.asp. Retrieved 2006-10-28.
32. ^ Pakistan’s Nuclear Arsenal Underestimated, Reports Say
33. ^ Impact of US wargames on Pakistan N-arms ‘negative’ -DAWN – Top Stories; 3 December 2007
34. ^ Calculating the Risks in Pakistan – washingtonpost.com
35. ^ a b http://defense-update.com/analysis/analysis_pakistan_240409.html
36. ^ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/world/11-pakistan-enhances-second-strike-n-capability–us-report–il–12
37. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/04/world/asia/04nuke.html?_r=1&hp
38. ^ China tested N-weapons for Pak: US insider The Times of India 6 September 2008
39. ^ http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/pblctns/prspctvs/200110-eng.asp
40. ^ http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/Pakistan/Nuclear/chronology_1990.html
41. ^  U.S. Secretly Aids Pakistan in Guarding Nuclear Arms . The New York Times. 2007-11-18. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/18/washington/18nuke.html?ref=us. Retrieved 2007-11-18.
42. ^ New York Times/18 November 2007
43. ^ http://www.iiss.org/publications/strategic-dossiers/nbm/nuclear-black-market-dossier-a-net-assesment/pakistans-nuclear-oversight-reforms/
44. ^ http://forums.csis.org/poni/?p=34
45. ^ http://powerpolitics.org/?p=161

See also

* Chronology of Pakistan’s rocket tests
* Nuclear power in Pakistan
* Pakistan Army
* List of countries with nuclear weapons

External links

* BCCI May have funded Bomb
* The Islamic Bomb – Tashbih Sayyed
* The South Asian Strategic Stability Institute Weapons Related Datasets
* Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU) Military and Weapons Section
* China,Pakistan and the Bomb The Declassified File on U.S. Policy, 1977-1997—–National Security Archives.
* http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/pakistan/nuke/index.html
* Nuclear Notebook: Pakistan’s nuclear program, 2005, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Jan/Feb 2002.
* Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Program – The Beginning
* Pakistani Military Consortium
* Nuclear Files.org Pakistan’s nuclear conflict with India- background and the current situation
* Nuclear Files.org Current information on nuclear stockpiles in Pakistan
* Ideas Pakistan – International Defense Exhibition at Karachi, Pakistan
* Defense Export Promotion Organization – Ministry of Defense
* Time line of Pakistan’s nuclear weapon development and tests
* – Pakistani & Indian Missile Forces (Tarmuk missile mentioned here)
* – Annotated bibliography on Pakistan’s nuclear weapons from the Alsos Digital Library

v • d • e
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Chairman Joint Chiefs A National Defence University A Paramilitary forces A Coast Guard A National Command Authority A Military history A UN peacekeeping missions A Weapons of mass destruction A Awards and decorations A Nuclear Doctrine A Inter-Services Intelligence A Arms industry A Inter Services Public Relations A Nuclear power A List of missiles
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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan_and_weapons_of_mass_destruction
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Please be advised that the revised Model EPSC with the updated Article 34 is now on the website.

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Please be advised that the revised Terms of Reference, inclusive of the updated Bid Bond form, is now on the website.

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For more information on the Data Package and payment information, please refer to Chapter 2,. . .
read more

Date:  September 15, 2009
News update from the Ministry of Mines, Kabul

Afghan Hydrocarbon bid deadline extended

As several potential bidders have indicated that they will need more time to evaluate the potential of the blocks on offer, the Ministry of Mines has decided to extend the bid deadline of the First Afghan Hydrocarbon Bidding Round to 15 November 2009.  Further information will be posted on the web site http://www.afghanistanpetroleum.com.

—–

On the basis of further information and documents received, the Ministry of Mines’ decision 28 June 2009 related to Nations Petroleum is amended and Nations Petroleum is qualified to bid for the Jangalikalan, Juma-Bashikurd and Kashkari blocks on offer during this First Afghan Bidding Round.  The list of pre-qualified companies is updated as follows:

Addax Petroleum
Nations Petroleum
Oil & Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL)
ORIENT PETROLEUM INTERNATIONAL INC’s (OPII)
Redwood Petroleum Co, Ltd
Sinochem Petroleum Exploration & Production Co. Ltd.
TOTAL Exploration & Production
Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Genel Mudurlugu (TPAO)

Of the eleven companies that have submitted EOIs, seven are pre-qualified to bid in the First Afghan Hydrocarbon Bidding Round

A committee was formed by the Ministry of Mines to review the eleven Expressions of Interests (EOI) submitted before the June 15, 2009 deadline.  The committee focused in particular on the financial standing, the average daily operated production and the experience in dealing with gas containing high H2S (sour gas) for each of these companies.

The following companies are qualified to bid for the Jangalikalan, Juma-Bashikurd and Kashkari blocks on offer during this First Afghan Bidding Round:

Addax Petroleum
Oil & Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL)
ORIENT PETROLEUM INTERNATIONAL INC’s (OPII)
Redwood Petroleum Co, Ltd
Sinochem Petroleum Exploration & Production Co. Ltd.
TOTAL Exploration & Production
Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Genel Mudurlugu (TPAO)

The following companies do not pre-qualify to bid during this First Afghan Hydrocarbon Bidding Round:

AfghCana Energy (Asia) Corp. ( AfghCana )
CALIK ENERJI
Ghazanfar Group Co Ltd
Zurmat Group of Companies Nations Petroleum Calgary Canada

The pre-qualified companies are required to keep the MoM informed of any material change that may affect their pre-qualifications. The MoM reserves the right to change the pre-qualification status of any company based on the occurrence of any event, or the availability of any new or previously undisclosed information, that may affect a company’s ability to perform its contractual commitments should it be awarded one or more blocks in Afghanistan.

Eleven companies submitted Expression of Interests (EOI)

Eleven companies from eight different countries submitted EOI before the June 15, 2009 deadline.  A list of pre-qualified companies will be announced by the Ministry of Mines on July 01, 2009.  A copy of the minutes of the official document listing the 11 companies can be reviewed in the Documents section of this web site (https://www.afghanistanpetroleum.com/documents.php?cat=1).
List of companies (in alphabetical order):

Addax Petroleum – New Ventures
AfghCana Energy (Asia) Corp. (“AfghCana”)
CALIK ENERJI
Ghazanfar Group Co Ltd
Oil & Gas Development Company Limited
ORIENT PETROLEUM INTERNATIONAL INC’s (“OPII”)
Redwood Petroleum Co, Ltd
Sinochem Petroleum Exploration &Production Co. Ltd.
TOTAL Exploration & Production
Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Genel Mudurlugu
Zurmat Group of Companies Nations Petroleum Calgary, Canada

Public opening of pre-qualification applications:

Pre-qualification applications shall be opened by the Ministry of Mines on 15 June 2009 at 1400 hrs during a public procedure. The applicants themselves, or their respective authorized representatives are welcome to attend the proceedings. However, attendance at the proceedings is voluntary and the evaluation of the applicants for pre-qualification shall not be affected by whether of not a party has been present during this procedure. The Ministry of Mines should be notified in advanced of the names of any representatives who wish to be present at the opening of applications.

The Ministry of Mines will ensure that minutes are kept of the opening proceedings. The names and addresses of all applicants or authorized representatives present will be recorded in the minutes to be signed by the representatives of the Ministry of Mines and all applicants or authorized representatives present.

The minutes will, on request, be available for applicants after the application has been considered. The minutes will be prepared and disclosed in such manner that avoids disclosure of confidential commercial information.

Announcement Of The First Afghan Hydrocarbon Bidding Round 2009

The Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, represented by the Ministry of Mines, is pleased to announce that it has initiated the process that will lead to the Bidding Round for the award of Exploration and Production Sharing Contracts for Hydrocarbon Operations in the following blocks in Northern Afghanistan:

• Jangalikalan (Gas)

• Juma-Bashikurd (Gas)

• Kashkari (Oil)

View Full Announcement
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http://books.google.com/books?id=4oYWx90ybY8C&pg=PA186&lpg=PA186&dq=geology+geophysics+density+measurements&source=bl&ots=2pllVjG-h9&sig=LyZdHHhjSQFM5Y8HkUc4q_j1wRE&hl=en&ei=89-zStS2H5mltgf6kqyiDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false

Coal geology
By Larry Thomas

***

Thomas G. Clines
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thomas G. Clines

Thomas G. Clines was a Central Intelligence Agency covert operations agent who was a prominent figure in the Iran-Contra Affair.

Contents

* 1 CIA career
* 2 After the CIA
* 3 Iran-Contra
o 3.1 The Brill Memo
o 3.2 Trial
* 4 References
* 5 External links

CIA career

As a CIA agent, between 1961-1962, Clines was involved in covert operations in Cuba.

Between 1966-1970, during the Vietnam War, Clines worked as Ted Shackley’s deputy in charge of the CIA’s secret war in Laos.

Clines later joined Ted Shackley, David Atlee Phillips and David Sanchez Morales at JM WAVE, the CIA’s operational headquarters in Miami, Florida for the Cuban Project also known as Operation Mongoose, a project to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro in Cuba.

Clines left Laos in 1970 and spent a year at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island.
In 1972, Clines was put in charge of CIA operations in Chile, and in 1973, he helped Augusto Pinochet overthrow Chile’s democratically elected president, Salvador Allende.

While working on the attempt to undermine the government of Fidel Castro in Cuba, Clines became friends with Rafael Quintero ( Chi Chi ). When he was given responsibility for Nicaragua in 1978, Thomas Clines recruited Quintero to help the CIA in its efforts against the socialist Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) that governed Nicaragua. This included helping Anastasio Somoza Debayle to develop a counter-subversion program in the country.

After the CIA

In 1978, Clines left the CIA and joined several other ex-CIA agents, including Rafael Quintero, Ted Shackley and Ricardo Chavez in establishing API Distributors.

In 1979, Clines established International Research and Trade Limited in Bermuda. Later that year, he worked with Hussein Salem to provide Egypt with U.S. military hardware.

Iran-Contra

On July 27, 1986, the first article on the Iran-Contra scandal appeared in the San Francisco Examiner after Gene Wheaton told a lawyer named Daniel Sheehan and two Washington journalists that he had been recruited to use National Air to transport $27 million dollars worth of weapons to Nicaragua (money that Congress had funded for non-lethal aid for the Contras in Nicaragua), and that Thomas Clines and Ted Shackley had been running a top-secret assassination unit since the early 1960s. According to Wheaton, it had begun with an assassination training program for Cuban exiles and the original target had been Fidel Castro.

On October 5, 1986, a C-123K cargo plane that was supplying the Contras was shot down by a Sandinista patrol. Eugene Hasenfus (a CIA Air America veteran) survived the crash and told his captors that he believed the CIA was behind the operation. It eventually emerged that Clines, as well as Oliver North, Edwin Wilson and Richard Secord, were involved in the conspiracy to provide arms to the Contras, and Clines himself as a key player[1] in the web of business operations founded by Secord and Iranian arms dealer Albert Hakim known as the  Enterprise .

The Brill Memo
In 1988, Shirley Brill, a former CIA official who had lived with Clines in 1977, published an affidavit claiming that Clines was involved in illegal activities with Rafael Quintero and a drug dealer living in Miami.

Brill claimed that after Clines retired from the CIA in 1978, Clines had partnered with Ted Shackley, Richard Secord and Edwin P. Wilson to gain Pentagon contracts. Brill also argued that she heard Clines, Secord, Quintero and Shackley plotting to frame Wilson.

Trial

On February 22, 1990, Clines was indicted on four felony counts of underreporting to the IRS his earnings from his business enterprises for the 1985 and 1986 tax years by at least $260,000, and failing to disclose on his 1985 and 1986 tax returns that he had foreign overseas bank accounts.

On September 18, 1990, Clines was found guilty of all charges.

On December 13, 1990, U.S. District Judge Norman P. Ramsey sentenced Clines to 16 months in prison, $40,000 in fines, and Clines was ordered to pay the cost of the prosecution. The Fourth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals in Richmond, Virginia, on February 27, 1992, upheld his convictions, and Clines served his prison sentence.

References

1. ^ Walsh Iran/Contra Report

External links

* Spartacus notes on Thomas G. Clines

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_G._Clines
Categories: Iran–Contra affair | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | Americans convicted of tax crimes | American spies | American anti-communists

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_G._Clines

***

Robert Keith Gray
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Robert Keith Gray was a Republican activist and public relations executive who founded Gray and Company in 1981 after working with Hill & Knowlton.

Contents

* 1 Career
* 2 Books
* 3 External links
* 4 References

Career

Grey served in the Eisenhower Eisenhower administration in various roles. In the 1960s and 1970s, Gray provided services to accounts that included the American Petroleum Institute, Procter and Gamble, and the National Association of Broadcasters and El Paso Natural Gas. El Paso hired Hill and Knowlton to drum up support for legislation that would allow El Paso to buy out its competitor, Pacific Northwest Pipeline Company. [1] Between 1961 and 1981 as the head of the Washington office of, and eventually as vice chairman of, Hill and Knowlton, a major public relations and lobbying firm. He started his own firm, Gray and Company in 1981, only to sell it back to Hill and Knowlton in 1986.

Throughout his thirty years in Washington, Robert Gray’s style has been consistent — he parties and charms his way into the power elite, and then sells access to his Rolodex for fees sometimes running into the millions. Gray was for many years active in Republican politics and a leading figure in public relations in Washington, D.C. In 1967 he joined the 50-person committee responsible for charting Richard Nixon’s path to the White House. During the Watergate era, Robert Keith Gray served on the board of Consultants International, founded by CIA agent Edwin Wilson. When Wilson and fellow agent Frank Terpil got caught running guns abroad, Gray tried to deny his connection with Wilson.

He worked in the 1980 Reagan-Bush presidential campaign, serving directly under William Casey.

Gray’s firm came to prominence after the Kuwaiti government in the run-up to the first Gulf War in 1990. Besides Kuwait, Gray represented China after 1989, Haiti under Duvalier, supporters of Rev. Moon, the Church of Scientology, BCCI, the late British publisher Robert Maxwell, the Teamsters under Jackie Presser, and the Catholic Bishops Conference in their campaign against abortion.

In July 1992, St. Martin’s Press, Inc., published a book by Susan Trento entitled ‘The Power House: Robert Keith Gray and the Selling of Access and Influence in Washington. Focusing on Gray’s career, the book sought to show the influence of powerful and well-connected lobbyists on the federal government. In June 1995, Gray brought suit both against St. Martin’s Press and Trento in the federal district court in New Hampshire, claiming that eight separate statements made in the book were defamatory. A jury found for Susan Trento on all issues. Mr. Gray’s appeals were all dismissed.

Books

* Susan B. Trento, The Power House: Robert Keith Gray and the Selling of Access and Influence in Washington, New York, St.Martin’s Press, 1992. ISBN 0-312-08319-X
External links

* Robert Keith Gray at NameBase

References

1. ^ Susan B. Trento, Lord of the lies; how Hill and Knowlton’s Robert Gray pulls Washington’s strings – Washington, D.C. public relations consultant Washington Monthly Sept, 1992
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Keith_Gray
Categories: American lobbyists

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Keith_Gray

***

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1998 – 2003 From The Wilderness Publications

Ed Wilson’s Revenge

The Biggest CIA Scandal in History Has Its Feet in the Starting Blocks in a Houston Court House

by Michael C. Ruppert

[The following article appeared in the January, 2000 issue of From The Wilderness –  Copyright and Reprint Policy]

The following is written after examining more than 900 pages of documents, in four volumes, filed since last September, in Houston Federal Court, by attorneys representing former CIA operative Edwin P. Wilson and the United States Department of Justice. As strange as it may seem, FTW assures you that there is a document on file or an on-the-record quote to support everything we now tell you.

On February 2, 1983, the Houston trial of former CIA agent Edwin P. Wilson, on Federal charges that he had unlawfully sold explosives to Libya, hung at a truly precarious moment. In chambers, the Judge hearing the case had refused to allow a CIA witness, using the pseudonym William Larson, to testify using a false name. The CIA, and prosecutors like aggressive Northern Virginia Assistant United States Attorney (AUSA) Ted Greenberg, relying on investigative materials produced under the direction of Washington, D.C. AUSAs Larry Barcella and Carol Bruce, were also concerned about limiting Wilson’s ability to cross examine Larson for  security  reasons. Larson’s intended testimony would have included statements that, according to CIA records under Larson’s care, Ed Wilson had not been a CIA employee or done any work for the Agency since 1971.

According to Barcella, who gave a detailed interview to FTW for this story, the Judge’s ruling raised serious security concerns for the Justice Department. The CIA records issue still needed to be addressed from another angle – and quickly. Wilson’s defense had already made the case that the CIA had known and sanctioned the activities for which he was now on trial. That position needed to be countered in the rebuttal phase before the case went to the jury. Time was running out.

Ed Wilson stood accused of shipping 42,000 pounds of the plastic explosive C-4 directly to Libyan dictator Moammar Qadaffy in 1977, and then hiring U.S. experts – former U.S. Army Green Berets – to teach Qadaffy’s people how to make bombs shaped like lamps, ashtrays and radios.  Bombs were actually made, and foes of Qadaffy were actually murdered. This was the ongoing crime that had made Wilson, and his still-missing accomplice, former CIA employee Frank Terpil, the most infamous desperadoes in the world. C-4, according to some experts, is the most powerful non-nuclear explosive made. Two pounds in the right places can bring down a jumbo jet. Hence, 42,000 pounds would be enough to bring down 21,000 jumbo jets. C-4 is highly prized on the world’s black markets and is much in demand. It is supposedly very tightly controlled where it is manufactured – in the U.S.

At the time it was shipped from Houston International Airport, in 1977, the 42,000 pounds of C-4 represented almost the entire United States domestic supply. It had been collected for Wilson by one California explosives distributor who collected it from a number of manufacturers around the country. Surprisingly, no one had officially noticed. Wilson had, in earlier and subsequent deals, also sold a number of handguns to Qadaffy, and several had been used in assassinations of Libyan dissidents in a number of countries, including the United States. It was these and other firearms violations by Wilson, including a scheme to ship more than a thousand M16 rifles to Qadaffy, that had put the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) and Larry Barcella on Wilson’s trail back in late 1977.

That investigation, which resulted in a 1982 Virginia conviction, led to the discovery of the C-4 shipment to Qadaffy. By January of 1983 Barcella and a team of dedicated BATF agents had been on Ed Wilson’s trail for five long years. Barcella, in Houston as an observer and advisor, had been  twiddling his thumbs most of the time,  but he did testify as a witness.  He was, by virtue of his role as the originator of the cases,  the institutional memory  of DoJ. Ted Greenberg had, from the other side of the Potomac in Alexandria, taken over other investigations stemming from Wilson’s activities which led eventually to the Eatsco scandal. That investigation involved Wilson cronies Tom Clines, Air Force General Richard Secord, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense Eric von Marbod and the legendary Ted Shackley.

Shackley had served in the hottest CIA posts in history. He had run the Miami station known as JM-WAVE, targeting Fidel Castro in the early 1960s, and had been a key planner in the Bay of Pigs invasion. He was also directly involved in CIA attempts on Castro’s life in concert with the Mafia. In the mid-sixties he had been the Chief of Station (COS) in Laos, running the largest covert operation in CIA history –  a secret war intimately tied with opium and heroin smuggling and the abandonment of large numbers of American POWs. In the late sixties and early seventies he had served as COS in Saigon at the end of the Vietnam War. After leaving Saigon, Shackley had, for a time, served as Chief of the Western Hemisphere Division as the CIA orchestrated the overthrow of Chile’s Salvador Allende. He had then become Associate Deputy Director of Operations (running all covert operations) in time to, as FTW believes,  preside  over Ed Wilson’s Libyan affairs and the events that would ultimately result in the downfall of the Shah of Iran. Everywhere you looked in Wilson’s life – post 1971 – you found either Shackley or his career-long deputy and sidekick, Tom Clines.

Shackley testified twice before Federal grand juries in the Wilson case. In one of those sessions, included in Wilson’s recent court filings, he denied anything other than social contacts and a few meetings to evaluate information that never amounted to much. CIA Inspector General records (some still classified) belied Shackley’s testimony. In light of voluminous CIA material, investigative reports, witness statements, BATF interviews with Shackley associates and a long litany of other records, Ted Shackley’s testimony made a lot of people at CIA and DoJ very nervous. [FTW found it very interesting to note that, in his first testimony, Ted Shackley denied having ever met Ronald Reagan’s CIA Director, William Casey. That may have to be the subject of another FTW article.]

Notes made by Justice Department lawyers in meetings held in late 1983, after Wilson’s conviction, indicate their belief that Ted Shackley lied to the grand juries. Unattributed quotes found in meeting notes include the statements  Stupid -TS lied to GJ.

The Houston prosecution, for which Greenberg had served as the primary classified record handler, and AUSAs Jim Powers and Karen Morrissette, had no difficulty establishing that Wilson, in 1976, had secured plans for miniature timing devices from CIA contractors and, subsequently, had thousands manufactured and shipped to Libya. The Houston prosecution had no difficulty – using Barcella’s, Bruce’s and Greenberg’s investigations – to establish that Wilson had conspired to obtain and ship the C-4 in 1977. Greenberg, Barcella, Bruce, Karen Morrissette and local Houston AUSAs also had absolutely no difficulty establishing that Wilson then chartered a DC-8 to ship the C-4 to Libya using falsified records. A hapless lawyer friend of Wilson’s California explosives honcho, believing he had clearance from the CIA and other government agencies, even went along on the delivery. He had also been arrested and charged in the case. All of this took place under the guidance of Deputy Assistant Attorney General Mark Richard, and the supervision of Assistant Attorneys General Steven Trott and D. Lowell Jensen,

Evidence of Wilson’s venality was not hard to find and put before the jury. While living in Libya for extended periods between 1977 and 1981, Wilson hired former Green Berets, some of whom were, according to FTW sources, alleged to be active-duty troops posing as rogues and retirees out for money. Using them, he set up an intensive instructional training program for Qadaffy that was intended to make the Libyan Colonel a credible terrorist threat – and credible foe – to any opponent, anywhere in the world. That effort was an unqualified success. People and things started blowing up and dying all over the place.

All the while, Wilson traveled the globe first-class, an ostentatiously wealthy man owning more than 6,000 acres of prime properties in Virginia, Great Britain and Malta. Much of that, the prosecution argued, had been paid for with millions from a Libyan dictator who had subsequently dispatched in 1982, if you believed the press, assassination teams to blow up Ronald Reagan in the White House.

Making Ed Wilson out to be a very nasty and unlikable individual was the easy part of the prosecution’s case.
The second part of the prosecution’s case was that one-time career CIA Agent Edwin P. Wilson had had absolutely no official relationship with the Agency since 1971. Wilson was, they argued, a good guy gone hopelessly bad who had abused his contacts, experience and the trust placed in him to commit horrible crimes behind the backs of his former colleagues. And that was where both the Department of Justice – and the CIA – were in deep, deep trouble on February 2, 1983.

Wilson, a one time career CIA agent, who had also worked for the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), was fighting for his life. An  open source  paper trail from CIA showed that he had not worked at Langley since 1971. Shortly thereafter he began working for a secret Navy operation known as Task Force 157. But, according to other records from both CIA and the Navy, he stopped working for the ONI in 1976 and none of his Navy work was connected to Libya. After that, or so it seemed, even though he continuously socialized with some of the most powerful people in the U.S. intelligence community and the military, he did no official work for anyone.  It was in late 1975 and 1976, when George Bush ran the CIA, that Wilson, as an alleged rogue, opened ties to Qadaffy and began selling weapons, explosives and other services and equipment to the terrorist regime.

This would not be the last time that a so-called enemy of the United States in the Arab world would be supplied with weapons and bomb making materials on a watch under the command of George H. W. Bush.  While Ed Wilson was training and equipping Qadaffy, he was also lunching with Bush prot g  Shackley. He was providing personal airplanes for Air Force General Richard Secord to fly around in, and loaning large sums of money to Shackley’s sidekick, Tom Clines. His company, Consultants International, once a CIA proprietary, which Wilson  bought  in 1971, was still receiving referral contacts from the Agency. And while former U.S. Army Green Berets, in Wilson’s employ, were teaching Libyans how to blow things up, Clines, a high-ranking active CIA officer, was walking Wilson employee Douglas Schlachter through the halls at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia. In 1977 Clines even introduced Schlachter to Jimmy Carter’s newly appointed CIA Director, Navy Admiral Stansfield Turner. Exclusive parties, horseback riding events and private hunting parties were held for the  A  list at Wilson’s expansive Mount Airy farm in Northern Virginia.

With the January 1977 change in Presidents from Ford to Carter it was inevitable that George Bush (the elder) would have to leave as Director of Central Intelligence (DCI). Shackley, however, remained in charge of covert operations until December of that year. Then, with a kiss of death, as Wilson’s work and life became increasingly high-profile, Turner removed Shackley from the prestigious post of ADDO and transferred him to a non hands-on post out of the loop. It was the signal that Shackley’s career was over. This came at the same time that Turner gave 800 CIA career covert operatives pink slips and  early retirement.  FTW believes that it is no coincidence that Barcella’s and the BATF investigations of Wilson began at exactly the same time.

President Jimmy Carter had already begun the groundbreaking work with Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt that would lead to the Camp David peace accords. It would not be good PR for the U.S. to be exposed secretly arming Sadat’s bitter enemy and next door neighbor, Moammar Qadaffy – especially since Qadaffy intended to kill Sadat.

The problem with the government’s position in the Wilson case was absolutely huge. It was almost beyond huge. And the rationale implied during the trial, with the preceding and ensuing vilification of Wilson in major newspapers, People Magazine and best selling books like Manhunt by Peter Maas, was that the heinousness of his crimes justified obsession and even rule-bending in order to  bring the monster to justice. CIA Inspector General investigations, some partially redacted, made available to Wilson’s prosecutorial team, dating as far back as 1977, proved that Wilson had provided a number of often embarrassing services for the Agency since 1971. Those records also showed no less than 80  non-social  contacts between Wilson and the CIA between 1971 and 1978. The Agency had many records, some still classified, of Wilson meeting with Agency personnel – especially Shackley, Clines or Shackley’s secretary.

Contrary to what would later become almost nonsensical hairsplitting by some of the most powerful, and supposedly ethical, lawyers in the country, the CIA – according to incredibly detailed reports compiled by the BATF, the FBI and the CIA’s own Inspector General – was  operationally tasking  Wilson and his employees to accomplish specific objectives in Libya before, during and after delivery of the C-4. Both the Justice Department and the CIA had witness statements that the CIA had been tasking and debriefing Wilson’s employees at exactly the same time that Wilson’s employees were teaching Qadaffy’s people how to blow things up.

Wilson’s defense against the government’s case had concluded at the end of January. His attorneys had made a compelling argument that apparently threw the Justice Department and the CIA into a crisis mode. Exhibits filed in Wilson’s motion show that Greenberg and Barcella were concerned about it in advance. The defense was simple: Edwin P. Wilson, a loyal American whose company, Consultants International, received CIA referral business throughout the period, had been sanctioned by the CIA for the purposes of gathering intelligence, gaining access to Soviet military equipment in Libyan hands and other murky objectives. If Ed Wilson had not been sanctioned, he certainly believed that he had been, and the litany of his CIA contacts reasonably justified that belief. It was more than enough to raise doubt in the mind of the jury.

Wilson and his trial lawyers had introduced evidence from 1977 CIA Inspector General reports and other records that supported his claims. It was not enough to dismiss the case, perhaps, but it was a point that the prosecution could not let go unchallenged. There was too much at stake. Contrary to Barcella’s suggestion to FTW that he was essentially an observer in Houston he did say that,  One of the problems that I had certainly had, from prior cases involving claims of a CIA defense, was that the Agency’s compartmentalization oftentimes required two or three different people to be doing record searches because only certain people would be allowed to search certain components of the Agency.

It was a pain in the ass from a trial lawyer’s standpoint because you would oftentimes end up with three different witnesses. And any good defense lawyerÉ. can make mincemeat out of them by bouncing back and forth between one and the otherÉ One of the things that I wanted was one person as a witness to be given the authority by the CIA to search all components of the Agency, not just a single component of the Agency.

The man originally scheduled to perform that role, to speak for all of the records in the Central Intelligence Agency, the man with the pseudonym  Larson , had just been exposed to cross examination by Wilson and been withdrawn. There had to be another way.

The Briggs Declaration

Charles A. Briggs was, on February 3, 1983, the third highest-ranking official at the Central Intelligence Agency. He was one of few men at CIA who could break through the compartments and search anywhere for records. He was the man to solve the problem in Houston. In Langley, Virginia, at 2:23 P.M., Houston time (according to a government teletype), Charles Briggs signed a declaration stating that on November 8th of 1982 he had authorized a search of all records of the CIA  for any material that in any way pertains to Edwin P. Wilson or the various allegations concerning his activities after 28 February 1971, when he resigned from the CIA.

Paragraph 4 of the Briggs Declaration states,  According to CIA records, with one exception while he was employed by Naval Intelligence in 1972, Mr. Edwin P. Wilson was not asked or requested, directly or indirectly, to perform or provide any services, directly or indirectly, for CIA.

At 2:30 P.M., Houston time, CIA General Counsel Stanley Sporkin certified the affidavit and affixed the seal of the Central Intelligence Agency to it. It was also notarized by a notary public licensed in Fairfax County, Virginia. Harold   Fahringer, one of Wilson’s attorneys was served with a copy of the affidavit at  3:55 P.M. Houston time – presumably in Houston. According to a partially declassified CIA memorandum, included in Wilson’s filings, dated March 15, 1983 (40 days after Wilson’s conviction), on the day and evening of February 3, 1983  CIA attorneys stated to Assistant U.S. Attorney (AUSA) Ted Greenberg that the Briggs affidavit should not be admitted into evidence as then written, and requested that Greenberg not introduce the affidavit.

The signers of the affidavit further state that CIA General Counsel Stanley Sporkin stated that, at minimum, the word ‘indirectly’ should be removed from paragraph four of the Briggs affidavit.

The signers of the document further state in the document that AUSA Greenberg decided against complying with the CIA attorneys’ requests described above.

Apparently, through the evening of February 3rd, the phone lines between Langley and Houston were smoking. FTW has interviewed a number of people close to the trial and none indicate that Ted Greenberg left Houston to retrieve the declaration. Stanley Sporkin knew that the affidavit was incorrect and so did a great many people at CIA. The Houston time apparently indicates that a copy was telexed to Wilson’s lawyer and another copy was placed in the master DoJ case files in Houston. Larry Barcella has  no recollection  of being involved in those phone conversations. No phone logs listing participants in them have, as yet, been disclosed.

In researching this story FTW contacted best-selling author Peter Maas who wrote the book Manhunt which detailed the hunt for Ed Wilson and the four and a half year mission by Barcella, et al to bring him to justice. Maas indicated that he had been aware of the Briggs affidavit and questions surrounding its use in court. He was careful to state that it was his belief that Barcella had no knowledge of the inaccuracies in the document – or the controversy surrounding it – until after it had been introduced into evidence. The paper trail seems to contradict this position. Barcella was in almost every pre-trial conference discussing Wilson’s history. He was aware of the affidavit’s existence and, therefore, had to have been aware that it was inaccurate.

Maas was, however, more open on the subject of Ted Greenberg who apparently had the power to override the CIA’s top lawyer and number three executive. Maas said simply that Greenberg was aggressive and not well liked by the other lawyers. He was, in Mass’ opinion,  Capable of anything.

On February 4th 1983, apparently without objection, the Briggs declaration was entered into evidence by Assistant U.S. Attorneys. Both the prosecution and the defense rested and, in the afternoon, the jury began deliberations.

On the morning of February 5th, 1983, the jury sent a note to the trial judge requesting that the Briggs affidavit be reread. At 9:50 A.M. the Judge empanelled the jury and reread the affidavit to them.  The jury returned to deliberations and, at 10:45 A.M., sent a note announcing that they had reached a verdict. Wilson was guilty on all counts. The jury never asked for any other exhibit to be reread.

That same day a UPI wire service story described the deliberations.  Juror Betty Metzler said the panel was divided 11-1 almost from the start, and one juror was not convinced until Saturday morning by rereading of Briggs’ affidavit denying Wilson’s actions had anything to do with the CIA.

A week later, on February 10, 1983,  Attorney Kim E. Rosenfield in the Attorney General’s office sent a memorandum to Deputy Assistant Attorney General Mark Richard who ran DoJ’s Criminal Division. The title of the memorandum was  Duty to Disclose Possibly False Testimony  and the memorandum pulled no punches. It went straight to prevailing case law (then and now) as decided by the U.S. Supreme Court and cited two cases known as Brady and Napue. The Napue case held that,  Failure of prosecutor to correct testimony which he knows to be false violates due process, whether the falsehood bears on credibility of witness or guilt of defendant, if it is in any way relevant to the case.  In Brady the court ruled that  Suppression of material evidence by the government requires a new trial, irrespective of good or bad faith.

The memorandum continued,  Prosecutor has duty to correct false testimony even if falsehood was inadvertent or caused by another government officer. New trial required if the false testimony could  in any reasonable likelihood have affected the judgement of the jury.

The Forrest and the Trees

FTW has, unfortunately, interviewed no less than six lawyers in researching this article. The problem with that is that if one talks to too many lawyers, for too long, one gets confused – very confused. Medication, meditation and/or prayer is sometimes required. Clarity vanishes. Occasionally, however, an attorney will utter statements of breathtaking logic that confirm what the layman already suspected. We want to thank Larry Barcella for giving us that kind of clarity in one instance but he may not like what we did with it.

It would be easy to pull example after example out of the 900 pages of Exhibits filed by Ed Wilson’s attorney, David Adler, to show various and sundry shocking examples of Wilson’s ongoing contacts with Agency personnel and Ted Shackley. But, to do that would distract from the real issues. We could laughingly try to lay out some of the pretzel-bending logic expended by an array of legal horsepower, up to and including Assistant Attorneys General of the United States. We could pull quotes, like one in notes from a meeting including Mark Richard, Lowell Jensen and a half dozen other lawyers in which someone quipped,  We’re bending over backwards to fall down.

From the documents in the filing it is apparent that through November of 1983, long after Edwin Wilson had been sentenced to 17 years on the C-4 violations, every lawyer from the Justice Department who became aware of the  inaccuracy  of the Briggs affidavit kept their moth shut about it. A reading of the law and an easily understandable sense of fair play suggest that this was wrong. That many people were worried about the use of the memorandum is clear. Both Stanley Sporkin and Mark Richard can be seen, in a variety of memoranda and meetings, arguing for disclosure or some remedy. It is apparent that either their consciences or their fears of exposure were very  sensitized.

And, on close scrutiny, the remedy that was found does not sit well either. From exhibits filed by Adler on Wilson’s behalf it is apparent that Assistant Attorney General Steven Trott, now a Judge on the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, gave permission to the worried lawyers to disclose some  inaccuracies  in the Briggs affidavit in an obscure paragraph in filings to the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals. This was long after the conviction. If the Appeals court said to do something they would, if not, they were off the hook. Adler’s response on this point is clear and compelling.  The problem with the logic is, at least, twofold. The ‘disclosure’ was made to the appeals court, not the trial court. I don’t believe the Supreme Court’s prohibition on the government’s knowing use of false testimony is rectified by admitting the truth to an entirely different court. The second problem is that telling the truth and admitting a lie has been told are two different statementsÉ It [DoJ’s attempt to satisfy disclosure requirements] simply mentioned (in a document only a few select people had access to) that Wilson had provided ‘a few services’. The trial court and, more importantly, the jury were never told.

Barcella’s position is that a lot of honorable people engaged in a lot of mental effort, that may have  gotten too technical  to protect the integrity of a conviction that doesn’t need to be undermined.

While the inaccuracies in the Briggs affidavit are unfortunate,  Barcella said,  they really don’t go to the heart of the defense. To have an authorization defense you have got to be able to show that the act that you are charged with was authorizedÉ Wilson never even alleged that he was authorized to ship the C-4. He didn’t want to admit that he had anything to do with the C-4É He never called Shackley or Clines to the stand because he knew what they would have said. That claim would have been very easy to refute.

People can claim the CIA does weird, bizarre, strange counterproductive things. And they may be able to claim that with some good, solid basis behind it. But what kind of logic would have to be employed to assume that the CIA would authorize the shipment of  40,000 pounds, 20 tons, of C-4, to the guy that was then the biggest terrorist in the world?

Ironically Barcella’s own logic is called into question on three accounts. Once, by the very CIA witness whose testimony the prosecution refused to allow under the conditions imposed by the court – William Larson. In a deposition before the Judge’s ruling, according to Adler’s motion, Larson told prosecutors  Éthat the Agency might consider providing 40,000 pounds of explosives to Libya if the source who needed to provide the explosives could obtain ‘great’ information in return. Larson said the Agency would deal with the devil if needed.

Second, as regular FTW readers know, we have often spoken of the pattern of the U.S. secretly arming its enemies for the purposes of expanding budgets,  stimulating  the economy and ensuring election victories. Abundant documentation – irrefutable documentation – exists to indicate that the Rockefellers, Henry Ford and major American firms financed Adolph Hitler both before and during the Second World War. Fletcher Prouty, using Department of Defense Records has documented how, in 1946, we gave half the weapons intended for use by the U.S. military in the aborted invasion of Japan to Ho Chi Minh. Iraqgate and the scandal around Banco Nacional de Lavoro (BNL) and Kennametal showed us how George Bush had secretly armed Saddam Hussein before the Gulf War. Even Ted Shackley’s own book, The Third Option (McGraw-Hill, 1981), suggests that arming both sides of a conflict is often the best way to control the outcome, sharpen skills and make a profit.

Third, the concept of plausible deniability is not a theoretical abstract from spy novels. It is an enshrined principle of covert operations around the world. There is a point in the food chain at which deniability by higher ups is essential to the conduct of all covert operations. Ed Wilson made millions of dollars because he was taking the risks. He knew that if Shackley or (the now deceased) Tom Clines ever took the stand, they would deny any connection to his actions. That, FTW believes, was the deal from the start. Deniability is reportedly one of Ted Shackley’s favorite words.

Is it really so hard to believe? It is harder for FTW to believe that Ed Wilson had so much contact with Agency employees and they didn’t know about the C-4. Is that possible when Wilson’s personal assistant Douglas Schlachter was walking the halls at CIA headquarters with Clines? That would kind of make the reported $30 billion CIA budget a waste of money wouldn’t it? And, as it plays right now, believing that we live in a nation governed by the rule of law doesn’t make much sense either. Our favorite quote from all of the exhibits so far is not an exact quote but rather a note included with the exhibits. It was made during a meeting of lawyers held on an undetermined date after the trial. Attending the meeting were D. Lowell Jensen, Mark Richard, Stanley Sporkin, Larry Barcella,, Houston AUSA Jim Powers, CIA Attorney David Pearline, DoJ Lawyer Kim Rosenfield (who wrote the Duty to Disclose memorandum) and several other people.

Jensen, now a sitting U.S. District Court Judge in Oakland said that the premise was that DoJ didn’t need to disclose because Wilson already knew the facts. As recorded in the notes Stanley Sporkin the replied,  Goes beyond thatÉ this is record affidavit, if found things in records, must be disclosed. – Not in someone’s mind.

We wish that Justice was that simple.

NEXT?

In a response made public on January 18, the Department of Justice acknowledged that Ted Greenberg introduced inaccurate testimony at Wilson’s trial. David Adler has told FTW that he has until February 11th to file his response to the DoJ at which time the court may grant Wilson’s motion to set aside the conviction, reject it, or hold a hearing. Adler has told FTW of his intention to subpoena all of the involved attorneys and judges and put them on the stand if a hearing is granted. Adler also intends to call Ted Shackley. Former CIA Director, Admiral Stansfield Turner was also on the list of potential witnesses until he was critically injured in an airplane accident on Jan 15th.

If the hearing takes place David Adler may then have to admonish each witness of their rights against self-incrimination before asking them about their role in the submission of, and their ensuing silence about, the Briggs affidavit.
FTW will be following every development closely.  We are in the process of obtaining a copy of the government’s response and we will report on that next month. We have secured permission from Wilson and his lawyer for a telephone interview but, as of press time, the Federal Prison at Allenwood, Pennsylvania has not put me on the approved phone list. – We are not holding our breath. FTW has already been denied permission to interview Wilson in person.

If Edwin Wilson’s conviction is vacated then a great deal more than just one man will be on trial next. And it is hard to believe that the government, after the mountains of press devoted to Wilson, could let him walk without another trial. It is also not inconceivable that the first conviction could be placed in jeopardy as well. Wilson’s last conviction, 25 years for conspiracy to murder Larry Barcella and other prosecutors, remains intact but Wilson has now served 17 years. If two convictions are thrown out then he is at least eligible for a parole hearing. At 71, and with reportedly failing health, there might remain little justification for keeping him locked up in a maximum security prison.

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The Houston prosecution, for which Greenberg had served as the primary classified record handler, and AUSAs Jim Powers and Karen Morrissette, had no difficulty establishing that Wilson, in 1976, had secured plans for miniature timing devices from CIA contractors and, subsequently, had thousands manufactured and shipped to Libya.

The Houston prosecution had no difficulty – using Barcella’s, Bruce’s and Greenberg’s investigations – to establish that Wilson had conspired to obtain and ship the C-4 in 1977. Greenberg, Barcella, Bruce, Karen Morrissette and local Houston AUSAs also had absolutely no difficulty establishing that Wilson then chartered a DC-8 to ship the C-4 to Libya using falsified records.

Wilson, a one time career CIA agent, who had also worked for the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), was fighting for his life. An  open source  paper trail from CIA showed that he had not worked at Langley since 1971. Shortly thereafter he began working for a secret Navy operation known as Task Force 157. But, according to other records from both CIA and the Navy, he stopped working for the ONI in 1976 and none of his Navy work was connected to Libya. After that, or so it seemed, even though he continuously socialized with some of the most powerful people in the U.S. intelligence community and the military, he did no official work for anyone.  It was in late 1975 and 1976, when George Bush ran the CIA, that Wilson, as an alleged rogue, opened ties to Qadaffy and began selling weapons, explosives and other services and equipment to the terrorist regime.

This would not be the last time that a so-called enemy of the United States in the Arab world would be supplied with weapons and bomb making materials on a watch under the command of George H. W. Bush.  While Ed Wilson was training and equipping Qadaffy, he was also lunching with Bush prot g  Shackley. He was providing personal airplanes for Air Force General Richard Secord to fly around in, and loaning large sums of money to Shackley’s sidekick, Tom Clines. His company, Consultants International, once a CIA proprietary, which Wilson  bought  in 1971, was still receiving referral contacts from the Agency. And while former U.S. Army Green Berets, in Wilson’s employ, were teaching Libyans how to blow things up, Clines, a high-ranking active CIA officer, was walking Wilson employee Douglas Schlachter through the halls at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.

