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In the information about Fukushima’s last admitted leak, I went across a lot of news articles and found that the tanks which are leaking have rubber instead of welding that holds them together. It doesn’t matter what is designed if decisions are going to be made when it matters that put dangerous radioactive liquid into tanks that aren’t in any way safe for them.

All five of the temporary tanks involved in the leaks were collapsible and held together by rubber seals, meaning they were less durable than those with welded seams.

Tepco’s tank leaks blamed on seals, reassembly

AP, AFP-JIJI, Kyodo

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/25/national/tepco-to-drain-two-suspect-water-tanks-at-fukushima-no-1/#.Uh5BRJw7hqN

**

In looking for solutions, I found the photos from the article above and others which show the entire facility’s storage tanks with this radioactive water in them. They don’t look like any double-walled tanks. They aren’t surrounded by any encasement system like concrete or anything else and they don’t even have welded seams in about 300 of them.

Russia repeated an offer first made two years ago to help Japan clean up its radiation-ravaged Fukushima No. 1 nuclear station, welcoming Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s decision to seek outside help.

(etc.)

The approach to cooling and scrapping the plant will need to change and include technologies developed outside Japan if the cleanup is to succeed, said Vladimir Asmolov, first deputy director general of Rosenergoatom, Russia’s state-owned nuclear utility.

Outside help offered to deal with Tepco debacle

U.S., French experts also ready; water woes escalate

Bloomberg

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/26/national/outside-help-offered-to-deal-with-tepco-debacle/#at_pco=tcb-1.0&at_ab=-&at_pos=1&at_tot=8

**

This article (below) also has a good look at the tank farm of radioactive liquid waste accumulating at the Fukushima nuclear facility – evidently, the normal safeguards used to store and transport waste of this kind aren’t even being used – but why not? And in the look for leaks, the stories have been horrendous – which begs the question, why don’t they put infrared “night goggles” on a pair of robotics and send them around to take pictures which would likely show up leaking spots in pipes and tanks as a big white obvious blob on the computer?

I don’t get it.

**

Scientists, pointing to stubbornly high radioactive cesium levels in bottom fish since the disaster, had for some time suspected the plant was leaking radioactive water into the ocean. Tepco repeatedly denied that until last month, when it acknowledged contaminated water has been leaking into the ocean from early on in the crisis.

(etc.)

Some 1,000 steel tanks built across the plant complex contain nearly 300,000 tons of partially treated contaminated water. About 350 of them have rubber seams intended to last for only five years. Company spokesman Masayuki Ono said it plans to build additional tanks with welded seams that are more watertight, but will have to rely on rubber seams in the meantime.

Shinji Kinjo, a regulatory official in charge of the Fukushima disaster, said the rubber-seam tanks are mostly built in a rush when the contaminated water problem started, and often lacked adequate quality tests and require close attention.

Workers have already spotted two more questionable tanks during inspection Thursday.

Tepco hit for failing to foresee menace of radioactive groundwater, tank leaks

by Mari Yamaguchi

AP

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/23/national/tepco-hit-for-failing-to-foresee-menace-of-radioactive-groundwater-tank-leaks/#.Uh5Dipw7hqN

**

I don’t know what they have paid for those tanks or to build them compared to more appropriate ones, but it seems obvious that the cost of having built them that way is going to be substantially more than having done something right in the first place. Most of the casks for storing liquids contaminated by radioactive materials are double hulled and surrounded by something like concrete for containing and shielding the radioactivity emanating from the materials.

They didn’t do that on these tanks and there are over 3500 of them or something – it is insane. How temporary is it when they’ve been sitting there for months and will continue to sit there that way day after day corroding, leaking and creating an even bigger disaster than what it already is? Even someone with a grade school education wouldn’t have made that kind of mistake with decisions about what to put radioactive waste in to store it for any length of time.

When I was looking about trying to understand this better, I found this technology that is known in the nuclear industry for use on waste materials – particularly liquid / water contaminated radioactive waste products –

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synroc

Synroc is composed of three titanate minerals – hollandite, zirconolite and perovskite – plus rutile and a small amount of metal alloy. These are combined into a slurry to which is added a portion of high-level liquid nuclear waste. The mixture is dried and calcined at 750 °C (1,380 °F) to produce a powder.

The powder is then compressed in a process known as Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), where it is compressed within a bellows-like stainless steel container at temperatures of 1150–1200 °C (2102–2192 °F).

The result is a cylinder of hard, dense, black synthetic rock.

**
So, it isn’t that the technologies don’t exist. In the wikipedia entry about Fukushima, it has a list of the efforts made to clean the water partially using several technologies they have bought and installed. It reads like a nightmare and so far, although the news articles say that much of the stored water was put through those systems to clean part of the radioactive materials from it – the list makes it obvious that not much of it could’ve been put through those systems at all. They have failed, leaked and shut down nearly every time they have been used.

I wondered if the materials being used for pipes, valves, pumps, filtration liners and other elements coming into contact with the polluted radioactive materials are actually appropriate to withstand those contaminants. Are they plain old iron pipes or what? That isn’t funny, but I can’t help but laugh at the absurdity of it. To have the highest paid, most high degree holding professionals with these decisions in their hands making this level of bad choices which will affect the whole world – really isn’t laughable. It is horrific.

Its tanks, which are used to keep the coolant that prevents the damaged reactors from overheating dangerously, are considered to be unsuitable because they were made for other industrial purposes. They were adapted following the emergency, but they are nearly full. TEPCO estimates that it has already reached 85 percent capacity, although plans to create a more permanent facility have so far not materialized. The latest leak was the fifth time that toxic water escaped from a basin.

TEPCO has been slow in measuring the levels of radioactive elements that have flowed out of the station, as well as publishing its data.  The company finally revealed this month that highly unsafe tritium and cesium levels had been detected in the seawater near the plant. A concentration of these elements could damage the marine environment and build up in marine life, possibly endangering humans further up the food chain.

