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http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/

June 1, 2010 – EPA official information about the oil spill findings –

Air Data >>
EPA’s air monitoring conducted through May 30, 2010, has found that air quality levels for ozone and particulates are normal on the Gulf coastline for this time of year.

EPA has observed odor-causing pollutants associated with petroleum products along the coastline at low levels. Some of these chemicals may cause short-lived effects like headache, eye, nose and throat irritation, or nausea. People may be able to smell some of these chemicals at levels well below those that would cause short-term health problems.

Water Data >>
Most of the water samples collected May 20 through 26, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

One sample, collected May 21 along the coast of Louisiana, found nickel, a chemical associated with oil. This sample exceeded long-term water quality benchmarks. At these levels nickel may cause risk to aquatic life.

Sediment

Sediment Data >>
The sediment samples collected through May 16, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/

Oil plume and pollutants coming from BP well pipes in the Gulf of  Mexico -Oil plume and pollutants coming from BP well pipes in the Gulf of Mexico –

***

The Gold Book

Quality Criteria for Water, 1986 (PDF) (477 pp., 4.6 MB) May 1986

The Red Book

Quality Criteria for Water, 1976 (PDF) (534 pp., 6.2 MB) July 1976

Chemical Specific Criteria Documents from the 1980s

Water Quality Standards | Drinking Water | Research and Development

(from)

http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/wqctable/index.html

***

My Note –

Any chance that water in which animals and birds die would indicate to the EPA that it is toxic and lethal – and that those waters include dangerous pollutant chemicals? You know, like the petroleum and oil mixed dispersants and dispersants – all of which are known to be toxic chemicals and lethal. You can’t drink it without dying – you can’t sniff fumes from any petroleum products without brain damage and lung damage and liver damage and maybe dying – how could the EPA tests monitoring the air and water quality not show any of what we know about these dangerous substances that petroleum is and absolutely is – and not show anything dangerous in their samples – how could they give a clean bill of health to places polluted with known toxic chemicals?

That is a betrayal of trust and mission given to the EPA – bit of illegal here and there as well. And it is in violation of federally mandated laws and regulations about water quality, air quality, pollution, and massive spills of pollutants, as well.

It looks like it is time to get the attorney generals of the states along the Gulf Coast to hold the EPA accountable for disseminating lies and falsehoods about the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that will directly and permanently damage the health and well-being of their citizens before things get any worse.

And, I don’t care what the “new” OSHA crap says or the EPA and BP air and water monitoring – these chemical hazards are there in that water and in that air and in that sediment. It is lethal and toxic. It is killing the animals, the marine wildlife, the birds, the sea turtles and other aquatic life and it will kill more people if they don’t stop dicking around with the pretense that it is safe when it is not and sending people out without the proper protective breathing gear, breathing protection, respirators, chemical gas masks and eye protection. And, telling people the truth about it.

– cricketdiane, 06-02-10

***

Laws & Regulations


Laws

Top of Page


Regulations

Top of Page


Federally proposed or promulgated standards

Listed in chronological order, newest first.

http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/standards/rules/

**

But what do we do when the water looks like this –

Water Data >>
Most of the water samples collected May 20 through 26, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

One sample, collected May 21 along the coast of Louisiana, found nickel, a chemical associated with oil. This sample exceeded long-term water quality benchmarks. At these levels nickel may cause risk to aquatic life.

http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/

louisiana-oil-spill_100406 - This is what the EPA says is clean  water with no evidence of petroleum or crude oil or petroleum chemicals  in it according to their tests - from the Gulf of Mexico oil spill -  June 1, 2010louisiana-oil-spill_100406 – This is what the EPA says is clean water with no evidence of petroleum or crude oil or petroleum chemicals in it according to their tests – from the Gulf of Mexico oil spill – June 1, 2010

http://wyld-side.blogspot.com/2010/05/gulf-oil-spill-new-orleans-talk-radio.html

***

Gulf of Mexico oil spill - EPA and British Petroleum water quality  tests show no sign of crude oil - petroleum - dangerous chemicals - or  chemicals found in crude oil - June 1, 2010Gulf of Mexico oil spill – EPA and British Petroleum water quality tests show no sign of crude oil – petroleum – dangerous chemicals – or chemicals found in crude oil – June 1, 2010 – EPA says this is clean water without chemical hazards – no danger – no fumes from petroleum / gasoline smelling fumes – nothing here of danger

Water Data >>
Most of the water samples collected May 20 through 26, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

One sample, collected May 21 along the coast of Louisiana, found nickel, a chemical associated with oil. This sample exceeded long-term water quality benchmarks. At these levels nickel may cause risk to aquatic life.

Sediment

Sediment Data >>
The sediment samples collected through May 16, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/

and EPA claims this –

http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/

June 1, 2010 – EPA official information about the oil spill findings –

Air Data >>
EPA’s air monitoring conducted through May 30, 2010, has found that air quality levels for ozone and particulates are normal on the Gulf coastline for this time of year.

EPA has observed odor-causing pollutants associated with petroleum products along the coastline at low levels. Some of these chemicals may cause short-lived effects like headache, eye, nose and throat irritation, or nausea. People may be able to smell some of these chemicals at levels well below those that would cause short-term health problems.

Water Data >>
Most of the water samples collected May 20 through 26, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

One sample, collected May 21 along the coast of Louisiana, found nickel, a chemical associated with oil. This sample exceeded long-term water quality benchmarks. At these levels nickel may cause risk to aquatic life.

Sediment

Sediment Data >>
The sediment samples collected through May 16, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/

Oil plume and pollutants coming from BP well pipes in the Gulf of  Mexico -Oil plume and pollutants coming from BP well pipes in the Gulf of Mexico –

***

About petroleum fumes / gasoline fumes / petroleum derivatives and petroleum chemical fumes – diesel fuel fumes –

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inhalant_abuse

Classification

Inhalants can be classified by the intended function. Most inhalant drugs that are used non-medically are ingredients in household or industrial chemical products that are not intended to be concentrated and inhaled. A small number of recreational inhalant drugs are pharmaceutical products that are used illicitly.

Inhalants can also be classified by chemical structure.[3] Classes include:

Category ICD-10 Examples Example image
aliphatic hydrocarbons T52.0 petroleum products (gasoline and kerosene), propane, butane Butane-2D-Skeletal.svg
aromatic hydrocarbons T52.1T52.2 toluene, xylene Toluol.svg
ketones T52.4 acetone (nail polish remover) Acetone-2D-skeletal.svg
haloalkanes T53. hydrofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbon, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (including many aerosols and propellants) 1,1,1-trichloroethane-2D-skeletal.png
nitrites T59.0, T65.3, T65.5 alkyl nitrites (poppers such as amyl nitrite), nitrous oxide Nitrite-ester-2D.png

It is also possible to classify inhalants by the effect they have on the body. Many inhalants act primarily as asphyxiant gases, with their primary effect due to oxygen deprivation.[4] Other agents may have more direct effects at receptors.