(Excerpt from above – there’s also more – )

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check this –

ICF International
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

ICF International, Inc. Type     Public corporation
Founded     1969
Headquarters     Fairfax, Virginia
Key people     Sudhakar Kesavan
Chairman and CEO
Industry     Professional Services Consulting
Revenue     ca. $697 mil (2008)
Employees     ca. 3,500 (2009)
Website     www.icfi.com

ICF International, formerly known as ICF Consulting, is a management, technology, and policy consulting firm based in Fairfax, Virginia. With offices in business centers across the Americas, Asia, and Europe, the firm develops solutions to energy, climate change, environment, transportation, social programs, health, defense, and emergency management issues. Since 1969, ICF has been serving government at all levels, major corporations, and multilateral institutions. ICF employs more than 3,500 employees worldwide. ICF International went public in 2006. In 2009, ICF acquired Macro International.[1]
[edit] References
1. ^ [1], ICF International to Acquire Macro International Inc.

Stub icon     This United States corporation or company article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICF_International
Categories: United States company stubs

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Sexual Blackmail

Judging from Washington’s perennial sex scandals, power truly is the ultimate aphrodisiac – to paraphrase that seventies-epoch Casanova, Henry Kissinger, in a slightly different context. For young wonks and old goats alike, political prowess tends to breed hubris and hormones.

Not surprisingly, then, in the nation’s pulsing capital, the fine art of sexual blackmail has what you might call  a history.

The pioneering figure of Washington  sexmail  was that creepiest of peeping G-men, J. Edgar Hoover. Thanks to his infamous sex files, which contained dirt on just about everyone in Washington short of his shoeshine boy, Hoover managed to dominate the capital (and eight presidents) for nearly half a century.

Not surprisingly, Hoover’s busiest period came while John F. Kennedy occupied the White House and its many bedrooms. By several accounts, when rumors were rampant that Kennedy was going to pinkslip the aging, annoying FBI chief, Hoover put his plenary Kennedy files to work, thereby saving his own hide. With an obsession more than verging on the pathological, Hoover had bugged JFK’s legion love nests and tapped the princess phones of assorted Kennedy playmates, including mob moll Judith Campbell Exner and superstarlet Marilyn Monroe – whose bedroom was purportedly heavily trafficked by both Kennedy brothers.

The bug-eyed Hoover also glommed onto in-flight tapes of Jack and actress Angie Dickinson summiting in the boudoir of a chartered aircraft. Typically playing both sides against the middle, Hoover leaked info to the tabloid press about an old Kennedy affair with a senate secretary and about Kennedy’s rumored former marriage, and then  put Kennedy in his debt by supplying background for the Newsweek rebuttal,  according to journalist Anthony Summers.

When it came to recording Jack and Bobby’s compromising positions, Hoover had company. The Mafia and Jimmy Hoffa also managed to plant electronic bedroom ears in Marilyn Monroe’s inner sanctum, especially at roue actor and Kennedy in-law Peter Lawford’s beach house.

Hoover used the same tactics in his vendetta against Martin Luther King, Jr., bugging the civil rights leader’s tryst spots with assorted paramours, spreading untrue gossip that King was a  switch-hitter,  even marshaling surveillance photographs of King in the same room as a known – GASP – homosexual. Transcripts were leaked to the press, but the media didn’t bite.

Hoover even had a bimbo file on Richard Nixon, of all the unlikely party animals. As Anthony Simmers reports in his revisionist Hoover biography, Official and Confidential, while Nison was vice president, he met a young Hong Kong travel guide named Marianna Liu. Convinced that Liu was a spy for communist China (a  Chicom ), the CIA had British intelligence train its infrared camera lenses on Nixon’s bedroom window during his visits to Hong Kong. Liu and Nixon swore to Summers that there was never any sex, but Hoover was described as reading the Nixon-Chicom file  gleefully  and showing it to Dick before be became president.
Never one to let  evidence  get in the way of salacious innuendo, Hoover later came up with a report claiming that future Watergate boys H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and Dwight Chapin were homosexual lovers. This was in 1969, before Watergate, and Hoover’s source, an unidentified bartender, was claiming that the three were whooping it up at homosexual parties in the Watergate hotel. Of course, it wasn’t true, and as Ehrlichman told Summers,  I came to think that Hoover did this to show his claws, or ingratiate himself to Nixon – probably both.

In Washington, what going around come around, and Hoover’s actual homosexuality was hardly a secret among his numerous enemies. Mob boss Meyer Lansky liked to boast that he  fixed that son of a bitch  Hoover, purportedly by acquiring graphic photos of Hoover fellating his lifelong companion, Clyde Tolson. According to Summers, by the late 1940s there were also pictures of Hoover vamping as a closet drag queen. Even that quintessential CIA garbologist, counterspy catcher James Jesus Angleton was in on the act, purportedly having his mits on incriminating Hoover sex pics.

Blackmail or not, the mob’s sway over Hoover was enormous: Publicly, the all-American, morally unimpeachable lingerie-wearing FBI director refused to admit that the Mafia even existed.

Hoover went to his grave more than two decades ago, taking his voluminous  personal and confidential  sex files with him. Of course they mysteriously vanished, giving rise to assorted conspiracy theories, including the possibility that Hoover loyalists destroyed them, that the CIA snatched them up, and even that Nixon’s Watergate Plumbers made a bungled attempts to get their hot little mits on the explosive cache.

So, with Hoover out of the picture, is sexual extortion in Washington merely a historical idiosyncrasy, like Hoover, and the Kennedys, the product of a more reckless era?

Well, sexual blackmail may have a more enduring place in Washington politics than we ten to suspect. More than one vice investigator in Washington believes that mob-controlled call girls, intelligence operatives, and even Washington lobbyists have long run an underground racket aimed at sexually compromising Congress and the administration. Conspiracy researcher Peter Dale Scott calls it  an ongoing, highly organized, and protected operation.  Scott, a former Canadian diplomat and professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, goes so far as to suggest that Washington’s sex syndicate, exploited by intelligence spooks and the mob, has  driven the major scandals of Washington since at least the beginning of the Cold War.

Apparently, behind every good political scandal is a prostitute. Scott isn’t alone in this thinking. According to Scott,  a retired Washington detective, one who played a small but important role in Watergate,  believes that mob pimps and bigwig lobbyists use pricey call girls to put the squeeze on key officials. This is apparently a reference to Carl Shoffler, incidentally the arresting police officer who slapped cuffs on the Watergate burglars.

During a 1982 investigation into the use of  drugs and sexual activity to lobby congressmen,  Shoffler did indeed advise congressional investigators to look into a male prostitution ring that serviced Capitol Hill. The veteran police detective believed that the sex ring might be linked to a high-flying Washington lobbyist, Robert Keith Cray, who had more than a few connections to CIA folk. According to Peter Dale Scott, some Washington investigators also suspected that the gay sex ring was connected to D.C. crime boss Joe  the Possum  Nesline.

Unfortunately, the congressional probe petered out before it got anywhere. Summing up the untested Libido-gate hypothesis, however, one of the congressional investigators put it this way to author Susan Trento:  If a lobbyist wants to use hookers to influence legislation, there’s a pool of talent he draws from. There are certain madams in town that they make connections with. By simple logic, if you’re in the business of influencing people with male prostitutes of kids, there has to be that supply chain…. [If] we start to identify some of the clients, it’s possible we could find the suppliers for intelligence, organized crime, and lobbyists.  In other words, follow the honey.

Former (and fugitive) CIA officer Frank Terpil had no compunction about identifying one such client, his former employer. Terpil told investigative author Jim Hougan that CIA-run sexual blackmail setups were common in Washington during the Watergate years. Terpil fingered his former partner, Ed Wilson, as the facilitator of one such CIA operation. Terpil claimed that Wilson ran the CIA mantrap from Korean agent Tong Sun Park’s George Town Club, the Korean intelligence front that figured in the 1970s Koreagate scandal.

Historically,  Terpil explained,  one of Wilson’s agency jobs was to subvert members of both houses [of Congress] by any means necessary…. Certain people could be easily coerced by living out their sexual fantasy in the flesh…. A remembrance of these occasions [was] permanently recorded via selected cameras.
Of course, we should note the Terpil hasn’t offered any proof to back up that claim, and ex-CIA officers – not least of all, ones who have been convicted in absentia for terrorist activities – aren’t celebrated for their candor. On the other hand, sexual blackmail was indeed a favorite CIA method of  turning  foreign agents or otherwise compromising them to do Uncle Sam’s bidding. Considering all of the Agency’s illegal doings on domestic soil during the last four decades, Terpil’s story certainly seems plausible. Interestingly, Robert Keith Gray, the omnipresent superlobbyist whose name came up during the 1982 gay sex ring investigation, also pops into the George Town Club-Terpil milieu. Gray, who (coincidentally or not) gravitates toward spy nests, was the club’s first overseer and also a director at Terpil’s firm, Consultants International, a notorious CIA proprietary front.

And speaking of strange coincidences, it might be nothing more than evidence that networking is key in D.C., but Terpil’s and Korean lobbyist Park’s names turned up a few years earlier in the trick book of a cathouse madam linked to yet another famous scandal, the biggest scandal of all: Watergate.

The theory that the Watergate affair sprang, unintentionally, from the bosom of a political sex ring was first proposed by journalist Jim Hougan in his book, Secret Agenda.

The madam, Heidi Rikan, worked out of the Washington’s posh Columbia Plaza apartment building, located across the street from the Watergate office complex. Hougan suggests that Rikan’s call-girl ring may have been  either a CIA operation or the target of a CIA operation.
Briefly, Hougan’s hypothesis is this: The Columbia Plaza girls were servicing a very interesting political clientele: Democratic muckamucks who placed their orders for companionship from a phone inside the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate building. Discovering this fruitful setup, Nixon’s henchmen decided to target the Democratic fornicators. But in doing so, they stood a good chance of exposing the heavy breather already bugging the phone lines: the CIA. Ergo, the CIA’s moles in the White House (allegedly superpatriotic conspirators James McCord and E. Howard Hunt) were forced to sabotage the Watergate break-ins in order to protect the CIA’s highly illegal sex sting from Nixon’s overeager burglars.

An illegal CIA sexpionage gambit unintentionally triggering the downfall of Richard Nixon? Say it ain’t so

Does the sexpionage industry go back even further in history than the babes of Watergate? Conspiracy theorist-emeritus Peter Dale Scott is game enough to hazard an affirmative. Employing the semiotics of conspiracy research – wherein names connect to other names, dates, and misdeeds, creating a tableau of suspicion that is usually intriguing, if not always conclusive – Scott has connected the dots.

Most interestingly, the Watergate madam, Heidi Rikan, was a girlfriend of mobster Joe  the Possum  Nesline, whose alleged connection to the Capitol Hill gay sex scandal a decade late aroused the suspicions of Washington detectives.

Assorted boyfriends and former husbands of both Rikan and her sometime roommate, Mo Biner (who married key Watergate figure John Dean, which makes Mo a pivotal character, according to scandal revisionists), were associated with the Quorum, an early 1960s  swingles  club run by Bobby Baker, a former aide to Lyndon Johnson. Scott surmises that all roads led to Baker’s club for a reason: the Quorum functioned a lot like the mob-and-intelligence-infested sex traps of the 1970s.

It was Bobby Baker who introduced President Kennedy to an East German bombshell named Ellen Rometsh, whom JFK, true to form, promptly bedded. Scott speculates that J. Edgar Hoover leaked word of this international indiscretion to the press. Whether or not Hoover was behind the leaks, they nearly ignited a global scandal. That’s because JFK’s nubile Valkyrie also happened to be sleeping with a Soviet diplomat, a coincidence that, if revealed, wouldn’t have served Kennedy well at the height of the Cold War. The threat of a  bimbo eruption  with international implications forced Bobby Kennedy into scandal-kibosh mode.

Scott notes that the JFK-Rometsch peccadillo paralleled the scandalous 1962 affair that toppled British war minister John Profumo. Profumo publicly confessed to romping with Christine Keller, a party doll/prostitute working for sexual procurer Stephen Ward. That scandal proved doubly damaging to Profumo because Keller was simultaneously servicing, yes, a Soviet diplomat. And more recent revelations have disclosed that the British intelligence agency MI5  had been using the Stephen Ward sex ring for some time to compromise the Soviet agent.  Scott wonders, did MI5 set out to compromise Profumo as well? Did the hyperlibidinous JFK blunder into a similar sex trap?

Interestingly, there is a more direct connection between JFK’s peccadilloes and the MI5-manipulated Profumo affair. During the summer of 1963, Hoover’s porous sex files began leaking again, resulting in press reports that a high U.S. official had slept with two members of Britain’s Ward-Keeler sex ring, the very ring that toppled Profumo. That high U.S. official, no surprise, was the prodigious JFK. Scott observes that  MI5, as Britain’s counterintelligence agency, maintained direct relations with both Hoover in the FBI  and the CIA. Did the Brits help Hoover set up Kennedy for a fall?

Bobby Baker, catalyst of the JFK-Rometsch affair, later boasted that he had in his possession letters from the east Germain woman that could prove embarrassing to the Kennedys, which per Scott,  strengthens the impression of an ongoing, sophisticated blackmail operation  in this nation’s carnal capital.

Perhaps. Or maybe it just proves that in Washington eventually everyone gets screwed.

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Detective Techniques

APPRAISING

Appraisal Glossary

ANALYZING ART
BALLISTICS

Weapon Dating

BUILDING BACKGROUND

Property Search

DOCUMENT EXAMINATION

Paper Analysis
Printed Items

FINDING EXPERTS
FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY
GENEALOGY

Getting Started
Oral History
Census Information
African-American Genealogy
DNA Analysis

GEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

Stones and Minerals

HISTORICAL RESEARCH

Archives

MILITARY HISTORY
PATENT SEARCH
PHOTOGRAPHS
PRESERVATION
TEXTILE ANALYSIS
TIMBER DATING
TRACKING PEOPLE
VERY OLD OBJECTS
DO’S AND DON’TS
GLOSSARY
Overview

Historical sleuthing involves a variety methods to get to the bottom of a case.

Discover how to be a history detective with these guides that give you the all the information, tips and trade secrets to help solve your own historical mysteries.
Appraising
Look closely and see: An appraisal is a formal estimation of the provenance, veracity, significance, and in some cases, value of something.
Also see: Appraisal Glossary
Analyzing Art
Rogue’s gallery: Get the big picture on detection and identification.
Ballistics
Aim to find out: You can collect clues and evidence from bullets and firearms.
Weapon dating: These techniques determine the age, origin or authenticity of a weapon.
Building Background
Under cover: Investigate the history of buildings.
Property search: Find out more about locating land records and sources.
Document Examination
See the signs: Documents are examined from three different aspects: historical, scientific, and stylistic.
Paper analysis: Looking closely you can determine age, make-up and origin.
Printed items: How to examine documents and personal papers.
Finding Experts
The right person: One of the most important aspects of any investigation is finding the best expert in their field to consult.
Forensic Anthropology
Science of the dead: Analyzing human remains can reveal the identity, age and cause of death.
Genealogy
Investigating family: Finding out more about where you came from is a popular passion for many.
Where to start: A step-by-step guide.
Oral history: Tips for recording spoken history before it is too late.
Searching the census: This is a great place to get considerable detail about individuals.
African-American genealogy: Reaching back can be challenging, but a host of tools are available if you know where to look.
Sample the technique: DNA analysis can prove kinship and ethnic origin.
Geological Analysis
Rock stories : Using scientific techniques, investigators can learn where, when, and how stone and clay artifacts were made.
Stones & minerals: Find out how to identify a type of rock or mineral.
Historical Research
Checking out: Factual records and sources can help to pin down facts.
Searching through history: Archives are a treasure trove of material.
Military History
Fighting forebears: How to target official military records to find out more about soldiers and their wwar experience.
Patent Search
Patently obvious: Find out the origin and detail surrounding an invention or innovation.
Photographs
Picture perfect: How to investigate photographs and their provenance.
Preservation
Fading away: Learn how to protect fragile family treasures.
Textile Analysis
Material worth: Analyze textiles and materials to determine their age and source.
Timber Dating
Dead wood: Determine the absolute age of wood and organic artifacts.
Tracking People
Skeletons in the closet: It takes tenacity and patience to research a person, but the payoff can often be dramatic and surprising.
Very Old Objects
Back in time: Investigating old objects can take you on a journey that predates history itself

If you have a professional-grade puzzle to solve tell us all about it.

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DIY Investigations
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Finding Family
The History Detectives Team | September 3, 2009 9:56 AM | 12 Responses
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Are you interested in investigating your roots? Genealogical research allows you to find out the history of your family.

If you want to research your family, your first step should be to decide what you’re looking for, compile a list of what you want to know. It is usually easier to research a male line of descent. Start with what you know and then try and fill in the blanks. Consult older relatives as they will probably have information that can start you off.

Common records are a good way to dip your feet in and start the search and they will show you how to work backwards, starting from you. Your birth certificate will give you information about your parents, and their marriage records will give information about their parents and so forth.

Check local libraries to see if they have a genealogy section that contains guides on how to do it yourself. Some libraries will subscribe to genealogy magazines and may even have a link to a local genealogy society. There are over 3,000 local genealogy societies in the United States, mostly containing marriage and cemetery records. Your local society is a good place to go for advice and also to contact other people who are conducting research. You may even find someone who is researching into your family. You can find listings of societies across the country in libraries in the Genealogical Periodical Annual Index (GPAI). Click here for the 2000 version.

You will come across familiar names, historical facts and locations during your search. Use the encyclopaedias, books and old maps in the reference section of your local library to check facts and follow the trail. Also be sure to inquire at your library about other invaluable resources like newspaper archives and telephone directories.

As you start to identify people, separate them out onto individual cards and note down any vital information you have on them, such as birth and death records, parents’ names and marriage records. Start to map the relatives you uncover onto a rough family tree, tentatively working out the links between everyone. You can also use pedigree charts or family group sheets. (Requires Adobe Acrobat)

You can contact a number of sources to find more records, notably national, regional or local offices. You can use them to find birth, death or marriage dates. Before visiting the offices, make sure you’ve done as much background research as you can to optimise your time. Some archive offices will have information about their records online and you can confirm what you need in advance. If you are investigating family members before 1920 you can find information in census records. Find out more about investigating census records here.

During your search you may come across obstacles that inhibit your progress, for example if you’re investigating African-American lineage an obstacle you will encounter is slavery, an institution that broke family bonds and made record keeping nearly impossible. There are often ways around these obstacles, in the case of African-American genealogy we have a section here that you can visit for pointers.

Make sure you record your steps as your investigation will expose other branches of the family you may want to research in future. Also try and use primary sources as much as possible. Make sure that you assess secondary sources thoroughly and always approach them with a degree of scepticism. Where does the document come from and what are the motivations of the author? Most importantly verify all of your research.
Have you found out any information about your family history? What did you discover? Do you have any tips? We would like to know. Let us know in the form below.

You can also join our Facebook group where you can meet other fans and share information.

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Comments

Bertruce,
There’s a good chance you’ll find some of the information you seek at your college library. Many colleges offer their students access to digital resources like Ancestry, LexisNexis and extensive historical newspaper databases such as Proquest. Likewise, you may be able to borrow New York records on microfilm through an inter-library loan. Finally, you should contact the historical society in your ancestors hometown or region. Best of luck with your search.
Posted by The History Detectives Team Author Profile Page on September 29, 2009 5:32 PM

Hello. I am a college student researching my own family history in Michigan. SInce I cannot physically go look at records-my family was so reclusive-I was wondering how I would find my family in the middle 1800’s in New York State? I don’t have any money for Ancestry.com.
Posted by Bertruce L. Beals IV on September 25, 2009 1:34 PM

Julia, check out our Fighting Forebears post for a list of tips. And let us know how it goes
Posted by The History Detectives Team Author Profile Page on September 22, 2009 11:55 AM

I’m trying to find out how to get a copy of my father and my grandfather’s military records. I know they were both in the army. And I am in the army now. I have asked my dad, but he claims to only have his DD242. Does anyone have any hint’s or tips for me?
Posted by Julia J. Tippie on September 20, 2009 3:39 PM

In seeking an ancestor I ran into a person with the same name and age but disregarded it because I thought that the occupation was listed as a  Lawyer . Since it was a family known fact and also put in almost every census that he could not read or write, we thought that it was not him. I came acrossed this person again after transcribing other censuses that it said  Sawyer . It was our person.
Posted by Cindy on September 15, 2009 5:33 PM

I have been doing genealogy work for many years. I have come across a brickwall that I cannot seem to get over. Do you have any suggestions about researching  orpan train  riders? My great grandfather was born arouund 1874. In 1878 he found his way from New York City to the rural area of St. Mary’s Co. Maryland. He appears in the 1880 census records living in Maryland. A cousin found information that he was placed at the New York Foundling Hospital at the age of 3 weeks.

Tracing his journey has been difficult. We are anxious to locate any extended family who also descended from Peter Cameron. Thank you.
Posted by Paul Mandel on September 13, 2009 6:06 PM
Don’t get locked into a specific spelling for first and last names, especially if your ancestor came from a country that does not use the Latin-based alphabet. My husband’s family came from Russia and Moskovitz was transliterated in many humorous and nearly unrecognizable ways until the family settled on a single spelling. (My favorite: Mushoitz) Also, many people Americanized their first names (Rachel to Rose, Golda to Gertrude). You have to look for family patterns, not just your individual ancestor.

Take time to record information on neighbors and other people with the your distinctive surname. They may turn out to be cousins or married-in relatives. You’ll save yourself a second trip to the archives if you collect the information into a pending file and review it periodically against newly discovered family data.
Posted by Denise Pagel Moskovitz on September 10, 2009 6:25 PM

I have been told throughout my life that my father Vincent Aster Woodson was a decedent of Thomas Jefferson and Sally Henning. The Woodson lineage has been documented already through DNA testing. However my siblings and I would like to know if we are a part of that lineage.

Thank you
Robin Michelle Woodson Robinson
Posted by Robin on September 10, 2009 10:49 AM

The History Detectives is a great show I enjoy watching.

Some of the tips I have learned over the past 30 years of researching my family
history are as follows:

1. Talk to and record information from family members while they are still living.
This is how I obtained some of the family history from my grandparents. I am still at a
few ‘brick walls’ from not asking questions, though.

2. As mentioned in this article, go to your local library. While there, ask if they have
newspaper obituaries on microfilm. I have found many family members from the
late 1800’s to the present on microfilms.

3. Every state has a GenWeb project site. From these states, individual counties may
have their own information also. Log on to http://www.usgenweb.org/
Posted by Dennis McDowell on September 8, 2009 12:32 PM

This is by far the best show on TV — cable or not  Thank you for all your insights over the years. You are definitely the best thing about Summer.

To Rachel — thank you for the family tree tips. I started doing mine in May right before a family reunion and was completely struck with how easy it was to go further than anyone alive even knew. I am on ancestry.com. I especially love your tip about two people with the same name in the same immediate family. I have a Thomas Campbell (1799-1880) and seemingly his brother Thomas Edward Campbell (1807-1887). So I am stumped on that one right now.

I wanted to add one thing I learned from another who intersected my family tree. Sometimes a date they signed their will will be misreported as the death date. I had this happen with Archibald Campbell (father of both Thomases). I found his dates to be 1763-1857 and then I found a 108 year-old Archibald in the 1870 census and found another death date of 1871. That can be tricky and puzzling. But I figure the census was more right than that family tree that recorded 1857.
Posted by Kelly J Kitchens Wickersham on September 8, 2009 3:18 AM

You mention in your link on Census Records that Ancestry.com has online records through the year 1920. They actually have records through 1930. I prefer the Census Records because they are more  factual , but there are some things to keep in mind. Here are a few tips:

1. For better accuracy, cross reference the Census Records with one another before making a hard assumption. There are often multiple people with the same name in the same area… just like today.

2. Check for  little  things… does it say in one census that he/she can read/write and then in another census state that he/she cannot? Don’t automatically discard it, because information can be different depending on who answered the Census Taker’s questions. But take the time to double-check before assuming one way or another.

3. If a child died young, parents would often re-use the name, I presume in honor of the first child. My Great-Great-Grandfather was the second child in his family named Samuel. I have found other instances, as well. So watch your Date of Birth  You could be looking at the right family, just sooner than you thought
4. Keep historical facts in mind. Remember what you KNOW is true, and base your investigation on how the  facts  you’re seeing compare to what you KNOW. An example from my own research… in the 1850 US Federal Census in Morgan County, Indiana, the Census Taker abbreviated Indiana as IA, not IN. Iowa had been a state for only three years at that point and there was no standard for abbreviations. I figured it out when I realized that no one from that county was listed as having been born in Indiana, but there was name after name after name of people listed as being born in Iowa. The only explanations would be a mass migration from Iowa to Indiana in the 1840’s (which we know didn’t happen), or there was something wrong with how I was reading the Census.

5. Don’t forget to think outside the box. I had a major breakthrough simply by realizing that a particular family was  blended … each spouse had been married before and each had come to the marriage with a child. To make it worse, both children had the same name

6. Check your resources. It’s good to get information from other people’s trees, but do not add it blindly without checking where they got the information. If one person makes a mistake and 20 people blindly add it (which happens all the time), then you have a pretty messed up family tree  ( I’m my own Grandpa  sort of thing )
Hope that’s helpful
Posted by Rachel Tiede on September 7, 2009 10:45 PM

In tonight’s story about the location of the bridge in Columbia, SC, in the wrap up comments afterwards you stated that Appomatox Court House where Lee surrended was in  Northern Virginia.  In fact it is in Southside Virginia, hundreds of miles from  Northern Virginia.  Otherwise the whole program tonight was one of best ever. We really enjoy History Detectives and have told many friends about it.
Posted by David F Wayland on September 7, 2009 10:15 PM

http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/diyinv/

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JFKshackley2.jpg

Theodore (Ted) Shackley was born in 1927. His mother was a Polish immigrant and he spent much of his childhood living with his grandmother. Shackley was raised in West Palm Beach, Florida and in October, 1945, joined the United States Army. After basic training he was sent to Germany where he was part of the Allied occupation force. As a result of his knowledge of the Polish language he was recruited into the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corp. In 1947 he was sent to study at the University of Maryland.

Shackley returned to Germany in 1951 as a 2nd Lieutenant. As a member of Army Counter Intelligence Corp he was involved in recruiting Polish agents. He was also recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency. By 1953 he was working for William Harvey at the CIA Berlin Station.
Shackley, whose nickname was the  Blond Ghost  (because he hated to be photographed) became involved in CIA’s Black Operations. This involved a policy that was later to become known as Executive Action (a plan to remove unfriendly foreign leaders from power). This included a coup d’état that overthrew the Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz in 1954 after he introduced land reforms and nationalized the United Fruit Company.

After the Bay of Pigs disaster President John F. Kennedy created a committee (SGA) charged with overthrowing Castro’s government. The SGA, chaired by Robert F. Kennedy (Attorney General), included John McCone (CIA Director), McGeorge Bundy (National Security Adviser), Alexis Johnson (State Department), Roswell Gilpatric (Defence Department), General Lyman Lemnitzer (Joint Chiefs of Staff) and General Maxwell Taylor. Although not officially members, Dean Rusk (Secretary of State) and Robert S. McNamara (Secretary of Defence) also attended meetings.

At a meeting of this committee at the White House on 4th November, 1961, it was decided to call this covert action program for sabotage and subversion against Cuba, Operation Mongoose. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy also decided that General Edward Lansdale (Staff Member of the President’s Committee on Military Assistance) should be placed in charge of the operation. One of Lansdale’s first decisions was to appoint William Harvey as head of Task Force W. Harvey’s brief was to organize a broad range of activities that would help to bring down Castro’s government.

In early 1962 Harvey brought Ted Shackley into the project as deputy chief of JM/WAVE. In April, 1962, Shackley was involved in delivering supplies to Johnny Roselli as part of the plan to assassinate Fidel Castro. Later that year he became head of the station. In doing so, he gained control over Operation 40 or what some now called Shackley’s Secret Team. Shackley was also responsible for gathering intelligence and recruiting spies in Cuba. Most of the anti-Castro Cubans that the CIA managed to infiltrate into Cuba were captured and either imprisoned or executed.

In the winter of 1962 Eddie Bayo claimed that two officers in the Red Army based in Cuba wanted to defect to the United States. Bayo added that these men wanted to pass on details about atomic warheads and missiles that were still in Cuba despite the agreement that followed the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Bayo’s story was eventually taken up by several members of the anti-Castro community including William Pawley, Gerry P. Hemming, John Martino, Felipe Vidal Santiago and Frank Sturgis. Pawley became convinced that it was vitally important to help get these Soviet officers out of Cuba.

William Pawley contacted Shackley at JM WAVE. Shackley decided to help Pawley organize what became known as Operation Tilt. He also assigned Rip Robertson, a fellow member of the CIA in Miami, to help with the operation. David Morales, another CIA agent, also became involved in this attempt to bring out these two Soviet officers.

In June, 1963, a small group, including William Pawley, Eddie Bayo, Rip Robertson, John Martino, and Richard Billings, a journalist working for Life Magazine, secretly arrived in Cuba. They were unsuccessful in their attempts to find these Soviet officers and they were forced to return to Miami. Bayo remained behind and it was rumoured that he had been captured and executed.

In the autumn of 1963 Ted Shackley and Carl E. Jenkins were using members of Operation 40 in their attempts to try and kill Fidel Castro. According to the interview he gave in 2005, Gene Wheaton claims it was Jenkins who redirected this team to kill John F. Kennedy.

Spymaster
Blond Ghost

According to recently released AMWORLD documents it would seem that Shackley and Jenkins continued to use Operation 40 against Castro. In his book, The Crimes of a President, Joel Bainerman argues that during this period “Theodore Shackley headed a program of raids and sabotage against Cuba. Working under Shackley was Thomas Clines, Rafael Quintero, Luis Posada Carriles, Rafael and Raul Villaverde, Frank Sturges, Felix Rodriguez and Edwin Wilson.”

In 1966 Shackley was placed in charge of the CIA secret war in Laos. He appointed Thomas G. Clines as his deputy. He also took Carl E. Jenkins, David Morales, Raphael Quintero, Felix Rodriguez and Edwin Wilson with him to Laos. According to Joel Bainerman it was at this point that Shackley and his  Secret Team  became involved in the drug trade. They did this via General Vang Pao, the leader of the anti-communist forces in Laos. Vang Pao was a major figure in the opium trade in Laos. To help him Shackley used his CIA officials and assets to sabotage the competitors. Eventually Vang Pao had a monopoly over the heroin trade in Laos. In 1967 Shackley and Clines helped Vang Pao to obtain financial backing to form his own airline, Zieng Khouang Air Transport Company, to transport opium and heroin between Long Tieng and Vientiane.

According to Alfred W. McCoy  (The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade) Shackley and Clines arranged a meeting in Saigon in 1968 between Santo Trafficante and Vang Pao to establish a heroin-smuggling operation from Southeast Asia to the United States.

Shackley employed David Morales to take charge at Pakse, a black operations base focused on political paramilitary action within Laos. Pakse was used to launch military operations against the Ho Chi Minh Trial. In 1969 Shackley became Chief of Station in Vietnam and headed the Phoenix Program. This involved the killing of non-combatant Vietnamese civilians suspected of collaborating with the National Liberation Front. In a two year period, Operation Phoenix murdered 28,978 civilians.

Shackley also brought others into his drug operation. This included Richard L. Armitage, a US Navy official based in Saigon’s US office of Naval Operations, and Major General Richard Secord. According to Daniel Sheehan: “From late 1973 until April of 1975, Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines and Richard Armitage disbursed, from the secret, Laotian-based, Vang Pao opium fund, vastly more money than was required to finance even the highly intensified Phoenix Project in Vietnam. The money in excess of that used in Vietnam was secretly smuggled out of Vietnam in large suitcases, by Richard Secord and Thomas Clines and carried into Australia, where it was deposited in a secret, personal bank account (privately accessible to Theodore Shackley, Thomas Clines and Richard Secord). During this same period of time between 1973 and 1975, Theodore Shackley and Thomas Clines caused thousands of tons of US weapons, ammunition, and explosives to be secretly taken from Vietnam and stored at a secret  cache  hidden inside Thailand.

This money, with the help of Raphael Quintero, found its way into the Nugan Hand Bank in Sydney. The bank was founded by Michael Hand, a CIA operative in Laos and Frank Nugan an Australian businessman.

Saigon fell to the NLF in April, 1975. The Vietnam War was over. Richard Armitage was dispatched by Shackley, from Vietnam to Tehran. In Iran, Armitage, set up a secret  financial conduit  inside Iran, into which secret Vang Pao drug funds could be deposited from Southeast Asia. According to Daniel Sheehan: “The purpose of this conduit was to serve as the vehicle for secret funding by Shackley’s  Secret Team,  of a private, non-CIA authorized  Black  operations inside Iran, disposed to seek out, identify, and assassinate socialist and communist sympathizers, who were viewed by Shackley and his  Secret Team  members to be  potential terrorists  against the Shah of Iran’s government in Iran. In late 1975 and early 1976, Theodore Shackley and Thomas Clines retained Edwin Wilson to travel to Tehran, Iran to head up the  Secret Team  covert  anti-terrorist  assassination program in Iran.”

When Shackley was recalled in February, 1972, he was put in charge of the CIA’s Western Hemisphere Division. One of his major tasks was to undermine Philip Agee, an ex-CIA officer who was writing a book on the CIA. The book was eventually published as Inside the Company: CIA Diary, but did not include the information that would have permanently damaged the reputation of the CIA.

Shackley also played an important role in the overthrow of Salvador Allende in Chile. As his biographer, David Corn points out:  Salvador Allende died during the coup. When the smoke cleared, General Augusto Pinochet, the head of a military junta, was in dictatorial control… Elections were suspended. The press was censored. Allende supporters and opponents of the junta were jailed. Torture centers were established. Executions replaced soccer matches in Santiago’s stadiums. Bodies floated down the Mapocho river. Due in part to the hard work of Shackley and dozens of other Agency bureaucrats and operatives, Chile was free of the socialists.

After Richard Nixon resigned, Gerald Ford brought in George H. W. Bush as Director of the CIA. This was followed by Shackley being appointed as Deputy Director of Operations. He therefore became second-in-command of all CIA covert activity.

Donald Freed (Death in Washington: The Murder of Orlando Letelier) claims that on 29th June, 1976, Townley had a meeting with Bernardo De Torres, Armando Lopez Estrada, Hector Duran and General Juan Manuel Contreras Sepulveda. The following month Frank Castro, Luis Posada, Orlando Bosch and Guillermo Novo established Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations (CORU). CORU was partly financed by Guillermo Hernández Cartaya, another Bay of Pigs veteran closely linked to the CIA. He was later charged with money laundering, drugs & arms trafficking and embezzlement. The federal prosecutor told Pete Brewton that he had been approached by a CIA officer who explained that  Cartaya had done a bunch of things that the government was indebted to him for, and he asked me to drop the charges against him.

One Miami police veteran told the authors of Assassination on Embassy Row (1980):  The Cubans held the CORU meeting at the request of the CIA. The Cuban groups… were running amok in the mid-1970s, and the United States had lost control of them. So the United States backed the meeting to get them all going in the same direction again, under United States control.  It has been pointed out that George H. W. Bush was director of the CIA when this meeting took place.

Shackley was hoping to eventually replace Bush as director of the CIA. However, the election of Jimmy Carter was a severe blow to his chances. Carter appointed an outsider, Stansfield Turner, as head of the CIA. He immediately carried out an investigation of into CIA covert activities. Turner eventually found out about Shackley’s “Secret Team”. He was especially worried about the activities of Edwin Wilson and the Nugan Hand Bank.

One of the men Wilson employed was former CIA officer Kevin P. Mulcahy. He became concerned about Wilson’s illegal activities and sent a message about them to the agency. Shackley was initially able to block any internal investigation of Wilson. However, in April, 1977, the Washington Post, published an article on Wilson’s activities stating that he may be getting support from  current CIA employees . Stansfield Turner ordered an investigation and discovered that both Shackley and Thomas G. Clines had close relationships with Wilson. Shackley was called in to explain what was going on. His explanation was not satisfactory and it was made clear that his career at the CIA had come to an end. Richard Helms, reportedly said:  Ted (Shackley) is what we call in the spook business a quadruple threat – Drugs, Arms, Money and Murder.

After leaving the CIA in September, 1979, Shackley formed his own company, Research Associates International, which specialized in providing intelligence to business. He also joined with Thomas G. Clines, Raphael Quintero, and Ricardo Chavez (another former CIA operative) in another company called API Distributors. According to David Corn (Blond Ghost) Edwin Wilson provided Clines with  half a million dollars to get his business empire going . Shackley also freelanced with API but found it difficult taking orders from his former subordinate, Clines. Shackley also established his own company, Research Associates International, which specialized in providing intelligence to business (in other words he sold them classified information from CIA files).

According to Daniel Sheehan: “In 1976, Richard Secord moved to Tehran, Iran and became the Deputy Assistant Secretary of defense in Iran, in charge of the Middle Eastern Division of the Defense Security Assistance Administration. In this capacity, Secord functioned as the chief operations officer for the U.S. Defense Department in the Middle East in charge of foreign military sales of U.S. aircraft, weapons and military equipment to Middle Eastern nations allied to the U.S. Secord’s immediate superior was Eric Van Marbad, the former 40 Committee liaison officer to Theodore Shackley’s Phoenix program in Vietnam from 1973 to 1975.”

From 1977 until 1979, Richard Armitage operated a business named The Far East Trading Company. This company was in fact merely a  front  for Armitage’s secret operations conducting Vang Pao opium money out of Southeast Asia to Tehran and the Nugan Hand Bank in Australia to fund the ultra right-wing, private anti-communist  anti-terrorist  assassination program and  unconventional warfare  operation of Theodore Shackley’s and Thomas Cline’s  Secret Team . (Daniel P. Sheehan’s affidavit).
In his book, The Crimes of a President, Joel Bainerman argues that the  Secret Team  still used the Nugan Hand Bank to hide their illegal profits from drugs and arms. The President of the Nugan Hand Bank was Admiral Earl P. Yates, former Chief of Staff for Strategic Planning of US Forces in Asia. Other directors of the bank included Dale Holmgree (also worked for Civil Air Transport, a CIA proprietary company) and General Edwin F. Black, (commander of U.S. troops in Thailand during the Vietnam War). George Farris (a CIA operative in Vietnam) ran the Washington office of the Nugan Hand Bank and the bank’s legal counsel was William Colby.

The bank grew and had offices or affiliates in 13 countries. According to Jonathan Kwitny, Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA, Crimes of Patriots), the bank did little banking. What it did do was to amass, move, collect and disburse great sums of money.

In 1980 Frank Nugan was found dead in his car. His co-founder, Michael Hand had disappeared at the same time. The Australian authorities were forced to investigate the bank. They discovered that Ricardo Chavez, the former CIA operative who was co-owner of API Distributors with Thomas G. Clines and Rafael Quintero, was attempting to take control of the bank. The Corporate Affairs Commission of New South Wales came to the conclusion that Chavez was working on behalf of Clines, Quintero and Wilson. They blocked the move but they were unable or unwilling to explore the connections between the CIA and the Nugan Hand Bank.

The Secret Team (Shackley, Thomas G. Clines, Richard Secord, Ricardo Chavez, Rafael Quintero, Albert Hakim, Edwin Wilson, and Richard L. Armitage set up several corporations and subsidiaries around the world through which to conceal the operations of the  Secret Team . Many of these corporations were set up in Switzerland. Some of these were: (1) Lake Resources, Inc.; (2) The Stanford Technology Trading Group, Inc.; and (3) Companie de Services Fiduciaria. Other companies were set up in Central America, such as: (4) CSF Investments, Ltd. and (5) Udall research Corporation. Some were set up inside the United States by Edwin Wilson. Some of these were: (6) Orca Supply Company in Florida and (7) Consultants International in Washington, D.C. Through these corporations the  Secret Team  laundered hundreds of millions of dollars of secret Vang Pao opium money.

Shackley had still not given up hope that he would eventually be appointed director of the CIA. His best hope was in getting Jimmy Carter defeated in 1980. Shackley had several secret meetings with George H. W. Bush as he campaigned for the Republican nomination (his wife, Hazel Shackley also worked for Bush). Ronald Reagan won the nomination but got the support of the CIA by selecting Bush as his vice president. According to Rafael Quintero, during the presidential campaign, Shackley met Bush almost every week.
It is believed that Shackley used his contacts in the CIA to provide information to Reagan and Bush. This included information that Carter was attempting to negotiate a deal with Iran to get the American hostages released. This was disastrous news for the Reagan/Bush campaign. If Carter got the hostages out before the election, the public perception of the man might change and he might be elected for a second-term.

According to Barbara Honegger, a researcher and policy analyst with the 1980 Reagan/Bush campaign, William Casey and other representatives of the Reagan presidential campaign made a deal at two sets of meetings in July and August at the Ritz Hotel in Madrid with Iranians to delay the release of Americans held hostage in Iran until after the November 1980 presidential elections. Reagan’s aides promised that they would get a better deal if they waited until Carter was defeated.
On 22nd September, 1980, Iraq invaded Iran. The Iranian government was now in desperate need of spare parts and equipment for its armed forces. Carter now proposed that the US would be willing to hand over supplies in return for the hostages.

Once again, the CIA leaked this information to Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. This attempted deal was also passed to the media. On 11th October, the Washington Post reported rumours of a “secret deal that would see the hostages released in exchange for the American made military spare parts Iran needs to continue its fight against Iraq”.

The Very Best Men
The Mighty Wurlitzer

In October, 1980, Shackley joined the company owned by Albert Hakim (he was paid $5,000 a month as a part-time “risk analyst”). Hakim was keen to use Shackley’s contacts to make money out of the Iran-Iraq War that had started the previous month.

A couple of days before the election Barry Goldwater was reported as saying that he had information that “two air force C-5 transports were being loaded with spare parts for Iran”. This was not true. However, this publicity had made it impossible for Jimmy Carter to do a deal. Ronald Reagan on the other hand, had promised the Iranian government that he would arrange for them to get all the arms they needed in exchange for the hostages. According to Mansur Rafizadeh, the former U.S. station chief of SAVAK, the Iranian secret police, CIA agents had persuaded Khomeini not to release the American hostages until Reagan was sworn in. In fact, they were released twenty minutes after his inaugural address (October Surprise).

The arms the Iranians had demanded were delivered via Israel. By the end of 1982 all Regan’s promises to Iran had been made. With the deal completed, Iran was free to resort to acts of terrorism against the United States. In 1983, Iranian-backed terrorists blew up 241 marines in the CIA Middle-East headquarters.

The Iranians once again began taking American hostages in exchange for arms shipments. On 16th March, 1984, William Francis Buckley, a diplomat attached to the U.S. Embassy in Beirut was kidnapped by the Hezbollah, a fundamentalist Shiite group with strong links to the Khomeini regime. Buckley was tortured and it was soon discovered that he was the CIA station chief in Beirut.
Shackley was horrified when he discovered that Buckley had been captured. Buckley was a member of Shackley’s Secret Team that had been involved with Edwin Wilson, Thomas Clines, Carl E. Jenkins, Raphael Quintero, Felix Rodriguez and Luis Posada, in the CIA “assassination” program.