Fukushima operator pleads for international help as radiation crisis deepens

Published time: August 22, 2013 22:21

http://rt.com/news/fukushima-international-iaea-leak-866/

**

In the article above, an overview of these tanks makes it obvious that they are not in any way appropriate for the storage of nuclear materials. The chemical slosh that makes up the radioactive water they are placing in them includes boron, possibly sea water, cesium, tritium, and no telling what all else – all of which are corrosive in a number of different ways on any materials.

The information below concerns transporting waste – however, it shows the level of what is known for these “hot” materials such as those at Fukushima when it comes to storing, handling, transporting and dealing with them – it is not an “unknown” –

Many different nuclear materials are transported and the degree of potential hazard from these materials varies considerably. Different packaging standards have been developed according to the potential hazard posed by the material.

‘Type A’ packages are designed to withstand minor accidents and are used for medium-activity materials such as medical or industrial radioisotopes. Ordinary industrial containers are used for low-activity material such as U3O8.

Containers for high-level waste (HLW) and used fuel are robust and very secure and are known as ‘Type B’ packages.  They maintain shielding from gamma and neutron radiation, even under extreme conditions. There are over 150 kinds of Type B packages, and the larger ones cost some US$1.6 million each.

An appropriate tank for transporting nuclear materials waste.

Packaging for radioactive materials includes, where appropriate, shielding to reduce potential radiation exposures. In the case of some materials, such as fresh uranium fuel assemblies, the radiation levels are negligible and no shielding is required. Other materials, such as used fuel and high-level waste, are highly radioactive and purpose-designed containers with integral shielding are used. To limit the risk in handling of highly radioactive materials, dual-purpose containers (casks), which are appropriate for both storage and transport of used nuclear fuel, are often used.

http://world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Transport/Transport-of-Radioactive-Materials/#.Uh5KZ5w7hqN

**

Although the group below studies the subject, exists to solve the problems and is certainly aware of how the Fukushima situation is being handled – or rather mis-handled, what good is it? There was nothing done in the last two years that prevented the operators at TEPCO and their executives from deciding to do it this way and to pollute every future generation as a result. Just look at the number of dams in Fukushima prefecture, the number of families that subsist from fishing, the number of communities already designated permanently uninhabitable and the places around the world receiving those contaminants from ocean currents, air currents and other global interactions. Why don’t they understand the impacts of these things when decisions are being made? Why aren’t the nuclear regulatory groups internationally able to do anything about any of it? What is their purpose if not that?

IAEA –

Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

http://www-ns.iaea.org/conventions/waste-jointconvention.asp

**

From a caption under a photo on the Weather Channel Slideshow at the bottom of this page entitled – Japan’s Dirty Tsunami Cleanup – in this photo it is obvious that radioactive waste was both collected and now stored in plastic garbage leaf bags like those any of us use on a Saturday afternoon taking out the household trash.

A worker walks past bags of radioactive waste at a temporary waste storage site in Naraha, just outside the exclusion zone surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant in Japan on March 5, 2013. (AP Photo/Greg Baker)

http://www.weather.com/news/science/environment/fukushima-nuclear-leak-update-radioactive-ground-water-nears-sea-20130823

**

From the massive list of muck-ups in the efforts to clean any of the radioactive water being used to cool the reactors at this point on the Fukushima Daiichi complex – (found on wikipedia)

On 27 June TEPCO started cooling the reactors with decontaminated water. About 1,850 tons water were reprocessed.[33] The system was halted only one and a half hours later after discovering water leaking from the pipes.[34] However, water was found leaking from unfastened pipes. A TEPCO-operator said, that they failed to check the 4 kilometers of piping, because during an inspection more than 2 weeks before there was no problem found.[35] By 28 June, it was reported that the system had already treated approximately 7 230 cubic meters of contaminated water.[27] On 29 June the system was restarted again, however due to leaking contaminated water storage tank it was stopped again.[36][37]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_disaster_cleanup

**

This is probably an extremely accurate statement of fact – that there is water leaking out all over the site at Fukushima and there are no accurate readings of the radioactivity there which is happening as a result –

A nuclear expert has told the BBC that he believes the current water leaks at Fukushima are much worse than the authorities have stated.

Mycle Schneider is an independent consultant who has previously advised the French and German governments.

He says water is leaking out all over the site and there are no accurate figures for radiation levels.

Fukushima leak is ‘much worse than we were led to believe’

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23779561

**

This is one entry from an extensive list which describes the constant start ups of systems intended to take the contaminants or at least some of them from the water and then the pumps would fail or the systems stop on their own without obvious reason, leaks would happen, filters would stop working, valves be in the wrong position, etc – meaning that those expensive reverse osmosis systems and others (there are several) haven’t been used long enough to do much of anything to clean the water being used to cool the reactors. And then it was pumped into these “storage barrels” that weren’t designed for this type of waste materials.

TEPCO warned after recurrent leakage of radioactive strontium-contaminated water

At the beginning of December 2011, another leak was found in the desalination plant at the facility. As on 5 December some 45 tons of water heavily contaminated with radioactive strontium escaped, of which 150 liters of water found its way into the ocean through a ditch connected with the beach.[52] Within 10 days another leak was found: 30 liters had escaped from the piping, but according to TEPCO it had remained on the plant. The outflow stopped after the valves were closed. Because of this NISA sent a stern warning to the operator of the plant, requiring TEPCO to investigate the cause of the leaks and prevent them in future.[53]

On 5 April 2012 at 1.00 AM a leaking pipe was found. The leakage stopped an hour after the valves were closed. 12,000 liters water with high levels of radioactive strontium were lost, according to TEPCO much of this water escaped through a nearby sewer-system into the ocean. Investigations should reveal how much water was lost into the ocean, and how the joint could fail. A similar leakage in at the same facility happened on 26 March 2012.[54]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_disaster_cleanup

