Bush Seeks to Allay Fears
Bush seeks to explain US bailout plan to world leaders, seeking to allay fears, build support
By TERENCE HUNT AP White House Correspondent
NEW YORK September 22, 2008 (AP)
The Associated Press

The White House calls the bailout plan progress, but stocks still slipped.
President Bush sought to assure anxious world leaders on Monday that the United States is taking “bold, aggressive, decisive action” to rescue the crisis-ridden economy with a $700 billion bailout package. “The whole world is watching to see if we can act quickly,” Bush said, prodding lawmakers in Washington to approve his plan.


Proposed Guidance – Nontraditional Mortgage Products March 27, 2006 Page 5 of 10

The Agencies’ concerns about tighter underwriting standards for Interest Only and Option ARMs may be unwarranted. Our members report that borrowers with Interest Only and Option ARMs tend to have higher incomes and higher FICO scores than borrowers with traditional mortgages.



The Forbes 400

Who’s Worried?

Erin Gell 09.11.08, 6:00 PM ET

Forbes Magazine dated October 06, 2008

In May Zuckerman’s Boston Properties (nyse: BXP – news – people ) shelled out $2.8 billion (including debt) for the GM Building on Fifth Avenue and 59th Street–the most money ever spent on a single building. The deal included three additional office properties for a total of $4 billion. (Zuckerman holds a 60% share of the GM Building; Goldman Sachs (nyse: GS – news – people ) property fund U.S. Real Estate Opportunities I and the Dubai private equity firm Meraas Capital each own 20%.)

“It is the best single purchase that I’ve made since I’ve been in the business,” boasts Zuckerman, who’s been buying buildings since the 1960s. The 50-story, 2-million-square-foot GM Building defines a trophy property: It sits on Central Park’s southeast corner, and its tenants include a chic Apple (nasdaq: AAPL – news – people ) computer store, cosmetics giant Estée Lauder, Icahn Enterprises, Jana Partners and the law firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges.

Since starting the real estate investment trust Boston Properties in 1970 with partner Edward Linde, Zuckerman has steered the company toward acquisitions of the country’s most iconic office buildings, including Citicorp Center, 399 Park Avenue, and Times Square Tower, which he built. It also owns Boston’s Prudential Center and the Embarcadero Center in San Francisco. We put Zuckerman’s net worth at $2.8 billion, some $1.2 billion of that in Boston Properties stock.

( . . . )

But the purchase comes as commercial real estate enters what could be a tough few years. Thousands of layoffs in the financial sector have softened demand for office space in Manhattan, and other tenants are cautious, given the economy’s dubious state. Notwithstanding, Boston Properties’ stock is up 9% since the GM purchase, perhaps reflecting confidence in Zuckerman’s timing. In 2006 and 2007 Boston Properties sold off $4.5 billion of real estate near the market’s peak, while the rest of the industry was on a buying binge.

“It turned out we sold at exactly the right time,” he says. “Some people, alas, bought at exactly the wrong time. One of them was Harry Macklowe, and we all know what happened.”

Indeed, the previous two owners of the GM Building came to grief. Conseco (nyse: CNOPRB – news – people ), an Indiana insurance company, along with the Trump Organization, bought the building in 1998 but got in over its head with leverage and went bankrupt in 2002. Macklowe, a longtime New York real estate mogul, bought it for $1.4 billion (including debt) in 2003 and surfaced on The Forbes 400 in 2007. Macklowe, too, was stretched too thin. He sold in distress and has, we estimate, suffered a more than $1 billion decline in his net worth.

Some of the older office tenants are paying only $84 per square foot. Zuckerman says he could get $175 today.

Though prime office plots are the meat of the GM Building, the 150,000 square feet of retail space may prove its most lucrative asset. The building’s ground floor boasts the toy haven FAO Schwarz and the glass-cubed Apple store.

Today the Apple store is one of the most productive big retail stores in the world, according to Haim Chera, chief investment officer of Crown Acquisitions, a real estate investment and development firm. He estimates its sales at $440 million a year, or $29,000 a square foot.

The GM Building’s ground floor retail space currently averages rents of $150 a square foot. Zuckerman predicts he could get ten times that if he were signing a lease today. Other recently acquired retail spaces in the area have rented for upwards of $2,500 per square foot. And with GM set to vacate its remaining three floors there in 2009 (to decamp to Boston Properties’ Citicorp Center), Zuckerman will soon be able to offer up naming rights to the building.



Intelligent Investing Transcript

Steve Forbes Interviews Mort Zuckerman

Steve Forbes 10.06.08, 10:00 AM ET – (October 6, 2008)

Steve Forbes Monologue [00:09-02:41]

It’s a pleasure and privilege to introduce you to our featured guest, Mort Zuckerman. Mort is the chairman of Boston Properties (nyse: BXP – news – people ), the publisher and editor of U.S. News and World Report and publisher of the New York Daily News.

He’ll tell us how he’s guiding his businesses through the financial crisis, what the government should do to get us out of this mess.

But first,

Even the Great Depression wasn’t quite like this. Lehman Brothers, AIG (nyse: AIG – news – people ), Bear Stearns, Washington Mutual (nyse: WM – news – people ) and Wachovia (nyse: WB – news – people ) are all gone, each with their own tale to tell. These firms all took on so much debt and had so many bad assets because of the easy money policy of the Federal Reserve.

Chairmen Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke created this massive liquidity and we’re all paying for it. Now we seek solutions.

The federal government can turn things around, but it will have to swallow some pride first. First, the Securities and Exchange Commission should reverse its foolish decision to throw out the uptick rule in short-selling. The rule required short positions to be established only when a stock has risen. Reinstating it would put a speed bump in front of the short-selling stampede.

Also, the SEC should enforce another rule: no naked short-selling. That is, you have to own or borrow shares in a firm before you can short it. Each violation should result in big fines. This would put a mountain in front of the shorts.

( . . . – about gold to the dollar )

We could weather this system by taking a page from the past. Twenty years ago, during the savings and loan crisis, the government created the Resolution Trust Corporation as a dumping ground for bad assets. Today’s bad assets could be disposed of in a similar fashion. There’s no need to panic when you know what’s worked before.

Washington needs to bring these exotic instruments in from the cold. One way is by creating new exchanges for them. This would standardize and bring transparency to a perplexing, opaque market. (cdo, cds, mbs, etc.)

( . . . )

And now, my conversation with Mort Zuckerman.



Mort Zuckerman: “We still don’t know where the bottom is”

By Cernig Sunday Sep 07, 2008 5:00pm

Financial expert Zuckerman appeared on Morning Joe to talk about the Federal bailout of Fannie and Freddie Mac – a move that he estimates will cost the taxpayer upwards of $500 billion added to an already record federal debt. The panicked looks on the faces of the hosts as he laid out just how bad it could be were the most vocal commentary though. Zuckerman says that Fannie and Freddie are “too big to fail” because their paper is held by financial institutions worldwide and if they fell then the world economy would plummet like a stone in a “systemic crisis”.

But he also says that “this is not the end of the real problem”, which is $5 trillion plus in mortgage loans with record foreclosures and falling house prices. In other words, America’s piggy bank is broken. Zuckerman says that no-one should think the bailout is the end of the story: “this problem is still not measurable, we still don’t know where the bottom is,” and that the only way out in the long term is to “force savings upon the American people, and that’s called taxes.”




Cablevision buys Newsday for $650M

Posted on 05-12-2008

Placing a big bet on the future of the newspaper business, Cablevision announced a deal Monday to buy Long Island’s Newsday for $650 million from Tribune.


Rupert Murdoch withdraws bid for Newsday

Posted on 05-10-2008

Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp is withdrawing its $580 million bid for Tribune Co’s Newsday newspaper, a spokesman for the company said Saturday, leaving cable television operator Cablevision as the likely winner of the Long Island daily.





George W Bush          Republicans     Democrats       Congress

See $$$ Contributors From Your Zip Code             $3,784,979,034 in Contributions for 2008

Contributions From Individuals by State (contribution amounts of $200 or more)

Contributions From Political Action Committees

Committee Interest Group Type         Contribution

Count  Contribution

$ Amount        Percent of Total

Download All of the ’08 Individual Contribution Records for this Candidate to a Spreadsheet or Other File Type

Data Updated on 07/24/2008



Last Name





Zip Code






Committees (PACs):



“527” Organizations:

Contributors by Name

Contributors by Zip






Top $$$ Contributors

Contributions by Zip

Candidates by State

Committees (PACs)

527 Organizations



Top ’04 Zip Codes

Top ’02 Zip Codes

Top ’00 Zip Codes



My Note –

You can look up every single contributor of over $200 on this site – or you used to could do that anyway. Along with totals from any specific zipcode, this shows what a number of celebrities and well-known companies, industries and newsmakers have contributed and to whom. On the list from 2008, included Halliburton and Rush Limbaugh among the celebrities’ contributions available.