Buckley had also worked closely with William Casey (now the director of the CIA) in the secret negotiations with the Iranians in 1980. Buckley had a lot to tell the Iranians. He eventually signed a 400 page statement detailing his activities in the CIA. He was also videotaped making this confession. Casey asked Shackley for help in obtaining Buckley’s freedom.

Three weeks after Buckley’s disappearance, President Ronald Reagan signed the National Security Decision Directive 138. This directive was drafted by Oliver North and outlined plans on how to get the American hostages released from Iran and to “neutralize” terrorist threats from countries such as Nicaragua. This new secret counterterrorist task force was to be headed by Shackley’s old friend, General Richard Secord. This was the beginning of the Iran-Contra deal.

Talks had already started about exchanging American hostages for arms. On 30th August, 1985, Israel shipped 100 TOW missiles to Iran. On 14th September they received another 408 missiles from Israel. The Israelis made a profit of $3 million on the deal.

In October, 1985, Congress agreed to vote 27 million dollars in non-lethal aid for the Contras in Nicaragua. However, members of the Ronald Reagan administration decided to use this money to provide weapons to the Contras and the Mujahideen in Afghanistan.

The following month, Shackley traveled to Hamburg where he met General Manucher Hashemi, the former head of SAVAK’s counterintelligence division at the Atlantic Hotel. Also at the meeting on 22nd November was Manuchehr Ghorbanifar. According to the report of this meeting that Shackley sent to the CIA, Ghorbanifar had “fantastic” contacts with Iran.

At the meeting Shackley told Hashemi and Ghorbanifar that the United States was willing to discuss arms shipments in exchange for the four Americans kidnapped in Lebanon. The problem with the proposed deal was that William Francis Buckley was already dead (he had died of a heart-attack while being tortured).

Shackley recruited some of the former members of his CIA Secret Team to help him with these arm deals. This included Thomas Clines, Rafael Quintero, Ricardo Chavez and Edwin Wilson of API Distributors. Also involved was Carl E. Jenkins and Gene Wheaton  of National Air. The plan was to use National Air to transport these weapons.

In May 1986 Wheaton told William Casey, director of the CIA, about what he knew about this illegal operation. Casey refused to take any action, claiming that the agency or the government were not involved in what later became known as Irangate.

Wheaton now took his story to Daniel Sheehan, a left-wing lawyer. Wheaton told him that Tom Clines and Ted Shackley had been running a top-secret assassination unit since the early 1960s. According to Wheaton, it had begun with an assassination training program for Cuban exiles and the original target had been Fidel Castro.

Gene Wheaton also contacted Newt Royce and Mike Acoca, two journalists based in Washington. The first article on this scandal appeared in the San Francisco Examiner on 27th July, 1986. As a result of this story, Congressman Dante Facell wrote a letter to the Secretary of Defense, Casper Weinberger, asking him if it  true that foreign money, kickback money on programs, was being used to fund foreign covert operations.  Two months later, Weinberger denied that the government knew about this illegal operation.

On 5th October, 1986, a Sandinista patrol in Nicaragua shot down a C-123K cargo plane that was supplying the Contras. Eugene Hasenfus, an Air America veteran, survived the crash and told his captors that he thought the CIA was behind the operation. He also provided information on two Cuban-Americans running the operation in El Savador. This resulted in journalists being able to identify Rafael Quintero and Felix Rodriguez as the two Cuban-Americans mentioned by Hasenfus. It gradually emerged that Thomas Clines, Oliver North, Edwin Wilson and Richard Secord were also involved in this conspiracy to provide arms to the Contras.

On 12th December, 1986, Daniel Sheehan submitted to the court an affidavit detailing the Irangate scandal. He also claimed that Shackley and Thomas Clines were running a private assassination program that had evolved from projects they ran while working for the CIA. Others named as being part of this assassination team included Rafael Quintero, Richard Secord, Felix Rodriguez and Albert Hakim. It later emerged that Gene Wheaton and Carl E. Jenkins were the two main sources for this affidavit.

It was eventually discovered that President Ronald Reagan had sold arms to Iran. The money gained from these sales was used to provide support for the Contras, a group of guerrillas engaged in an insurgency against the elected socialist Sandinista government of Nicaragua. Both the sale of these weapons and the funding of the Contras violated administration policy as well as legislation passed by Congress.

On 23rd June, 1988, Judge James L. King ruled that Sheehan’s allegations were  based on unsubstantiated rumor and speculation from unidentified sources with no firsthand knowledge . In February, 1989, Judge King ruled that Sheenan had brought a frivolous lawsuit and ordered his Christic Institute to pay the defendants $955,000. This was one of the highest sanction orders in history and represented four times the total assets of the Christic Institute.

Ted Shackley died in Bethesda, Maryland, in December 2002. His autobiography, Spymaster: My Life in the CIA, was published in April, 2005.

Namebase: Theodore G. Shackley

Wikipedia: Ted Shackley

Ted Shackley: Hall of Fame

AlterNet: Theodore Shackley

Time Search: Spartacus Educational

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKshackley.htm

***

John Hinckley, Jr.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Hinckley, Jr.
Born     John Warnock Hinckley, Jr.
May 29, 1955 (1955-05-29) (age 54)
Ardmore, Oklahoma
Parents     John Warnock Hinckley, Sr., and Jo Ann Moore
John Warnock Hinckley, Jr., (born May 29, 1955) attempted to assassinate U.S. President Ronald Reagan in Washington, D.C., on March 30, 1981, as the culmination of an effort to impress actress Jodie Foster. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity and has remained under institutional psychiatric care since then.

Contents

* 1 Early life
* 2 Obsession with Jodie Foster
* 3 Assassination attempt
* 4 Bush-Hinckley family connections
* 5 Trial
o 5.1 Reaction to verdict
* 6 St. Elizabeths
* 7 Further reading
* 8 References
* 9 External links

Early life

John Hinckley, Jr., was born in Ardmore, Oklahoma. His father was John Warnock Hinckley, Sr., and his mother was Jo Ann Moore Hinckley. He has two siblings – sister Diane and brother Scott. Hinckley grew up in University Park, Texas[1] and attended Highland Park High School in Dallas County, Texas. The family, owners of the Hinckley Oil company, later settled in Evergreen, Colorado. Hinckley graduated in 1973 from high school in Texas which prompted the move to Evergreen, Colorado (Hansell & Damour, 2005). An off-and-on student at Texas Tech University from 1974 to 1980, in 1975 he headed to Los Angeles in the hope of becoming a songwriter. These efforts were unsuccessful, and his letters home to his parents were full of tales of misfortune and pleas for money. He also spoke of a girlfriend, Lynn Collins, who turned out to be a fabrication. He returned to his parents’ home in Evergreen before the year was out. During the next few years, he developed a pattern of living on his own for a while and then returning home poor.

Obsession with Jodie Foster
Hinckley developed an obsession with Foster, who played the 12-year-old child prostitute Iris/Easy in Taxi Driver.

After repeated viewings of the 1976 movie Taxi Driver, in which a disturbed protagonist, Travis Bickle, played by Robert De Niro, plots to assassinate a presidential candidate, Hinckley developed an obsession with actress Jodie Foster, who had played a child prostitute in the film.[2] The Bickle character was in turn based on the diaries of Arthur Bremer, the attempted assassin of George Wallace.[1] When Foster entered Yale University, Hinckley moved to New Haven, Connecticut for a short time to stalk her, slipping poems and messages under her door and repeatedly contacting her by telephone.

Failing to develop any meaningful contact with Foster, Hinckley developed such plots as hijacking an airplane and committing suicide in front of her to gain her attention. Eventually he settled on a scheme to win her over by assassinating the president, with the theory that as an historical figure he would be her equal. To this end, he trailed President Jimmy Carter from state to state, but was arrested in Nashville, Tennessee on a firearms charge. Penniless, he returned home once again, and despite psychiatric treatment for depression, his mental health did not improve. In 1981, he began to target the newly elected president, Ronald Reagan. It was also at this time that he started collecting information on Lee Harvey Oswald, John F. Kennedy’s assassin, whom he saw as a role model.

Just prior to Hinckley’s failed attempt on Reagan’s life, he wrote to Foster:[3]
“     Over the past seven months I’ve left you dozens of poems, letters and love messages in the faint hope that you could develop an interest in me. Although we talked on the phone a couple of times I never had the nerve to simply approach you and introduce myself. […] the reason I’m going ahead with this attempt now is because I cannot wait any longer to impress you.”
Assassination attempt
Main article: Reagan assassination attempt
Chaos outside the Washington Hilton Hotel after the assassination attempt on President Reagan.

On March 30, 1981, Hinckley fired a .22 caliber Röhm RG-14 revolver six times at Reagan as he left the Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C., after addressing an AFL-CIO conference. The gun, which cost $47.00, was manufactured by Röhm Gesellschaft, a West German company, and assembled in Miami by its American subsidiary, R.G. Industries, Inc.[4] ATF agents determined that the gun was bought at Rocky’s Pawn Shop in Dallas, Texas.[5] It was loaded with six Devastator rounds, which have lead azide-filled centers within lacquer-sealed aluminum tips designed to explode on impact, though all failed to do so.[6]

Hinckley wounded press secretary James Brady, police officer Thomas Delahanty, and Secret Service agent Timothy McCarthy. Hinckley did not directly hit Reagan, but seriously wounded him when a bullet ricocheted off the side of the presidential limousine and hit him in the chest.[7] Hinckley did not attempt to flee and was arrested at the scene. All of the shooting victims survived, although Brady, who was hit in the right side of the head, endured a long recuperation period and remained paralyzed on the left side of his body.[8]

Bush-Hinckley family connections

According to the March 31, 1981, edition of the Houston Post, and reported by AP, UPI, NBC News and Newsweek, Hinckley is the son of one of George H.W. Bush’s political and financial supporters in his 1980 presidential primary campaign against Ronald Reagan; John Hinckley, Jr.,’s elder brother, Scott Hinckley, and Bush’s son Neil Bush had a dinner appointment scheduled for the next day.[9]

Associated Press published the following short note on March 31, 1981:
“     The family of the man charged with trying to assassinate President Reagan is acquainted with the family of Vice-President George Bush and had made large contributions to his political campaign … Scott Hinckley, brother of John W. Hinckley, Jr., was to have dined tonight in Denver at the home of Neil Bush, one of the Vice-President’s sons … The Houston Post said it was unable to reach Scott Hinckley, vice-president of his father’s Denver-based firm, Vanderbilt Energy Corporation, for comment. Neil Bush lives in Denver, where he works for Standard Oil Company of Indiana. In 1978, Neil Bush served as campaign manager for his brother, George W. Bush, the Vice-President’s eldest son, who made an unsuccessful bid for Congress. Neil lived in Lubbock, Texas, throughout much of 1978, where John Hinckley lived from 1974 through 1980.     ”

Trial

At the trial in 1982, charged with 13 offenses, Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity on June 21. The defense psychiatric reports found him to be insane while the prosecution reports declared him legally sane.[10] Hinckley was confined at St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, D.C.[10]

Reaction to verdict

The verdict led to widespread dismay; as a result, the U.S. Congress and a number of states rewrote laws regarding the insanity defense. Idaho, Montana and Utah have abolished the defense altogether.[11] In the United States prior to the Hinckley case, the insanity defense had been used in less than 2% of all felony cases and was unsuccessful in almost 75% of the trials in which it was used.[10] Hinckley’s parents wrote a book in 1985, Breaking Points, about their son’s mental condition.[10]

As further fallout from the verdict, federal and some state rules of evidence exclude or restrict testimony of an expert witness’ conclusions on  ultimate  issues drawn by expert witnesses, including that of psychologist and psychiatrist expert witnesses on the issue of whether a criminal defendant is legally  insane. [12] However, such is not the majority rule among the states today.[13]

St. Elizabeths

Shortly after his trial, Hinckley wrote that the shooting was  the greatest love offering in the history of the world,  and was upset that Foster did not reciprocate his love.[14]

After being admitted, tests found that Hinckley was an  unpredictably dangerous  man who may harm himself, Jodie Foster or any other third party. In 1983 he told Penthouse that on a typical day he will  see a therapist, answer mail, play (his) guitar, listen to music, play pool, watch television, eat lousy food and take delicious medication. [15]

He was allowed to leave the hospital for supervised visits with his parents in 1999, and longer unsupervised releases in 2000.[1] These privileges were revoked when he was found to have smuggled materials about Foster back into the hospital. Hinckley was later allowed supervised visits in 2004 and 2005. Court hearings were held in September 2005 on whether he could have expanded privileges to leave the hospital. Some of the testimony during the hearings centered on whether Hinckley is capable of having a normal relationship with a woman and, if not, whether that would have any bearing on what danger he would pose to society.

On December 30, 2005, a federal judge ruled that Hinckley would be allowed visits, supervised by his parents, to their home in Williamsburg, Virginia. The judge ruled that Hinckley could have up to three visits of three nights and then four visits of four nights, each depending on the successful completion of the last. All of the experts who testified at Hinckley’s 2005 conditional release hearing, including the government experts, agreed that his depression and psychotic disorder were in full remission and that he should have some expanded conditions of release.

After requesting further freedoms including two one-week visits with his parents as well as a month long visit, the U.S. District Judge, Paul L. Friedman, denied that request on Wednesday, June 6, 2007, but not because Hinckley wasn’t ready.
“     The reasons the court has reached this decision rest with the hospital, not with Mr. Hinckley… the hospital has not taken the steps it must take before any such transition can begin.[16]     ”

On June 17, 2009, a Federal judge ruled that Hinckley would be given the ability to visit his mother for nine days at a time, rather than six, spend more time outside of the hospital, and even have a driver’s license. This was done over the objections of the prosecutors who said that he was still a danger to others and had unhealthy and inappropriate thoughts about women. Records show that he has had sexual relations with two women, one who was married for a long time, and another who has bipolar disorder. Hinckley also has recorded a song, entitled  Ballad of an Outlaw  which the prosecutors claim is  reflecting suicide and lawlessness. [17]

Further reading

* Clarke, James W. (1990). On Being Mad or Merely Angry: John W. Hinckley, Jr., and Other Dangerous People. Princeton University Press.
* Hinckley, John W.  The Insanity Defense and Me . Newsweek, September 20, 1982.

References

1. ^ a b c The American Experience – John Hinckley Jr by Julie Wolf. Retrieved March 5, 2006.
2. ^ Taxi Driver: Its Influence on John Hinckley, Jr.
3. ^ Letter written to Jodie Foster by John Hinckley, Jr., March 30, 1981.
4. ^ The Gun: A Saturday Night Special From Miami, by Pete Earley, Washington Post, March 31, 1981. Retrieved February 28, 2007.
5. ^ Guns Traced in 16 Minutes to Pawn Shop in Dallas, Charles Mohr, New York Times, April 1, 1981. Retrieved February 28, 2007.
6. ^ Pete Barley and Charles Babcock (1981-04-04).  The Exploding Bullets . The Washington Post. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost_historical/access/142619462.html?dids=142619462:142619462&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
7. ^ Reagan, Ronald (Reagan said this on January 11, 1990. The episode of Larry King aired on March 30, 2001.), Larry King Live: Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan, http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0103/30/lkl.00.html, retrieved November 13, 2008 .
8. ^ Jim Brady, 25 Years Later, CBS News Exclusive: Reagan Aide And Wife Reflect On Life Since Shooting – CBS News.
9. ^ Bush’s Son Was To Dine With Suspect’s Brother, by Arthur Wiese and Margaret Downing, The Houston Post, March 31, 1981
10. ^ a b c d The Trial of John W. Hinckley, Jr., by Doug Linder. 2001 Retrieved March 10, 2007.
11. ^ The John Hinckley Trial & Its Effect on the Insanity Defense by Kimberly Collins, Gabe Hinkebein, and Staci Schorgl.
12. ^  Barring ultimate issue testimony . Springerlink. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j0116723h6r18kp0/. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
13. ^ C. McCormick, Evidence (3d Ed.) § 12, p. 30.
14. ^ Hinckley Hails ‘Historical’ Shooting To Win Love by Stuart Taylor, Jr. New York Times. July 9, 1982. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
15. ^ Life at St. Elizabeths by Denise Noe. Crime Library. Courtroom Television Network, LLC. Retrieved April 15, 2007.
16. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2007-06-20-2215243452_x.htm
17. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2009/CRIME/06/17/john.hinckley/index.html

External links

* The Trial of John Hinckley, Jr., – University of Missouri at Kansas City Law School
* The American Experience – John Hinckley, Jr., by Julie Wolf.
* Crime Library – The John Hinckley Case by Denise Noe.
* The Hinckley Double – underreported.com
* The Day Hinckley Shot Reagan
* Stalking Hinckley by Eddie Dean, Washington City Paper, July 25-31, 1997.

Person data
NAME     Hinckley, John, Jr.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES     Hinckley, John Warnock, Jr.
SHORT DESCRIPTION     Failed assassin
DATE OF BIRTH     May 29, 1955
PLACE OF BIRTH     Ardmore, Oklahoma
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hinckley,_Jr.
Categories: 1955 births | Living people | Failed assassins of U.S. presidents | People acquitted by reason of insanity | People from Carter County, Oklahoma | People from Dallas County, Texas | Ronald Reagan | Texas Tech University alumni

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hinckley,_Jr.

***

Assassination attempt
Main article: Reagan assassination attempt
Chaos outside the Washington Hilton Hotel after the assassination attempt on President Reagan.

On March 30, 1981, Hinckley fired a .22 caliber Röhm RG-14 revolver six times at Reagan as he left the Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C., after addressing an AFL-CIO conference. The gun, which cost $47.00, was manufactured by Röhm Gesellschaft, a West German company, and assembled in Miami by its American subsidiary, R.G. Industries, Inc.[4] ATF agents determined that the gun was bought at Rocky’s Pawn Shop in Dallas, Texas.[5] It was loaded with six Devastator rounds, which have lead azide-filled centers within lacquer-sealed aluminum tips designed to explode on impact, though all failed to do so.[6]

Hinckley wounded press secretary James Brady, police officer Thomas Delahanty, and Secret Service agent Timothy McCarthy. Hinckley did not directly hit Reagan, but seriously wounded him when a bullet ricocheted off the side of the presidential limousine and hit him in the chest.[7] Hinckley did not attempt to flee and was arrested at the scene. All of the shooting victims survived, although Brady, who was hit in the right side of the head, endured a long recuperation period and remained paralyzed on the left side of his body.[8]
[edit] Bush-Hinckley family connections

According to the March 31, 1981, edition of the Houston Post, and reported by AP, UPI, NBC News and Newsweek, Hinckley is the son of one of George H.W. Bush’s political and financial supporters in his 1980 presidential primary campaign against Ronald Reagan; John Hinckley, Jr.,’s elder brother, Scott Hinckley, and Bush’s son Neil Bush had a dinner appointment scheduled for the next day.[9]

Associated Press published the following short note on March 31, 1981:
“     The family of the man charged with trying to assassinate President Reagan is acquainted with the family of Vice-President George Bush and had made large contributions to his political campaign … Scott Hinckley, brother of John W. Hinckley, Jr., was to have dined tonight in Denver at the home of Neil Bush, one of the Vice-President’s sons … The Houston Post said it was unable to reach Scott Hinckley, vice-president of his father’s Denver-based firm, Vanderbilt Energy Corporation, for comment. Neil Bush lives in Denver, where he works for Standard Oil Company of Indiana. In 1978, Neil Bush served as campaign manager for his brother, George W. Bush, the Vice-President’s eldest son, who made an unsuccessful bid for Congress. Neil lived in Lubbock, Texas, throughout much of 1978, where John Hinckley lived from 1974 through 1980.

(Excerpt from above )

**********

Who Me
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Who Me was a top secret sulfurous stench weapon developed by the American Office of Strategic Services during World War II to be used by the French Resistance against German officers. Who Me smelled strongly of fecal matter, and was issued in pocket atomizers intended to be unobtrusively sprayed on a German officer, humiliating him and, by extension, demoralizing the occupying German forces.

The experiment was very short-lived, however. Who Me had a high concentration of extremely volatile sulfur compounds that were very difficult to control: more often than not, the person who did the spraying also ended up smelling as bad as the one targeted. After only two weeks it was concluded that Who Me was a dismal failure.

External links

* Kahn, Jennifer (May 22, 2001).  Aroma Therapy In The Military, It’s Known As ‘Nonlethal Weapons Development’ . SFGate.com.
* Slotnick, Rebecca Sloan (May–June 2002).  Science that Stinks . American Scientist Online.
* Pain, Stephanie (July 7, 2001).  Stench Warfare . New Scientist

Stub icon     This military-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
v • d • e
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Who_Me
Categories: Less-lethal weapons | World War II military equipment | Military stubs

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Who_Me

***

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Psychochemical weapons
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The USA was highly interested in the military use of LSD

Psychochemical weapons, also known as drug weapons, are psychopharmacological agents used within the context of military aggression. They fall within the range of mid-spectrum agents, i.e. an intermediate range between chemical weapons and biological weapons. Drug weapons are typically considered as non-lethal weapons[1].

Contents

* 1 Cold War suspicions
* 2 Dissidents from the Soviet Bloc
* 3 Recent findings from the former Soviet Bloc
* 4 The Iraqi weapon
* 5 See also
* 6 References

Cold War suspicions
Potential weapon: BZ
Potential weapon: LSD

In the early 1950s Western experts were convinced that the communists had already developed and used highly effective mind control and behavior-modification drugs. Public testimonies of US prisoners of war in Korea, or that of Cardinal Mindszenty of Hungary admitting to unrealistic crimes in fabricated trials appeared supported this opinion [2]. And indeed, decades later Mindszenty mentioned pills that got him to make a confession [3]. Therefore, the CIA launched a project called MKULTRA to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing methods. A new branch of science, neuropharmacology, emerged in parallel with its immediate political and military misuse. The USA [4] and Britain were secretly working on the weaponization of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) and BZ (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate) as nonlethal battlefield drug-weapons to develop psychochemicals for mind control in the battlefield [1].

However, evidence supporting the suspicions against communist regimes was scarce, and MKULTRA evolved into an offensive program. When accidentally uncovered, it involved about 150 research projects. The project was revealed by the US congressional Rockefeller Commission report. Details are not well understood since its records were deliberately destroyed. The British also concluded that the desired effects of drug weapons were unpredictable under battlefield conditions and gave up experimentation. Many experts in the East and the West equally suggested that drug weapon stories associated with the Soviet bloc were unreliable hints given the apparent absence of documentation in state archives [5].

Dissidents from the Soviet Bloc

General Jan Sejna defected to the United States after the brutal suppression of the Prague Spring by Warsaw Pact tanks in 1968. Formerly, he had been the head of the Defense Council Secretariat and Chief of Staff to the Minister of Defense in Czechoslovakia. He claimed to have been involved in planning and monitoring Czechoslovakia’s participation in drug warfare programs from 1956 [5]. He noted there had been two programs. The program code-named Peoples’ Friendship aimed at large-scale drug trafficking with the goal to harm western societies at their own expenses. Another program, code-named Flute was targeting the political and religious opponents within the homeland.
Ion Mihai Pacepa

A decade later, Lieutenant General Ion Mihai Pacepa defected to the USA. Ha had been the head of the Securitate (the secret police of communist Romania) – the highest-ranking intelligence officer ever to defect from the communist era. He also mentioned these two types of drug misuses [6] partially in collaboration with Cuba [7].

Finally, Kanatjan Alibekov (aka Ken Alibek), the 1st Deputy Chief of the Soviet Union’s (later Russia’s) illegal bioweapons program, defected in 1992. He mentions the project code-named Flute in his memoirs [8] as a major project aimed to develop psychotropic and behavior-modification drugs. He claims that this development took the form of a large-scale project pursued in major psychiatry clinics of Moscow.

These three defectors were knowledgeable high-ranked officers; however after their defections they earned money by selling their stories. This gave rise to skepticism about the reliability of their claims. Independent reports of former target persons verify the widespread misuse of psychoactive drugs in the psychiatry clinics of the Warsaw Pact. However, they refer to drug misuse in a medical sense, while direct military aspects were not known up to recently [9][10]. Thus, contrary to widespread rumors, there was little, if any, evidence to support the view that the Soviet Union or its satellite states considered drug weapons in a militarily context.

Recent findings from the former Soviet Bloc
Methylamphetamine: a potent  truth drug ?

This view has changed recently, when the Hungarian State Archives opened up declassified records of Hungary’s State Defense Council meetings (1962–78) [11]. These include documents describing the coordinative meetings of the Warsaw Pact military medical services. Research into possible countermeasures against psychotropic drugs is listed as a research priority assigned to Hungary in 1962. Hungary rejected this task in 1963, but joined the ongoing project again in 1965. Methylamphetamine was produced in Budapest for use as an experimental model. Contemporary Western experts considered this drug as an interrogation tool, so-called truth-drug. Similarly to contemporary CIA, Hungary also failed to develop an antidote and the Hungarian project was terminated fruitlessly in 1972. In fact, these documents serve as evidence that a Warsaw Pact forum had considered a psychochemical agent as a weapon [11].

The Iraqi weapon

The existence of a BZ-related compound, called Agent-15, in Iraq’s arsenals was revealed in 1998. Apparently, Iraq possessed large quantities of the agent since the 1980s. A document found by the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) in 1995 contained a brief reference to this agent and subsequent assessment of relevant scientific and other background material indicated the size of the stockpile. [12]

See also

* Biological weapon
* Chemical weapon
* Punitive psychiatry in the Soviet Union

References

1. ^ a b Dando M, Furmanski M 2006. Mid-spectrum incapacitant programs. In: Wheelis M et al. (eds). Deadly cultures: the history of biological weapons since 1945. Cambridge, US: Harvard University Press.
2. ^ Douglass JD 2001. Influencing behavior and mental processing in covert operations. Medical Sentinel, 6, 130-136.
3. ^ Mindszenty J 1974. Memories [in Hungarian]. Toronto: Vörösváry.
4. ^ Szinicz L 2005. History of chemical and biological warfare agents. Toxicology, 214, 167-181. accessed: 30. 03. 2009.
5. ^ a b Douglass JD 1999. Red cocaine – the drugging of America and the west. London and New York: Edward Harle Limited.
6. ^ Pacepa IM 1993. The Kremlin Legacy [in Romanian]. Bucharest: Editura Venus.
7. ^ Pacepa IM 2006. Who is Raul Castro? A tyrant only a brother could love. National Review Online, August 10. accessed: 30. 03. 2009.
8. ^ Alibek K, Handelman S 1999. Biohazard: The chilling true story of the largest covert biological weapons program in the world — told from inside by the man who ran it. New York: Random House.
9. ^ Rózsa L, Nixdorff K 2006. Biological weapons in non-Soviet Warsaw Pact countries. In: Wheelis M et al. (eds.) Deadly cultures: the history of biological weapons since 1945. Cambridge, US: Harvard University Press.
10. ^ López-Munoz F et al. 2006. Psychiatry and political-institutional abuse from the historical perspective: the ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 31, 791–806. accessed: 30. 03. 2009.
11. ^ a b Rózsa L 2009. A psychochemical weapon considered by the Warsaw Pact: a research note. Substance Use & Misuse, 44, 172-178. accessed: 30. 03. 2009.
12. ^ Zanders JP: CW Agent Factsheet – Agent-15 accessed: 30. 03. 2009

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychochemical_weapons
Categories: Psychiatry | Political abuses of psychiatry | Biological warfare | Bioethics | Less-lethal weapons | Incapacitating agents | Mind control

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Category:Political abuses of psychiatry
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* Psychochemical weapons
* Punitive psychiatry in the Soviet Union

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Category:Less-lethal weapons
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* Directed-energy weapon

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* Gay bomb
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* Hand grenade

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* M69 Grenade
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* Netgun

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* Osa (pistol)

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* PB-4M
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* Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons
* Psychochemical weapons
* Pulsed Energy Projectile

R

* R.I.P. cartridge
* REACT belt
* Riot gun

R cont.
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* Smoke grenade
* Sonic weapon
* Sticky foam
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T

* Taser
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U

* United Campaign Against Plastic Bullets

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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Less-lethal_weapons
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Weaponry: Lewisite — America’s World War I Chemical Weapon

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In 1903 a young priest working on his doctoral degree at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., was studying the reaction of the gas acetylene and arsenic trichloride in the presence of aluminum chloride. When these compounds were mixed, the flask turned black, and after the mixture was poured into water, a black, gummy mass formed that had a penetrating odor and caused the priest to become seriously ill. He was hospitalized for several days while recovering from the toxic effects of the compound and decided to postpone indefinitely any further investigations of it. However, the priest, Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland, described the reaction in his 1904 dissertation. The toxic substance later became known as lewisite, one of the most deadly poison gases developed until well after World War I. Produced by the United States during the latter part of that war, it had also been independently discovered, although not manufactured, in Germany. During World War II, the United States, Great Britain, Germany, the Soviet Union, and Japan produced lewisite. Since that time other countries have manufactured the compound, including Iraq, North Korea, and perhaps Libya.

In the early evening of April 22, 1915, the first lethal poison gas attack of World War I occurred at Ypres, Belgium. German troops discharged approximately 160 tons of chlorine gas that slowly crept toward the Allied trenches with the aid of a gentle wind. French and Algerian soldiers first noticed two strange yellow clouds approaching, and soon men began to choke, cough, suffocate, and retreat in horror. Smoke and fumes made their panic worse because they could not see around them. Some soldiers buried their faces in the dirt, hoping to protect themselves from the unknown killer. A few officers who were educated in chemistry realized the value of urinating on a cloth and breathing through it to crystallize and neutralize the chlorine, and they instructed others to do so.

The unprecedented attack killed more than 5,000 men and injured 15,000 others. There were between 880,000 and 1,297,000 gas casualties during World War I, and gas warfare may have caused more than 26,000 deaths. American casualties from poison gas totaled almost 72,000, and of these more than 1,200 died. The Central Powers and then the Allies attacked with the weapon even though two separate prewar international conferences had banned the use of weapons and projectiles intended to diffuse asphyxiating, deleterious, or poisonous gases.

The United States did not declare war on Germany until April 2, 1917, but by then it had already begun research into chemical gases. The Bureau of Mines first conducted chemical warfare research early in 1917, under the direction of Van H. Manning. Founded in 1910 to investigate poisonous and asphyxiating gases in mines, the bureau offered its services to the Military Committee of the National Research Council (NRC) on February 8, 1917. On April 3, the committee formed the Subcommittee on Noxious Gases, composed of army and navy officers and members of the Chemical Committee of the NRC, and Manning was appointed as its chairman. George A. Burrell, who worked for the Bureau of Mines, became the director of research on war gases on April 7 and immediately began working on a suitable gas mask for American soldiers.

The need for more chemists quickly arose, and in May the Bureau of Mines was authorized to accept help from laboratories at twenty-one universities, three companies, and three government agencies. Furthermore, in July 1917 a central laboratory was established at American University in Washington, D.C. The weapons development and testing facility would become known as the American University Experimental Station. The War Department began suggesting in September 1917 that the labs at American be militarized, and ten months later, in June 1918, President Woodrow Wilson agreed, transferring the extensive work at the university to a newly formed army subdivision, the Chemical Warfare Service. Eventually, more than 10 percent of all the chemists in the United States became directly involved with chemical warfare research during World War I.

One of them was Winford Lee Lewis, who left Northwestern University in 1918, where he was an associate professor of chemistry, to become the director of the Offensive Branch of the newly formed Chemical Warfare Service unit at Catholic University. This unit, called Organic Unit No. 3, was given the task of developing and producing novel gases, especially compounds containing arsenic. In April 1918, following the suggestion of the Rev. John Griffin, who had been Julius Nieuwland’s chemistry adviser at Catholic, Lewis reviewed the priest’s dissertation and read about his experiments with arsenic trichloride. He further investigated and perfected its reaction with acetylene, with aluminum trichloride acting as a catalyst.

Lewis wrote that the resulting compound ‘…took on a nauseating odor and [caused] marked irritation effect to the mucous surfaces. The headache resulting persists several hours and the material seems to be quite toxic.’ The perfected product was named after him, christened lewisite. The government eventually ordered Lewis to stop working on the compound at Catholic University, under the pretext that it was ineffective. They did this, however, in order to trick German spies into believing that Lewis’ work had not been productive. In truth, other researchers continued evaluating and perfecting lewisite at nearby American University.

Lewis believed in gas warfare and defended its use throughout his life, saying that it would make wars more humane because it would shorten them and innocent civilians would suffer less. He also believed that ‘Providence’ would intervene and give the most advanced people the best gas. Lewis furthermore characterized the horrors of gas warfare as exaggerations and insisted that chemical battles are the most efficient and economical of all fights.

Nieuwland, who became a renowned professor of chemistry at the University of Notre Dame, held similar beliefs. When questioned in 1936 about his discovery of lewisite, he asserted that poison gas rendered warfare more humane:

By the introduction of gas and other modern instruments of warfare, a progressively small percentage of combatants have been killed. In biblical times, thousands of men met in the middle of a plain and slashed one another until only a few were left standing. Today, the primary aim is not to kill but to incapacitate. And poison gas is an ideal method of achieving that aim. If a man goes to a hospital suffering from gas, he is as useless as if he were dead and to care for him, several other persons must be kept out of the battle lines. The chances are that ultimately the victim will recover.

Lewisite, the chemical formula of which is C2H2AsCl3, was given the code names ‘Methyl’ and ‘G-34? during World War I. Perhaps its most enduring pseudonym is ‘Dew of Death.’ General Amos Fries, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces’ Gas Service and later director of the Chemical Warfare Service, so named it because there were plans to spray lewisite over the enemy from airplanes, and the gas was thought to be so deadly that ten planes armed with it could eliminate every trace of life in Berlin.

After the war, many newspaper articles sensationalized lewisite, attaching properties to it that the poison gas did not have. The Cleveland Plain Dealer on June 15, 1919, reported that lewisite was seventy-two times more powerful than mustard gas, considered the king of war gases at that time, and that a single drop on the back of a hand was fatal. Also, on February 26, 1923, the San Francisco Journal stated that lewisite would sterilize the ground so that ‘nothing will grow upon it for at least two years and perhaps longer’ and that one drop of it on living flesh caused ‘mortification.’

Lewisite is primarily a vesicant (causing blisters). It secondarily irritates the lungs and is a systemic poison. Upon contact with the skin, it causes large, painful, fluid-filled blisters, especially on the extremities, back, and scrotum. It also acts as a toxic lung irritant by causing swelling, inflammation, and destruction of the lining of the airways. The lining may subsequently slough off and form an obstruction in the airway, making it difficult to breathe. It is a systemic poison because absorption of arsenic through the skin causes pulmonary swelling, diarrhea, restlessness, weakness, below-normal temperature, and low blood pressure. A victim feels its effects immediately.

Lewisite can be delivered as a vapor, an aerosol, or a liquid and is believed to be most damaging in low-temperature, low-humidity, and dry nonalkaline conditions. It can be fatal in as little as ten minutes when inhaled in high concentrations. Lewisite is also persistent, lasting up to six to eight hours in sunny weather and even longer in cold, dry climates. The poison vapor is about seven times heavier than air and will therefore hover along the ground and enter caves, trenches, and sewers.

Mustard gas, like lewisite, is a vesicant. The two chemicals have many of the same characteristics, but there are also important distinctions. Mustard agents can be composed of sulfur- or nitrogen-based compounds, whereas lewisite is composed of arsenic. Sulfur mustard was the compound used extensively during World War I, first by the Germans and later by the Allies. Similar to lewisite, it is effective as a liquid, vapor, or aerosol, but in contrast to lewisite, its effects are delayed for up to a few hours. They will both form large blisters on the skin, but mustard lesions take about two to three times as long to heal. Whereas lewisite has a lower freezing temperature than mustard agents, both compounds can persist for days, even months under certain conditions. Mustard gas accounted for almost 40 percent of the total gas casualties in World War I.

After lewisite’s transfer to the American University Experimental Station, Captain James Bryant Conant was ordered to find a method to manufacture it in large quantities. Formerly an instructor of chemistry at Harvard University, Conant directed the Organic Research Unit No. 1 of the Offense Research Section at American.
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Weaponry: Lewisite — America’s World War I Chemical Weapon

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The lewisite work at the Experimental Station was dangerous. A huge tub of soapsuds had to be readily available for soldiers to plunge into if gas from leaking pipes or vats of boiling chemicals contaminated them. Soldier-chemists tested human volunteers and animals to determine the effectiveness of the compound. George Temple, the head of the station’s motor maintenance department, repeatedly volunteered to be burned by poisonous gases. When a sample of lewisite was placed on his forearm, it caused redness, swelling, and huge silver-colored blisters that took eight weeks to heal.

One morning in August 1918 an explosion caused by a faulty timer on a bomb sent lewisite gas across a field and toward the homes of residents near the American University campus, including that of former senator Nathan B. Scott. Scott, his wife, and his sister-in-law were gassed while sitting on their porch. Not long after the accident, the lewisite work at the university ceased and the Chemical Warfare Service ordered production moved to a secret plant twenty miles east of Cleveland, in Willoughby, Ohio.

The Willoughby plant was located on the site of the former Ben-Hur Motor Company. Soldiers first arrived at the site at the end of July 1918 and found that, although the office building was mostly completed, the plant floor had never been graded. A plumbing system had been installed, but there were no working sewer or water lines in the facility. The pipes had frozen over the previous winter, so the system had to be removed and totally redone. The electrical wiring was only partially complete and had been installed haphazardly, so it had to be removed and reinstalled.

Finding contractors to remodel the plant was difficult. Most of the nearest ones were located in Cleveland, and transportation, food, and housing for construction workers had to be arranged. Further, the workmen wanted to be reimbursed for the cost and time of traveling. Fortunately, Willoughby contractors were eventually found and hired, but only after appealing to the town’s mayor. The workers took from July 28 to mid-August to remodel the factory. Security was tight. A barbed-wire fence was erected around the facility, and guards maintained a twenty-four-hour watch. Klaxon horns and an alarm system were also installed to warn of the presence of intruders. Eventually the site included four barracks to house the twenty-two officers and 542 soldiers working at the facility, a mess hall, and a forty-eight-bed hospital (neither of the two deaths that occurred at the plant was from the effects of lewisite).
The soldiers working there initially were not allowed to leave the grounds except for meals, and all their mail went through a post office box, No. 426, in Cleveland, without any mention of Willoughby. On August 10, Maj. Gen. William L. Sibert, director of the Chemical Warfare Service, visited the Willoughby plant and told the soldiers that as long as they maintained secrecy about the plant, the army would allow them to enter the town of Willoughby, but they were still not permitted to go to Cleveland due to the fear of espionage.

Each of the soldiers at the facility was issued a gas mask that had to be kept nearby or worn in the alert position at all times. Many of the men worked to the point of complete exhaustion, trying to make the plant operational as soon as possible because the government had ordered three thousand tons of lewisite to be ready for a planned spring 1919 offensive against the Germans.

In September 1918, the War Department realized that, in order to satisfy all its planned uses for lewisite, production had to be doubled. That entailed a large expansion at Willoughby. New equipment was ordered, and the plant layout changed to make room for it. Amazingly, by November, just five months after construction started, the plant had begun full production of ten tons of lewisite per day.

On November 11, however, the war suddenly ended. Early in December, the men began dismantling, inventorying, and disposing of the plant’s equipment and materials. By March 1919, all of the plant’s soldiers were gone.

From the time the soldiers had arrived in Willoughby until the day they left, the town’s government, Red Cross, and residents were all extremely helpful and friendly. They often hosted receptions and gatherings for the soldiers, provided pies for their Thanksgiving dinner, and even donated a grand piano to the boys. When townspeople asked the soldiers what they were doing at the Willoughby plant, the soldiers responded that they were working on a formula for rubber, which explained the strong odors that the plant emitted.

According to Nate A. Simpson, one of the soldiers assigned to the plant, the army did not reassign a single soldier from the top-secret facility until the war was over. The plant became known as the ‘mousetrap’ because once you were there, you knew you were not going to leave until the war was over.

There are different stories pertaining to what happened to the gas produced at Willoughby after the armistice was signed. Some say the plant never produced chemicals, but in 1957 workmen dug up several laboratory bottles containing lewisite on the grounds of the old facility. Others suggested that the army hauled between a few tons and 150 tons of lewisite to the Atlantic Ocean by train in big steel casks that were under guard. There the material was carefully transferred onto barges and dumped at sea. Another account suggests that 150 tons of lewisite was en route to Europe when the war ended, and the ship transporting it was subsequently sunk rather than be allowed to return the deadly chemical to the United States.

Two British scientists, Stanley Green and Thomas Price, published the formula for lewisite in The Journal of the Chemical Society in 1921. According to General Fries in his book Chemical Warfare, the formula’s publication was unfortunate because the highly secret compound became known throughout the world, perhaps allowing Japan and Germany to learn about it and develop manufacturing techniques.

Until 1943 lewisite was thought to be equal to or better than mustard gas. However, U.S. Army tests done during World War II on lewisite found that unless the human subjects were defenseless or unconscious, they immediately felt the pain of exposure and would leave the area and protect themselves. Because mustard does not cause immediate effects, soldiers were more likely to be exposed for longer periods. Army testers also found that it was very difficult to get effective concentrations of lewisite vapor. Furthermore, the development of British anti-lewisite, which can prevent burns caused by lewisite and reverse its systemic effects, was believed to reduce the combat effectiveness of the chemical weapon. For those reasons, the U.S. military has not considered lewisite an effective chemical agent since World War II.

Other countries apparently did not agree with this evaluation. For example, the Soviet Union produced huge quantities of the material, disposing of approximately twenty thousand tons of it in the Arctic Sea during the late 1940s and ’50s. More recently, a plant specifically designed to incinerate lewisite and mustard gas has become operational at Gorny, Russia.

Although chemical weapons were not used in major combat during World War II, the Japanese used lewisite and mustard gas in China during most of the war years. In one horrible experiment, prisoners were forced to drink ‘crude water,’ which was a liquid form of lewisite or mustard gas. In addition, more than thirty-five hundred Chinese died in October 1941 at Ichange in the Yangtze Valley after a suspected lewisite attack. Lewisite artillery shells were found on New Guinea, indicating that the Japanese had planned to use the agent against Allied forces. Germany also conducted lewisite experiments on concentration camp inmates.

From 1940 to ‘43, the United States produced lewisite at a small pilot plant at Edgewood Arsenal and then later at Huntsville, Pine Bluff, and Rocky Mountain arsenals. About twenty thousand tons of the agent had been produced before the plants were shut down. Along with disposing of the enemy stockpiles, the United States also dumped most of its own lewisite into the Atlantic and Pacific oceans after the war. One of the 1948 dumping operations was referred to as Operation Geranium because lewisite has a geraniumlike odor.

More recently, Iraq allegedly used lewisite and a mustard gas-lewisite mixture against Iran in the 1980s. The deadly chemical was detected in three separate 1991 instances during the Persian Gulf War, and at least one Iraqi prisoner of war claimed in February 1991 that Iraq had lewisite-filled munitions in its inventory.

