, , , , , ,

Emergency and Spill Response Preparedness

EI Oil Tanker

For the past 35 years, the API has worked cooperatively with the U.S. Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency bringing together industry experts to share information and discuss problems and solutions regarding oil spills as part of its biennial “International Oil Spill Conferences.” Many API members participated in the formation and continued activities of the “Marine Spill Response Corporation” and the “Great Lakes Spill Prevention Initiative.” Along the Gulf of Mexico, employees from several companies participate in annual beach and coastal clean-ups.

ExxonMobil supported the establishment of a network of worldwide industry-supported oil spill response organizations that are on call 24 hours a day, 365 days a year around the world and strategically located around the world near major airports to facilitate the rapid transportation of equipment and experts to spill sites. Alyeska Pipeline spends over $60 million annually on oil spill prevention and response in Prince William Sound, and has over 300 dedicated personnel assigned to this effort, mostly through its Ship Escort/Response Vessel System (SERVS).


Petroleum Trade Association – American Petroleum Institute


(also on this page – the portals to some of the main organizations that provide oil spill response that the oil companies are paying to be members, in order to satisfy the EPA and MMS Response to Preparations regulations of the US Federal government legislation, my note – cricketdiane)

Crisis Management and Emergency Response
ConocoPhillips is a member of the tier three oil spill response organizations that cover the regions of the world in which it operates. Membership in these cooperatives extends company access to resources both equipment and trained personnel – that can provide immediate emergency assistance.

International Oil Spill Response Centers
ExxonMobil has supported the establishment of a network of worldwide industry-supported oil spill response organizations. information can also be obtained from the IPIECA web site under OSR publications Tier 3 Centers or from the US Marine Spill Response Corporation website at www.msrc.org.