– cricketdiane, 05-21/22-10


A four-year long study of relations between America and China was conducted by the Council of Foreign Relations between 1964 and 1968. One study published in 1966 concluded that American citizens were more open to talks with China than their elected leaders. Kissinger had continued to publish in Foreign Affairs and was appointed by President Nixon to serve as National Security Adviser in 1969. In 1971, he embarked on a secret trip to Beijing to broach talks with Chinese leaders. Nixon went to China in 1972, and diplomatic relations were completely normalized by President Carter’s Secretary of State, another Council member, Cyrus Vance.[21]

In November 1979, while chairman of the CFR, David Rockefeller became embroiled in an international incident when he and Henry Kissinger, along with John J. McCloy and Rockefeller aides, persuaded President Jimmy Carter through the State Department to admit the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, into the US for hospital treatment for lymphoma. This action directly precipitated what is known as the Iran hostage crisis and placed Rockefeller under intense media scrutiny (particularly from The New York Times) for the first time in his public life.[22]



Board of directors

OFFICE          NAME

Co-Chairman of the Board     Carla Anderson Hills

Co-Chairman of the Board     Robert Rubin

Vice Chairman            Richard E. Salomon

President         Richard N. Haass

Board of Directors

Director           Peter Ackerman

Director           Fouad Ajami

Director           Madeleine Albright

Director           Charlene Barshefsky

Director           Henry Bienen

Director           Stephen W. Bosworth

Director           Tom Brokaw

Director           Sylvia Mathews Burwell

Director           Frank J. Caufield

Director           Kenneth Duberstein

Director           Martin Feldstein

Director           Richard N. Foster

Director           Stephen Friedman

Director           Ann M. Fudge

Director           Helene D. Gayle

Director           Maurice R. Greenberg

Director           Richard Holbrooke

Director           Karen Elliott House

Director           Alberto Ibargüen

Director           Henry Kravis

Director           Jami Miscik

Director           Michael H. Moskow

Director           Joseph Nye

Director           Ronald L. Olson

Director           James W. Owen

Director           Colin Powell

Director           David Rubenstein

Director           Anne-Marie Slaughter

Director           Joan E. Spero

Director           Vin Weber

Director           Sherwin Noorian

Director           Christine Todd Whitman

Director           Fareed Zakaria

The Board of Directors of the Council on Foreign Relations is composed in total of thirty-six officers. Peter G. Peterson and David Rockefeller are Directors Emeriti (Chairman Emeritus and Honorary Chairman, respectively). It also has an International Advisory Board consisting of thirty-five distinguished individuals from across the world.[2][25]

Corporate Members

* ABC News

* Alcoa

* American Express


* Bank of America

* Bloomberg L.P.

* Boeing

* BP

* CA, Inc.

* Chevron

* Citigroup

* Coca-Cola

* De Beers

* Deutsche Bank

* Duke Energy

* DVS Group

* ExxonMobil

* FedEx

* Ford Motor

* General Electric

* GlaxoSmithKline

* Google

* Goldman Sachs

* Halliburton

* Heinz

* Hess


* JPMorgan Chase

* Kohlberg Kravis Roberts

* Lehman Brothers

* Lockheed Martin

* MasterCard

* McGraw-Hill

* McKinsey

* Merck

* Merrill Lynch

* Morgan Stanley

* Motorola


* News Corp

* Nike

* PepsiCo

* Pfizer

* Shell Oil

* Sony Corporation of America

* Tata Group

* Time Warner

* Total S.A.

* Toyota Motor North America


* United Technologies

* United States Chamber of Commerce

* U.S. Trust Corporation

* Verizon

* Visa[26]

Notable current council members

* Angelina Jolie (UN Goodwill Ambassador)[27]

Notable historical members

* Graham Allison

* Robert Orville Anderson

* Les Aspin

* J. Bowyer Bell[28]

* W. Michael Blumenthal

* Harold Brown

* Zbigniew Brzezinski

* William P. Bundy

* George H. W. Bush

* Dick Cheney

* William S. Cohen

* Warren Christopher

* E. Gerald Corrigan

* William J. Crowe

* Kenneth W. Dam

* John W. Davis

* Norman Davis

* C. Douglas Dillon

* Thomas R. Donahue

* Lewis W. Douglas

* Elizabeth Drew

* Peggy Dulany

* Allen Welsh Dulles

* Dianne Feinstein

* Tom Foley

* Leslie H. Gelb

* David Gergen

* Louis V. Gerstner, Jr.

* Maurice R. Greenberg

* Alan Greenspan

* Chuck Hagel

* Najeeb E. Halaby

* W. Averell Harriman

* Theodore M. Hesburgh

* Carla A. Hills

* Stanley Hoffmann

* Richard Holbrooke

* James R. Houghton

* Charlayne Hunter-Gault

* Bobby Ray Inman

* Otto H. Kahn

* Nicholas Katzenbach

* Lane Kirkland

* Jeane Kirkpatrick

* Henry Kissinger

* Walter Lippmann

* Winston Lord

* Charles Mathias, Jr.

* John McCain

* John J. McCloy

* William J. McDonough

* Donald F. McHenry

* George J. Mitchell

* Bill Moyers

* Peter George Peterson

* Frank Polk

* John S. Reed

* Elliot L. Richardson

* Alice M. Rivlin

* David Rockefeller

* Jay Rockefeller

* Robert Roosa

* Elihu Root

* William D. Ruckelshaus

* Brent Scowcroft

* Donna E. Shalala

* George P. Shultz

* Theodore Sorensen

* George Soros

* Adlai E. Stevenson

* Strobe Talbott

* Peter Tarnoff

* Fred Thompson

* Garrick Utley

* Cyrus Vance

* Paul Volcker

* Paul M. Warburg

* Paul Warnke

* Clifton R. Wharton, Jr.

* Owen D. Young

* Robert Zoellick

Source: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996:Historical Roster of Directors and Officers[29]

List of chairmen and chairwomen

* Russell Cornell Leffingwell 1946-1953

* John J. McCloy 1953-1970

* David Rockefeller 1970-1985

* Peter George Peterson 1985-2007

* Carla A. Hills (co-chairman) 2007-

* Robert E. Rubin (co-chairman) 2007-

List of presidents

* John W. Davis 1921-1933

* George W. Wickersham 1933-1936

* Norman Davis 1936-1944

* Russell Cornell Leffingwell 1944-1946

* Allen Welsh Dulles 1946-1950

* Henry Merritt Wriston 1951-1964

* Grayson L. Kirk 1964-1971

* Bayless Manning 1971-1977

* Winston Lord 1977-1985

* John Temple Swing 1985-1986 (Pro tempore)

* Peter Tarnoff 1986-1993

* Alton Frye 1993

* Leslie Gelb 1993-2003

* Richard N. Haass 2003-

Source:The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996: Historical Roster of Directors and Officers[30]


The Council has been the subject of conspiracy theories, partly due to the number of high-ranking government officials in its membership, its secrecy clauses, and the large number of aspects of American foreign policy that its members have been involved with, beginning with Wilson’s Fourteen Points. The John Birch Society believes that the CFR plans a one-world government.[31] Wilson’s Fourteen Points speech was the first in which he suggested a worldwide security organization to prevent future world wars.[32]

For more than a century ideological extremists at either end of the political spectrum have seized upon well-publicized incidents such as my encounter with Castro to attack the Rockefeller family for the inordinate influence they claim we wield over American political and economic institutions. Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as “internationalists” and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure — one world, if you will. If that’s the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it.

—David Rockefeller, “Memoirs” autobiography (2002, Random House publishers), page 405

Historian Carroll Quigley included the CFR in his discussion of the Anglo-American Establishment’s efforts to shape international developments during the 20th century. His book “Tragedy and Hope” was cited by conspiracy theorists as showing that the CFR was engaged in a conspiracy against American interests, though Quigley himself denied this.[33]

Assistant Secretary of Commerce David Bohigian says that there is no truth to the rumors.[34] Senator Kit Bond, who is a member of committees that would have to authorize funding for a NAFTA superhighway, has said that there are no plans for a North American Union and the theories are not valid.[35] However, Rep. Ron Paul has said that Congress has provided “small amounts” of money to study the feasibility of such a highway. Paul also suggested that because the funding constituted “just one item in an enormous transportation appropriations bill… most members of Congress were not aware of it.”[36] Rep. Virgil Goode introduced a resolution in September 2006, with 21 co-sponsors, to prohibit the building of a NAFTA superhighway and an eventual North American Union with Canada and Mexico. The resolution remains in committee.[37]

In 2005, CFR task force co-chairman Robert Pastor testified in Congress in front of the Foreign Relations Committee: “The best way to secure the United States today is not at our two borders with Mexico and Canada, but at the borders of North America as a whole.”[38]

The CFR task force he headed called for one border around North America, freer travel within it, and cooperation among Canadian, Mexican and American military forces and law enforcement for greater security. It called for full mobility of labor among the three countries within five years, similar to the European Union.[2] He also appeared at a CFR forum called “The Future of North American Integration in the Wake of the Terrorist Attacks” on October 17, 2001, discussing the prospect of North American integration in the wake of the September 11 attacks.[39] Conservative commentator Phyllis Schlafly wrote of the 2005 report, “This CFR document, called ‘Building a North American Community,’ asserts that George W. Bush, Mexican President Vicente Fox, and Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin ‘committed their governments’ to this goal when they met at Bush’s ranch and at Waco, Texas on March 23, 2005. The three adopted the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America and assigned ‘working groups’ to fill in the details.”[40]

The document advocated allowing companies to recruit workers from anywhere within North America and called for large loans and aid to Mexico from the US. It called for a court system for North American dispute resolution and said that illegal aliens should be allowed into the United States Social Security system through the Social Security Totalization Agreement. The report called for a fund to be created by the US to allow 60,000 Mexican students to attend US colleges. The report says the plan can be carried out within five years. Other members of the task force included former Massachusetts governor William Weld and immigration chief for President Clinton, Doris Meissner.