**

But that is nothing compared with this – and even that will be nothing compared to the newest problems with leaks and contaminated water seeping into groundwater and making its way to the ocean and elsewhere –

The first approach to prevent tunnel water from leaking into the sea was to pump the tunnels dry. Beginning on 27 March, operators attempted to pump water from the turbine hall basement (see the tunnel below diagram #2) to the condenser (the large black vessel).[62][63] By pumping water out of the basement, TEPCO expected to lower the trench water level, and reduce the likelihood of overspill to the sea. However, “both condensers turned out to be full”, which prevented pumping.[64] Therefore, pumps able to shift 10 to 25 tons of water per hour were used to move condenser water to storage tanks, freeing condenser storage for water that was in the basement of Unit 2. However, since both the storage tanks and the condensers were nearly full, TEPCO also considered using tankers or a “mega float” as a temporary storage location for the radioactive water.[65][66]

Regardless of the availability of offshore storage for radioactive-contaminated water, TEPCO decided to pump its least contaminated water, approximately 100 times the legal limit, from a wastewater treatment plant, out to sea on 5 April to free storage space.[67][68]).[68][69]

At the same time, on 5 April, TEPCO began pumping water from the unit’s condensers of Units 1–3 to their respective condensation storage tanks to free room for the trench water.[69]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_disaster_cleanup

**

So, they basically “turned out” the contents of the wastewater treatment plant straight into the ocean in order to free up space to put more contaminated water – or something – it is too bizarre to consider that they know what they are doing or are capable of deciding when their actions prove so far to not appreciate the impacts both long-term and in the immediate future of what they are doing.

Some 1,000 tanks have been built to hold the water. But these are believed to be at around 85% of their capacity and every day an extra 400 tonnes of water are being added.

“The quantities of water they are dealing with are absolutely gigantic,” said Mycle Schneider, who has consulted widely for a variety of organisations and countries on nuclear issues.

“What is the worse is the water leakage everywhere else – not just from the tanks. It is leaking out from the basements, it is leaking out from the cracks all over the place. Nobody can measure that.

(from – which includes an overview / aerial view of Fukushima recently showing the multitude of tanks in its new tank farm – none of which were made to withstand nuclear and extremely corrosive materials)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23779561

**

What’s more – they are going to continue using both the rubber seamed tanks that have been leaking by adding more of them AND the welded seam tanks which are intended for other industrial purposes and not radioactive waste water with corrosive chemicals in it as well –

TEPCO says it will build additional storage tanks with welded seams that are more watertight, but that it will continue to use the rubber-seamed tanks despite at least five of them having leaked since last year.

In November, TEPCO is planning to remove 400 tons of highly irradiated spent fuel at the plant’s damaged Reactor No. 4.

The operation, according to Gundersen, is fraught with risks, including the possibility of releasing a large amount of radiation if a fuel assembly breaks or gets too close to a neighbouring bundle.

“The problem with Dai-ichi is that the racks (that hold the spent fuel) are damaged. So TEPCO is not going to be able to easily pull the fuel from them,” he said, adding that the rubble left over from the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and the murky water means plant operators will not be able to use a computerized arm.

Read more: http://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/japan-s-fukushima-nuclear-plant-leaks-what-you-need-to-know-1.1423249#ixzz2dIUlbGOV

Read more: http://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/japan-s-fukushima-nuclear-plant-leaks-what-you-need-to-know-1.1423249#ixzz2dITmqKp6

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This article has two photos done in infrared of nuclear waste materials being transported – and obviously they show up as heat on these kinds of instruments and photography – which would include “night goggles” and other infrared sensor equipment. So why do the Fukushima operators have trouble finding leaks from pipes and tanks at their source? Surely they can afford to outfit a few small robotic rovers with night goggles and a signal of what it finds back to their computers. How much would that cost – $150 each or something – sort of a Roomba thing with night vision? How hard is it really?

This infrared image shows railroad cars carrying 123 tons of nuclear waste.

 
The train is hauling a so-called CASTOR convoy, named after the type of container carried: Cask for Storage and Transport Of Radioactive material. These trademarked casks have been used since 1995 to transport nuclear waste from German power plants to France for reprocessing, then back to Germany for storage.
 

An Infrared Look at 123 Tons of Nuclear Waste Reveals a Hot Mess

http://gizmodo.com/5739402/an-infrared-look-at-123-tons-of-nuclear-waste

**

See – they are using dye to locate leaks and scientific wild ass guesses as well as having some actual people go out and look for them in thin little anti-radioactive suits which are probably less effective than they should be –

TEPCO attempted to inject a polymeric water absorbent, used for diapers, into pipes leading to the pit; this absorbent was also coupled with sawdust and shredded newspapers.[61][77] However, on 3 April and 4 April, this approach appeared to have failed to slow the leak, leading TEPCO to use a colored dye to confirm the location and size of the leak.[77][78] The dye indicated the leak was from a cracked pipe and seeping through gravel into the pit.[79] On 5 April, TEPCO began using liquid glass to attempt to stop the leak.[79] Finally, on 6 April, TEPCO drilled a hole into the pit near Unit 2 and injected water glass (sodium silicate) into the pit.[80] The residual heat carried by the water used for cooling the damaged reactors accelerated the setting of the injected mixture. Shortly afterward, TEPCO announced that water had stopped leaking from the pit.[81]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_disaster_cleanup

**

If both workers and robotics were simply fitted with infrared / night vision tech, they could see just about all of it because there would be bright blotchy “hot” spots at every site where a leak is occurring, even if the pipes near the leak are somewhat hot. There would be a difference that could easily be discernible.

Regardless, the most horrific part of Fukushima and its aftermath seems more and more to be the off-loading of reality to the history books rather than telling the truth about it whatever that current set of facts may be. That is going to determine the greater danger from all of it and its lasting consequences that are very likely to affect all of us and our future generations globally.

