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Inderscience Publishers – Article.

Potential for British research into the transmutation of radioactive wastes and problematic nuclear materials

W.J. Nuttall, D.G. Ireland, J.S. Al-Khalili, W. Gelletly

A1 Judge Institute of Management, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1AG, UK.
A2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University Avenue, Glasgow University, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.
A3 Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK.
A4 Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK

International Journal of Critical Infrastructures
Issue: Volume 1, Number 4 / 2005

***

My Note –

There are people that known with some options for the nuclear fuel rods and unstable nuclear plant – including those four listed above on this 2005 article – they can bring what they know to the table for solutions. There are colleagues across the world that they can access and from what they know – develop four possible scenarios to stop the nuclear reactions that are occurring. That is possible.

Some of the experimental knowledge is on such a limited scale and what it produced as solutions are micro-scaled in comparison to using any of it on a massive and complex system already in place and subcritical but unstable. But there are answers and possibilities that could restore control and containment of these materials. I think it will take these minds coming together quickly with their counterparts around the world, including in Japan and using what they have learned in their labs – constructing real solutions that could be practically and logistically enacted.

– I’ll look through my documents some more and see what else I can find.

– cricketdiane

***

Maybe someone should invite these physicists listed above and elsewhere in these specialties to participate in the solutions and the rapid development of solutions to use right now and within the next few days (and hours.)

I’m sure some of that is already happening – well, maybe they are too busy explaining to everyone from the media to the government why there is a problem and what it might mean. We know there is a problem – now we need viable solutions.

***

http://phys.strath.ac.uk/

Plasmas

The Atoms, Beams and Plasmas (ABP) and Strathclyde Intense Laser Interaction Studies (SILIS) groups together form the Plasma Division.  The Division has a strong reputation for innovative research that attracts prestigious Visiting Professors including Sauerbrey (Dresden), Neely (RAL), Lang (RAL-retired) and Shukla (Bochum). Younger members of the Division have won personal fellowships from the Royal Society of Edinburgh and EPSRC while senior members earned prestigious externally-supported chairs and visiting professorships.  There is very wide engagement in the research through international laser facilities, involvement in the world’s fusion laboratories and active free-electron physics collaborations with major international laboratories. The Plasma Division has won funding from a range of sources including the UK Research Councils, UK Government Departments, European Union and industry, amounting to over £15M during the period 2001-2007.

Several research groups of the Department of Physics are involved in cross-disciplinary projects via the Institute of Complex Systems at Strathclyde . The ICSS started via an award of a grant from the Research Excellence Fund to support cross-disciplinary projects, workshops and international speakers in the area of Complexity. The ICSS coordinates research activities in complex systems across the Faculties of Science (Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Computer and Life Sciences) and Engineering (Mechanics, Materials and Electronics). The success of the ICSS resulted in the funding of a new Chair in Complexity Science shared between Physics and Mathematics.

http://phys.strath.ac.uk/research/index.php

***

http://www.ioffe.ru/index_en.html

Ioffe Physico––Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia

Pis’ma v Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki

EVIS Online Pis’ma vZhurnal tekhnicheskoi fiziki 

– [ Translate this page ]Journal is setup for urgent publication of brief papers on recent achievements in physics, which have the perspective of technological use.
http://www.eastview.com/peri/product.asp?sku=P6514

**

http://www.ioffe.ru/pti_ppap.html

high-temperature plasma (tokamak, plasma-wave interaction, diagnostics)

Staff: 332 researchers, including 46 Doctors and 182 Candidates of Sciences
Division Officers

Director: Michael P. Petrov
Deputy Director: Andrei D. Lebedev
Executive Secretary: Alexei B. Podlaskin

http://www.ioffe.ru/HTPPL/

***

International Conference on Remediation of Land Contaminated by Radioactive Material Residues

http://nucleus.iaea.org/sso/NUCLEUS.html?exturl=http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/Announcements.asp?ConfID=35422

This is the page with the list of presenters for the programme –

List of Participants

***

My Note –

Some of these specialists know things that might work and they know the colleagues in the scientific and high-energy physics community that have been working on it. There is no doubt there is a problem. The question needs to change to “what things can be effectively and quickly done about it – given the things we’ve studied, researched, discovered, analyzed and know now?”

– cricketdiane

**

From among those on the list above – from the remediation conference – which will actually have on the list a number of special focuses about the remediation processes that were discussed. These are people in the development fields of solutions that are used to interdisciplinary approaches to those solutions. They know people all over the world specific to their scientific communities and are commonly aware of the breakthroughs that have been made within the last few years within solution-oriented disciplines from labs around the world.

