VIDEO: CHALLENGE BIBENDUM RIO 2010 RALLY
CALSTART President and CEO, John Boesel, chaired a round table discussion at Challenge Bibendum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This video features the Challenge Bibendum Rio 2010 Rally: Advanced technology vehicles proving their road worthiness in real world driving conditions.
My Note –
I want all those vehicles in the video posted above in use and available to buy at a reasonable price in the US and traveling our roads instead of nothing but petroleum burning choices. And, we could put them in place now.
The other thing that is needed is some reasonable conversion packages for the SUVs that people already have but at the very least – they could get a tune up on them so they burn fuel in the most complete manner. How hard would that be?
CALSTART’s Mini E assessment project is wrapping up this month. Check out the staff’s adventures on the project blog. We’ll share some hard data about performance, range and more in the days to come.
BMW leased four of its new all-electric Mini Es to CALSTART as a part of its field trial program in Southern California. The CALSTART team tested the vehicles for one year, capturing some technical data as well as the experience in driving this advanced electric vehicle.
(from CALSTART blog)
Facing oil spills, lingering recession and new fuel economy
regulations, the nation more than ever needs new solutions to
reduce petroleum use, increase efficiency and create jobs.
In that context, the 2010 HTUF National Conference – set for
September 28-30 in Dearborn, MI – brings a clear message: the first of these solutions are here now and ready for fleet use.
For ten years, the HTUF program has steadily moved hybrid
technology from concept to commercialization and 2010 marks a
significant milestone in that work: the 10th HTUF conference. Since its
launch HTUF has had a central role in speeding the market for hybrid
(continued on page 12 of their pdf newsletter thingy.)
Hybrid Incentive Vouchers a
Huge Success, Model for Others
Proves High Demand for Hybrids
Truck fleets and manufacturers have given a
huge vote of approval to California’s innovative
incentive program for hybrids, the Hybrid Truck
and Bus Voucher Incentive Project (HVIP).
Since HVIP opened for voucher requests in
February 2010, more than 90 percent of the
original $20 million in funds have been requested in
just four months of operation. More than 600
commercial hybrid trucks and buses have been
ordered to date because of HVIP – a 30 percent
increase in national hybrid volumes from just
one state’s action.
HVIP is funded by the California Air
Resources Board (ARB) and operated by
CALSTART, HTUF’s parent organization. It is a
unique and streamlined program to help speed the
early market introduction of clean, low-carbon
Clark Scoggins New design, money have Aptera upbeat
As oil continues gushing into the Gulf of Mexico, a federal judge will hear arguments today from companies seeking to end a six-month ban on deepwater drilling. FULL STORY
A couple of years ago, we told you about an eco-friendly resort in the U.S. that was planning on using solar-diesel hybrid houseboats designed by Solarsailor. The boats would feature large, moving photovoltaic “wings” that would not only track the sun to gather energy, but also serve as rigid sails – so the boats could move via solar, diesel or wind power….
My Note –
This has a great chart showing all the ranges and charge times of the cars they compare – about 13 of them.
Battle of the Batteries: Comparing Electric Car Range, Charge Times
By Josie Garthwaite Jun. 8, 2010, 12:00am PDT
|Volvo Electric C30||24 kWh||Range: 150 kilometers (about 93.2 miles) New European Driving Cycle. Charge time: <8 hours at 230V, 16 amp||50-vehicle test fleet slated for Sweden.|
|Think City||24.5 kWh lithium ion batteries from Ener1 subsidiary EnerDel.||Range: 160 kilometers (about 99.4 miles) in Europe’s ECE-R101 drive cycle. 112 miles for the U.S. market. Charge time: 8 hours at 110V. Working on 80 percent charge in 15 mins at 220V with Aerovironment.||Think City models sold in Europe have come with options to use either a sodium-based battery (designed for use in very hot or very cold climates) or lithium-ion. Drivers with the sodium battery reportedly have encountered few problems even after thousands of charging cycles.|
|Tesla Roadster||56 kWh lithium cobalt. Liquid cooled.||Range: 220 miles (combined city/highway). Charge time: 3.5 hours at high power.||Driven like the sports car that it is, the Roadster has delivered closer to 95-120 miles of range. Driven conservatively, the Roadster has in some cases delivered about 140 miles of range. Update: There are also examples of the Roadster getting much more range – in one instance up to 313 miles.|
|Fisker Karma||22.6 kWh (plus 2.0L gas engine). Lithium ion cells from A123 Systems.||Electric range: 50 miles. Total range: 300 miles.||Unknown. Expect more info during the next six months, as the Karma’s slated to launch in September 2010. As with the Tesla Roadster, Karma drivers tempted by the model’s sports car aspects may sacrifice some electric range for sportier performance.|
|BMW Mini E||35 kWh lithium ion. Air cooled.||Range: 156 miles (ideal conditions), 109 miles (normal city driving), 96 miles (normal highway driving). Charge time: 26 hours at 110V/12 amp outlet. 4.5 hours at 240V/32 amp. 3 hours at 240V/48 amp.||Drivers in BMW’s demo fleet have gotten closer to 100-110 miles per charge. In below-freezing temperatures, range has dropped in some cases to 55-80 miles.|
My wife is a RAV4-EV driver. (It was my car until she fought me for it; I bought another EV).
She usually drives 20 miles or less per day. We’ve only taken it more than 50 miles a few times, so it’s hard to say exactly what the full range is. But it looks like we could get 100 miles out of it, even though it’s over 7 years old now.
The last 20 miles would be in the yellow and red zone, and we’d rather keep it out of that. So we consider it an 80-mile car. If it’s raining and you have to push water out of the way and run HVAC to keep the windscreen clear, you lose about 20%.
Our other EV has more range, so we take that on longer trips.
comment found on –
Toyota RAV4 EV
|Assembly||Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Toyota City, Japan
|Body style(s)||4-door SUV|
|Wheelbase||94.9 in (2410 mm)|
|Length||156.7 in (3980 mm)|
|Width||66.7 in (1694 mm)|
|Height||64.4 in (1636 mm)|
My Note –
So what is wrong with everyone driving one of these? It has been around for many years – Why don’t we have that in America today as oil covers the Gulf of Mexico with death and destruction – this is ridiculous.
The first fleet version of the RAV4 EV became available on a limited basis in 1997. In 2001 it was possible for businesses, cities or utilities to lease one or two of these cars. Toyota then actually sold or leased 328 RAV4 EVs to the general public in 2003, at which time the program was terminated despite waiting lists of prospective customers.
As of May 2006, charging an RAV4 EV from full-dead to full-charge, at a rate of USD 0.09 per kilowatt-hour, costs around USD 2.70.
As of May 2008, based on a gasoline price-per-gallon cost of USD 3.80 and up and the non-EV 2003 RAV4 2-wheel-drive gasoline fuel efficiency of 27 mpg-US (8.7 L/100 km; 32 mpg-imp), the RAV4 EV costs approximately 25% as much to fully charge,
and makes mileage in the RAV4 EV the cost equivalent to a 111.1 mpg-US (2.117 L/100 km; 133.4 mpg-imp) small SUV.
The MSRP was USD 42,000; but in California, ZIP-grant rebates of USD 9,000, decreasing in 2003 to USD 5,000, and a USD 4,000 credit from the Internal Revenue Service brought the price down to a more palatable USD 29,000 (USD 33,000 for some 2003 deliveries), including the home charger.
By November 2002, the 328 RAV4-EV’s Toyota had committed to were sold, yet demand was continuing to build. Toyota was caught off-guard by the extent of the demand because the vehicle’s retail buyers had outsold the projections far faster than the vehicles could be supplied to market – despite very little advertising, and very little public awareness of the product.
There was certainly a market for these vehicles, because many GM EV1, Ford Ranger EV and Honda EV Plus drivers had been reluctantly forced to surrender their cars – in some cases to the crusher – and had become disillusioned with the carmakers. Potential buyers were encouraged by the perception that Toyota was finally playing fair.
As it turned out, there were more RAV4-EVs sold than there were cars available. It is noteworthy that Toyota did, in fact, play fair and filled every last order despite the fact that the last few dozen vehicles had to be painstakingly assembled from spare parts due to a shortfall of production components. This unexpected development caused deliveries to trickle on into September 2003. It also caused variations in the vehicles such as heated seats, retractable antennae, mats, etc.
