, , , ,

Milk float

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A milk float is a small battery electric vehicle (BEV), specifically designed for the delivery of fresh milk. They were once common in many European countries, particularly the United Kingdom, and were operated by local dairies. However, in recent years, as the number of supermarkets, small independent grocers and petrol stations stocking fresh milk has increased, most people have switched from regular home delivery to obtaining fresh milk from these other sources.

Because of the relatively small power output from its electric motor, a milk float travels fairly slowly, usually around 10 to 16 miles per hour (16 to 26 km/h) although some have been modified to do up to 80 mph (130 km/h). Operators often exit their vehicle before they have completely stopped to speed deliveries; milk floats generally have sliding doors that can be left open when moving, or may have no doors at all. They are very quiet, suiting operations in residential areas during the early hours of the morning or during the night.

In August 1967 the UK Electric Vehicle Association put out a press release stating that Britain had more battery-electric vehicles on its roads than the rest of the world put together[1] It is not clear what research the association had undertaken into the electric vehicle populations of other countries, but closer inspection disclosed that almost all of the battery fuelled vehicles licensed for UK road use were milk floats.[1]

Manufacturers of milk floats in Britain in the 20th century included Smith’s, Wales & Edwards, Osborne, Harbilt, Brush, Bedford and British Leyland. As of 2009, Bluebird Automotive[2] and Smith Electric Vehicles[3] remain in the industry.

Before BEVs, dairy supplies were delivered using horse-drawn milk floats. This lasted from the late 1800s until the 1950s.[4] Today, with rounds expanding in coverage to ensure profitability in the face of falling levels of patronage, the limited range and speed of electric milk floats have resulted in many being replaced by diesel-powered converted vans.

A collection of milk floats and other BEVs is kept by the Birmingham and Midland Motor Omnibus Trust at their museum.

Glasgow has one of the largest working milk float fleets in the UK. Most of the vehicles operate from the Grandtully Depot in Kelvindale. Some dairies in the UK, including Dairy Crest, have had to modernise and have replaced their electric milk floats with petrol or diesel fuel-powered vehicles to speed up deliveries and thus increase profit.


A Dairy Crest Smith’s Elizabethan milk float

A Dairy Crest Ford Transit based milk float

A Dairy Crest ex-Unigate Wales & Edwards Rangemaster milk float.

See also


External links

Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Milk floats
Stub icon This article related to a type of van is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

v • d • e




Neighborhood Electric Vehicle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

“NEV” redirects here. For other uses, see NEV (disambiguation).

The Indian REVA 2 door is commercialized as a NEV in the USA and as a quadricycle elsewhere.

An Italcar EV

U.S. Army NEVs

A Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) is a U.S. denomination for battery electric vehicles that are legally limited to roads with posted speed limits of 25 miles per hour (40 km/h) or less, usually are built to have a top speed of 30 miles per hour (48 km/h), and have a maximum loaded weight of 3,000 lbs.[1] NEVs fall under the United States Department of Transportation classification for low-speed vehicles.[2]

A NEV battery pack recharges by plugging into a standard outlet and because it is an all-electric vehicle it does not produce tailpipe emissions. If recharged from clean energy sources such as solar or wind power, NEVs do not emit greenhouse gas emissions. In the state of California NEVs are classified by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as zero emissions vehicles (ZEV) and are eligible for a purchase rebate of up to $1,500 if purchased or leased on or after March 15, 2010.[3][4]


U.S. regulations

Low-speed vehicle is a federally approved street-legal vehicle classification which came into existence in 1998 under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 500 (FMVSS 500). There is nothing in the federal regulations specifically pertaining to the powertrain.

Low-speed vehicles are defined as a four-wheeled motor vehicle that has a gross vehicle weight rating of less than 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) and a top speed of between 20 to 25 mph (32 to 40 km/h).[5] Those states that authorize NEVs generally restrict their operation to streets with a maximum speed limit of 35 or 45 mph (56 or 72 km/h). Because of federal law, car dealers cannot legally sell the vehicles to go faster than 25 mph (40 km/h), but the buyer can easily modify the car to go 35 mph (56 km/h). However, if modified to exceed 25 mph (40 km/h), the vehicle then becomes subject to safety requirements of passenger cars.[citation needed]

These speed restrictions, combined with a typical driving range of 30 miles (48 km) per charge and a typical three-year battery durability, are required because of a lack of federally mandated safety equipment and features which NEVs can not accommodate because of their design. To satisfy federal safety requirements for manufacturers, NEVs must be equipped with three-point seat belts or a lap belt,windshield wipers are not required, running lights, headlights, brake lights, reflectors, rear view mirrors, and turn signals. In many cases, doors may be optional, crash protection from other vehicles is partially met compared to other non motorized transport such as bicycles because of the use of seat belts.

State regulations

Regulations for operating an NEV vary by state. The federal government allows state and local governments to add additional safety requirements beyond those of Title 49 Part 571.500. For instance,the State of New York requires additional safety equipment to include windshield wipers, window defroster, speedometer, odometer and a back-up light. Generally, they must be titled and registered, and the driver must be licensed. Because airbags are not required the NEV cannot normally travel on highways or freeways. NEVs in many states are restricted to roads with a speed limit of 35 mph (56 km/h) or less.

Community design

A GEM e2 used by the Tourist Police in Playa del Carmen, Mexico, being recharged

A GEM xLXD NEV used by a street food vendor at the National Mall, Washington, D.C.