IOP is another excellent resource for these specialties – but, the participants above are more oriented to develop practical solutions from a myriad of options available. And, they know who knows and has been working on it.

***

Cobalt – how much cobalt would it take to neutralize the rods? – dumb question . . . just a thought . . .

(my note – thinking out loud again.)

**

Belben, Gary

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA)
Harwell Science and Innovation Campus
DIDCOT, Oxfordshire OX11 0RA
United Kingdom
16
Fax: +44(0) 1235431914
EMail: gaey.belben@ukaea.co.uk

**

Edge, Russel Wayne

International Atomic Energy Agency
Division of Radiation,Transport and Waste Safety
Wagramerstr. 5, P.O.Box 100
1400 Vienna
Austria
40
Fax: (+43) 1 26007
EMail: R.Edge@iaea.org
Egizbaev, Altynbek

Ministry of Emergency Situations
Beybitshilik, 22
Astana
Kazakhstan

**

And especially –

Faybishenko, Boris

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
1 Cyclotron Road, MS 90-1116
Berkeley, California 94720
USA
47
Fax: +510 486 5686
EMail: bafaybishenko@lbl.gov, bafaybishenko@lbl.gov

Announcing a special issue of ESPR devoted to chernobyl problems 

by B Faybishenko – 2003
Boris Faybishenko (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA) Publication: December 2003. 416. ESPR – Environ Sci & Pollut Res 10 (6) 416
http://www.springerlink.com/index/57m10n4wu17v7h15.pdf

**

“Exactly solved quantum potentials are obtained using the extended transformation technique within the framework of Green’s functions, in any chosen #D-dimensional space. Bound state solutions of the exactly solved potentials are given. It is shown that the bound state eigenfunctions of the generated quantum system can be easily normalized in most cases” – maybe not in a nuclear fission reaction . . . (my note)

(from)

Generation of exactly solvable quantum potentials in D-dimensional space

Author

N Saikia and S A S Ahmed

Affiliations –

Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, india

Email –

n_saikia06@yahoo.co.in

Journal –

Physica Scripta

Volume 81, Number 3

Citation –

N Saikia and S A S Ahmed 2010 Phys. Scr. 81  035006

doi:  10.1088/0031-8949/03/035006

Mathematical Physics

Quantum information and quantum mechanics

Published March 2, 2010

http://iopscience.iop.org/1402-4896/81/3/035006/pdf/1402-4896_81_3_035006.pdf

***

My Note –

Using the real dynamics of the system as it exists right now at Dai-ichi and the other reactors with cooling systems damaged along with the actions which have been taken placing boron salts? sea water with its constituents and the resulting releases of hydrogen – the energy now being generated by the partial meltdown of the rods – could be analyzed using their dimensional mapping systems for quantum mechanics outlined above. Maybe it would be worth contacting them and see if they would be interested in running a few numbers . . .

Just a thought.

– cricketdiane

***

It would be nice to see a 3-dimensional time dependent representation of the provisions occurring and that could occur with energy releases that are possible . . .

At a different level beyond the graphics of the containment vessel and where the rods are supposed to sit safely. This would be a good use of these mathematical representations and dynamic complex systems analysis research.

Could be very helpful to creating possible solutions to alter, contain, harness, slow, or at the very least get control of the reaction.

(my note)

***

Forsstroem, Hans G.

International Atomic Energy Agency
Department of Nuclear Energy
Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology
Wagramer Strasse 5
1400 Vienna
Austria
50
Fax: +431 26007
EMail: H.Forsstroem@iaea.org

http://nucleus.iaea.org/sso/NUCLEUS.html?exturl=http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/Announcements.asp?ConfID=35422

**

Just a couple thoughts – I’m still considering available options –

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/22/18/185301;jsessionid=5E087F67AFE33F60C4B75ECDD56EAED2.c2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aharonov%E2%80%93Bohm_effect

**

Team:

V.V.Dyachenko, O.N.Shcherbinin, K.A.Podushnikova, M.A.Irzak, S.A.Fefelov, S.Yu.Grachev, V.L.Savitskii, M.M.Larionov

Group leader:

# Transition into enhanced plasma confinement regimes
# Current drive by RF methods
# Preionization at UHF in tokamaks.

RF Plasma Heating Lab

http://www.ioffe.ru/HTPPL/

***

My Note –

They are using a number of methods used to maintain control of uncontrollable fluxes – could any of these known technologies and research breakthroughs in a practical sense by available to regain control of the Dai-ichi and other nuclear plants from a logistical standpoint? The slowing down of the reaction they are doing by “cooling” is only one of the options of ways to do that.