– cricketdiane

**

The places where I looked for info on this –

Fukushima operator pleads for international help as radiation crisis deepens

RT – Published time: August 22, 2013 22:21

http://rt.com/news/fukushima-international-iaea-leak-866/

**

The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) hosts one of the world’s largest collections of information on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

https://twitter.com/INISsecretariat

**

Dairy Farmers Fight Radiation with Boron

June 14, 2011

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/06/14/dairy-farmers-fight-radiation-with-boron.aspx

**

Nuclear Waste Neutralization Technologies

http://newparadigmdigest.com/5723/nuclear-waste-neutralization-technologies/

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Nuclear Experts: One century before Japan tries to deal with Fukushima’s melted cores? — “More likely what’s left of reactors will be left in situ for 100 years or more” (VIDEO)

http://enenews.com/nuclear-experts-one-century-before-japan-deals-with-fukushimas-melted-cores-more-likely-whats-left-of-reactors-will-be-left-in-situ-for-100-years-or-more-video

**

Boron (B) and water\ Boron and water: reaction mechanisms, environmental impact and health effects

http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/boron/boron-and-water.htm

**

Nuclear Plant Chemistries – Ceradyne, Inc.

http://www.ceradyne.com/uploads/Brochures/NuclrPPChem_ENGCH~f.pdf
**
pg. 3 – Boron

http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/SV/Invo/annex3/annex3_e.pdf

**
pg. 9000 (pg. 3 of 7 in the pdf document) –

CalTech

Resin Synthesis and Characterization.
Boron-selective resins (BSRs)

http://www.wag.caltech.edu/publications/sup/pdf/990.pdf
**

Hanford Nuclear Waste Cleanup Plant May Be Too Dangerous

Safety issues make plans to clean up a mess left over from the construction of the U.S. nuclear arsenal uncertain

By Valerie Brown

Scientific American – May 9, 2013

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=hanford-nuclear-cleanup-problems

. . . boiler. The water in the primary loop usually contains boron 0.025 M boric acid, H3BO3 to control the reactivity of the reactor.

AND
The fuel elements are clad in Zircaloy, a zirconium alloy that includes tin, iron, chromium, and nickel that prevents fission product release and protects them against corrosion by the coolant. The control material in BWRs is B4C, while PWRs have AgInCd or Hf control materials.

(from pg.s 1 and 2 of the document which otherwise took forever to load – but answered some of the questions about boron compounds and other corrosive chemicals in the coolant water typically.)

http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ch374/ch418518/Chapter%2016%20Nuclear%20Reactor%20Chemistry.pdf

**

Hidden and Intermediate States of Nucleons

Journal of Nuclear Physics

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Hidden%20and%20intermediate%20states%20of%20nucleons.pdf

**

Journal of Nuclear Physics – page of articles about Radioactivity specifically – (some can be read online – some may have to be looked up at the library)

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/

**

Radionuclide – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radionuclide

**

Novouralsk – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novouralsk

The town’s economy is dominated by the nuclear, automobile, and construction industries. The Ural Electro Chemical Plant (UECP/УЭХК)’s main activities are uranium enrichment and the development of centrifuge technology, as well as the manufacture of instruments and industrial systems for the nuclear industry. The plant began operating in 1949 and was the site of the Soviet Union’s first gaseous diffusion enrichment plant

**

Nuclear Transmutation – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_transmutation

**

Search on New York Public Library for a document –

Table of radioactive isotopes / Edgardo Browne and Richard B. Firestone ; Virginia S. Shirley, editor.

http://catalog.nypl.org/search/o13426464

**

MIT Open Coursework –

Downloadable Course Materials from Introduction To Applied Nuclear Physics

http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/nuclear-engineering/22-02-introduction-to-applied-nuclear-physics-spring-2012/tools/

**

Beta Particle – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_particle

**

Radioactive Waste – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_waste

**

Maxey Flat – wikipedia (with a list of many of the responsible parties that dumped there)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxey_Flat

From 1963 to 1977 the Maxey Flat Low Level Radioactive Waste facility served as a dump for 832 corporations and government agencies. The site covered 252 acres (1.02 km2) and consisted of a series of 52 unlined trenches that are an average of 360 feet (110 m) long, 70 feet (21 m) wide and 20 feet (6.1 m) deep. Approximately 4,750,000 cubic feet (135,000 m3) of Low Level Radioactive Waste was deposited on-site. These trenches were capped with dirt when they reached their capacity limit, but because of the heavy rainfall in the area the soil collapsed into the trenches and the trenches filled with water. It has since been referred to as the “bathtub effect.” The water that invaded the trenches became radioactive and had to be disposed of.

**

World Nuclear Association

Transport of Nuclear Materials

http://world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Transport/Transport-of-Radioactive-Materials/#.Uh57M5w7hqN

**

Weather Channel Article about Fukushima’s Current Leak – with Slide Show of Some Radioactive Waste Disposal at Fukushima generally at the bottom of the article – frightening actually –

http://www.weather.com/news/science/environment/fukushima-nuclear-leak-update-radioactive-ground-water-nears-sea-20130823

**

Fukushima leak is ‘much worse than we were led to believe’

BBC News –

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23779561

**

Fukushima nuclear plant: Steam seen at reactor building

BBC News

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-23353049

**

Fukushima nuclear chief Masao Yoshida dies

Masao Yoshida, the Fukushima nuclear chief who led efforts to stabilise the crippled plant after the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, has died at the age of 58.

Masao Yoshida, a Tokyo-educated nuclear engineer, was chief of the nuclear plant at the time of the disaster.

He had been suffering from oesophagal cancer, which Tepco said was not linked to his work at the plant.