Some communities are designed to separate neighborhoods from commercial and other areas, connecting them with relatively high speed thoroughfares on which NEVs cannot go, legally or safely. As a result, these vehicles are most common in communities that provide separate routes for them or generally accommodate slow speed traffic.

Some communities designed specifically with NEVs in mind include:

Other communities that permit NEVs:


The U.S. Army has announced that it will lease 4,000 Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) within three years. The Army plans to use NEVs at its bases for transport of personnel and for security patrols and maintenance and delivery services.[8] .


See also


  1. ^ “What is a neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV)?”. AutoblogGreen. 2009-02-06. http://green.autoblog.com/2009/02/06/greenlings-what-is-a-neighborhood-electric-vehicle-nev/. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
  2. ^ “US DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards”. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/rules/rulings/lsv/lsv.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
  3. ^ “CVRP Eligible Vehicles”. Center for Sustainable Energy California. http://energycenter.org/index.php/incentive-programs/clean-vehicle-rebate-project/cvrp-eligible-vehicles. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
  4. ^ “Clean Vehicle Rebate Project”. Center for Sustainable Energy. http://energycenter.org/index.php/incentive-programs/clean-vehicle-rebate-project. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
  5. ^ 49 CFR § 571.3 – US Code of Federal Regulations; [1]
  6. ^ Zúñiga, Janine (2007-05-29). “Coronado’s electric cars enjoying life in the fast lane”. San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20070529/news_1n29ecars.html. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
  7. ^ Young, Kathryn (2007-08-23). “Town that banned bags touts golf carts”. Times Colonist. http://www.canada.com/victoriatimescolonist/news/story.html?id=148eb4fd-8dde-459f-9c89-b4f5fb808868&k=67960. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
  8. ^ http://www.army.mil/-newsreleases/2009/01/12/15707-army-announces-historic-electric-vehicle-lease/

External links

v • d • e

Alternative fuel vehicle

Compressed-air engine
Electric motor
Biofuel ICE
Fuel cell



List of production battery electric vehicles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of production battery electric vehicles (all-electric cars). You may want to view this information in table format.



Current in-production cars

For more details on this topic, see Category:Production electric vehicles.
Full-sized cars

Cars and trucks of normal size and capable of 100 km/h (62 mph) highway speed.

  • Tesla Roadster, USA and EU, li-ion powered sports car by Tesla Motors with 300 mi (480 km) range, 125 mph (201 km/h) top speed and 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) in 3.7 seconds acceleration.
Low-speed vehicles (also known as Neighborhood Electric Vehicles)

These vehicles have a low top speed (like most scooters) and may not be street-legal without restrictions.

  • Oka NEV ZEV Low Speed Electric Vehicle made in Russia, sold in USA.
  • Open Since the beginning of this year also sold in Japan as Girasole, with higher speed and wider range as the Open.
  • Twike three-wheeled ev with pedal assist option. produced in Germany.
  • ZENN a fully-enclosed three-door hatchback Low-speed vehicle.

Cars planned for production

  • Aptera Motors
    • Aptera 2 Series (formerly Aptera Typ-1) is a high-efficiency, three-wheeled vehicle currently in development, now accepting pre-orders. Expected for sale in 2010 in both electric and hybrid versions. Registers as a motorcycle, not required to be FMVSS rated.
  • BYD e6 100 mph top speed, 249 mile range, US$40 000 price tag
On July 12, 2006, the DaimlerChrysler division SMART cars, announced that it would premiere a new Smart Fortwo EV at the British International Motor Show held at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre on July 18.
The car will be made available on a lease arrangement to selected UK corporate customers with deliveries starting in November 2006. Up to 200 of the electric microcars will be built and delivered to the UK, which will serve as the trial market for the vehicle.
According to the DaimlerChrysler press release, the Smart EV sets a new benchmark in the electric vehicle sector; it has 30 kW (40 hp) output and a top speed of70 mph (110 km/h). It offers even better in-town performance than its petrol powered stablemate, with 0 to 30 mph (0 to 48 km/h) in 6.5 seconds. With a range of up to72 miles (116 km), the Smart EV is exempt from vehicle excise duty and the London congestion charge.
The drive train for the Smart EOptimal Energy Joule V is produced in the UK by technology partner Zytek Group who undertake final assembly of the car in Fradley, near Lichfield.
  • Electrovaya plans to sell the Maya 300 a full electric car in Canada and USA by Summer 2009[4]
  • Fisker Karma – a plug-in hybrid luxury sports sedan revealed on 14 January 2008 at the North American International Auto Show. It is the first car from Fisker Automotive.
  • Hybrid Technologies[5]
    • LiV DASH
    • AFS Trinity hybrid prototype is a modified Saturn Vue, estimated cost $33,000-40,000.
    • Mini Cooper conversion, estimated to cost $60,000[6]
    • Hybrid Technologies LiX-7 [7] Lithium based $125,000 supercar, 200 mph top end built in conjunction with Mullen Motor Company.[8]
  • Lightning Car Company is currently developing its eponymous Lightning based on a pre-existing internal combustion-powered sports car, and plans to use NanoSafe cells and Hi-Pa Drive in-wheel motors.
  • Mass-EV [9] is developing in Reading, UK by Turbo Electric Ltd. This car is targeted to be on sale 2011 at a price of £7,000 to the public and charges directly from the UK socket. Roughly the size of a Ford Focus C-Max, will do in excess of 100 miles and motorway speeds. With trailer generator will do in excess of 500 miles on one tank of petrol.
  • Miles Electric Vehicles XS500 planned for production in 2009. It’s a four door sedan and it will have a top speed of over 80 mph (130 km/h) top speed, 120-mile (190 km) range, battery life of approx. 100,000 miles (160,000 km) and a price tag of $30,000 [10]
  • Mini E from BMW, with more than 500 cars leased for field testing in the U.S.[11] and the U.K.[12] Test trials will en by mid 2010 in the U.S.
  • Mitsubishi Motors announced on May 11, 2005, that it will mass-produce its MIEV. Test fleets are to arrive in 2006 and production models could be available in 2010. The first test car, revealed to be Colt EV, is expected to have a range of 93 miles (150 km) using lithium-ion batteries and in-wheel electric motors. The target price of an MIEV is US$19,000, although no export decision has yet been made.[13] In July 2009, the Mitsubishi i-MiEV will go on sale to fleets in Japan and New Zealand, with availability to the general Japanese public beginning in April 2010. It uses a 16 kWh capacity lithium-ion battery.[14]
  • Optimal Energy Joule, a multipurpose six-seater electric car with a top speed of 135 km/h (84 mph) and maximum reach of 400 km (250 mi).
  • Phoenix Motorcars based in Ontario, California, plans to build both a mid-sized SUV and an SUT (Sports Utility Truck) with 130-mile (210 km) range for $45,000 using NanoSafe batteries from Altairnano. 500 cars are planned for delivery in early 2008 to fleet customers. A consumer version is planned for release in late 2008. Over 250-mile (400 km) range version also in development.
  • Subaru Stella Electric Vehicle – Deliveries beginning in Japan in July 2009.[16]
  • Tesla Model S planned for 2012 delivery. Estimated to cost $60,000 with a $30,000 model planned later on.
  • Toyota FT-EV At the 2009 Detroit Auto Show, Toyota debuted the FT-EV electric car based on the Toyota iQ microcar platform. They said a production version could be available by 2012.[17]
  • VentureOne Trike with hybrid and EV options. Three-wheeled vehicle registered as a motorcycle in the USA. Not required to be FMVSS tested.
  • Venturi Fétish marketed as the worlds first electric sports two-seater. Monaco