Pastor wrote in Foreign Affairs:

“The U.S., Mexican, and Canadian governments remain zealous defenders of an outdated conception of sovereignty even though their citizens are ready for a new approach. Each nation’s leadership has stressed differences rather than common interests. North America needs leaders who can articulate and pursue a broader vision… Countries are benefited when they changed these [national sovereignty] policies, and evidence suggests that North Americans are ready for a new relationship that renders this old definition of sovereignty obsolete.”[41]

Pastor appeared at a CFR-sponsored symposium at Arizona State University on issues that would face the next president.[42]

Publications by the Council on Foreign Relations

* Council on Foreign Relations in association with the Canadian Council of Chief Executives and the Consejo Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales. Building a North American Community: Report of an Independent Task Force. Washington, DC: Council on Foreign Relations, 2005. (Task Force Observers: Sam Boutziouvis, Canadian Council of Chief Executives; Daniel Gerstein, Council on Foreign Relations; Lawrence Spinetta, Council on Foreign Relations; David Stewart-Patterson, Canadian Council of Chief Executives; multiple authors.)

(Among the Miscellaneous articles – )

* Kassenaar, Lisa. “Wall Street’s New Prize: Park Avenue Club House With World View“.[3] Bloomberg December 15, 2005. [Profile of the Council and its new members.]

* Sanger, David E. “Iran’s Leader Relishes 2nd Chance to Make Waves“. The New York Times September 21, 2006, Foreign Desk: A1, col. 2 (Late ed.-Final). Accessed February 23, 2007. (TimesSelect subscription access).

(“Over the objections of the administration and Jewish groups that boycotted the event, Mr. Ahmadinejad, the man who has become the defiant face of Iran, squared off with the nation’s foreign policy establishment, parrying questions for an hour and three-quarters with two dozen members of the Council on Foreign Relations, then ending the evening by asking whether they were simply shills for the Bush administration.”)



My Note –

The other day when I was in the timeline site for 1967, I noticed that the point at which Mexico’s border became a place of American corporate interests opening plants for the use of Mexican national labor forces to work manufacturing American corporate products was actually in 1967 – not at some point thereafter as is commonly believed.

Personally, I don’t think about the Council on Foreign Relations, The Trilateral Commission, The Bilderburg Group and others of a similar nature in the same terms that some people consider them. What I see is that they offer an intimate and personal opportunity for world leaders, lobbyists, companies and those who would exert influence to change the opinion of a few and have far-reaching ripples of influence.

That seems like a vulnerability as noted with the event concerning Mr. Ahmadinejad in 2007 and the Council on Foreign Relations members that hosted him. In such an intimate opportunity to individually and collectively influence those with the power to affect change in foreign and business policy comes an inherent risk of a rarefied air isolated from common sense and an intellectual inbreeding that simply starts to convince itself in its own quarters by common agreement that some things are for the best which may not be. That’s what I see.

Another thing I see generally about the Council, the Trilateral Commission, the World Economic Forum – also, and the Gilded Bilderburg meetings – is that they have, over the years become quite a bit more of a social function with multiple dinners, open bars, socials of various types, parties, golfing or skiing, afternoon social activities, many of which are sponsored by commercial interests with the intention of influencing and promoting their own agenda.

These fortune few of power and decision-making positions that influence huge long-ranging decisions are given many, many special reports about things that go unread, unused, missed, misunderstood and misinterpreted as they are thrown over into a pile while everyone dresses and gathers to party. If that doesn’t make any sense, think about it a minute – what good is a technical report about the economic foundations of the country in comparison to enjoying the social affairs of that environment? Even after coming back from such events, most of the decision-makers have thrown those same critical reports into a stack, into a pile, into a drawer, into a file, into the hands of a secretary to file, or otherwise disregarded them. But, they will remember what the commercial sponsors said about some bill or idea or position.

That’s what I’ve noted.

– cricketdiane, 05-21/22-10


William Bundy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Putnam “Bill” Bundy (September 24, 1917 – October 6, 2000) was a member of the CIA and foreign affairs advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. He had a key role in planning the Vietnam War. After leaving government service he became a historian.

Raised in Boston, Massachusetts he came from a family long involved in politics. His father, Harvey Hollister Bundy, was a diplomat who helped implement the Marshall Plan. Bill was raised in a highly accomplished, highly intellectual family. After attending the Groton School and Yale University (where he was one of the first presidents of the Yale Political Union), he entered Harvard Law School but left to join the Army Signal Corps during World War II. During this time he worked at Bletchley Park in Britain as part of the top secret ULTRA operation to break Nazi codes.

Positions held

During the 1950s he worked as an analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency. During the Kennedy years he was deputy to Assistant Secretary for International Security Affairs Paul Nitze and worked for the Secretary of the Navy. During much of the LBJ era he was an Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific affairs. After resigning from the executive branch in 1969 he taught at MIT and then edited the influential journal of the Council on Foreign Relations (of which he was a member), Foreign Affairs, from 1972 to 1984, after declining the offer of the Council’s chairman, David Rockefeller, to be the Council’s president.

His brother, McGeorge Bundy, was also an integral part of the both the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Bill was married to Mary Acheson, the daughter of Truman’s Secretary of State Dean Acheson. Bill and Mary had three children, Michael, Christopher, and Carol.

Bill was somewhat to the left of his brother politically, and was a spirited opponent of Joseph McCarthy. He was also considered one of the administration’s more dovish members on Vietnam.

He left politics in 1969 to teach at MIT. In 1972 he moved to Princeton University where he remained for the rest of his life. His most noted work is Tangled Web which explores the foreign policy of the Nixon administration.

William Bundy’s papers are held by the Seeley G. Mudd Library at Princeton University, where he was a professor until his death at age 83.



A little more of interest about the Council on Foreign Relations and similar memberships –

Seven American presidents have addressed the Council, two while still in office – Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.[9] – Council on Foreign Relations

Journalist Joseph Kraft, a former member of both the CFR and the Trilateral Commission, said the Council “comes close to being an organ of what C. Wright Mills has called the Power Elite – a group of men, similar in interest and outlook, shaping events from invulnerable positions behind the scenes.”[10]


Economist John Kenneth Galbraith resigned in 1970, objecting to the Council’s policy of allowing government officials to conduct twice-a-year off-the-record briefings with business officials in its Corporation Service.[11]


The Americans who subsequently returned from the conference became drawn to a discreet club of New York financiers and international lawyers who had organized previously in June 1918 and was headed by Elihu Root, J. P. Morgan’s lawyer;[10] this select group called itself the Council on Foreign Relations.[14] They joined this group and the Council was formally established in New York on July 29, 1921, with 108 founding members, including Elihu Root as a leading member, geographer Isaiah Bowman as a founding Director, and John W. Davis, the chief counsel for J. P. Morgan & Co. and former Solicitor General for President Wilson,[10] as its founding president. Davis was to become Democratic presidential candidate in 1924.

Other members included John Foster Dulles, Herbert H. Lehman, Henry L. Stimson, Averell Harriman, the Rockefeller family’s public relations expert, Ivy Lee,[15] and Paul M. Warburg and Otto Kahn of the investment bank Kuhn, Loeb.[10]

(also from wikipedia entry – Council on Foreign Relations)


So, from this I have –


and going back one page –

I had a google search open here and wanted to grab one thing out of the list I had seen then I’ll go back to the Sutherland Muckety Map and open the link to the other associations he has – including the Goldman Sachs International – and the World Economic Forum, World Trade Organization ones –

see who he shares these boards with –


Trilateral Commisson meet in Dublin – Indymedia Ireland

May 7, 2010 Map relationships among people and organizations: http://www.muckety.com/Peter
Sutherland/3525.muckety. just some of Sutherland’s Globaist


My Note –

_ although what it tells me is that I need to go over to the European Union site and access some information about the Trilateral Commissions last meetings and their other influence lately –

From that page – they have met since the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster was looming and since the Goldman Sachs and Bear Stearns, Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s and financial reform investigations in the Senate and Congressional Committees have happened.