Once the last of the 328 EVs was sold in November 2002, the website disappeared and the EV program was unceremoniously scrapped. No additional cars could be bought because Toyota didn’t have anything to sell. The RAV4-EV was based on the 1996-2000 gasoline powered RAV4, which had become obsolete. Production of additional vehicles would only be possible under one of two different scenarios. The first would be if the RAV4-EV was redesigned to fit the 2003 RAV4, and the second would be if production of the 1996 version was resumed. Toyota claimed that tens of thousands of orders would have been necessary for them to resume or continue production, and development time would have been a major obstacle.
Whether or not Toyota wanted to continue production, it was unlikely to be able to do so because the EV-95 battery was no longer available. Chevron had inherited control of the worldwide patent rights for the NiMH EV-95 battery when it merged with Texaco, which had purchased them from General Motors.
Chevron’s unit won a USD 30,000,000 settlement from Toyota and Panasonic, and the production line for the large NiMH batteries was closed down and dismantled. This case was settled in the ICC International Court of Arbitration, and not publicised due to a gag order placed on all parties involved. Only smaller NiMH batteries, incapable of powering an electric vehicle or plugging in, are currently allowed by Chevron-Texaco.
Like other manufacturers, Toyota began destroying RAV4 EVs as they came off lease, after lease continuances were denied to owners. In 2005 an agreement was struck between Toyota and DontCrush.com (now PlugInAmerica.com) to stop the destruction and facilitate the continued operation of owned and leased vehicles. While no longer sold, the vehicle is still supported by selected Toyota service centers (mainly in California) and a strong owner community.
The RAV4 EV is driven daily by hundreds of owners, now across the United States. These owners have built up an online community and have worked out ways to add options to the RAV4 EV never offered by Toyota, with the most popular being keyless door entry and cruise control.
- Darell Dickey’s EVnut.com page including extensive, community-contributed FAQ for the RAV4 EV
- RAV4 EV Electric Vehicle Association
- RAV4 EV Discussion List
- Union of Concerned Scientists
- Who Killed the Electric Car?
- Two Cents per Mile: Will President Obama Make it Happen With the Stroke of a Pen?
- Plug In America
- Don’t Crush
- US Patent No. 6,969,567 – Multi-cell battery
- NiMH modules from Saft France: 6V 200Ah
- Plug-In Toyota Announces Plug-in Hybrid Arriving Late 2009
- British electric car company basing some of the spec on experience with the Rav4 EV
According to Ovshinsky, the auto industry falsely suggested that NiMH technology was not yet ready for widespread use in road cars. Members of the USABC, including General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler, threatened to take legal action against Ovshinsky if he continued to promote NiMH’s potential for use in BEVs, and if he continued to lend test batteries to Solectria, a start-up electric vehicle maker that was not part of the USABC. The Big Three car companies argued that his behavior violated their exclusive rights to the battery technology, because they had matched a federal government grant given to Ovonics to develop NiMH technology. Critics argue that the Big Three were more interested in convincing CARB members that electric vehicles were not technologically and commercially viable.
In 1994, General Motors acquired a controlling interest in Ovonics‘s battery development and manufacture, including patents controlling the manufacture of large NiMH batteries. The original intent of the equity alliance was to develop NiMH batteries for GM’s EV1 BEV. Sales of GM-Ovonics batteries were later taken over by GM manager and critic of CARB John Williams, leading Ovshinsky to wonder whether his decision to sell to GM had been naive. The EV1 program was shut down by GM before the new NiMH battery could be commercialized, despite field tests that indicated the Ovonics battery extended the EV1’s range to over 150 miles.
 Chevron and Cobasys
In 2001, oil company Texaco purchased General Motors’ share in GM Ovonics. Texaco was itself acquired by rival Chevron several months later. The same year, Ovonics filed a patent infringement suit against Toyota‘s battery supplier, Panasonic, that ultimately succeeded in restricting the use of its large format NiMH batteries to certain transportation uses. In 2003, Texaco Ovonics Battery Systems was restructured into Cobasys, a 50/50 joint venture between ChevronTexaco and Ovonics, now known as Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) Ovonics. Chevron’s influence over Cobasys extends beyond a strict 50/50 joint venture. Chevron held a 19.99% interest in ECD Ovonics as of a public filing made January 15, 2003. In a later filing on May 17, 2005, Energy Conversion Devices announced that they had exercised an option to purchase back 4,376,633 shares of stock from a Chevron subsidiary, and would cancel and return them to authorized-unissued status. This is the exact number of shares that was listed as owned by ChevronTexaco in the January 15, 2003 filing.
ChevronTexaco also maintained veto power over any sale or licensing of NiMH technology. In addition, ChevronTexaco maintained the right to seize all of Cobasys’ intellectual property rights in the event that ECD Ovonics did not fulfill its contractual obligations. On September 10, 2007, ChevronTexaco (now known as simply “Chevron”) filed a legal claim that ECD Ovonics had not fulfilled its obligations. ECD Ovonics disputed this claim. The arbitration hearing was repeatedly suspended while the parties negotiated with General Motors over the sale of Cobasys back to GM. As of March 2008, no agreement had been reached with GM.
Cobasys contracts demonstrated that the company was willing to sell smaller NiMH batteries (less than 10 amp-hours) for use with hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). For instance, in March 2007, GM announced that it would use Cobasys NiMH batteries in the model year 2008 Chevrolet Malibu hybrid. Toyota uses NiMH batteries in all of its HEV models. However, Cobasys’ sales policies raised questions about its willingness to sell larger format batteries for use in EVs and PHEVs.
Boschert concludes that, “it’s possible that Cobasys (Chevron) is squelching all access to large NiMH batteries through its control of patent licenses in order to remove a competitor to gasoline. Or it’s possible that Cobasys simply wants the market for itself and is waiting for a major automaker to start producing plug-in hybrids or electric vehicles.” In an interview with The Economist, Ovshinsky subscribed to the former view. “I think we at ECD made a mistake of having a joint venture with an oil company, frankly speaking. And I think it’s not a good idea to go into business with somebody whose strategies would put you out of business, rather than building the business.”
Cobasys’ problems with other potential customers also raised questions about the company’s sales policies. In October 2007, International Acquisitions Services, Inc. and Innovative Transportation Systems AG filed suit against Cobasys and its parents for refusing to fill a large, previously agreed-upon order for large-format NiMH batteries to be used in the Innovan electric vehicle. In August 2008, Mercedes-Benz sued Cobasys for again refusing to fill a large, previously agreed-upon order for NiMH batteries.
On July 28, 2009, Automotive News reported that Cobasys would be bought from Chevron and Energy Conversion Devices by battery maker SB LiMotive, a joint venture of Bosch and Samsung. At the time of the 2009 Cobasys sale, control of NiMH battery technology transferred back to ECD Ovonics. In October 2009, ECD Ovonics announced that their next-generation NiMH batteries will provide specific energy and power that are comparable to those of lithium ion batteries at a cost that is significantly lower than the cost of lithium ion batteries. It is unclear whether ECD Ovonics will continue to adhere to Cobasys’ prohibitive minimum order sales policy.
My Note –
You’ve just got to see this – Holiday Paradise – American Style –
- Honda Begins Operation of New Solar Hydrogen Station
- January 27, 2010
- Honda began operation of a next generation solar hydrogen station prototype at the Los Angeles Center of Honda R&D Americas, Inc., intended for ultimate use as a home refueling appliance capable of an overnight refill of fuel cell electric vehicles.
Why should our world look like this – and this is only part of it. The pictures of the refineries in Texas and around the world are just nothing but nasty.
– cricketdiane, my note
How about now?
This stuff isn’t twenty years away – we can have it right now throughout the US – it doesn’t have to be petroleum or nothing – those people are lying.
Haven’t they done enough damage already? Isn’t over a hundred years of pollution and nasty crap enough from the petroleum oil industry already?
|A car in harmony with man and his environment.
Honda’s smart solution for the coming century – the FCX.
|A car in harmony with man and his environment.
Honda’s smart solution for the coming century – the FCX.