Discontinued cars

Prototype without production intent

Unknown production status

Medium and Light Duty Trucks and Vans

Heavy Duty Trucks

Motorcycles and scooters


Main article: Electric bus

See also


  1. ^ SMERA Concept
  2. ^ “Sakura-Maranello4-Electric-Car”. Greencarsite.co.uk. http://www.greencarsite.co.uk/GREENCARS/Sakura-Maranell4-Electric-Vehicle.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  3. ^ Hueliez Mia
  4. ^ “Canada’s Maya 300: the first lithium-ion full electric car sold in North America! – Green Wheels”. Auto123. http://www.auto123.com/en/news/green-wheels/canadas-maya-300-the-first-lithium-ion-full-electric-car-sold-in-north-america?model=Maya+300&make=Electrovaya&artid=105281. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  5. ^ “The Electric Lemon – Li-Ion Motor Corporation”. blyon.com. 2009-12-29. http://www.blyon.com/blog/index.php/2009/12/31/ev_innovations_crooks/.
  6. ^ “Will this be 2008’s “It” car? MINI Cooper EV starts production”. 2007-07-12. http://www.autobloggreen.com/2007/07/12/will-this-be-2008s-it-car-mini-cooper-ev-starts-production. Retrieved 2007-07-12.
  7. ^ “Mobile Magazine » World’s fastest electric car does 0-60 in 3 seconds”. Mobilemag.com. 2006-04-10. http://www.mobilemag.com/content/100/354/C7322/. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  8. ^ “Hybrid Technologies to Launch GT Version of LIX-75 All-Carbon Fiber Lithium Supercar”. Greenjobs.com. 2007-01-29. http://www.greenjobs.com/Public/IndustryNews/inews02472.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  9. ^ http://www.turbo-electric.com
  10. ^ At $30,000 and 80 mph (130 km/h), an electric car for the common man – Aug. 13, 2007
  11. ^ Peter Whoriskey (2009-12-24). “Recharging and other concerns keep electric cars far from mainstream”. Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/23/AR2009122303463.html?sub=AR. Retrieved 2009-12-25.
  12. ^ “BMW Delivers 40 Electric MINI E Cars for UK Trial”. Green Car Congress. 2009-12-14. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2009/12/minie-20091214.html. Retrieved 2009-12-25.
  13. ^ “Mitsubishi unveils electric car for 2010”, Associated Press, MSNBC, May 11, 2005
  14. ^ “Mitsubishi Reveals electric i-MiEV production version”. Worldcarfans.com. http://www.worldcarfans.com/9090605.002/mitsubishi-reveals-electric-i-miev-production-version. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  15. ^ Vlasic, Bill (13 May 2008), “Nissan Plans Electric Car in U.S. by ’10”, New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/13/business/13auto.html, retrieved 2009-04-24
  16. ^ Masemola, Thami (June 4, 2009). “Subaru STELLA plug-in EV to launch in Japan”. worldcarfans.com. http://www.worldcarfans.com/9090604.003/subaru-stella-plug-in-ev-to-launch-in-japan. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
  17. ^ Richard, Michael Graham (12 January 2009), Detroit Auto Show 2009: First Look at Toyota FT-EV Electric Car Concept, Gatineau, Canada: treehugger.com, http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/01/detroit-2009-toyota-ft-ev-electric-car-iq.php, retrieved 2009-04-24
  18. ^ http://www.electroauto.cz/skoda.html Elektromobily Škoda
  19. ^ Elektromobily Tatra
  20. ^ Tři etapy rozvoje elektrických vozidel v České republice
  21. ^ Dodge Zeo, Dodge, http://www.dodge.com/en/autoshow/concept_vehicles/zeo/, retrieved 2009-04-24
  22. ^ CQS Group T Racing Team
  23. ^ Histomobile
  24. ^ “Arton Birdie photo”. Carsbase.com. http://www.carsbase.com/photo/Arton_Birdie_model_3770.html. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  25. ^ Hi-Pa Drive Ford F150, Hi-Pa Drive, http://www.hipadrive.com/sema.html, retrieved 2009-04-24
  26. ^ Lightning Car Company, Technology: NanoSafe
  27. ^ Marussia
  28. ^ “ZeroTruck Powered by UQM Electric Propulsion System Debuts at AFVI Expo in Las Vegas”
  29. ^ “EV WORLDwire: Santa Monica Introduces Electric Zero Truck Into City Fleet”. Evworld.com. 2009-06-21. http://evworld.com/news.cfm?newsid=21244. Retrieved 2009-10-25.