A 1999 article in Environmental Health Perspectives reported that lewisite is still produced in very limited quantities in the United States (presumably just for military preparations) and the country’s remaining stockpile is stored at Desert Chemical Depot in Utah. And recently in Washington, D.C., lewisite and mustard agents, hastily buried and forgotten when the American University Experimental Station closed down, have been discovered in the ground, requiring a hazardous waste cleanup operation by the army’s Corps of Engineers.
Lewisite, the major American contribution to chemical weapons development during World War I, has had an amazing history, from its inadvertent discovery by a priest in 1903 to its presence a hundred years later in the arsenals of some countries. Most notably, North Korea has an estimated twenty-five hundred to five thousand tons stockpiled. Whether lewisite will eventually be used in combat situations or as a terrorist weapon — and, if so, how effective it would be — remains to be determined.

This article was written by Joel A. Vilensky and Pandy R. Sinish and originally published in the Spring 2005 edition of MHQ. Joel A. Vilensky and Pandy R. Sinish are the authors of Dew of Death: The Story of Lewisite, America’s World War I Weapon of Mass Destruction.

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Russia: Are Suitcase Nukes on the Loose? The Story Behind the Controversy

Scott Parrish and John Lepingwell
Center for Nonproliferation Studies
Monterey Institute of International Studies
November 1997

General Aleksandr Lebed’s recent allegation that some former Soviet suitcase size nuclear weapons may be missing has generated a storm of negative media commentary in Moscow and concern and unease in Washington. Even though many contradictory reports have been published, some patterns are discernable that provide important clues to unraveling the story of the  suitcase nukes.

In a meeting with a US Congressional delegation in May 1997, and again in an interview broadcast on 60 Minutes on 7 September 1997, Lebed claimed that the Soviet Union created perhaps one hundred atomic demolition munitions (ADMs), or atomic land mines. These low-yield (circa 1 kiloton) devices were to be used by special forces for wartime sabotage and thus were small, portable, and not equipped with standard safety devices to prevent unauthorized detonation. According to Lebed, some of the ADMs were deployed in the former Soviet republics, and might not have been returned to Russia after the Soviet Union’s collapse. During his short tenure as Secretary of the Russian Security Council, Lebed started an investigation into the whereabouts of these weapons, but was fired by President Yeltsin before the investigation was completed.

Lebed’s statements are not the first indication that the Soviet Union built ADMs, or that some might have gone astray. In January 1996, the Monterey Institute’s Center for Nonproliferation Studies received information from a Russian presidential advisor that an unspecified number of ADMs had been manufactured in the 1970s for the KGB. Indeed, in the wake of Lebed’s charges, former Russian presidential advisor Aleksey Yablokov told a US Congressional subcommittee on 2 October 1997 that he was  absolutely sure  that ADMs had been built in the 1970s for the KGB’s special forces, and that these weapons were not included in the Russian Ministry of Defense nuclear weapons inventory nor covered by its accounting and control systems. Even earlier, in the summer of 1995, the Russian press published several articles claiming that Chechen separatists had either obtained, or tried to obtain, small nuclear weapons. Lebed’s claims are thus not completely new, but they are noteworthy because he was in a position to gain access to information on such weapons.

Official Russian reactions to Lebed’s statements were negative and derisory. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin termed Lebed’s allegations  absolute absurdity,  while a presidential spokesman said  such superfantasies can only be the product of a diseased imagination.  But as the official denials continued, they became increasingly self-contradictory and less credible. Some Russian military and atomic energy officials denied that the Soviet Union had ever created ADMs, and even stated that such weapons were either technically impossible, or prohibitively expensive. Others admitted that such weapons might have existed, but that they were all accounted for and under strict control. All agreed, however, that Lebed’s claims were motivated by his desire to regain the political limelight and prepare for a future presidential campaign.

The official denials may well have been orchestrated and coordinated to impugn Lebed’s reputation and reliability. If so, they were poorly conceived and raised more questions than they answered. Seemingly authoritative statements by Russian officials that portable ADMs are technically infeasible are belied by the fact that the United States built hundreds of them during the 1960s. The Soviet Union certainly had the technical capability to create portable ADMs, and may well have had military requirements to do so. Soviet strategy included diversionary actions and special force operations behind enemy lines, and ADMs might well have been stockpiled for use in a nuclear war. Certainly, if the United States developed and deployed ADMs it would be unusual for the Soviet Union not to follow suit. Thus, the claims that the Soviet Union did not produce ADMs are not convincing.

The claim that all nuclear weapons are accounted for is perhaps more credible, but is impossible to confirm. The misleading statements on the technical feasibility of ADMs do not bolster confidence in the claims that all Russian nuclear weapons are securely stored. However, most reports of the loss or theft of nuclear weapons have turned out to be based on weak evidence. The articles on nuclear theft that appeared in the Russian press in mid-1995 were apparently partly based on a report in the extreme right-wing Russian newspaper Zavtra (which in turn evidently was inspired by an article in the Russian-language edition of Soldier of Fortune, which claimed that suitcase nukes were smuggled through Lithuania to Iraq and possibly other countries). Zavtra’s correspondent claimed to have met with a former Chechen  agent  who participated in the diversion of two suitcase-size nuclear weapons to Chechnya in 1992. To bolster its claim, Zavtra published the technical details of the devices. However, the technical details appear to be inaccurate, and weaken, rather than strengthen, the report’s credibility. After publishing the article, the Zavtra correspondent was abducted, beaten, and threatened with death if he pursued the story. But after reporting the abduction, Zavtra retracted the original article, claiming that the meeting with the agent, and the subsequent beating, had been perpetrated by Chechen agents who hoped that rumors of nuclear weapons in Chechnya would strengthen Chechnya’s hand in negotiations with Moscow. Nevertheless, the original article triggered a string of media reports and speculation concerning nuclear weapons in Chechnya, eventually prompting an explicit denial of the story by Chechen military leader Shamil Basayev. Thus, while there have been a number of reports of the smuggling of portable nuclear weapons, the most publicized reports do not seem to be based on firm evidence, and have been propounded by sources of dubious reliability.

Lebed’s charges have therefore not been adequately dismissed by his critics, nor fully substantiated by his supporters. The claims that the Soviet Union never built ADMs ring hollow, but neither is there any solid evidence indicating the loss or diversion of such weapons. This does not mean that the threat of diversion does not exist, though. The social, political, and economic stresses that wrack Russia provide strong incentives for military  insiders  to steal nuclear weapons. While organizing such a theft would be extremely difficult, the consequences of a successful theft would be disastrous. Increasing security at nuclear weapons facilities, and especially at civilian nuclear facilities with weapons-grade fissile material, must therefore be at the forefront of the US-Russian security agenda. Increased work in this regard may help to ensure that stories of weapons or fissile material diversion remain fiction, and do not become fact.

Dr. Scott Parrish is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies.

Dr. John Lepingwell is Senior Scholar in Residence and Manager of the NIS Nuclear Profiles Database, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies.

A longer version of this article, with full citations, is also available. An article on  Less Well-Known Cases of Nuclear Terrorism and Nuclear Diversion in the Former Soviet Union,  written in August 1997, by CNS Director William Potter is also available in the database.  Many of the reports referred to in the longer article are also abstracted in the CNS Illicit Transactions Involving Nuclear Materials from the Former Soviet Union database, available on the CNS Web Site or via CD-ROM.   For more information on the CNS Databases and subscriptions, please contact CNS Database Marketing Manager Gary Ackerman at (831) 647-6545 or by email at Gary.Ackerman@miis.edu.

Comments or questions? E-mail Cristina Chuen at MIIS CNS: Cristina.ChuenATmiis.edu
CNSThis material is produced independently for NTI by the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies
http://www.nti.org/db/nisprofs/over/lebedst.htm

***
***

St. Elizabeths Hospital
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

St. Elizabeth’s Hospital  redirects here. For the facility in Boston formerly known as St. Elizabeth’s Hospital, see St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center (Boston).
St. Elizabeths Hospital
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark
The Center Building at St. Elizabeths in 2006
Location:     2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Ave SE
Washington, D.C.
Area:     176 acres (71 ha)
Built/Founded:     1852
Architect:     Thomas U. Walter; Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge
Architectural style(s):     Italianate Revival, Italian Gothic Revival
Added to NRHP:     1979-04-26[1]
Designated NHL:     1990-12-14[2]
NRHP Reference#:     79003101
The Center Building at St. Elizabeths, one of the oldest on the campus, as it appeared in the early 20th Century.

St. Elizabeths [sic] Hospital, located in Washington, D.C., was the first large-scale, federally-run psychiatric hospital in the United States. It is known colloquially as  St. E’s .[citation needed]

Housing several thousand patients at its peak, St. Elizabeths had a fully functioning medical-surgical unit and offered accredited internships and psychiatric residencies. It has since fallen into disrepair and is mostly abandoned, although it is still operational. The Department of Homeland Security announced in March 2007 plans to relocate its headquarters, along with most of its Washington, D.C.-area facilities, to the abandoned federal western campus of St. Elizabeths, beginning in 2010.[3]

Contents

* 1 History
* 2 Decline
* 3 Campus
* 4 Revitalization plans
* 5 In media
* 6 WWII
* 7 References
* 8 Bibliography
* 9 External links

History
The hospital was founded by Congress in 1852, largely as the result of the efforts of Dorothea Dix, a pioneering advocate for people living with mental illnesses. It opened in 1855 as the Government Hospital for the Insane, and rose to prominence during the Civil War as it was converted temporarily into a hospital for wounded soldiers.[4] In 1916, its name was officially changed to St. Elizabeths, the colonial-era name for the tract of land on which the hospital was built. The hospital had been casually known by this name since the time of the Civil War, when—in their letters home to loved ones—patients of army hospitals temporarily located on the grounds were reluctant to refer to the institution by its full title.[5]
An elderly patient at St. Elizabeths, ca. 1917

Several important therapeutic techniques were pioneered at St. Elizabeths, and it served as a model for later institutions.[4] Carl Jung, for example, studied African-American patients at St. Elizabeths to examine the concept of race in mental health. Well-known patients of St. Elizabeths include would-be presidential assassins Richard Lawrence and John Hinckley, Jr., successful assassin Charles J. Guiteau (until his execution), as well as Mary Fuller, Ezra Pound, and William Chester Minor.[4]

It is speculated that St. Elizabeths has treated over 125,000 patients, though an exact number is not known due to poor recordkeeping.[6] Additionally, thousands of patients are believed to be buried in unmarked graves across the campus, but, again, records for the individuals buried in the graves have been lost. More than 15,000 known autopsies were performed at St. Elizabeths between 1884 and 1982, and a collection of over 1,400 brains preserved in formaldehyde, 5,000 photographs of brains, and 100,000 slides of brain tissue was maintained by the hospital until it was transferred to a museum in 1986.[6] In addition to the mental health patients buried on the campus, several hundred Civil War soldiers are interred there as well.

Decline
The Main Building on the western campus at St. Elizabeths.

At its peak, the St. Elizabeths campus housed 7,000 patients and employed 4,000 people.[4] Beginning in the 1950s, however, large institutions such as St. Elizabeths were being criticized for hindering the treatment of patients. Community-based healthcare, which included local outpatient facilities and drug therapy, was seen as a more effective means of allowing patients to live near-normal lives. The patient population of St. Elizabeths steadily declined.

By 1996, only 850 patients remained at the hospital, and years of neglect had become apparent; equipment and medicine shortages occurred frequently, and the heating system was broken for weeks at a time. By 2002, all remaining patients on the federal western campus were transferred to other facilities.[4] Although it continues to operate, it does so on a far smaller scale than it once did. As of January 31, 2009, the current patient census was 404 in-patients.[7] Approximately one-half of St. Elizabeths patients are civilly committed, the remaining patients are forensic in-patients. [8] Forensic patients are those who are adjudicated to be criminally insane or incompetent to stand trial. A new state-of-the-art civil and forensic hospital is being built on the East Campus by the District of Columbia Department of Mental Health and will open in 2010, housing approximately 297 total patients.

In 2007 the U.S. Department of Justice and the District of Columbia reached a settlement over allegations that the the civil rights of patients housed at St. Elizabeths were violated by the District.[9] As of April 16, 2008, St. Elizabeth’s is in  substantial noncompliance  with the terms of the Settlement Agreement.[10]

Campus

The campus of St. Elizabeths sits on bluffs overlooking the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers in the southeast quadrant of Washington, D.C. It is divided by Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue between the 118-acre (48 ha) east campus (owned by the D.C. Government) and the 182-acre (74 ha) west campus (owned by the Federal Government).[5] It has many important buildings, foremost among them the Center Building, designed according to the principles of the Kirkbride Plan by Thomas U. Walter (1804-1887), who is perhaps better known as the primary architect of the expansion of the U.S. Capitol that was begun in 1851.[4]

Much of St. Elizabeths’ campus has now fallen into disuse and is in serious disrepair. It has been named one of the nation’s 11 Most Endangered Places in 2002 by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.[11] Access to many areas of the campus, including the abandoned western campus (which houses the Center Building) is restricted.[12]

Revitalization plans
The view of the Washington, D.C. skyline from St. Elizabeths.

After several decades in decline, the large campus could not be maintained. In 1987, hospital functions on the eastern campus were transferred from the United States Department of Health and Human Services to the District of Columbia government, with the federal government retaining ownership of the western campus.[12] Several commercial redevelopment opportunities were proposed by the D.C. government and consultants, including relocating the University of the District of Columbia to the campus or developing office and retail space. However, the tremendous cost of bringing the facilities up to code (estimated at $50–$100 million) kept developers away.[4]

With little interest in developing the site privately, the Federal Government stepped in. Control of the western campus—home of the oldest building on the campus, the Center Building—was transferred to the General Services Administration in 2004.[4] The GSA improved security around the campus, shored up roofs, and covered the windows with plywood in an attempt to preserve the campus until a tenant could be found.

After three years of searching for an occupant, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced on March 20, 2007 that it would spend approximately US$4.1 billion to move its headquarters and most of its Washington-based offices to a new 4,500,000-square-foot (418,000 m2) facility on the site, beginning with the United States Coast Guard in 2010.[13] DHS, whose operations are scattered around dozens of buildings in the Washington, D.C. area, hopes to consolidate at least 60 of its facilities at St. Elizabeths and to save $64 million per year in rental costs. DHS also hopes to improve employee morale and unity by having a central location from which to operate.[13]
The plans to locate DHS to St. Elizabeths have been met with criticism, however. Historic preservationists argue that the move will destroy dozens of historic buildings located on the campus and that other alternatives should be considered.[4][11] Community activists have also expressed concern that the planned high-security facility will not be interactive with the community, and will do little to revitalize the economically depressed area.[4]

A ceremonial groundbreaking for the DHS consolidated headquarters took place at St. Elizabeths on September 9, 2009. The event was attended by Sen. Joseph Lieberman, DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano, DC Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton, DC Mayor Adrian Fenty, and acting GSA Administrator Paul Prouty.

In media

Part of the campus was featured as the outside of the Judge Advocate General’s building in the movie A Few Good Men.[14]

WWII

During American involvement in World War II the OSS used facilities and staff at St. Elizabeths hospital to test  truth serums . The OSS unsuccessfully tested a mescaline and scopolamine cocktail as a truth drug on two volunteers at St. Elizabeths Hospital. Separate tests of THC as a truth serum were equally unsuccessful.[15]

References

1. ^  National Register Information System . National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. http://www.nr.nps.gov/.
2. ^  St. Elizabeths Hospital . National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1812&ResourceType=District. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
3. ^ Sheridan, Mary Beth (2009-01-09). Planning Agency Approves Homeland Security Complex: Preservationists Fear Effect on St. Elizabeths Campus. Washington Post, p B1, 9 January 2009. Retrieved on 2009-03-04 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/08/AR2009010803122.html.
4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Holley, Joe (17 June 2007).  Tussle Over St. Elizabeths . The Washington Post. pp. C01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/16/AR2007061601192.html. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
5. ^ a b District of Columbia Department of Mental Health.  About St. Elizabeths Hospital . http://dmh.dc.gov/dmh/cwp/view,a,3,q,516064.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
6. ^ a b O’Meara, Kelly Patricia (6 August 2001).  Forgotten Dead of St. Elizabeths . Insight on the News. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_29_17/ai_77074788. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
7. ^ See Dist. of Columbia Dept. of Mental Health, Dec. 31, 2008 Trend Analysis, available at http://dmh.dc.gov/dmh/frames.asp?doc=/dmh/lib/dmh/pdf/sehmonthlytrendanalysisDecember2008.pdf Retrieved on 2009-03-04.
8. ^ See id.http://dmh.dc.gov/dmh/frames.asp?doc=/dmh/lib/dmh/pdf/sehmonthlytrendanalysisDecember2008.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-03-04.
9. ^ See Settlement Agreement, available at http://dmh.dc.gov/dmh/cwp/view,A,3,Q,639789.asp Retrieved on 2009-03-04.
10. ^ See U.S. Dept. of Justice, Letter Re Baseline Report (April 16, 2008) available at http://dmh.dc.gov/dmh/frames.asp?doc=/dmh/lib/dmh/pdf/doj_letter_re_baseline_reportapril1608.pdf Retrieved on 2009-03-04.
11. ^ a b National Trust for Historic Preservation (2007).  List of America’s most endangered historic places – St. Elizabeths . http://www.preservationnation.org/travel-and-sites/sites/southern-region/st-elizabeths-hospital.html. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
12. ^ a b National Institutes of Health.  Historic Medical Sites in the Washington, D.C. Area – St. Elizabeths Hospital . http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/medtour/elizabeths.html. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
13. ^ a b Losey, Stephen (17 March 2007).  Homeland Security plans move to hospital compound . Federal Times. http://www.federaltimes.com/index.php?S=2626923. Retrieved 2007-08-20.
14. ^  Filming locations for A Few Good Men . The Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0104257/locations. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
15. ^ Erowid War Vault : Timeline

Bibliography

* Streatfeild, D. Brainwash. St. Martin’s Press. 2007.

External links
Search Wikimedia Commons     Wikimedia Commons has media related to: St. Elizabeths Hospital

* Listing at the National Park Service

Coordinates: 38E50?57?N 76E59?23?W? / ?38.8492EN 76.9896EW? / 38.8492; -76.9896

v • d • e
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
Keeper of the Register A History of the National Register of Historic Places A Property types A Historic district A Contributing property
US-NationalParkService-ShadedLogo.svg
List of entries
National Park Service A National Historic Landmarks A National Battlefields A National Historic Sites A National Historical Parks A National Memorials A National Monuments
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Elizabeths_Hospital
Categories: Psychiatric hospitals in the United States | Hospitals in Washington, D.C. | National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C. | American Civil War hospitals | Hospitals established in 1852

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Elizabeths_Hospital

***

Johnston’s Archive

Nuclear Weapons

North Korea’s first nuclear test

on weapons effects:

* The Effects of a Nuclear Attack on the Rio Grande Valley

* The Effects of a Global Thermonuclear War, 4th ed.

* Nuclear weapons effects–an overview
* Nuclear weapons effects: Some data

* High-altitude nuclear explosions

* Graphs of weapons effects

* Your annual radiation dose

on weapons design:

* Simplified schematic of a nuclear fission implosion weapon (typical atomic bomb, diagram)
* Simplified schematic of a multistage thermonuclear weapon (typical hydrogen bomb, diagram)

* Nuclear weapon yields vs. weight (graph)

on programs, weapons, and deployments:
* Strategic and theater nuclear forces:
o Part 1: Introduction and sources
o Part 2: United States
o Part 3: Russia
o Part 4: United Kingdom, France, and P.R. China
o Part 5: Israel, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran
o Part 6: Summary data
* U.S. and Soviet/Russian strategic warheads, 1984-1994 (graph)

Nuclear stockpiles, cumulative estimates and graphs
o including Cumulative estimates, introduction

* Listings of nuclear warhead types:
o Introduction
o United States
o Soviet Union/Russia
o United Kingdom
o France
o People’s Republic of China
o Other countries

* Multimegaton weapons: the largest nuclear weapons

* Nuclear weapons and fissile material in Israel

* Iran: WMD-related facilities

* Listings of strategic missile submarines:
o United States
o Soviet Union/Russia
o United Kingdom
o France
o People’s Republic of China
o Israel

* Missile designations:
o Missile designations, introduction
o Soviet/Russian missile designations
o PR Chinese missile designations

* Listing of Soviet/Russian naval vessels:
o Introduction
o Listing of Soviet/Russian naval vessels

on strategic defense:
* Ballistic Missile Defense and the Strategic Defense Initiative
*  U.S. should have missile defense system
o see also at The Brownsville Herald.

* President George W. Bush’s Speech on National Missile Defense, 1 May 2001.

on nuclear testing:
Nuclear tests–databases and other material

general material:

* Nuclear weapon milestones
o Part 1
o Part 1-B
o Part 2

other material:

*
Database of Radiological Incidents and Related Events
o including List of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
o Statistical summary of radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties
o List of criticality accidents
o and pages on individual incidents

* Nuclear terrorism:
o Nuclear terrorism incidents
o Osama bin Laden and nuclear weapons
o Dirty bombs and other radiological weapons

* Nuclear Weapons in Film

NUCLEAR WEAPONS–INFORMATION LINKS

* United States government sources:
o U.S. Department of Defense.
o DOE Nevada Operations Office.

* foreign government sources:
o CEA (French atomic energy agency) (English).

* organizations and sources in the United States:
o Arms Control Association.
o Brookings Institution.
o Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
o Center for Defense Information.
o Center for Nonproliferation Studies–at the Monterrey Institute for International Studies.
o Center for Strategic and International Studies.
o Federation of American Scientists.
o GlobalSecurity.org.
o Heritage Foundation.
o High Energy Weapons Archive–in depth information, including some of the most detailed information on the Internet regarding nuclear weapon physics.
o High Frontier.
o Institute for Science and International Security.
o National Institute for Public Policy.
o Nautilus.
o Natural Resources Defense Council.
o Submarine World Network.
o Trinity Atomic Web Site.

* organizations outside the United States:
o Bellona Foundation–foundation in Norway.
o Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies–at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
o Centre for Defense and International Security Studies (CDISS)–in the United Kingdom.
o Jane’s Information Group–publisher in the United Kingdom.
o British American Security Information Council (BASIC).

Some recommended nuclear weapon documents

Banner image: Plumbbob Stokes, a 19 kt airburst test of the XW-30 conducted 7 August 1957 (credit: U.S. Department of Energy photograph).

Comments? Questions? Corrections? Contact me.
Copyright © 2001-2006, 2008 by Wm. Robert Johnston. All rights reserved.
Last modified 13 May 2008.
Return to Home. Go to What’s New. Go to FAQ on use of material from this site.

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saved as
Johnstons archive page

****

WWII

During American involvement in World War II the OSS used facilities and staff at St. Elizabeths hospital to test  truth serums . The OSS unsuccessfully tested a mescaline and scopolamine cocktail as a truth drug on two volunteers at St. Elizabeths Hospital. Separate tests of THC as a truth serum were equally unsuccessful.[15]

Several important therapeutic techniques were pioneered at St. Elizabeths, and it served as a model for later institutions.[4] Carl Jung, for example, studied African-American patients at St. Elizabeths to examine the concept of race in mental health. Well-known patients of St. Elizabeths include would-be presidential assassins Richard Lawrence and John Hinckley, Jr., successful assassin Charles J. Guiteau (until his execution), as well as Mary Fuller, Ezra Pound, and William Chester Minor.[4]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Elizabeths_Hospital

**

Truth drug
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A truth drug (or truth serum) is a psychoactive medication used to obtain information from subjects who are unable or unwilling to provide it otherwise. The unethical use of truth drugs is classified as a form of torture according to international law [1] However, they are properly and productively utilized in the evaluation of psychotic patients in the practice of psychiatry [2]. That application was first documented by Dr. William Bleckwenn in 1930 [3], and it still has selected uses today. In the latter context, the controlled administration of intravenous hypnotic medications is called  narcosynthesis  or  narcoanalysis.  It may be used to procure diagnostically- or therapeutically- vital information, and to provide patients with a functional respite from catatonia or mania [4] [5].

Contents

* 1 Active chemical substances
* 2 Allegedly improper historical applications
* 3 Reliability
* 4 See also
* 5 Further reading
* 6 References

Active chemical substances
Amobarbital

Sedatives or hypnotics that alter higher cognitive function include ethanol, scopolamine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, temazepam, and various barbiturates including sodium thiopental (commonly known as sodium pentothal) and sodium amytal (amobarbital) (see figure at right) [6].

Allegedly improper historical applications
A defector from the biological weapons department of the Soviet secret police (KGB) claimed that a truth drug code-named SP-17 was highly effective and that it was used to interrogate detainees in the former Soviet Union. [7] Allegedly, India’s Central Bureau of Investigation has also used intravenous barbiturates for interrogation. [8]

Reliability

According to prevailing medical thought, information obtained under the influence of intravenously-administered sodium amytal can be unreliable; subjects may mix fact and fantasy in that context [9]. Skeptics imply that much of the claimed effect of the drug relies on the belief of the subject that he or she cannot tell a lie while under its influence [10] [11]. Some observers also feel that amobarbital does not increase truth-telling, but merely increases talking; hence, both truth and fabrication are more likely to be revealed in that construct [12]. Thus, the  truth  in truth drugs is contextual; when they are used by skilled, unbiased, and properly-trained mental health professionals, such medications can be extremely beneficial. On the other hand, their administration by non-psychiatrists may well produce erroneous information.

See also

* Microexpression
* Polygraph

Further reading

* Brown, David.  Some Believe ‘Truth Serums’ Will Come Back , The Washington Post, Monday 20 November 2006; page A08.

References

1. ^ Brugger W: May governments ever use torture? Am J Compar Law 2000; 48: 661-678.
2. ^ Naples M, Hackett TP: The amytal interview: history and current uses. Psychosomatics 1978; 19: 98-105.
3. ^ Bleckwenn WJ: Sodium amytal in certain nervous and mental conditions. Wis Med J 1930; 29: 693-696.
4. ^ Tollefson GD: The amobarbital interview in the differential diagnosis of catatonia. Psychosomatics 1982; 23: 437-438.
5. ^ Bleckwenn WJ: Production of sleep and rest in psychotic cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1930; 24: 365-375.
6. ^ Anonymous: Barbiturates. http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/A-Ce/Barbiturates.html, Accessed 9-21-2009.
7. ^ Alexander Kouzminov Biological Espionage: Special Operations of the Soviet and Russian Foreign Intelligence Services in the West, Greenhill Books, 2006, ISBN 1-853-67646-2 [1].
8. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/3661948/Mumbai-attacks-Militant-kept-in-underwear-to-prevent-suicide.html
9. ^ Op cit., Ref. 2
10. ^ Redlich FC, Ravitz LJ, Dession GH: Narcoanalysis and truth. Am J Psychiatry 1951; 107: 586-593.
11. ^ Mann J: The use of sodium amobarbital in psychiatry. Ohio State Med J 1969; 65: 700-702.
12. ^ Piper A Jr: ‘Truth serum’ and ‘recovered memories’ of sexual abuse: a review of the evidence. J Psychiatry & Law 1993: 3: 447-471.

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truth_drug
Categories: Sedatives | Psychiatric treatments | Barbiturates

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truth_drug

***

Sodium thiopental
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pentothal redirects here. For the fictional truth drug from the television series 24, see Hyoscine-pentothal.
C11H17N2O2S Na  redirects here. For the song by Anthrax, see Sound of White Noise.
Sodium thiopental
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-[5-ethyl-4,6-dioxo-5-(pentan-2-yl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl]sulfanide sodium
Identifiers
CAS number     71-73-8 (sodium salt)
76-75-5 (free acid)
ATC code     N01AF03 N05CA19
PubChem     3000714
DrugBank     APRD00660
ChemSpider     2272257
Chemical data
Formula     C11H17N2NaO2S
Mol. mass     264.32 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability      ?
Metabolism      ?
Half life     5.5[1]-26 hours[2]
Excretion      ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

Legal status

Schedule III(US)
Routes     Oral, intravenous
Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)

Sodium thiopental, better known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone sodium, or trapanal, is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anaesthetic. It is an intravenous ultra-short-acting barbiturate. Sodium thiopental is a depressant and is sometimes used during interrogations—not to cause pain (in fact, it may have just the opposite effect), but to weaken the resolve of the subject and make him or her more compliant to pressure.[3] Thiopental is a core medicine in the World Health Organization’s  Essential Drugs List , which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.[4]

Contents

* 1 Barbiturates
* 2 Uses
o 2.1 Anesthesia
o 2.2 Medically induced coma
o 2.3 Euthanasia
o 2.4 Lethal injection
o 2.5 Truth serum
o 2.6 Psychiatry
* 3 Metabolism
* 4 Dosage
* 5 Side effects
* 6 Drug interaction
* 7 History
* 8 References
* 9 External links

Barbiturates
Main article: Barbiturate
Barbiturates are a class of drugs that act on the GABAA receptor in the brain and spinal cord. The GABAA receptor is an inhibitory channel that decreases neuronal activity, and barbiturates enhance the inhibitory action of the GABAA receptor. Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol all bind to the GABAA receptor. Barbiturates that act on the barbiturate binding site of the GABAA receptor directly gate the chloride ion channel of the GABAA receptor, whereas benzodiazepines acting on the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor increase the opening frequency of the chloride ion channel. This explains why overdoses of barbiturates may be lethal whereas overdoses of benzodiazepines alone are typically not lethal. Another explanation is that barbiturates can activate GABA receptors in the absence of the GABA molecule, whereas benzodiazepines need GABA to be present to have an effect: this may explain the more widespread effects of barbiturates in the central nervous system. Barbiturates have anesthetic, sedative, and hypnotic properties. Benzodiazepines do not have analgesic effects.[5]

Uses
Anesthesia
Thiopental is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate and has been used commonly in the induction phase of general anesthesia. Its use in the United States and elsewhere has been largely replaced with that of propofol. Following intravenous injection the drug rapidly reaches the brain and causes unconsciousness within 30–45 seconds. At one minute, the drug attains a peak concentration of about 60% of the total dose in the brain. Thereafter, the drug distributes to the rest of the body and in about 5–10 minutes the concentration is low enough in the brain such that consciousness returns.

A normal dose of thiopental (usually 4–6 mg/kg) given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery (caesarian section) rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. However, larger or repeated doses can depress the baby.

Thiopental is not used to maintain anesthesia in surgical procedures because, in infusion, it displays zero-order elimination kinetics, leading to a long period before consciousness is regained. Instead, anesthesia is usually maintained with an inhaled anesthetic (gas) agent. Inhaled anesthetics are eliminated relatively quickly, so that stopping the inhaled anesthetic will allow rapid return of consciousness. Thiopental would have to be given in large amounts to maintain an anesthetic plane, and because of its 11.5–26 hour half-life, consciousness would take a long time to return.[6]

In veterinary medicine, thiopental is also used to induce anesthesia in animals. Since thiopental is redistributed to fat, certain breeds of dogs, primarily the sight hounds can have prolonged recoveries from thiopental due to their lack of body fat and lean body mass. Thiopental is always administered intravenously, as it can be fairly irritating; severe tissue necrosis and sloughing can occur if it is injected incorrectly into the tissue around a vein.

Medically induced coma

In addition to anesthesia induction, thiopental was historically used to induce medical comas. It has now been superseded by drugs such as propofol.

Thiopental has a long Context Sensitive Half Time (CSHT) meaning infusions saturate peripheral compartments (fat, muscle etc). When the infusion is stopped, the drug re-distributes from the peripheral tissues back into the blood, prolonging the effect.

Thiopental also exhibits zero order kinetics at higher doses. The rate of clearance becomes fixed which slows elimination from the body.

Patients with brain swelling, causing elevation of the intracranial pressure, either secondary to trauma or following surgery may benefit from this drug. Thiopental, and the barbiturate class of drugs, decrease neuronal activity and therefore decrease the production of osmotically active metabolites which in turn decreases swelling. Patients with significant swelling have improved outcomes following the induction of coma. Reportedly, thiopental has been shown to be superior to pentobarbital[7] in reducing intracranial pressure.

Euthanasia

Thiopental is used intravenously for the purposes of euthanasia. The Belgians and the Dutch have created a protocol that recommends sodium thiopental as the ideal agent to induce coma followed by pancuronium bromide.[8]

Intravenous administration is the most reliable and rapid way to accomplish euthanasia and therefore can be safely recommended. A coma is first induced by intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg thiopental sodium (Nesdonal) in a small volume (10 ml physiological saline). Then a triple intravenous dose of a non-depolarizing neuromuscular muscle relaxant is given, such as 20 mg pancuronium dibromide (Pavulon) or 20 mg vecuronium bromide (Norcuron). The muscle relaxant should preferably be given intravenously, in order to ensure optimal availability. Only for pancuronium dibromide (Pavulon) are there substantial indications that the agent may also be given intramuscularly in a dosage of 40 mg.[8]
Lethal injection

Along with pancuronium bromide and potassium chloride, thiopental is used in 35 states of the U.S. to execute prisoners by lethal injection. A very large dose is given which places the subject into a rapidly induced coma. Executions using the three drug combination are usually effective in approximately 10 minutes, but have been known to take several times this length. The use of thiopental alone is hypothesized to cause death in approximately 45 minutes.[citation needed] The use of sodium thiopental has been the cause of current Supreme Court challenges to the lethal injection protocol, after a study in the medical journal the Lancet, where autopsy studies on executed inmates revealed that there was not a high enough concentration of thiopental in their blood to have caused unconsciousness. The exclusion of physicians participating in executions is partly to blame for inept administration of the drugs.[citation needed]

Truth serum
Thiopental is still used in some places as a truth serum.[3] The barbiturates as a class decrease higher cortical brain functioning. Some psychiatrists hypothesize that because lying is more complex than telling the truth, suppression of the higher cortical functions may lead to the uncovering of the  truth . However, the reliability of confessions made under thiopental is dubious; the drug tends to make subjects chatty and cooperative with interrogators, but a practiced liar or someone who has a false story firmly established would still be quite able to lie while under the influence of the drug.[9]

Psychiatry

Psychiatrists have used thiopental to desensitize patients with phobias,[10] and to  facilitate the recall of painful repressed memories. [11] One psychiatrist who worked with thiopental is Professor Jan Bastiaans, who used this procedure to help release trauma in victims of the Nazis.[12]

Metabolism

As with all lipid soluble anaesthetic drugs, the short duration of action of STP is almost entirely due to its redistribution away from central circulation towards muscle and fat tissue. Once redistributed the free fraction in the blood is metabolised in the liver. Sodium thiopental is mainly metabolized to pentobarbital,[13] 5-ethyl-5-(1′-methyl-3′-hydroxybutyl)-2-thiobarbituric acid, and 5-ethyl-5-(1′-methyl-3′-carboxypropyl)-2-thiobarbituric acid.[14]

Dosage

The usual dose range for induction of anesthesia using thiopental is from 3 to 7 mg/kg; however, there are many factors that can alter this. Premedication with sedatives such as benzodiazepines or clonidine will reduce requirements, as do specific disease states and other patient factors.

Side effects
As with nearly all anesthetic drugs, thiopental causes cardiovascular and respiratory depression resulting in hypotension, apnea and airway obstruction. For these reasons, only suitably trained medical personnel should give thiopental in an environment suitably equipped to deal with these effects. Side effects include headache, emergence delirium, prolonged somnolence and nausea. Intravenous administration of sodium thiopental is followed instantly by an odor sensation, sometimes described as being similar to rotting onions. The hangover effects may last up to 36 hours.

Although molecules of thiopental contain one sulfur atom, it is not a sulfonamide, and does not show allergic reactions of sulfa/sulpha drugs.

Drug interaction

Co-administration of pentoxifylline and thiopental causes death by acute pulmonary oedema in rats. This pulmonary oedema was not mediated by cardiac failure or by pulmonary hypertension but was due to increased pulmonary vascular permeability.[15]

History

Sodium thiopental was discovered in the early 1930s by Ernest H. Volwiler and Donalee L. Tabern, working for Abbott Laboratories. It was first used in human beings on March 8, 1934, by Dr. Ralph M. Waters[16] in an investigation of its properties, which were short-term anesthesia and surprisingly little analgesia.[17] Three months later,[18] Dr. John S. Lundy started a clinical trial of thiopental at the Mayo Clinic at the request of Abbott.[19]

It is famously associated with a number of anesthetic deaths in victims of the attack on Pearl Harbor. These deaths, relatively soon after its discovery, were due to excessive doses given to shocked trauma patients. Evidence has become available through freedom of information legislation and has been reviewed in the  British Journal of Anaesthesia .[20] Thiopental anaesthesia was in its early days, but nevertheless only 13 of 344 wounded admitted to the Tripler Army Hospital did not survive.

Thiopental is still rarely used as a recreational drug, usually stolen from veterinarians or other legitimate users of the drug; however, more common sedatives such as benzodiazepines are usually preferred as recreational drugs, and abuse of thiopental tends to be uncommon and opportunistic.

References

1. ^ Russo H, Brès J, Duboin MP, Roquefeuil B (1995).  Pharmacokinetics of thiopental after single and multiple intravenous doses in critical care patients . Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 49 (1-2): 127–37. doi:10.1007/BF00192371. PMID 8751034.
2. ^ Morgan DJ, Blackman GL, Paull JD, Wolf LJ (June 1981).  Pharmacokinetics and plasma binding of thiopental. II: Studies at cesarean section . Anesthesiology 54 (6): 474–80. PMID 7235275.
3. ^ a b Sydney Morning Herald, Truth serum used on ‘serial child killers’, January 12, 2007, Reuters.
4. ^  WHO Model List of Essential Medicines  (PDF). World Health Organization. March 2005. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2005/a87017_eng.pdf. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
5. ^  ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA . http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/ccm/Anesth/aneshome.cfm. Retrieved 2007-08-05.
6. ^ Morgan DJ, Blackman GL, Paull JD, Wolf LJ (1981).  Pharmacokinetics and plasma binding of thiopental. II: Studies at cesarean section . Anesthesiology 54 (6): 474–80. PMID 7235275.
7. ^ Pérez-Bárcena J, Barceló B, Homar J, et al. (February 2005).  [Comparison of the effectiveness of pentobarbital and thiopental in patients with refractory intracranial hypertension. Preliminary report of 20 patients]  (in Spanish; Castilian). Neurocirugia (Astur) 16 (1): 5–12; discussion 12–3. PMID 15756405. http://www.revistaneurocirugia.com/web/artics/v16n1/1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
8. ^ a b Royal Dutch Society for the Advancement of Pharmacy (1994).  Administration and Compounding of Euthanasic Agents . The Hague. http://wweek.com/html/euthanasics.html. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
9. ^ Anne Bannon; Stevens, Serita Deborah (2007). The Howdunit Book of Poisons (Howdunit). Cincinnati: Writers Digest Books. ISBN 1-58297-456-X.
10. ^ Pearlman, T. (1980).  Behavioral desensitization of phobic anxiety using thiopental sodium . The American Journal of Psychiatry (American Psychiatric Association) (137): 1580–1582. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/12/1580.
11. ^  Drugged Future? . TIME. February 24, 1958. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,863001,00.html.
12. ^ Snelders, Stephen (1998).  The LSD Therapy Career of Jan Bastiaans, M.D. . Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies) 8 (1): 18–20. http://www.maps.org/news-letters/v08n1/08118sne.html.
13. ^ WINTERS WD, SPECTOR E, WALLACH DP, SHIDEMAN FE (July 1955).  Metabolism of thiopental-S35 and thiopental-2-C14 by a rat liver mince and identification of pentobarbital as a major metabolite . J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 114 (3): 343–57. PMID 13243246. http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=13243246. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
14. ^ Bory C, Chantin C, Boulieu R, et al. (1986).  [Use of thiopental in man. Determination of this drug and its metabolites in plasma and urine by liquid phase chromatography and mass spectrometry]  (in French). C. R. Acad. Sci. III, Sci. Vie 303 (1): 7–12. PMID 3093002.
15. ^ Pereda J, Gómez-Cambronero L, Alberola A, et al. (October 2006).  Co-administration of pentoxifylline and thiopental causes death by acute pulmonary oedema in rats . Br. J. Pharmacol. 149 (4): 450–5. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706871. PMID 16953192.
16. ^  This Month in Anesthesia History: March . Anesthesia History Association. http://www.anesthesia.wisc.edu/AHA/Calendar/March.html.
17. ^ Steinhaus, John E. The Investigator and His ‘Uncompromising Scientific Honesty’ American Society of Anesthesiologists. NEWSLETTER. September 2001, Volume 65, Number 9.
18. ^ Imagining in Time—From this point in time: Some memories of my part in the history of anesthesia—John S. Lundy, MD August 1997, AANA Archives-Library
19. ^ History of Anesthesia with Emphasis on the Nurse Specialist Archives of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists. 1953
20. ^ Bennetts FE (September 1995).  Thiopentone anaesthesia at Pearl Harbor . Br J Anaesth 75 (3): 366–8. PMID 7547061. http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7547061. Retrieved 2008-07-18.

External links

* PubChem Substance Summary: Thiopental

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Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_thiopental
Categories: Drugboxes which contain changes to watched fields | General anesthetics | Barbiturates | Lethal injection components | Sodium compounds | Thiobarbiturates | World Health Organization essential medicines

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Amobarbital
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Sodium amytal)

Amobarbital
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-ethyl-5-(3-methylbutyl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
Identifiers
CAS number     57-43-2 64-43-7 (sodium salt)
ATC code     N05CA02
PubChem     2164
DrugBank     none
ChemSpider     2079
Chemical data
Formula     C11H18N2O3
Mol. mass     226.272
SMILES     eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability      ?
Metabolism     Hepatic
Half life     8-42 hours
Excretion     Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

Legal status

Schedule IV(CA) Schedule II/Schedule III (US)
Routes     Oral, IM, IV, Rectal
Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)

Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. It has sedative-hypnotic and analgesic properties. It is a white crystalline powder with no odor and a slightly bitter taste. It was first synthesized in Germany in 1923. If amobarbital is taken for extended periods of time, physical and psychological dependence can develop.
Contents

* 1 Pharmacology
* 2 Metabolism
* 3 Indications
o 3.1 Approved
o 3.2 Unapproved/Off-Label
* 4 Contraindications
* 5 Overdose
* 6 See also
* 7 References and End Notes
* 8 External links

Pharmacology

According to an in vitro study conducted at the University of British Columbia, amobarbital works by activating GABAA receptors, which decreases input resistance, depresses burst and tonic firing, especially in ventrobasal and intralaminar neurons, while at the same time increasing burst duration and mean conductance at individual chloride channels; this increases both the amplitude and decay time of inhibitory postsynaptic currents.[1]

It has an LD50 in mice of 212 mg/kg s.c.