Some gases such as propane and butane gases are inhaled directly from the canister. Once these solvents or gases are inhaled, the extensive capillary surface of the lungs rapidly absorb the solvent or gas, and blood levels peak rapidly. The intoxication effects occur so quickly that the effects of inhalation can resemble the intensity of effects produced by intravenous injection of other psychoactive drugs.[7]

The effects of solvent intoxication can vary widely depending on the dose and what type of solvent or gas is inhaled. A person who has inhaled a small amount of rubber cement or paint thinner vapor may be impaired in a manner resembling alcohol inebriation. A person who has inhaled a larger quantity of solvents or gases, or a stronger chemical, may experience stronger effects such as distortion in perceptions of time and space, hallucinations, and emotional disturbances.

In the short term, many users experience headache, nausea and vomiting, slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, and wheezing. A characteristic “glue sniffer’s rash” around the nose and mouth is sometimes seen after prolonged use.

General risks of all agents in inhalant class

In some cases, inhalant users can be injured or killed due to the effects of inhaling solvents or gases, which can cause hypoxia (lack of oxygen), pneumonia, cardiac failure or arrest[6], or aspiration of vomit. The inhaling of some solvents can cause hearing loss, limb spasms, and damage to the central nervous system and brain.[6] Serious but potentially reversible effects include liver and kidney damage and blood oxygen depletion. Death from inhalants is generally caused by a very high concentration of fumes. Deliberately inhaling solvents from an attached paper or plastic bag or in a closed area greatly increases the chances of suffocation. Brain damage is typically seen with chronic long term use as opposed to short term exposure.[13]

There is some evidence of birth defects and disabilities in babies born to women who sniffed solvents such as gasoline. Driving while using solvents presents the same dangers as other types of impaired driving because many solvents cause an alcohol-type intoxication.

In the short term, death from solvent abuse occurs most commonly from aspiration of vomit while unconscious, or from a combination of respiratory depression and hypoxia, the second cause being especially a risk with heavier than air vapors such as butane or gasoline vapor. Deaths typically occur from complications related to excessive sedation and vomiting. Actual overdose from the drug does occur, however, and indeed inhaled solvent abuse is statistically more likely to result in life-threatening respiratory depression than intravenous use of opiates such as heroin. Most deaths from solvent abuse could be prevented if individuals were resuscitated quickly when they stopped breathing and their airway cleared if they vomited. However, most inhalant abuse takes place when people inhale solvents by themselves or in groups of people who are intoxicated. Certain solvents are more hazardous than others, such as gasoline.

Risks associated with specific agents

The hypoxic effect of inhalants can cause damage to many organ systems (particularly the brain, which has a very low tolerance for oxygen deprivation) but there can also be additional toxicity resulting from either the physical properties of the compound itself, or additional ingredients present in a product.

  • Carbon tetrachloride can cause significant damage to multiple systems, but its association with liver damage is so strong, it is used in animal models to induce liver injury.[17]

Toxicity may also result from the pharmacological properties of the drug; excess NMDA antagonism can completely block calcium influx into neurons and provoke cell death through apoptosis, although this is more likely to be a long term result of chronic solvent abuse than a consequence of short term use.

“Sudden sniffing death”

Inhaling butane gas can cause drowsiness, narcosis, asphyxia, cardiac arrhythmia and frostbite. Butane is the most commonly misused volatile solvent in the UK, and caused 52% of solvent related deaths in 2000. By spraying butane directly into the throat, the jet of fluid can cool rapidly to –20 °C by expansion, causing prolonged laryngospasm. Some inhalants can also indirectly cause sudden death by cardiac arrest, in a syndrome known as “sudden sniffing death”[20] The anesthetic gases present in the inhalants appear to sensitize the user to adrenaline. In this state a sudden surge of adrenaline (e.g., from a frightening hallucination or run in with the law), can cause a fatal cardiac arrhythmia.[21]

Furthermore, the inhalation of any gas which is capable of displacing oxygen in the lungs (especially gasses heavier than oxygen), carries the risk of hypoxia due to the mechanism by which breathing is triggered. Since reflexive breathing results from elevated carbon dioxide levels, rather than depressed oxygen in the blood, breathing a concentrated, relatively inert gas (such as the computer-duster tetrafluoroethane, or nitrous oxide), will allow for adequate elimination of carbon dioxide from the blood, meaning that there are no outward signs of suffocation even when the brain is undergoing hypoxia. By the time the full symptoms of hypoxia appear, it may be too late to breathe without assistance, especially if the gas is heavy enough to reside in the lungs for extended periods. Even completely inert gasses, such as argon, can have this effect if oxygen is largely excluded (e.g. via a mask).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inhalant_abuse

Believe it or not – petroleum from which gasoline and half the above petroleum based chemicals are derived has the same effects.

But, you know – I can say it and say it and say it and publish the facts and where I found them – and our EPA and OSHA can still send people out into those oil covered spaces filled with toxic fumes – and what I’ve written or said doesn’t mean a damn thing.

What is shown on the news and seen around the world means absolutely nothing – if EPA and BP want to call the water clean and the air safe – then there is nothing that is capable of telling the truth and have it known – even though it denies the truth, the facts and even the photographs from the affected areas.

And, they are foisting it on an entire public community where those petroleum fumes will potentially deform the children in the wombs of the women there, will give years upon years of ill health to the families and children there being subjected to it and yield untold suffering to their spouses who have worked out in it without the simplest inexpensive breathing protections of a respirator offered by BP and at OSHA’s proper insistence.

It is the strangest nightmare that I don’t believe could ever happen in America but apparently it has happened a lot in America as we kiss the feet of these huge corporations who own us and own our nation and own our nation’s lands and resources and air and water.

There is no greater evil.

The only difference is the outside look of the gas chamber.

and that is evil – and this has more long-term suffering for hellish moments over the rest of the course of these lives and their consciousness and that of their families.

It is horrific.

– cricketdiane

But, you can’t tell ’em anything – not one solution that I’ve offered, not one fact, not one evidence of the truth – they don’t have anything to hold dear besides BP’s interests and BP’s money and the oil industry profits overall.

***

What if BP doesn’t get away with it and whatever supervisor at BP and the EPA who conducted those air and water tests whose results defy reality were fired and prosecuted?

And what if every product made by BP in any respect is left unsold around the world because the entire world knows what they’ve done to people exposing them to this toxic petroleum sewage while telling people lies about it being safe?

And what if every shareholder of BP stocks and bonds is held accountable for their full liability and the US taxpayer doesn’t pay one dime of it?

And what if everyone involved with BP including its financial backers are held accountable for the full measure of their civil, criminal, ethical and financial extended liabilities which could be required of them now rather than twenty or thirty years from now?

what if they didn’t get away with it.