BBC News

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-23251102

**

Japan’s Fukushima nuclear plant leaks: What you need to know

Fan-Yee Suen, CTVNews.ca
Published Friday, August 23, 2013 7:43AM EDT

http://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/japan-s-fukushima-nuclear-plant-leaks-what-you-need-to-know-1.1423249

**

Nuclear Energy Institute

Fukushima Daiichi Water Filtration System Testing Continues

June 20, 2011

http://safetyfirst.nei.org/japan/fukushima-daiichi-water-filtration-system-testing-continues/

**

Fukushima Disaster Cleanup – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_disaster_cleanup

**

Graphic Explanation of the Contaminated Groundwater Problem at Fukushima – from wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fukushima_I_nuclear_accident_diagram_1.svg

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Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Sarcophagus – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_Nuclear_Power_Plant_sarcophagus

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American Nuclear Society

Fukushima Daiichi: ANS (American Nuclear Society) Committee Report – check the links on the left-hand side for specifics on the accident and remediation efforts –

http://fukushima.ans.org/report/safety-issues

**

Acerinox Accident – Spain (from wikipedia)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acerinox_accident

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Hanford Site – United States (from wikipedia)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanford_Site

**

Fort d’Aubervilliers – France (from wikipedia)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_d%27Aubervilliers

**

Kyshtym Disaster – Soviet Union (from wikipedia)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyshtym_disaster

The Kyshtym disaster was a radiation contamination incident that occurred on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the Soviet Union. It measured as a Level 6 disaster on the International Nuclear Event Scale, making it the third most serious nuclear accident ever recorded behind the Chernobyl disaster, and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, both Level 7 on the INES. The event occurred in the town of Ozyorsk, a closed city built around the Mayak plant. Since Ozyorsk/Mayak (also known as Chelyabinsk-40 and Chelyabinsk-65) was not marked on maps, the disaster was named after Kyshtym, the nearest known town.

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Depleted Uranium – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depleted_uranium

Uranium hexafluoride

Hexafluoride tank leaking

About 95% of the depleted uranium produced is stored as uranium hexafluoride, a crystalline solid, (D)UF6, in steel cylinders in open air storage yards close to enrichment plants. Each cylinder holds up to 12.7 tonnes (or 14 short tons) of UF6. In the U.S. 560,000 tonnes of depleted UF6 had accumulated by 1993. In 2008, 686,500 tonnes in 57,122 storage cylinders were located near Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky.[22][23]

The storage of DUF6 presents environmental, health, and safety risks because of its chemical instability. When UF6 is exposed to water vapor in the air, it reacts with the moisture to produce UO2F2 (uranyl fluoride), a solid, and HF (hydrogen fluoride), a gas, both of which are highly soluble and toxic. The uranyl fluoride solid acts to plug the leak, limiting further escape of depleted UF6. Release of the hydrogen fluoride gas to the atmosphere is also slowed by the plug formation.[24] Storage cylinders are regularly inspected for signs of corrosion and leaks, and are repainted and repaired as necessary.[25]

(etc.)

**

Geomelting for Radioactive Wastes – proposed and workable but only rarely used at this point – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomelting

Geomelting (also known as the Amec process) involves mixing nuclear waste with soil or other glass-formers in large, lined metal tanks. The mix – 20% waste and 80% soil – is heated through two graphite electrodes at temperatures of up to 3,000℃. Gases, mostly carbon dioxide and traces of hydrocarbons, are drawn off and treated separately. The molten substance is then allowed to cool and forms a large glass block that is harder than concrete.

This process, a type of vitrification, was devised by the Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio.

**

Ducrete – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducrete

DUCRETE (Depleted Uranium Concrete) is a high density concrete alternative investigated for use in construction of casks for storage of radioactive waste. It is a composite material containing depleted uranium dioxide aggregate instead of conventional gravel and a Portland cement binder

In 1993, the United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management initiated investigation into the potential use of Depleted Uranium in heavy concretes.

DUCRETE is a kind of concrete that replaces the standard coarse aggregate with a depleted uranium ceramic material. All of the other materials present in DUCRETE (portland cement, sand and water) are used in the same volumetric ratio used for ordinary concrete. This ceramic material is a very efficient shielding material since it presents both high atomic number (uranium) for gamma shielding, and low atomic number (water bonded in the concrete) for neutron shielding.[2] It exists an optimum uranium-to-binder ratio for a combined attenuation of gamma and neutron radiation at a given wall thickness. A balance needs to be established between the attenuation of the gamma flux in the DUO2 and the cement phase with water to attenuate the neutron flux.

The key to effective shielding with depleted uranium ceramic concrete is maximum uranium oxide density. Unfortunately, the densest depleted uranium oxide is also the most chemically unstable. Depleted uranium dioxide, or DUO2, has a maximum theoretical density of 10.5 gm/cm3 at 95% purity. However, under oxidation conditions, this material readily transforms into the more stable depleted uranium trioxide (DUO3) or depleted triuranium octaoxide (DU3O8).[3] Thus, if naked UO2 aggregates is used, this transitions can result in an expansion that could generate stresses that could crack the material, lowering its compressive strength. ).[4] Another limitation for the direct use of depleted uranium dioxide fine powder is that concretes depend on their coarse aggregates to carry compressive stresses. In order to overcome these issues, DUAGG was developed.

DUAGG (depleted uranium aggregate) is the term applied to the stabilized DUO2 ceramic. This consists of sintered DUO2 particles with a silicate-based coating that covers the surfaces and fills the spaces between the grains, acting as an oxygen barrier, as well as corrosion and leach resistance.

 
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Environmental Remediation – wikipedia
 
 
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Hot Cell (radioactively hot) – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_cell

Shielded nuclear radiation containment chambers are commonly referred to as hot cells. The word “hot” refers to radioactivity.

Hot cells are used to inspect spent nuclear fuel rods and to work with other items which are high-energy gamma ray emitters.

Viewing Windows – (materials used)

In order to view what is in the hot cell, cameras can be used (but these require replacing on a regular basis) or most commonly, lead glass is used. There are several densities for lead glass, but the most common is 5.2 g/cc. A rough calculation for lead equivalence would be to multiply the Pb thickness by 2.5 (e.g. 10mm Pb would require a 25mm thick lead glass window). Older hot cells used ZnBr2 solution in a glass tank to shield against high-energy gamma rays. This shielded the radiation without darkening the glass (as happens to leaded glass with exposure). This solution also “self-repairs” any damage caused by radiation interaction, but leads to optical distortion due to the difference in optical indices of the solution and glass.