2007 CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances




’05 CAS #
1 ARSENIC 1672.58 1 007440-38-2
2 LEAD 1534.07 2 007439-92-1
3 MERCURY 1504.69 3 007439-97-6
4 VINYL CHLORIDE 1387.75 4 000075-01-4
5 POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS 1365.78 5 001336-36-3
6 BENZENE 1355.96 6 000071-43-2
7 CADMIUM 1324.22 8 007440-43-9
9 BENZO(A)PYRENE 1312.45 9 000050-32-8
10 BENZO(B)FLUORANTHENE 1266.55 10 000205-99-2
11 CHLOROFORM 1223.03 11 000067-66-3
12 DDT, P,P’- 1193.36 12 000050-29-3
13 AROCLOR 1254 1182.63 13 011097-69-1
14 AROCLOR 1260 1177.77 14 011096-82-5
15 DIBENZO(A,H)ANTHRACENE 1165.88 15 000053-70-3
16 TRICHLOROETHYLENE 1154.73 16 000079-01-6
17 DIELDRIN 1150.91 17 000060-57-1
18 CHROMIUM, HEXAVALENT 1149.98 18 018540-29-9
19 PHOSPHORUS, WHITE 1144.77 19 007723-14-0
20 CHLORDANE 1133.21 21 000057-74-9
21 DDE, P,P’- 1132.49 20 000072-55-9
22 HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE 1129.63 22 000087-68-3
23 COAL TAR CREOSOTE 1124.32 23 008001-58-9
24 ALDRIN 1117.22 25 000309-00-2
25 DDD, P,P’- 1114.83 24 000072-54-8
26 BENZIDINE 1114.24 26 000092-87-5
27 AROCLOR 1248 1112.20 27 012672-29-6
28 CYANIDE 1099.48 28 000057-12-5
29 AROCLOR 1242 1093.14 29 053469-21-9
30 AROCLOR 1091.52 62 012767-79-2
31 TOXAPHENE 1086.65 30 008001-35-2
32 HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE, GAMMA- 1081.63 32 000058-89-9
33 TETRACHLOROETHYLENE 1080.43 31 000127-18-4
34 HEPTACHLOR 1072.67 33 000076-44-8
35 1,2-DIBROMOETHANE 1064.06 34 000106-93-4
36 HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE, BETA- 1060.22 37 000319-85-7
37 ACROLEIN 1059.07 36 000107-02-8
38 DISULFOTON 1058.85 35 000298-04-4
39 BENZO(A)ANTHRACENE 1057.96 38 000056-55-3
40 3,3′-DICHLOROBENZIDINE 1051.61 39 000091-94-1
41 ENDRIN 1048.57 41 000072-20-8
42 BERYLLIUM 1046.12 40 007440-41-7
43 HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE, DELTA- 1038.27 42 000319-86-8
44 1,2-DIBROMO-3-CHLOROPROPANE 1035.55 43 000096-12-8
45 PENTACHLOROPHENOL 1028.01 45 000087-86-5
46 HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE 1027.12 44 001024-57-3
47 CARBON TETRACHLORIDE 1023.32 46 000056-23-5
48 AROCLOR 1221 1018.41 47 011104-28-2
49 COBALT 1015.57 50 007440-48-4
50 DDT, O,P’- 1014.71 49 000789-02-6
51 AROCLOR 1016 1014.33 48 012674-11-2
52 DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE 1007.49 52 000084-74-2
53 NICKEL 1005.40 55 007440-02-0
54 ENDOSULFAN 1004.65 54 000115-29-7
55 ENDOSULFAN SULFATE 1003.56 53 001031-07-8
56 DIAZINON 1002.08 57 000333-41-5
57 ENDOSULFAN, ALPHA 1001.30 58 000959-98-8
58 XYLENES, TOTAL 996.07 59 001330-20-7
59 CIS-CHLORDANE 995.08 51 005103-71-9
60 DIBROMOCHLOROPROPANE 994.87 60 067708-83-2
61 METHOXYCHLOR 994.47 61 000072-43-5
62 BENZO(K)FLUORANTHENE 981.26 63 000207-08-9
63 ENDRIN KETONE 978.99 64 053494-70-5
64 TRANS-CHLORDANE 973.99 56 005103-74-2
65 CHROMIUM(VI) OXIDE 969.58 66 001333-82-0
66 METHANE 959.78 67 000074-82-8
67 ENDOSULFAN, BETA 959.19 65 033213-65-9
68 AROCLOR 1232 955.64 68 011141-16-5
69 ENDRIN ALDEHYDE 954.86 69 007421-93-4
70 BENZOFLUORANTHENE 951.48 70 056832-73-6
71 TOLUENE 947.50 71 000108-88-3
72 2-HEXANONE 942.02 72 000591-78-6
73 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN 938.11 73 001746-01-6
74 ZINC 932.89 74 007440-66-6
75 DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID 922.06 75 000075-60-5
76 DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE 919.02 76 000117-81-7
77 CHROMIUM 908.52 77 007440-47-3
78 NAPHTHALENE 896.67 78 000091-20-3
79 1,1-DICHLOROETHENE 891.19 79 000075-35-4
80 METHYLENE CHLORIDE 888.96 81 000075-09-2
81 AROCLOR 1240 888.11 80 071328-89-7
82 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE 883.59 82 000118-96-7
83 BROMODICHLOROETHANE 870.00 83 000683-53-4
84 HYDRAZINE 864.41 85 000302-01-2
85 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE 863.99 84 000107-06-2
86 2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL 863.71 86 000088-06-2
87 2,4-DINITROPHENOL 860.45 87 000051-28-5
88 BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER 859.88 88 000111-44-4
89 THIOCYANATE 849.21 89 000302-04-5
90 ASBESTOS 841.54 90 001332-21-4
91 CHLORINE 840.37 92 007782-50-5
93 HEXACHLOROBENZENE 838.34 93 000118-74-1
94 2,4-DINITROTOLUENE 837.88 96 000121-14-2
95 RADIUM-226 835.93 94 013982-63-3
96 ETHION 834.03 97 000563-12-2
97 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE 833.81 95 000071-55-6
98 URANIUM 833.41 98 007440-61-1
99 ETHYLBENZENE 832.13 99 000100-41-4
100 RADIUM 828.07 100 007440-14-4
101 THORIUM 825.17 101 007440-29-1
102 4,6-DINITRO-O-CRESOL 822.78 102 000534-52-1
103 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE 820.17 103 000099-35-4
104 CHLOROBENZENE 819.69 105 000108-90-7
105 RADON 817.89 104 010043-92-2
106 RADIUM-228 816.76 106 015262-20-1
107 THORIUM-230 814.72 107 014269-63-7
107 URANIUM-235 814.72 107 015117-96-1
109 BARIUM 813.46 109 007440-39-3
110 FLUORANTHENE 812.40 113 000206-44-0
111 URANIUM-234 812.11 110 013966-29-5
112 N-NITROSODI-N-PROPYLAMINE 811.05 111 000621-64-7
113 THORIUM-228 810.36 112 014274-82-9
114 RADON-222 809.78 114 014859-67-7
115 HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE, ALPHA- 809.56 116 000319-84-6
116 1,2,3-TRICHLOROBENZENE 808.41 143 000087-61-6
117 MANGANESE 807.90 115 007439-96-5
118 COAL TARS 807.07 117 008007-45-2
119 CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS 806.68 119 012001-29-5
119 STRONTIUM-90 806.68 119 010098-97-2
121 PLUTONIUM-239 806.67 118 015117-48-3
122 POLONIUM-210 806.39 122 013981-52-7
123 METHYLMERCURY 806.39 121 022967-92-6
124 PLUTONIUM-238 806.01 123 013981-16-3
125 LEAD-210 805.90 124 014255-04-0
126 PLUTONIUM 805.23 125 007440-07-5
127 CHLORPYRIFOS 804.93 125 002921-88-2
128 COPPER 804.86 133 007440-50-8
129 AMERICIUM-241 804.55 128 086954-36-1
130 RADON-220 804.54 127 022481-48-7
131 AMOSITE ASBESTOS 804.07 129 012172-73-5
132 IODINE-131 803.48 130 010043-66-0
133 HYDROGEN CYANIDE 803.08 132 000074-90-8
134 TRIBUTYLTIN 802.61 131 000688-73-3
135 GUTHION 802.32 134 000086-50-0
136 NEPTUNIUM-237 802.13 135 013994-20-2
137 CHRYSENE 802.10 139 000218-01-9
138 CHLORDECONE 801.64 136 000143-50-0
138 IODINE-129 801.64 136 015046-84-1
138 PLUTONIUM-240 801.64 136 014119-33-6
141 S,S,S-TRIBUTYL PHOSPHOROTRITHIOATE 797.88 140 000078-48-8
142 BROMINE 789.15 142 007726-95-6
143 POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS 789.11 141 067774-32-7
144 DICOFOL 787.56 144 000115-32-2
145 PARATHION 784.14 145 000056-38-2
146 1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE 782.15 146 000079-34-5