External links



Liquid nitrogen vehicle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

A liquid nitrogen vehicle is powered by liquid nitrogen, which is stored in a tank. The engine works by heating the liquid nitrogen in a heat exchanger, extracting heat from the ambient air and using the resulting pressurized gas to operate a piston or rotary engine.

Liquid nitrogen propulsion may also be incorporated in hybrid systems, e.g., battery electric propulsion and fuel tanks to recharge the batteries. This kind of system is called a hybrid liquid nitrogen-electric propulsion. Additionally, regenerative braking can also be used in conjunction with this system.

A liquid nitrogen economy is a hypothetical proposal for a future economy in which the primary form of energy storage and transport is liquid nitrogen. It is proposed as an alternative to liquid hydrogen in some transport modes and as a means of locally storing energy captured from renewable sources. An analysis of this concept provides insight into the physical limits of all energy conversion schemes.



Liquid nitrogen is generated by cryogenic or Stirling engine coolers that liquefy the main component of air, nitrogen (N2). The cooler can be powered by electricity or through direct mechanical work from hydro or wind turbines.

Liquid nitrogen is distributed and stored in insulated containers. The insulation reduces heat flow into the stored nitrogen; this is necessary because heat from the surrounding environment boils the liquid, which then transitions to a gaseous state. Reducing inflowing heat reduces the loss of liquid nitrogen in storage. The requirements of storage prevent the use of pipelines as a means of transport. Since long-distance pipelines would be costly due to the insulation requirements, it would be costly to use distant energy sources for production of liquid nitrogen. Petroleum reserves are typically a vast distance from consumption but can be transferred at ambient temperatures.

Liquid nitrogen consumption is in essence production in reverse. The Stirling engine or cryogenic heat engine offers a way to power vehicles and a means to generate electricity. Liquid nitrogen can also serve as a direct coolant for refrigerators, electrical equipment and air conditioning units. The consumption of liquid nitrogen is in effect boiling and returning the nitrogen to the atmosphere.


Cost of production

Liquid nitrogen production is an energy-intensive process. Currently practical refrigeration plants producing a few tons/day of liquid nitrogen operate at about 50% of Carnot efficiency [1].

Energy density of liquid nitrogen

Any process that relies on a phase-change of a substance will have much lower energy densities than processes involving a chemical reaction in a substance, which in turn have lower energy densities than nuclear reactions. Liquid nitrogen as an energy store has a low energy density. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels by comparison have a high energy density. A high energy density makes the logistics of transport and storage more convenient. Convenience is an important factor in consumer acceptance. The convenient storage of petroleum fuels combined with its low cost has led to an unrivaled success. In addition, a petroleum fuel is a primary energy source, not just an energy storage and transport medium.

The energy density — derived from nitrogen’s isobaric heat of vaporization and specific heat in gaseous state — that can be realised from liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and zero degrees Celsius ambient temperature is about 97 watt-hours per kilogram (W-hr/kg). This compares with about 3,000 W-hr/kg for a gasoline combustion engine running at 28% thermal efficiency, 30 times the density of liquid nitrogen used at the Carnot efficiency [2].

For an isothermal expansion engine to have a range comparable to an internal combustion engine, an 350-litre (92 US gal) insulated onboard storage vessel is required [2]. A practical volume, but a noticeable increase over the typical 50-litre (13 US gal) gasoline tank. The addition of more complex power cycles would reduce this requirement and help enable frost free operation. However, no commercially practical instances of liquid nitrogen use for vehicle propulsion exist.

Frost formation

Unlike internal combustion engines, using a cryogenic working fluid requires heat exchangers to warm and cool the working fluid. In a humid environment, frost formation will prevent heat flow and thus represents an engineering challenge. To prevent frost build up, multiple working fluids can be used. This adds topping cycles to ensure the heat exchanger does not fall below freezing. Additional heat exchangers, weight, complexity, efficiency loss, and expense, would be required to enable frost free operation [2].


However efficient the insulation on the nitrogen fuel tank, there will inevitably be losses by evaporation to the atmosphere. If a vehicle is stored in a poorly ventilated space, there is some risk that leaking nitrogen could displace air and cause asphyxiation. Since nitrogen is a colorless and odourless gas that already makes up 78 % of air, such a change would be difficult to detect.

Cryogenic liquids are hazardous if spilled. Liquid nitrogen can cause frostbite and can make some materials extremely brittle.