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Lucens Reactor – Swiss (from wikipedia)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucens_reactor

The Lucens reactor at Lucens, Vaud, Switzerland, was a small pilot nuclear reactor destroyed by an accident in 1969.

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Radiation Effects from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster – wikipedia (but the article is a bit weird – claiming nearly no effects from it – although there was an article within the last few days about heightened numbers of children there with thyroid cancer – should go find that info and add it here)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_effects_from_the_Fukushima_Daiichi_nuclear_disaster

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McClure Radioactive Site – Canada (from wikipedia)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McClure_radioactive_site

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Gamma Radiation – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_radiation

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Radioactive Contamination – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_contamination

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AVR Reactor – Germany (wikipedia entry)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AVR_reactor

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Zeolites – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeolite

Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents.[1]

Nuclear Industry Uses –

Zeolites have uses in advanced reprocessing methods, where their micro-porous ability to capture some ions while allowing others to pass freely, allowing many fission products to be efficiently removed from nuclear waste and permanently trapped. Equally important are the mineral properties of zeolites. Their alumino-silicate construction is extremely durable and resistant to radiation even in porous form. Additionally, once they are loaded with trapped fission products, the zeolite-waste combination can be hot pressed into an extremely durable ceramic form, closing the pores and trapping the waste in a solid stone block. This is a waste form factor that greatly reduces its hazard compared to conventional reprocessing systems. Zeolites are also used in the management of leaks of radioactive materials. For example, in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, sandbags of zeolite were dropped into the seawater near the power plant to adsorb radioactive caesium which was present in high levels.[9]

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Conjugated Microporous Polymer – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjugated_microporous_polymer

Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs)[1][2][3] are a sub-class of porous materials, related to structures such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, and covalent organic frameworks, but amorphous in nature, rather than crystalline. CMPs are also related to conductive polymers because these porous networks can exhibit extended conjugation.

Surface areas in CMPs can exceed 1000 m2/g in many cases, although related porous aromatic frameworks,[10] which lack extended conjugation, can have much higher surface areas of more than 5500 m2/g. A further advantage claimed for CMP materials is the ability to derivatize them with a wide range of functional groups.[11][12]

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Boron – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boron

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Prussian Blue –

CDC

http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/prussianblue.asp

How does Prussian blue work?

Prussian blue traps radioactive cesium and thallium in the intestines and keeps them from being re-absorbed by the body.

The radioactive materials then move through the intestines and are passed (excreted) in bowel movements.

Because Prussian blue reduces the time that radioactive cesium and thallium stay in the body, it helps limit the amount of time the body is exposed to radiation.

Prussian blue reduces the biological half-life of cesium from about 110 days to about 30 days.

  • Prussian blue reduces the biological half-life of thallium from about 8 days to about 3 days.

People SHOULD NOT take Prussian blue artist’s dye in an attempt to treat themselves. This type of Prussian blue is not designed to treat radioactive contamination and can be harmful.

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Prussian Blue

Encyclopedia Brittanica (Online)

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/480982/Prussian-blue

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Prussian Blue – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prussian_blue

In medicine, Prussian blue is used as an antidote for certain kinds of heavy metal poisoning, e.g., by cesium and thallium. In particular it was used to absorb 137Cs+ from those poisoned in the Goiânia accident.[1] Prussian Blue is orally administered. The therapy exploits Prussian Blue’s ion exchange properties and high affinity for certain “soft” metal cations.

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World Nuclear Association

Chernobyl Accident 1986

http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/Chernobyl-Accident/#.Uh6cyZw7hqN

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Zinc Bromide – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc_bromide

Zinc bromide solutions can be used as a transparent shield against radiation. The space between two glass panes is filled with a strong aqueous solution of zinc bromide with a very high density, to be used as a window on a hot cell. This type of window has the advantage over lead glass in that it will not darken as a result of exposure to radiation. All glass will darken slowly over time due to radiation, however this is especially true in a hot cell, where exceptional levels of radiation are present. The advantage of an aqueous salt solution is that any radiation damage will last less than a millisecond, so the shield will undergo self-repair.[8]

Safety considerations are similar to those for zinc chloride, for which the toxic dose for humans is 3–5 g.[3]

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Radiation – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation

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Lake Karachay – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Karachay

According to a report by the Washington, D.C.-based Worldwatch Institute on nuclear waste, Karachay is the most polluted spot on Earth.[2] The lake accumulated some 4.44 exabecquerels (EBq) of radioactivity,[3] including 3.6 EBq of caesium-137 and 0.74 EBq of strontium-90.[1] For comparison, the Chernobyl disaster released from 5 to 12 EBq of radioactivity, but this radiation is not concentrated in one location.

The radiation level in the region near where radioactive effluent is discharged into the lake was 600 röntgens per hour (approximately 6 Sv/h) in 1990, according to the Washington, D.C.-based Natural Resources Defense Council,[4][5] sufficient to give a lethal dose to a human within an hour.