(from – the 1999 design – it is now 2010)
Ovionics NiMH Batteries Overview Document from October 2009
(from this list – )
- ^ a b Boschert, Sherry (2007-02-01). Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America. Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers. ISBN 9780865715714. http://www.newsociety.com/bookid/3934.
- ^ “5 Things You Need to Know About Nickel-Metal-Hybrid Batteries”. 2008-03-07. http://www.greencar.com/articles/5-things-need-nickel-metal-hybrid-batteries.php. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601101&sid=aI7Ov7Jyo2nU
- ^ a b c d e Shnayerson, Michael (1996-08-27). The Car That Could: The Inside Story of GM’s Revolutionary Electric Vehicle. Random House. pp. 194–207. ISBN 978-0679421054.
- ^ Coker, M. (2003-05-15). “Dude, Wheres My Electric Car!?!”. Orange County Weekly. http://www.ocweekly.com/2003-05-15/features/dude-where-s-my-electric-car/4. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ “US SEC Form 8-K, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.”. 2004-07-07. http://www.ovonic.com/PDFs/Financial_Reports/form_8k/8k_mbi_patent_infringe_settlement_7july04.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
- ^ Roberson, J. (2007-03-14). “Supplier Cobasys Exploring More Hybrid Batteries”. Detroit Free Press. http://www.oesa.org/publications/articledetail.php?articleId=6398. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ “ECD Ovonics Definitive Proxy Statement”. 2003-01-15. http://investor.shareholder.com/ovonics/secfiling.cfm?filingID=32878-03-4. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ “ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES, INC. Form 8K Current Report”. 2005-05-17. http://investor.shareholder.com/ovonics/secfiling.cfm?filingID=32878-05-58. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ a b “ECD Ovonics Amended General Statement of Beneficial Ownership”. 2004-12-02. http://investor.shareholder.com/ovonics/secfiling.cfm?filingID=950134-04-18744. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ “ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report for the period ending September 30, 2007”. 2007-09-30. http://investor.shareholder.com/ovonics/secfiling.cfm?filingID=32878-07-93. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ a b “ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report for the period ending March 31, 2008”. 2008-03-31. http://investor.shareholder.com/ovonics/secfiling.cfm?filingID=32878-08-30. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ http://www.cobasys.com/news/20070313.shtml
- ^ Greenberg J. (2008-10-14). “The Edison of our Age: Stan Ovshinsky and the Future of Energy [Video Interview Part 1“]. The Energy Roadmap. http://www.theenergyroadmap.com/futureblogger/show/1030-stanford-ovshinsky-and-the-future-of-energy-interview-part-1. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ Hicks, Robert Eldridge (1973) Politics of land: Ralph Nader’s study group report on land use in California, pp. 410–412, 488. Compiled by Robert C. Fellmeth, Center for Study of Responsive Law. Grossman Publishers.
- ^ http://wot.motortrend.com/6278400/auto-news/mercedes-sues-cobasys-battery-supplier-ml450-hybrid-suv-delayed/index.html
- ^ CalCars news “Electro Energy announces CalCars project”. 2005-10-20. http://www.calcars.org/calcars-news/175.html CalCars news. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ Sebastian Blanco (2007-12-11). “EVS23: Kim Adelman’s Plug-in Prius with Nilar nickel-metal hydride batteries”. autobloggreen. http://green.autoblog.com/2007/12/11/evs23-ken-adelmans-plug-in-prius-with-nilar-nickel-metal-hydri/. Retrieved 2009-11-18.
- ^ http://www.ovonic.com/PDFs/ovonic-materials/Ovonic-Fetcenko-2008-Wolsky-Seminar.pdf
- ^ http://www.evworld.com/article.cfm?storyid=1403
- ^ “Battery venture buys Cobasys”. 2009-07-28. http://reviews.cnet.com/8301-13746_7-10296368-48.html. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
- ^ Michael Fetcenko (2009-10-01). “Ovonic NiMH –Strong Now, Room for Growth”. Ovonic. http://www.ovonics.com/PDFs/Batteries2009OctoberNiceConference.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-18.
- ^ http://www.ovonics.com/PDFs/Batteries2009OctoberNiceConference.pdf
Critics also argue that historical evidence demonstrates the willingness of the oil industry to engage in such anti-competitive behavior. In 1949, the U.S. Supreme Court found Chevron (then known as Standard Oil of California) guilty of conspiring to buy and dismantle the Los Angeles electric street car system, in what became known as the Great American streetcar scandal. In an effort to prevent the passage of California’s zero emission mandates in late 1993 and early 1994, oil companies also funded a series of ads that questioned the viability of electric vehicles.
My Note –
So, not only do we have the filth of these companies in the oil industries and their shippers, their storage, their terminals, their destruction of the oceans and particularly the waters and communities and ecosystem of the Gulf of Mexico, Spain, Australia, Alaska, and Nigeria, Azerbaijan – among other places – and the filth of the refineries, the explosions, the poisons in the air and rivers and streams and dirt almost everywhere petroleum based vehicles have operated – we also have their overall contempt for life, their contempt for living, their contempt for ecosystems and their contempt for the progress of American economic potential and contempt for progressing beyond the discovery that “making fire go boom” and move something.
It is an obscenity that history will view as far more horrendous than short-sighted power mongering. It has resulted in the destruction of opportunities, the destruction of permanent generations of ecosystem inhabitants both wildlife and people that have survived countless natural disasters over the history of our world, and the destruction of America’s safety and economy.
That is a lot to pay for the petroleum industries to hold power.
And, it doesn’t have to be that way.
My Note –
That looks like a good car to me.
What happened with that little table device for changing water into hydrogen for the batteries and fuel cells charged by hydrogen? Couldn’t that be incorporated into these cars? It is a simple electrolysis system which is based on science and technology that is well known and reliable – the knowledge for it has been around for over a hundred years – probably, in fact more like three hundred years – I don’t know, that may be exaggerated, but I doubt it.
The refining process releases numerous different chemicals into the atmosphere; consequently, there are substantial air pollution emissions and a notable odor normally accompanies the presence of a refinery. Aside from air pollution impacts there are also wastewater concerns, risks of industrial accidents such as fire and explosion, and noise health effects due to industrial noise.
The public has demanded that many governments place restrictions on contaminants that refineries release, and most refineries have installed the equipment needed to comply with the requirements of the pertinent environmental protection regulatory agencies. In the United States, there is strong pressure to prevent the development of new refineries, and no major refinery has been built in the country since Marathon’s Garyville, Louisiana facility in 1976. However, many existing refineries have been expanded during that time. Environmental restrictions and pressure to prevent construction of new refineries may have also contributed to rising fuel prices in the United States. Additionally, many refineries (over 100 since the 1980s) have closed due to obsolescence and/or merger activity within the industry itself. This activity has been reported to Congress and in specialized studies not widely publicised.
Environmental and safety concerns mean that oil refineries are sometimes located some distance away from major urban areas. Nevertheless, there are many instances where refinery operations are close to populated areas and pose health risks such as in the Campo de Gibraltar, a CEPSA refinery near the towns of Gibraltar, Algeciras, La Linea, San Roque and Los Barrios with a combined population of over 300,000 residents within a 5-mile (8.0 km) radius and the CEPSA refinery in Santa Cruz on the island of Tenerife, Spain which is sited in a densely-populated city center and next to the only two major evacuation routes in and out of the city. In California‘s Contra Costa County and Solano County, a shoreline necklace of refineries and associated chemical plants are adjacent to urban areas in Richmond, Martinez, Pacheco, Concord, Pittsburg, Vallejo and Benicia, with occasional accidental events that require “shelter in place” orders to the adjacent populations.
An outpouring of dust layered with man-made sulfates, smog, industrial fumes, carbon grit, and nitrates is crossing the Pacific Ocean on prevailing winds from booming Asian economies in plumes so vast they alter the climate. Almost a third of the air over Los Angeles and San Francisco can be traced directly to Asia. With it comes up to three-quarters of the black carbon particulate pollution that reaches the West Coast.
Where does it end – when does it change? How about now – isn’t that enough damage now?
Buzz builds around electric cars as Nissan plans debut
06-21-2010 by AFP
TOKYO, June 20, 2010 (AFP) – As the Gulf of Mexico disaster casts an ugly spotlight on the pitfalls of global oil dependency, Japan’s auto giants are moving into high gear in a drive to mass-market electric cars. Nissan, Honda and Toyota are among car-makers now gambling that electric vehicles (EVs) with their zero tailpipe emissions will catch on and, some time in the future, start to drive traditional gas-guzzlers off the road.