147 SELENIUM 778.98 147 007782-49-2
148 774.91 148 000608-73-1
149 TRICHLOROFLUOROETHANE 770.74 149 027154-33-2
150 TRIFLURALIN 770.12 150 001582-09-8
151 DDD, O,P’- 768.73 151 000053-19-0
152 4,4′-METHYLENEBIS(2-CHLOROANILINE) 766.66 152 000101-14-4
153 HEXACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN 760.42 153 034465-46-8
154 HEPTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN 754.47 154 037871-00-4
155 PENTACHLOROBENZENE 753.58 155 000608-93-5
156 1,3-BUTADIENE 747.31 201 000106-99-0
157 AMMONIA 745.55 156 007664-41-7
158 2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE 743.24 157 000091-57-6
159 1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE 737.32 159 000106-46-7
160 1,1-DICHLOROETHANE 736.23 158 000075-34-3
161 ACENAPHTHENE 731.25 160 000083-32-9
162 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-OCTACHLORODIBENZOFURAN 726.14 161 039001-02-0
163 1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE 724.96 162 000079-00-5
164 TRICHLOROETHANE 723.32 163 025323-89-1
165 HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE 719.01 164 000077-47-4
166 HEPTACHLORODIBENZOFURAN 718.58 165 038998-75-3
167 1,2-DIPHENYLHYDRAZINE 713.90 166 000122-66-7
168 2,3,4,7,8-PENTACHLORODIBENZOFURAN 710.71 167 057117-31-4
169 TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL 709.21 168 026914-33-0
170 CRESOL, PARA- 707.83 169 000106-44-5
171 OXYCHLORDANE 706.32 170 027304-13-8
172 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE 704.91 171 000095-50-1
173 1,2-DICHLOROETHENE, TRANS- 704.04 178 000156-60-5
174 INDENO(1,2,3-CD)PYRENE 703.30 180 000193-39-5
175 GAMMA-CHLORDENE 702.59 172 056641-38-4
176 CARBON DISULFIDE 702.55 174 000075-15-0
177 TETRACHLOROPHENOL 702.54 173 025167-83-3
178 AMERICIUM 701.62 175 007440-35-9
178 URANIUM-233 701.62 175 013968-55-3
180 PALLADIUM 700.66 177 007440-05-3
181 HEXACHLORODIBENZOFURAN 700.56 179 055684-94-1
182 PHENOL 696.96 183 000108-95-2
183 CHLOROETHANE 693.90 182 000075-00-3
184 ACETONE 693.31 181 000067-64-1
185 P-XYLENE 690.20 185 000106-42-3
186 DIBENZOFURAN 689.19 187 000132-64-9
187 ALUMINUM 688.13 186 007429-90-5
188 2,4-DIMETHYLPHENOL 685.76 189 000105-67-9
189 CARBON MONOXIDE 684.49 188 000630-08-0
190 TETRACHLOROETHANE 677.97 190 025322-20-7
191 HYDROGEN SULFIDE 676.51 193 007783-06-4
192 PENTACHLORODIBENZOFURAN 673.21 192 030402-15-4
193 CHLOROMETHANE 670.19 191 000074-87-3
194 BIS(2-METHOXYETHYL) PHTHALATE 666.08 194 034006-76-3
195 BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE 659.38 195 000085-68-7
196 CRESOL, ORTHO- 658.66 196 000095-48-7
197 HEXACHLOROETHANE 653.10 199 000067-72-1
198 VANADIUM 651.70 198 007440-62-2
199 N-NITROSODIMETHYLAMINE 650.71 200 000062-75-9
200 1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE 647.30 203 000120-82-1
201 BROMOFORM 643.53 202 000075-25-2
202 TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN 635.74 204 041903-57-5
203 1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE 631.41 205 000541-73-1
204 PENTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN 625.12 207 036088-22-9
205 N-NITROSODIPHENYLAMINE 624.79 208 000086-30-6
206 1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE 622.49 206 000540-59-0
207 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZOFURAN 622.15 210 051207-31-9
208 2-BUTANONE 620.01 209 000078-93-3
209 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL 616.45 212 000120-83-2
210 1,4-DIOXANE 616.29 215 000123-91-1
211 FLUORINE 613.28 214 007782-41-4
212 NITRITE 612.64 216 014797-65-0
213 CESIUM-137 612.50 217 010045-97-3
214 SILVER 612.19 213 007440-22-4
215 CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE 610.85 218 007738-94-5
216 NITRATE 610.66 219 014797-55-8
217 POTASSIUM-40 608.91 220 013966-00-2
218 DINITROTOLUENE 607.65 221 025321-14-6
219 ANTIMONY 605.37 222 007440-36-0
220 COAL TAR PITCH 605.33 224 065996-93-2
221 THORIUM-227 605.32 223 015623-47-9
222 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL 604.83 225 000095-95-4
223 ARSENIC ACID 604.45 226 007778-39-4
224 ARSENIC TRIOXIDE 604.36 227 001327-53-3
225 PHORATE 603.10 228 000298-02-2
226 BENZOPYRENE 603.00 230 073467-76-2
227 CRESOLS 602.74 229 001319-77-3
228 CHLORDANE, TECHNICAL 602.62 231 012789-03-6
229 DIMETHOATE 602.61 232 000060-51-5
230 ACTINIUM-227 602.57 233 014952-40-0
230 STROBANE 602.57 233 008001-50-1
232 4-AMINOBIPHENYL 602.51 235 000092-67-1
232 PYRETHRUM 602.51 235 008003-34-7
234 ARSINE 602.42 237 007784-42-1
235 NALED 602.32 238 000300-76-5
236 DIBENZOFURANS, CHLORINATED 602.13 239 042934-53-2
236 ETHOPROP 602.13 239 013194-48-4
238 ALPHA-CHLORDENE 601.94 241 056534-02-2
238 CARBOPHENOTHION 601.94 241 000786-19-6
240 DICHLORVOS 601.64 243 000062-73-7
241 CALCIUM ARSENATE 601.45 244 007778-44-1
241 MERCURIC CHLORIDE 601.45 244 007487-94-7
241 SODIUM ARSENITE 601.45 244 007784-46-5
244 FORMALDEHYDE 599.64 247 000050-00-0
245 2-CHLOROPHENOL 599.62 248 000095-57-8
246 PHENANTHRENE 597.68 249 000085-01-8
247 HYDROGEN FLUORIDE 588.03 250 007664-39-3
248 2,4-D ACID 584.47 251 000094-75-7
249 DIBROMOCHLOROMETHANE 580.59 252 000124-48-1
250 DIURON 579.16 253 000330-54-1
251 BUTYLATE 578.43 254 002008-41-5
252 DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE 578.23 255 000068-12-2
253 PYRENE 577.95 256 000129-00-0
254 DICHLOROBENZENE 577.70 211 025321-22-6
255 ETHYL ETHER 572.47 257 000060-29-7
256 DICHLOROETHANE 570.46 258 001300-21-6
257 4-NITROPHENOL 567.79 259 000100-02-7
258 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE, CIS- 561.82 184 010061-01-5
259 PHOSPHINE 559.74 260 007803-51-2
260 TRICHLOROBENZENE 557.96 261 012002-48-1
261 2,6-DINITROTOLUENE 555.20 262 000606-20-2
262 FLUORIDE ION 549.64 263 016984-48-8
263 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HEPTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN 547.90 264 035822-46-9
264 METHYL PARATHION 545.83 265 000298-00-0
265 PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRANITRATE 545.59 266 000078-11-5
266 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE, TRANS- 543.37 267 010061-02-6
267 BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)ADIPATE 540.20 268 000103-23-1
268 CARBAZOLE 534.52 269 000086-74-8
269 METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE 533.24 271 000108-10-1
270 1,2-DICHLOROETHENE, CIS- 533.15 270 000156-59-2
271 STYRENE 532.70 272 000100-42-5
272 CARBARYL 530.98 273 000063-25-2
273 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HEPTACHLORODIBENZOFURAN 529.45 274 067562-39-4
274 ACRYLONITRILE 528.28 275 000107-13-1