What if they had to provide respirators for every single person in every community along the Gulf Coast and every single person going out anywhere in the Gulf of Mexico to work anywhere in it.

What if they had to provide a new place to live in another community with economic opportunities and safe air quality away from the Gulf of Mexico for every single town and community and family and child and woman and man who had been living there before this happened? What if BP had to pay to do that right now before those health risks make irreparable harms that require our nation to pay for those damages to people’s health and well-being.

What if they had to do that now?

What if they didn’t get away with it this time and get to keep their money for the next twenty years keeping it from the people they are currently harming?

***

what if every asset of BP Global and BP America and every subsidiary of BP were frozen and used to pay Shell Oil to come cap the damn well they can’t seem to get stopped. And pay for the real cleanup and protection of people in the areas of the Gulf Coast and have every last asset disposed of to pay out the real losses to families, towns, businesses, and the fishing and tourism industry losses along with others in the area starting right now today.

what if it is illegal to lie about a known health hazard to the people who will be permanently affected by it –

See what I found at the National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/class/class_qv.html#QV600

Organic Poisons
QV 627
Organic poisons
QV 628
Alkaloids
QV 632
Non-alkaloids
QV 633
Hydrocarbons. Volatile poisons. Solvents

***

It came from here –

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/2009/mesh_trees/N06.pdf

  1. … N6.230.132.258.108.110 D20.345. Petroleum N6.230.132.258.630 D20.345. Fuel …
  2. … 230. Coke D20.345.108.110 N6.230. Petroleum D20.345.630 N6.230. Fuel Oils D20. …

Colloids D20.280 D26.255. D27.720.
Aerosols D20.280.55 D26.255. D27.720.
Emulsions D20.280.260 D26.255. D27.720.
Gels D20.280.320 D26.255. D27.720.
Hydrogels D20.280.320.375 D26.255.
Suspensions D20.280.810 D26.255. D27.720.
Fossil Fuels D20.345 N6.230.
Coal D20.345.108 N6.230.
Coke D20.345.108.110 N6.230.
Petroleum D20.345.630 N6.230.
Fuel Oils D20.345.630.500 N6.230.
Gasoline D20.345.630.540 N6.230.
Kerosene D20.345.630.600 N6.230.

Vehicle Emissions D20.832

Smog D20.633.875
Smoke D20.633.937
Soot D20.633.937.339

Particulate Matter D20.633

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/2010/mesh_trees/D20.pdf

***

Gas Poisons. Chemical Agents
QV 662
Gas poisons and poisoning
Cf. QV 81 Anesthetic gases; QV 310 Gases used in therapy.
QV 663
Chemical agents
Classify here works on chemical agents that are toxic or otherwise harmful to humans including works that discuss the use of such agents in warfare.
QV 664
Lung irritants
(e.g., Chloropicrin. Phosgene)
Cf. QV 666 for works on irritant gases.
QV 665
Tear gases. Toxic smokes
QV 666
Irritant gases
Cf. QV 664 for general works on lung irritants.
QV 667
Systemic poisons. Paralysants

***

  1. … 4) Perchloroethylene (127-18-4) Pesticides (TBD-00000011) Petroleum hydrocarbon (TBD-00000012) Petroleum hydrocarbons (8012-95-1) Phenacetin (62-44-2) Phenanthrene ( …
    toxmap.nlm.nih.gov/toxmap/main/sfChemicals.jsp – NLM Programs and Services
  2. … nickel, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, toluene , and xylene. Total petroleum hydrocarbons is a term used to describe the several … Most exposure to crude oil is through total petroleum hydrocarbons and crude oil byproducts such as gasoline, oil …
    toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/chemicals.php?id=73 – NLM Programs and Services
  3. … Coastal Sediment Sampling Coastal Water Sampling ToxFAQs™: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry …
    sis.nlm.nih.gov/dimrc/oilspills.html – NLM Programs and Services
  4. Lewander WJ, Aleguas A Jr. Petroleum distillates and plant hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester’s Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, …
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002746.htm – Health Information – MedlinePlus
  5. Lewander WJ, Aleguas A Jr. Petroleum distillates and plant hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester’s Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, …
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002753.htm – Health Information – MedlinePlus
  6. … contain oxygen and are synthesized from other chemicals. Hydrocarbon solvents contain hydrogen and are derived mainly from petroleum. Halogenated solvents contain one or more of the …
    toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/chemicals.php?id=28 – NLM Programs and Services
  7. Benzene is a clear, liquid, petroleum-based chemical that has a sweet smell. Benzene poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in, or touches benzene. This is for …
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002720.htm – Health Information – MedlinePlus
  8. Asphalt is a brownish-black liquid petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. This is for information only and not for …
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002752.htm – Health Information – MedlinePlus
  9. Petroleum distillates … Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester’s Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: …
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002907.htm – Health Information – MedlinePlus
  10. … Cruciate Ligament Cruciferae see Brassicaceae Crude Oil see Petroleum Cruor see Postmortem Changes Crush Syndrome Kidney failure …
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/class/index_c.html – NLM Programs and Services
  1. … Journalists (WFSJ) competition and ‘Schools on Board’ programs. Hydrocarbon Energy from the Arctic: Holy Grail or Pipe … Abstracts The central Labrador margin is experiencing renewed hydrocarbon exploration interests; 008 land sales commit a minimum …
  2. … Antitumour activity of diallyl sulfide on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 1998;131( …
    sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro/herbalsbibliography.pdf – NLM Programs and Services
  3. … Petrogale see Macropodidae Petrolatum, Liquid see Mineral Oil Petroleum Toxicology QV 633 Petromyzontidae see Lampreys Petrous Bone … chemistry QD 305-341 Toxicology QV 633 Polycyclic Hydrocarbons see Polycyclic Compounds Polycystic Kidney see Polycystic Kidney …
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/class/index_p.html – NLM Programs and Services
  4. … SMOKE INHALATION OR EXP SMOKE SS 6 = 5 AND PETROLEUM OR 5 AND OILS SS 7 = (TW) OIL OR OILS OR PETROLEUM SS 8 = (TW) SMOKE OR BURNING OR ALL FIRE# SS … Al-Majed N. Exposure to particle-bound polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the Al-Mansoria residential area during the …
  5. … Petrogale see Macropodidae Petrolatum, Liquid see Mineral Oil Petroleum Toxicology QV 633 Petromyzontidae see Lampreys Petrous Bone … chemistry QD 305-341 Toxicology QV 633 Polycyclic Hydrocarbons see Polycyclic Compounds Polycystic Kidney see Polycystic Kidney …
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/class/classindex.pdf – NLM Programs and Services
Water
WA 675
Water. Water supply. Sources
Include works on sanitary aspects of ice and ice making here.
WA 686
Analysis
Cf. QW 80 Water microbiology.
WA 687
Saline water conversion
WA 689
Pollution
Classify works on radioactive pollution in WN 615; general works on industrial seawater pollution in WA 788; on pollution of bathing beaches in WA 820.
WA 690
Purification

Chemical Exposure

Following the 1962 publication of Rachel Carson’s landmark book Silent Spring, environmental toxicity captured the public’s attention as a primary health threat. Carson warned people about the deadly effects of chemical pollution and her book became the catalyst for federal laws banning DDT and other harmful chemicals. In 1970, the first Earth Day and the formation of the Environmental Protection Agency set the stage for a plethora of environmental legislation on both federal and state levels. Congress approved a series of sweeping legislative measures, including the Clean Air Act (1970), the Water Pollution Control Act (1972), and the Environmental Pesticide Control Act (1972), each designed to clean up hundreds of chemicals in the environment and preclude further irreparable damage.