Metabolism

Amobarbital undergoes both hydroxylation to form 3′-hydroxyamobarbital,[2] which has both levorotatory and dextrorotatory isomers[3] and N-glucosidation[4] to form 1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)amobarbital.[5]

Indications
Approved

* Amnesia
* Insomnia
* Epilepsy

Unapproved/Off-Label

* When given slowly by an intravenous route, sodium amobarbital has a reputation for having activity as a so-called truth serum. A person under the influence of the drug in this circumstance will relate information that he or she would otherwise  block.  As such, the drug was first employed clinically by Dr. William Bleckwenn at the University of Wisconsin to circumvent inhibitions in psychiatric patients.[6] It has been used to convict alleged murderers such as Andres English-Howard, who strangled his girlfriend to death but claimed innocence. He was surreptitiously administered the drug, by his attorney, and under the influence of it he revealed why he strangled her and under which circumstances. A year later he confessed, on the stand, and was convicted on the basis of these statements; he later committed suicide in his cell.[7] The use of amobarbital as a truth serum has lost credibility due to the discovery[citation needed] that the subject can be coerced into having a ‘false memory’ of the event. In controlled doses, it is used in the Narco Analysis test to trace crime and criminals in modern forensics.[citation needed]

* The drug may be used intravenously to interview patients with Catatonic mutism, sometimes combined with caffeine to prevent sleep.[8]

* It was used by the U.S. Army during World War II’s Battle of the Bulge to get shell-shocked GI’s back to the frontline.[9]

Contraindications
A vial of amytal sodium.

The following drugs should be avoided when taking amobarbital:

* Alcohol
* Caffeine[citation needed]
* Chloramphenicol
* Chlorpromazine
* Cyclophosphamide
* Ciclosporin
* Digitoxin
* Doxorubicin
* Doxycycline
* Methoxyflurane
* Metronidazole
* Quinine
* Theophylline
* Warfarin
* Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, clonazepam or nitrazepam
* Antiepileptics, such as phenobarbital or carbamazepine
* Antihistamines, such as doxylamine and clemastine
* Narcotic analgesics, such as morphine and oxycodone
* Steroids, such as prednisone and cortisone
* Antidepressants[citation needed]
* Antihypertensives, such as atenolol and propranolol
* Antiarrhythmics, such as verapamil and digoxin

Amobarbital has been known to decrease the effects of hormonal birth control, sometimes to the point of uselessness. Being chemically related to phenobarbital, it might also do the same thing to digitoxin, a cardiac glycoside.

In 1988, Miller et al. reported that amobarbital increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with less potency than secobarbital and pentobarbital (in descending order), but greater than phenobarbital and barbital (in ascending order).[10]

Overdose

Some side effects of overdose include confusion (severe); decrease in or loss of reflexes; drowsiness (severe); fever; irritability (continuing); low body temperature; poor judgment; shortness of breath or slow or troubled breathing; slow heartbeat; slurred speech; staggering; trouble in sleeping; unusual movements of the eyes; weakness (severe). Death can be a result, as in the case of the Hollywood actor, Robert Walker.

See also

* Depressants
* Barbiturates
* Wada test
* Blue 88

References and End Notes

1. ^ Kim HS, Wan X, Mathers DA, Puil E.  Selective GABA-receptor actions of amobarbital on thalamic neurons.  British Journal of Pharmacology. 2004 Oct;143(4):485-94. Epub 2004 Sep 20. PMID 15381635
2. ^ Maynert EW.  The alcoholic metabolites of pentobarbital and amobarbital in man.  Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1965 Oct;150(1):118-21. PMID 5855308
3. ^ Chemicals: 3′-hydroxyamobarbital The Comparative Toxicology Database.
4. ^ Tang BK, Kalow W, Grey AA.  Amobarbital metabolism in man: N-glucoside formation.  Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. 1978 Jul;21(1):45-53. PMID 684279
5. ^ Soine PJ, Soine WH.  High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the diastereomers of 1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)amobarbital in urine.  Journal of Chromatography. 1987 Nov 27;422:309-14. PMID 3437019
6. ^ Bleckwenn WJ Sodium amytal in certain nervous and mental conditions. Wis Med J 1930; 29: 693-696.
7. ^ Truth Serum: A Possible Weapon, 60 Minutes, April 23, 2003.
8. ^ McCall WV.  The addition of intravenous caffeine during an amobarbital interview.  Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience. 1992 Nov;17(5):195-7. PMID 1489761
9. ^ Use of sodium amytal during WWII
10. ^ Miller LG, Deutsch SI, Greenblatt DJ, Paul SM, Shader RI (1988).  Acute barbiturate administration increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo . Psychopharmacology (Berl) 96 (3): 385–90. doi:10.1007/BF00216067.  PMID 2906155

1. Controlled Substances in Schedule II Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration.
2. Controlled Substances in Schedule III Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration.

External links

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_amytal

***

Truth drug
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Narco Analysis)

A truth drug (or truth serum) is a psychoactive medication used to obtain information from subjects who are unable or unwilling to provide it otherwise. The unethical use of truth drugs is classified as a form of torture according to international law [1] However, they are properly and productively utilized in the evaluation of psychotic patients in the practice of psychiatry [2]. That application was first documented by Dr. William Bleckwenn in 1930 [3], and it still has selected uses today. In the latter context, the controlled administration of intravenous hypnotic medications is called  narcosynthesis  or  narcoanalysis.  It may be used to procure diagnostically- or therapeutically- vital information, and to provide patients with a functional respite from catatonia or mania [4] [5].

Contents

* 1 Active chemical substances
* 2 Allegedly improper historical applications
* 3 Reliability
* 4 See also
* 5 Further reading
* 6 References

Active chemical substances
Amobarbital

Sedatives or hypnotics that alter higher cognitive function include ethanol, scopolamine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, temazepam, and various barbiturates including sodium thiopental (commonly known as sodium pentothal) and sodium amytal (amobarbital) (see figure at right) [6].

Allegedly improper historical applications

A defector from the biological weapons department of the Soviet secret police (KGB) claimed that a truth drug code-named SP-17 was highly effective and that it was used to interrogate detainees in the former Soviet Union. [7] Allegedly, India’s Central Bureau of Investigation has also used intravenous barbiturates for interrogation. [8]

Reliability

According to prevailing medical thought, information obtained under the influence of intravenously-administered sodium amytal can be unreliable; subjects may mix fact and fantasy in that context [9]. Skeptics imply that much of the claimed effect of the drug relies on the belief of the subject that he or she cannot tell a lie while under its influence [10] [11]. Some observers also feel that amobarbital does not increase truth-telling, but merely increases talking; hence, both truth and fabrication are more likely to be revealed in that construct [12]. Thus, the  truth  in truth drugs is contextual; when they are used by skilled, unbiased, and properly-trained mental health professionals, such medications can be extremely beneficial. On the other hand, their administration by non-psychiatrists may well produce erroneous information.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narco_Analysis

***

Temazepam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Temazepam
Systematic (IUPAC) name
7-Chloro-1,3-dihydro-
3-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-phenyl-
1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
Identifiers
CAS number     846-50-4
ATC code     N05CD07
PubChem     5391
DrugBank     APRD00676
ChemSpider     5198
Chemical data
Formula     C16H13ClN2O2
Mol. mass     300.7 g/mol
SMILES     eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability     96%
Metabolism     Hepatic
Half life     8–20 hours
Excretion     Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(AU) X(US)
Legal status

Prescription Only (S4)(AU) Schedule IV(CA) Class C(UK) Schedule IV(US) IV (International)
Routes     Therapeutic: Oral
Recreational Abuse: Intravenous (IV), Intramuscular (IM), Insufflated, Sprinkled in ethanol, smoked

Temazepam (marketed under brand names Normison, Temtabs, Euhypnos, Restoril, Remestan, Tenox and Norkotral) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine. It is generally prescribed for the short-term treatment of sleeplessness in patients who have difficulty maintaining sleep. Temazepam is not effective for induction of sleep.[1] In addition, temazepam has anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.[2][3][4]
Contents

* 1 History
* 2 Indications
* 3 Contraindications
o 3.1 Special caution needed
o 3.2 Patients at a high risk for abuse and dependence
* 4 Adverse effects
o 4.1 Common
o 4.2 Less common
* 5 Tolerance and physical dependence
* 6 Pharmacology
* 7 Pharmacokinetics
* 8 Interactions
* 9 Overdose
* 10 Abuse
o 10.1 North America
o 10.2 Australia
o 10.3 United Kingdom
* 11 Street terms
* 12 Legal status
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 External links

History

Temazepam was first synthesized in 1964, but it first came into use in 1969 when its ability to counter insomnia was realized.[5] By the late 1980s, temazepam was one of the most popular and widely prescribed hypnotics on the market and it became one of the most widely prescribed drugs.

Indications
A prescription bottle and capsules of temazepam manufactured by Mylan Inc.

Temazepam is a hypnotic agent. In sleep laboratory studies, temazepam significantly decreased the number of nightly awakeningsm[6] but has the drawback in that it distorts the normal sleep pattern.[7]

Temazepam is officially indicated for severe insomnia and other severe or disabling sleep disorders. The prescribing guidelines limit prescribing of hypnotics to two-four weeks due to concerns of tolerance and dependence.[8]

The United States Air Force uses temazepam as one of the hypnotics approved as  no-go pills  to help aviators and special duty personnel sleep in support of mission readiness.  Ground tests  are required prior to authorization being issued to use the medication in an operational situation. [1]

Contraindications

Use of temazepam should be avoided, when possible, in individuals with the following conditions:
* Ataxia (gross lack of coordination of muscle movements)
* Severe hypoventilation
* Acute narrow-angle glaucoma
* Severe hepatic deficiencies (hepatitis and liver cirrhosis decrease elimination by a factor of 2)
* Severe renal deficiencies (e.g. patients on dialysis)
* Severe sleep apnea
* Severe depression, particularly when accompanied by suicidal tendencies
* Acute intoxication with alcohol, narcotics, or other psychoactive substances
* Myasthenia gravis (autoimmune disorder causing muscle weakness)
* Hypersensitivity or allergy to any drug in the benzodiazepine class

Special caution needed

Temazepam should not be used in pregnancy, as it may cause harm to the fetus. The safety and effectiveness of temazepam has not been established in children; temazepam should therefore generally not be given to individuals under 18 years of age, and should not be used at all in children under 6 months old.

The smallest possible effective dose should be used in elderly or very ill patients, as there is a risk of apnea and/or cardiac arrest. This risk is increased when temazepam is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress the central nervous system.[9]

Patients at a high risk for abuse and dependence

Since benzodiazepines can be abused and lead to dependence, their use should be avoided in people in certain particularly high risk groups. High risk groups include people with a history of alcohol or drug abuse or dependence, emotionally unstable patients, people with severe personality disorders (such as Borderline Personality Disorder). If temazepam is indeed prescribed to people in these groups, they should generally be monitored very closely for signs of abuse and development of dependence.[8]

Adverse effects
Common

Side effects typical of hypnotic benzodiazepines are related to CNS depression, and include somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, ataxia, headache, lethargy, impairment of memory and learning, increased reaction time and impairment of motor functions (including coordination problems),[10] slurred speech, decreased physical performance, numbed emotions, reduced alertness, muscle weakness, blurred vision (in higher doses), and inattention. Euphoria was rarely reported with the use of temazepam. According to the FDA, temazepam had an incidences of euphoria of 1.5%, much more rarely reported than headaches and diarrhea.[9] Anterograde amnesia may also develop, as may respiratory depression in higher doses.

Less common

Hyperhydrosis, hypotension, burning eyes, changes in libido, hallucinations, faintness, nystagmus, vomiting, pruritus, gastrointestinal disturbances, nightmares, palpitation and paradoxical reactions including restlessness, aggression, violence, overstimulation and agitation have been reported, but are rare (less than 0.5%).

Before taking temazepam, one should ensure that at least 8 hours are available to dedicate to sleep. Failing to do so can increase the side effects of the drug.

The use of this drug in combination with alcohol potentiates the side effects, and can lead to toxicity and death.

Though rare, residual ‘hangover’ effects after night time administration of temazepam such as sleepiness, impaired psychomotor and cognitive functions may persist into the next day, which may impair the ability of users to drive safely or may increase the risks of falls and hip fractures.[11]

Tolerance and physical dependence
See also: benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Tolerance

Chronic or excessive use of temazepam may cause drug tolerance, which can develop rapidly,[12] so this drug is therefore not recommended for long-term use.[9][13] In 1979 the Institute of Medicine (USA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse stated that most hypnotics lose their sleep-inducing properties after about 3 to 14 days.[14] In use longer than 1–2 weeks, tolerance will frequently develop towards the ability of temazepam to maintain sleep, so that the drug loses effectiveness.[15] Some studies have observed tolerance to temazepam after as little as one week’s use.[16] Another study examined the short-term effects of the accumulation of temazepam over 7 days in elderly inpatients, and found that little tolerance developed during the accumulation of the drug.[17] Other studies examined the use of temazepam over six days and saw no evidence of tolerance.[18][19] A study in 11 young male subjects showed that significant tolerance occurs to temazepam’s thermoregulatory effects and sleep inducing properties after 1 week of use of 30 mg temazepam. Body temperature is well correlated with the sleep inducing or insomnia promoting properties of drugs.[20]

In one study the drug sensitivity of people who had used temazepam for 1–20 years was no different from that of controls.[21] In an additional study in which at least one of the authors is employed by multiple drug companies examined the efficacy of temazepam treatment on chronic insomnia over three months and saw no drug tolerance, with the authors even suggesting that the drug might become more effective over time.[22][23][24]

The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine published a paper which had carried out a systematic review of the medical literature concerning insomnia medications and raised concerns about benzodiazepine receptor agonist drugs, the benzodiazepines and the Z-drugs that are used as hypnotics in humans. The review found that almost all trials of sleep disorders and drugs are sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. It was found that the odds ratio for finding results favorable to industry in industry-sponsored trials was 3.6 times higher than non-industry-sponsored studies and that 24% of authors did not disclose being funded by the drug companies in their published paper when they were funded by the drug companies. The paper found that there is little research into hypnotics that is independent from the drug manufacturers.[25] Establishing continued efficacy beyond a few weeks can be complicated by the difficulty in distinguishing between the return of the original insomnia complaint and withdrawal or rebound related insomnia. Sleep EEG studies on hypnotic benzodiazepines show that tolerance tends to occur completely after one to four weeks with sleep EEG returning to pretreatment levels. The paper concluded that due to concerns about long term use both toxicity and tolerance and dependence as well as controversy over long term efficacy that wise prescribers should restrict benzodiazepines to a few weeks and avoid continuing prescriptions for months or years.[26] A review of the literature found that non-pharmacological treatment options were a more effective treatment option for insomnia due to their sustained improvements in sleep quality.[27]

Physical dependence

Temazepam like other benzodiazepine drugs can cause physical dependence and addiction. Withdrawal from temazepam or other benzodiazepines after regular use often leads to a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, which resembles symptoms during alcohol and barbiturate withdrawal. The higher the dose and the longer the drug is taken for, the greater the risk of experiencing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms can also occur from standard dosages and after short term use. Abrupt withdrawal from therapeutic doses of temazepam after long term use may result in a severe benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Gradual and careful reduction of the dosage, preferably with a long-acting benzodiazepine with long half life active metabolites such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam is recommended, to prevent severe withdrawal syndromes from developing. Other hypnotic benzodiazepines are not recommended.[28] A study in rats found that temazepam is cross tolerant with barbiturates and is able to effectively substitute for barbiturates and suppress barbiturate withdrawal signs.[29] There are rare reports in the medical literature of psychotic states developing after abrupt withdrawal from benzodiazepines, even from therapeutic doses.[30] Antipsychotics increase the severity of benzodiazepine withdrawal effects with an increase in the intensity and severity of convulsions.[31] Patients who were treated in the hospital with temazepam or nitrazepam have continued taking these after leaving the hospital. It was recommended that hypnotics in the hospital be limited to 5 nights use only, to avoid the development of withdrawal symptoms like insomnia.[32]

Pharmacology

It is a white, crystalline substance, is very slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. The main pharmacological action of temazepam is to increase the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) at the GABAA receptor. This causes sedation, motor-impairment, ataxia, anxiolysis, anticonvulsant effect, muscle relaxation and reinforcing effect.[33] As a premedication before surgery, temazepam decreased cortisol in elderly patients.[34] In rats, temazepam triggered the release of vasopressin into paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and decreased the release of ACTH under stress.[35]

Pharmacokinetics

Oral administration of 15 to 45 mg temazepam in man resulted in rapid absorption with significant blood levels achieved in less than 30 minutes and peak levels at 2 to 3 hours.[36] In a single and multiple dose absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) study, using tritium (3H) labelled drug, temazepam was well absorbed and found to have minimal (8%) first pass drug metabolism. There were no active metabolites formed and the only significant metabolite present in blood was the O-conjugate. The unchanged drug was 96% bound to plasma proteins. The blood level decline of the parent drug was biphasic with the short half-life ranging from 0.4-0.6 hours and the terminal half-life from 3.5–18.4 hours (mean 8.8 hours), depending on the study population and method of determination.[37]

Temazepam has very good bioavailability with 100% being absorbed from the gut. The drug is metabolized through conjugation and demethylation prior to excretion. Most of the drug is excreted in the urine, with about 20% appearing in the feces. The major metabolite was the O-conjugate of temazepam (90%); the O-conjugate of N-desmethyl temazepam was a minor metabolite (7%).[38]

Interactions

As other benzodiazepines, temazepam produces additive CNS depressant effects when co-administered with other medications which themselves produce CNS depression, such as barbiturates, alcohol,[39] opiates, tricyclic antidepressants, non-selective MAO inhibitors, phenothiazines and other antipsychotics, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines and anaesthetics. Administration of theophylline or aminophylline has been shown to reduce the sedative effects of temazepam and other benzodiazepines.

Unlike many benzodiazepines, pharmacokinetic interactions involving the P450 system have not been observed with temazepam. Temazepam shows no significant interaction with CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. itraconazole, erythromycin).[40] Oral contraceptives may decrease the effectiveness of temazepam and speed up its elimination half life.[41]

Overdose
Main article: Benzodiazepine overdose

Overdosage of temazepam results in increasing CNS effects, including:

* Somnolence (difficulty staying awake)
* Mental confusion
* Respiratory depression
* Hypotension
* Impaired motor functions
o Impaired or absent reflexes
o Impaired coordination
o Impaired balance
o Dizziness
* Coma
* Death

Temazepam has the highest rate of drug intoxication, including overdose, among the common benzodiazepines.[42] Temazepam and nitrazepam were the two benzodiazepines most commonly detected in overdose-related deaths in an Australian study of drug deaths.[43] A 1993 British study found temazepam to have the highest number of deaths per million prescriptions among medications commonly prescribed in the 1980s (11.9, versus 5.9 for benzodiazepines overall, taken with or without alcohol).[44] A 1995 Australian study of patients admitted to hospital after benzodiazepine overdose corroborated these results, and found temazepam overdose much more likely to lead to coma in comparison to other benzodiazepines (odds ratio 1.86). The authors note that several factors—such as differences in potency, receptor affinity, and rate of absorption between benzodiazepines—could explain this higher toxicity.[42]

Although benzodiazepines have a high therapeutic index, temazepam is one of the more dangerous of this group of drugs.

The combination of alcohol and temazepam makes death by alcohol poisoning more likely.[45]

Abuse
See also: Benzodiazepine drug misuse
Temazepam DOJ.jpg

Temazepam is a drug with the potential for misuse. Drug misuse is defined as taking the drug to achieve a high, or continuing to take the drug in the long term against medical advice.[46]

North America

In North America, temazepam abuse is not widespread. Other benzodiazepines are more commonly prescribed for insomnia. In the United States, temazepam is the fifth most prescribed benzodiazepine. Individuals abusing benzodiazepines obtain the drug by getting prescriptions from several doctors, forging prescriptions, or buying diverted pharmaceutical products on the illicit market.[47] North America never had a serious problem with temazepam abuse, but is becoming increasingly vulnerable to the illicit trade of temazepam.[48]

Australia

Temazepam accounts for most benzodiazepine sought by forgery of prescriptions and through pharmacy burglary in Victoria.[49] Due to intravenous abuse, the Australian government decided to put it under a more restrictive schedule than it previously was,[50] and since March 2004 temazepam capsules have been withdrawn from the Australian market.[51][52] Benzodiazepines are commonly detected by Customs at different ports and airports, arriving by mail, also found occasionally in the baggage of air passengers, mostly small or medium quantities (up to 200–300 tablets) for personal use. From 2003 to 2006 customs detected approximately 500 illegal importations of benzodiazepines per year, most frequently diazepam. Quantities varied from single tablets to 2,000 tablets.[53][54]
United Kingdom

In 1987, Temazepam was the most widely-abused legal prescription drug in the United Kingdom. The use of benzodiazepines by street drug abusers was part of a polydrug abuse pattern, but many of those entering treatment facilities were declaring temazepam as their main drug of abuse. Temazepam was the most commonly used benzodiazepine in a study, published 1994, of injecting drug users in seven cities and had been injected from preparations of capsules, tablets and syrup.[55] The increase in use of heroin, often mixed with other drugs, which most often included temazepam, diazepam and alcohol, was a major factor in the increase in drug related deaths in Glasgow and Edinburgh 1990-1992.[56] Temazepam use was particularly associated with violent or disorderly behaviours and contact with the police in a 1997 study of young single homeless people in Scotland.[57]

Street terms
Street terms for temazepam include king kong pills (formerly referred to barbiturates, now more commonly refers to temazepam), jellies, jelly, Edinburgh eccies, tams, terms, mazzies, temazies, tammies, temmies, beans, eggs, green eggs, wobbly eggs, knockouts, hardball, norries, oranges (common term in Australia and New Zealand), rugby balls, ruggers, terminators, red and blue, no-gos, blackout, green devils, drunk pills, brainwash, mind erasers, tem-tem’s (combined with buprenorphine), mommy’s big helper, vitamin T, big T, TZ, and others.[58][59]

Legal status
Ambox content.png
This section’s factual accuracy is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. (September 2009)

Temazepam is currently a Schedule III drug under the international Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.[60]

In the United Kingdom, temazepam is a Class C controlled drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Schedule 3 under the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001).[61] Temazepam is available only by a special controlled drug prescription form and requires special procedures in its storage and dispensing.[62] Additionally, all manufacturers in the UK have replaced the gel-capsules with solid tablets. Temazepam prepared for injection is classed as a Class A drug.

In the USA, temazepam is a Schedule IV drug and is only available by prescription. Specially coded prescriptions may be required in certain States.

In Canada, temazepam is a Schedule IV controlled substance requiring a registered doctors prescription.

In Ireland, temazepam is a Schedule 3 controlled substance with strict restrictions.[63]

In Portugal, temazepam is a Schedule IV controlled drug under Decree-Law 15/93.[64]

In the Netherlands temazepam is a List 2 substance of the Opium Law and is available for prescription as 10–20 mg tablets. The 20 mg gel-capsules are a List 1 substance of the Opium Law and thus is subject to stringent regulation.

In Sweden, temazepam is a  narcotic  drug list as both a List II (Schedule II) which denotes that it is a drug with limited medicinal use and a high risk of addiction, and it’s also listed as a List V (Schedule V) substance which denotes that the drug is prohibited in Sweden under the Narcotics Drugs Act (1968).[65] Temazepam is banned in Sweden and possession and distribution of even small amounts is punishable by a prison sentence and a fine.

In Australia, prescription is restricted as a Schedule 4 controlled drug.[66] It is used primarily for the treatment of severe insomnia that has not responded to other treatments.

In Slovenia, it is regulated as a Group II (Schedule 2) controlled substance under The Production and Trade in Illicit Drugs Act.[67][68]
In South Africa, temazepam is a Schedule 6 drug, requiring a special prescription, and is restricted to 10–20 mg doses.

In Hong Kong, temazepam is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong’s Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. Temazepam can only be used legally by health professionals and for university research purposes. The substance can be given by pharmacists under a prescription. Anyone who supplies the substance without prescription can be fined $10000 (HKD). The penalty for trafficking or manufacturing the substance is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment. Possession of the substance for consumption without license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of jail time.[69]

See also

* Long term effects of benzodiazepines
* Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome
* Benzodiazepine dependence
* Benzodiazepines
* Flunitrazepam
* Nitrazepam
* Nimetazepam

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50. ^  Access to sedative drug restricted . AAP General News (Australia). 13 January 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P1-49479424.html. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
51. ^ Wilce H (June 2004).  Temazepam capsules: What was the problem? . Australian Prescriber 27: 58–9. http://www.australianprescriber.com/magazine/27/3/58/9/.
52. ^ Australian Institute of Criminology (May 2007).  Benzodiazepine use and harms among police detainees in Australia  (PDF). Australian Government. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi336.pdf.
53. ^ Mouzos, J., Smith, L. and Hind, N, 2006. Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA): 2005 annual report on drug use among police detainees, Research and Public Policy Series No. 70. Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.
54. ^ Stafford, J., Degenhardt, L., Black, E., Bruno, R., Buckingham, K., Fetherston, J., Jenkinson, R., Kinner, S., Newman, J. and Weekley, J., 2006. Australian drug trends 2005: Findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS). National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Sydney.
55. ^ Ashton H (2002).  Benzodiazepine Abuse . Drugs and Dependence. London & New York: Harwood Academic Publishers.
56. ^ Hammersley R, Cassidy MT, Oliver J (1995).  Drugs associated with drug-related deaths in Edinburgh and Glasgow, November 1990 to October 1992 . Addiction 90 (7): 959–65. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.1995.9079598.x. PMID 7663317. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0965-2140&date=1995&volume=90&issue=7&spage=959.
57. ^ Hammersley R, Pearl S (1997).  Temazepam Misuse, Violence and Disorder . Addict Res Theory 5 (3): 213–22. doi:10.3109/16066359709005262.
58. ^  Temazepam abuse and slang terms . North Eastern Health Board. http://www.nehb.ie/youthhealthne/drugs%20list%20temazepam.htm.
59. ^  Erowid Drug Street Terms . Erowid. http://www.erowid.org/psychoactives/slang/.
60. ^  Green List—List of psychotropic substances under international control  (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. 23rd edition, August 2003. http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
61. ^  List of drugs currently controlled under the misuse of drugs legislation  (PDF). UK Government Home Office. 2009-01-28. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/cdlist.pdf?view=Binary. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
62. ^ http://www.patient.co.uk/printer.asp?doc=40024943
63. ^  Misuse Of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations . Irish Statute Book. Office of the Attorney General. 1993. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1993/en/si/0342.html.
64. ^  Decreto-Lei n.º 15/93, de 22 de Janeiro: Regime jurídico do tráfico e consumo de estupefacientes e psicotrópicos  (in Portuguese). Infarmed. http://www.infarmed.pt/portal/page/portal/INFARMED/LEGISLACAO/LEGISLACAO_FARMACEUTICA_COMPILADA/TITULO_III/TITULO_III_CAPITULO_III/068-DL_15_93_VF.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
65. ^ ____284.aspx Narkotikaklassade läkemedel, Läkemedelsverket
66. ^  Poisons Standard . Therapeutic Goods Administration. August 14, 2008. pp. 143. http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/3BBB39C4645284BCCA2574A6001C711F/$file/PoisonsStandard2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
67. ^ http://candidates2003.emcdda.europa.eu/download/si/ZPPA-angl.doc
68. ^ http://eldd.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index5622EN.html
69. ^  Bilingual Laws Information System  (English). The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.legislation.gov.hk/eng/index.htm.

External links

* Professor Heather Ashton, Benzodiazepines; How they work and How to Withdraw
* Rx-List – Temazepam
* Inchem – Temazepam
* Medline Plus (US Government supported website) entry for Temazepam
* Active Ingredients information

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temazepam

***

Category:Hypnotics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For more information, see Hypnotic.
Search Wikimedia Commons     Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hypnotics
Subcategories

This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
B

*
[+] Barbiturates (1 C, 55 P)

C

*
[+] Cyclopyrrolones (7 P)

P

*
[+] Pyrazolopyrimidines (5 P)

Pages in category  Hypnotics

The following 83 pages are in this category, out of 83 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
A

* Adinazolam
* Alfadolone
* Alprazolam
* Apronal

B

* Bentazepam
* Benzodiazepine
* Bromazepam
* Bromisoval
* Brotizolam

C

* Camazepam
* Carbromal
* Centalun
* Chloral hydrate
* Chloralodol
* Chlordiazepoxide
* Chlorobutanol
* Cinolazepam
* Clobazam
* Clomethiazole
* Clonazepam
* Clorazepate
* Clotiazepam
* Cloxazolam
* Cyclopyrrolones

D

* Delorazepam
* Diazepam
* Dichloralphenazone
* Diphenhydramine

D cont.

* Doxefazepam

E

* Embutramide
* Eplivanserin
* Estazolam
* Eszopiclone
* Ethinamate
* Ethyl loflazepate
* Etizolam
* Evoxine

F

* Fludiazepam
* Flunitrazepam
* Flurazepam

G

* Gidazepam

H

* Halazepam
* Hypnotic

I

* Indiplon

L
* List of psychotropic medications
* Loprazolam
* Lorazepam
* Lormetazepam

M

* Medazepam
* Meprobamate
* Midazolam

N

* Narcosynthesis
* Nimetazepam
* Nitrazepam

O

* Oleamide
* Org 20599

O cont.

* Oxazepam
* Oxazolam

P

* Paraldehyde
* Phenazepam
* Phenobarbital
* Pinazepam
* Prazepam
* Premazepam
* Promethazine
* Propiomazine
* Purple drank
* Pyrithyldione

Q

* QH-II-66
* Quazepam
* Quetiapine

S

* SH-053-R-CH3-2?F
* Sulazepam
* Sulfonmethane

T

* Temazepam
* Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone
* Tetronal
* Triazolam
* Trional
Z

* Z-drug
* Zaleplon
* Zolpidem
* Zopiclone

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Hypnotics

***

3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate)

3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate
Bonding model

Space filling model
IUPAC name
[show]
1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl hydroxy(diphenyl)acetate
Identifiers
CAS number     6581-06-2
PubChem     23056
MeSH     Quinuclidinyl+benzilate
Properties
Molecular formula     C21H23NO3
Molar mass     337.41 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 EC, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

QNB  redirects here. For the spoof amateur radio Q code, see QNB (amateur radio).

3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB, BZ, EA-2277), IUPAC name 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]Oct-3-yl ?-hydroxy-?-phenylbenzeneacetate, is an odorless military incapacitating agent.[1] Its NATO code is BZ. The Iraqi incapacitating agent Agent 15 is believed either to be the same as or similar to BZ.

BZ is a glycolate anticholinergic compound related to atropine, scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and other deliriants. Dispersal would be as an aerosolized solid (primarily for inhalation) or as agent dissolved in one or more solvents for ingestion or percutaneous absorption.

Acting as a competitive inhibitor of acetylcholine at postsynaptic and postjunctional muscarinic receptor sites in smooth muscle, exocrine glands, autonomic ganglia, and the brain, BZ decreases the effective concentration of acetylcholine seen by receptors at these sites. Thus, BZ causes PNS effects that in general are the opposite of those seen in nerve agent poisoning. CNS effects include stupor, confusion, and confabulation with concrete and panoramic illusions and hallucinations, and with regression to automatic  phantom  behaviors such as plucking and disrobing.

Physostigmine, which increases the concentration of acetylcholine in synapses and in neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions, is a specific antidote.

Production of BZ is controlled under schedule 2 of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Contents

* 1 Background
* 2 History
* 3 Military use
* 4 Sources other than military
* 5 Physiochemical characteristics
o 5.1 Detection and protection
o 5.2 Toxicokinetics
o 5.3 Toxicity
o 5.4 Toxicodynamics (mechanism of action)
o 5.5 Clinical effects
o 5.6 Central effects
o 5.7 Time course of effects
o 5.8 Differential diagnosis
o 5.9 Signs and symptoms
o 5.10 Anticholinergics
o 5.11 Medical management
o 5.12 History and toxicity of physostigmine
o 5.13 Triage
* 6 Chemistry
* 7 References
* 8 External links

Background

Following World War II, the United States military investigated a wide range of possible nonlethal, psychobehavioral chemical incapacitating agents to include psychedelic indoles such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and marijuana derivatives, certain tranquilizers like ketamine or fentanyl, as well as several glycolate anticholinergics. Copious amounts of phencyclidine are also documented as having been tested on active military personel,[2][3] such as in the Edgewood Arsenal experiments.

History

One of the anticholinergic compounds, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, was assigned the NATO code BZ and was weaponized at the beginning of the 1960s for possible battlefield use. BZ was invented by Hoffman-LaRoche in 1951.[4] The company was investigating anti-spasmodic agents, similar to Tropine, for treating gastrointestinal issues when the chemical was discovered.[4] In 1959 the United States Army began to show interest in using the chemical as a chemical warfare agent.[4] The agent was originally designated TK but when it was standardized by the U.S. Army in 1961 it was designated BZ.[4] The agent commonly became known as  Buzz  because of this abbreviation and the effects it had on the mental state of its casualties.[4]

Military use

In February 1998, the British Ministry of Defence released an intelligence report that accused Iraq of having stockpiled large amounts of a glycolate anticholinergic incapacitating agent known as Agent 15.[citation needed] Agent 15 is an alleged Iraqi incapacitating agent that is likely to be chemically either identical to BZ or closely related to it. Agent 15 was reportedly stockpiled in large quantities prior to and during the Persian Gulf War. The combination of anticholinergic PNS and CNS effects aids in the diagnosis of patients exposed to these agents.

Also in 1998, there were allegations that elements of the Army of the Republika Srpska used incapacitating agents, inherited from Yugoslav People’s Army arsenal, against fleeing Bosnian refugees during Srebrenica massacre in 1995 that caused hallucinations and irrational behavior.[5] Physical evidence of BZ use in Bosnia is unsupported, however.[citation needed]

Sources other than military

BZ and related anticholinergic compounds can be synthesized in clandestine laboratories, but its recreational use is nonexistent, because of its unpleasant effects. 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, called QNB in the scientific community, is used in pharmacology as a muscarinic receptor antagonist.

Physiochemical characteristics

BZ is odorless. It is stable in most solvents, with a half-life of three to four weeks in moist air; even heat-producing munitions can disperse it. It is extremely persistent in soil and water and on most surfaces. It is slightly soluble in water; soluble in dilute acids, trichloroethylene, dimethylformamide, most organic solvents, insoluble with aqueous alkali.[6]

Detection and protection

BZ is odorless and nonirritating with delayed symptoms several hours after contact.[1] In the field the only immediate indications of its use may be the white smoke emanating from delivered weapons. Though detection methods have been developed for BZ, these have not been standardized for field use and are limited to laboratory analysis or specialized monitoring in industrial facilities (past).

Protection from BZ means blocking it from entry into the body. At dosages adequate for a lung effect there is little risk of absorption through the skin or contact hazards from aerosols that have settled out onto surfaces. The amount of BZ that may settle out on surfaces from an aerosol is too small to represent a hazard from secondary aerosols. Therefore, the most appropriate protective response is to don a protective mask with a good quality aerosol filter. Even improvised respiratory protection (e.g., several folded pieces of cloth over the nose and mouth) may render BZ employment ineffectual.

There is the possibility that BZ could be employed for a skin effect by adding to a skin penetrating solvent, or used for a secondary aerosol through contaminating terrain with bulk micro-pulverized BZ. However, both of these employment schemes are unlikely owing to the high cost and uncontrolled dose (potentially lethal). In any situation where BZ is present in liquid or bulk powder form, adequate skin protection with impermeable protective clothing and gloves is warranted.

Toxicokinetics

BZ is dispersed as an aerosol. It may be micropulverized for dissemination by a disperser (90% dissemination efficiency), or mixed with a pyrotechnic burning mixture for dissemination in burning munitions (70% dissemination efficiency). Alternately, it may be dissolved in a solvent such as DMSO to enhance percutaneous absorption, though experiments before this proved unsatisfactory for military purposes.
Bioavailability via ingestion and by inhalation of particles 1 micrometer in size approximates 80%, and 40 to 50%, respectively, of a parenterally delivered dose of BZ. Percutaneous absorption of BZ dissolved in propylene glycol yields, after a latent period of up to 24 hours, serum levels approximately 5 to 10% of those achieved with intravenous or intramuscular administration.

Following absorption, BZ is systemically distributed to most organs and biological tissues of the body. Its ability to reach synapses and neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions throughout the body is responsible for its PNS effects, whereas its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier confers upon it the ability to cause CNS effects. Atropine and hyoscyamine both cross the placenta and can be found in small quantities in breast milk; whether this is also true for BZ is unclear.

Metabolism of BZ would be expected to occur primarily in the liver, with elimination of unchanged agent and metabolites chiefly in the urine.

Toxicity

The characteristic that makes BZ an incapacitating rather than a toxic chemical warfare agent is its high safety ratio (~40x). In terms of Ct products, the ICt50 (median incapacitating dosage) for BZ is 112 mgAmin/m³ (mild activity), whereas the LD50 is estimated to be around 3,800 – 41,300 mgAmin/m³.

Toxicodynamics (mechanism of action)

The agent BZ and other anticholinergic glycolates act as competitive inhibitors of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine neurons (1) at postjunctional muscarinic receptors in cardiac and smooth muscle and in exocrine (ducted) glands and (2) at postsynaptic receptors in neurons. As the concentration of BZ at these sites increases, the proportion of receptors available for binding to acetylcholine decreases and the end organ  sees  less acetylcholine. (One way of visualizing this process is to imagine BZ coating the surface of the end organ and preventing acetylcholine from reaching its receptors.) Because BZ has little to no agonist activity with respect to acetylcholine, high concentrations of BZ essentially substitute a  dud  for acetylcholine at these sites and lead to clinical effects reflective of understimulation of end organs.

Clinical effects
Peripheral effects:

* Mydriasis, blurred vision
* Dry mouth, skin
* Initially rapid heart rate declining to normal or slow heart rate over time
* Possible flushing of the skin

The PNS effects of BZ are, in general, readily understood as those of understimulation of end organs and are qualitatively similar to those of atropine. Decreased stimulation of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands in the skin results in dry skin and a reduction in the ability to dissipate heat by evaporative cooling. The skin becomes warm partly from decreased sweating and partly from compensatory cutaneous vasodilatation, (also causing red skin discolouration) as the body attempts to shunt a higher proportion of core-temperature blood as close as possible to the surface of the skin. With decreased heat loss, the core temperature itself rises.

Understimulation of other exocrine glands leads to xerostomia (dry mouth), thirst, and decreased secretions from lacrimal, nasal, bronchial, and gastrointestinal glands.
Decreased cholinergic stimulation of pupillary sphincter muscles allows alpha-adrenergically innervated pupillary dilating muscles to act essentially unopposed, resulting in mydriasis. Similar effects on cholinergic ciliary muscles produce paralysis of accommodation. Other smooth muscle effects from BZ intoxication include decreased bladder tone and decreased urinary force with possibly severe bladder distention.

BZ typically raises the heart rate initially, but hours later, depending on the dose of BZ, the heart rate falls to normal or may become slow. Either the peripheral vagal blockade has ceased or the stimulation of the vagal nucleus has occurred.

Neither atropine nor BZ can act directly at the postjunctional nicotinic receptors found in skeletal muscle, but BZ-exposed patients nonetheless exhibit muscle weakness. This weakness, along with incoordination, heightened stretch reflexes, and ataxia, is probably due to the effects of BZ at CNS sites.

The PNS effects of BZ are essentially side effects that are useful in diagnosis, but incidental to the CNS effects for which the incapacitating agents were developed. These CNS effects include a dose-dependent decrease in the level of consciousness, beginning with drowsiness and progressing through sedation to stupor and coma. The patient is often disoriented to time and place. Disturbances in judgment and insight appear. The patient may abandon socially imposed restraints and resort to vulgar and inappropriate behavior. Perceptual clues may no longer be readily interpretable, and the patient is easily distracted and may have memory loss, most notably short-term memory. In the face of these deficits, the patient still tries to make sense of his environment and will not hesitate to make up answers on the spot to questions that confuse him. Speech becomes slurred and often senseless, and loss of inflection produces a flat, monotonous voice. References become concrete and semiautomatic with colloquialisms, clichés, profanity, and perseveration. Handwriting also deteriorates. Semiautomatic behavior may also include disrobing (perhaps partly because of increased body temperature), mumbling, and phantom behaviors such as constant picking, plucking, or grasping motions ( woolgathering  or carphology).

BZ was referenced in the Vietnam War film Jacob’s Ladder, but the effects depicted in the film are not accurate. No evidence exists that BZ sends people exposed to it into a homicidal frenzy, as the film suggests.

BZ was also featured as a gas and was used to murder an army commander in the NCIS episode Sharif Returns when aside from the victim (who went so crazy he cut out his own eye and ate it).

Central effects
* Disturbances in level of consciousness
* Misperceptions and difficulty in interpretation (delusions, hallucinations)
* Poor judgment and insight (denial of illness)
* Short attention span, distractibility, impaired memory (particularly recent)
* Slurred speech, perseveration
* Disorientation
* Ataxia
* Variability (quiet/restless)

Central nervous system mediated perceptual disturbances in BZ poisoning include both illusions (misidentification of real objects) and hallucinations (the perception of objects or attributes that have no objective reality). Hallucinations resulting from anticholinergics such as BZ tend to be realistic, distinct, easily identifiable (often commonly encountered objects or persons), panoramic, and difficult to distinguish from reality. They also have the tendency to decrease in size during the course of the intoxication. This is in contrast to the typically vague, ineffable, and transcendent-appearing hallucinations induced by psychedelics such as LSD.

Another prominent CNS finding in BZ poisoning is behavioral lability, with patients swinging back and forth between quiet confusion and self-absorption in hallucinations, to frank combativeness. Moreover, as other symptoms begin to resolve, intermittent paranoia may be seen. Automatic behaviors common during resolution include the crawling or climbing motions called  progresso obstinato  in old descriptions of dementia.

BZ produces effects not just in individuals, but also in groups. Sharing of illusions and hallucinations (folie à deux, folie en famille, and  mass hysteria ) is exemplified by two BZ-intoxicated individuals who would take turns smoking an imaginary cigarette clearly visible to both of them but to no one else.[2] [Clarification] When one observed subject mumbled,  Gotta cigarette?  His delirious companion held out an invisible pack, he followed with,  S’okay, don’t wanna take your last one.  In another test it was reported two victims of BZ played tennis with imaginary rackets.[3]

Time course of effects

Clinical effects from ingestion or inhalation of BZ appear after an asymptomatic or latent period that may be as little as 30 minutes, or as long as 20 hours; the usual range is 0.5 to 4 hours, with a mean of 2 hours. However, effects may not appear up to 36 hours after skin exposure to BZ.

Once effects appear, their duration is typically 72 to 96 hours and are dose-dependent. Following an ICt50 of BZ, severe effects may last 36 hours, but mild effects may persist for additional days.