– cricketdiane, 05-20-10 (these notes about the Trilateral Commission meeting recently were taken from my earlier post about the oil spill, BP and its decision-makers on 05-20-10, I think it was.)


Trilateral Commisson meet in Dublin

category international | rights and freedoms | news report author Friday May 07, 2010 23:29author by Patricia McKenna –<

Trilateral Commission meet in Dublin for the first time

As the Trilateral Commission meet in Ireland this weekend political campaigners have made a call on for the media report on the issue and let us the public know what is going on there – and most of all who is attending this behind closed doors meeting which is being kept secret and protected at taxpayers expense.

The public in Ireland need to know about the Trilaterial Commission Meeting in Ireland. This is a public interest story that need exposure somewhere.

Trilateral Commission AGM in Ireland
Existentialist 2010-05-06 19:49
Trilateral Commission AGM in Dublin from 7th – 9th May 2010

This gathering of about 400 merits a demo because it will consist of some of the business leaders and academic friends of big business and bankers who are spreading financial meltdown to Europe, and most likely to Ireland. It hosts people like war criminal Henry Kissinger. Does anyone know where they are likely to meet in Dublin?

For more info about the Trilateral Commission goto:

Related Link: http://www.anomalies.net/object/trilateral_library.html

So, going back to the next page again –

European Institute

People related to European Institute:

Jacqueline Grapin – president

Peter Sutherland – director


John J. McCloy

John Jay McCloy (March 31, 1895, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – March 11, 1989, Stamford, Connecticut) was a lawyer and banker who later became a prominent United States presidential advisor. He was known for his opposition to the World War II atomic bombing of Japan, his refusal to endorse compensation to the 110,000 Japanese-Americans who were held in internment camps within the USA, and his refusal as Assistant Secretary of War to endorse USAAF bombing raids on the rail approaches to Auschwitz concentration camp that would have saved countless Nazi Holocaust victims.

McCloy was educated at Peddie School, New Jersey, and Amherst College. He enrolled in Harvard Law School in 1916, but would have his education interrupted by World War I. He was commissioned into the U.S. army as a Second Lieutenant in 1917, being promoted to Captain in 1918. He served with the American Expeditionary Force in France in 1918 and 1919. He received his LL.B. from Harvard in 1921.[1]

He was a legal counselor to the major German chemical combine I. G. Farben, and was the Assistant Secretary of War from 1941 to 1945, during which he was noted for opposing the nuclear bombing of Japan. [2] McCloy was notably supportive of the Third Reich at least until 1939 and was photographed sitting with Hitler at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.

During World War II, as Assistant Secretary of War, McCloy was a crucial voice in setting U.S. military priorities. The War Department was petitioned throughout late 1944 to help save Nazi prisoners by ordering the bombing of the railroad lines leading to Auschwitz and the gas chambers in the camp. McCloy responded that only heavy bombers would be able to reach the sites from England, and that those bombers would be too vulnerable and were needed elsewhere.

However, only a few months earlier, Allied forces had bombed industrial centers just a few kilometers away from the extermination camp, and would continue to do so, apparently even causing some damage to buildings in Auschwitz, while sustaining very low losses. Indeed, regular US bombing raids from Foggia, Italy to nearby strategic targets routinely crossed right over Auschwitz en route. [3] On another occasion, when replying to another appeal to bomb the gas chambers, McCloy claimed that the final decision on the selection of bombing targets, including those attacked by American planes, lay with the British alone. This was an incorrect claim.

According to Michael Beschloss, in an interview three years before the latter’s death (in 1986) with Henry Morgenthau, III, McCloy claimed that the decision not to bomb Auschwitz was President Roosevelt’s and that he was merely fronting for him. [4] This appears possible, given Roosevelt’s generally unsympathetic response to the Holocaust, but is otherwise unsupported.

Further, McCloy also alleged to Morgenthau that Roosevelt refused to approve the Auschwitz rail bombing because he would then be accused of also killing Auschwitz prisoners. As they were about to be gassed en masse anyway, this allegation by McCloy is highly suspect and self-serving. In the early 1970s, McCloy claimed that he himself “could no more order a bombing attack on Auschwitz than order a raid on Berlin.” [5]

However, while in the field with General Jacob L. Devers, advancing eastward through Germany in early 1945, a “suggestion” from McCloy resulted in Devers’ Army bypassing and sparing the historic Romantic Road town of Rothenberg o.d. Tauber. For his action, McCloy was later made an honorary citizen of the town.[6] These and other pro-German actions by McCloy resulted in significant protests much later, when McCloy was announcing the Volkswagen Scholarship at Harvard University in 1983.

From March 1947 to June 1949, McCloy was president of the World Bank. In 1949 he replaced Lucius D. Clay who was the Military Governor for the U.S. Zone in Germany as the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany and held this position until 1952, during which time he oversaw the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany. At his direction, a campaign of wholesale pardoning and commutation of sentences of Nazi criminals took place, including those of the prominent industrialists Friedrich Flick and Alfried Krupp. McCloy also pardoned Ernst von Weizsäcker. (In 1978 Ernst Weizsacker’s son German President Richard von Weizsäcker conferred honorary German Citizenship on McCloy). Some of the less notable figures were retried and convicted in the newly independent West Germany. His successor as High Commissioner was James B. Conant; the office was terminated in 1955.

Following this, he served as chairman of the Chase Manhattan Bank from 1953 to 1960, and as chairman of the Ford Foundation from 1958 to 1965; he was also a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1946 to 1949, and then again from 1953 to 1958, before he took up the position at Ford.

From 1954 to 1970, he was chairman of the prestigious Council on Foreign Relations in New York, to be succeeded by David Rockefeller, who had worked closely with him at the Chase Bank. McCloy had a long association with the Rockefeller family, going back to his early Harvard days when he taught the young Rockefeller brothers how to sail. He was also a member of the Draper Committee, formed in 1958 by Eisenhower.

He later served as advisor to John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, and Ronald Reagan, and was the primary negotiator on the Presidential Disarmament Committee. In 1963, he was awarded the prestigious Sylvanus Thayer Award by the United States Military Academy at West Point for his service to the country.

He was selected by Johnson to serve on the Warren Commission in 1963. Notably, he was initially sceptical of the lone gunman theory, but a trip to Dallas with Allen Dulles, an old friend also serving on the Commission, in the spring of 1964 to visit the scene of the assassination convinced him of the case against Oswald. The only prominent lawyer among the seven commissioners, he brokered the final consensus — avoiding a minority dissenting report — and the crucial wording of the primary conclusion of the final report. He stated that any possible evidence of a conspiracy was “beyond the reach” of all of America’s investigatory agencies — principally the FBI and the CIA — as well as the Commission itself.

From 1966 to 1968 he was Honorary Chairman of the Paris-based Atlantic Institute.[7]

Law Firm Background

Originally a partner of the Cravath firm in New York, after the war McCloy became a name partner in the Rockefeller-associated prominent New York law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy. In this capacity he acted for the “Seven Sisters”, the leading multinational oil companies, including Exxon, in their initial confrontations with the nationalisation movement in Libya—as well as negotiations with Saudi Arabia and OPEC. Because of his stature in the legal world and his long association with the Rockefellers, and as a presidential adviser, he was sometimes referred to as the “Chairman of the American Establishment”.

Further reading

* The Chairman: John J. McCloy – The Making of the American Establishment, Kai Bird, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

* The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made: Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, and McCloy, Walter Isaacson & Evan Thomas, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.

* The Chase: The Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A., 1945-85, John Donald Wilson, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1986.

* Memoirs, David Rockefeller, New York: Random House, 2002.

3. ^ Dino Brugioni and Robert Poirier, CIA photo analysts, whose revelatory 1944 file photos of Auschwitz taken from US bombers passing directly overhead, and 1978 refutation of John McCloy’s lies about bombing “feasibility”, were printed in THE NEW YORK TIMES and elsewhere in 1979. President Jimmy Carter personally directed the release of these photos and their 1978 interpretation.

4. ^ Beschloss

5. ^ Letter from John J. McCloy to Donald L. Pevsner, following Pevsner’s citing to McCloy of the damning allegations in “While Six Million Died”, by Arthur D. Morse (1967).

6. ^ “The Arms of Krupp”, by William Manchester, 1968.

7. ^ (2007) Who Was Who. A&C Black.