Hazardous chemicals also took center stage for a number of international organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), for example, was established in 1980 as a joint program of three cooperating organizations-the International Labor Organization, the United Nations Environmental Programme, and the World Health Organization-to carry out and disseminate evaluations of the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals. The IPCS evaluates the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals, provides an intergovernmental mechanism for chemical risk assessment and management, establishes the scientific basis for the safe use of chemicals, and strengthens national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety. Additionally, the IPCS designs promotional materials such as the three posters below, which illustrate the relationship between toxic chemicals, health, and the environment as part of their educational division.


Poster: Let the World Breathe This image, featuring two children playing in a stream, employs a common motif in public health posters — the photographs of children are used to evoke a feeling of responsibility or accountability in the viewer. The specific message is only conveyed clearly with the combination of image and text. The viewer is encouraged to read the poster in order to discover its meaning. Even the headline — “Let the world breathe” — is too general to communicate the central piece of advice: “Use chemicals with care to keep air fresh and water pure.” The poster encourages behavior modification by emphasizing the consequences of complacency, not for the viewer alone but for innocent children as well.

In 1961, Congress authorized President John F. Kennedy to designate the third week in March as the annual National Poison Prevention Week. The Poison Prevention Week Council was organized to coordinate this annual event and encourage local communities to raise awareness of the dangers of accidental poisoning and to take preventative measures as warranted. This IPCS poster is part of this tradition of accidental poisoning prevention. In the photograph, two children crouch beside a window, preparing to open a bottle of weed killer. One child looks back over her shoulder, evoking a sense of helplessness. The message is clearly and prominently presented above the photograph, “Children At Risk!” At the bottom of the poster, viewers are encouraged to “Store chemicals safely out of reach of children. Poster: Children At Risk!

Poster: Acceptable Daily Intake! Since the 1950s, the WHO has supported research on the safe use of food additives and the evaluation of the carcinogenic hazards presented by imperceptible chemicals present in food at very low levels. Additives are non-nutritive substances added intentionally to food, generally in small quantities, to improve its appearance, flavor, texture, or storage properties. Imperceptible chemicals include a number of environmental contaminants that may get into food from packaging or residues from the use of solvents, veterinary drugs, or pesticides. This poster uses the same motif of the two posters above, featuring a photograph of children as symbolic motivation for responsible and accountable adult behavior. When combined with the textual message that, “Food additives and pesticides should be used with care,” the photo of the children, sharing an apple and an ice cream, is designed to encourage reflection on the part of the viewer. The headline, “Acceptable Daily Intake!” refers to the amount of a particular chemical found in food that, it is believed, can be safely consumed on a daily basis over a lifetime without harm. The ADI is widely used by organizations such as the WHO as a means of achieving some uniformity of approach in regulatory control. The ADI is designed to ensure that the actual human intake of a substance is well below toxic levels.

The posters below are part of a very different kind of public health campaign inspired by toxic chemicals. Created by the Texas Prevention Partnership (TPP), which was founded in 1990 by the Entertainment Industries Council and Harvey Weiss, the posters address the alarming trend of “huffing” — the inhaling of CFCs, Freon, household cleaning products, and other toxic chemicals for a quick high. At the time, inhalant abuse was gaining popularity at a staggering rate in the state of Texas and surrounding areas. Following a massive campaign that included the distribution of bilingual posters and radio and television public service announcements, Texas saw an immediate decline in the number of deaths from inhalant abuse, and between 1990 and 1994 there was a reduction of more than 32% in elementary school inhalant use and a reduction of about 20% at the high school level.This work inspired TPP to found and lead the National Inhalant Prevention Coalition.

Poster: Sniffing Correction Fluid Can Stop Your Heart This poster is part of a series that warns adolescents about the serious dangers of inhalants. The posters use black and white photographs of representatives from the target audience, a common motif in public health advertisements. The inhalant medium, such as correction fluid, markers, or spray paints, is symbolically used to whiteout, color, or coat the part of the body damaged by the fumes. In this dimly lighted photograph, for example, the adolescent boy is distinguished by a white spot on his sweatshirt, which symbolizes the accompanying admonition, “Sniffing correction fluid can stop your heart.” The caption at the bottom of the poster warns, “If you sniff to get high, you’re inhaling poisons that do definite damage. So stop. Before your heart does.”

The adolescent boy in this photograph is distinguished by the red magic marker scribbled on his forehead. The image works effectively as a visual representation of the textual message in the title, which warns plainly, “Sniffing markers destroys your brain.” Accompanied by the caption, “Sniffing stuff like spray paint or markers can cause brain damage, lung damage, even death,” the poster succinctly and symbolically expresses the risks associated with the inhalant. Poster: Sniffing Markers Destroys Your Brain

Poster: Sniffing Spray Paint Destroys Your Lungs Repeating the motif in the series, this image features an adolescent girl whose lungs are outlined with dripping orange paint. The title, “Sniffing spray paint destroys your lungs,” is accompanied by the warning designed to challenge the misguided notion that inhalants are harmless. The caption warns, “Sniffing stuff like markers or spray paint can kill you. The first time, the second time, even the hundredth time.”

This poster is part of a series designed to introduce parents to the problem of huffing. Employing an eye-catching graphic layout that contrasts black and white photography with bright colors, the central textual message is symbolically placed over the blocked-out nose of the model, informing the viewer, “We’d like to introduce you to the cocaine of the ’90s. Your child may already be familiar.” The picture caption informs the parent, “one in four kids has done it by seventh grade” and that “anytime these products are ‘huffed,’ they can kill.” Poster: We'd Like to Introduce You To The Cocaine of the '90s

Poster: Unless You Know What to Look For The title message in this poster, covering the eyes of the model, informs parents, “Unless you know what to look for, the signs of sniffing inhalants are almost invisible.” The blackened strip over the eyes in the photograph symbolizes how parents might be blind to the problem. The picture caption identifies signs and symptoms of inhaling chemical fumes, reminding parents that one of four kids has abused them by seventh grade. The viewer is advised to “face this problem with both eyes open.”