Substances were assigned the same rank when two (or more) substances received equivalent total point scores.

CAS #= Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number


My Note –
This list is in order of degree of known hazardous qualities, rather than alphabetic.
– cricketdiane

***CARMARTHEN, Wales, May 24 (UPI) — The driver of a lawn mower built for speed said he and his team broke the speed record for the machines by reaching an average speed of 87.833 mph in Wales.

Don Wales and his team said the mower broke the record of 80.792 mph, set in 2006 by U.S. man Bob Cleveland, by reaching an average speed of 86.069 mph during a run Saturday at Pendine Sands in Carmarthenshire, Wales, the BBC reported Monday.

Lawn mower exceeds 87 mph

Published: May 24, 2010 at 4:53 PM

CARMARTHEN, Wales, May 24 (UPI) — The driver of a lawn mower built for speed said he and his team broke the speed record for the machines by reaching an average speed of 87.833 mph in Wales.

Don Wales and his team said the mower broke the record of 80.792 mph, set in 2006 by U.S. man Bob Cleveland, by reaching an average speed of 86.069 mph during a run Saturday at Pendine Sands in Carmarthenshire, Wales, the BBC reported Monday.




My Note –

Yes, we absolutively need more of that – to make our gasoline and diesel engines use fuels more efficiently. It is great.

– cricketdiane, 05-24-10


also from UPI –

NASA: Earth’s oceans are becoming warmer


Nucleotides –

pp. 330 – 331, vol. 13; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1978

Nucleotides are organic chemical compounds composed of nitrogen-containing unites joined to sugar and phosphate units. They are of importance in biology as the structural groups composing nucleic acids, long chainlike molecules that may contain more than 1,000,000 nucleotides and that make up the fundamental genetic material responsible for storage and replication of hereditary information in living cells.

Several nucleotides belong to a class of compounds called coenzymes, substances that act in conjunction with compounds called enzymes that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions in biological systems; a few nucleotides are starting materials in biological systems from which compounds of other classes are synthesized.

The chemistry of nucleotides has been studied since 1847, when a German chemist, Justus von Liebig, isolated inosinic acid from a meat extract, but nucleic acids were not obtained until more than 20 years later, and their relationship to nucleotides was made clear only after 1900. The first discovery of a nucleotide coenzyme occurred in 1904. The study of nucleotides has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of such analytical techniques as spectroscopy and chromatography about the middle of the 20th century.

General considerations.

Understanding of nucleotides is based on knowledge of the structure of organic compounds, which are classified into families that have similar molecular structures and, as a result, comparable qualities.

All organic compounds have as their basic structural feature chains or rings of carbon atoms linked together by bonds, of a type called covalent, that result from sharing electrons between each pair of atoms. Each carbon atom has the capacity to form four such bonds with other carbon atoms or atoms of other elements.

Empirical formulas for compounds are written with the symbol for an element representing a single atom and a subscript indicating the number of such atoms in the molecule; for example, methane has one carbon and four hydrogen atoms: CH4


When small organic molecules bond with one another to form chains, the repeating unit is called a monomer, or subunit, and the chain, or macromolecule, a polymer. Several kinds of monomers may also bond together in a repeating pattern to form polymers of varied classifications.

Nucleic acids belong to a class of polymers, the subunits of which are nucleotides, themselves composed of three subunits.

The formation of nucleic acids in plant and animal cells is a process of joining a very large number of nucleotides end to end. The reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called polymerases.

(from pp. 331)

Chemistry of the nucleotides and related compounds.


The nitrogen-containing based combined with sugar and phosphate units in the naturally occurring nucleotides are derivatives, and so named, of members of three families of heterocyclic compounds:  the pyrimidines, purines, and pyridines.

The derivatives have formulas in which one or more hydrogen atoms in a pyrimidine, purine, or pyridine structure has been replaced by simple radicals or functional groups, usually amino (NH2), hydroxyl (OH), or methyl (CH3). The most abundant of these nitrogen bases are the pyrimidines cytosine, thymine, and uracil; the purines adenine and guanin; and the pyridine nicotinamide. The structures of these compounds are represented by structural formulas in which the symbols for the elements are joined by single lines for single covalent bonds and two lines for double bonds. (etc.)

( . . . )

The nitrogen bases can all be prepared from simpler compounds in the laboratory. Pyrimidines are usually synthesized from urea and a second component that furnishes the three carbon atoms that occupy positions designated 4, 5, and 6, in the product. Purines are commonly made from pyrimidines that have amino groups at positions 4 and 5; these amino groups become the nitrogen atoms at positions 7 and 9 of the purine structure.

Several compounds analogous in structure to purine and pyrimidine bases have been synthesized, and their effects on biological systems have been studied.

Small variations in the molecular structure can exert profound influences upon processes such as the formation of proteins or of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA’s), often because the modified compound cannot undergo some essential chemical reaction.

Nucleosides are compounds in which one of the nitrogen bases is combined with a sugar unit, but the phosphate portion of the nucleotides is absent. . .

Nucleosides can be decomposed into their constituent bases and sugars by hydrolysis; that is, a reaction with water in which a chemical bond is broken and the products are the parts of the original molecule – formerly connected by the bond that was hydrolyzed – now combined with the parts of a water molecule (a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group). (etc.)

(from pp. 332 – 333)

Laboratory preparation of nucleosides requires prior conversion of the sugar into a “protected” form that can combine with a nitrogen base only at position 1′ of the sugar ring. After the base-sugar bond has been formed, the protecting modifications are removed.

The point at which the sugar is linked to the phosphate group may be determined by studies of the compounds in which these components remain bound together. It has been found that the location of this linkage may change during the chemical treatments used to isolate the nucleoside but that, in natural polynucleotides (nucleic acids), phosphate ester bonds extend from the 3′ position of one nucleotide to the 5′ position of the next.

( . . .. )

The nucleotides that serve as coenzymes or as the actual physiological building blocks in synthesis of nucleic acids often are esters (when an acid and an alcohol react they form water and an ester) not of phosphoric acid but of condensed relatives of it, pyrophosphoric or triphosphoric acids. They are named as derivatives of the nucleosides.

(one other part on pp. 332 – 333)

Biological functions of nucleotides.

Nucleotides are very widely distributed, apparently being present in all known life forms. . . .

Nucleotides have the same functions — those of coenzymes and of starting materials for nucleic acid synthesis — in all plants and animals, from the simplest to the most complex, and they are built up and broken down by processes that vary only in details throughout the same range.

In the biological synthesis of the pyramidine nucleotides, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and the amino acid aspartic acid are utilized in the assembly of the pyramidine ring of orotic acid, which is then attached to the ribose  phosphate unit to produce orotidine 5′-phosphate, (etc.)


(Excuse me – phone call with crisis of no baby formula for granddaughter in New York because daycare used up a week’s worth in one day and no money, no foodstamps, no WIC vouchers, nothing to pawn and no way to get too a Western Union office or bank or Kroger where I might resource any of it – figures.)

– cricketdiane


This is what I had generated early in the process and posted as a solution (this is a practical paraphrase of that option) –

From the very first day, BP and their Oil Spill Response Organizations, the Coast Guard, Minerals Management and EPA could’ve put an extremely large piece of architectural fabric used in building roofs – over the spill and siphoned off the oil and natural gas from underneath it and they didn’t – and it works

At any point they could’ve done that as well, these fabrics are used for roofing materials – they are structural composites found in practice arenas for sports, NASA has some sitting near the coastal areas in the Huntsville and Houston warehouses and they are available in huge sizes. They don’t present an extra economic or ecological cost and they operate properly even at those depths. They could have done this from the points anywhere along the way and they didn’t. The oil and the methane gas could be brought out from underneath the “underwater canopy” and the use of a simple bleed off to get the methane as well could easily be incorporated. The mechanical subsea robots can manipulate it, anchors can devise the way to hold it down and how big the canopy spreads. It could’ve been done effectively to contain and encapsulate the oil in place rather than having let it spread.