See also

* Chase Manhattan Bank

* Council on Foreign Relations

* David Rockefeller

* Rockefeller family

* Japanese American internment

* Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy

* Warren Commission

* World Bank

Presidents of the World Bank

Eugene Meyer * John J. McCloy * Eugene R. Black, Sr. * George David Woods * Robert McNamara * Alden W. Clausen * Barber Conable * Lewis Thompson Preston * James Wolfensohn * Paul Wolfowitz * Robert Zoellick

Members of the Warren Commission

Earl Warren (Chairman)

Hale Boggs • John Cooper • Allen Dulles • Gerald Ford • John McCloy • Richard Russell



Allen Welsh Dulles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Allen Dulles)

5th Director of Central Intelligence

In office

February 26, 1953 – November 29, 1961

President         Dwight D. Eisenhower

John F. Kennedy

Preceded by    Walter Bedell Smith

Succeeded by John McCone

Born    April 7, 1893

Watertown, New York

Died    January 29, 1969 (aged 75)

Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961) Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency) and a member of the Warren Commission. Between stints of government service, Dulles was a corporate lawyer and partner at Sullivan & Cromwell.

* 1 Early life and family

* 2 Background in intelligence

* 3 CIA career

* 4 Later life

* 5 “Dulles’ Plan”

Allen Dulles was born on April 7, 1893, in Watertown, New York, and grew up in a family where public service was valued and world affairs were a common topic of discussion. Dulles was one of five children born to Presbyterian minister Allen Macy Dulles and his wife Edith (Foster).

He was the younger brother of John Foster Dulles, Eisenhower’s Secretary of State and Chairman and Senior Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell, and the grandson of John W. Foster, another U.S. Secretary of State and brother to diplomat Eleanor Lansing Dulles.

His uncle (by marriage) Robert Lansing also was a U.S. Secretary of State.[1]

His nephew, Avery Dulles, is a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and a Jesuit priest and noted theologian who teaches and resides at Fordham University in The Bronx, New York.

He graduated from Princeton University, and in 1916 entered the diplomatic service.

Dulles was serving in Switzerland and was responsible for reviewing and rejecting Lenin’s application for a visa to the United States.

In 1920 he married Clover Todd, daughter of a Columbia University professor; their only son, Allen Macy Dulles, Jr., was wounded and permanently disabled in the Korean War when a mortar fragment penetrated his brain.

In 1926 he earned a law degree from George Washington University and took a job at the New York firm where his brother, John Foster Dulles, was a partner.

Background in intelligence

Dulles was appointed by William J. Donovan to become head of operations in New York for the Coordinator of Information (COI), which was set up in Room 3603 of Rockefeller Center, taking over offices staffed by Britain’s MI6. The COI was the precursor to the Office of Strategic Services, renamed in 1942.

During the 1930s Allen Dulles gained much experience in Germany. An early foe of Adolf Hitler, Dulles was transferred from Britain to Berne, Switzerland for the rest of World War II, and notably was heavily involved in the controversial and secret Operation Sunrise. He is featured in the classic Soviet TV series Seventeen Moments of Spring for his role in that operation. Dulles became the station chief in Berne, Switzerland, for the newly formed Office of Strategic Services (the precursor to the CIA), a logical one. Dulles supplied his government with much sensitive information about Nazi Germany.

Dulles worked on intelligence regarding German plans and activities. Dulles established wide contacts with German émigrés, resistance figures, and anti-Nazi intelligence officers (who linked him, through Hans Bernd Gisevius, to the tiny but daring opposition to Hitler in Germany itself). Although Washington barred Dulles from making firm commitments to the plotters of the 20 July 1944 attempt to assassinate Hitler, the conspirators nonetheless gave him reports on developments in Germany, including sketchy but accurate warnings of plans for Hitler’s V-1 and V-2 missiles.

Dulles’s career was jump-started by the information provided by Fritz Kolbe, a German diplomat and a foe of the Nazis. Kolbe supplied secret documents regarding active German spies and plans regarding the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter. In 1945, he played a central role in negotiations leading to the unconditional capitulation of German troops in Italy.

After the war in Europe, Dulles served for six months as the OSS Berlin station chief. In 1947, Congress created the Central Intelligence Agency. Dulles was closely involved with its development. His translator at this time was Henry Kissinger, who worked for Army Intelligence.

Dulles’ CIA Operation Paperclip assimilated Nazi scientists into the American establishment by obscuring their histories and short circuiting efforts to bring their true stories to light. The project was led by officers in the United States Army. Although the program officially ended in September 1947, those officers and others carried out a conspiracy until the mid-fifties that bypassed both law and presidential directive to keep Paperclip going. Neither Presidents Truman nor Eisenhower were informed that their instructions were ignored.

In the 1948 Presidential election, Allen Dulles was Republican nominee Thomas E. Dewey’s chief advisor. The Dulles brothers and James Forrestal helped form the Office of Policy Coordination. Under President Eisenhower, Dulles became CIA director.

CIA career

In 1953, Dulles became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence, which had been formed in 1947 as part of the National Security Act; earlier directors had been military officers. The Agency’s covert operations were an important part of the Eisenhower administration’s new Cold War national security policy known as the “New Look”.

Under Dulles’s direction, the CIA created MK-Ultra, a top secret mind control research project which was managed by Sidney Gottlieb. Dulles also personally oversaw Operation Mockingbird, a program which influenced American media companies as part of the “New Look”.

(from wikipedia entry – Allen Dulles)



Just a quick note  –

North American Chairman: JOSEPH S. NYE, JR.

University Distinguished Service Professor and former Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Chair, National Intelligence Council and former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs

European Chairman: PETER SUTHERLAND

Chairman, BP p.l.c., London; Chairman, Goldman Sachs International; Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for Migrations; former Director General, GATT/WTO, Geneva; former Member of the European Commission; former Attorney General of Ireland

Pacific Asian Chairman: YOTARO KOBAYASHI

Chief Corporate Advisor, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd., Tokyo

North American Deputy Chairman: ALLAN E. GOTLIEB

Senior Adviser, Bennett Jones LLP, Toronto, ON; Chairman, Sotheby’s, Canada; former Canadian Ambassador to the United States

Former North American Chairmen:

THOMAS S. FOLEY (2001-2008)

PAUL A. VOLCKER (1991-2001) Honorary North American Chairman

DAVID ROCKEFELLER (1977-91) Founder and Honorary North American Chairman

GERARD C. SMITH (1973-77)

Former European Chairmen:

OTTO GRAF LAMBSDORFF (1992-2001) Honorary European Chairman

GEORGES BERTHOIN (1976-92) Honorary European Chairman



(my note – all of these are coming from my files – I’m working on it, cricketdiane)


(more about Allen Dulles – and our national intelligence groups)

In the early 1950s the U.S. Air Force conducted a competition for a new photo reconnaissance aircraft. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s Skunk Works submitted a design number called the CL-282, which married sailplane-like wings to the body of a supersonic interceptor. This aircraft was rejected by the Air Force, but several of the civilians on the review board took notice, and Edwin Land presented a proposal for the aircraft to Dulles. The aircraft became what is known as the U-2 spy plane, and it was initially operated by CIA pilots. Its introduction into operational service in 1957 greatly enhanced the CIA’s ability to monitor Soviet activity through overhead photo surveillance. Ironically, the aircraft eventually entered service with the Air force, who still operate it today.

At the direction of President Eisenhower, Dulles established Operation 40, comprised of 40 officials and agents whose primary area of operations was the Caribbean region, including Cuba. On 4 March, 1960, La Coubre, a ship flying a Belgian flag, exploded in Havana Bay. It was loaded with arms and ammunition destined for the armed forces of the government of Fidel Castro. The explosion killed 75 people and over 200 were injured. Fabian Escalante, an officer of the Department of State Security (G-2), later claimed that this was the first successful act carried out by Operation 40.

– wikipedia, entry – Allen Dulles



Former Defense Secretary Robert McNamara has died.

McNamara, 93, died at home in his sleep Monday morning, his wife Diana told The Associated Press. She said he had been in failing health for some time.

Known as a policymaker with a fixation for statistical analysis, McNamara was president of the Ford Motor Co. when President John F. Kennedy asked him to head the Pentagon in 1961. (responsible for the Edsel debacle, my note)

McNamara worked for seven years as the defense secretary in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, longer than any other person in that post. He headed the war department during the build-up of forces in Vietnam.

He is considered the architect of the concept of “mutual assured destruction,” a key feature of the nuclear arms race during the Cold War.


No bed of roses for Le Roy

The new UN peacekeeping chief has a tough job ahead: to find an effective role for the blue helmets in a multipolar world

o guardian.co.uk, Wednesday 20 August 2008 20.00 BST

Next Monday, the UN’s new peacekeeping chief gets to work. Alain Le Roy, a French diplomat with experience in Africa and the Balkans, will take charge of 90,000 troops and police. No country save the US has as many personnel deployed abroad.

Le Roy will not have much time to settle in. If the number of UN peacekeepers worldwide is at a record high – almost seven times the figure for 2000 – the number of problems facing them is also peaking.