Also designed to inform parents, the self-referential message in this poster notifies the viewer, “This ad will tell you things about sniffing inhalants your child probably won’t.” The problem with ignoring or denying the extent of the risk is represented by the blackened out title over the mouth of the model. The picture caption informs the parent about the popularity of inhaling fumes and recommends calling the toll-free phone number or asking their child, because, “They may know more than they are telling.” Poster: This Ad Will Tell You Things About Sniffing Inhalants

Environmental Health: Introduction < Lead Poisoning < Asbestos < Air Pollution < Chemical Exposure


(from)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/visualculture/chemical.html

Gasoline sniffing

Diesel fumes huffing

Petroleum distillates vapors huffing

and breathing raw crude petroleum fumes – will all yield the same results – and ya’ll were worried about terrorists dumping poison chemicals and whether you ate organic food or not – pesticides are made from the petroleum BP brings out of the ground and sea.

Huh – what about that? who’d a thought it might be a problem?

Just eat healthy, don’t smoke, go to church and work for BP sniffing gas fumes from petroleum.

– cricketdiane

By the way – why do we even have a surgeon general and national institutes of health if in the midst of the largest crude oil spill in the history of the planet and the largest poisoning of air and waters along a massive stretch of the United States – they don’t mention that the shit is dangerous?

Damn.

***

Air Pollution

During the 1960s, environmental issues began moving to the forefront of the policy-making agenda. Responding to scientific studies linking air pollution to health issues, public opinion moved Congress into action. Starting with the Clean Air Act of 1963, Congress began funding research programs on air quality problems. In 1967, the Air Quality Control Act established a system for defining standards that limited emissions, setting the stage for a larger federal role in air quality management. The Clean Air Act of 1970 allowed the newly created Environmental Protection Agency to set and enforce national air quality standards. Twice amended in 1977 and 1990, it has become one of the most complex and ambitious pieces of federal legislation dealing with any environmental issue. Its primary goal is the protection of public health from pollutants that find their way into the atmosphere. The American Lung Association (ALA), the oldest voluntary health organization in the United States, created the posters below as part of a series of broad campaigns against the health effects of air pollution. Originally founded in 1904 to fight tuberculosis, the ALA today fights lung disease in all its forms. The ALA still creates a number of extensive poster campaigns targeting environmental health, asthma, and tobacco control.


Poster: Let's Fight Air Pollution. 1977. Copyright Information:  Reprinted with permission �2003 American Lung Association. These 1977 posters illustrate two common techniques in public health advertisements: 1) using a simple photograph of a child to appeal to the adult viewer’s sense of accountability; and 2) changing the photograph and content of the poster while preserving the basic style and layout, frequently in an attempt to make a connection with different segments of the viewing population. Without reading the text, these posters featuring photographs of smiling children might address any number of topics. This is part of the attempt to catch the interest of viewers and encourage them to read the text. The message in the headline introduces the issue of air pollution and speaks to the viewer in first person plural in order to create the sense that “we’re all in this together.” The uncertain smile on the boy in the poster on the left reflects the positive but generalized message that people should do their part to fight air pollution and that their Lung Association is there to support them. The hopeful smile of the child in the poster on the right is combined with the expectation of compliance in the text. While the headline-“We all share the same air”-could reflect a message of general accountability similar to the first poster, the caption beneath the photograph targets the smoker by thanking them “for not smoking.” Even here, however, the language is suggestive and encouraging rather than domineering or condescending. Poster: We All Share the Same Air. 1977. Copyright Information:  Reprinted with permission �2003 American Lung Association.

Poster: The Air We Breathe. Circa 1980. Copyright Information:  Reprinted with permission �2003 American Lung Association. The American Lung Association created this idyllic illustrated poster as part of their environmental health education program in the 1980s. The ALA has been one of the leading public advocates for clean air and pollution control, while serving as a chief source of information and public education on the health hazards of air pollution. This illustration identifies pollution generated by factories, homes, landfills, vehicles, and individuals, with the headline reminding us that this is all part of “The Air We Breathe.” The poster offers a cautionary tale about interconnectivity, demonstrating that alongside polluting activities children can be found playing, a man fishing, livestock grazing, and people camping.

In 1985, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that toxic chemicals found in the air of almost every American home are three times more likely to cause some type of cancer than outdoor pollutants. Two years later, the Indoor Air Quality Act of 1987 was first introduced to Congress to address the pervasive problem of indoor air pollution. A number of indoor air problems were concurrently associated with “sick building syndrome”-a term used to describe situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but with no specific illness or cause identified. This poster from the ALA responds to these problems by using an anatomical illustration of “How Indoor Air Pollutants Affect the Body.” By diagramming the physiological effects of specific chemicals, this poster, funded by industrial giant Honeywell Incorporated, functions as an important educational and diagnostic tool for employers and employees alike. The anatomical imagery is used to demonstrate how the unsuspecting person can be affected by exposure to airborne pollutants. This lends a degree of scientific authority to the information provided. Poster: How Indoor Air Pollutants Affect the Body. Circa 1987.  Copyright Information: Reprinted with permission �2003 American Lung  Association.
Environmental Health: Introduction < Lead Poisoning < Asbestos < Air Pollution > Chemical Exposure

(from)

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/visualculture/air.html

***

Crude Oil en español

Crude oil is an oily liquid found in underground reservoirs that is extracted and used to make fuel and other petroleum products.

What is crude oil?

Crude oil is a dark yellow-to-black oily liquid that is usually found in natural underground reservoirs. It was formed when the remains of animals and plants from millions of years ago were covered by layers of sand. Heat and pressure from these layers turned the remains into crude oil. This process is why crude oil is called a fossil fuel. Crude oil is extracted and used to make fuel and other petroleum products.

Crude oil is a mixture of a wide variety of constituents. It consists primarily of hydrocarbons, which are chemicals composed of hydrogen and carbon. Crude oil also contains hundreds of substances that include benzene, chromium, iron, mercury, nickel, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, toluene, and xylene. Total petroleum hydrocarbons is a term used to describe the several hundred chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil.

There are four types of crude oil:
Class A: Light, Volatile Oils: These oils are highly fluid and highly toxic to humans, and include jet fuel and gasoline.
Class B: Non-Sticky Oils: These oils are waxy and less toxic to humans, and include diesel fuel and light crude oil.
Class C: Heavy, Sticky Oils: These oils are brown or black and sticky or tarry, and include most crude oils. Their toxicity is low, but if spilled, their impacts on waterfowl and wildlife can be severe.
Class D: Non-Fluid Oils: These oils are non-toxic and include heavy crude oils. They are difficult to clean up, and if spilled, their impacts on waterfowl and wildlife can be severe.

Crude oil is refined to produce gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, residential fuel oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases such as propane and other sources of energy to produce heat or electric power. It is also used to make lubricants, waxes, ink, crayons, eyeglasses, tires, CDs and DVDs, ammonia, dishwashing liquid, and some health and personal care products. The United States is the third top crude oil-producing country, after Russia and Saudi Arabia.