That was my idea and it still is my idea and it still works and there have been other people who have picked up the idea and forwarded it to them. And they still insist on not using it and out of all the available systems of choices and other options – they are not using any of them while I’m watching our Commander of the Coast Guard kiss Tony Hayward’s collective BP ass before even wiping his own or making a dictum to go forward on anything. I’ve never been so captured by the wrongness of a thing in my life. We wouldn’t do that with the North Koreans, or the Iranian government nor the old regimes of Stalin. Then why would we watch them doing it now with a foreign based oil company that is destroying our coast and our national waters more than an atomic bomb would’ve done. Why would they treat this as any less an enemy with its own agenda, its own motives and its own disregard for human life?

– cricketdiane


And, I hate being poor and right this minute – I hate being an American and I don’t like it.

In the system I outlined above to capture the oil using architectural structure fabrics used in roofing, the methane causes the “tent” to rise, the oil just sits in the bottom half where it can be siphoned off from an underneath pipe stuck up under the “tent” and the methane can be bled off from halfway down its pool level under the tent using either a side tap hose or from a vent hose on the very top portion of the canopy. It regulates what is coming out, stratifies it under that canopy and it only takes a $1.59 cent connector to attach a hose to bleed off the methane from the top part of the structural canopy.

(and it would’ve taken less than two days to acquire and put into place – even NASA has some of this stuff warehoused in large quantities and massive pieces – my note added at 10.29 pm same day)

How fucking hard is that to figure out?

Did they need a drawing or graphic of some kind to understand it with their damn engineering degrees?

Did they need me to get up a list of resources for the architectural fabrics that are the same as they use to cover practice fields for the Dallas Cowboys, for airports and numerous other structures – including Olympics’ stadiums?

They can stretch nets and fabrics across bays to catch fish underwater. They can stretch architectural and geotextile fabrics across harbors to keep mines out of the shipping lanes. What is the fucking problem with keeping this oil contained in 20 square miles or less – from the very get-go?

How is there contempt for the people of American coastal areas and the environment of our coastal waters tolerated? How is that possible? When does something happen that constitutes a national disaster with a response that appropriately handles it and contains it using everything we have instead of following some preset course that didn’t work when it saw the light of day in the first place, and in fact, was never intended to successfully solve the problems that would occur or that could occur?

How dare they let BP take the lead on this thing? These jackasses started their corporate life serving their own interests over that of human life from their inception and they have maintained that corporate culture successfully despite the valiant efforts of MR. Hayward over the last few years. It is because the corporation is vile and its attorneys are running its response rather than those who care about anything in the real world.

The fact that our EPA members sound for every respect more like employees of the oil industry and BP in particular, than the concerned and conscientious professionals that we’ve been led to believe they are and as I watch our great and conscientious Commander of the Coast Guard, and even NOAA administrators cotton to BP like its way must prioritize every single thing that is done (or not done) – I think about Chernobyl and what would’ve happened, if the corporate entity running it had made all the decisions concerning the aftermath. It would be insane and this is also insane. Don’t tell me that they can’t do anything else. That is a lie.

– cricketdiane

Wanna see the things that I think are incredibly funny right now –

and in a sad, twisted way – absolutely a pathetically and tragically perverse expert exercise in insanity given the current real world situation and its real time, real world, forever damaging, results –

Crisis Management and Emergency Response

ConocoPhillips has developed an integrated global emergency response process. The process includes response capabilities and crisis management plans at the corporate, regional and local level. All plans include regular training, equipment maintenance and review of procedures.

ConocoPhillips is a member of the tier three oil spill response organizations that cover the regions of the world in which it operates. Membership in these cooperatives extends company access to resources both equipment and trained personnel – that can provide immediate emergency assistance.

ConocoPhillips participates in and helps coordinate Spill of National Significance (SONS) drills – mandated by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 – which are conducted every two to three years under the direction of the U.S. Coast Guard. One of several emergency response exercises ConocoPhillips engages in, SONS drills are designed to foster significant improvements in the preparedness, prevention and oil spill response efforts of the U.S. government and the petroleum industry. The drills, funded jointly by government and industry, typically involve a year of planning by the major public and private sector participants.

In April 2004, trained ConocoPhillips personnel joined more than 1,100 other incident responders from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Coast Guard, the government of Mexico, the U.S. and Mexican Navies, the state of California, another oil company and numerous spill response contractors to practice implementing their oil spill contingency plans. The scenario was a vessel collision, a ship explosion and two major oil spills – all in the same morning, off the California coast. Drill participants staffed local unified command posts in San Diego and San Pedro, California, supplemented by a national incident command center in Los Alamitos, California, and a response center in Ensenada, Mexico.



View by Company

Partnership Examples by Company
The companies listed below are participating in the API Public-Private Partnerships. Click on the links to see information on their participation. Contact information for each company is included.

Alyeska Pipeline


Jan Shifflett

Anadarko Petroleum Company


Lee Warren

BHP BillitonContact:

Patrick Cassidy



Ayana McIntosh-Lee



Joe Lorenz

Bob Yeager

Anne O’Neal

Colonial Pipeline


Grace McDougald


Bill Graham
281 293-1978

Lee Zarnikau

Devon EnergyContacts:

Margaret Hitchcock

Wendi Schuur


Miles Shaw

Marathon Oil Corp


Neal Parsons

Linda Casey

Murphy OilContact:

Jim Britt


Sharon Mulligan


Helen Sullivan (Int’l)


Walt Retzsch


In the Classroom

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Latest News

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Updates

U.S. gasoline production hits April record, demand rises: API

Related Meeting

Exploration & Production Standards Conference on Oilfield Equipment and Materials
– Jun. 28-Jul. 2, 2010 – Washington, DC

2010 Tanker Conference with United States Coast Guard Benkert Awards – Jun. 28-29 – San Diego, California

Related Links

Oil Spill Prevention and Response

Partnerships in the Oil and Gas Industry

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration

API LNAPL Parameters Database

Updated:December 15, 2009



I like your idea. When they have been siphoning – they have been using some filtering system. I won’t say what that is because I don’t know and there is some barge or ship filtering system like you are suggesting that is used when we have ships spill oil, crude or fuel oil products.