As liquid N2 is colder than 90.2K liquid oxygen can be produced which can spontaneously violently react with organic chemical and petroleum products like asphalt.[3]

Since the liquid to gas expansion ratio of this substance is 1:694, a tremendous amount of force can be generated if liquid nitrogen is rapidly vaporized. In an incident in 2006 at Texas A&M University, the pressure-relief devices of a tank of liquid nitrogen were sealed with brass plugs. As a result, the tank failed catastrophically, and exploded.[4]


The tanks must be designed to safety standards appropriate for a pressure vessel, such as ISO 11439.[5]

The storage tank may be made of:

The fiber materials are considerably lighter than metals but generally more expensive. Metal tanks can withstand a large number of pressure cycles, but must be checked for corrosion periodically.

Emission output

Like other non-combustion energy storage technologies, a liquid nitrogen vehicle displaces the emission source from the vehicle’s tail pipe to the central electrical generating plant. Where emissions-free sources are available, net production of pollutants can be reduced. Emission control measures at a central generating plant may be more effective and less costly than treating the emissions of widely dispersed vehicles.


Liquid nitrogen vehicles are comparable in many ways to electric vehicles, but use liquid nitrogen to store the energy instead of batteries. Their potential advantages over other vehicles include:

  • Much like electrical vehicles, liquid nitrogen vehicles would ultimately be powered through the electrical grid. Which makes it easier to focus on reducing pollution from one source, as opposed to the millions of vehicles on the road.
  • Transportation of the fuel would not be required due to drawing power off the electrical grid. This presents significant cost benefits. Pollution created during fuel transportation would be eliminated.
  • Lower maintenance costs
  • Liquid nitrogen tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than batteries.
  • Liquid nitrogen vehicles are unconstrained by the degradation problems associated with current battery systems.
  • The tank may be able to be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be recharged, with re-fueling rates comparable to liquid fuels.


The principal disadvantage is the inefficient use of primary energy. Energy is used to liquify nitrogen, which in turn provides the energy to run the motor. Any conversion of energy between forms results in loss. For liquid nitrogen cars, energy is lost when electrical energy is converted to liquid nitrogen.

Liquid nitrogen is not yet available in public refueling stations.

See also


  1. ^ J. Franz, C. A. Ordonez, A. Carlos, Cryogenic Heat Engines Made Using Electrocaloric Capacitors, American Physical Society, Texas Section Fall Meeting, October 4–6, 2001 Fort Worth, Texas Meeting ID: TSF01, abstract #EC.009, 10/2001.
  2. ^ a b c C. Knowlen, A.T. Mattick, A.P. Bruckner and A. Hertzberg, “High Efficiency Conversion Systems for Liquid Nitrogen Automobiles”, Society of Automotive Engineers Inc, 1988.
  3. ^ Werley, Barry L. (Edtr.) (1991). “Fire Hazards in Oxygen Systems”. ASTM Technical Professional training. Philadelphia: ASTM International Subcommittee G-4.05.
  4. ^ Brent S. Mattox. “Investigative Report on Chemistry 301A Cylinder Explosion” (reprint). Texas A&M University. http://ucih.ucdavis.edu/docs/chemistry_301a.pdf.
  5. ^ Gas cylinders — High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natural gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles

External links

Further reading

  • C. A. Ordonez, M. C. Plummer, R. F. Reidy “Cryogenic Heat Engines for Powering Zero Emission Vehicles”, Proceedings of 2001 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 11–16, 2001, New York, NY.
  • Kleppe J.A., Schneider R.N., “A Nitrogen Economy”, Winter Meeting ASEE, Honolulu, HI, December, 1974.
  • Gordon J. Van Wylan and Richard F. Sontag, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics SI Version 2nd Ed.
v • d • e

Alternative fuel vehicle

Compressed-air engine
Electric motor
Biofuel ICE
Fuel cell
Autogas · Liquid nitrogen vehicle · Natural gas vehicle · Propane · Steam car · Wood gas

v • d • e

Topics related to environmental technology

Renewable energy



Lightning Car Company

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Lightning Car Company
Type Private
Industry Automotive
Founded 2007
Headquarters Peterborough, United Kingdom
Products Cars
Website lightningcarcompany.com

The Lightning Car Company is a British sports car developer, based in Peterborough, focused on the development and production of high performance electric sports cars.

Lightning GT

The firm’s first product, the eponymous Lightning GT, is based on an extant internal-combustion vehicle from Ronart Cars. The GT is currently in development, and is expected to go into production in 2008. Dan Says it should be noted the car manufacturer is building other cars.

It incorporates quick-charging lithium-titanate batteries from Altairnano into a body made from carbon fiber and Kevlar composites. The Lightning GTS employs PML Flightlink‘s Hi-Pa Drive in-wheel motors to accelerate to 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) in less than 4 seconds.

The company is taking orders for 2009/2010 delivery, with an estimated price of £120,000 according to their website.

See also

External links




The Hi-Pa Drive (pronounced hypa) system is an electric in-wheel motor power delivery system.


Demonstration vehicles

In 2006, PML Flightlink demonstrated the Hi-Pa Drive in a series-hybrid car at the British Motor Show in London, using a Mini dubbed the “Mini QED” with its in-wheel motor at all four wheels.[1] Two other car manufacturers have also presented concept cars using this technology: Ford with a Ford F150 pick-up prototype presented at the 2008 Specialty Equipment Market Association trade show in Las Vegas[2] and Volvo in its Volvo ReCharge. However, Volvo has stated that it will not be using the Hi-Pa Drive in the production all-electric version of the C30 ReCharge nor in its new diesel-electric plug-in hybrids due in 2012.[3]

Technology and claimed benefits

In-wheel motor

The propulsion system and development platform acts as an electric motor, generator or brake and is several times lighter, smaller and powerful than the conventional electronic propulsion systems and generators it replaces.