The clinical course from BZ poisoning can be divided into the following four stages:

1. Onset or induction (zero to four hours after exposure), characterized by parasympathetic blockade and mild CNS effects.
2. Second phase (4 to 20 hours after exposure), characterized by stupor with ataxia and hyperthermia.
3. Third phase (20 to 96 hours after exposure), in which full-blown delirium is seen but often fluctuates from moment to moment.
4. Fourth phase, or resolution, characterized by paranoia, deep sleep, reawakening, crawling or climbing automatisms, and eventual reorientation.
Differential diagnosis

The differential diagnosis for irrational and confused patients is a long one and includes anxiety reactions as well as intoxication with a variety of agents, to include hallucinogenic indoles (such as LSD), cannabinoids (such as the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in marijuana), lead, barbiturates, and bromides. All of these conditions can lead to restlessness, lightheadedness (with associated vertigo and ataxia), confusion, and erratic behavior with or without vomiting. Clues that specifically point to BZ or a related compound are the combination of anticholinergic PNS effects with the CNS effects of slurred and monotonous speech, automatic behavior (perseveration, disrobing, and phantom behaviors (such as  woolgathering )), and vivid, realistic, describable hallucinations (decreasing in size over time) in a patient slipping into and out of delirium.

Signs and symptoms

* Restlessness
* Dizziness or giddiness
* Failure to obey orders
* Confusion
* Erratic behavior
* Stumbling or staggering
* Drymouth (cottonmouth)
* Tachycardia at rest
* Elevated temperature
* Flushing of face
* Blurred vision
* Pupillary dilation
* Slurred or nonsensical speech
* Hallucinations
* Disrobing
* Mumbling
* Stupor and coma
* Inappropriate smiling or laughter
* Irrational fear
* Distractibility
* Difficulty expressing self
* Elevated blood pressure
* Stomach cramps and vomiting
* Euphoric, relaxed, unconcerned attitude
* Hypotension and/or dizziness on sudden standing
* Tremor
* Clinging or pleading
* Seemingly reasonless crying
* Decrease in disturbance with reassurance

Anticholinergics

* Indoles (Schizophrenic psychosis may mimic in some respects.)
* Cannabinols
* Anxiety reaction

Atropine intoxication from MARK I autoinjector use in a patient not exposed to nerve agents may create similar PNS effects to those seen in BZ intoxication. However, marked confusion from atropine is not normally seen until a total of six or seven autoinjectors have been given (in a hot, dehydrated, or battle-stressed individual, less atropine would probably suffice). Circumstantial evidence may be helpful in this situation. Heat stroke may also generate hot, dry, and confused or stuporous casualties and needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Patients with anxiety reactions are usually oriented to time, place, and person but may be trembling, crying, or otherwise panicked. The classic picture of unconcern or  la belle indifférence  may characterize a patient with a conversion reaction, but these patients are also likely to be oriented and lack the anticholinergic PNS signs of BZ poisoning.

Medical management

The admonition to protect oneself first may be difficult when dealing with any intoxication involving a latent period, since initially asymptomatic exposure to health care providers may already have occurred during the same time frame in which patients were exposed. Protection of medical staff from already absorbed and systemically distributed BZ in a patient is not needed.

General supportive management of the patient includes decontamination of skin and clothing (ineffective for already absorbed agent but useful in preventing further absorption of any agent still in contact with the patient), confiscation of weapons and related items from the patient, and observation. Physical restraint may be required in moderately to severely affected patients. The greatest risks to the patient’s life are (1) injuries from his or her own erratic behavior (or from the behavior of similarly intoxicated patients) and (2) hyperthermia, especially in patients who are in hot or humid environments or are dehydrated from overexertion or insufficient water intake. A severely exposed patient might be comatose with serious cardiac arrhythmias and electrolyte disturbances. Management of heat stress assumes a high priority in these patients. Because of the prolonged time course in BZ poisoning, consideration should always be given to evacuation to a higher echelon of care.

As a competitive inhibitor of acetylcholine, BZ effectively decreases the amount of acetylcholine  seen  by postsynaptic and postjunctional receptors throughout the body. Specific antidotal therapy in BZ poisoning is therefore geared toward raising the concentration of acetylcholine in these synapses and junctions. Any compound that causes a rise in acetylcholine concentration can potentially overcome BZ-induced inhibition and restore normal functioning; even the nerve agent VX has been shown to be effective when given under carefully controlled conditions. The specific antidote of choice in BZ poisoning is the carbamate anticholinesterase physostigmine (eserine; Antilirium), which temporarily raises acetylcholine concentrations by binding reversibly to anticholinesterase on the postsynaptic or postjunctional membrane. Physostigmine is similar in many ways to pyridostigmine and is equally effective when used as a pre-exposure antidotal enhancer ( pretreatment ) in individuals at high risk for subsequently encountering soman. However, physostigmine is not used for this purpose because the doses required cause vomiting through CNS mechanisms. In the case of BZ poisoning, a nonpolar compound such as physostigmine is used specifically because penetration into the brain is required in those individuals who already have CNS effects from BZ.

In BZ-intoxicated patients, physostigmine is minimally effective during the first four hours after exposure but is very effective after four hours. Oral dosing generally requires one and a half times the amount of antidote as does IM or IV administration. However, effects from a single intramuscular injection of physostigmine last only about 60 minutes, necessitating frequent re-dosing. It must be emphasized that physostigmine does not shorten the clinical course of BZ poisoning and that relapses will occur if treatment is discontinued prematurely. The temptation to substitute a slow intravenous infusion for intramuscular injections should be tempered by the awareness that IV infusion may lead to nerve-agent-like bradycardia, and too rapid infusion might cause arrhythmias, excessive secretions (to the point of compromising air exchange), and convulsions. Moreover, the sodium bisulfite in commercially available preparations of physostigmine may cause life-threatening allergic responses.

History and toxicity of physostigmine

The antagonism between physostigmine (the elixir of calabar bean) and atropine (tincture of belladonna) was first reported in 1864 by a physician who successfully treated prisoners who had become delirious after drinking tincture of belladonna. Physicians did not notice this report until the 1950s when atropine coma (in which 50 mg or so of atropine were given to certain psychiatric patients) was successfully treated with physostigmine after the  therapeutic benefit  had been attained. Again, this went unnoticed until a controlled study, reported in 1967, indicated that anticholinergic intoxication could be successfully, albeit transiently, reversed by physostigmine.

The administration of physostigmine by the IV route in a delirious but conscious and otherwise healthy patient is not without peril. It is sometimes difficult to keep a delirious patient quiet long enough to administer the drug (at 1 mg/min is the marketed solution of 1 mg/ml). Even if administered correctly (very slowly), the heart rate may decline from 110 to 45 beat/min over a period of 1 to 2 minutes. The difference in the onset of the effects after IM and IV administration of physostigmine is a matter of only several minutes. Since its use is rarely lifesaving, this slight difference in time of response is inconsequential.

Physostigmine is a safe and effective antidote if used properly. In a conscious and delirious patient it will produce very effective but transient reversal of both the peripheral and central effects of cholinergic blocking compounds. Its use by the IV route is not without hazards. It absolutely should NOT be used in a patient with cardiorespiratory compromise, hypoxia, or acid-base imbalance with a history of seizure disorders or arrhythmias.

Triage

An immediate casualty (possible but unlikely) would be one with cardiorespiratory compromise or severe hyperthermia.
The delayed casualty would present with pronounced or worsening anticholinergic signs.

A minimal casualty from a strictly medical standpoint might have mild PNS or CNS anticholinergic effects.

An expectant casualty (also possible but unlikely) would have severe cardiorespiratory compromise in a situation in which treatment or evacuation resources are too limited to allow the necessary attention to be directed to him or her.

Chemistry

Preparation of 3-QUINUCLIDONE (c.f. quinuclidine) has been documented.[7] 3-Quinuclidone synth.png

The last step of the procedure appears to be a Dieckmann cyclization (intramolecular Claisen condensation) followed by decarboxylation.

Additionally, benzilic acid is made in a few steps starting from benzaldehyde and cyanide catalyst.

3-Quinuclidone is a useful drug precursor for medicinal (neuroprotective) as well as military applicatons, c.f. PNU-282,987.

References

1. ^ a b QNB: Incapacitating Agent. Emergency Response Safety and Health Database. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Accessed April 20, 2009.
2. ^ Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure To Chemical Agents, Volume 2: Cholinesterase Reactivators, Psychochemicals and Irritants and Vesicants. (1984)
3. ^ Ketchum – Chemical Warfare: Secrets Almost Forgotten (2006)
4. ^ a b c d e Kirby, Reid.  Paradise Lost: The Psycho Agents , The CBW Conventions Bulletin, May 2006, Issue no. 71, pp. 2-3, accessed December 11, 2008.
5. ^ [1]
6. ^ US Army FM 3-9
7. ^ Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 5, p.989 (1973); Vol. 44, p.86 (1964).

External links

* Erowid – BZ Vault
* Tear Gases and Chemical Agents – Agent BZ
* eMedicine – Incapacitating Agents: 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate
* Possible Abuse of BZ by Insurgents in Iraq
* Center for Disease Control – BZ Incapacitating Agent
* Paradise Lost: The Psycho Agents by Reid Kirby
* Department of Defense – Agent BZ use in Hawaii April through June 1966.
* [4] – Quinuclidinyl benzilate.

v • d • e
United States chemical weapons program
Agents and chemicals
3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ) A Chlorine A Methylphosphonyl difluoride (DF) A Phosgene A QL A Sarin (GB) A Sulfur mustard (HD) A VX
Weapons
Bigeye bomb A M1 chemical mine A M104 155mm Cartridge A M110 155mm Cartridge A M121/A1 155mm Cartridge A M125 bomblet A M134 bomblet A M138 bomblet A M139 bomblet A M2 mortar A M23 chemical mine A M34 cluster bomb A M360 105mm Cartridge A M426 8-inch shell A M43 BZ cluster bomb A M44 generator cluster A M55 rocket A M60 105mm Cartridge A M687 155mm Cartridge A XM-736 8-inch projectile A MC-1 bomb A M47 bomb A Weteye bomb
Operations and testing
Dugway sheep incident A Edgewood Arsenal experiments A MKULTRA A Operation CHASE A Operation Geranium A Operation LAC A Operation Red Hat A Operation Steel Box A Operation Ranch Hand A Operation Top Hat A Project 112 A Project SHAD
Facilities
Anniston Army Depot A Anniston Chemical Activity A Blue Grass Army Depot A Deseret Chemical Depot A Edgewood Chemical Activity A Hawthorne Army Depot A Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System A Newport Chemical Depot A Pine Bluff Chemical Activity A Pueblo Chemical Depot A Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility A Umatilla Chemical Depot
Units and formations
1st Gas Regiment A U.S. Army Chemical Corps A Chemical mortar battalion
Equipment
Chemical Agent Identification Set A M93 Fox A MOPP A People sniffer
Related topics
Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory A Chlorine bombings in Iraq A Herbicidal warfare A List of topics A Poison gas in World War I A Tyler poison gas plot

v • d • e
Deliriants (anticholinergic hallucinogens)
Tropanes
Atropine • CAR-226,086 • Hyoscyamine • Scopolamine
Benzilates
Benactyzine • CAR-301,060 • CAR-302,196 • CAR-302,282 • CAR-302,368 • CAR-302,537 • CAR-302,668 • CS-27349 • Ditran • EA-3167 • EA-3443 • EA-3580 • EA-3834 • N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate • N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate • 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate • WIN-2299
Antihistamines
Benzhydryl compounds (Cyclizine • Dimenhydrinate • Diphenhydramine), Doxylamine • Promethazine
Others
Benzydamine • Dicyclomine • Biperiden • Trihexyphenidyl

v • d • e
Chemical agents
Blood agents
Cyanogen chloride (CK) A Hydrogen cyanide (AC)
Blister agents
Ethyldichloroarsine (ED) A Methyldichloroarsine (MD) A Phenyldichloroarsine (PD) A Lewisite (L) A Sulfur mustard gas (HD, H, HT, HL, HQ) A Nitrogen mustard gas (HN1, HN2, HN3)
Nerve agents
G-Agents: Tabun (GA) A Sarin (GB) A Soman (GD) A Cyclosarin (GF) A GV — V-Agents: EA-3148 A VE A VG A VM A VR A VX — Novichok agents
Pulmonary agents
Chlorine A Chloropicrin (PS) A Phosgene (CG) A Diphosgene (DP)
Incapacitating agents
Agent 15 (BZ) A EA-3167 A KOLOKOL-1
Riot control agents
Pepper spray (OC) A CS gas A CN gas (mace) A CR gas

Seal of the US Department of the Army.svg This article incorporates text in the public domain from the United States Army.
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3-Quinuclidinyl_benzilate
Categories: Deliriants | Anticholinergics | Incapacitating agents | Mind control | Quinuclidines

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3-quinuclidinyl_benzilate

800px-3-Quinuclidone_synth.png

***

Scopolamine

Scopolamine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(-)-(S)-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propionic acid (1R,2R,4S,7S,9S)-9-methyl-3-oxa-9-aza-tricyclo[3.3.1.02,4]non-7-yl ester
Identifiers
CAS number     51-34-3
ATC code     A04AD01 N05CM05, S01FA02
PubChem     5184
DrugBank     APRD00616
ChemSpider     10194106
Chemical data
Formula     C17H21NO4
Mol. mass     303.353 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability     10 – 50% [1]
Metabolism      ?
Half life     4.5 hours[1]
Excretion      ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US)
Legal status

P(UK) ?-only(US)
Routes     transdermal, ocular, oral, subcutaneous, intravenous, sublingual, rectal, buccal transmucousal, intramuscular
Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)

Scopolamine, also known as levo-duboisine, and hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug with muscarinic antagonist effects. It is obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane, jimson weed and Angel’s Trumpets (Datura resp. Brugmansia spec.), and corkwood (Duboisia species [3]). It is among the secondary metabolites of these plants. Therefore, scopolamine is one of three main active components of belladonna and stramonium tinctures and powders used medicinally along with atropine and hyoscyamine. Scopolamine was isolated from plant sources by scientists in 1881 in Germany and description of its structure and activity followed shortly thereafter.

Scopolamine has anticholinergic properties and has legitimate medical applications in very minute doses. As an example, in the treatment of motion sickness, the dose, gradually released from a transdermal patch, is only 330 microgrammes (:g) per day. In rare cases, unusual reactions to ordinary doses of scopolamine have occurred including confusion, agitation, rambling speech, hallucinations, paranoid behaviors, and delusions.

Contents

* 1 Etymology
* 2 Physiology
* 3 Medical use
o 3.1 Nausea
o 3.2 Ophthalmic
o 3.3 Memory research
o 3.4 Addiction
o 3.5 Other medical uses
o 3.6 Routes of administration
* 4 Recreational use
* 5 Use in interrogation
* 6 Criminal use and urban legends
* 7 Shamanic use
* 8 Witchcraft and sorcery
* 9 Adverse effects
o 9.1 Drug interactions: side effects and use against pain
* 10 History
* 11 Popular culture
* 12 References
* 13 External links

Etymology

Scopolamine is named after the plant genus Scopolia. The name  hyoscine  is from the scientific name for henbane, Hyoscyamus niger.

Physiology

Scopolamine acts as a competitive antagonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, specifically M1 receptors; it is thus classified as an anticholinergic,anti-muscarinic drug. (See the article on the parasympathetic nervous system for details of this physiology.)

Medical use

In medicine, scopolamine has these uses:

* Primary:
o Treatment of nausea and motion sickness
o Treatment of intestinal cramping
o For ophthalmic purposes.
o As a general depressant and adjunct to narcotic painkillers
* Less often:
o As a preanesthetic agent
o As a drying agent for sinuses, lungs, and related areas.
o To reduce motility and secretions in the GI tract—most frequently in tinctures or other belladonna or stramonium preparations, often used in conjunction with other drugs as in Donnagel original forumulation, Donnagel-PG (with paregoric), Donnabarb/Barbadonna/Donnatal (with phenobarbital), and a number of others
o Uncommonly, for some forms of Parkinsonism.
o As an adjunct to narcotic analgesia, such as the product Twilight Sleep which contained morphine and scopolamine, some of the original formulations of Percodan and some European brands of methadone injection.[citation needed]
o To enhance the pain-killing ability of various opioids.
o As an occasional sleep aid, and was available in some over-the-counter-products in the United States for this purpose until November 1990.

Nausea
Its use as an antiemetic in the form of a transdermal patch.

Ophthalmic

The drug is used in eye drops to induce mydriasis (pupillary dilation) and cycloplegia (paralysis of the eye focusing muscle), primarily in the treatment of eye disorders that benefit from its prolonged effect, e.g. uveitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, etc.

Memory research

Because of its anticholinergic effects, scopolamine has been shown to prevent the activation of medial temporal lobe structures for novel stimuli during spatial memory tasks.

Addiction

Scopolamine has been used in the past to treat addiction to drugs such as heroin and cocaine. The patient was given frequent doses of scopolamine until they were delirious. This treatment was maintained for 2 to 3 days after which they were treated with pilocarpine. After recovering from this they were said to have lost the acute craving to the drug to which they were addicted. [2]

Currently, scopolamine is being investigated for its possible usefulness alone or in conjunction with other drugs in assisting people in breaking the nicotine habit.[citation needed] The mechanism by which it mitigates withdrawal symptoms is different from that of clonidine meaning that the two drugs can be used together without duplicating or canceling out the effects of each other.

Other medical uses

* It can be used as a depressant of the central nervous system, and was formerly used as a bedtime sleep aid.
* Anesthetic; Its use in general anesthesia is favored by some[citation needed] due to its amnesic effect. Scopolamine causes memory impairments to a similar degree as diazepam.[3]
* In otolaryngology it is used to dry the upper airway (anti-sialogogue action) prior to instrumentation of the airway.
* In October 2006 researchers at the US National Institute of Mental Health found that scopolamine reduced symptoms of depression within a few days, and the improvement lasted for at least a week after switching to a placebo.[4]
* Due to its effectiveness against sea-sickness it has become commonly used by scuba divers.[5][6]

Routes of administration
Scopolamine can be administered by transdermal patches,[7] oral, subcutaneous, ophthalmic and intravenous routes. The transdermal patch (e.g. Transderm Sco-p) for prevention of nausea and motion sickness employs scopolamine base. The patch is effective for up to 3 days[8]. The oral, ophthalmic and intravenous forms are usually scopolamine hydrobromide (for example in Scopace, soluble 0.4 mg tablets or Donnatal).

Recreational use

The use of medical scopolamine/opioid combination preparations for euphoria is uncommon but does exist and can be seen in conjunction with opioid use. Doses of scopolamine by itself near the therapeutic range create euphoria and anxiolysis of anticholinergic origin, similar to that of some first-generation antihistamines and similar drugs.

Another separate group of users prefer dangerously high doses, especially in the form of datura preparations, for the deliriant and hallucinogenic effects. The hallucinations produced by scopolamine, in common with other potent anticholinergics, are especially real-seeming, with many users reporting hallucinations such as spiders crawling on walls and ceilings, especially in the dark. While some users find this pleasent, often the experience is not one that the user would want to repeat. An overdose of scopolamine is also physically exceedingly unpleasant and can be fatal, unlike the effect of other more commonly used hallucinogens. For these reasons, naturally occurring anticholinergics are rarely used for recreational purposes.

Scopolamine in transdermal, oral, sublingual, and injectable formulations can produce a cholinergic rebound effect when high doses are stopped. This is the opposite of scopolamine’s therapeutic effects: sweating, runny nose, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, dizziness, irritability, and diarrhea. Psychological dependence is also possible when the drug is taken for its tranquilizing effects.
Use in interrogation

The Use of Scopolamine in Criminology  by Robert E. House appeared in the Texas State Journal of Medicine in September, 1922 and was reprinted in The American Journal of Police Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, Jul. – Aug., 1931.[citation needed]

The use of scopolamine as a truth drug was investigated in the 1950s by various intelligence agencies, including the CIA as part of Project MKULTRA.

In 2009, it has been proved that Czechoslovak communist secret police used scopolamine at least three times to obtain confession from alleged anti-state conspirators. [9]

The fictional truth drug Hyoscine-pentothal does not describe real hyoscine accurately.

…if you inject it into the spine (amount classified), it causes absolutely incredible pain, accompanied by violent convulsions and seizures. If injected into the spine in the appropriate amount, more than 95% of all prisoners will tell the truth — not something fabricated to stop the pain — within 24 hours (Source: classified).  http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Torture%2C_interrogation_and_intelligence

Criminal use and urban legends

Scopolamine poisoning is sometimes reported as a way used by murderers or robbers, although largely exaggerated in many unfounded rumors. In 1910 it was detected in the remains believed to be those of Cora Crippen, wife of Dr Hawley Harvey Crippen, and was accepted at the time as the cause of her death since her husband was known to have bought some at the start of the year.[10]

There are unfounded circulating rumors that a transcutaneous delivery mechanism using business cards, pamphlets or flyers laced with the drug, could be effective. Indeed, the quantity of toxin diffusing through the skin barrier after one short contact of the fingers with an object is much too small to be readily absorbed in the body and to have any significant effect. The use of burundanga impregnated visit cards to attack and to rob isolated people is often propagated by chain emails and is presently reported as hoax or urban legend by many specialised web sites [11][12][13]. Meanwhile, spiked alcoholic drinks (direct ingestion) could have been occasionally used. In recent years the criminal use of scopolamine has become epidemic in Colombia. Approximately one in five emergency room admissions for poisoning in Bogotá have been attributed to scopolamine.[14] In a bizarre case, a band of female thieves would impregnate their breasts with scopolamine and then would lure potential victims to lick their nipples. Under the drug’s effects, the victims would lose concience and would give them access to their bank accounts. [15] In June 2008, more than 20 people were hospitalized with psychosis in Norway after ingesting counterfeit Rohypnol tablets containing scopolamine. [4]

Shamanic use

In Colombia a plant admixture containing scopolamine called Burundanga has been used shamanically for decades.[citation needed]

Witchcraft and sorcery

Scopolamine was one of the active principles in many of the  flying ointments  used by witches, sorcerers and fellow travellers of many countries and cultures from millennia ago ostensibly down to the late 19th century or even to the present day. Scopolamine and related tropanes contributed both to the flying sensations and hallucinations sought by users of these compounds. Potions, solids of various types, and other forms were also used in some cases.

These ointments could contain any number of ingredients with belladonna, henbane, and other plants of the belladonna and datura families being present almost invariably; they were applied to the vaginal and/or anal mucosa and/or large areas of the skin and other mucous membranes (often using a broom as an applicator, the origin[citation needed] of the image of a witch riding a broom) with the objective being to see the Gods or spirits, and/or be transported to the Sabbat.

The hallucinations, sensation of flying, often a rapid increase in libido, and other characteristic effects of this practice are largely attributable to the CNS and peripheral effects of scopolamine and other active drugs present in the ointments such as atropine, hyoscyamine, mandragorine, scopoline, solanine, optical isomers of scopolamine and other tropane alkaloids. The inclusion of belladonna/datura type plants amongst the dozens of ingredients in the Haitian zombie drug is thought by some authorities to be at least somewhat likely, although scopolamine-bearing plant matter is almost certainly not the main active ingredient, which has been theorised to possibly be Tetrodotoxin or a related substance.

Adverse effects

The common side effects are related to the anticholinergic effect on parasympathetic postsynaptic receptors: dry mouth, throat and nasal passages in overdose cases progressing to impaired speech, thirst, blurred vision and sensitivity to light, constipation, difficulty urinating and tachycardia. Other effects of overdose include flushing and fever, as well as excitement, restlessness, hallucinations, or delirium. These side effects are commonly observed with oral or parenteral uses of the drug and generally not with topical ophthalmic use.

Use in scuba diving to prevent sea sickness has led to the discovery of another side effect. In deep water, below 50–60 feet, some divers have reported pain in the eyes that subsides quickly if the diver ascends to a depth of 40 feet or less. Mydriatics can precipitate an attack of glaucoma in susceptible patients, so the medication should be used with extra caution among divers who intend to go below 50 feet.

Drug interactions: side effects and use against pain

When combined with morphine, scopolamine is useful for pre-medication for surgery or diagnostic procedures and was widely used in obstetrics in the past; the mixture also produces amnesia and a tranquillised state known as Twilight Sleep, also the name of a proprietary drug available in the past in ampoules of injectable fluid containing morphine sulphate and scopolamine hydrobromide (and in some cases the phenothiazine anti-nauseants prochlorperazine or promethazine as a third ingredient). Although originally used in obstetrics, it is now considered dangerous for that purpose for both mother and baby.[citation needed]

History

Scopolamine was one of the earlier alkaloids isolated from plant sources and has been in use in isolated, purified forms such as free base and various salts, especially hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide and sulphate, since its isolation by German chemists in 1881 and in the form of plant-based preparations since antiquity and perhaps pre-historic times.

Scopolamine was one of the active ingredients in Asthmador, an over the counter smoking preparation marketed in the 1950s and 60’s claiming to combat asthma and bronchitis.

Scopolamine was used from the 1940s to the 1960s to put mothers in labor into a kind of  twilight sleep  that did not stop pain, but merely eliminated the memory of pain by attacking the brain functions responsible for self-awareness and self-control. Often, this caused a kind of psychosis, followed by post-traumatic stress-like memories in thousands of new mothers.[16]

Scopolamine was an ingredient used in some over-the-counter sleep aids before November 1990 in the United States, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration forced several hundred ingredients allegedly not known to be effective off the market. Scopolamine shared a small segment of this market with diphenhydramine, phenyltoloxamine, pyrilamine, doxylamine and other first generation antihistamines, many of which are still used for this purpose in drugs like Sominex, Tylenol PM, NyQuil, etc.

Popular culture
Scopolamine’s use as a truth serum features in a number of fictional works such as Farewell, My Lovely, The Guns of Navarone, and The Matarese Dynasty. In 1957, scopolamine achieved a moderate level of notoriety via its mention in the film I Was a Teenage Werewolf, where Dr. Alfred Brandon uses it as part of his endeavor to regress the titular character to his  primitive roots.  According to Dr. Liz Kingsley’s film review site And You Call Yourself a Scientist, Brandon’s line  Prepare the scopolamine   is  the only scientifically accurate line in the whole film.

Its recreational use is recounted in a 1955 letter from Tangier to Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs recounts an incident in which he shot up a series of ampoules of a methadone preparation containing scopolamine without considering the effect of the latter drug; later in the evening he was reportedly red as a beet, had totally disrobed and was running around yelling and trying to get away from monsters; he needed to be restrained by the owner of the building in which he rented an apartment.

In Fear and Loathing In Las Vegas by Hunter S. Thompson, Dr. Gonzo mentions an incident in which he was given an entire datura root as a gift, ate the entire thing at once, and subsequently went blind, had to be taken back to his house in a wheelbarrow, and started making noises like a raccoon.

In Carlos Castaneda’s series of books The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, the datura plant is the favored shamanic, revelatory drug of the titular character. The book explores, in depth, Castaneda’s alleged experiences under the influence of the drug, as well as the alleged rites surrounding its use and preparation.

Scopolamine appears in Stephen King’s novel Misery, which depicts the protagonist self-administering a morphine-scopolamine injectable to stave off pain and withdrawal symptoms after being deliberately given narcotic analgesics to produce physical dependence.

In  Smut,  a tenth-season episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, a serial rapist uses scopolamine as a date rape drug. This allows him to operate with near-impunity, as none of his victims recall ever meeting him, let alone being raped. It also allows him to make pornographic videos of himself committing the rapes, but still have a defense, as the women are shown being compelled to say they consent to the sex.

In the 1990 film Robocop 2, the film’s antagonist, Cain, directs a lab tech to add Scopolamine to a new drug called Blue Velvet, a flavour of the film’s fictional designer drug, Nuke. Upon sampling a prototype of the drug, Cain says to the lab tech,  Benzedrine’s got my teeth wiggling. Cut it with scopolamine. 5 mils per.

References
1. ^ a b Putcha L, Cintrón NM, Tsui J, Vanderploeg JM, Kramer WG (June 1989).  Pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of scopolamine in normal subjects . Pharm. Res. 6 (6): 481–5. doi:10.1023/A:1015916423156. PMID 2762223.
2. ^ Evelyn Clare Pearce (1941). Pearce’s Medical and Nursing Dictionary and Encyclopaedia. Faber & Faber.
3. ^ Jones DM; Jones ME, Lewis MJ, Spriggs TL. (May 1979).  Drugs and human memory: effects of low doses of nitrazepam and hyoscine on retention. . Br J Clin Pharmacol. 7 (5): 479–83. PMID 475944.
4. ^ Furey, ML; Drevets, WC (October 2006).  Antidepressant efficacy of the antimuscarinic drug scopolamine: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial . Archives of General Psychiatry, vol 63, p 1121 63: 1121. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.10.1121. PMID 17015814. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?orig_db=PubMed&db=PubMed&cmd=Search&term=%22Archives+of+general+psychiatry%22%5BJour%5D+AND+63%5Bvolume%5D+AND+1121%5Bpage%5D.
5. ^ Bitterman N, Eilender E, Melamed Y (May 1991).  Hyperbaric oxygen and scopolamine . Undersea Biomed Res 18 (3): 167–74. PMID 1853467. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2573. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
6. ^ Williams TH, Wilkinson AR, Davis FM, Frampton CM (March 1988).  Effects of transcutaneous scopolamine and depth on diver performance . Undersea Biomed Res 15 (2): 89–98. PMID 3363755. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2495. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
7. ^ White PF, Tang J, Song D, et al. (2007).  Transdermal scopolamine: an alternative to ondansetron and droperidol for the prevention of postoperative and postdischarge emetic symptoms . Anesth. Analg. 104 (1): 92–6. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000250364.91567.72. PMID 17179250. http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17179250.
8. ^ Transderm Scop patch prescribing information
9. ^ Gazdík, Jan; Navara, Lude(k (2009-08-08).  Sve(dek: Grebeníc(ek ve(zne( nejen mlátil, ale dával jim i drogy [A witness: Grebeníc(ek not only beat prisoners, he also administered drugs to them]  (in Czech). iDnes. http://zpravy.idnes.cz/svedek-grebenicek-vezne-nejen-mlatil-ale-daval-jim-i-drogy-pmd-/domaci.asp?c=A090807_205833_domaci_vel. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
10. ^  The Trial of H.H. Crippen  ed. by Filson Young (Notable British Trials series, Hodge, 1920), p. xxvii; see also evidence, pp. 68-77.
11. ^ Hoax: Burundanga Business Card Drug Warning
12. ^ Urband legend: Burundanga Drug Warning
13. ^ Snopes.com: Burundanga Business Card
14. ^ Manuel Uribe G., Claudia L. Moreno L, Adriana Zamora S., Pilar J. Acosta (2005) Perfil epidemiológico de la intoxicación con burundanga en la clínica Uribe Cualla S. A. de Bogotá, D. C. Acta Neurol Colomb, 21, 197-201 [1]
15. ^ http://www.biopsychiatry.com/scopolamine/borrachero.html
16. ^ The Business of Being Born, [2]

External links

* The Erowid Scopolamine Vault
* Scopolamine Transdermal Patch Information:
* Sober Circle Article on Dangers of Scopolamine
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scopolamine
Categories: Deliriants | Entheogens | Epoxides | Mind control | Muscarinic antagonists | Natural tropane alkaloids | Plant toxins
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scopolamine

***

Torture, interrogation and intelligence
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* Was first publicly revealed by Wikileaks working with our source.
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December 19, 2007
Summary

Lecture on torture techniques by Dr. Larry Forness of the American Military University (Dec 2005). The document explains the rationale behind torturing prisoners, torture methods, and a justification for ignoring international law. Forness advocates the injection of truth serums, threatening to inject Muslim prisoners with pigs’ blood, and torturing detainees’ friends and family.

Dr. Larry Forness is a professor at American Military University. He has earned nine degrees, including three doctorates and two law degrees, with over half the degrees obtained via distance education. He completed his undergraduate training at Notre Dame and his advanced degree and training from prestigious universities such as Duke University and UCLA. He also earned two Law degrees (JD and LL.M.). A former Marine, Dr. Forness provides classified consulting to U.S. Military Special Operations units. Specialties include unconventional warfare and intelligence.  (AMU biography)
Although the document was likely intended for Forness’ students, it was subsequently circulated within the US military, where it came to the attention of the Wikileaks whistleblower Peryton, who also disclosed Guantanamo Bay’s main manual Camp Delta Standard Operating Procedure (2004), which was authenticated publicly by Joint Task Force Guantanamo.

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Text version follows:
TORTURE, INTERROGATION AND INTELLIGENCE

What I want you to keep in mind as you read this is that we are to assume the following situation: We have somebody in our custody, who we believe has knowledge of an impending terrorist attack, and we think that attack could be VERY serious, but we have less than five days to find out what this person knows about the impending attack.
In this piece, I’m going to specifically address using drugs known as  truth serums  as the means by which we get the intelligence that we need. Some would call this a form of torture.

I want you to know that I don’t glory torture for its own sake. I accept it as a means to survival.

To digress for a moment, and to add a little humor to it, I don’t get any pleasure inflicting pain on anybody, unless you’re a quarterback. I hate quarterbacks. I was a linebacker. Quarterbacks live a charmed life. Think about it. A quarterback never had zits as a kid. He never sweat. He always got the best looking cheerleader. He or his parents always had the best car. The teachers and coaches would let him get away with murder, and yet call him a saint. He always had his picture on the front cover of the football guide and the game-day program. He was the class valedictorian. He never had to dig ditches in 100-degree heat in the summer to make money. Even during practice, he got to wear a different color jersey from anybody else. He could sit down, kneel down, slide down, fall down, lie down, down the damn ball or throw it away, and if you even breathed on him you got penalized 15 yards for roughing the quarterback. I ask you, when was the last time you ever saw any official at any football game — peewee through the pros — ever throw flag on anybody for roughing the linebacker? I rest my case.

When Israel suffers a terrorist attack, almost invariably they retaliate within 24 hours. The reason that they can do this is that they have the world’s best human intelligence (humint), and they know how to interrogate people. Their intelligence is so good and they keep it so current that they know who has attacked them, and they already have plans in existence for retaliation. Their humint sources are not just Israelis, but actual members of the society on which they are spying. They use humint and supplement it by signal intelligence (sigint). We do it just ass-backwards, because we CAN’T do it the way the Israeli’s do it — we simply do not have enough people on the ground. It takes $500,000-1,000,000 and 3-5 years to train and put in place a good humint source (assume this is an American hired by, say, the CIA, to try and infiltrate some terrorist group). NOTHING that is going on at present can quickly change this equation or situation. Forget the hearings, the posturing, the proposals, the realignments, the debate. It’s all based on the INCORRECT assumption that we already have the tools, they just need to be rearranged. We do NOT have all the tools and no flow chart or organization chart can change that.
The Geneva Convention was not signed by any terrorist group. No terrorist should be provided any protection whatsoever under the Geneva Convention.

We are supposed to be a nation of laws. If you are not a United States citizen, don’t expect protection of our laws.

Therefore, no terrorist — whether running free or in custody — is entitled to any protection under any international law to which we are a signatory or law of the United States.

Most of what follows is what I have learned from Israelis, South Koreans, Russians, as well as Americans.

I want to address several fallacies of interrogation.
Fallacy #1. Torture never works, because a prisoner will tell the interrogators whatever they want to hear just to stop the torture.

That’s based on a faulty assumption. That faulty assumption is that, if you act on the fabricated intelligence provided by the prisoner, and then you find out that it is not correct, that the prisoner does not have to pay a price for lying. Before you ask the prisoner for information, you tell that prisoner that if he or she lies, you will torture the prisoner, the family, the friends, the parakeet, whomever. And then do it.

Fallacy #2. Any prisoner can outwit his or her interrogators.
This doesn’t work with interrogators who are members of a free society, and have very good to excellent intelligence sources to confirm and verify what a prisoner says.

Part of this fallacy was created as a result of what our American POWs told their North Vietnamese interrogators, when those POWs were held in and around Hanoi during the Vietnam War.

North Vietnam was a closed society. That society only heard and saw what their leaders wanted them to hear and see. Our prisoners’ Code of Conduct was changed in response to the brutal torture that our POW’s endured.

Our POWs held out under that torture as long as they could. When they could hold out no longer, they made up something to stop the torture. Incredibly, and to show you how stupid and uninformed the North Vietnamese were, our POWs made up names of superior officers. These names included General Mills (the cereal company), Major Domo, Captain Video, etc. The North Vietnamese interrogators dutifully wrote down this information, smiled smugly, and assumed that they had extracted critical information from their prisoners.

In this sense, yes, the prisoners did outwit the interrogators. In contrast, when our POWs were interrogated by Russians, Cubans, East Germans, and Bulgarians, when they tried to pull the same stunt as they did with the North Vietnamese, our guys were beaten, starved, and tortured unmercifully. Our guys said that you could fool North Vietnamese, but don’t even think about trying it with those other guys.

Fallacy #3. Torture as a means of interrogation is generally not accepted throughout the world.

In point of fact, within the last three years, more than three-quarters of all countries in the world have practiced torture as a means of interrogation. This applies to their own citizens, as well as foreigners, whether combatants or not.

Bleeding hearts just don’t get it. On the one hand, they kept telling us to allow the weapons inspectors in Iraq more and more and more time and more and more and more time to uncover weapons of mass destruction. On the other hand, once the President declared an end to major combat operations in Iraq, the bleeding hearts started screeching that the rebuilding and democratization of Iraq wasn’t happening fast enough. On the third hand, they run their hands at how quickly we had placed prisoners into detention facilities. This herky-jerky, stop-and-go, inconsistency is nothing more than political opportunism.

Even the ACLU got involved, not on behalf of Americans, but on behalf of our enemies. If you didn’t know this, read this and burn it in your memory: The ACLU was founded by a card-carrying member of the Communist Party. You should never again wonder why the ACLU is trying to tear apart the moral and legal fiber of this country.

Fallacy #4. These things called  truths serums  don’t really work.

They do work to varying degrees of success.
There are three primary truth serums.

Here they are.

Scopolamine (scopolamine hydrobromide; first word pronounced: skoh-PAW-lah-mean), also known by another name — hyoscine (hyoscine hydrobromide). It is colorless, odorless and tasteless. Its clinical uses are primarily as a sedative, and applied locally (directly) as a mydriatic, which causes the pupil of the eye to dilate. When used as a sedative, the primary uses are to combat vertigo and motion sickness. When used with morphine and pentobarbital, to a woman in labor, it produces a  twilight sleep.  It is also used as a premedication preliminary to surgery anesthesia.

Since scopolamine completely blocks the formation of memories, unlike most date-rape drugs used in the United States and elsewhere, it is usually impossible for victims to ever identify their aggressors (or interrogators, if you were a prisoner).

To use scopolamine most effectively to get a prisoner to tell you what he or she knows, the key is where you inject it, and in what amounts. Normally it is introduced into the body by a transdermal patch or intravenously in the arm. However, if you inject it into the spine (amount classified), it causes absolutely incredible pain, accompanied by violent convulsions and seizures. If injected into the spine in the appropriate amount, more than 95% of all prisoners will tell the truth — not something fabricated to stop the pain — within 24 hours (Source: classified).

A far milder form of psychological abuse involves exposing prisoners (intravenously or orally) to sodium pentathol—commonly known as  truth serum.  Sodium pentathol is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate that depresses the central nervous system, slows heart rate, and lowers blood pressure. In the relaxed state produced by the drug, subjects are more susceptible to suggestion and are therefore easier to interrogate. The drug does not actually guarantee that prisoners will tell the truth, however. Often, it makes subjects  gabby  without revealing any important information.
Sodium amythal, also known as a type of  truth serum,  with its clinical application in psychoanalysis, is used primarily to help in memory recovery and dealing with  false  memories. If you can confuse the prisoner as to what is a real memory and what is a false memory, you might be able to crack their resistance to telling the truth. However, if the prisoner is smart, he or she will simply shut up and you’ll get nothing from them.

What is interesting is that a prisoner could have been subjected to a truth serum singularly, or two or three over enough time given the appropriate washout of the prisoner’s system, and flatly state that he or she did not tell his or her interrogators anything. From his or her perspective, he or she is telling the truth — because he or she has no memory of telling interrogators anything. That’s the truth in his or her own mind, but it is not the fact of the situation.

In terms of training individuals to resist the three aforementioned truth serums, it is easiest to train someone to resist the sodium amythal, followed by sodium pentathol. There is no known training that will allow anyone to resist scopolamine, when injected into the spine in the correct amount.

What you don’t want to do is  stack  scopolamine with sodium pentathol and sodium amythal.  Stacking  means adding one drug on top of another before the previous drug(s) has/have washed out of the system. You stack on somebody, you’ll kill them.

When time is not a consideration, and when used in conjunction with skilled interrogators on a prisoner who has not been trained to resist the effects, sodium pentathol and sodium amythal will get you the truth in approximately 10% to one third of the cases. When the truth absolutely positively has to be there within five days, forget them – use scopolamine injected into the spine.

I don’t honestly know if we have used any of these truth serums on Saddam Hussein. Too bad if we didn’t. My clearance doesn’t extend that high. For those of you who don’t know — and to oversimplify it — there are four different levels of security clearances. They are: secret; top-secret; top-secret/code word; beyond top-secret/code word. The words  code word  could be something like UMBRA. So if I had that level, I would be cleared top-secret/UMBRA, which means I would be allowed to see or hear anything that is secret, top-secret, and — separately — anything that a classified under the code word UMBRA.

In 1909, before World War I, there were a number of terrorist attacks on the United States forces in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, by Muslim extremists. General  Black Jack  Pershing was the appointed military governor of the Moro Province. He captured 50 terrorists and ordered them to be tied to posts for execution. Since all the prisoners were Muslim, he asked his men to bring two pigs and slaughter them in front of the prisoners. He then proceeded by dipping bullets into the pig’s blood.

In the process he executed 49 of the terrorists by firing squad. Then, the soldiers dug a big hole in the ground and dumped in the terrorists’ bodies and covered them in pig’s blood and viscera. The last man was set free. For 42 years there was not a single Muslim attack anywhere in the world.
His rationale was quite simple and effective. Since a radical Muslim is willing to give his life for his religion in a Jihad war, killing him would not make much difference. He would be seen as a martyr (shahada).

But the General knew that all Muslims believe in eternal life after death with 72 virgins waiting for them in paradise. He also knew that those that embrace Jihad usually prepare themselves physically and spiritually in case they die in combat.

Since the pig is considered forbidden food (haram) in Islam, Pershing introduced this variable to thwart their hopes to enter Allah’s kingdom. The pig’s blood automatically nullified any prior purification by contaminating their bodies.

My interrogation technique is quite simple. I follow General Pershing’s example and order a pig to be slaughtered near the prisoner. The blood of the animal run’s freely toward the prisoner’s feet. He will immediately lift his knees to avoid making contact with it. I fill a syringe with the pig’s blood and threaten to inject him in the arm. The prisoner will talk — and quickly.

Fair? Depends on your perspective. Effective? Extremely.

A century ago, General Pershing’s quick thinking installed a great fear in a large sector of the Muslim population in Mindanao putting an end to any type of subversion in an Island that resents the presence of non-Muslims.

Last, here are a few tips in terms of determining if who you have in custody really is a Muslim: Since most of the concentration is on Islamic terrorism, these are a few signs that very few people know about.

A serious Muslim that prays 5 times a day has a small dark discoloration on his forehead.