In other sciences these things are also being done in order to maintain control of experiments. Could any of these be used or the understandings from them be of help?

– cricketdiane

***

For more information about this subject generally – click on any of these subject titles – they are easy to read – I liked the one about neutrinos

3. Elusive Ghostly Neutrinos

Nuclear Power Engineering 


German Nuclear Program 3. Japanese Nuclear Weapons Program Environmental Remediation of Radioactive Contamination …. Laboratories Involved in Fusion Research. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory · University of California – Irvine
https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/…/NPRE%20402%20ME%20405%20Nuclear%20Power%20Engineeri…Cached

5. Management of Radioactive Waste

Uranium 235 – note that Russia has been making strides in the reprocessing of spent fuel rods – couldn’t some of that be useful for managing the offset of fissile materials and their heat build-up in these nuclear plants in the Japanese earthquake zone? (my note)

art VII Transport and Diffusion Reactor Theory
1. Transport Theory
2. Subcritical Assemblies Theory
3. Neutron Cross Sections
4. Neutron Collision Theory
5. Neutron Diffusion Theory
6. Neutron Diffusion in Nonmultiplying Media
7. One-Group Reactor Theory
8. Point Reactor Kinetics
9. Multidimensional Reactor Systems in Diffusion Theory
10. Numerical Methods for Diffusion Theory Criticality
11. Fermi Age Theory

12. Two Group Diffusion Theory for Bare and Reflected Reactors
13. Analysis of Fast Reactors Systems
14. The Resonance Escape Probability
15. Treatment of Heterogeneous Systems

(from)

https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www/NPRE%20402%20ME%20405%20Nuclear%20Power%20Engineering/

**

This was found when I made a google search using the terms –

Germany physics lab radioactive remediation

(which also has a lot of other nifty stuff in the search results)

– cricketdiane

***

NHK (and on CNN right now) – there is a press briefing about reactor number 2 at Dai-ichi with a new blast a little bit ago 0

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/8382139/Japan-crisis-third-explosion-raises-spectre-of-nuclear-nightmare.html

(about the first two explosions – very briefly and general article above about the earthquake recovery efforts and damages)


Globe and Mail

New Explosion at Tsunami-Damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Reactor


25 minutes ago
A number of nuclear reactors continue to deteriorate at the Fukushima Daiichi plant, raising worries of a nuclear meltdown. After two hydrogen explosions in
ABC News24613 related articlesShared by 20+

http://abcnews.go.com/International/japan-earthquake-reactor-fukushima-nuclear-plant-explodes/story?id=13131123

Japan Earthquake: Third Reactor at Fukushima Nuclear Plant Explodes

Blast Came After IAEA Said Containment Vessels at Fukushima Nuclear Reactors Seem to Be Working

Half of the rods inside the reactor were not immersed in water and the suppression pool, which holds the water used to keep the rods cool, seemed to be damaged, according to Tokyo Electric Co. and government officials.

Japanese officials acknowledged that the fuel rods appear to be melting inside all three of the reactors at the Fukashima plant.

Officials first became concerned about unit 2 at the plant after pressure began rising in the reactor. Officials from the Tokyo Electric Power Co. told NHK News that the explosion at unit 3 might have damaged unit 2’s cooling system.

(etc.) – note that this first page of the article has the most obscene, obnoxious, annoying and uncontrollable ad video on it that has ever been devised. I hate them for that – if I had the time to fuss out the advertisers using it and ABC management I would tell them a thing or two – but, going back to what I’m doing instead . . .

New explosion shakes stricken Japanese nuclear plant

Reuters UK – Taiga UranakaKi Joon Kwon – 6 minutes ago
Smoke rises from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex in this still image 2 reactor. The full extent of the destruction wreaked by Friday’s massive

***

My Note –

It means there is not going to be containment. That is my estimation of it. This is really bad history in the making.

– cricketdiane

***

New explosion shakes stricken Japanese nuclear plant

http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/03/14/uk-japan-quake-idUKTRE72A0UU20110314

Japan has asked the United States for more equipment to help cool reactors at the Fukushima nuclear complex, which was hit on Monday by a dangerous drop in cooling water levels that exposed fuel rods in the No. 2 reactor.