Power electronics

The embedded (in the motor) control electronics reliably, efficiently and precisely manages the control of the motors to provide smooth operation when driving at any speed.

Energy management

The integrated power management system distributes drive power to the motor and then recaptures and feeds most of that energy back into the battery using a regenerative system.

Drive software

The control software helps engineers optimize energy efficiency and vehicle performance while giving drivers more control over the driving experience.[4]

See also


External links




Category:Alternative propulsion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

The term Alternative propulsion or “alternative methods of propulsion” for vehicles includes both

  • Alternative fuels in standard or modified internal combustion engines
  • Propulsion systems not based on combustion of fuels


This category has the following 12 subcategories, out of 12 total.




C cont.







Pages in category “Alternative propulsion”

The following 99 pages are in this category, out of 99 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).






E cont.









P cont.









Magnetic air car

Instead of an alternative fuel source, the magnetic air car uses air-compressing technology to propel it. The patented technology is developed by Magnetic Air Cars, Inc., a San Jose-based company who is working on the world’s first viable fuel-less car. A French company, MDI Cars, previously showed a car based on similar principle to a BBC reporter in 2002.[1]



The idea of the magnetic air car stems from the air car concept developed by J.M Custer of Piggott, Arkansas in 1932. The air car ran on compressed air. He used the engine that was developed by Roy J. Meyers. The air engine replaced the gasoline engine in standard cars. Four air tanks filled with compressed air powered the car 500 miles at a speed of 35 miles an hour. The engine did not require a cooling system, ignition system, carburetor, nor the hundreds of moving parts included in a standard gasoline motor. The compressed air took care of all of those features and left a vehicle that cost nearly nothing to maintain or use.[2]

The Innovation

The magnetic air technology is a combination of magnet motor and compressed air motor. A battery starts a special magnetic motor to initialize the powerful air compressor, heating up the air tank in order to boost the air pressure. The air flow is then turbocharged and multiplied to where the resulting horse-pressure smoothly powers the car…[3]


The car is environmental friendly. The source of the power is air. The battery costs less than $70 and maintenance free. It is acid free, recyclable, and long lasting. Air flow will not be a problem since the patent pending cold air bearing turbocharger creates sufficient air pressure. No fossil fuels are needed as power source. Only air is used as major power source. A patented water filtration system emits cleaner air. The disengagement of burning fossil fuels produces “zero pollution” and promotes environmental protection.


The real cost of the car is undetermined. It is not tested by any credible authorities or organizations for its safety. No experimental results are provided. The magnets, repelling each other, can be a source of movement, and, if properly propelled by an air jet, could have “devastating” effects in terms of power. No exact specifications of their technology have been made yet. This technology needs some control so it won’t go awry if its more air energy applied to it.[4]

Some folks claim the fuel is air here. Well it actually is not. Compressed air is like a powered engine used to move the car mechanically but clearly not the fuel. Compressed air is not a naturally available resource. The actual fuel is the one used to compress the air into a cylinder which makes it powered to provide a ‘Force’.

Air powered cars, also recognized as air car, use technology that is similar to the magnetic air car. The power source is compressed air, which makes the car a zero-emission-fuel-less car. The air car engine combines the mono energy engines (compressed air only) and the dual-energy engines (compressed air + energetic adjuvant). The whole system has four operating modes: mono energy compressed air, simple dual energy, autonomous dual energy, and dual energy with recompression of the tank. By using compressed air stored in tanks at high pressure, the air car can run in an eco-friendly mode.[8]


External links

Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: phylloscopus



Zinc-air battery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Zinc-air battery
specific energy 470 (practical),1370 (theoretical) Wh/kg[1][2]
energy density 1480-9780 Wh/L[citation needed]
specific power 100 W/kg[3][4]
Nominal cell voltage 1.65 V

Zinc-air hearing aid batteries

Zinc-air batteries (non-rechargeable), and zinc-air fuel cells, (mechanically-rechargeable) are electro-chemical batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with oxygen from the air. These batteries have high energy densities and are relatively inexpensive to produce. They are used in hearing aids and in film cameras that previously used mercury batteries.

In operation, a mass of zinc particles forms a porous anode, which is saturated with an electrolyte. Oxygen from the air react at the cathode and form hydroxyl ions which migrate into the zinc paste and form zincate (Zn(OH)2−4), releasing electrons to travel to the cathode. The zincate decays into zinc oxide and water returns to the electrolyte. The water and hydroxyls from the anode are recycled at the cathode, so the water is not consumed. The reactions produce a theoretical 1.65 volts, but this is reduced to 1.4–1.35 V in available cells.

Zinc-air batteries have some properties of fuel cells as well as batteries: the zinc is the fuel, the reaction rate can be controlled by varying the air flow, and oxidized zinc/electrolyte paste can be replaced with fresh paste. A future possibility is to power electric vehicles.