If he wears jewelry, it has to be silver and not gold — usually a silver ring with a space inside where there is a passage from the Koran.
Another important pointer comes from physical anthropology, and deals with faces and body structures. A real Muslim keeps his left hand away from his food, usually under the table.

Bottom line: there are effective ways to get the truth from a prisoner under interrogation. Some work better than others. When drugs are used, both the person administering the drug, as well as the interrogator, must be expert at their profession. When time is the most important consideration, you’re left with very few options. Whatever the situation, KNOW YOUR ENEMY.

What I say here are my own opinions, based upon fact. They are not to be construed as the policy or official position of APUS. As always, you are free to accept or reject anything I say, and verify it by any means you wish.

Thank you.
Doc
Retrieved from  https://secure.wikileaks.org/wiki/Torture%2C_interrogation_and_intelligence
Categories: Leaked files | 2007 | 2007-12 | Analysis requested | United States | Military or intelligence (ruling) | US Department of Defense | English

http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Torture%2C_interrogation_and_intelligence

***

250px-Utah_array_pat5215088.jpg

Schematic of the  Utah  Electrode Array
Category:Mind control
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Schematic of the  Utah  Electrode Array

This category covers the subject of individual or mass persuasion, facilitated by coercive psychological, medical, or other technological methods.

As a field of study which is often conducted under conditions of secrecy, many of the topics in this group are not necessarily objectively verifiable in a traditional sense—however, please limit additions to articles about individuals or topics which are extensively and/or exclusively associated with the subject of mind control.
Subcategories

This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.
B
*
[+] Books about mind control (10 P)
*
[+] Brain-computer interfacing (1 C, 18 P)
*
[+] Brainwashing techniques (4 P)

M

*
[+] Mind control methods (3 C, 8 P)
*
[+] Mind control theorists (1 C, 15 P)

P

*
[+] Psychological torture techniques (12 P)

Pages in category  Mind control

The following 49 pages are in this category, out of 49 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).

* Mind control

A

* Aziz al-Abub
* APA Task Force on Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control
* Project ARTICHOKE

B

* Backmasking
* Brain implant

C

* Project CHATTER
* Cognotechnology
* Covert hypnosis

D

* Francis E. Dec
* Deep Sleep Therapy

E

* Echo chamber (media)
* Edgewood Arsenal experiments
* Electroconvulsive therapy
* Exit counseling

G

* Gaslighting

H

* Scientology and hypnosis

I
* Mind control in popular culture

J

* Candy Jones

L

* Bob Lansberry
* Lobotomy
* Rauni-Leena Luukanen-Kilde
* Lysergic acid diethylamide

M

* Project MKDELTA
* Project MKNAOMI
* Microwave auditory effect
* Project MKULTRA

N

* Diana Napolis
* Gloria Naylor
* Richard Nongard

O

* Cathy O’Brien
* Frank Olson
* Operation Midnight Climax
* David Orlikow

P

* Pites,ti prison
* Propaganda
* Propaganda techniques
* Psychochemical weapons
* Psychological warfare

Q
* 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate

S

* Scopolamine
* Sensory deprivation
* Special (film)
* Stockholm syndrome
* Subliminal message

T

* Tin foil hat
U

* United States President’s Commission on CIA activities within the United States

W

* White torture

Z

* Zombie
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Mind_control

Categories: Conspiracy theories | Psychological warfare | Science fiction themes

***

White torture
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

White torture is a type of psychological torture[1][2] that includes extreme sensory deprivation and isolation[2].[3][4] Carrying out this type of torture makes the detainee lose personal identity and decrease human production through long terms of isolation.[5][6]

Contents

* 1 Iran
* 2 United States
* 3 Turkey
* 4 Art
* 5 Britain and Northern Ireland
* 6 References

Iran

In Iran, white torture (Persian: ????? ????) has been practiced on political prisoners.[7] Most political prisoners who experience this type of torture are journalists[8] held in the Evin prison.[9] According to Hadi Ghaemi, carrying out such tortures in Evin are not necessarily authorized directly by the Iranian government.[10]

It can include prolonged periods of solitary confinement, often in detention centres outside the control of the prison authorities, including Section 209 of Evin Prison.

In an Amnesty International report in 2004[3] there were documented evidence of  white torture  on Amir Abbas Fakhravar, by the revolutionary guards. According to the report, which called his case the first known example of white torture in Iran[11] claimed that  his cells had no windows, and the walls and his clothes were white. His meals consisted of white rice on white plates. To use the toilet, he had to put a white piece of paper under the door. He was forbidden to speak, and the guards reportedly wore shoes that muffled sound.[12][13][14] Upon his arrival in the US, Fakhravar confirmed this report in an interview with Christian Broadcasting Network.[15]

On a telephone call to the Human Rights Watch in 2004, Ebrahim Nabavi the well known Iranian journalist, regarding why this type of torture is referred to as White torture has claimed that:

Since I left Evin, I have not been able to sleep without sleeping pills. It is terrible. The loneliness never leaves you, long after you are “free.” Every door that is closed on you … This is why we call it “white torture.” They get what they want without having to hit you. They know enough about you to control the information that you get: they can make you believe that the president has resigned, that they have your wife, that someone you trust has told them lies about you. You begin to break. And once you break, they have control. And then you begin to confess[16]

Kianush Sanjari, an Iranian blogger and activist who had allegedly experienced this type of torture in 2006 claimed that:

I feel that solitary confinement – which wages war on the soul and mind of a person – can be the most inhuman form of white torture for people like me, who are arrested solely for [defending] citizens’ rights. I only hope the day comes when no one is put in solitary confinement [to punish them] for the peaceful expression of his ideas. [17]

United States

The United States has been accused by Amnesty International and other international Human Rights organizations of using  extreme isolation and sensory deprivation … detainees confined to windowless cells … days without seeing daylight  along with other torture techniques with the approval of the George W. Bush administration.[18][19]

The organization European Democratic Lawyers (EDL) has explicitely accused the United States of white torture:  Fundamental rights are violated on the part of the United States. In Guantánamo prisoners are held under sensory deprivation, ears and eyes covered, hands and feet tied, hands in thick gloves, held in cages without any privacy, always observed, light day and night: This is called white torture. [20]

Turkey

There are concerns that the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) leader Abdullah Öcalan is under white torture.[21][22] Since his arrest, he has been under solitary confinement at the maximum-security prison island I.mral?.[23]

Art
* German artist Gregor Schneider based his room design of  Weiße Folter  (lit. German for White torture) on this idea[24][25]

Britain and Northern Ireland

John McGuffin’s book  The Guinea Pigs  details the use of sensory deprivation used in Northern Ireland by the British Army until the UK conviction in 1971 of torture before the European Court in the Hague, later downgraded to  severe maltreatment .[citation needed] This consisted of hooding and dressing in thick boiler suits and being made to stand against a wall on tip-toe and being subject to  white noise . This technique was developed largely in order to avoid accusations of torture (by not inflicting physical pain, but an absence of stimulus) but to provide an interrogation tool.

The antecedents of this had been experiments carried out in Canada on volunteers, ostensibly in support of a manned space programme. These had to be discontinued due to the severity of the psychiatric symptoms induced. The UK Government brought together experience of previous torture carried out in various colonial wars – Fort Morbut in Yemen, Hola Camp in Kenya and in Cyprus – in a conference held at Ashford Joint Intelligence Centre in Kent. Photographs taken during the Abu-Ghraib scandal indicate similar techniques being employed by the US Army.

References

1. ^ Ruxandra Cesereanu, An Overview of Political Torture in the Twentieth CenturyPDF (703.3 KiB), Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies (JSRI), Summer 2006.
2. ^ a b Educational Aids to Work with Survivors of Torture and Organized ViolencePDF (704 KiB), Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture (CCVT), 2004
3. ^ a b Helping to break the Silence: Urgent Actions on Iran, Amnesty International, April 1, 2004.
4. ^ Lionel Beehner, Iran’s Waning Human Rights, Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), August 9, 2006.
5. ^ Call for Action Against Isolation and Torture, TML Daily, December 12, 2003.
6. ^ David Morgan, Violations of human…rights of the Kurds in Turkey, Kurdish Media, March 22, 2005.
7. ^ Karl Vick, Report Cites ‘Climate of Fear’ in Iran, The Washington Post, June 7, 2004.
8. ^ UN human rights commission urged to sanction Iran, Reporters Without Borders, March 15, 2005.
9. ^ Amnesty International, Iran:… Kianoosh Sanjari, January 10, 2007.
10. ^ Doug Saunders, Few know who is held behind the tiled walls of Tehran’s Evin prison, February 19, 2007
11. ^ Sarah Baxter. Fugitive pleads with US to ‘liberate’ Iran, The Sunday Times, May 21, 2006. Retrieved on March 10, 2007.
12. ^ United States Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – Iran in 2006, March 6, 2007.
13. ^ Cathy McCann [1], NEAR International, March 17, 2004.
14. ^ Eli Lake, Iranian Dissident to Seek Support For Opposition, The New York Sun, May 9, 2006.
15. ^ Kenneth R. Timmerman, Sins of Omission, Sins of Commission, Frontpagemag, September 8, 2006.
16. ^ Like the Dead…Crushing of dissidents in Iran, Human Rights Watch, June 2004
17. ^ Golnaz Esfandiar, Iranian activist believes blog caused detention, International Relations and Security Network (ISN), January 12, 2007
18. ^ Guantanemo conditions ‘worsening’ BBC News April 4, 2007
19. ^ US: Did President Bush Order Torture Human Rights Watch, Dec. 21, 2004
20. ^ European Democratic Lawyers (EDL) statement on Guantanamo Bay and other detention centres European Democratic Lawyers July, 2004
21. ^ Kurdish Issue in Turkey Unresolved, February 11, 2005.
22. ^ International initiative, Freedom for Abdullah OcalanPDF (112 KiB) p10. January, 2005.
23. ^ Bent Endresen, Kurd leader Abdullah Öcalan probably poisened in prison, March 29, 2007.
24. ^ Jan Thorn-Prikker, Gregor Schneider: When Violence Takes the Form of a Room, January, 2007.
25. ^ ARTSGATE, News, March 17, 2007.
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_torture
Categories: Psychological torture techniques | Mind control | Torture in Iran

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_torture

***

Zombie
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Zombie (disambiguation).
People dressed as zombies for Halloween

A zombie is a creature that appears in folklore and popular culture typically as a reanimated corpse or a mindless human being. Stories of zombies originated in the Afro-Caribbean spiritual belief system of Vodou, which told of the people being controlled as laborers by a powerful sorcerer. Zombies became a popular device in modern horror fiction, largely because of the success of George A. Romero’s 1968 film Night of the Living Dead.[1]

Contents

* 1 Etymology
* 2 Voodoo Magic
* 3 Popular culture
o 3.1 Impact of Night of the Living Dead
o 3.2 In other media
* 4 Philosophical zombie
* 5 Social activism
* 6 References
* 7 External links

Etymology

There are several possible etymologies of the word zombie. One possible origin is jumbie, the West Indian term for  ghost .[2] Another is nzambi, the Kongo word meaning  spirit of a dead person. [2] According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the word entered English circa 1871 and is derived from the Louisiana Creole or Haitian Creole zonbi, which in turn is of Bantu origin.[3] A zonbi is a person who is believed to have died and been brought back to life without speech or free will.[4] It is akin to the Kimbundu nzúmbe ghost.

Voodoo Magic
See also: History of Haiti

According to the tenets of Voodoo, a dead person can be revived by a bokor, or sorcerer. Zombies remain under the control of the bokor since they have no will of their own.  Zombi  is also another name of the Vodou snake lwa Damballah Wedo, of Niger-Congo origin; it is akin to the Kikongo word nzambi, which means  god . There also exists within the voudon tradition the zombi astral which is a human soul that is captured by a bokor and used to enhance the bokor’s power.

In 1937, while researching folklore in Haiti, Zora Neale Hurston encountered the case of a woman that appeared in a village, and a family claimed she was Felicia Felix-Mentor, a relative who had died and been buried in 1907 at the age of 29. Hurston pursued rumors that the affected persons were given powerful drugs, but she was unable to locate individuals willing to offer much information. She wrote:
“     What is more, if science ever gets to the bottom of Voodoo in Haiti and Africa, it will be found that some important medical secrets, still unknown to medical science, give it its power, rather than gestures of ceremony. – Zora Neale Hurston.[5]     ”
Several decades later, Wade Davis, a Harvard ethnobotanist, presented a pharmacological case for zombies in two books, The Serpent and the Rainbow (1985) and Passage of Darkness: The Ethnobiology of the Haitian Zombie (1988). Davis traveled to Haiti in 1982 and, as a result of his investigations, claimed that a living person can be turned into a zombie by two special powders being entered into the blood stream (usually via a wound). The first, coup de poudre (French: ‘powder strike’), includes tetrodotoxin (TTX), the poison found in the pufferfish. The second powder is composed of dissociatives such as datura. Together, these powders were said to induce a death-like state in which the victim’s will would be entirely subject to that of the bokor. Davis also popularized the story of Clairvius Narcisse, who was claimed to have succumbed to this practice.

Davis’ claim has been criticized for a number of scientific inaccuracies. One of these is the unlikely suggestion that Haitian witchdoctors can keep “zombies” in a state of pharmacologically induced trance for many years.[6] Symptoms of TTX poisoning range from numbness and nausea to paralysis, unconsciousness, and death, but do not include a stiffened gait or a deathlike trance. According to neurologist Terence Hines, the scientific community dismisses tetrodotoxin as the cause of this state, and Davis’ assessment of the nature of the reports of Haitian zombies is overly credulous.[7]

Scottish psychiatrist R. D. Laing further highlighted the link between social and cultural expectations and compulsion, in the context of schizophrenia and other mental illness, suggesting that schizogenesis may account for some of the psychological aspects of zombification.[8]

Popular culture

Main article: Zombies in popular culture
Zombies from George Romero’s Night of the Living Dead, a zombie film

Impact of Night of the Living Dead

In 1968 director George Romero released the independent black-and-white zombie film Night of the Living Dead. The story, which was cited as groundbreaking, was first modern zombie film. Although not the first zombie film, Night of the Living Dead became the predecessor for many films with the same main idea.

The movie ushered in the splatter film sub-genre. As many film historian pointed out, horror prior to Romero’s film had mostly involved rubber masks and costumes, cardboard sets, or mysterious figures lurking in the shadows. They were set in locations far removed from rural and suburban America.

The film and its successors spawned countless imitators that borrowed elements instituted by Romero: Tombs of the Blind Dead, Zombie, Hell of the Living Dead, The Evil Dead, Night of the Comet, Return of the Living Dead, Night of the Creeps, Braindead, Children of the Living Dead, and the video game series Resident Evil (later adapted as films in 2002, 2004, and 2007), Dead Rising, and House of the Dead. Night of the Living Dead is parodied in films such as Night of the Living Bread and Shaun of the Dead, and in episodes of The Simpsons ( Treehouse of Horror III , 1992), South Park ( Pink Eye , 1997;  Night of the Living Homeless , 2007) and Invader Zim (Halloween Spectacular of Spooky Doom, 2001;).[9][10][11] The word zombie is never used, but Romero’s film introduced the theme of zombies as reanimated, flesh-eating cannibals.ref>Andrew Tudor, Monsters and Mad Scientists: A Cultural History of the Horror Movie (Oxford, Eng.: Blackwell Publishing, 1989), p. 101, ISBN 0-631-16992-X .</ref>
[edit] In other media

Modern zombies, as portrayed in books, films, games, and haunted attractions, are different from both voodoo zombies and those of folklore. Modern zombies are typically depicted in popular culture as mindless, unfeeling monsters with a hunger for human flesh, a prototype established in the seminal 1968 film Night of the Living Dead. Typically, these creatures can sustain damage far beyond that of a normal, living human. Generally these can only be killed by a wound to the head, such as a headshot, or being set on fire, and can pass whatever syndrome that causes their condition onto others through bites or cuts.
Usually, zombies are not depicted as thralls to masters, as in the film White Zombie or the spirit-cult myths. Rather, modern zombies are depicted in mobs, flocks or waves, seeking either flesh to eat or people to kill, and are typically rendered to exhibit signs of physical decomposition such as rotting flesh, discolored eyes, and open wounds, and moving with a slow, shambling gait. They are generally incapable of communication and show no signs of personality or rationality, though George Romero’s zombies appear capable of learning and very basic levels of speech as seen in the films Day of the Dead and Land of the Dead.
Modern zombies are closely tied to the idea of a zombie apocalypse, the collapse of civilization caused by a vast plague of undead. The ideas are now so strongly linked that zombies are rarely depicted within any other context.

There are still significant differences among the depictions of zombies by various media; for one comparison see the contrasts between zombies by Night of the Living Dead authors George A. Romero and John A. Russo as they evolved in the two separate film series that followed. In some zombie apocalypse narratives, such as The Return of the Living Dead and Dead Set, zombies are depicted as being as quick and nimble as the living, a further departure from the established genre stereotype.

Another departure may consist of the image of zombies as loveable creatures,  being tamed, Disneyfied and made suitable for children , as featured in  zom-coms  (derived from the abbreviation of situation comedies, sit-coms) such as Fido, starring comic actor Billy Connolly as a boy’s pet zombie [12].

Philosophical zombie
Main article: Philosophical zombie

A philosophical zombie is a concept used in the philosophy of mind, a field of research which examines the association between conscious thought and the physical world. A philosophical zombie is a hypothetical person who lacks full consciousness but has the biology or behavior of a normal human being; it is used as a null hypothesis in debates regarding the identity of the mind and the brain. The term was coined by philosopher David Chalmers. [13]

Social activism
A zombie walk in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Main article: Zombie walk

Some zombie fans continue the George A. Romero tradition of using zombies as a social commentary. Organized zombie walks, which are primarily promoted through word of mouth, are regularly staged in some countries. Usually they are arranged as a sort of surrealist performance art but they are occasionally put on as part of a unique political protest. [14][15][16][17][18]

References

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1. ^ Smith, Neil.  Zombie maestro lays down the lore . BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7280793.stm. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
2. ^ a b  How Zombies Work . HowStuffWorks. http://science.howstuffworks.com/zombie.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
3. ^  Definition of zombie . Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/zombie. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
4. ^  Definition of zombie . Merriam-Webster Student Dictionary. http://www.wordcentral.com/cgi-bin/student?zombie. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
5. ^ Hurston, Zora Neale. Dust Tracks on a Road. 2nd Ed. (1942: Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984, p. 205).
6. ^ Booth, W. (1988), “Voodoo Science”, Science, 240: 274-277.
7. ^ Hines, Terence;  Zombies and Tetrodotoxin ; Skeptical Inquirer; May/June 2008; Volume 32, Issue 3; Pages 60-62.
8. ^ Oswald, Hans Peter (2009 (84 pages)). Vodoo. BoD – Books on Demand. pp. 39. ISBN 3837059049.
9. ^ Rockoff, Going to Pieces, p. 36.
10. ^  Treehouse of Horror III , episode 64, The Simpsons, October 29, 1992, at the Internet Movie Database; last accessed June 24, 2006.
11. ^  Pink Eye , episode 107, South Park, October 29, 1997, on South Park: The Complete First Season (DVD, Warner Bros., 2002)
12. ^ The Guardian Weekly of 10 July 2009, p.35
13. ^ Chalmers, David. 1995.  Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness , Journal of Consciousness Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 200-219
14. ^ Colley, Jenna.  Zombies haunt San Diego streets . signonsandiego.com. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/20070726-9999-1n26zombies.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
15. ^ Kemble, Gary.  They came, they saw, they lurched . abc.net. http://www.abc.net.au/news/arts/articulate/200604/s1627099.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
16. ^ Dalgetty, Greg.  The Dead Walk . Penny Blood Magazine. http://www.pennyblood.com/zombiewalk1.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
17. ^ Horgen, Tom.  Nightlife: ‘Dead’ ahead . StarTribune.com. http://www.startribune.com/entertainment/dining/31116719.html?elr=KArksD:aDyaEP:kD:aUt:aDyaEP:kD:aUiD3aPc:_Yyc:aULPQL7PQLanchO7DiU. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
18. ^ Dudiak, Zandy.  Guinness certifies record for second annual Zombie Walk . yourpenntrafford.com. http://www.yourpenntrafford.com/penntraffordstar/article/guinness-certifies-record-second-annual-zombie-walk. Retrieved 2009-10-01.

External links

* Discussion of zombies in film at NPR’s On The Media

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zombie
Categories: Corporeal undead | Film genres | Horror | Pop culture words of Bantu origin | Mind control | Vodou | Zombies

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zombie
***

Tin foil hat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A man wearing a tin foil hat.

A tin foil hat is a piece of headgear made from one or more sheets of aluminium foil or similar material. Alternatively it may be a conventional hat lined with foil. Some people wear the hats in the belief that they act to shield the brain from such influences as electromagnetic fields, or against mind control and/or mind reading.

The concept of wearing a tin foil hat for protection from such threats has become a popular stereotype and term of derision; the phrase serves as a byword for paranoia and is associated with conspiracy theorists.

The reasons for their use include the supposed prevention of perceived harassment from governments, spies or paranormal beings. These draw on the stereotypical images of mind control operating by ESP or technological means, like microwave radiation. The effectiveness of tin foil hats is disputable; however, the belief in their necessity is popularly associated with paranoia or mental illness.[1]

Contents

* 1 Scientific basis
o 1.1 Electromagnetic hearing
* 2 In popular culture
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 External links

Scientific basis

The notion that a tin foil hat can significantly reduce the intensity of incident radio frequency radiation on the wearer’s brain has some scientific validity, as the effect of strong radio waves has been documented for quite some time. [2] A well constructed tin foil enclosure would approximate a Faraday cage, reducing the amount of (typically harmless) radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation inside. A common high school physics demonstration involves placing an AM radio on tin foil, and then covering the radio with a metal bucket. This leads to a noticeable reduction in signal strength. The efficiency of such an enclosure in blocking such radiation depends on the thickness of the tin foil, as dictated by the skin depth, the distance the radiation can propagate in a particular non-ideal conductor. For half-millimeter-thick tin foil, radiation above about 20 kHz (i.e., including both AM and FM bands) would be partially blocked, although tin foil is not sold in this thickness, and numerous layers of tin foil would be required to sustain this effect.[3]

The effectiveness of the tin foil hat as electromagnetic shielding for stopping radio waves is greatly reduced by the fact that it is not a complete enclosure. Placing an AM radio under a metal bucket without a conductive layer underneath demonstrates the relative ineffectiveness of such a setup. Indeed, because the effect of an ungrounded Faraday cage is to partially reflect the incident radiation, a radio wave that is incident on the inner surface of the hat (i.e., coming from underneath the hat-wearer) would be reflected and partially ‘focused’ towards the user’s brain. While tin foil hats may have originated in some understanding of the Faraday cage effect, the use of such a hat to attenuate radio waves belongs properly to the realm of pseudoscience.

A study by graduate students at MIT determined that a tin foil hat could either amplify or attenuate incoming radiation depending on frequency; the effect was observed to be roughly independent of the relative placement of the wearer and radiation source.[4] At GHz wavelengths, the skin depth is less than the thickness of even the thinnest foil.[citation needed]

Tin foil hats are seen by some as a protective measure against the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Despite some allegations that EMR exposure has negative health consequences,[5] at this time, no link has been verifiably proven between the radio-frequency EMR that tin foil hats are meant to protect against and subsequent ill health.[6]
Electromagnetic hearing
Main article: microwave auditory effect

Humans are able to detect modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic signals in the microwave range, hearing them as sounds. The perceived source of induced sound is located inside of or directly behind the head of the recipient, regardless of the location of the transmitter. The effect is believed to be caused by thermoelastic expansion of the brain exposed to microwaves.[7]

During the Cold War, electromagnetic hearing was clinically studied in the United States for applications including covert message transmission and use as a non-lethal weapon. As a declassified National Ground Intelligence Center document points out:

It may be useful to provide a disruptive condition to a person not aware of the technology. Not only might it be disruptive to the sense of hearing, it could be psychologically devastating if one suddenly heard  voices within one’s head .[8]

A number of patents was granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office for various applications of the technology, including  nervous system excitation , and  remotely monitoring and altering brain waves .

In 1962, Allan H. Frey discovered that reception of the induced sound can be blocked by a patch of wire mesh (not foil) placed above the temporal lobe.[7]

In popular culture

Tin foil hats were worn in the movie Signs to protect from alien mind-reading tactics, and coincidentally were alluded to in another Mel Gibson movie, Conspiracy Theory.

Tin foil hats are frequently used in popular culture to indicate paranoia, especially as induced by mental illness.[1]

EastEnders character Joe Wicks was briefly portrayed constructing and wearing his own tin foil hat as part of a storyline which saw him suffering from schizophrenia.

In an episode of the Discovery Channel television show MythBusters dealing with microwave oven myths, Adam Savage constructed a tin foil hat to wear while working in the shop, as Jamie Hyneman had taken apart a microwave in an attempt to design a  microwave gun.  That hat was not intended to provide serious protection for Adam, and was a tongue-in-cheek reference to their use. However, Adam was seriously concerned for the safety of the show’s cast and crew while working with an uncovered microwave.

In April 2007, MMORPG World of Warcraft announced a new in-game item on its website named the ‘Tinfoil Hat’. The hat came complete with tongue-in-cheek statistics such as hiding the player’s profile from The Armory (an online character database), and allowing the player to see ‘the truth’. The item was later revealed to be an April Fool’s Day joke.
FactCheck suggested that those who espouse Barack Obama citizenship conspiracy theories  should first equip themselves with a high-quality tinfoil hat. [9]

In the Artemis Fowl series, Foaly is initially described as wearing a tinfoil hat

In the Futurama movie  Futurama: Into the Wild Green Yonder  many characters wear tinfoil hats to prevent others from reading their thoughts/stop reading other people’s thoughts.

See also

* List of hats and headgear
* Electromagnetic radiation and health

References

1. ^ a b  Hey Crazy–Get a New Hat . Bostonist. 15 November 2005. http://www.bostonist.com/archives/2005/11/15/hey_crazyget_a_new_hat.php. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
2. ^ Neurophysiologic effects of Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation, Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 55, no. 11,. December, 1979. p. 1079 – 1093.
3. ^ Jackson, John David (1998). Classical Electrodynamics. Wiley Press.
4. ^ Rahimi, Ali; Ben Recht, Jason Taylor, Noah Vawter (17 February 2005).  On the Effectiveness of Aluminium Foil Helmets . Ali Rahimi. http://people.csail.mit.edu/rahimi/helmet/. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
5. ^  Electronic smog – Environment – The Independent . News.independent.co.uk. 2006-05-07. http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/article362557.ece. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
6. ^  Safety and Health Topics: Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation – Health Effects . Osha.gov. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/radiofrequencyradiation/healtheffects.html. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
7. ^ a b Elder, Joe A.; Chou, C.K. (2003).  Auditory response to pulsed radiofrequency energy . Bioelectromagnetics (Wiley-Liss) 24 (S6). ISSN 0197-8462. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/106565261/abstract.
8. ^  Bioeffects of Selected Nonlethal Weapons . Nonlethal Technologies – Worldwide. National Ground Intelligence Center. 1998. http://sigint.wordpress.com/2008/02/17/bioeffects-of-selected-nonlethal-weapons/.
9. ^  Born in the U.S.A. . FactCheck. August 21, 2008. http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/born_in_the_usa.html. Retrieved October 24 2008.

http://zapatopi.net/blog/?post=200511112730.afdb_effectiveness

External links

* Do tinfoil helmets provide adequate protection against mind control rays? – from The Straight Dope
* Aluminium Foil Deflector Beanie – parody
* Tinfoil hats attract mind-control signals, boffins learn
* Mind Games -Washington Post

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin_foil_hat
Categories: Paranoia | Hats | Mind control | Pseudoscience

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin_foil_hat

***

Microwave auditory effect
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of audible clicks induced by pulsed/modulated microwave frequencies. The clicks are generated directly inside the human head without the need of any receiving electronic device. The effect was first reported by persons working in the vicinity of radar transponders during World War II. These induced sounds are not audible to other people nearby. The microwave auditory effect was later discovered to be inducible with shorter-wavelength portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. During the Cold War era, the American neuroscientist Allan H. Frey studied this phenomenon and was the first to publish (Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 17, pages 689-692, 1962) information on the nature of the microwave auditory effect; this effect is therefore also known as the Frey effect.

Dr. Don R. Justesen published  Microwaves and Behavior  in The American Psychologist (Volume 30, March 1975, Number 3).

Research by NASA in the 1970s[citation needed] showed that this effect occurs as a result of thermal expansion of parts of the human ear around the cochlea, even at low power density. Later, signal modulation was found to produce sounds or words that appeared to originate intracranially. It was studied for its possible use in communications but has not been developed due to the possible hazardous biological effects of microwave radiation. Similar research conducted in the USSR studied its use in non-lethal weaponry.[citation needed]

The existence of non-lethal weaponry that exploits the microwave auditory effect appears to have been classified  Secret NOFORN  in the USA from (at the latest) 1998, until the declassification on 6 December 2006 of  Bioeffects of Selected Non-Lethal Weaponry  in response to a FOIA request.

The technology gained further public attention when a company announced in early 2008 that they were close to fielding a device called MEDUSA (Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio) based on the principle.[1]

Contents

* 1 Natural sources of electromagnetic perception
* 2 Primary Cold War-era research in the US
* 3 Peaceful applications
* 4 Patented applications
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 References
* 8 External links

Natural sources of electromagnetic perception

For centuries, humans have reported hearing unexplained noises in conjunction with meteors including  thunder-like sounds  at the scene of the Tunguska event on June 30, 1908. Astronomer Edmund Halley collected several such accounts after a widely-observed meteor burned up in the sky over England [1]. The Leonid meteor shower in November 2001 also led to many reports of observers hearing crackling or fizzing noises. Similar observations have been reported by soldiers near the site of nuclear explosions.

Colin Keay, a physicist at the University of Newcastle in Australia, has advanced a hypothesis that purports to explain these phenomena. According to Keay’s theory, meteor trails give off very low frequency (VLF) radio signals that the human ear cannot sense directly but are heard because a transducer on the ground must be converting the radio waves into sound waves. He has produced experiments that demonstrate that materials as commonplace as aluminum foil, thin wires, pine needles, and wire-framed glasses can act as suitable transducers.

Powerful VLF waves can induce physical vibrations in these objects, which are transmitted to the air as sound waves. Keay defines the field of geophysical electrophonics link to Colin Keay’s geophysical electronphonics websiteas  the production of audible noises of various kinds through direct conversion by transduction of very low frequency electromagnetic energy generated by a number of geophysical phenomena.  [2] Some scientists state[citation needed] that electrophonic effects may also be caused by lightning strikes, very bright auroras, and earthquakes.

Electroreception has also been studied in the animal world. Ritz et al., in  A Model for Photoreceptor-Based Magnetoreception in Birds , hypothesize that transduction of the Earth’s geomagnetic field is responsible for the magnetoreception systems of birds. Specifically, they propose that this transduction may take place in a class of photoreceptors known as cryptochromes.

References:

*  Listening to Leonids , NASA Science and Technology Directorate
* Colin Keay’s web site

Primary Cold War-era research in the US

The first American to publish on the microwave hearing effect was Allan H. Frey, in 1961. In his experiments, the subjects were discovered to be able to hear appropriately pulsed microwave radiation, from a distance of 100 meters from the transmitter. This was accompanied by side effects such as dizziness, headaches, and a pins and needles sensation.

Sharp and Grove developed receiverless wireless voice transmission technologies for the Advanced Research Projects Agency at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, in 1973. In the above mentioned journal entry to The American Psychologist, Dr. Don Justesen reports that Sharp and Grove were readily able to hear, identify, and distinguish among the single-syllable words for digits between 1 and 10 . Justesen writes,  The sounds heard were not unlike those emitted by persons with artificial larynxes. Communication of more complex words and of sentences was not attempted because the averaged densities of energy required to transmit longer messages would approach the [still] current 10mW/cm² limit of safe exposure.  (D.R. Justesen.  Microwaves and Behavior , Am Psychologist, 392(Mar): 391-401, 1975.)

Peaceful applications

Devices exist for scaring birds away from aircraft near airfields by microwave hearing and induction of vertigo.[2]

Patented applications

* Flanagan GP. Patent #3393279 “Nervous System Excitation Device” USPTO granted 7/16/68.
* Puharich HK and Lawrence JL. Patent #3629521 “Hearing systems” USPTO granted 12/21/71.
* Malech RG. Patent #3951134 “Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves” USPTO granted 4/20/76.
* Stocklin PL. Patent #4858612 “Hearing device” USPTO granted 8/22/89.
* Brunkan WB. Patent #4877027 “Hearing system” USPTO granted 10/31/89.
* Thijs VMJ. Application #WO1992NL0000216 “Hearing Aid Based on Microwaves” World Intellectual Property Organization Filed 1992-11-26, Published 1993-06-10.
* Mardirossian A. Patent #6011991 “Communication system and method including brain wave analysis and/or use of brain activity” USPTO granted 1/4/00.
* O’Loughlin, James P. and Loree, Diana L. Patent #6470214  Method and device for implementing the radio frequency hearing effect  USPTO granted 22-OCT-2002.

See also

* Biophoton
* Brain-computer interface
* Cosmic ray visual phenomena
* Electroreception
* Mind control
* Tinfoil hat

Notes

1. ^ Hambling, David (03 July 2008).  Microwave ray gun controls crowds with noise . http://technology.newscientist.com/article/dn14250-microwave-ray-gun-controls-crowds-with-noise.html.
2. ^ Kreithen ML. Patent #5774088 “Method and system for warning birds of hazards” USPTO granted 6/30/98

References

* R.C. Jones, S.S. Stevens, and M.H. Lurie. J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 12: 281, 1940.
* H. Burr and A. Mauro. Yale J Biol. and Med. 21:455, 1949.
* H. von Gierke. Noise Control 2: 37, 1956.
* J. Zwislocki. J. Noise Control 4: 42, 1958.
* R. Morrow and J. Seipel. J. Wash. Acad. SCI. 50: 1, 1960.
* A.H. Frey. Aero Space Med. 32: 1140, 1961.
* P.C. Neider and W.D. Neff. Science 133: 1010,1961.
* R. Niest, L. Pinneo, R. Baus, J. Fleming, and R. McAfee. Annual Report. USA Rome Air Development Command, TR-61-65, 1961.
* A.H. Frey.  Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy.  J Applied Physiol 17 (4): 689-92, 1962.
* A.H. Frey.  Behavioral Biophysics , Psychol Bull 63(5): 322-37, 1965.
* F.A. Giori and A.R. Winterberger.  Remote Physiological Monitoring Using a Microwave Interferometer , Biomed Sci Instr 3: 291-307, 1967.
* A.H. Frey and R. Messenger.  Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energy , Science 181: 356-8, 1973.
* R. Rodwell.  Army tests new riot weapon , New Scientist Sept. 20, p 684, 1973.
* A.W. Guy, C.K. Chou, J.C. Lin, and D. Christensen.  Microwave induced acoustic effects in mammalian auditory systems and physical materials , Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 247:194-218, 1975.
* D.R. Justesen.  Microwaves and Behavior , Am Psychologist, 392(Mar): 391-401, 1975.
* S.M. Michaelson.  Sensation and Perception of Microwave Energy , In: S.M. Michaelson, M.W. Miller, R. Magin, and E.L. Carstensen (eds.), Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Nonionizing Radiation. Plenum Press, New York, p 213-24, 1975.
* E.S. Eichert and A.H. Frey.  Human Auditory System Response to Lower Power Density Pulse Modulated Electromagnetic Energy: A Search for Mechanisms , J Microwave Power 11(2): 141, 1976.
* W. Bise.  Low power radio-frequency and microwave effects on human electroencephalogram and behavior”, Physiol Chem Phys 10(5): 387-98, 1978.
* J.C. Lin. Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, Thomas, Springfield Ill, p 176, 1978.
* P.L. Stocklin and B.F. Stocklin.  Possible Microwave Mechanisms of the Mammalian Nervous System , T-I-T J Life Sci 9: 29-51, 1979.
* H. Frolich.  The Biological Effects of Microwaves and Related Questions , Adv Electronics Electron Physics 53: 85-152, 1980.
* H. Lai. “Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation” In: J.C. Lin (ed.), Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems vol 1, Plenum, NY & London, p 27-80, 1994.
* R.C. Beason and P. Semm.  Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus , Neurosci Lett 333: 175-78, 2002.
* J.A. Elder and C.K. Chou.  Auditory Responses to Pulsed Radiofrequency Energy , Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 8: S162-73, 2003.

External links

* Seaman, Ronald L., “Transmission of microwave-induced intracranial sound to the inner ear is most likely through cranial aqueducts,“ Mckesson Bioservices Corporation, Wrair US Army Medical Research Detachment. (PDF)
* Lin, J.C., 1980, “The microwave auditory phenomenon,“ Proceedings of the IEEE, 68:67-73. Navy-NSF-supported research.
* Lin, JC.,  Microwave auditory effect- a comparison of some possible transduction mechanisms . J Microwave Power. 1976 Mar;11(1):77-81. 1976.
* Guy, A.W., C.K. Chou, J.C. Lin and D. Christensen, 1975, Microwave induced acoustic effects in mammalian auditory systems and physical materials, Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 247:194-218
* Fist, Stewart,  Australian exposure standards . Crossroads, The Australian, March 1999.
* Microwave auditory effects and applications, James C. Lin; Publisher: Thomas; ISBN 0-398-03704-3
* Malech, Robert G.,  US3951134 : Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves . April 20, 1976.
* McMurtrey, John J.,  Inner Voice, Target Tracking, and Behavioral Influence Technologies . Nov. 14, 2004.
* US Department of Defense, Air Force Research Laboratory comprehensive review on RFR-auditory effect in humans
* Thijs VMJ. Application #WO1992NL0000216 “Hearing Aid Based on Microwaves” World Intellectual Property Organization Filed 1992-11-26, Published 1993-06-10.
* Kohn B. “Communicating Via the Microwave Auditory Effect” Defense Department Awarded SBIR Contract # F41624-95-C9007, 1993.
* “Auditory Responses to Pulsed Radiofrequency Energy” Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 8: S162-73, 2003.
* Suppes P, Lu Z, and Han B. “Brain wave recognition of words” Proc Natl Acad Sci 94: 14965-69, 1997.
* Suppes P, Han B, and Lu Z. “Brain-wave recognition of sentences” Proc Natl Acad Sci 95: 15861-66, 1998.
* Assadullahi R and Pulvermuller F. “Neural Network Classification of Word Evoked Neuromagnetic Brain Activity” In: Wermter S, Austin J, and Willahaw D (eds.) Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence: Emergent Neurocomputational Architectures Based on Neuroscience Heidelberg Springer, p 311-20, 2001.
* Smith C. “On the Need for New Criteria of Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Light of Mind Invasive Technology” J Psycho-Social Studies 2(2) #3, 2003.
* McMurtrey JJ. “Microwave Bioeffect Congruence with Schizophrenia” In press, 2003.

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave_auditory_effect
Categories: Espionage | Human physiology | Less-lethal weapons | Cognitive neuroscience | Hearing | Mind control | Radio spectrum

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave_auditory_effect

***

Subliminal message
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hidden messages

Subliminal messages
Audio
* Backmasking
* Reverse speech
* Spectrogram
Numeric

* Numerology
* Theomatics
* Bible code
* Cryptography

Visual

* Fnord
* Paranoiac-critical method
* Pareidolia
* Psychorama
* Sacred geometry
* Steganography

See also:

* Anagram
* Apophenia
* Easter egg (media)
* Clustering illusion
* Observer-expectancy effect
* Pattern recognition (psychology)
* Paradox
* Palindrome
* Unconscious mind

v • d • e

A subliminal message is a signal or message embedded in another medium, designed to pass below the normal limits of the human mind’s perception. These messages are unrecognizable by the conscious mind, but in certain situations can affect the subconscious mind and can negatively or positively influence subsequent later thoughts, behaviors, actions, attitudes, belief systems and value systems. The term subliminal means  beneath a limen  (sensory threshold). This is from the Latin words sub, meaning under, and limen, meaning threshold.

The two most famous types of alleged subliminal messages are:

* Spoken messages which are recorded backward onto a track that is meant to be played forward (called backmasking)
* Written messages which are quickly flashed during videos (sometimes called 25th frame)

While there is some empirical evidence supporting limited effectiveness of the flashed messages[1][2], subliminal influence of backmasking is not supported by scientific experiments.[3][4]

Contents
* 1 Origin
* 2 Further developments
* 3 Effectiveness
o 3.1 Visual
o 3.2 Audio
* 4 Instances
* 5 Allegations
* 6 Fictional references
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links

Origin

The director of Yale Psychology laboratory Ph.D. E. W. Scripture published The New Psychology in 1897 (The Walter Scott Ltd, London), which described the basic principles of subliminal messages.[5]

In 1900, Knight Dunlap, an American professor of psychology, flashed an  imperceptible shadow  to subjects while showing them a Müller-Lyer illusion containing two lines with pointed arrows at both ends which create an illusion of different lengths. Dunlap claimed that the shadow influenced his subjects subliminally in their judgment of the lengths of the lines.

Although these results were not verified in a scientific study, American psychologist Harry Levi Hollingworth reported in an advertising textbook that such subliminal messages could be used by advertisers.[6]

Further developments

During World War II, the tachistoscope, an instrument which projects pictures for an extremely brief period, was used to train soldiers to recognize enemy airplanes.[5] Today the tachistoscope is used to increase reading speed or to test sight.[7]

In 1957, market researcher James Vicary claimed that quickly flashing messages on a movie screen, in Fort Lee, New Jersey, had influenced people to purchase more food and drinks. Vicary coined the term subliminal advertising and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test. Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words  Drink Coca-Cola  and  Hungry? Eat popcorn  for 1/3000 of a second at five-second intervals. Vicary asserted that during the test, sales of popcorn and Coke in that New Jersey theater increased 57.8 percent and 18.1 percent respectively.[5][8]

However, in 1962 Vicary admitted to lying about the experiment and falsifying the results, the story itself being a marketing ploy.[9][10] An identical experiment conducted by Dr. Henry Link showed no increase in cola or popcorn sales.[8] A trip to Fort Lee, where the first experiment was alleged to have taken place, would have shown straight away that the small cinema there couldn’t possibly have had 45,699 visitors through its doors in the space of 6 weeks. This has led people to believe that Vicary actually did not conduct his experiment at all.[8]

However, before Vicary’s confession, his claims were promoted in Vance Packard’s book The Hidden Persuaders,[11] and led to a public outcry, and to many conspiracy theories of governments and cults using the technique to their advantage[12]. The practice of subliminal advertising was subsequently banned in the United Kingdom and Australia,[6] and by American networks and the National Association of Broadcasters in 1958.[8]

But in 1958, Vicary conducted a television test in which he flashed the message  telephone now  hundreds of times during a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation program, and found no noticeable increase in telephone calls.[5]

In 1973, commercials in the United States and Canada for the game Hu-sker Du-? flashed the message  Get it .[11] During the same year, Wilson Bryan Key’s book Subliminal Seduction claimed that subliminal techniques were widely used in advertising.[8] Public concern was sufficient to cause the FCC to hold hearings in 1974. The hearings resulted in an FCC policy statement stating that subliminal advertising was  contrary to the public interest  and  intended to be deceptive .[8] Subliminal advertising was also banned in Canada following the broadcasting of Hu-sker Du-? ads there.[5]
A study conducted by the United Nations concluded that  the cultural implications of subliminal indoctrination is a major threat to human rights throughout the world. [13]

In 1985, Dr. Joe Stuessy testified to the United States Senate at the Parents Music Resource Center hearings that:

The message of a piece of heavy metal music may also be covert or subliminal. Sometimes subaudible tracks are mixed in underneath other, louder tracks. These are heard by the subconscious but not the conscious mind. Sometimes the messages are audible but are backwards, called backmasking. There is disagreement among experts regarding the effectiveness of subliminals. We need more research on that.[14]

Stuessy’s written testimony stated that:

Some messages are presented to the listener backwards. While listening to a normal forward message (usually nonsensical), one is simultaneously being treated to a back-wards message. Some experts believe that while the conscious mind is trying to absorb the forward lyric, the subconscious is working overtime to decipher the backwards message.[15]

Effectiveness
Visual

Used in advertising to create familiarity with new products, subliminal messages make familiarity into a preference for the new products. Johan Karremans suggests that subliminal messages have an effect when the messages are goal-relevant.[1] Karremans did a study assessing whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink would affect a person’s choice of drink, and whether this effect is caused by the individual’s feelings of being thirsty.