Some are practical, like a perennial shortage of helicopters. Worse is the fear that the international consensus on the UN’s role is eroding. The boom in peacekeeping may end.

From Darfur to Georgia, UN missions have been in well-publicized trouble this summer. Like Nato in Afghanistan, the UN increasingly has to operate in places where there is little peace to keep. But its lack of resources make struggling Nato look over-equipped.

In New York, a sense of crisis prevails. Le Roy’s predecessor, the intellectual and respected Jean-Marie Guéhenno, concluded that peacekeeping is at its “outer limits”.

The first task for Le Roy is to reassure his staff – and UN members that are funding operations to the tune of over $7bn a year – that peacekeeping can survive this strain.

He will need to lobby hard for extra money and equipment to reinforce his biggest missions. He is well-placed to do so: when Guéhenno announced his retirement earlier this year, Le Roy was named by many UN insiders as their preferred replacement.

He can build on a series of management reforms introduced by Guéhenno and Ban Ki-moon, the secretary general. These have left the department of peacekeeping operations (DPKO) considerably more efficient than most parts of the doddering UN bureaucracy.

And Le Roy will know that the blue helmets enjoy significant public support, for the first time since Rwanda and Bosnia. UN staffers sometimes raise their eyebrows at celebrity backing from George Clooney and co, but it has turned their reputation around.

Even the greatest celebrity of the moment recognises the dilemmas of peacekeeping. In a 2007 Foreign Affairs article, Barack Obama worried that the UN is now “overextended”.

Western governments have been falling over each other to launch initiatives to boost UN operations. With luck, it should be possible to turn some of this goodwill into resources in the short term. But UN peacekeeping faces much longer-term strategic challenges too.

These aren’t about management. They involve adapting to a less American, more multipolar world. The current scale of UN peacekeeping is a product of the last, all-too-American decade. The Bush administration favoured hefty UN missions to stabilise countries where it did not want to get bogged down itself: Haiti, Liberia, Darfur.

UN officials, shaken by their impotence over Iraq, have often felt obliged to look “relevant” elsewhere. The result has been a trend towards bigger peace operations with ever-more ambitious, perhaps unrealistic, mandates to rebuild these shattered states.

In private, many of the organisation’s experts worry that they cannot fulfil these mandates – almost all would prefer less expansive alternatives with realistic targets.

But the greatest obstacle to effective peace operations is that tensions between the US and its rivals can reduce the UN to paralysis. China has ensured that the UN mission in Darfur cannot push back much (if at all) against pressure from the Sudanese government.

Throughout 2008, Russia has stymied efforts to transfer UN peacekeeping responsibilities to the EU in Kosovo. UN observers in Georgia evacuated as Russian troops advanced this month.

If great power tensions increase further, the chances for more UN missions can only decrease. That would be tragic for the vulnerable who rely on the UN from Port-au-Prince to Kinshasa. It might be dangerous for the great powers too. Without the UN to provide basic security, the odds of small flare-ups escalating into big crises will grow.

So as Alain Le Roy looks beyond his first round of crises, he may decide that his overarching strategic task is to build up a minimal consensus between the US, its allies and its rivals about what UN peacekeeping is for in an age of tensions between them.

It’s not the sort of thing that wins much celebrity love. But it is the sort of thing that is good for international peace and security. That’s what the UN was founded to preserve.



Raymond Aron

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Raymond-Claude-Ferdinand Aron (14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist and political scientist, well known to the broad public for his skeptical analyses of the post-war vogue in France for leftist ideologies that largely took their inspiration from a Marxist tradition.


Aron, the son of a Jewish lawyer, studied at the École Normale Supérieure where he met Jean-Paul Sartre (who became his friend and lifelong intellectual opponent). He took 1st place in the Agrégation of philosophy in 1928, the year Sartre failed the same exam. In 1930, he received a doctorate in the philosophy of history from the École Normale Supérieure. In 1939, when World War II began, he had been teaching social philosophy at the University of Toulouse for a few weeks; he left the University and joined the Armée de l’Air. When France was defeated, he left for London to join the Free French forces, and between 1940 and 1944 edited their newspaper, France Libre (Free France).

At the close of the war, he returned to Paris to teach sociology at the École Nationale d’Administration and at the Paris Institute of Political Studies (also known as “Sciences Po”), maintaining that the government of Vichy France and Marshal Philippe Pétain had chosen the lesser of two evils in collaborating with the Nazis during World War II. From 1955 to 1968, he taught at the Sorbonne, and after 1970 at the Collège de France.

A lifelong journalist, Aron in 1947 became an influential columnist for Le Figaro, a position he held for thirty years until he joined L’Express, where he wrote a political column up to his death.

Infused as he was with a liberal disposition, Aron’s views on multiple citizenship and dual nationality were pessimistic. In his 1974 article, “Is Multinational Citizenship Possible?” he clearly considered it an anachronism, totally incommensurate with the logic of the sovereign-state system. Aron argued that multiple citizenship could not break the indelible link between the individual citizen and his nation-state. Citizenship, according to Aron, was a special relation between the individual and the state; citizenship defined the state’s rule within a specific territory, and in turn the state determined who its citizens were and what rights and obligations bound citizens to the state.

Political commitment

When sojourning in Berlin, Aron saw Nazi book burnings and developed from that an aversion to totalitarian systems. In 1938, he participated in the Colloque Walter Lippmann ((French) Colloque Walter Lippmann) in Paris.

After the war, he opposed Jean-Paul Sartre and leftist ideologies, without also always backing Charles de Gaulle or other right-wing political movements.

See also

* Liberalism

* Contributions to liberal theory

* Liberalism and radicalism in France


* La Sociologie allemande contemporaine, Paris: Alcan, 1935; German Sociology, London: Heinemann, 1957

* Introduction à la philosophie de l’histoire. Essai sur les limites de l’objectivité historique, Paris: Gallimard, 1938; Introduction to the Philosophy of History: An Essay on the Limits of Historical Objectivity, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1948

* Essai sur la théorie de l’histoire dans l’Allemagne contemporaine. La philosophie critique de l’histoire, Paris: Vrin, 1938

* L’Homme contre les tyrans, New York, Editions de la Maison française, 1944

* De l’armistice à l’insurrection nationale, Paris: Gallimard, 1945

* L’Âge des empires et l’Avenir de la France, Paris: Défense de la France, 1945

* Le Grand Schisme, Paris: Gallimard, 1948

* Les Guerres en chaîne, Paris: Gallimard, 1951

* La Coexistence pacifique. Essai d’analyse, Paris: Editions Monde nouveau, 1953 (under the pseudonym François Houtisse, with Boris Souvarine)

* L’Opium des intellectuels, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1955; The Opium of the Intellectuals, London: Secker & Warburg, 1957

* Polémiques, Paris: Gallimard, 1955

* La Tragédie algérienne, Paris: Plon, 1957

* Espoir et peur du siècle. Essais non partisans, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1957

* L’Algérie et la République, Paris: Plon, 1958

* La Société industrielle et la Guerre, suivi d’un Tableau de la diplomatie mondiale en 1958, Paris: Plon, 1959

* Immuable et changeante. De la IVe à la Ve République, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1959

* Dimensions de la conscience historique, Paris: Plon, 1961

* Paix et guerre entre les nations, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1962; Peace and War, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966

* Le Grand Débat. Initiation à la stratégie atomique, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1963

* Dix-huit leçons sur la société industrielle, Paris: Gallimard, 1963; Eighteen Lectures on Industrial Society, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967

* La Lutte des classes, Paris: Gallimard, 1964

* Essai sur les libertés, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1965

* Démocratie et totalitarisme, 1965

* Trois essais sur l’âge industriel, Paris: Plon, 1966

* Les Étapes de la pensée sociologique, Paris: Gallimard, 1967; Main Currents in Sociological Thought, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1965

* De Gaulle, Israël et les Juifs, Paris: Plon, 1968

* La Révolution introuvable. Réflexions sur les événements de mai, Paris: Fayard, 1968

* Les Désillusions du progrès, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1969; Progress and Disillusion: The Dialectics of Modern Society, Pall Mall Press, 1968

* D’une sainte famille à l’autre. Essai sur le marxisme imaginaire, Paris: Gallimard, 1969

* De la condition historique du sociologue, Paris: Gallimard, 1971

* Études politiques, Paris, 1972

* République impériale. Les États-unis dans le monde (1945–1972), Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1973; The Imperial Republic: The United States and the World 1945-1973, Little Brown & Company 1974

* Histoire et dialectique de la violence, Paris: Gallimard, 1973; History and the Dialectic of Violence: Analysis of Sartre’s Critique de la raison dialectique, Oxford: Blackwell, 1979

* Penser la guerre, Clausewitz, Paris: Gallimard, 1976; Clausewitz: Philosopher of War, London: Routledge, 1983