The effect of oxygen was known early in the 19th century when wet-cell [Leclanche battery|[Leclanche batteries]] absorbed atmospheric oxygen into the carbon cathode current collector. In 1878 a porous platinized carbon air electrode was found to work as well as the manganese dioxide (MnO2) of the Leclanche cell. Commercial products began to be made on this principle in 1932 when George W. Heise and Erwin A. Schumacher of the National Carbon Company built cells,[5] treating the carbon electrodes with wax to prevent flooding. This type is still used for large zinc-air cells for navigation aids and rail transportation. However, the current capacity is low and the cells are bulky.

Large primary zinc-air cells such as the Thomas A. Edison Industries Carbonaire type were used for railway signaling, remote communication sites, and navigation buoys.These were long-duration, low-rate applications. Development in the 1970s of thin electrodes based on fuel-cell research allowed application to small button and prismatic primary cells for hearing aids, pagers, and medical devices, especially cardiac telemetry.[6]

Reaction formulas

Here are the chemical equations for the zinc-air cell[2]:

Anode: Zn + 4OH → Zn(OH)42– + 2e (E0 = 1.25 V)
Fluid: Zn(OH)42– → ZnO + H2O + 2OH
Cathode: O2 + 2H2O + 4e → 4OH (E0 = 0.4 V)
Overall: 2Zn + O2 → 2ZnO (E0 = 1.65 V)


Zinc-air batteries have significant properties that make them ideal for certain applications. Because ordinary air supplies one of the battery reactants, a cell can use more zinc in the anode than a cell that must also contain, for example, manganese dioxide. This increases capacity for a given weight.

Storage and operating life

Zinc-air cells have long shelf life; even miniature button cells can sit for up to 3 years at room temperature with little capacity loss, since before use, oxygen is excluded from the cell by a tape barrier. Industrial cells stored in a dry state have an indefinite storage life.

The operating life of a zinc-air cell is a critical function of its interaction with its environment. Hot or dry conditions pull water from the electrolyte. Because the potassium hydroxide electrolyte is deliquescent, in humid conditions excess water accumulates in the cell, flooding the cathode, destroying its active properties. Potassium hydroxide also reacts with atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbonate formation eventually reduces electrolyte conductivity. Miniature cells have high self-discharge once opened to air; the cell’s capacity is typically consumed within a few weeks.[6]

Discharge properties

Because the cathode does not change properties during discharge, terminal voltage is quite stable until the cell approaches exhaustion.

Power capacity is a function of several variables: cathode area, air availability, porosity, and the catalytic value of the cathode surface. Oxygen entry into the cell must be balanced against electrolyte water loss; cathode membranes are coated with hydrophobic material (Teflon) to limit water loss. Low humidity increases water loss; if enough water is lost the cell fails. Button cells have a limited current drain; for example an IEC PR44 cell has a capacity of 600 milliamp-hours (mAh) but a maximum current of only 22 milliamps (mA). Pulse load currents can be much higher since some oxygen remains in the cell between pulses.[6]

Low temperature reduces primary cell capacity but the effect is small for low drains. A cell may deliver 80% of its capacity if discharged over 300 hours at 0 °C (32 °F), but only 20% of capacity if discharged at a 50 hour rate at that temperature. Lower temperature also reduces cell voltage.

Zinc-air batteries cannot be used in a sealed battery holder since some air must come in; the oxygen in 1 liter of air is required for every ampere-hour of capacity used.

Primary (unrechargeable) cells

Large zinc-air batteries, with capacities up to 2,000 ampere–hours per cell, are used to power navigation instruments and marker lights, oceanographic experiments, and railway signals.

Primary zinc-air cells are made in button format to about 1 Ah. Prismatic shapes for portable devices are manufactured with capacities between 5 and 30 Ah. Hybrid cells have manganese dioxide added to the cathodes to allow high peak currents. Button cells are highly effective, but it is difficult to extend the same construction to larger sizes due to air diffusion performance, heat dissipation, and leakage problems. Prismatic and cylindrical cell designs address these problems. Stacking prismatic cells requires air channels in the battery and may require a fan to force air through the stack.[6]

Secondary (rechargeable) cells

Rechargeable zinc-air cells are a difficult design problem since zinc precipitation from the water-based electrolyte must be closely controlled. The problems are dendrite formation, non-uniform zinc dissolution and limited solubility in electrolytes. Electrically reversing the reaction at a bi-functional air cathode, to liberate oxygen from discharge reaction products, is difficult; membranes tested to date have low overall efficiency. Charging voltage is much higher than discharge voltage, producing cycle energy efficiency as low as 50%. Providing charge and discharge functions by separate uni-functional cathodes, increases cell size, weight, and complexity.[6] A satisfactory electrically recharged system potentially offers low material cost and high specific energy, but none has yet reached the market.[7]

Mechanically recharged cells

Rechargeable systems may mechanically replace the anode and electrolyte, essentially operating as a refurbishable primary cell, or may use zinc powder or other methods to replenish the reactants. Mechanically-recharged systems were investigated for military electronics uses in the 1960s because of the high energy density and easy recharging. However, primary lithium batteries offered higher discharge rates and easier handling.

Mechanical recharging systems have been researched for decades for use in electric vehicles. Some approaches use a large zinc-air battery to maintain charge on a high discharge–rate battery used for peak loads during acceleration. Zinc granules serve as the reactant. Vehicles exchange used electrolyte and depleted zinc for fresh reactants at a service station to recharge.

The term zinc-air fuel cell usually refers to a zinc-air battery in which zinc metal is added and zinc oxide is removed continuously. This is accomplished by pushing zinc electrolyte paste or pellets into a chamber. Waste zinc oxide is pumped into a waste tank or bladder inside the fuel tank, and fresh zinc paste or pellets are taken from the fuel tank. The zinc oxide waste is pumped out at a refueling station for recycling. Alternatively, this term may refer to an electrochemical system in which zinc is a co-reactant assisting the reformation of hydrocarbons at the anode of a fuel cell.