How might I be exposed to crude oil?

You can be exposed to crude oil if you live near an oil refinery or if there is an oil spill or leak nearby. You can be exposed if you eat contaminated seafood. Most exposure to crude oil is through total petroleum hydrocarbons and crude oil byproducts such as gasoline, oil products, heating sources, or consumer products. Everyone is exposed to total petroleum hydrocarbons from many sources.

You may be exposed to crude oil from an oil spill through tarballs at a beach or shoreline. Winds and waves can tear patches of spilled oil into smaller pieces called tarballs. Tarballs are small pieces of oil that are remnants of oil spills and can stick to rocks, sand, or marine animals. Oil contaminants may stick to the fur of pets, who can transfer the contamination to people.

You can be exposed to crude oil if you work in an oil refinery, on an oil drilling rig, or on an offshore oil facility. Exposure at work can occur through contact with the skin, ingestion, or breathing crude oil liquid, drops, or fumes.

How can crude oil affect my health?

Exposure to crude oil may irritate the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. It may cause dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, confusion, and anemia. Prolonged skin contact with crude oil may cause skin reddening, edema, and burning of the skin.

When crude oil is burned, either accidentally or as a spill control measure, it emits chemicals that affect human health. These chemicals include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide , and volatile organic compounds.

If you are exposed to burning crude oil, you may be exposed to high levels of particulate matter and may experience the health effects of particulate matter. Exposure to burning crude oil may harm the passages of the nose, airways, and lungs. It may cause shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, coughing, itching, red or watery eyes, and black mucous.

Handling tarballs may cause an allergic skin reaction or skin rashes.

If you think your health has been affected by exposure to crude oil, contact your health care professional.

For poisoning emergencies or questions about possible poisons, contact your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.
Web Links from MedlinePlus (National Library of Medicine)
Hazardous Waste

More Links
Crude Oil Spills and Health (National Library of Medicine)
Oil (Petroleum) Basics (Dept. of Energy)
Oil: Crude and Petroleum Products Explained (Dept. of Energy)
Tarballs (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) PDF Icon
Training Marine Oil Spill Response Workers Under OSHA’s Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

Locations where Crude Oil may be found
City
City
Farm
Farm
Town
Town
U.S.-Mexico Border
U.S.-Mexico Border
Port
Port
Brownfield Chemical Storage Tank Illegal Dumps and Tire Piles Beach
Chemical Storage Tank
Coastal Brownfield
Fuel Pipelines
Marina and Boats
Shellfishing
Shipping
Shipyard

Last Updated: May 17, 2010

(from – National Institutes of Health)

http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/text_version/chemicals.php?id=73

***

How can crude oil affect my health?

Exposure to crude oil may irritate the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. It may cause dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, confusion, and anemia. Prolonged skin contact with crude oil may cause skin reddening, edema, and burning of the skin.

When crude oil is burned, either accidentally or as a spill control measure, it emits chemicals that affect human health. These chemicals include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide , and volatile organic compounds.

If you are exposed to burning crude oil, you may be exposed to high levels of particulate matter and may experience the health effects of particulate matter. Exposure to burning crude oil may harm the passages of the nose, airways, and lungs. It may cause shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, coughing, itching, red or watery eyes, and black mucous.

Handling tarballs may cause an allergic skin reaction or skin rashes.

If you think your health has been affected by exposure to crude oil, contact your health care professional.

For poisoning emergencies or questions about possible poisons, contact your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

(from above)

***

CONCLUSION: Air environment polluted due to crude oil spill into sea water caused impaired lung function and this impairment was associated with dose response effect of duration of exposure to air polluted by crude oil spill into sea water.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2009;22(1):35-41.

Effect of duration of exposure to polluted air environment on lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351614

***

BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: The volatile organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX) are commonly found in petroleum derivatives and, at relatively high levels, can be associated with human health risks. Due to industrial activities, accidental petroleum spills are the main route of soil and groundwater contamination.

The volatile organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX) indoor exposure can occur through three principal pathways: inhalation, ingestion and dermal absorption.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2008 May;15(3):278-88.

Human health risks of petroleum-contaminated groundwater.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18504848

***

Institutes, Centers & Offices

Quick Links
NIH Directors
Institute and Center leaders
Mailing Addresses
for NIH Institutes and Centers

Offices

NIH Logo
The Office of the Director (OD)
The Office of the Director is the central office at NIH for its 27 Institutes and Centers. The OD is responsible for setting policy for NIH and for planning, managing, and coordinating the programs and activities of all the NIH components. OD’s program offices include the Office of AIDS Research and the Office of Research on Women’s Health, among others. more >

NIH Institutes

NCI Logo
National Cancer Institute (NCI) – Est. 1937
NCI leads a national effort to eliminate the suffering and death due to cancer. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, NCI conducts and supports research that will lead to a future in which we can prevent cancer before it starts, identify cancers that do develop at the earliest stage, eliminate cancers through innovative treatment interventions, and biologically control those cancers that we cannot eliminate so they become manageable, chronic diseases. more >

NEI logo
National Eye Institute (NEI) – Est. 1968
NEI conducts and supports research that helps prevent and treat eye diseases and other disorders of vision. This research leads to sight-saving treatments, reduces visual impairment and blindness, and improves the quality of life for people of all ages. NEI-supported research has advanced our knowledge of how the eye functions in health and disease. more >

NHLBI logo
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) – Est. 1948
NHLBI provides leadership for a national program in diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and sleep disorders. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman’s Health Initiative. The Institute plans, conducts, fosters, and supports an integrated and coordinated program of basic research, clinical investigations and trials, observational studies, and demonstration and education projects. more >

NHGRI logo
National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) – Est. 1989
NHGRI is devoted to advancing health through genome research. The Institute led NIH’s contribution to the Human Genome Project, which was successfully completed in 2003 ahead of schedule and under budget. Building on the foundation laid by the sequencing of the human genome, NHGRI’s work now encompasses a broad range of research aimed at expanding understanding of human biology and improving human health. In addition, a critical part of NHGRI’s mission continues to be the study of the ethical, legal and social implications of genome research. more >

NIA logo
National Institute on Aging (NIA) – Est. 1974
NIA leads a national program of research on the biomedical, social, and behavioral aspects of the aging process; the prevention of age-related diseases and disabilities; and the promotion of a better quality of life for all older Americans. more >

NIAAA logo
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) – Est. 1970
NIAAA conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the enormous health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. more >

NIAID logo
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) – Est. 1948
NIAID research strives to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent the myriad infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases that threaten millions of human lives. more >

NIAMS logo
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) – Est. 1986
NIAMS supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases, the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research, and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. more >

NIBIB logo
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) – Est. 2000
NIBIB improves health by promoting fundamental discoveries, design and development, and translation and assessment of technological capabilities in biomedical imaging and bioengineering, enabled by relevant areas of information science, physics, chemistry, mathematics, materials science, and computer sciences. more >