* Plaidoyer pour l’Europe décadente, Paris: Laffont, 1977; In Defense of Decadent Europe, South Bend IN: Regnery, 1977

* with Andre Glucksman and Benny Levy. “Sartre’s Errors: A Discussion”. TELOS 44 (Summer 1980). New York: Telos Press

* Le Spectateur engagé, Paris: Julliard, 1981 (interviews)

* Mémoires, Paris: Julliard, 1983

* Les dernières années du siècle, Paris: Julliard, 1984

* Ueber Deutschland und den Nationalsozialismus. Fruehe politische Schriften 1930-1939, Joachim Stark, ed. and pref., Opladen: Leske & Budrich, 1993

* Le Marxisme de Marx, Paris: Éditions de Fallois, 2002

* De Giscard à Mitterrand: 1977-1983 (editorials from L’Express), with preface by Jean-Claude Casanova, Paris: Éditions de Fallois, 2005

Other media

* Raymond Aron, spectateur engagé. Entretiens avec Raymond Aron. (Duration: 160 mins.), DVD, Éditions Montparnasse, 2005


* Launay, Stephen, La Pensée politique de Raymond Aron, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1995

* Anderson, Brian C., Raymond Aron: The Recovery of the Political, Rowman & Littlefield, 1998

* Mahoney, Daniel and Bryan-Paul Frost (eds.), Political Reason in the Age of Ideology: Essays in Honor of Raymond Aron, New Brunswick/London: Transaction Publishers, 2006

* Stark, Joachim, Das unvollendete Abenteuer. Geschichte, Gesellschaft und Politik im Werk Raymond Arons, Wuerzburg: Koenigshausen und Neumann, 1986

* Stark, Joachim, Raymond Aron (1905-1983), in Dirk Kaesler, Klassiker der Soziologie, Vol.II: Von Talcott Parsons bis Anthony Giddens, Munich: Beck, 5th ed., 2007, 105-129

* Davis, Reed M. A Politics of Understanding: The International Thought of Raymond Aron. Baton Rouge, LA.:Louisiana State University Press ISBN 978-0-8071-3517-4

* Davis, Reed M. A Politics of Understanding: The International Thought of Raymond Aron. Baton Rouge LA.:Louisiana State University Press, 2009 ISBN 978-0-8071-3517-4

External links

* Profile page for Raymond Aron on the Find-A-Grave web site

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Aron&#8221;

Categories: 1905 births | 1983 deaths | 20th-century French philosophers | 20th-century philosophers | French agnostics | French sociologists | Collège de France faculty | French philosophers | French political scientists | French liberals | Erasmus Prize winners | Alumni of Sciences Po | Alumni of the École Normale Supérieure | Jewish philosophers | Jewish scientists | Jewish sociologists | French anti-communists | Scholars of Marxism | French Jews | French military personnel of World War II | Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class) | French columnists




Ocean acoustic tomography * Sofar bomb * SOFAR channel * Underwater acoustics * Hydroacoustics

Sofar bomb

In oceanography, a sofar bomb (SOund Fixing And Ranging bomb) is a long-range position-fixing system that uses explosive sounds in the deep sound channel of the ocean, where the speed of sound is minimal. A position is determined from the differences in arrival times at a known geographic position of signals sent from elsewhere. The useful range from the signal sources to the monitor station can exceed 3,000 miles (4,800 km).

Dr. Maurice Ewing suggested putting small hollow metal spheres in pilots’ emergency kits, which implode when they sink to the sofar channel, acting as a secret homing beacon.

See also

  • Thermocline, a steep temperature gradient in a body of water such as a lake, marked by a layer above and below which the water is at different temperatures.





Bistatic sonar

Most sonar systems are monostatic, in that the transmitter and receiver are in the same place. Bistatic sonar describes when the transmitter and receiver(s) are separated by a distance large enough to be comparable to the distance to the target.

In monostatic sonar, the first thing the receiver can hear is the sound of the transmitted ping. This sound level is very high, and it is impossible to detect the echo during the ping duration τ. That means targets are undetectable within the circle of Cτ/2 radius, where C is sound speed in water. This area is usually referred to as “dead zone”. If the sonar is close to the surface, bottom or both, (which may happen in shallow water), the dead zone may be greater than Cτ/2 due to a high level of reverberation.

In bistatic sonar, the travel distance from projector to target and from target to receiver is R = Rpt + Rtr . As the projector is separated from receiver by Rpr distance, first Rpr /C seconds after the ping starts, the receiver is just waiting. After that time, it receives direct signal from the projector (often referred to as “direct blast”,[1]) which lasts Cτ seconds. So the sonar cannot detect targets within the ellipse R = Rpr + Cτ, as shown at the picture. High level reverberation in the projector area does not affect the dead zone.

Target scattering pattern

Targets do not reflect the sound omni-directionally. The mechanism of sound reflection (or scattering by the target) is complicated, because the target is not just a rigid sphere. Scattered sound level depends on the angle β from which the target is ensonified by the projector, and it also varies with angle scattering direction α (refer to local target axes Z{x,y}). These angles are often referred to as aspects.

In monostatic sonar the receiver is listening to the echo which is reflected (scattered) right back from the target. Bistatic sonar can work in two ways: by utilizing either the target backscattering or forward scattering. Backscattering bistatic sonar is the sonar in which the bistatic angle φ is less than 90º. Forward scattering is the physical phenomena based on Babinet’s principle. Forward scattering bistatic sonar is the sonar in which the bistatic angle φ is greater than 90º.

Pseudo-monostatic sonar

This is the sonar with a small bistatic angle. In other words, both the range from projector to target Rpt and from target to receiver Rtr is much greater than the distance from projector to receiver Rpr.

Long range surveillance

For coastal surveillance, a large receive array of hydrophones is usually deployed close to the shore and connected with cables to a land-based processing center. To enable long range target detection (far away from the shore), one can use a powerful mobile projector, deployable from the ship. A system of this kind exploits the idea of “bringing the projector closer to area of interest and getting the transmission loss down”.

Large area surveillance with a single projector and a net of receivers

A system of this type is multistatic. It exploits the idea of “cover the area of interest with a sparse net of receivers and ensonify the whole area with a powerful projector”. Receive nodes may be sonobuoys (with radio communication link to a processing center) or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) with an acoustic communication link.[2] The example is GOATS project,[3] using AUVs as receive nodes.

Low frequency towed sonar

The lower the frequency, the less the transmission loss absorbing and scattering components. On the other hand, the lower the frequency, the larger the size of directional projector and receive array. So the ship-deployable long range sonar is a low frequency bistatic towed array sonar with spatially separated projector and receive array. The example is LFATS towed sonar.[4]



My Note –

Yes, I realize that the acoustic information above do not seem to fit the other information in this post – but they actually do, and I could explain why but then you’d know that I know and I don’t think that would be very handy right now. Suffice it to say – it does fit together in very important ways and will make much better sense as I get a bit more of the information into the posts I am making.

– cricketdiane, 05-22-10


Peter Sutherland

He was the youngest ever European Commissioner and served in the first Delors Commission, where he played a crucial role in opening up competition across Europe, particularly the airline, telecoms, and energy sectors. Subsequently he was Director General of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (now the World Trade Organisation). Later Mickey Kantor, the US Trade Minister, credited him with being the father of globalization and said that without him there would have been no WTO.The Uruguay round of global trade talks, concluded in 1994 with Sutherland as chair of GATT, produced the biggest trade agreement in history and established the World Trade Organisation.

He is non-executive Chairman of Goldman Sachs International (a registered UK broker-dealer, a subsidiary of Goldman Sachs). He was previously non-executive chairman of BP and was a director of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group until he was asked to leave the board when it had to be taken over by the UK government to avoid bankruptcy. He also formerly served on the board of ABB.

He is on the steering committee of the Bilderberg Group , a chairman of the Trilateral Commission[1] and vice chairman of the European Round Table of Industrialists.[2]

He is a member of the Comite d’Honneur of the Institute of European Affairs, and an Honorary President of the European Movement Ireland.[3]

Peter Sutherland (left) speaking with Garret FitzGerald (centre) and Will Hutton (right), at the Institute of European Affairs in Dublin in 2006.

He was appointed as a member of the Hong Kong Chief Executive’s Council of International Advisers in the years of 1998–2005.[4]

He is President of the Federal Trust for Education and Research, a British think tank. He is Chairman of The Ireland Fund of Great Britain, part of The Ireland Funds.[5] He is a member of the advisory council of Business for New Europe, a British pro-European think-tank.[6]

In 2005, he was appointed as Goodwill Ambassador for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization.[7] In Spring 2006 he was appointed Chair of London School of Economics Council commencing in 2008.[8]

( . . . )

On 5 December 2006, he was appointed as Consultor of the Extraordinary Section of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (a financial adviser to the Vatican).[10]

On 22 January 2010 he said while in Dublin that Ireland should have fewer universities.[11][12][13]

Outside banking, Sutherland in early 2010 finished a 13-year stint as chairman of BP, Europe’s largest oil company. At one point during his tenure, the company was valued on the stock market at £236 billion (it is currently worth about £120 billion) and was making £42 million a day in profits.[16]

The next stage of his career Surtherland disclosed that he has decided to join three boards – at German insurer Allianz; Koc Holdings, Turkey’s largest conglomerate; and a Chinese shipping company.[18]


He is non-executive Chairman of Goldman Sachs International (a registered UK broker-dealer, a subsidiary of Goldman Sachs). He was previously non-executive chairman of BP and was a director of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group until he was asked to leave the board when it had to be taken over by the UK government to avoid bankruptcy. He also formerly served on the board of ABB.