One thing I just noticed as Commander Thad Allen was speaking probably suggested what the real problem is. Since the 1990s, a change was made in how prevention and spill mitigation were to be tackled. And, this change added specialized companies intended to perform that part of the business, including to provide any and all resources once a disaster of some kind occurs. That means, when people have made suggestions, offers of support, teams have gone to be of help, ideas for solutions have been generated and known solutions that could help have been offered – they aren’t even in the mix because these spill response organizations (SRO)s are handling the situation.

It also means that BP and other large oil corporations were given a pass on having preparations “in-house” to provide immediate and effective response for a spill. Many of the oil companies could pay a little each together and as members, could simply support a group organization for spill response which offered the minimum tools, boats, resources, teams, engineering companies access points, and mitigation resources to deal with it when some accident or spill might happen.

So, instead of each company having their own teams and resources available and ready to deal with a spill, these spill response organizations received money to put together on standby the minimum requirements to satisfy whatever current EPA and MMS guidelines demanded. I went to the spill response organization site for the area of the Gulf of Mexico early on when this happened, and I noticed the very small fleet of marine resources that they listed. The coordination of these resources and placement also doesn’t fall to BP or the oil company members, it is given over to the Spill Response Organizations at the point of a disaster, accident or small incident. They determine how to do what needs to be done and they coordinate bringing resources to the point of need and they decide how they are utilized and in what order, in what measure, and where to get them. If they have never dealt with a spill or disaster of this magnitude, which none of them had ever even approached previously, they would have quickly been in over their heads.

From what I noticed, the only thing the spill response organizations would have been ready and capable of handling is a situation that never occurred or what was so minimal as to not be considered an incident of any regional magnitude. You can go to their website online and see what they started with to handle this massive disaster. It would be a good joke, if it weren’t so pathetic and the magnitude of the disaster it subsequently caused to get worse – weren’t so dire.

The ideas that you have or I have or anyone else has – whether in the greater community or in academia or in the fine societies of engineers and scientists could not get in through the process that has been in place. So, our ideas weren’t even on the menu. Nor, unfortunately would they be on those menus now unless we were to create some company that could get into that game with them. Nothing outside that small tightly knit oil trade business and its companion industries mean anything to them because they seem to believe they are more qualified, more experienced and more so, stand in an adversarial position to the rest of us. That’s partly because of their profit-driven motivations that have advanced their own opportunities and positions over many years against regulations that would require of them, permits and certifications that would slow their profit-making activities and environmental activist organizations that would change their most profitable and economically-based decisions about how to do what they want to do.

When I decided that BP, if not the enemy – are certainly part of the problem, it occurred to me that the best answer now is to find effective ways to genuinely mitigate the damage that none of us can prevent them from doing, not only in the Gulf of Mexico – but everywhere they drill. The other best answer that I know – is to take our time and efforts to create answers and generate solutions to do everything beyond what is possible yesterday and using everything that has ever been known or done yesterday – to create what will make petroleum obsolete in our societies. That is the good answer that works and to do it, implement it and make that work today. It is 2010 and many things existed even a hundred and fifty years ago, that would offer options we pretend today, don’t exist. But, in fact – many options and choices were cast aside in favor of gasoline.

As long as there are profits to be made, they will drill for oil and in doing so, they will make life-threatening disasters occur. That isn’t any longer necessary for our societies – and our nations – and our progress to go forward. There are a multitude of other ways for our cars and trucks to run, for our ships and trains to move goods, for our planes to fly and for our energy needs of all kinds to be supplied. At some point, our leaders and decision-makers fell to the sway of what had the power and influence to affect their decisions and they stopped all progress going in any other direction that would compete with what we already had in place. And, when they did that at many stages along the process, they denied the real progress that would’ve taken our societies to the next level instead of keeping it at the last one.

That, we can go forward and do some things to fix. The oil that exists in the Gulf of Mexico where it is destroying life even as I write this, can be given to solutions that we create and implement. But, as long as the situation is set up the way it is – putting those solutions in place would require making a substantial hole in the isolating fortresses that are in place around, not only BP and other oil companies and its industries, but in the spill response organizations as well. I don’t know how to do that but maybe someone can find some ways to do it.

They have a thinking set about what their choices are that cannot remain the same, including how they think about what is more costly or determine cost-based analysis of the things available to tackle a problem, or a spill, or a disaster, or a potential disaster. The booms our Navy have look more like a substantial response to containment of an oil or fuel spill than the flimsy pieces of ineffective junk put out through the spill response organizations supported by the oil industry tycoons and the EPA and the Minerals Management Service requirements. That determination of which specs for those booms and other spill mitigation equipment were cost-effective in the long run indicates a sorry kind of thinking about it that has got to go.

– cricketdiane

(response I made to a blog comment earlier today)


MapEcos – which shows all the toxic chemicals released in the United States that manufacturers, companies, corporations and businesses were willing to voluntarily admit to the EPA and to the extent they admitted there was some degree or volume of chemical release.




Laws and Regulations – EPA



My Note –

I’ll get back to the information about the nucleotides in a while and explain why I was posting it with this at all – but to be brief, there are two things – one is that when a carbon based – hydrocarbon group is put into that system is doesn’t work for life on any level. And, two that co-enzymes based in that same system can be constructed for use to (not de-stabilize the petroleum as the dispersants are doing) – but to delete it, in fact and mitigate through a process where the oil doesn’t exist in the Gulf of Mexico anymore chemically.

– cricketdiane, 05-24-10 (9.04 pm ET)


And I was absolutely serious when I said that I will never spend one single dollar of my money, my family’s money nor anyone else’s resources ever on anything that I find out BP in any way contributed to the feedstocks or raw products to create – up to and including their gasoline products, fuel oils, plastics made from their raw products and any chemical products I find that has used anything from them.

And, I’ve already determined for my self and for anyone that I get to say something to about it – where I see an ad for BP – I will stop seeing that channel in my home, I will not buy any magazines or journals that include even one advertisement from them and I promise myself that once anything has carried their advertisements or specialists that are promulgating the viewpoints of their company – I will no longer watch that show or patronize that group of people in any way – whether it is something on the history channel or news program or anything else.

I don’t mean – when a news broadcast is showing Tony Hayward in an interview – I mean when FoxNews or bloomberg troops some damn bunch of experts across the screen in my home – to tell me how I am supposed to think or feel about this giant corporate bastard – I won’t watch that show or those news channels any more – not even once and I will tell everyone I know about the fact they are doing that in those shows intentionally misleading the public and engaging in propaganda for a vicious and vile enterprise knowing the fact that they are doing it when they’ve done it.

That choice doesn’t belong to my federal government and it doesn’t belong to the Republican Party attorneys and business backers – and it doesn’t belong to anyone posting a comment on my blog about “let’s get together on this and not say anything ugly about BP.” There isn’t anything ugly enough to say about BP that can convey anything close to what they’ve done and the way they’ve been doing it. The way they’ve handled this and mishandled this oil crisis turning it into a catastrophic event instead of a manageable containment is an abomination to mankind that will last far in excess of my grandchildren’s and great grandchildren’s lifetimes.