If their bet pays off, green car proponents say, it could ring in a revolution that changes the very idea of what an automobile is, turning cars into electric appliances that drive smoothly, cleanly and silently. US President Barack Obama called last Tuesday for a “national mission” to develop clean energy, speaking from the White House as gushing crude oil kept fuelling his country’s worst environmental catastrophe. “The tragedy unfolding on our coast is the most painful and powerful reminder yet that the time to embrace a clean energy future is now,” he said in a sombre prime-time telecast.
Battery-powered cars will be a crucial part of that future, manufacturers promise, even as critics point to tough hurdles — including higher sticker prices and ‘range anxiety’ — to gaining wide consumer acceptance. An EV’s energy consumption and carbon footprint are determined by the way its battery is charged — meaning it can effectively be powered by anything
from fossil fuel or nuclear plants to hydro, wind or solar energy. A critical question will be whether sufficiently large networks of electric re-charging stations are built — a chicken-and-egg question that has long held back the development of EVs, analysts say.
Cars that can be charged like a cellphone by plugging them into a wall socket, preferably during overnight off-peak hours, promise to shield consumers from volatile petrol prices and be cheaper in the long run. Another benefit is that they emit none of the tailpipe pollutants that have covered the skies over cities from Los Angeles to Mumbai in smog. Their efficiency is boosted because they are lighter, have motors that directly power wheels, preserving energy otherwise lost in transmission, and because the battery charge is topped up by regenerative braking.
Bullish Nissan, part-owned by Renault of France, will in December roll out its Leaf — short for Leading Environmentally Friendly, Affordable Family car — as the world’s first mass-produced electric car. The five-seater hatchback has a top speed above 140 kilometres (90 miles) per hour, a range of 160 kilometres (100 miles) and can be recharged in eight hours, or rapid-charged to 80 percent of capacity in 30 minutes. “We do believe this car is a game-changer in terms of this technology, and it will play a role in the future,” Simon Thomas, Nissan’s senior vice president of sales and marketing, said in London last month.
Nissan plans to sell 50,000 EVs in the United States, Japan and Europe per year in 2011 and 2012 and then 500,000 units in 2013. It predicts that by 2020 electric cars will account for 10 percent of the global auto market.
Japan enthusiasts drive electric car 1,000 kilometres
Although experts foresee revolutionary change, they disagree on the pace. “This could be a new industrial revolution,” said Mamoru Kato, analyst at Tokai Tokyo Research Center. “With EVs, you will no longer need traditional auto parts makers. Carmakers will essentially become electronics makers.”
At home Nissan will go head-to-head with Mitsubishi Motors which launched its all electric “i-MiEV” compact a year ago. Toyota, which has for more than a decade sold petrol-electric hybrids such as the Prius, has promised to launch its own electric car by 2012. Last month it bought a 50-million-dollar stake in Tesla Motors, a Palo Alto, California start-up that in 2004 began developing its Roadster, a boutique, “highway-ready” electric sports car with a range of about 245 miles. The Silicon Valley firm this year also bought the former NUMMI factory in Fremont, California which until recently made Toyota’s Corolla and Tacoma vehicles, to build its Model S sedan and future Tesla vehicles.
Some industry players may leapfrog to EVs, PriceWaterhouseCooper said in a recent report, pointing to the “changing geography of the automotive industry”. “Chinese automakers, for example, understand it will behoove them to focus on developing electric vehicles rather than committing major resources to catching up on internal combustion engine standards,” it said. In many countries, electric charging networks are now being built.
The company Better Place has built up EV infrastructure in Denmark and Israel where drivers can either recharge or swap batteries, focusing on customers such as government agencies and taxi fleets. Nissan says it has partnered with 50 groups and communities around the world, from Australia’s capital Canberra to parts of England, to introduce EVs with subsidies and benefits such as dedicated highway lanes. California is shaping up as the US test-bed for EVs, with the government offering rebates and backing a network of more than 5,000 charging stations, set to be up and running by 2012.
My Note –
Over the weekend when I watched a little of FoxNews and earlier today in one of the CNN stories – I noticed they discussed the release of 38 pelicans that had been rescued and cleaned of oil – they were flown out to Texas and released. However, in both coverage – there were statements that some 693 birds have been rescued with 42 released, and neither broadcast mentioned that 934 birds were “rescued” dead.
That and the other numbers –
Which are far from complete.
From the Deepwater Horizon Incident Response site – under the tab on the top bar for Current Ops – the second entry is game and wildlife reports –
This one is from today –
Birds – Collected Dead – 934
Birds – Collected Alive – 693
Total Collected – Birds – 1627 (number cleaned and released – 42)
Sea Turtles – Collected Dead – 380
(some died later after being collected alive)
Sea Turtles – Collected Alive -114
Total Collected – Sea Turtles -494 (number cleaned and released – 3)
Mammals (dolphins particularly) – Collected Dead – 46
Mammals (dolphins particularly) – Collected Alive – 4
Total Collected – Mammals (Dolphins) – 50 (cleaned and released – 1)
Not including in these numbers the one young adult sperm whale collected dead a few days ago and multitudes of the other marine animals dead, dying or covered with oil and affected by the toxic poisons of the dispersants.
And the fact that shrimp beds, oyster beds and similar fishing grounds are now dead and covered with oil, in Louisiana and throughout the Gulf of Mexico where the oil spill has impacted them.
The State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic [SOCAR] is the state-owned oil and natural gas corporation in Azerbaijan. It produces oil and natural gas, operates two oil refineries and the running of oil and gas pipelines through out the country. After going through several reorganizations and re-namings during the Soviet period, the national oil companies merge in just one new company in 1992: SOCAR.
The Exxon mobil Kawasaki refinery in Tokio is another big one of Exxon Mible with a production of 592.000 bpd. Other major oil refineries in the world are the PDVSA Amuay refinery in Venezuela with 580.000 bpd, the Exxonmobil Baytown Refinery, in Texas, USA with a production of 557.000 bpd:
The Exxon Mobile Baton Rouge refinery in the USA with 493.500 bpd.
This is a list of oil refineries. The Oil and Gas Journal also publishes a worldwide list of refineries annually in a country-by-country tabulation that includes for each refinery: location, crude oil daily processing capacity, and the size of each process unit in the refinery. For the U.S., the refinery list is further categorized state-by-state. The list usually appears in one of their December issues. It is about 45 pages in length and is updated each year with additions, deletions, name changes, capacity changes, etc.