The fear at the Fukushima complex, 240 km (150 miles) north of Tokyo, is of a major radiation leak after the quake and tsunami knocked out cooling systems. The complex has seen explosions at two of its reactors on Saturday and Monday.

(now three explosions – including the fact that radioactive particulate matter of the kinds specific to these releases from the nuclear plant operation have been officially recorded within a 60 mile radius of the plant by a US helicopter yesterday. The explosion within the past hour or so was supposedly more serious than a simple hydrogen release – the officials from the TEPCO group operating the reactors continue to say there is no real hazard to the public – that is patently false. my note)

***

Gigase, Yves

European Commission/ADICO A4
Jozef II straat 54 07/235
1049 Brussels
Belgium
52
Fax: +32 229 95206
EMail: yves.gigase@ec.europa.eu

http://nucleus.iaea.org/sso/NUCLEUS.html?exturl=http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/Announcements.asp?ConfID=35422

[PDF]

Main lines of the INSC Main activities Main lines of the INSC

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
Yves Gigase/CEG Meeting Brugge. 5-6 September 2007. 1. Main lines of the INSC. Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation 2007-2013. Main activities
http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/CEG/…/plenary21_20E.pdf

ICT 2010 is organised by the European Commission and hosted by the Belgian Presidency of the European Union.

**

Gluchshenko, Viktor

Institute of Nuclear Physics
National Nuclear Center
1 Ibragimov
Almaty 050032
Kazakhstan
53
Fax: +7 727 3865260
EMail: vik@inp.kz

***

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/8382139/Japan-crisis-third-explosion-raises-spectre-of-nuclear-nightmare.html

The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan later detected increased radiation 100 miles off the coast of Japan and weather forecasters said that the wind direction would change overnight, blowing the radioactive cloud inland. Scientists said it did not pose a health risk.

Seventeen US helicopter crewmen helping with the relief effort were exposed to levels equivalent to one month’s normal background radiation, but were declared free of contamination after being scrubbed down.

As technicians tried to contain the temperatures inside all three reactors at the plant, there were warnings of a possible third explosion as fuel rods inside the No 2 reactor became fully exposed.

Workers managed to pump enough seawater into the reactor to cover the rods, but they became partly exposed last night. Ryohei Shiomi, an official at Japan’s Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, said the rods in all three reactors appeared to be melting.

(etc.)

plus the explosion a little over an hour ago.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/8382139/Japan-crisis-third-explosion-raises-spectre-of-nuclear-nightmare.html

***

“The fuel rods contain initially, a mixture of the uranium isotopes U238 and a small amount of U235 and a smaller amount of U234. The spent fuel contains primarily U238 and U235 that have not fissioned, the fission products of those U235 nuclei that have fissionned, and a small amount of transuranics such as Pu239 and Np237 resulting from neutrons capture in U238.”

from class materials listed above – Mragheb (uiuc.edu)

pg 4 of 26 in the text from classes about Management of Radioactive Wastes (pdf) – found above in this post.

***

It also says that with the high energy density – “where 1 pound of uranium the size of a golf ball has the same energy potential as nearly 30,000,000 pounds of coal.”

The composition of spent fuel in terms of the main fission products and transuranics is shown in Table 3. The fission products are primarily beta and gamma emitters, whereas the transuranics are primarily alpha particle emitters.

If the fuel is reprocessed, 1,000 kgs of spent uranium fuel yields 5,000 liters of high level liquid waste. … (wonder how they do that – probably can’t be done on location but the technologists and specialists for it are in Russia nearby) – Upon evaporation this can be reduced to 1,100 liters which can be initially stored in stainless steel tanks. Upon settlement 380 liters or 100 gallons are left as solid waste that can be further isolated through drying and calcinations or vitrification in a glass matrix.

A 1,000 MWe electric plant would produce 5-7 metric tonnes of solidified high level wastes corresponding to 1.8-2.5 cubic meters per year. This can be isolated in 10-12 vitrified solid canisters each of a volume of 0.2 m3 (cubed).

main fission products –

Strontium 90

Technetium 99

Tritium (which isn’t on the list)

Cesium 137

Pu238

Pu239

Ps240

Am241 (Americium)

Am243

Curium 244

***

“The once-through cycle light water reactors (LWRs) cycle adopted by the USA leads to the highest level of residual activity.