– cricketdiane


And one other note – when BP doesn’t solve the problem or creates problems, they may be able to cover their ass with a team of attorneys. Admiral whoever and Commander whoever in our Navy and Coast Guard aren’t going to need attorneys nor a safety net when it is evident that they’ve mucked it up – because our laws about national security will mean more in that scenario and there isn’t an attorney that can get them out of that.

Oh well.

That is all the more reason for them not to defer to BP in setting priorities, coordination of efforts, placing resources or rezoning resources and solving the problem overall and specifically solving the problems involved with this event. I’m sorry that the Coast Guard leadership, the EPA, the Department of the Interior, the Minerals Management Services and the prior Presidential and Party administrations bowed to BP and other oil producing corporate energy “drivers”.  There is nothing that can get them out of having done that now. But, today is not that day – it is no longer required to be constrained by kissing the ground these oil companies beat down with the fires of their own portable profit machines.

History will show right this minute that they were wrong. That doing business that way was wrong. That damaging people’s lives that way was wrong. And, that destroying the nations they were dependent upon to make their profits was also wrong. And, history will show this time – just as it has everytime – that there is not enough money in all the world, nor enough power and prestige in the entire history of the world – that can fix that.

So, here we are completely violated and raped, pillaged and plundered by BP and its sister industries. And, our coast is filled with human lives that are soon to be irreparably damaged by what is happening in the Gulf Coast waters that has already killed, maimed and sickened huge populations of marine life permanently.

And, BP as an organization and its companion, marine spill response organization along with their little expensive contractors – have made an otherwise manageable situation into a nightmare of catastrophic proportions. And, still the Coast Guard, the EPA and the Department of the Interior along with others in authority and decision-making capacities continue to insist on letting BP set priorities and determine what must be the focus.


Well, that’s exactly why I’m going to count BP and all of those contractors like TransOcean, Halliburton, the marine spill response groups and the other oil industry producers that supported them doing it this way – to be terrorists in the same term of the word that anyone who would detonate a nuclear bomb on or near our shores.

And, I for one – will not give them one purchase of a share of stock, not support one loan to them nor bond for their operations. I will encourage anyone whose pension funds holds any of those things to dispose of them and any that don’t – I will tell people to move their money somewhere else. And, on top of that – in every respect – the international courts who do have jurisdiction over their activities and their choices will be interested in taking a look at the crimes to humanity that they’ve managed to accomplish with their insistence on covering their asses instead of fixing the problem.

– cricketdiane


Look at it for yourself –

This one is for New England – (Dec. 2009)


• Use spill modeling and scenario analysis to measure spill response

• Consider acquiring different types of spill response equipment in future
purchases, to meet other response needs or conditions.

• Consider adding on-water recovery (skimming and storage) capacity to
those regions of the state that currently lack it.
• Evaluate the availability of vessels and personnel to support largescale
implementation of GRPs.
• Develop a plan to continually maintain and update the response
equipment spreadsheet developed through this project.

• Assess response management capabilities and limitations and use drills
and exercises to practice and improve response preparedness.
• Evaluate the mobilization/deployment time for MassDEP trailers to be
called in en masse to another region of the state to support a largescale
• Evaluate the dispersant application capability and determine whether additional stockpiles and application platforms are required in the Northeast region.

So, not only did they know better, they knew as a matter of planning to update the available resources that could be brought to bear on it. And, they will use the same dispersants on the wildlife and marine life in the New England waters – just as they have off Texas waters and Louisiana waters and Alaska’s waters and the waters of Los Angeles and California.

And, they had modeled various simulations of possible spill scenarios beforehand – including the one we have right now in the Gulf of Mexico.

– my note


ExxonMobil has offered the use of a drilling rig as a staging base, two supply vessels, an underwater vehicle and support vessel and has provided experts to respond to BP’s request for technical advice on blowout preventers, dispersant injection, well construction, and containment options. The company also continues to support the work of Tier 3 spill response and cleanup cooperatives, such as MSRC, Clean Gulf, and Oil Spill Response Ltd., to provide personnel and equipment, such as dispersants, fire boom and radios. ExxonMobil is also identifying, procuring, and manufacturing additional supplies of dispersant for potential use.

(among other things that ConocoPhillips has donated – this one on the list shows somebody that is behind the scenes running the show – pulling strings – altering assessments to “not be alarmist” and other miserable strategies to mislead legislators, science teams and the general public -my note

• Nominated two technical experts to participate in API’s proposed joint industry government task forces;)



(and this from the same article – )

Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC) is coordinating four C-130 aircraft (one MSRC, one commercial, two Air Force) spraying dispersants, along with six smaller planes that act as spotters. It has also supplied:
• Eight offshore rescue vessels (OSRVs) that are working on site;
• Two additional OSRVs en route from Maine and New York;
• Three ocean-barges on site to capture and store oil that is skimmed up by the OSRVs;
• Six fast response vehicles that are on site and working the scene;
• 200 MSRC staff and field personnel, along with supervision of more than 1,000 contractors;
• Numerous shallow-water barges that hold pontoons used for skimming and can be deployed in shallow-water situations to protect the shoreline; and
• More than 700,000 ft (213,500 m) of boom deployed/staged under MSRC coordination
• Several fire boom systems.

BP is using the Tidewater M/V Pat Tillman to bring dispersant chemical, tanks, and assorted tools for the proposed injection plan that BP has devised to alleviate the current spill. The vessel was dispatched directly to the location where the support vessel Skandi Neptune was standing by with coiled tubing lowered to the wellhead to inject the dispersant directly into the leak stream. In addition, BP has chartered the Tidewater M/V War Admiral, which will be outfitted with equipment used to monitor current patterns in the GOM.



My Note –

So, not only does BP claim to have over 400 petroleum engineers working around the clock for the last 35 days to solve this thing, and a number of other resources coming from petroleum industry individual sister companies – but they’ve managed to bring all these ideas to bear on it without having one single idea that wasn’t on their menu to start with. How do you even manage to do that?

They knew the top kill strategy had been used on land and in shallow water with usual success and it could have been used from the first day they knew the valves wouldn’t close on the subsea blowout preventer. But they didn’t do that either. In all the days and hours that have followed, they do still have the same 1 then 2 then 3 – plan with exactly the same elements and components on it that they did have in the first place.

Now, I want to know how that many experts and engineers and business people can possibly be that sum total stupid and hairbrained and incapable of generating or accepting and implementing any damn thing else.