|Name of Refinery||Location||Barrels per Day|
|Reliance Jamnagar Complex (RIL)||Jamnagar, India||1,240,000|
|Paraguana Refining Complex (CRP)||Amuay and Cardón, Venezuela||940,000|
|SK Energy Ulsan Refinery (SK Energy)||South Korea||840,000|
|Yeosu Refinery (GS Caltex)||South Korea||700,000|
|Jurong Island Refinery (ExxonMobil)||Singapore||605,000|
|Baytown Refinery (ExxonMobil)||Baytown, TX, USA||572,500|
|Ras Tanura Refinery (Saudi Aramco)||Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia||525,000|
|S-Oil Ulsan Refinery (S-Oil)||South Korea||520,000|
|ExxonMobil||Baton Rouge, LA, USA||503,000|
|Hovensa LLC||Virgin Islands||495,000|
|BP Texas City||Texas City TX, USA||475,000|
|Mina Al-Ahmadi Refinery, KNPC||Kuwait||470,000|
|Pulau Bukom Refinery (Shell)||Singapore||458,000|
|Marathon Petroleum Company||Garyville LA, USA||436,000|
|Citgo Lake Charles||Lake Charles LA, USA||429,500|
|Shell Pernis Refinery||Netherlands||416,000|
|BP Whiting Refinery||Whiting IN, USA||410,000|
|BP Rotterdam Refinery||Rotterdam, Netherlands||400,000|
|Saudi Aramco Yanbu Refinery||Yanbu, KSA||400,000|
|Rabigh Refinery (Saudi Aramco)||Saudi Arabia||400,000|
|Angarsk Petrochemical Refinery (Rosneft)||Angarsk, Russia||384,000|
|Omsk Refinery (Gazprom Neft)||Omsk, Russia||380,000|
|Novo-Ufa Refinery (Bashneft)||Russia||380,000|
|REPLAN (Petrobras)||Paulínia, SP Brazil||365,000|
|Total Refinery Antwerp||Belgium||360,000|
|Beaumont Refinery (ExxonMobil)||Beaumont TX, USA||348,500|
|Cilacap Refinery (Pertamina)||Indonesia||348,000|
|Fawley Southampton Refinery (ExxonMobil)||Southampton, United Kingdom||347,000|
|Negishi Yokahama Refinery (Nippon Oil Corporation)||Japan||340,000|
|Kirishi Refinery (Surgutneftegas)||Kirishi, Russia||337,000|
|Sunoco ([])||South Philadelphia PA, USA||335,000|
|Kawasaki Refinery (TonenGeneral Sekiyu/ExxonMobil)||Japan||335,000|
|Chevron (Reliance Industries India undertaken)||Pascagoula MS, USA||330,000|
|Deer Park Shell-PEMEX Partnership||Deer Park TX, USA||329,800|
|Valero||Port Arthur TX, USA||325,000|
|LINOS Refinery (TNK-BP)||Ukraine||320,000|
|ConocoPhillips||Wood River IL, USA||306,000|
|Sarroch (Saras)||Sardinia, Italy||300,000|
|Saint John Refinery (Irving Oil)||Saint John NB, Canada||300,000|
|Refinería PEMEX Ing. Antonio Dovalí Jaime||Salina Cruz OA, México||290,0003|
|Flint Hills Resources||Corpus Christi TX, USA||288,000|
|Motiva Port Arthur Refinery||Port Arthur TX, USA||285,0004|
|RLAM (Petrobras)||Mataripe BA, Brazil||279,000|
|Refinería PEMEX Manuel Hidalgo||Tula HI, México||273,000|
|BP-Carson Refinery||Carson CA, USA||265-275,000|
|ConocoPhillips Lake Charles Refinery||Westlake LA, USA||248,000|
|Refinería PEMEX Ing. Antonio M. Amor||Salamanca GJ, México||246,000|
|Chevron Richmond Refinery||Richmond CA, USA||240,000|
|Motiva Convent Refinery (built by Texaco)||Convent LA, USA||235,000|
|BP Cherry Point Refinery||Cherry Point WA, USA||225,000|
|Motiva New Orleans Refining Co||NORCO LA, USA||220,000|
|Refinería PEMEX Héctor R Lara Sosa||Cadereyta NL, México||275,000|
|ConocoPhillips Ponca City Refinery||Ponca City OK, USA||187,000|
|Sunoco Marcus Hook Plant||Marcus Hook PA, USA||178,000|
|Refinería PEMEX Gral. Lázaro Cárdenas||Minatitlán VE, México||170,000|
|BP Toledo||Oregon OH, USA||155,000|
|Refinería PEMEX Francisco I. Madero||Ciudad Madero TM, México||149,000|
|Sunoco Toledo||Toledo OH, USA||140,000|
|Holly Refinery5||West Tulsa OK, USA||125,000|
|Sunoco Sarnia Refinery||Sarnia ON, Canada||80,000|
1. The Reliance I & Reliance II are adjacent to each other and is the world’s largest refinery at a single site. Consisting of 1.2 m capacity.
2. Prior to the damage sustained in the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) the refinery has a capacity of 628,000 bbl/d (99,800 m3/d).
3. Some of Petróleos Mexicanos’ six facilities have begun to operate at unpredictable fractions of a larger rated capacity. This is the public information current to pemex.com (Spanish version) in summer 2010.
4. Motiva has completed three out of a five year development cycle that will expand the refinery by 325,000 bpd to a net capacity of at least 600,000 bpd. Motiva is a JV of Saudi and Royal Dutch Shell divisions.
5. This combined the Sunoco nee Sunray DX operation with the Sinclair refineries separate up to 2009.
- Tuscaloosa Refinery (Hunt Refining Company), Tuscaloosa 52,000 bbl/d (8,300 m3/d)
- Saraland Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Saraland 80,000 bbl/d (13,000 m3/d)
- Mobile Refinery (Gulf Atlantic Refining & Marketing), Mobile 16,700 bbl/d (2,660 m3/d)
- Kenai Refinery (Tesoro), Kenai 72,000 bbl/d (11,400 m3/d)
- Valdez Refinery (Petro Star), Valdez 50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)
- North Pole Refinery (Petro Star), North Pole 17,000 bbl/d (2,700 m3/d)
- Kuparuk Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Kuparuk 14,400 bbl/d (2,290 m3/d)
- North Pole Refinery (Flint Hills Resources), North Pole 210,000 bbl/d (33,000 m3/d)
- Prudhoe Bay Refinery (BP), Prudhoe Bay 12,500 bbl/d (1,990 m3/d)
- El Dorado Refinery (Lion Oil), El Dorado 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d)
- Smackover Refinery (Cross Oil), Smackover 6,800 bbl/d (1,080 m3/d)
- Bakersfield Refinery (Big West), Bakersfield, 66,000 bbl/d (10,500 m3/d)
- Bakersfield Refinery (Kern Oil), Bakersfield, 25,000 bbl/d (4,000 m3/d)
- Bakersfield Refinery (San Joaquin Refining Company), Bakersfield, 24,300 bbl/d (3,860 m3/d)
- Benicia Refinery (Valero), Benicia, 144,000 bbl/d (22,900 m3/d)
- Carson Refinery (BP), Carson, 260,000 bbl/d (41,000 m3/d)
- El Segundo Refinery (Chevron), El Segundo, 260,000 bbl/d (41,000 m3/d)
- Golden Eagle Refinery (Tesoro), near Martinez, 166,000 bbl/d (26,400 m3/d)
- Long Beach Refinery (Edgington Oil Company), Long Beach, 26,000 bbl/d (4,100 m3/d)
- Martinez Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Martinez, 154,900 bbl/d (24,630 m3/d)
- Oxnard Refinery (Tenby Inc), Oxnard, 2,800 bbl/d (450 m3/d)
- Paramount Refinery (Paramount Petroleum), Paramount, 50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)
- Richmond Refinery (Chevron), Richmond, 242,901 bbl/d (38,618.2 m3/d)
- Rodeo San Francisco Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Rodeo, 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Santa Maria Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Santa Maria, 41,800 bbl/d (6,650 m3/d)
- Santa Maria Refinery (Greka Energy), Santa Maria, 9,500 bbl/d (1,510 m3/d)
- South Gate Refinery (Lunday Thagard), South Gate, 8,500 bbl/d (1,350 m3/d)
- Torrance Refinery (ExxonMobil), Torrance, 149,000 bbl/d (23,700 m3/d)
- Wilmington Asphalt Refinery (Valero), Wilmington, 5,900 bbl/d (940 m3/d)
- Wilmington Refinery (Tesoro), Wilmington, 133,100 bbl/d (21,160 m3/d)
- Wilmington Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Wilmington, 98,500 bbl/d (15,660 m3/d)