Starting in the 1960s, the lake began to dry out; its area dropped from 0.5 km2 in 1951[1] to 0.15 km2 by the end of 1993.[6] In 1968, following a drought in the region, the wind carried 185 PBq (5 MCi) of radioactive dust away from the dried area of the lake, irradiating half a million people.[3]

Between 1978 and 1986 the lake was filled with almost 10,000 hollow concrete blocks to prevent sediments from shifting.[7]

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Mailuu-Suu – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mailuu-Suu

The USSR left 23 unstable uranium tailings pits on the tectonically unstable hillside above the town.[3] A landslide in 1958 released 6,000 6,000 cubic metres (1,600,000 US gal).[4] In 1994, a landslide blocked the Mailuu-Suu River, damaging a waste reservoir, and a flood caused by a mudslide nearly submerged a tailings pit in 2002.[5] Mailuu-Suu was found to be one of the 10 most polluted sites in the world in a study published in 2006 by the Blacksmith Institute.[6] The Worldbank approved a $5 million grant to reclaim the tailings pits in 2004,[5] and approved an additional $1 million grant for the project in 2011.[7]

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Kramatorsk Nuclear Poisoning Incident – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kramatorsk_nuclear_poisoning_incident

The Kramatorsk nuclear poisoning incident was a radiation accident that happened in Kramatorsk, Ukraine from 1980 to 1989 (Soviet era). In 1989, a small capsule containing highly radioactive caesium-137 was found inside the concrete wall of an apartment building, with the surface gamma-radiation exposure dose rate of 1800 R/year (therefore theorically exposing to 18 sievert a year an inhabitant that would have stayed constantly just at this point).

Over 9 years, two families had lived in the apartment. By the time the capsule was discovered, 6 residents of the building died from leukemia and 17 more received varying doses of radiation. The accident was detected only after the residents had requested that the level of radiation be measured in the apartment by a health physicist.

The exact address where the accident occurred is Gvardeytsiv Kantemirovtsiv Street, Building 7, Apartment 85, between apartments 85 and 52.[1][2]

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KS 150 – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KS_150

On February 22, 1977, during a fuel change, a combination of human mistakes and design problems caused the worst nuclear accident in Czechoslovakian history. Some fuel rods were being replaced while the reactor was active in a standard procedure. In this instance however humidity absorbers covering the rods were not removed, causing local overheating of the fuel (since transmission of heat to the coolant gas was reduced). The active zone was damaged, heavy water got in contact with the coolant and both primary and secondary circuits were contaminated.

The accident was rated as level 4 on International Nuclear Event Scale (in comparison, the Three Mile Island accident was rated level 5).

25% of the fuel elements in a heavy water moderated carbon dioxide cooled 100 MW(e) power reactor were damaged due to operator error. The operators failed to remove silica gel packs from a new fuel element. The silica gel was used to keep the unused fuel dry during storage and transport. The silica gel packs blocked the flow of the coolant resulting in overheating of the fuel and the pressure channel holding it. As a result of overheating the heavy water leaked into the part of the reactor (the gas circuit) where the fuel elements are accommodated, the fuel cladding was subject to corrosion and a considerable amount of radioactivity leaked into the primary cooling circuit (CO2 gas). Through leaks in the steam boilers (similar basic design to a MAGNOX or AGR plant) some parts of the secondary circuit became contaminated.[4]

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Mayak – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayak

In 1957, Mayak was the site of one of the worst nuclear accidents in history when the explosion of a poorly maintained storage tank released 50-100 tonnes of high-level radioactive waste, contaminating a huge territory in the eastern Urals and causing numerous deaths and injuries from radiation poisoning. The Soviet regime kept this accident secret for about 30 years. The event was eventually rated at 6 on the seven-level INES scale, third in severity only to the disasters at Chernobyl in the Ukraine and Fukushima in Japan.

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Sequoyah Fuels Corporation, Oklahoma, USA – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequoyah_Fuels_Corporation

“On January 4, 1986, Sequoyah Fuels Corporation experienced a rupture in an overfilled uranium hexafluoride cylinder that contained an estimated 29,500 pounds of gaseous uranium hexafluoride. The incident led to the death of a 26 year-old worker, Chief Harrison, and the hospitalization of 37 of the 42 onsite workers. Health care providers examined up to 100 people, many from the local community, for health effects and 21 were hospitalized for short periods.”

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Rocky Flats Plant – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocky_Flats_Plant

On September 11, 1957, a plutonium fire occurred in one of the gloveboxes used to handle radioactive materials, igniting the combustible rubber gloves and plexiglass windows of the box. Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard and pyrophoric; under the right conditions it may ignite in air at room temperature. The accident resulted in the contamination of Building 771 and the release of plutonium into the atmosphere, and caused US $818,600 in damage. An incinerator for plutonium-contaminated waste was installed in Building 771 in 1958.

Barrels of radioactive waste were found to be leaking into an open field in 1959. This was not made publicly known until 1970 when wind-borne particles were detected in Denver.

1960s

Throughout the 1960s, the plant continued to enlarge and add buildings. The 1960s also brought more contamination to the site. In 1967, 3,500 barrels (560 m3) of plutonium-contaminated lubricants and solvents were stored on Pad 903. A large number of them were found to be leaking, and low-level contaminated soil was becoming wind-borne from this area. This pad was covered with gravel and paved over with asphalt in 1969.

May 11, 1969 saw a major fire in a glovebox in Building 776/777.[3] This was the costliest industrial accident ever to occur in the United States up to that time. Cleanup from the accident took two years and led to safety upgrades on the site, including fire sprinkler systems and firewalls.

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Pondcrete – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pondcrete

Pondcrete is a mixture of cement and sludge. Its role is to immobilize hazardous waste and, in some cases, lower-level radioactive waste, in the form of solid material. The material was used by the United States Department of Energy and its contractor, Rockwell International, in an attempt to handle the radioactive waste from contaminated ponds in the Rocky Flats Plant for burial in Nevada desert. Portland cement is mixed with sludge to solidify into “pondcrete” blocks and placed into large, plastic lined boxes.[1] The sludge is taken from solar evaporation ponds which are used to remove moisture from waste materials, therefore reducing their weight. To do this, liquid waste is poured into artificial, shallow ponds. The waste is heated by solar radiation and any moisture is evaporated, leaving behind the waste. These ponds contained low level radioactive process waste as well as sanitary sewage sludge and wastes,[2] which categorize them and the Pondcrete as a mixed waste.