And, believe me – watching them blame and hide behind the EPA and the Coast Guard and NOAA for why they didn’t know there was a greater volume coming out of the leaking pipes beyond 1,000 barrels or 5,000 barrels – isn’t going to get it. And, when they have hidden in the skirts of the EPA for the choice of dispersants they are using – on tv and on the news and in print and everywhere else they could open their mouths and get it publicized – they aren’t going to side-step one iota of responsibility for doing it that way in the long run when court after court after court after Congressional act and International act and International court gets done with them. And, that is after I get done with them as a consumer of their goods which I will never be again in my lifetime or in the influence I might have in the course of my children’s lifetimes.

That isn’t going to change because BP executives did what their attorneys told them to do and blamed the EPA and the Coast Guard Unified Command for the choices they have been making and implementing.

– cricketdiane

And, let me share something else right quick –

then I’m going to go play music instead of this.


From here –


and here –



The most important convention regulating and preventing marine pollution by ships is the IMO International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78). It covers accidental and operational oil pollution as well as pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution.

Click on the image for a brochure on IMO and the Environment.

IMO and the Environment 2009

IMO’s Intervention Convention affirms the right of a coastal State to take measures on the high seas to prevent, mitigate or eliminate danger to its coastline from a maritime casualty. The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC), 1990 provides a global framework for international co-operation in combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution. A protocol to this convention (HNS Protocol) covers marine pollution by hazardous and noxious substances.

IMO also has Secretariat responsibilities for the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (LDC), 1972, generally known as the London Convention, which has been updated by the 1996 Protocol.

The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) is IMO’s senior technical body on marine pollution related matters. It is aided in its work by a number of Sub-Committees.

(under the tab on the top bar that says – Marine Environment)

a drilling platform is also a ship. (it is authorized and certified under the marine vessels codes and regulations internationally and in the United States.)


Revised MARPOL Annex I

The revised MARPOL Annex I Regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil was adopted in October 2004 and enters into force on 1 January 2007. It incorporates the various amendments adopted since MARPOL entered into force in 1983, including the amended regulation 13G (regulation 20 in the revised annex) and regulation 13H (regulation 21 in the revised annex) on the phasing-in of double hull requirements for oil tankers. It also separates, in different chapters, the construction and equipment provisions from the operational requirements and makes clear the distinctions between the requirements for new ships and those for existing ships. The revision provides a more user-friendly, simplified Annex I.

New requirements in the revised Annex I include the following:

  • Regulation 22 Pump-room bottom protection: on oil tankers of 5,000 tonnes deadweight and above constructed on or after 1 January 2007, the pump-room shall be provided with a double bottom.
  • Regulation 23 Accidental oil outflow performance – applicable to oil tankers delivered on or after [date of entry into force of revised Annex I plus 36 months] 1 January 2010; construction requirements to provide adequate protection against oil pollution in the event of stranding or collision.

Oman Sea – new special area under MARPOL Annex I
The Oman Sea area of the Arabian Seas is designated a special area in the revised Annex I.

The other special areas in Annex I are: Mediterranean Sea area; Baltic Sea area; Black Sea area; Red Sea area; “Gulfs” area; Gulf of Aden area; Antarctic area; and North West European Waters. In the special areas, there are stricter controls on discharge of oily wastes.

“Gulfs” area

“Gulfs” area

“Gulfs” area

(it includes the Gulf of Mexico and because parts of it are in international waters – it includes every single oil drilling rig, semi-submersible platform, permanent oil drilling or oil harvesting platform and every other ocean based vessel or vessel system of any and every kind. – my note)

Further Information

Tanker safety – preventing accidental pollution

Responding to oil spills

MARPOL 73/78

Information Resources on current topics

Information Resources on the Prestige

Focus papers

MARPOL – 25 years

Preventing marine pollution

Tanker safety: the work of the International Maritime Organization

and from here –


Summary of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

42 U.S.C. §6901 et seq. (1976)

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) gives EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from the “cradle-to-grave.” This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. RCRA also set forth a framework for the management of non-hazardous solid wastes. The 1986 amendments to RCRA enabled EPA to address environmental problems that could result from underground tanks storing petroleum and other hazardous substances.

HSWA – the Federal Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments – are the 1984 amendments to RCRA that focused on waste minimization and phasing out land disposal of hazardous waste as well as corrective action for releases. Some of the other mandates of this law include increased enforcement authority for EPA, more stringent hazardous waste management standards, and a comprehensive underground storage tank program.

See also:

Back to the “Laws that EPA Administers” page.


My Note –

They have broad sweeping powers, just as our Coast Guard does and just as many UN groups in the international community have over marine environments and coastal regions. It even applies to national coastal waters and subcoastal activities when they abrogate the coastal waters that affect the marine environment and the trade / business/ commercial and economic activities of an international host of “stakeholders” and nations’ populations, broad spectrums of aquatic life, other commercial activities, and threatens massive air and/or ocean current carries of violating substances, especially toxins and hazardous chemicals in particular. – it makes this illegal on a grand scale, with a number of international laws in place that are enforced and with criminal consequences along with the civil penalties involved.

– cricketdiane

and now, this time, I think I will record the music that I create to get over thinking about this stuff for awhile.

or go take a bath or a walk

or all of the above.


See what I mean – they are bragging about something that wouldn’t even take a few hours worth of this spill from the bottom of the sea and do anything much with it – and they only had 15 of them – how big is the Gulf of Mexico?


“One of the most visible hallmarks of MSRC is its broad base of oil spill response resources, at the center of which is a fleet of 15 dedicated Responder Class Oil Spill Response Vessels (OSRVs), designed and built specifically to recover spilled oil. The OSRVs are approximately 210 feet long, have temporary storage for 4,000 barrels of recovered oil, and have the ability to separate oil and water aboard ship using two oil-water separation systems.”

“have temporary storage for 4,000 barrels of recovered oil,” which is expected to be combined with water maybe to begin with and then separated – and there is more like 70,000 barrels each pouring out of the two leaks on the bottom of the seabed in the Gulf of Mexico from this.

Are they in some world where they serve the Gulf of Mexico and it is a small place of two or three acres or are they doing drugs with their free time or what? Did they think that two or three boats and a handful of barges were going to be the coverage needed for any significant event encompassing the Gulf of Mexico – or in fact, did they believe it would never be required and just had enough to barely satisfy the Coast Guard, EPA and MMS federal guidelines?

Do they understand the concept of size that represents the Gulf of Mexico in flat acreage and volume and 3-dimensional space or are they sitting in Houston Texas completely oblivious to the scale of the actual environment involved in this catastrophic environmentally damaging and life-threatening event?

(my note)