- Wilmington Refinery (Valero), Wilmington, 149,000 bbl/d (23,700 m3/d)
- Savannah Refinery (NuStar), Savannah (Asphalt Refinery) 28,000 bpd
- Douglasville Refinery (Young Refining), Douglasville — shutdown 07/04
- Kapolei Refinery (Tesoro), Kapolei 93,500 bbl/d (14,870 m3/d)
- Hawaii Refinery (Chevron), Kapolei 54,000 bbl/d (8,600 m3/d)
- Lemont Refinery (Citgo), Romeoville 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- Joliet Refinery (ExxonMobil), Joliet 238,000 bbl/d (37,800 m3/d)
- Robinson Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Robinson 215,000 bbl/d (34,200 m3/d)
- Wood River Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Wood River 306,000 bbl/d (48,700 m3/d)
- Whiting Refinery (BP), Whiting 405,000 bbl/d (64,400 m3/d)
- Mount Vernon Refinery (Countrymark Co-op), Mount Vernon 23,000 bbl/d (3,700 m3/d)
- Coffeyville Refinery (Coffeyville Resources LLC), Coffeyville 112,000 bbl/d (17,800 m3/d)
- El Dorado Refinery (Frontier Oil), El Dorado 120,000 bbl/d (19,000 m3/d)
- McPherson Refinery (NCRA), McPherson 81,200 bbl/d (12,910 m3/d)
- Catlettsburg Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Catlettsburg 222,000 bbl/d (35,300 m3/d)
- HDG International Group Refinery, Perry 195,500 bbl/d (31,080 m3/d)
- Somerset Refinery, Somerset 5,500 bbl/d (870 m3/d)
- Alliance Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Belle Chasse 250,000
- Baton Rouge Refinery (ExxonMobil), Baton Rouge 503,000 bbl/d (80,000 m3/d)
- Chalmette Refinery (Chalmette Refining LLC, joint venture of ExxonMobil and PDVSA), Chalmette 193,000 bbl/d (30,700 m3/d)
- Convent Refinery (Motiva Enterprises), Convent 255,000 bbl/d (40,500 m3/d)
- Cotton Valley Refinery (Calumet Lubricants), Cotton Valley 13,000 bbl/d (2,100 m3/d)
- Garyville Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), near Garyville 436,000 bbl/d (69,300 m3/d)
- Krotz Springs Refinery (Alon), Krotz Springs 85,000 bbl/d (13,500 m3/d)
- Lake Charles Refinery (Calcasieu Refining), Lake Charles 30,000 bbl/d (4,800 m3/d)
- Lake Charles Refinery (Citgo), Lake Charles 425,000
- Lake Charles Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Westlake 247,000
- Meraux Refinery (Murphy Oil), Meraux 125,000 bbl/d (19,900 m3/d)
- Norco Refinery (Motiva Enterprises), Norco 242,000 bbl/d (38,500 m3/d)
- Port Allen Refinery (Placid Refining), Port Allen 48,500 bbl/d (7,710 m3/d)
- Princeton Refinery (Calumet Lubricants), Princeton 8,300 bbl/d (1,320 m3/d)
- Shreveport Refinery (Calumet Lubricants), Shreveport 35,000 bbl/d (5,600 m3/d)
- St. Charles Refinery (Valero), Norco 260,000 bbl/d (41,000 m3/d)
- Pine Bend Refinery (Flint Hills Resources), Rosemount 265,000 bbl/d (42,100 m3/d)
- St. Paul Park Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), St. Paul Park 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d)
- Lumberton Refinery (Hunt Southland Refining), Lumberton 5,800 bbl/d (920 m3/d)
- Pascagoula Refinery (Chevron), Pascagoula 325,000 bbl/d (51,700 m3/d)
- Vicksburg Refinery (Ergon), Vicksburg 23,000 bbl/d (3,700 m3/d)
- Rogerslacy Refinery (Hunt Southland Refining), Sandersville 11,000 bbl/d (1,700 m3/d)
- Billings Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Billings 58,000 bbl/d (9,200 m3/d)
- Billings Refinery (ExxonMobil), Billings 60,000 bbl/d (9,500 m3/d)
- Montana Refining Company (Connacher Oil & Gas Limited), Great Falls 9,500 bbl/d (1,510 m3/d)
- Laurel Refinery (Cenex), Laurel 55,000 bbl/d (8,700 m3/d)
- Bayway Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Linden 230,000 bbl/d (37,000 m3/d)
- Eagle Point Refinery (Sunoco), Westville 145,000 bbl/d (23,100 m3/d)
- Paulsboro Asphalt Refinery (NuStar), Paulsboro 51,000 bbl/d (8,100 m3/d)
- Paulsboro Refinery (Valero), Paulsboro 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- Perth Amboy Refinery (Chevron), Perth Amboy 80,000 bbl/d (13,000 m3/d)
- Port Reading Refinery (Hess), Port Reading 62,000 bbl/d (9,900 m3/d)
- Artesia Refinery (Holly Corporation via Navajo Refining), Artesia 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Bloomfield Refinery (Western Refining), Bloomfield 16,800 bbl/d (2,670 m3/d)
- Gallup Refinery (Western Refining), Gallup 26,000 bbl/d (4,100 m3/d)
- Lovington Refinery (Holly Corporation), Lovington
- Canton Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Canton 73,000 bbl/d (11,600 m3/d)
- Lima Refinery (Husky Energy), Lima 158,400 bbl/d (25,180 m3/d)
- Toledo Refinery (BP/Husky Oil), Toledo 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- Toledo Refinery (Sunoco), Toledo 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- Ardmore Refinery (Valero), Ardmore 74,700 bbl/d (11,880 m3/d)
- Ponca City Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Ponca City 194,000 bbl/d (30,800 m3/d)
- Tulsa Refinery (Sinclair Oil), Tulsa 70,300 bbl/d (11,180 m3/d)
- Tulsa Refinery (Holly Corporation), Tulsa 83,200 bbl/d (13,230 m3/d)
- Wynnewood Refinery, Wynnewood 71,700 bbl/d (11,400 m3/d)
- Ventura Refining and Transmission, Thomas 14,000 bbl/d (2,200 m3/d)
- Bradford Refinery (American Refining Group), Bradford 10,000 bbl/d (1,600 m3/d)
- Marcus Hook Refinery (Sunoco), Marcus Hook 175,000 bbl/d (27,800 m3/d)
- Philadelphia Refinery (Sunoco), Philadelphia 335,000 bbl/d (53,300 m3/d)
- Penreco (Calumet), Karns City
- Trainer Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Trainer 185,000 bbl/d (29,400 m3/d)
- Warren Refinery, United Refining Company, Warren 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d)
- Wamsutta Oil Refinery (historical), McClintocksville
- Hess oil Refinery
- Baytown Refinery (ExxonMobil), Baytown 557,000 bbl/d (88,600 m3/d)
- Big Spring Refinery (Alon USA), Big Spring 61,000 bbl/d (9,700 m3/d)
- Beaumont Refinery (ExxonMobil), Beaumont 348,500 bbl/d (55,410 m3/d)
- Borger Refinery (ConocoPhillips/EnCana), Borger 146,000 bbl/d (23,200 m3/d)
- Corpus Christi Complex (Flint Hills Resources), Corpus Christi 288,000 bbl/d (45,800 m3/d)
- Corpus Christi Refinery (Citgo), Corpus Christi 156,000 bbl/d (24,800 m3/d)
- Corpus Christi West Refinery (Valero), Corpus Christi 142,000 bbl/d (22,600 m3/d)
- Corpus Christi East Refinery (Valero), Corpus Christi 115,000 bbl/d (18,300 m3/d)
- Deer Park Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Deer Park 333,700 bbl/d (53,050 m3/d)
- El Paso Refinery (Western Refining), El Paso 120,000 bbl/d (19,000 m3/d)
- Houston Refinery (Lyondell), Houston 270,200 bbl/d (42,960 m3/d)
- Houston Refinery (Valero), Houston 83,000 bbl/d (13,200 m3/d)
- Independent Refinery (Stratnor), Houston 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- McKee Refinery (Valero), Sunray 158,300 bbl/d (25,170 m3/d)
- Pasadena Refinery (Petrobras), Pasadena 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Port Arthur Refinery (Total), Port Arthur 233,500 bbl/d (37,120 m3/d)