His study sought to ascertain whether or not subliminally priming or preparing the participant with text or an image without being aware of it would make the partaker more familiar with the product. Half of his participants were subliminally primed with Lipton Ice ( Lipton Ice  was repeatedly flashed on a computer screen for 24 milliseconds), while the other half was primed with a control that did not consist of a brand. In his study he found that subliminally priming a brand name of a drink (Lipton Ice) made those who were thirsty want the Lipton Ice. Those who were not thirsty, however, were not influenced by the subliminal message since their goal was not to quench their thirst.[1]

Subconscious stimulus by single words is well known to be modestly effective in changing human behavior or emotions. This is evident by a pictorial advertisement that portrays four different types of rum. The phrase  U Buy  was embedded somewhere, backwards in the picture. A study (Key, 1973)[16] was done to test the effectiveness of the alcohol ad. Before the study, participants were able to try to identify any hidden message in the ad, none found any. In the end, the study showed 80% of the subjects unconsciously perceived the backward message, meaning they showed a preference for that particular rum. Though many things can be perceived from subliminal messages, only a couple words or a single image of unconscious signals can be internalized. As only a word or image can be effectively perceived, the simpler features of that image or word will cause a change in behavior (i.e., beef is related to hunger). This was demonstrated by Byrne in 1959. The word  beef  was flashed for several, five millisecond intervals during a sixteen-minute movie to experimental subjects, while nothing was flashed to controlled subjects. Neither the experimental nor controlled subjects reported for a higher preference for beef sandwiches when given a list of five different foods, but the experimental subjects did rate themselves as hungrier than the controlled subjects when given a survey.[17] If the subjects were flashed a whole sentence, the words would not be perceived and no effect would be expected.

In 2007, to mark the 50th anniversary of James Vicary’s original experiment, it was recreated at the International Brand Marketing Conference MARKA 2007.[18] As part of the  Hypnosis, subconscious triggers and branding  presentation 1,400 delegates watched part the opening credits of the film PICNIC that was used in the original experiment. They were exposed to 30 subliminal cuts over a 90 second period. When asked to choose one of two brands 81% of the delegates picked the brand suggested by the subliminal cuts.[2]

Studies in 2004 and 2006 showed that subliminal exposure to images of frightened faces or faces of people from another race will increase the activity of the amygdala in the brain and also increase skin conductance.[19][20]

In 2007, it was shown that subliminal exposure to the Israeli flag had a moderating effect on the political opinions and voting behaviors of Israeli volunteers. This effect was not present when a jumbled picture of the flag was subliminally shown.[21]

Audio
The manpage for the popular sound program SoX pokes fun at subliminal messages. The description of the  reverse  option says  Included for finding satanic subliminals.

Backmasking, an audio technique in which sounds are recorded backwards onto a track that is meant to be played forwards, produces messages that sound like gibberish to the conscious mind. Gary Greenwald, a fundamentalist Christian preacher, claims that these messages can be heard subliminally, and can induce listeners towards, in the case of rock music, sex and drug use.[3] However, this is not generally accepted as fact.[22]

Following the 1950s subliminal message panic, many businesses have sprung up purporting to offer helpful subliminal audio tapes that supposedly improve the health of the listener. However, there is no evidence for the claimed effects of such tapes.[23]

The most extensive study of therapeutic effectiveness of subliminal audiotapes was conducted to see if the self-esteem audiotapes would raise self-esteem. 237 volunteers were provided with tapes of three manufacturers and completed post tests after one month of use. The study showed clearly that subliminal audiotapes made to boost self-esteem did not produce effects associated with subliminal content within one month’s use.[24]

Instances

Subliminal message
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hidden messages

Subliminal messages
Audio

* Backmasking
* Reverse speech
* Spectrogram

Numeric

* Numerology
* Theomatics
* Bible code
* Cryptography

Visual

* Fnord
* Paranoiac-critical method
* Pareidolia
* Psychorama
* Sacred geometry
* Steganography

See also:

* Anagram
* Apophenia
* Easter egg (media)
* Clustering illusion
* Observer-expectancy effect
* Pattern recognition (psychology)
* Paradox
* Palindrome
* Unconscious mind

A subliminal message is a signal or message embedded in another medium, designed to pass below the normal limits of the human mind’s perception. These messages are unrecognizable by the conscious mind, but in certain situations can affect the subconscious mind and can negatively or positively influence subsequent later thoughts, behaviors, actions, attitudes, belief systems and value systems. The term subliminal means  beneath a limen  (sensory threshold). This is from the Latin words sub, meaning under, and limen, meaning threshold.

The two most famous types of alleged subliminal messages are:

* Spoken messages which are recorded backward onto a track that is meant to be played forward (called backmasking)
* Written messages which are quickly flashed during videos (sometimes called 25th frame)

While there is some empirical evidence supporting limited effectiveness of the flashed messages[1][2], subliminal influence of backmasking is not supported by scientific experiments.[3][4]

Contents

* 1 Origin
* 2 Further developments
* 3 Effectiveness
o 3.1 Visual
o 3.2 Audio
* 4 Instances
* 5 Allegations
* 6 Fictional references
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links

Origin

The director of Yale Psychology laboratory Ph.D. E. W. Scripture published The New Psychology in 1897 (The Walter Scott Ltd, London), which described the basic principles of subliminal messages.[5]

In 1900, Knight Dunlap, an American professor of psychology, flashed an  imperceptible shadow  to subjects while showing them a Müller-Lyer illusion containing two lines with pointed arrows at both ends which create an illusion of different lengths. Dunlap claimed that the shadow influenced his subjects subliminally in their judgment of the lengths of the lines.

Although these results were not verified in a scientific study, American psychologist Harry Levi Hollingworth reported in an advertising textbook that such subliminal messages could be used by advertisers.[6]

Further developments
During World War II, the tachistoscope, an instrument which projects pictures for an extremely brief period, was used to train soldiers to recognize enemy airplanes.[5] Today the tachistoscope is used to increase reading speed or to test sight.[7]

In 1957, market researcher James Vicary claimed that quickly flashing messages on a movie screen, in Fort Lee, New Jersey, had influenced people to purchase more food and drinks. Vicary coined the term subliminal advertising and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test. Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words  Drink Coca-Cola  and  Hungry? Eat popcorn  for 1/3000 of a second at five-second intervals. Vicary asserted that during the test, sales of popcorn and Coke in that New Jersey theater increased 57.8 percent and 18.1 percent respectively.[5][8]

However, in 1962 Vicary admitted to lying about the experiment and falsifying the results, the story itself being a marketing ploy.[9][10] An identical experiment conducted by Dr. Henry Link showed no increase in cola or popcorn sales.[8] A trip to Fort Lee, where the first experiment was alleged to have taken place, would have shown straight away that the small cinema there couldn’t possibly have had 45,699 visitors through its doors in the space of 6 weeks. This has led people to believe that Vicary actually did not conduct his experiment at all.[8]

However, before Vicary’s confession, his claims were promoted in Vance Packard’s book The Hidden Persuaders,[11] and led to a public outcry, and to many conspiracy theories of governments and cults using the technique to their advantage[12]. The practice of subliminal advertising was subsequently banned in the United Kingdom and Australia,[6] and by American networks and the National Association of Broadcasters in 1958.[8]

But in 1958, Vicary conducted a television test in which he flashed the message  telephone now  hundreds of times during a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation program, and found no noticeable increase in telephone calls.[5]

In 1973, commercials in the United States and Canada for the game Hu-sker Du-? flashed the message  Get it .[11] During the same year, Wilson Bryan Key’s book Subliminal Seduction claimed that subliminal techniques were widely used in advertising.[8] Public concern was sufficient to cause the FCC to hold hearings in 1974. The hearings resulted in an FCC policy statement stating that subliminal advertising was  contrary to the public interest  and  intended to be deceptive .[8] Subliminal advertising was also banned in Canada following the broadcasting of Hu-sker Du-? ads there.[5]

A study conducted by the United Nations concluded that  the cultural implications of subliminal indoctrination is a major threat to human rights throughout the world. [13]

In 1985, Dr. Joe Stuessy testified to the United States Senate at the Parents Music Resource Center hearings that:

The message of a piece of heavy metal music may also be covert or subliminal. Sometimes subaudible tracks are mixed in underneath other, louder tracks. These are heard by the subconscious but not the conscious mind. Sometimes the messages are audible but are backwards, called backmasking. There is disagreement among experts regarding the effectiveness of subliminals. We need more research on that.[14]

Stuessy’s written testimony stated that:

Some messages are presented to the listener backwards. While listening to a normal forward message (usually nonsensical), one is simultaneously being treated to a back-wards message. Some experts believe that while the conscious mind is trying to absorb the forward lyric, the subconscious is working overtime to decipher the backwards message.[15]

Effectiveness
Visual

Used in advertising to create familiarity with new products, subliminal messages make familiarity into a preference for the new products. Johan Karremans suggests that subliminal messages have an effect when the messages are goal-relevant.[1] Karremans did a study assessing whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink would affect a person’s choice of drink, and whether this effect is caused by the individual’s feelings of being thirsty.

His study sought to ascertain whether or not subliminally priming or preparing the participant with text or an image without being aware of it would make the partaker more familiar with the product. Half of his participants were subliminally primed with Lipton Ice ( Lipton Ice  was repeatedly flashed on a computer screen for 24 milliseconds), while the other half was primed with a control that did not consist of a brand. In his study he found that subliminally priming a brand name of a drink (Lipton Ice) made those who were thirsty want the Lipton Ice. Those who were not thirsty, however, were not influenced by the subliminal message since their goal was not to quench their thirst.[1]

Subconscious stimulus by single words is well known to be modestly effective in changing human behavior or emotions. This is evident by a pictorial advertisement that portrays four different types of rum. The phrase  U Buy  was embedded somewhere, backwards in the picture. A study (Key, 1973)[16] was done to test the effectiveness of the alcohol ad. Before the study, participants were able to try to identify any hidden message in the ad, none found any. In the end, the study showed 80% of the subjects unconsciously perceived the backward message, meaning they showed a preference for that particular rum. Though many things can be perceived from subliminal messages, only a couple words or a single image of unconscious signals can be internalized. As only a word or image can be effectively perceived, the simpler features of that image or word will cause a change in behavior (i.e., beef is related to hunger). This was demonstrated by Byrne in 1959. The word  beef  was flashed for several, five millisecond intervals during a sixteen-minute movie to experimental subjects, while nothing was flashed to controlled subjects. Neither the experimental nor controlled subjects reported for a higher preference for beef sandwiches when given a list of five different foods, but the experimental subjects did rate themselves as hungrier than the controlled subjects when given a survey.[17] If the subjects were flashed a whole sentence, the words would not be perceived and no effect would be expected.

In 2007, to mark the 50th anniversary of James Vicary’s original experiment, it was recreated at the International Brand Marketing Conference MARKA 2007.[18] As part of the  Hypnosis, subconscious triggers and branding  presentation 1,400 delegates watched part the opening credits of the film PICNIC that was used in the original experiment. They were exposed to 30 subliminal cuts over a 90 second period. When asked to choose one of two brands 81% of the delegates picked the brand suggested by the subliminal cuts.[2]

Studies in 2004 and 2006 showed that subliminal exposure to images of frightened faces or faces of people from another race will increase the activity of the amygdala in the brain and also increase skin conductance.[19][20]

In 2007, it was shown that subliminal exposure to the Israeli flag had a moderating effect on the political opinions and voting behaviors of Israeli volunteers. This effect was not present when a jumbled picture of the flag was subliminally shown.[21]

Audio
The manpage for the popular sound program SoX pokes fun at subliminal messages. The description of the  reverse  option says  Included for finding satanic subliminals.

Backmasking, an audio technique in which sounds are recorded backwards onto a track that is meant to be played forwards, produces messages that sound like gibberish to the conscious mind. Gary Greenwald, a fundamentalist Christian preacher, claims that these messages can be heard subliminally, and can induce listeners towards, in the case of rock music, sex and drug use.[3] However, this is not generally accepted as fact.[22]

Following the 1950s subliminal message panic, many businesses have sprung up purporting to offer helpful subliminal audio tapes that supposedly improve the health of the listener. However, there is no evidence for the claimed effects of such tapes.[23]

The most extensive study of therapeutic effectiveness of subliminal audiotapes was conducted to see if the self-esteem audiotapes would raise self-esteem. 237 volunteers were provided with tapes of three manufacturers and completed post tests after one month of use. The study showed clearly that subliminal audiotapes made to boost self-esteem did not produce effects associated with subliminal content within one month’s use.[24]

Instances

In 1978, Wichita, Kansas TV station KAKE-TV received special permission from the police to place a subliminal message in a report on the BTK Killer (Bind, Torture, Kill) in an effort to get him to turn himself in. The subliminal message included the text  Now call the chief,  as well as a pair of glasses. The glasses were included because when BTK murdered Nancy Fox, there was a pair of glasses lying upside down on her dresser; police felt that seeing the glasses might stir up remorse in the killer. The attempt was unsuccessful, and police reported no increased volume of calls afterward.[25]

During the 2000 U.S. presidential campaign, a television ad campaigning for Republican candidate George W. Bush showed words (and parts thereof) scaling from the foreground to the background on a television screen. When the word BUREAUCRATS flashed on the screen, one frame showed only the last part, RATS.[26][27] The FCC looked into the matter,[28] but no penalties were ever assessed in the case.[citation needed]

In the British alternative comedy show The Young Ones, a number of subliminal images were present in the original and most repeated broadcasts of the second series. Images included a gull coming into land, a tree frog jumping through the air, a man gurning[vague], and the end credits of the movie Carry On Cowboy.[citation needed] These were included to mock the then-occurring matter of subliminal messages in television. Although they may fall foul of the FCC guidelines, these images do appear in the U.S. boxset DVD Every Stoopid Episode.

Chris Morris famously used subliminal messages to display a half-frame of the last episode of Brass Eye, stating  Grade is a cunt  in reference to Michael Grade, the Channel 4 executive responsible for the heavy editing of Morris’s show [29].[citation needed]

Shaun Micallef’s Australian ‘Micallef P(r)ogram(me)’ shows contained strange subliminal messages that can be seen on the DVDs. As they are of random, humorous statements, questions, etc, they are not regarded as advertising. They were usually images of politicians, as is the case with his more recent Newstopia.[citation needed]
In Warner Brothers’ 1943 animated film  Wise Quacking Duck , Daffy Duck spins a statue which is holding a shield. For one frame the words  BUY BONDS  are visible on the shield.

In the film Metropolis, there are many instances of single-frame sentences or photos included to make the audience feel like a worker in the underground cities so that the film would have a larger and greater impact on them. Some instances include single frames with the words ‘Bow to Government’ And ‘Work to please.’ It also included photos of atom bombs and massacres in attempt to scare the audience subconsciously, to almost brainwash them like the workers in the film have been.

The December 16, 1973 episode of Columbo titled  Double Exposure , is based on subliminal messaging: it is used by the murderer, Dr. Bart Keppler, a motivational research specialist, played by Robert Culp, to lure his victim out of his seat during the viewing of a promotional film and by Lt. Columbo to bring Keppler back to the crime scene and incriminate him. Lt. Columbo is shown how subliminal cuts work in a scene mirroring James Vicary’s experiment.[30][31]

The horror film the Exorcist is well-known for its frightening yet effective use of subliminal images throughout the film, depicting a white-faced demon named Captain Howdy. This image is shown in the character Father Karras’s nightmare, where it flashes across the screen for a few seconds before fading away.

A McDonald’s logo appeared for one frame during the Food Network’s Iron Chef America series on 2007-01-27, leading to claims that this was an instance of subliminal advertising. The Food Network replied that it was simply a glitch.[32]

In Formula One racing, the paint scheme of many cars would carry messages intended to look as if they were of banned tobacco products in many Grands Prix where tobacco advertising was banned, though many of these were jokes on the part of the teams (for example, Jordan Grand Prix ran Benson and Hedges sponsorship as  Bitten and Hisses  with a snake-skin design on their cars). A similar procedure was used by NASCAR driver Jeff Burton after the AT&T Mobility advertising was banned by a court order in 2007, and by Penske Championship Racing in NASCAR (where Cellco Partnership is prohibited) and the IRL (Marlboro). In both instances, a distinctive design where the banned company’s identity (the Verizon  V  and the Marlboro chevron) were integrated into the car’s design.

On November 7, 2007, Network Ten Australia’s broadcast of the ARIA Awards was called out for using subliminal advertising in an exposé by the Media Watch program on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation).[33]

In June-July 2007, Sprite used a type of obvious subliminal message, involving yellow (lemon) and green (lime) objects such as cars. The objects would then be shown inconspicuously in the same setting, while showing the word  lymon  (combining the words lime and lemon) on screen for a second at a time. They called this  Sublymonal Advertising. [34] The previous year, Sprite used a similar advertising campaign, but this time it was tied in to Lost Experience, an alternate reality game.

In Sunshine 2007, three pictures of the crew are shown subliminally during part of the film.

In Brainiac: Science Abuse, there is an experiment carried out to see if viewers would react to subliminal messages. One was shown during an experiment to discover which substance provides the best skid; the message appeared when a brainiac hit a bale of hay. The second message appeared across a T-Shirt of a brainiac saying ‘Call your mum’, and the third said ‘scratch your nose’ when a sound wave hit the Brainiac logo. At the end of the show, people were shown in a theatre watching that episode. The test showed that the messages barely impacted the audience. The subliminal content in this episode was legal, as its presence was announced at the beginning and end of the episode.

In Week 11 of The Apprentice: Martha Stewart in which candidates have to create an ad for the Delta’s former low-cost commercial airlines Song, the team Matchstick used a 1/48th of a frame image at the bottom-right corner with the Song Airlines logo.

In the film Cloverfield, three subliminal pictures can be seen during various parts of the film, when the camera footage distorts. The photos are actually frames from classic monster films. The images are shown one at a time: the first, from Them , appears when the group play the footage back, the second, from The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, appears when they close the door on the ‘parasites’ and the third, from King Kong appears when the helicopter crashes.
Allegations

Campaigners have suggested subliminal messages appear in music. In 1985, two young men – James Vance and Raymond Belknap, attempted suicide. At the time of the shootings, Belknap died instantly. Vance was severely injured and survived. Their families were convinced it was because of a British rock band, Judas Priest. The families claimed subliminal messages told listeners to  do it  in the song  Better by You, Better Than Me . The case was taken to court and the families sought more than US$6 million in damages. The judge, Jerry Carr Whitehead said that freedom of speech protections would not apply to subliminal messages. He said he was not convinced the hidden messages actually existed on the album, but left the argument to attorneys[35]. The suit was eventually dismissed. In turn, he ruled it probably would not have been perceived without the  power of suggestion  or the young men would not have done it unless they really intended to.[36]

Another well known incident with subliminal message happened a few months after Judas Priest’s acquittal, Michael Waller, the son of a Georgia minister, shot himself in the head while supposedly listening to Ozzy Osbourne’s song Suicide Solution (despite the fact that the song Suicide Solution was not on the record [Ozzy Osbourne’s Speak Of The Devil] found playing in his room when his suicide was discovered). His parents claimed that subliminal messages may have influenced his actions. The judge in that trial granted the summary judgment because the plaintiffs could not show that there was any subliminal material on the record. He noted, however, that if the plaintiffs had shown that subliminal content was present, the messages would not have received protection under the First Amendment because subliminal messages are, in principle, false, misleading or extremely limited in their social value (Waller v. Osbourne 1991). Justice Whitehead’s ruling in the Judas Priest trial was cited to support his position[37].

In February 2007, it was discovered that 87 Konami slot machines in Ontario (OLG) casinos displayed a brief winning hand image before the game would begin. Government officials worried that the image subliminally persuaded gamblers to continue gambling; the company claimed that the image was a coding error. The machines were removed pending a fix by Konami.[38]

Fictional references

While their ultimate efficacy is somewhat controversial, subliminal messages have a long history in television shows, movies, and novels.

Governments are often depicted as employing subliminal messages in propaganda:

* The novel  FREEZE FRAME  by B. David Warner depicts the election of a corrupt president candidate using subliminal advertising to sway the votes in his favor.

* The movie Josie and the Pussycats described a long lasting plot whereby the U.S. government was controlling trends by inserting subliminal messages in popular music. Furthermore, towards the end of the film, a government agent shuts down the operation, saying that subliminal advertising works better in films. The words  Josie and the Pussycats is the best movie ever  are then spoken rapidly in voice-over and displayed quickly on screen, with the words  Join the Army  in smaller letters below it.

* In the 2005 science fiction movie Serenity, the Alliance uses subliminal messages broadly disseminated in commercials and other video to cause River Tam to go berserk. It only works on River because she was subjected to Alliance training and conditioning.

Many references deal specifically with the military:

* An episode of The Simpsons involved Bart and his friends joining a boy band, the Party Posse. While watching a video for the Party Posse, Lisa notices the phrase  Yvan Eht Nioj  being repeated continuously by belly-dancers. She plays the video in reverse and finds that it means  Join the Navy . Also, an Uncle Sam  I Want You  poster can be seen in the video frame by frame. The joke was that the United States sends subliminal messages in order to recruit people. In addition, the art of  superliminal messages  was demonstrated to Lisa; a Navy representative leans out a window, sees Lenny Leonard and Carl Carlson, and shouts  Hey you  Join the Navy

* In an episode of Malcolm in the Middle titled  Reese joins the Army (2) , one of the drill sergeants comments about the other’s restored confidence in the Army ( I guess the subliminal advertising’s working after all. ) his fellow drill sergeant then matter-of-factly states  the army doesn’t use subliminal ads  and then the pair slowly turn and look at each other.

* Not too different from the joke in The Simpsons episode mentioned above, this episode was a joking reference to the low military recruiting numbers in 2004 suggesting that the U.S. military uses such things in a tactic of desperation.

* In an episode of Babylon 5, during a scene which represents a public service announcement for Psi Corps, the words  TRUST THE CORPS  and  THE CORPS IS YOUR FRIEND  appear on screen for four frames. J. Michael Straczynski wanted the audience to recognize the subliminal message;  I had my staff find out what constitutes subliminal material–and it’s two frames per second, which is illegal, you can’t do things at that speed–so I went four frames per second .[39]

* An early episode of the X-Files deals with a small town plagued by killings where the perpetrators are influenced by messages appearing on ATMs and other electronic devices. Mulder refers to the use of subliminal messages in several instances.

* The Family Guy episode Mr. Griffin Goes to Washington jokes about subliminal messages for smoking in television. It shows an old black and white TV show whose dialogue is repeatedly interrupted by a suited man stating  Smoke  and later  Are you smoking yet?  in a monotone voice. Later in the episode, when Peter is arguing with his bosses about smoking, the same man interrupts while saying  Smoke.

The advertising element is mocked in Terry Pratchett’s Discworld novel Moving Pictures, when, to please a sponsor, a movie producer inserts a still image lasting several minutes of a serving of spare ribs. The producer reasoned that if showing just a few frames would have a positive impact, showing it for several minutes would have a huge effect.

Subliminal psychological influence is also referenced frequently by the British mentalist Derren Brown who alleges their use as the basis of many of his effects. Often, these claims are just decoys to divert attention from the real workings of his effects[40].

In the episode  With Fans Like These…  of the animated TV show Kappa Mikey, Lily and Gonard threaten Guano made the public do their bidding by using subliminal messages in a fish stick commercial.

The television show Chuck has a plot which is based around subliminal encoding. The main character receives an e-mail in which thousands and thousands of pictures flash right before his eyes, resulting in an ability to ‘mind flash’ on certain things, for example a ring or a picture of someone.

In an episode of The IT Crowd, Douglas attempts to seduce Jen by putting a quick flash of his photo into a presentation.

Sue Townsend’s 1992 novel/play The Queen and I is based on an alternate reality in which a leftist government takes power in the UK by the use of subliminal messages via television.

References

1. ^ a b c Karremans, Johan C.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Claus, Jasper (2006),  Beyond Vicary’s fantasies: The impact of subliminal priming and brand choicestar , Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42 (6): 792–798, doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.12.002
2. ^ a b bizcovering.com: Hypnosis in Advertising
3. ^ a b Vokey, John R. (2002),  Subliminal Messages , in John R. Vokey and Scott W. Allen (PDF), Psychological Sketches (6th ed.), Lethbridge, Alberta: Psyence Ink, pp. 223–246, http://people.uleth.ca/~vokey/pdf/Submess.pdf, retrieved 2006-07-05
4. ^ The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry: A Skeptical Analysis of Reverse Speech
5. ^ a b c d e The Straight Dope: Does subliminal advertising work?, The Straight Dope, http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a1_187.html, retrieved 2006-08-11
6. ^ a b Pratkanis, Anthony R. (Spring 1992),  The Cargo-Cult Science of Subliminal Persuasion , Skeptical Inquirer (Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal): pp. 260-272, http://www.csicop.org/si/9204/subliminal-persuasion.html, retrieved 2006-08-11
7. ^ tachistoscope – Definitions from Dictionary.com
8. ^ a b c d e f Urban Legends Reference Pages: Business (Subliminal Advertising), The Urban Legends Reference Pages, http://www.snopes.com/business/hidden/popcorn.asp, retrieved 2006-08-11
9. ^ Boese, Alex (2002). The Museum of Hoaxes: A Collection of Pranks, Stunts, Deceptions, and Other Wonderful Stories Contrived for the Public from the Middle Ages to the New Millennium, E. P. Dutton, ISBN 0-525-94678-0. pages. 137-38.
10. ^ The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry: The Cargo-Cult Science of Subliminal Persuasion by Anthony R. Pratkanis
11. ^ a b Lantos, Geoffrey P. (PDF), The Absolute Threshold Level and Subliminal Messages, Stonehill College, http://faculty.stonehill.edu/glantos/Lantos1/PDF_Folder/BA344_PDF/Exercise%2046.pdf, retrieved 2007-03-01
12. ^ Subliminal messages in movies and media, http://www.chokingonpopcorn.com/popcorn/?p=391, retrieved 2008-05-21 [citation needed]
13. ^ Hammarskjol, Dag (1974), 31st Session, 7 October 1974, E/Cn.4/1142/Add 2., United Nations Human Rights Commission
14. ^ U.S. Senate, page 118.
15. ^ U.S. Senate, page 125.
16. ^ Key, W. B. (1973), Subliminal seduction: Ad media’s manipulation of a not so innocent America, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0138590907
17. ^ Byrne, D. (1959),  The effect of a subliminal food stimulus on verbal responses , Journal of Applied Psychology 43 (4): 249–251, doi:10.1037/h0043194
18. ^ ([dead link]) Marka conference.com, http://www.markaconference.com/lang_id2/index.html
19. ^ Williams, Leanne M.; Belinda J. Liddell, Andrew H. Kemp, Richard A. Bryant, Russell A. Meares, Anthony S. Peduto, Evian Gordon (2006),  Amygdala-prefrontal dissociation of subliminal and supraliminal fear , Human Brain Mapping 27 (8): 652–661, doi:10.1002/hbm.20208
20. ^  Brain Activity Reflects Complexity Of Responses To Other-race Faces , Science Daily, 14 December 2004, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/12/041208231237.htm
21. ^ Hassin, Ran R.; Ferguson, Melissa J.; Shidlovski, Daniella; Gross, Tamar (2007),  Subliminal exposure to national flags affects political thought and behavior , PNAS 104 (50): 19757–19761, doi:10.1073/pnas.0704679104, PMID 18056813
22. ^ Robinson, B.A., Backmasking on records: Real, or hoax?, http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_cul5.htm, retrieved 2006-07-04
23. ^ Moore, Timothy E. (Spring 1992),  Subliminal Perception: Facts and Fallacies , Skeptical Inquirer (Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal): pp. 273-81, http://www.csicop.org/si/9204/subliminal-perception.html, retrieved 2006-08-11
24. ^ Eskenazi, J., & Greenwald, A.G., Pratkanis, A.R. (1990). What you expect is what you believe (but not necessarily what you get): On the ineffectiveness of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Unpublished manuscript. University of California. Santa Cruz.
25. ^ BTK Back
26. ^ Crowley, Candy.  Bush says ‘RATS’ ad not meant as subliminal message  CNN.com, 2000-9-12. Retrieved on December 16, 2006
27. ^ Smoking Pistols: George  Rat Ad  Bush and the Subliminal Kid
28. ^ 9/19/00 Speech by Commissioner Harold Furchtgott-Roth: The FCC’s Investigation of  Subliminal Techniques:
29. ^ Brasseye Wiki
30. ^ Error – – New York Times
31. ^ Re: [AMIA-L] Reply:  Sherlock Jr.
32. ^ It was a glitch, not a subliminal ad, for McDonald’s on Food Network, Canadian Press, 2007-01-25, http://www.cbc.ca/cp/media/070125/X01259AU.html, retrieved 2007-03-11
33. ^ Subliminal advertising. – ninemsn Video
34. ^ The Coca-Cola Company press center: Sprite redifines itself
35. ^ http://www.totse.com/en/ego/can_you_dance_to_it/jud-prst.html
36. ^ Vance, J., et al. v. Judas Priest et al., No. 86-5844, 2nd Dist. Ct. Nev. (August 24, 1990)
37. ^ http://www.csicop.org/si/9611/judas_priest.html
38. ^ Agency asks slot-machine maker to halt subliminal messages
39. ^ Killick, Jane (1997), Babylon 5: The Coming of Shadows, The Ballantine Publishing Group, pp. 131
40. ^ Singh, Simon (June 10, 2003),  I’ll bet £1,000 that Derren can’t read my mind , The Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/connected/main.jhtml?xml=/connected/2003/06/10/ecfmagic.xml, retrieved 2008-03-12

Further reading

* Boese, Alex (2006), Hippo Eats Dwarf: A Field Guide to Hoaxes and Other B.S., Orlando: Harcourt, pp. 193–195, ISBN 0156030837
* Dixon, Norman F. (1971), Subliminal Perception: The nature of a controversy, New York: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0070941475
* Greeenwald, Anthony W. (1992),  New Look 3: Unconscious Cognition Reclaimed , American Psychologist 47 (6): 766–779, doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.766
* Holender, D. (1986),  Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal , Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1): 1–23
* Merikle, P. M.; Daneman, M. (1998),  Psychological Investigations of Unconscious Perception , Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (1): 5–18
* Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, José E.; Nanez, Yuka (2001),  Perceptual learning without perception , Nature 413 (6858): 844–848, doi:10.1038/35101601
* Seitz, Aaron R.; Watanabe, Takeo (2003),  Is subliminal learning really passive? , Nature 422 (6927): 36, doi:10.1038/422036a
* United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session on Contents of Music and the Lyrics of Records (September 19, 1985), Record Labeling: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, http://www.joesapt.net/superlink/shrg99-529/

External links

* Subliminal Seduction: How Did the Uproar over Subliminal Advertising Affect the Advertising Industry?
* Scientific Consensus and Expert Testimony: Lessons from the Judas Priest Trial
* Examples of subliminal messages encoded in music
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subliminal_message
Categories: Consciousness studies | Perception | Popular psychology | Advertising techniques | Propaganda techniques | Human communication | Urban legends | Mind control

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subliminal_message

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Operation Midnight Climax
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Operation Midnight Climax was an operation initially established by Sidney Gottlieb and placed under the direction of Narcotics Bureau officer George Hunter White under the alias of Morgan Hall for the CIA as a sub-project of Project MKULTRA, the CIA mind-control research program that began in the 1950s.

The project consisted of a web of CIA-run safehouses in San Francisco, Marin, and New York. It was established in order to study the effects of LSD on unconsenting individuals. Prostitutes on the CIA payroll were instructed to lure clients back to the safehouses, where they were surreptitiously plied with a wide range of substances, including LSD, and monitored behind one-way glass. Several significant operational techniques were developed in this theater, including extensive research into sexual blackmail, surveillance technology, and the possible use of mind-altering drugs in field operations.

The safehouses were dramatically scaled back in 1962, following a report by CIA Inspector General John Earman that strongly recommended closing the facility. The San Francisco safehouses were closed in 1965, and the New York City safehouse soon followed in 1966.

The file destruction undertaken at the order of CIA Director Richard Helms and former MKULTRA chief Sidney Gottlieb in 1972 makes a full investigation of claims impossible. However, many records did survive the purge. News of the story began to leak following a landmark story by New York Times reporter Seymour Hersh on illegal CIA domestic surveillance. This report triggered Senate Subcommittee hearings which investigated MKULTRA, and brought Operation Midnight Climax to light.

In 2009 Strange Science LLC released a HD video series entitled  Operation Midnight Climax,  based on the CIA experiments of the same name. It starred Meredith Salenger, Todd Cahoon, and Quinton Flynn.

References

* Marks, John (1991). The Search for the  Manchurian Candidate . W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
* http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,915244,00.html Mind-Bending Disclosures. Time. Aug. 15 1977
* http://www.strangescience.tv

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Midnight_Climax
Categories: United States government stubs | Psychedelic research | Mind control | Military psychiatry | Central Intelligence Agency operations

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Midnight_Climax

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Operation Gladio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Emblem of  Gladio , Italian branch of the NATO  stay-behind  paramilitary organizations. The motto means  In silence I preserve freedom .

Gladio (Italian for Gladius, a type of Roman short sword) is a code name denoting the clandestine NATO  stay-behind  operation in Italy after World War II, intended to continue anti-communist resistance in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion of Western Europe. Although Gladio specifically refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organisations,  Operation Gladio  is used as an informal name for all stay-behind organisations, sometimes called  Super NATO .[1]

Operating in many NATO and even some neutral countries,[2] Gladio was first coordinated by the Clandestine Committee of the Western Union (CCWU), founded in 1948. After the creation of NATO in 1949, the CCWU was integrated into the Clandestine Planning Committee (CPC), founded in 1951 and overseen by the SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe), transferred to Belgium after France’s official withdrawal from NATO’s Military Committee in 1966 — which was not followed by the dissolution of the French stay-behind paramilitary movements.

The role of the CIA in sponsoring Gladio and the extent of its activities during the Cold War era, and its relationship to terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead and other similar clandestine operations is the subject of ongoing debate and investigation. Italy, Switzerland and Belgium have had parliamentary inquiries into the matter.[3]

Contents

* 1 General stay-behind structure
o 1.1 European Parliament resolution concerning Gladio
* 2 Allegations
o 2.1 Gladio’s strategy of tension and internal subversion operations
* 3 Gladio operations in NATO countries
o 3.1 First discovered in Italy
+ 3.1.1 Giulio Andreotti’s October 24, 1990 revelations
+ 3.1.2 2000 Parliamentary report: a  strategy of tension
+ 3.1.3 General Maletti’s testimony concerning alleged CIA involvement
+ 3.1.4 A quick chronology of Italy’s  strategy of tension
+ 3.1.5 The DSSA, another Gladio?
o 3.2 Belgium
o 3.3 France
o 3.4 Denmark
o 3.5 Germany
+ 3.5.1 The 1980 Oktoberfest bomb blast
+ 3.5.2 CIA’s documents released in June 2006
+ 3.5.3 Norbert Juretzko’s 2004 revelations
o 3.6 Greece
o 3.7 The Netherlands
o 3.8 Norway
o 3.9 Portugal
o 3.10 Turkey
o 3.11 The United Kingdom
+ 3.11.1 General Serravalle’s revelations
+ 3.11.2 The Guardian’s November 1990 revelations concerning plans under Margaret Thatcher
* 4 Parallel stay-behind operations in non-NATO countries
o 4.1 Austria
o 4.2 Finland
o 4.3 Spain
o 4.4 Sweden
o 4.5 Switzerland
* 5 The Order of the Solar Temple mystery
* 6 FOIA requests and US State Department’s 2006 communiqué
* 7 Politicians on Gladio
* 8 Gladio in Fiction
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 Films

General stay-behind structure
Emblem of NATO’s  stay-behind  paramilitary organizations.
The command structure of stay-behind forces, as suggested in Field Manual 31-15: Operations Against Irregular Forces.

After World War II, the UK and the US decided to create  stay-behind  paramilitary organizations, with the official aim of countering a possible Soviet invasion through sabotage and guerrilla warfare behind enemy lines. Arms caches were hidden, escape routes prepared, and loyal members recruited: i.e. mainly hardline anticommunists, including many ex-Nazis or former fascists, whether in Italy or in other European countries. In Germany, for example, Gladio had as a central focus the Gehlen Org — also involved in ODESSA  ratlines  — named after Reinhard Gehlen who would become West Germany’s first head of intelligence, while the predominantly Italian P2 masonic lodge was composed of many members of the neofascist Italian Social Movement (MSI), including Licio Gelli. Its clandestine  cells  were to stay behind (hence the name) in enemy controlled territory and to act as resistance movements, conducting sabotage, guerrilla warfare and assassinations.

However, Italian Gladio was more far reaching.  A briefing minute of June 1, 1959, reveals Gladio was built around ‘internal subversion’. It was to play ‘a determining role… not only on the general policy level of warfare, but also in the politics of emergency’. In the 1970s, with communist electoral support growing and other leftists looking menacing, the establishment turned to the ‘Strategy of Tension’ … with Gladio eager to be involved. [4]

CIA director Allen Dulles was one of the key people in instituting Operation Gladio, and most of Gladio’s operations were financed by the CIA.[citation needed] The anti-communist networks, which were present in all of Europe, including in neutral countries like Sweden and Switzerland, were partly funded by the CIA.[5] Some went as far as claiming that Democrazia Cristiana leader Aldo Moro had been the  founder of (Italian) Gladio .[6] However, whether these allegations are correct or not, his murder in 1978 put an end to the “historic compromise” (sharing of power) attempt between the PCI and the Christian Democrats (DC), thus accomplishing one of the alleged objectives of the strategy of tension.

Operating in all of NATO and even in some neutral countries such as Spain before its 1982 admission to NATO, Gladio was first coordinated by the Clandestine Committee of the Western Union (CCWU), founded in 1948. After the creation of NATO in 1949, the CCWU was integrated into the  Clandestine Planning Committee  (CPC), founded in 1951 and overseen by the SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe), transferred to Belgium after France’s official retreat from NATO — which was not followed by the dissolution of the French stay-behind paramilitary movements.

Ganser alleges that:[7]

Next to the CPC, a second secret army command center, labeled Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC), was set up in 1957 on the orders of NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander in Europe (SACEUR). This military structure provided for significant US leverage over the secret stay-behind networks in Western Europe as the SACEUR, throughout NATO’s history, has traditionally been a US General who reports to the Pentagon in Washington and is based in NATO’s Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Mons, Belgium. The ACC’s duties included elaborating on the directives of the network, developing its clandestine capability, and organizing bases in Britain and the United States. In wartime, it was to plan stay-behind operations in conjunction with SHAPE. According to former CIA director William Colby, it was ‘a major program’.

Coordinated by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), {the secret armies} were run by the European military secret services in close cooperation with the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the British foreign secret service Secret Intelligence Service (SIS, also MI6). Trained together with US Green Berets and British Special Air Service (SAS), these clandestine NATO soldiers, armed with underground arms-caches, prepared against a potential Soviet invasion and occupation of Western Europe, as well as the coming to power of communist parties. The clandestine international network covered the European NATO membership, including Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey, as well as the neutral European countries of Austria, Finland, Sweden and Switzerland.

The existence of these clandestine NATO armies remained a closely guarded secret throughout the Cold War until 1990, when the first branch of the international network was discovered in Italy. It was code-named Gladio, the Latin word for a short double-edged sword [gladius]. While the press said that the NATO secret armies were ‘the best-kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II’, the Italian government, amidst sharp public criticism, promised to close down the secret army. Italy insisted identical clandestine armies had also existed in all other countries of Western Europe. This allegation proved correct and subsequent research found that in Belgium, the secret NATO army was code-named SDRA8, in Denmark Absalon, in Germany TD BJD, in Greece LOK, in Luxemburg Stay-Behind, in the Netherlands I&O, in Norway ROC, in Portugal Aginter, in Switzerland P26, in Turkey Ergenekon Counter-Guerrilla, In Sweden AGAG (Aktions Gruppen Arla Gryning, and in Austria OWSGV. However, the code names of the secret armies in France, Finland and Spain remain unknown.

Upon learning of the discovery, the parliament of the European Union (EU) drafted a resolution sharply criticizing the fact (…) Yet only Italy, Belgium and Switzerland carried out parliamentary investigations, while the administration of President George H. W. Bush refused to comment, being in the midst of preparations for war against Saddam Hussein in the Persian Gulf, and fearing potential damages to the military alliance.

If Gladio was effectively  the best-kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II ,[8] it must be underlined, however, that on several occasions, arms caches were discovered and stay-behind paramilitary organizations officially dissolved – only to be created again. But it was not until the 1990s that the full international scope of the program was disclosed to public knowledge. Giulio Andreotti, the main character of Italy’s post-WWII political life, was described by Aldo Moro to his captors as  too close to NATO , Moro thus advising them to be wary. Indeed, before Andreotti’s 1990 acknowledgement of Gladio’s existence, he had  unequivocally  denied it in 1974, and then in 1978 to judges investigating the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing. And even in 1990,  Testimonies collected by the two men [judges Felice Casson and Carlo Mastelloni investigating the 1972 Peteano fascist car bomb] and by the Commission on Terrorism on Rome, and inquiries by the Guardian, indicate that Gladio was involved in activities which do not square with Andreotti’s account. Links between Gladio, Italian secret services bosses and the notorious P2 masonic lodge are manifold (…) In the year that Andreotti denied Gladio’s existence, the P2 treasurer, General Siro Rosetti, gave a generous account of ‘a secret security structure made up of civilians, parallel to the armed forces’ There are also overlaps between senior Gladio personnel and the committee of military men, Rosa dei Venti (Wind Rose), which