Vehicle propulsion

Metallic zinc could be used as an alternative fuel for vehicles, either in a zinc-air battery [8] or to generate hydrogen near the point of use. Zinc’s characteristics have motivated considerable interest as an energy source for electric vehicles. Gulf General Atomic demonstrated a 20 kW vehicle battery. General Motors conducted tests in the 1970s. Neither project led to a commercial product.[9]

Solid zinc cannot be moved as easily as a liquid. An alternative is to form pellets that are small enough to be pumped. Fuel cells using it would be able to quickly replace zinc-oxide with fresh zinc metal.[10] The spent material can be recycled. The zinc-air “battery” cell is a primary cell (non-rechargeable); recycling is required to reclaim the zinc; much more energy is required to reclaim the zinc than is usable in a vehicle.

Alternative configurations

Attempts to address zinc-air’s limitations include[11]

  • Pumping zinc slurry through the battery in one direction for charging and reversing for discharge. Capacity is limited only by the slurry reservoir size.
  • Alternate electrode shapes (via gelling and binding agents)
  • Managing humidity
  • Carefully dispersing catalysts to improve oxygen reduction and production
  • Modularizing components for repair without complete replacement

Safety and environment

Vent holes allow any pressure build-up to be released. Zinc corrosion can produce hydrogen. Manufacturers caution against hydrogen build-up in enclosed areas. A short-circuited cell gives relatively low current. Deep discharge below 0.5 V/cell may result in electrode leakage; there is little useful capacity below 0.9 V/cell.

Older designs used mercury amalgam amounting to about 1% of the weight of a button cell, to prevent zinc corrosion. Newer types have no added mercury. Zinc is relatively low in toxicity. Mercury-free designs require no special handling when discarded or recycled.[6]

In United States waters, environmental regulations now require proper disposal of primary batteries removed from navigation aids. Formerly, discarded zinc-air primary batteries were dropped into the water around buoys, which allowed mercury in the cells to escape to the environment.[12]

See also


  1. ^ power one: Hearing Aid Batteries
  2. ^ a b Duracell: Zinc-air Technical Bulletin
  3. ^ greencarcongress: zincair_hybrid
  4. ^ thermoanalytics: battery types
  5. ^ US patent 1899615 Air-depolarized primary battery Heise – February, 1933
  6. ^ a b c d e f David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy (ed). Handbook Of Batteries 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002 ISBN 0-07-135978-8, chapter 13 and chapter 38
  7. ^ http://www.revolttechnology.com/
  8. ^ J. Noring et al, Mechanically refuelable zinc-air electric vehicle cells in Proceedings of the Symposium on Batteries and Fuel Cells for Stationary and Electric Vehicle Applications Volumes 93-98 of Proceedings (Electrochemical Society), The Electrochemical Society, 1993 ISBN 1566770556 page 235-236
  9. ^ C. A. C. Sequeira Environmental oriented electrochemistry Elsevier, 1994 ISBN 044489456X, pages 216-217
  10. ^ Science & Technology Review
  11. ^ Bullis, Kevin (October 28, 2009). “High-Energy Batteries Coming to Market”. Technology Review. http://www.technologyreview.com/business/23812. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
  12. ^ http://www.uscg.mil/directives/ci/16000-16999/CI_16478_10.pdf retrieved 2010 Jan 18

External links

Further reading

  • Heise, G. W. and Schumacher, E. A., An Air-Depolarized Primary Cell with Caustic Alkali Electrolyte, Transactions of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 62, Page 363, 1932.

v • d • e

Galvanic cells

primary cells
Galvanic cell
secondary cells
Kinds of cells
Parts of cells

v • d • e

Fuel cells





Zinc Air Fuel Cell Technology

Zinc-air is a high-energy, high-power fuel cell technology that is safe and environmentally benign. The EFTC zinc-air battery system for electric vehicles comprises three elements:

The Zinc-Air Module
The on-board zinc-air module is built from cells with replaceable zinc anode cassettes.

Zinc-Air Module

No. of cells 47
Open Circuit Voltage 67V
Operating Voltage 57-40 V
Capacity 325 Ah
Energy Capacity 17.4 kWh
Peak Power (@80% DOD) 8 kW
Weight 88 kg
Volume 79 liter
Energy Density 200 Wh/kg
Dimensions 726x350x310 mm
Electric Fuel Zinc-Air Fuel Cell
The Cell
The cell comprises a central static replaceable anode cassette comprising a slurry of electrochemically generated zinc particles in a potassium hydroxide solution compacted onto a current collection frame and inserted into a separator envelope, flanked on two sides by high-power air (oxygen) reduction cathodes that extract oxygen from the air for the zinc-oxidation reaction.
Prototype Refueling StationThe discharged zinc-air module removed from the vehicle is “refueled” or mechanically recharged by exchanging spent “cassettes” with fresh cassettes. This is accomplished by a refueling machine that returns the zinc-air modules to service.

Regeneration of Zinc Air Battery Cassettes
The depleted cassettes are electrochemically recharged and mechanically recycled external to the battery. Regeneration of the cassettes will take place at centralized facilities serving regional networks of refueling stations. In this way the zinc anode recharging/recycling facility would assume a parallel role in a zinc-air based transportation system to that held by oil refineries in today’s fuel distribution system, without the negative impacts.