- Port Arthur Refinery (Motiva Enterprises), Port Arthur 285,000 bbl/d (45,300 m3/d)
- Port Arthur Refinery (Valero), Port Arthur 325,000 bbl/d (51,700 m3/d)
- Penreco (Calumet), Houston
- San Antonio Refinery (Age Refining), San Antonio 10,300 bbl/d (1,640 m3/d)
- Sweeny Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Sweeny 229,000 bbl/d (36,400 m3/d)
- Texas City Refinery (BP), Texas City 460,000 bbl/d (73,000 m3/d)
- Texas City Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Company), Texas City 72,000 bbl/d (11,400 m3/d)
- Texas City Refinery (Valero), Texas City 210,000 bbl/d (33,000 m3/d)
- Three Rivers Refinery (Valero), Three Rivers 90,000 bbl/d (14,000 m3/d)
- Tyler Refinery (Delek Refining Ltd.), Tyler 55,000 bbl/d (8,700 m3/d)
- North Salt Lake Refinery (Big West Oil), North Salt Lake 35,000 bbl/d (5,600 m3/d)
- Salt Lake City Refinery (Chevron), Salt Lake City 45,000 bbl/d (7,200 m3/d)
- Salt Lake City Refinery (Tesoro), Salt Lake City 58,000 bbl/d (9,200 m3/d)
- Woods Cross Refinery (Holly Corporation), Woods Cross 26,000 bbl/d (4,100 m3/d)
- Woods Cross Refinery (Silver Eagle Refining), Woods Cross 10,200 bbl/d (1,620 m3/d)
- Tesoro Anacortes Refinery (Tesoro), Anacortes 108,000 bbl/d (17,200 m3/d)
- Shell Anacortes Refinery (Shell Oil Company), Anacortes 145,000 bbl/d (23,100 m3/d)
- Cherry Point Refinery (BP), Blaine 225,000 bbl/d (35,800 m3/d)
- ConocoPhillips Ferndale Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Ferndale 105,000 bbl/d (16,700 m3/d)
- Tacoma Refinery (U.S. Oil and Refining), Tacoma 35,000 bbl/d (5,600 m3/d)
- Cheyenne Refinery (Frontier Oil), Cheyenne 52,000 bbl/d (8,300 m3/d)
- Evanston Refinery (Silver Eagle Refining), Evanston 3,000 bbl/d (480 m3/d)
- Evansville Refinery (Little America Refining), Evansville 24,500 bbl/d (3,900 m3/d)
- Newcastle Refinery (Wyoming Refining), Newcastle 12,500 bbl/d (1,990 m3/d)
- Sinclair Refinery (Sinclair Oil), Sinclair 66,000 bbl/d (10,500 m3/d)
- Minatitlan Refinery (Pemex) 167,000 bpd
- Cadereyta Refinery (Pemex) 217,000 bpd
- Tula Refinery (Pemex) 290,000 bpd
- Salamanca Refinery (Pemex) 192,000 bpd
- Ciudad Madero Refinery (Pemex) 152,000 bpd
- Salina Cruz Refinery (Pemex) 227,000 bpd
- Haydar Aliev Refinery (SOCAR), 200,000 bbl/d (32,000 m3/d)
- Azerineftyag Refinery (SOCAR), 239,000 bbl/d (38,000 m3/d)
- Mozyr Refinery, (Slavneft), 95,000 bbl/d (15,100 m3/d)
- Novopolotsk Refinery, (Naftan),  88,000 bbl/d (14,000 m3/d)
- Total Antwerp Refinery, (Total), 360,000 bbl/d (57,000 m3/d)
- ExxonMobil Antwerp Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 333,000 bbl/d (52,900 m3/d)
- Antwerp N.V. Refinery, (Petroplus), 35,000 bbl/d (5,600 m3/d)
- BRC Antwerp (Petroplus), 115,000 bbl/d (18,300 m3/d)
- Sisak Refinery, (INA Group), 61,000 bbl/d (9,700 m3/d)
- Rijeka Refinery, (INA Group), 102,000 bbl/d (16,200 m3/d)
- Kralupy Refinery, (Ceská Rafinérská), 55,000 bbl/d (8,700 m3/d)
- Litvinov Refinery, (Ceská Rafinérská), 120,000 bbl/d (19,000 m3/d)
- Pardubice Refinery, (PARAMO – www.paramo.cz), 15,000 bbl/d (2,400 m3/d)
- Kalundborg Refinery, (Statoil), 110,000 bbl/d (17,000 m3/d)
- Fredericia Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 68,000 bbl/d (10,800 m3/d)
- Porvoo Refinery, (Neste Oil Oyj), 206,000 bbl/d (32,800 m3/d)
- Naantali Refinery, (Neste Oil Oyj), 58,000 bbl/d (9,200 m3/d)
- Gonfreville l’Orcher Refinery, (Total), 343,000 bbl/d (54,500 m3/d)
- Provence Refinery, (Total), 155,000 bbl/d (24,600 m3/d)
- Flandres Refinery, (Total), 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- Donges Refinery, (Total), 231,000 bbl/d (36,700 m3/d)
- Feyzin Refinery, (Total), 119,000 bbl/d (18,900 m3/d)
- Grandpuits Refinery, (Total), 99,000 bbl/d (15,700 m3/d)
- Port Jérôme-Gravenchon Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 270,000 bbl/d (43,000 m3/d)
- Fos-sur-Mer Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 140,000 bbl/d (22,000 m3/d)
- Reichstett Refinery, (Petroplus), 77,000 bbl/d (12,200 m3/d)
- Petit Couronne Refinery, (Petroplus), 142,000 bbl/d (22,600 m3/d)
- Berre L’Etang Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 80,000 bbl/d (13,000 m3/d)
- Lavera Marseilles Refinery, (Ineos), 220,000 bbl/d (35,000 m3/d)
- Fort de France Refinery, (Total), 0 bbl/d (0 m3/d)
- Schwedt Refinery (PCK Raffinerie(Shell/PDVSA/BP/AET), 210,000 bbl/d (33,000 m3/d)
- Ingolstadt Refinery (Bayernoil(OMV/Agip/PDVSA/BP)), 262,000 bbl/d (41,700 m3/d)
- Ingolstadt Refinery (Petroplus), 110,000 bbl/d (17,000 m3/d)
- Ruhr Öl Refinery (PDVSA/BP), 246,000 bbl/d (39,100 m3/d)
- Buna SOW Leuna Refinery (Total), 222,000 bbl/d (35,300 m3/d)
- Wilhelmshaven Refinery (ConocoPhillips), 300,000 bbl/d (48,000 m3/d)
- Rheinland Werk Godorf Cologne Refinery (Royal Dutch Shell), 190,000 bbl/d (30,000 m3/d)
- Rheinland Werk Wesseling Cologne Refinery (Royal Dutch Shell), 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- Mineralölraffinerie Karlsruhe Refinery (MiRo(Shell/ExxonMobil/PDVSA/BP/Conoco)) 285,000 bpd
- Burghausen Refinery (OMV) 70,000 bpd
- Mitteldeutschland Spergau Refinery (Total) 227,000 bpd
- Emsland Lingen Refinery (BP) 80,000 bpd
- Elbe Mineralölwerke Hamburg-Harburg Refinery (Royal Dutch Shell)
- Erdölwerk Holstein Heide Refinery (Royal Dutch Shell)
http://www.mwv.de/Raffinerien.html External list
- Aspropyrgos Refinery, (Hellenic Petroleum), 135,000 bbl/d (21,500 m3/d)
- Elefsina Refinery, (Hellenic Petroleum), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Thessaloniki Refinery, (Hellenic Petroleum), 66,500 bbl/d (10,570 m3/d)
- Corinth Refinery, (Motor Oil Hellas), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Esso Trecate, Novara Refinery, (ExxonMobil 74.1%/ERG 25.9%), 200,000 bbl/d (32,000 m3/d)
- Esso Augusta Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 190,000 bbl/d (30,000 m3/d)
- Sarroch Refinery, (Saras SPA), 300,000 bbl/d (48,000 m3/d)
- Rome Refinery, (Total 77.5%/ERG 22.5%), 90,000 bbl/d (14,000 m3/d)
- Falconara Marittima Ancona Refinery, (APIOIL), 85,000 bbl/d (13,500 m3/d)
- Mantova Refinery, (IESItaliana), 55,000 bbl/d (8,700 m3/d)
- Impianti Sud Refinery, (ISAB ERG), 214,000 bbl/d (34,000 m3/d)
- Impianti Nord Refinery, (ISAB ERG), 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- Milazzo Refinery, (ENI/KNPC) 80,000 bpd
- Sannazzaro de’ Burgondi Refinery, (ENI) 160,000 bpd
- Gela Refinery, (ENI) 100,000 bpd
- Taranto Refinery, (ENI) 90,000 bpd
- Livorno Refinery, (ENI) 84,000 bpd
- Porto Marghera Venice Refinery, (ENI) 70,000 bpd
- Cremona Refiney, (Tamoil) 80,000 bpd
- Iplom  Busalla, Genoa
- Slagen Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 110,000 bbl/d (17,000 m3/d)
- Mongstad Refinery, (StatoilHydro), 200,000 bbl/d (32,000 m3/d)
- Plock Refinery, (PKN Orlen), 276,000 bbl/d (43,900 m3/d)
- Gdansk Refinery, (Grupa LOTOS), 210,000 bbl/d (33,000 m3/d), (processing capacity after second distillation startup in 1Q2010).