NICHD logo
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) – Est. 1962
NICHD research on fertility, pregnancy, growth, development, and medical rehabilitation strives to ensure that every child is born healthy and wanted and grows up free from disease and disability. more >

NIDCD logo
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) – Est. 1988
NIDCD conducts and supports biomedical research and research training on normal mechanisms as well as diseases and disorders of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language that affect 46 million Americans. more >

NIDCR logo
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) – Est. 1948
NIDCR provides leadership for a national research program designed to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent the infectious and inherited craniofacial-oral-dental diseases and disorders that compromise millions of human lives. more >

NIDDK logo
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) – Est. 1950
NIDDK conducts and supports basic and applied research and provides leadership for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. Several of these diseases are among the leading causes of disability and death; all seriously affect the quality of life of those who have them. more >

NIDA logo
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) – Est. 1973
NIDA leads the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction through support and conduct of research across a broad range of disciplines and rapid and effective dissemination of results of that research to improve drug abuse and addiction prevention, treatment, and policy. more >

NIEHS logo
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) – Est. 1969
NIEHS reduces the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual’s health. more >

NIGMS logo
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) – Est. 1962
NIGMS supports basic biomedical research that is not targeted to specific diseases. NIGMS funds studies on genes, proteins, and cells, as well as on fundamental processes like communication within and between cells, how our bodies use energy, and how we respond to medicines. The results of this research increase our understanding of life and lay the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. NIGMS also supports research training programs that produce the next generation of biomedical scientists, and it has special programs to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue biomedical research careers. more >

NIMH logo
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) – Est. 1949
NIMH provides national leadership dedicated to understanding, treating, and preventing mental illnesses through basic research on the brain and behavior, and through clinical, epidemiological, and services research. more >

NINDS logo
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) – Est. 1950
The mission of the NINDS is to reduce the burden of neurological diseases — a burden borne by every age group, every segment of society, and people all over the world. To accomplish this goal the NINDS supports and conducts research, both basic and clinical, on the normal and diseased nervous system, fosters the training of investigators in the basic and clinical neurosciences, and seeks better understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of neurological disorders. more >

NINR logo
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) – Est. 1986
NINR supports clinical and basic research to establish a scientific basis for the care of individuals across the life span–from the management of patients during illness and recovery to the reduction of risks for disease and disability; the promotion of healthy lifestyles; the promotion of quality of life in those with chronic illness; and the care for individuals at the end of life. This research may also include families within a community context, and it also focuses on the special needs of at-risk and under-served populations, with an emphasis on health disparities. more >

NLM logo
National Library of Medicine (NLM) – Est. 1956
NLM collects, organizes, and makes available biomedical science information to scientists, health professionals, and the public. The Library’s Web-based databases, including PubMed/Medline and MedlinePlus, are used extensively around the world. NLM conducts and supports research in biomedical communications; creates information resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, toxicology, and environmental health; and provides grant and contract support for training, medical library resources, and biomedical informatics and communications research. more >

NIH Centers

CIT logo
Center for Information Technology (CIT formerly DCRT, OIRM, TCB) – Est. in 1964
CIT incorporates the power of modern computers into the biomedical programs and administrative procedures of the NIH by focusing on three primary activities: conducting-computational biosciences research, developing computer systems, and providing computer facilities. more >

CSR logo
Center for Scientific Review (CSR) – Est. in 1946
CSR is the focal point at NIH for the conduct of initial peer review, the foundation of the NIH grant and award process. The Center carries out peer review of the majority of research and research training applications submitted to the NIH. In addition, the Center serves as the central receipt point for all such Public Health Service (PHS) applications and makes referrals to scientific review groups for scientific and technical merit review of applications and to funding components for potential award. To this end, the Center develops and implements innovative, flexible ways to conduct referral and review for all aspects of science. more >

FIC logo
John E. Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences (FIC) – Est. in 1968
FIC promotes and supports scientific research and training internationally to reduce disparities in global health. more >

NCCAM logo
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) – Est. in 1999
NCCAM is dedicated to exploring complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices in the context of rigorous science; training CAM researchers and disseminating authoritative information. more >

NCMHD logo
National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) – Est. in 1993
The mission of NCMHD is to promote minority health and to lead, coordinate, support, and assess the NIH effort to reduce and ultimately eliminate health disparities. In this effort NCMHD will conduct and support basic, clinical, social, and behavioral research, promote research infrastructure and training, foster emerging programs, disseminate information, and reach out to minority and other health disparity communities. more >

NCRR logo
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) – Est. in 1962
NCRR provides laboratory scientists and clinical researchers with the environments and tools they need to understand, detect, treat, and prevent a wide range of diseases. With this support, scientists make biomedical discoveries, translate these findings to animal-based studies, and then apply them to patient-orientated research. more >

CC logo
NIH Clinical Center (CC) – Est. in 1953
CC is the clinical research facility of the National Institutes of Health. As a national resource, it provides the patient care, services, and environment needed to initiate and support the highest quality conduct of and training in clinical research. more >

(from)

http://www.nih.gov/icd/

***

Petroleum Statistics

(2008 data except where noted)

Supply

U.S. Petroleum Production (crude oil, NGPL, and other oils) 6,734,000 barrels/day
U.S. Crude Oil Production
4,950,000 barrels/day
U.S. Crude Oil Imports
9,783,000 barrels/day
U.S. Petroleum Product Imports
3,132,000 barrels/day
U.S. Net Petroleum Imports
11,114,000 barrels/day
Dependence on Net Petroleum Imports
57%
Top U.S. Crude Oil Supplier
Canada — 1,956,000 barrels/day
Top U.S. Total Petroleum Supplier
Canada — 2,493,000 barrels/day
U.S. Crude Oil Imports from OPEC
5,954,000 barrels/day
U.S. Petroleum Product Imports from OPEC
540,000 barrels/day
State Ranking of Crude Oil Production Texas — 1,087,000 barrels/day
Top U.S. Producing Companies, Appendix A, p. 8
BP — 654,000 barrels/day (2007)
Top U.S. Oil Fields by Production, Appendix B, Table B1
Prudhoe Bay, AK (2007)
Top Oil Producing Countries & Exporters
#1 — Saudi Arabia (10,782,000 barrels/day)
Top Oil Consuming Countries & Importers
#1 — United States (19,498,000 barrels/day)

Consumption and Disposition

U.S. Petroleum Consumption
19,498,000 barrels/day
U.S. Motor Gasoline Consumption
8,989,000 barrels/day (378 million gallons/day)
Share of U.S. Oil Consumption for Transportation
71%
U.S. Total Petroleum Exports
1,802,000 barrels/day