Because the blocks were classified as mixed waste, Rockwell International was unable to store the blocks in the Nevada Test site. The site did not have a permit to store mixed waste, so the blocks were temporarily stored at Rocky Flats. Due to problems in production, many of the blocks did not harden correctly and eventually began to seep from the boxes and cause large scale environmental damage to the area.[3] The blocks, containing radioactive waste with a half-life of 24,000 years had failed in a year.**

Saltcrete – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saltcrete

Saltcrete is a mixture of cement with salts and brine, usually originating from liquid waste treatment plants. Its role is to immobilize hazardous waste and in some cases lower-level radioactive waste in the form of solid material. It is a form of mixed waste.

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Exotic Pollution – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_pollution

Exposure to nuclear (radioactive) waste results in kidney toxicity. Toxicity can by caused by breathing air containing radioactive metals like Uranium, Strontium 90. Once Uranium gets deposited in the kidney to the level of 50 to 150 mg, this will result in kidney failure or death of human being. At lower level intake, kidney itself repairs over period of several weeks after Uranium exposure has stopped. [1]

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Criticality Accident – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticality_accident

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TOXMAP – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOXMAP

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Nuclear Safety – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Nuclear_safety

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Fuel Element Failure – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_element_failure

A fuel element failure is a rupture in a nuclear reactor‘s fuel cladding that allows the nuclear fuel or fission products, either in the form of dissolved radioisotopes or hot particles, to enter the reactor coolant or storage water.

The de facto standard nuclear fuel is uranium dioxide or a mixed uranium/plutonium dioxide. This has a higher melting point than the actinide metals. Uranium dioxide resists corrosion in water and provides a stable matrix for many of the fission products; however to prevent fission products (such as the noble gases) from leaving the uranium dioxide matrix and entering the coolant, the pellets of fuel are normally encased in tubes of a corrosion resistant metal alloy (normally Zircaloy for water-cooled reactors).

Those elements are then assembled into bundles to allow good handling and cooling. As the fuel fissions, the radioactive fission products are also contained by the cladding, and the entire fuel element can then be disposed of as nuclear waste when the reactor is refueled.

If, however, the cladding is damaged, those fission products (which are not immobile in the uranium dioxide matrix) can enter the reactor coolant or storage water and can be carried out of the core, into the rest of the primary cooling circuit, increasing contamination levels there.

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The Mainichi – Japan

Tank where toxic water leaked may have been deformed: TEPCO

August 25, 2013 (Mainichi Japan)

http://mainichi.jp/english/english/newsselect/news/20130825p2g00m0dm006000c.html

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Tepco’s tank leaks blamed on seals, reassembly

AP, AFP-JIJI, Kyodo

Aug 25, 2013

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/25/national/tepco-to-drain-two-suspect-water-tanks-at-fukushima-no-1/#.UhqqqZw7hqM

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(This article below has a better closeup photo of the tanks that are leaking and how they are made with rubber seams) –

Tepco radioactive flow raises alarm over seafood safety

by Mizuho Aoki

Staff Writer

 

Aug 23, 2013 http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/23/national/tepco-radioactive-flow-raises-alarm-over-seafood-safety/#.Uhqr9Zw7hqM

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(This article has a photo of the tank farm showing many of the tanks that are holding the radioactive contaminated water which are far from appropriate for that task or those materials for any length of time) –

Tepco hit for failing to foresee menace of radioactive groundwater, tank leaks

by Mari Yamaguchi

AP

Aug 23, 2013

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/23/national/tepco-hit-for-failing-to-foresee-menace-of-radioactive-groundwater-tank-leaks/#.UhquS5w7hqM

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Spent Fuel Pool – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spent_fuel_pool

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Dry Cask Storage – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_cask_storage

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Synroc – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synroc

Synroc is composed of three titanate minerals – hollandite, zirconolite and perovskite – plus rutile and a small amount of metal alloy. These are combined into a slurry to which is added a portion of high-level liquid nuclear waste. The mixture is dried and calcined at 750 °C (1,380 °F) to produce a powder.

The powder is then compressed in a process known as Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), where it is compressed within a bellows-like stainless steel container at temperatures of 1150–1200 °C (2102–2192 °F).

The result is a cylinder of hard, dense, black synthetic rock.

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High-level Radioactive Waste Management – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-level_radioactive_waste_management

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An Infrared Look at 123 Tons of Nuclear Waste Reveals a Hot Mess

Gizmodo

http://gizmodo.com/5739402/an-infrared-look-at-123-tons-of-nuclear-waste

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IAEA

Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

http://www-ns.iaea.org/conventions/waste-jointconvention.asp

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Outside help offered to deal with Tepco debacle

U.S., French experts also ready; water woes escalate

Bloomberg

 

Aug 26, 2013 http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/26/national/outside-help-offered-to-deal-with-tepco-debacle/#at_pco=tcb-1.0&at_ab=-&at_pos=1&at_tot=8

Russia repeated an offer first made two years ago to help Japan clean up its radiation-ravaged Fukushima No. 1 nuclear station, welcoming Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s decision to seek outside help.

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And then I also looked up a number of other entries on wikipedia including some of the dams in Fukushima prefecture. I also looked up several other technologies for cleaning up radioactive waste plus some other entries about the incidents around the world which have already occurred over the years. There was one site about Chernobyl that today wouldn’t allow me access to it after reading it yesterday or the day before – but it was more about the technical issues that are being dealt with now for a new element to be added to the sarcophagus to make it safer.

Lists of Nuclear Disasters and Radioactive Incidents – wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_nuclear_disasters_and_radioactive_incidents

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I read much of the materials but mostly scanning to find what works and what doesn’t – and what might. After doing all that and looking up things like basic atomic physics info to understand beta and gamma radiation a little better, it occurs to me that the technologies and educated, intelligent handling of these situations including Fukushima Daiichi’s disaster actually exist as available components on the menu. However, their applications in practice aren’t quite as promised considering the level of education and position held by those making the decisions about it. That is to say – why put radioactive wastes in some things that are certainly known to leak and to be prone to be an added disaster if the decision-maker has any education about it at all? It doesn’t make sense.

– cricketdiane

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