- Czechowice Refinery, (Grupa LOTOS), 12,000 bbl/d (1,900 m3/d), crude oil processing terminated 1Q2006.
- Trzebinia Refinery, (PKN Orlen), 4,000 bbl/d (640 m3/d)
- Jaslo Oil Refinery , (Grupa LOTOS), 3,000 bbl/d (480 m3/d), crude oil processing terminated 4Q2008.
- Jedlicze Refinery, (PKN Orlen), 2,800 bbl/d (450 m3/d)
- Glimar Refinery, (bankrupt), 3,400 bbl/d (540 m3/d), all operations (incl. crude oil processing) terminated 2005.
- Porto Refinery, (Galp Energia), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Sines Refinery, (Galp Energia), 200,000 bbl/d (32,000 m3/d)
- Arpechim Refinery Piteşti, (Petrom/OMV), 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d)
- Astra Refinery, (Interagro), closed for preservation , 20,000 bbl/d (3,200 m3/d)
- Petrobrazi Refinery Ploieşti, (Petrom/OMV), 90,000 bbl/d (14,000 m3/d)
- Petromidia Constanţa Refinery, (Rompetrol), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Petrotel Lukoil Refinery Ploieşti, (LUKOIL), 68,000 bbl/d (10,800 m3/d)
- Petrolsub Suplacu de Barcău Refinery, (Petrom/OMV), 15,000 bbl/d (2,400 m3/d)
- RAFO Oneşti, (Calder A), 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d)
- Steaua Romană Câmpina Refinery, (Omnimpex Chemicals), 15,000 bbl/d (2,400 m3/d)
- Vega Ploieşti Refinery, (Rompetrol), 20,000 bbl/d (3,200 m3/d)
Refineries with capacity more than 20,000 bbl/d (3,200 m3/d)
- Syzran Refinery, (Rosneft), 213,400 bbl/d (33,930 m3/d)
- Novokuibyshevsk Refinery, (Rosneft), 191,500 bbl/d (30,450 m3/d)
- Kuibyshev Oil Refinery, (Rosneft), 139,800 bbl/d (22,230 m3/d)
- Salavatnefteorgsintez Refinery, (Gazprom, Salavat), 250,000 bbl/d (40,000 m3/d)
- Volgograd Refinery, (LUKOIL), 193,000 bbl/d (30,700 m3/d)
- Ukhta Refinery, (LUKOIL), 72,000 bbl/d (11,400 m3/d)
- Perm Refinery, (LUKOIL), 235,000 bbl/d (37,400 m3/d)
- NORSI-oil, (LUKOIL, Kstovo), 292,000 bbl/d (46,400 m3/d)
- Ryazan Refinery, (TNK-BP), 253,000 bbl/d (40,200 m3/d)
- Orsk Refinery, (Russneft), 159,000 bbl/d (25,300 m3/d)
- Saratov Refinery, (TNK-BP), 108,000 bbl/d (17,200 m3/d)
- Moscow Refinery, (Gazprom Neft/Central Fuel Company/Tatneft), 213,000 bbl/d (33,900 m3/d)
- Kirishi Refinery, (Surgutneftegas), 337,000 bbl/d (53,600 m3/d)
- YaNOS Yaroslavl Refinery, (Slavneft), 132,000 bbl/d (21,000 m3/d)
- Krasnodar Refinery, (Russneft), 58,000 bbl/d (9,200 m3/d)
- Tuapse Refinery, (Rosneft), 85,000 bbl/d (13,500 m3/d)
- Nizhnekamsk Refinery, (TAIF), 14,000 bbl/d (2,200 m3/d)
- Ufa Refinery, (Bashneft), 190,000 bbl/d (30,000 m3/d)
- Novo-Ufa Refinery, (Bashneft), 380,000 bbl/d (60,000 m3/d)
- Ufaneftekhim Refinery, (Bashneft), 250,000 bbl/d (40,000 m3/d)
- Achinsk Refinery, (Rosneft), 131,000 bbl/d (20,800 m3/d)
- Angarsk Petrochemical Refinery, (Rosneft), 384,000 bbl/d (61,100 m3/d)
- Khabarovsk Refinery, (Alliance), 85,000 bbl/d (13,500 m3/d)
- Komsomolsk Refinery, (Rosneft), 120,000 bbl/d (19,000 m3/d)
- Nizhnevartovsk Refinery, (TNK-BP), 25,100 bbl/d (3,990 m3/d)
- Omsk Refinery, (Gazprom Neft), 380,000 bbl/d (60,000 m3/d)
- Slovnaft Bratislava Refinery, (MOL), 110,000 bbl/d (17,000 m3/d)
- Petrochema Dubová Refinery, (russian investors), http://www.petrochema.sk/english/index_en.htm
- Bilbao Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 220,000 bbl/d (35,000 m3/d)
- Puertollano Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 140,000 bbl/d (22,000 m3/d)
- Tarragona Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d)
- a Coruna Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 120,000 bbl/d (19,000 m3/d)
- Cartagena Refinery, (Repsol YPF), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Tenerife Refinery, (CEPSA), 90,000 bbl/d (14,000 m3/d)
- Palos de la Frontera Refinery, (CEPSA), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Gibraltar-San Roque Refinery, (CEPSA), 240,000 bbl/d (38,000 m3/d)
- Castellon Refinery, (BP), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Nynaeshamn Refinery (Nynäs Petroleum), 90,000 bbl/d (14,000 m3/d)
- Preemraff Göteborg (Preem), 125,000 bbl/d (19,900 m3/d)
- Preemraff Lysekil (Preem), 210,000 bbl/d (33,000 m3/d)
- Shell Göteborg Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d)
- Cressier Refinery, (Petroplus), 68,000 bbl/d (10,800 m3/d)
- Collombey-Muraz Refinery, (Tamoil), 45,000 bbl/d (7,200 m3/d)
- Shell Pernis Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 416,000 bbl/d (66,100 m3/d)
- Botlek (ExxonMobil) Rotterdam, 195,000 bbl/d (31,000 m3/d)
- Total Refinery Netherlands – Vlissingen, (Total/LUKoil), 158,000 bbl/d (25,100 m3/d)
- Europoort, (BP), 400,000 bbl/d (64,000 m3/d)
- Q8-KPE Refinery Europoort, (Q8–Kuwait Petroleum Company), 80,000 bbl/d (13,000 m3/d)
- Central Anatolian Refinery, (Tüpraş), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Izmit Refinery, (Tüpraş), 226,000 bbl/d (35,900 m3/d)
- Aliaga Refinery, (Tüpraş), 200,000 bbl/d (32,000 m3/d)
- Batman Refinery, (Tüpraş), 22,000 bbl/d (3,500 m3/d)
- Odessa Refinery, (LUKOIL), 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d)
- LINOS Refinery, (TNK-BP), 320,000 bbl/d (51,000 m3/d)
- Kherson Refinery, (Alliance), 36,000 bbl/d (5,700 m3/d)
- Kremenchug Refinery, (Ukrtatnafta) 368,500 bpd
- Drogobych Refinery, (Pryvat) 40,000 bpd
- Neftekhimik Prikarpatya Nadvirna Refinery, (Pryvat) 39,000 bpd
- Lindsey Oil Refinery, (Total), 223,000 bbl/d (35,500 m3/d)
- Milford Haven Refinery, (Murco), 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)
- Pembroke Refinery, (Chevron), 220,000 bbl/d (35,000 m3/d)
- Stanlow Refinery, (Royal Dutch Shell), 246,000 bbl/d (39,100 m3/d)
- Teesside Refinery, (Petroplus), 117,000 bbl/d (18,600 m3/d)
- Fawley Southampton Refinery, (ExxonMobil), 347,000 bbl/d (55,200 m3/d)
- Humber Refinery, (ConocoPhillips), 221,000 bbl/d (35,100 m3/d)
- Coryton Refinery, (Petroplus), 208,000 bbl/d (33,100 m3/d)
- Grangemouth Refinery, (Innovene – part of Ineos and formerly BP), 205,000 bbl/d (32,600 m3/d)