The LWR cycle with reprocessing and uranium and plutonium recycle adopted by the European countries and Japan leads to a lower level of residual activity than the once-through fuel cycle and is associated with a more efficient use of the nuclear fuel resource.

The future implementation of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) cycle would lead to a lower residual activity and the best usage of the fuel resource.”

https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www/NPRE%20402%20ME%20405%20Nuclear%20Power%20Engineering/

from the entry –

5. Management of Radioactive Waste

found here –

https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www/NPRE%20402%20ME%20405%20Nuclear%20Power%20Engineering/Management%20of%20Radiooactive%20Waste.pdf

***

Also from this class material above –

“The protection of the public against potential radiation exposure is the overriding concern in radioactive waste disposal. (and in the uses of radioactive materials in nuclear plants as in Japan right now, my note). The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established in 1955 as a result of international concern aout the effects of fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear explosions.

It studies and disseminates information on observed levels of ionizing radiation and radioactivity whether natural or man made in the environment and on the effects of this radiation on man and his surroundings.”

I think it would be worth looking up those people involved with this group now at the UNSCEAR.

http://www.unscear.org/

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

***

Reuters just mentioned on twitter that the

Reactor operator at Daiichi No.4 unit has reported a fire near the reactor building

and Japan PM Kan says the possibility of a nuclear meltdown is increasing

(about five minutes ago)

***

http://www.irpa13glasgow.com/welcome/

The Society for Radiological Protection (SRP) is very pleased to announce the success of the bid to host the next International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) Congress which will be held at the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (SECC), Glasgow, 13 – 18 May 2012.

Ted Lazo (Nuclear Energy Agency) has been appointed by IRPA to Chair the International Congress Programme Committee (ICPC).  He will be supported by Rachel Smith (UK Health Protection Agency) as Secretary of the ICPC.  A Core Group of 20 members have been appointed to guide the development of the programme.

International Congress Support Committee (ICSC)

Geoffrey Webb Chair
Bernard Le Guen IRPA Executive Council
John Rowat IAEA
Pablo Jiménez PAHO
Maria Perez WHO

IRPA13 Glasgow Ltd Board of Directors

George Sallit
Roger Coates
Cornelius Lewis
Kenneth Kase

Hosts – Society for Radiological Protection (SRP)

SRP are very honoured to host the 13th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association in May 2012. SRP was founded in 1963 and is the UK Associate Society for the International Radiation Protection Association. With current membership of just over 2000, it is IRPA’s secondlargest affiliate member. The Journal of Radiological Protection is the official scientific journal of the society, and is published on a quarterly basis.

The Congress is delighted to have the support of the following SRP partner societies:

  • The Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM)
  • The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR)
  • The British Institute of Radiology (BIR)
  • The Society and College of Radiographers (SoCR)
  • The British Nuclear Medicine Society (BNMS)
  • The Association of University Radiation Protection Officers (AURPO)

Supporting Organisations and Co-Sponsors
The Congress is delighted to have the support of the following supporting organisations and co-sponsors:

  • International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
  • International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU)
  • OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)
  • European Commission (EC)
  • World Health Organisation (WHO)
  • Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO)
  • International Labour Organisation (ILO)
  • International Organisation of Medical Physics (IOMP)
  • International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
  • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

UK Governmental Supporters

  • First Minister for Scotland
  • Lord Provost of Glasgow
  • Department for Transport (DfT)
  • Ministry of Defence (MOD)
  • Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
  • Health Protection Agency (HPA)
  • Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA)
  • The Environment Agency (EA)
  • Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA)
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change (formerly DEFRA)

http://www.irpa13glasgow.com/committees/

***

Somebody probably needs to talk with them.

and these specialists too –

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Radiation –

http://www.unscear.org/

Composition of UNSCEAR

The United Nations General Assembly has designated 21 States as members of the Scientific Committee. The States are listed below with the year in which they were designated and the name of their present representative.

http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/about_us/memberstates.html

Germany – W. Weiss, chair

Biographical Sketch

United Kingdom – J. Cooper

United States – F. Mettler

Russian Federation – M. Kiselev

Sweden – L. Moberg

Japan – Y. Yonekura

India – K. Sainis

France – A. Rannou

China – Z. Pan

**

 

Hulka, Jiri

SÚRO – National Radiation Protection Institute
Bartoškova 28
14000 Praha 4
Czech Republic
60
Fax: +420 241 410215
EMail: jiri.hulka@suro.cz

**