Prices

Crude Oil Domestic First Price (wellhead price)
$94.04/barrel
Motor Gasoline Retail Prices (U.S. City Average)
$3.32/gallon
Regular Grade Motor Gasoline Retail Prices (U.S. City Average)
$3.27/gallon
Premium Motor Gasoline Retail Prices (U.S. City Average)
$3.52/gallon
Federal Motor Gasoline Tax
18.4 cents/gallon
U.S. Average Home Heating Oil Price
$3.22/gallon (excluding taxes)

Refining and Reserves

Number of U.S. Operable Petroleum Refineries
150
U.S. Refiners Ranked Capacity (1/1/2009) #1 — Baytown, Texas (ExxonMobil) 572,500 barrels/day
Top U.S. Petroleum Refining States #1 — Texas 4,689,179 barrels/day
U.S. Proved Reserves of Crude Oil as of December 31, 2007
21,317 million barrels
U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve
702 million barrels (2008)

International

Total World Oil Production
85,472,000 barrels/day
Total World Petroleum Consumption
85,534,000 barrels/day
Retail Gasoline Price in Selected Countries (2008) (regular unleaded, $/gallon)
  • Germany
  • Japan
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • United States
  • China
  • Mexico
$7.75
$5.74
$4.45
$4.08
$3.27
$3.11
$2.45

Measures

Gallons of Oil per Barrel
42
Barrels of Oil per Metric Ton (U.S.)
7.33

(from)

http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=oil_home#tab2

***

My Note –

Wonder what it might be if its true that 70,000 barrels a day or more actually came from that well over the course of 43 days?

Hmmmm…… – how many tonnes is that?

42 gallons per barrel

or

7.33 barrels of oil per metric ton (US)

x 43 days

And is BP still using 5,000 barrels to decide how many parts per billion of petroleum oil / crude oil / hydrocarbons are being measured at the water where the oil is gushing out into the Gulf of Mexico? Is that how BP is able to measure clean water there?

Yep – bet so.

– cricketdiane

HMMMM.

how is it the math team arrived at 12,000 – 19,000 barrels a day?

Hmmmm….

how much were they influenced by what that would mean when BP has to pay a fine per gallon? or per barrel? or per day per barrel?

they ought to determine those volumes based on the square mileage where the slick has been covering over the course of various days in expansiveness and the three-dimensional volumes that have been located with the addition of known quantities emanating from video using mechanical mathematics and equations for volume estimations as the professor from Purdue used – now that all the video feeds and archives from the very beginning of the oil gushers (three or more of them) have been made available. And then dump the BP executives in the dead marshes and see if they find any oil there to add to the calculations – just on general principles.

– cricketdiane, 06-02-10

Oh wait, that’s right – the National Institutes of Health are busy worrying about where they can get us to stop having such fat butts – they can’t be bothered with fumes from petroleum poisoning mass numbers of people and killing animals and birds and causing health damages to the unborn and the new born and the children and the families along the Gulf Coast – they have more important things to do like taxing the sugar in our colas so we’ll stop drinking the stuff like that which is so bad for our health and making us fat.

Yep, that’s the important thing.

***

Its just a little oil in a big ocean like Tony Hayward explained to us and there’s no oil plumes under the surface of the sea and no fumes that require respirators or masks and the toxic dispersants COREXIT products aren’t toxic and there aren’t more than a couple birds with a little oil on their wings. And what’s a cup of oil on the beach or in a marsh somewhere.

Even Dougie Suttles of BP says there is no evidence of crude oil in any serious measure in the water samples at the place in the ocean where their pipes are blowing out oil like the clouds of a volcano explosively covering tens of thousands of gallons a day and maybe more for forty three days – but none of that shows up in their tests – so it isn’t there.

– and even OSHA and the EPA agree with BP and say there is no need to have protection from the chemicals of the petroleum in the air and in the water – because their tests show there aren’t any chemicals in the air or the water just like BP said and no danger to any workers with their faces down in the grasses covered in crude oil in the marshes of Louisiana wiping them off with paper towels.

Now, let’s see – I’m crazy and poor and don’t have a college degree and am certified mentally delusional. And they live on top of the world with the finest of everything and make millions upon millions of dollars personally every single year with education from the finest colleges and universities in the world. And everybody agrees with them and cowers before them and hovers on their every word as if it is from the very word of God and everybody in our government agencies supposed to protect us – including the EPA and OSHA and MMS and the Department of the Interior, and the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health and the CDC agree with them. So, I must be wrong and I must be delusional and I must be just having another crazy episode thinking I know any thing about it. They are rich and well-received. I am not. They have everything. I own nothing. They are considered sane. I’m not.

So, they must be right – except that they’re not. And they keep being proven wrong. And they keep being proven to be liars. And they keep doing things that are endangering people. And, there really are over 500 birds dead and over 244 sea turtles dead, and many other animals,, fish and birds dead and dying. And people have been killed by them – eleven this time, fifteen another time – and I don’t know how many more – but people are getting sick from it now and some of them will also die and some miscarriages will happen because of breathing the vapors from the petroleum and dispersant and being exposed to it in the air and when their husbands come home from work with it on them and more and more people working in it will have permanent damage from it.

But, what could I possibly know.

– cricketdiane

***

And I never even thought to cheat, steal and con people out of millions and billions of dollars like Goldman Sachs and Lehman and AIG and Citigroup and Bank of America and hedge funds and Bernie Madoff. What could I possibly have worthy of respect when they have been given respect even after people have known what they did and suffered those losses personally and collectively?

What could I possibly know.

***

http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/

June 1, 2010 – EPA official information about the oil spill findings –

Air Data >>
EPA’s air monitoring conducted through May 30, 2010, has found that air quality levels for ozone and particulates are normal on the Gulf coastline for this time of year.

EPA has observed odor-causing pollutants associated with petroleum products along the coastline at low levels. Some of these chemicals may cause short-lived effects like headache, eye, nose and throat irritation, or nausea. People may be able to smell some of these chemicals at levels well below those that would cause short-term health problems.

Water Data >>
Most of the water samples collected May 20 through 26, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

One sample, collected May 21 along the coast of Louisiana, found nickel, a chemical associated with oil. This sample exceeded long-term water quality benchmarks. At these levels nickel may cause risk to aquatic life.

Sediment

Sediment Data >>
The sediment samples collected through May 16, 2010 along the Gulf coast did not reveal elevated levels of chemicals usually found in oil.

http://www.epa.gov/bpspill/

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Gulf of Mexico oil spill - EPA and British Petroleum water quality   tests show no sign of crude oil - petroleum - dangerous chemicals - or   chemicals found in crude oil - June 1, 2010Gulf of Mexico oil spill – EPA and British Petroleum water quality tests show no sign of crude oil – petroleum – dangerous chemicals – or chemicals found in crude oil – June 1, 2010 – EPA says this is clean water without chemical hazards – no danger – no fumes from petroleum / gasoline smelling fumes – nothing here of danger

Oil plume and pollutants coming from BP well pipes in the Gulf of   Mexico -Oil plume and pollutants coming from BP well pipes in the Gulf of Mexico –
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