He is on the steering committee of the Bilderberg Group , a chairman of the Trilateral Commission[1] and vice chairman of the European Round Table of Industrialists.[2]


(from the Allen Dulles entry on wikipedia – cont,)

Operation 40 not only was involved in sabotage operations but also, in fact, evolved into a team of assassins. One member, Frank Sturgis, claimed: “this assassination group (Operation 40) would upon orders, naturally, assassinate either members of the military or the political parties of the foreign country that you were going to infiltrate, and if necessary some of your own members who were suspected of being foreign agents… We were concentrating strictly in Cuba at that particular time.”

Over the next few years Operation 40 worked closely with several anti-Castro Cuban organizations including Alpha 66. CIA officials and freelance agents such as William Harvey, Thomas G. Clines, Porter Goss, Gerry Patrick Hemming, E. Howard Hunt, David Sánchez Morales, Carl Elmer Jenkins, Bernard Barker, Barry Seal, Frank Sturgis, William Robert Plumlee (“Tosh” Plumlee), and William C. Bishop also joined the project.

Dulles went on to be successful with the CIA’s first attempts at removing foreign leaders by covert means. Notably, the elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh of Iran was deposed in 1953 (via Operation Ajax), and President Arbenz of Guatemala was removed in 1954. The Guatemalan coup was called Operation PBSUCCESS. Dulles was on the board of the United Fruit Company. Dulles saw these kind of clandestine activities as an essential part of the struggle against communism.


During the Kennedy Administration, Dulles faced increasing criticism. The failed Bay of Pigs Invasion and several failed assassination plots utilizing CIA-recruited operatives from the Mafia and anti-Castro Cubans directly against Fidel Castro undermined the CIA’s credibility, and pro-American but unpopular regimes in Iran and Guatemala that he helped put in place were widely regarded as brutal and corrupt.

The reputation of the agency and its director declined after the Bay of Pigs Invasion fiasco; he and his staff (including Director for Plans Richard Bissell and Deputy Director Charles Cabell) were forced to resign (September 1961). President Kennedy did not trust the CIA, and he reportedly intended to dismantle it after the Bay of Pigs failure. Kennedy said he wanted to “splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter it into the winds.”[3] Ironically, Dulles was later appointed to the Warren Commission, the official government investigation of the assassination of John F. Kennedy.


Center for International Cooperation –

New York, USA


No bed of roses for Le Roy

The new UN peacekeeping chief has a tough job ahead: to find an effective role for the blue helmets in a multipolar world

o Richard Gowan

o guardian.co.uk, Wednesday 20 August 2008 20.00 BST

by –

Richard Gowan

Associate Director, Multilateral Diplomacy


Directors and Senior Fellows

Dr. Bruce Jones

Director and Senior Fellow

Rahul Chandran

Associate Director, Statebuilding

Richard Gowan

Associate Director, Multilateral Diplomacy

Jake Sherman

Associate Director, Peacekeeping and Security Sector Reform

Fiona Simpson

Associate Director (Acting), Strengthening Multilateral Approaches to Nuclear and Biological Weapons

Yvonne Alonzo

Grants Administrator


Dr. Shepard Forman

Director Emeritus and Senior Fellow, Statebuilding

Jean-Marie Guéhenno

Senior Fellow, Managing Global Insecurity/Peacekeeping

Dr. Barnett R. Rubin

Director of Studies, Senior Fellow, and Project Coordinator, Afghanistan Reconstruction Project

Dr. Elsina Wainwright

Senior Fellow, Prevention Strategies Program

Teresa Whitfield

Senior Fellow and Advisor on UN Strategy

Dr. Christine Wing

Senior Fellow and Project Coordinator, Strengthening Multilateral Approaches to Nuclear and Biological Weapons

Dr. A. Sarjoh Bah

Senior Fellow and Program Coordinator, African Security Institutions

Dr. Charles Call

Non-resident Fellow, Peacebuilding as Statebuilding

Alex Evans

Non-resident Fellow, Global Scarcity and Security

Dr. Michael Gilligan

NYU Fellow, Global Peace Operations

Professor Ian Johnstone

Senior Visiting Fellow, International Law

Dr. Kwesi Aning

Non-resident Fellow, Prevention Strategies

Eric Rosand

Non-resident Fellow, Transnational Security Institutions

Dr. Cesare Romano

Non-resident Fellow, International Law

Dr. Paul Smoke

NYU Fellow, Peacebuilding as Statebuilding

David Steven

Non-resident Fellow, Global Scarcity and Security

Dirk Salomons

Non-resident Fellow , Peacebuilding as Statebuilding

Stephen Stedman

Non-Resident Fellow, Multilateral Diplomacy

Dr. Abby Stoddard

Non-resident Fellow, Humanitarian Action

Dr. Christine Wing

Non-Resident Fellow, Multilateral Approaches to Weapons of Mass Destruction

Program Staff

Sara Batmanglich

Senior Program Officer, Prevention Strategies

Victoria DiDomenico

Project Officer, International Security Institutions

Andrew Hart

Special Assistant to the Director

Gigja Sorensen

Program Officer, Peacebuilding as Statebuilding

Megan Gleason

Program Officer, Peacebuilding as Statebuilding

Michele Shapiro

Head, Communications and Public Relations

Benjamin Tortolani

Senior Program Officer, Global Peace Operations

Brookings Institution

Holly Benner

MGI Program, Assistant Director

Administrative Staff

Lynn Denesopolis

Budget Assistant

Antonie Evans


Noah Gall


Laura Martin

Sponsored Programs Assistant



Staff >Richard Gowan

Richard Gowan

Research Associate

Associate Director for Policy

Contact: (212) 998-3686

Email: richard.gowan@nyu.edu

Mr. Gowan is responsible for developing CIC’s outreach and profile, in addition to working on peacekeeping, multilateral security arrangements and the relationship between the UN and the EU. Formerly manager of the Europe Programme at The Foreign Policy Centre (London), he is also a Policy Fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations (www.ecfr.eu ). He has broadcast widely – including the BBC, CNN and the Lehrer NewsHour – and frequently contributes to policy magazines and websites. He has worked with the OSCE Mission to Croatia, and published on the political philosophy of Raymond Aron.

Selected Publications:

* “Europe needs a new Human Rights strategy,” Financial Times, September 17, 2008.

* “No bed of roses for Le Roy,” The Guardian, August 20, 2008.

* “The Strategic Context: Peacekeeping in Crisis, 2006-08”, International Peacekeeping, 15:4, 453 — 469, 2008.

* “Chad necesita negociadores, no soldados.” El Pais, June 21, 2008.

* “The EU faces bigger challenges in Africa than in Ireland.” Commentary for the European Council on Foreign Relations, June 19, 2008.

* “The EU still needs UN peacekeepers.” EUobserver, May 21, 2008.

* “The United States and Peacekeeping Policy in Europe and Latin America: An Uncertain Catalyst?” International Peacekeeping, Volume 15 (2008): 84-101.

* “A Predictable Crisis.” E!Sharp, March-April 2008.

* “The EU and Iraq: Starting to Find a Strategy?” Commentary for the European Council on Foreign Relations, January 26, 2008.

* “A month for hard power.” EUobserver, November 28, 2007.

* “The EU’s Multiple Strategic Identities: European Security after Lebanon and the Congo.” Studia Diplomatica Vol. LX (2007): 59-80.

* “The Hardheaded Case for Human Security.” Think, October 2007.

* “From Beirut to Baghdad?” E!Sharp, September-October 2007.

* “Peace operations: The clash of moral and strategic demands.” Enjeux Internationaux, Vol. 16 (2007)

* “EUFOR RD Congo, UNIFIL and Future European Support to the UN.” Security & Defence Agenda Discussion Paper. April 2007: 29-31.

* “Does the EU still want the Balkans?” E!Sharp, March-April 2007.

* “The EU’s Security Strategy and the United Nations.” Paper for 48th Annual ISA Convention, Chicago, February 28, 2007.

More information about Mr. Gowan’s beliefs according to his bio on another document which will be listed below –







Richard Gowan, Center on International Cooperation at New York University. Richard Gowan coordinates the International Security Institutions program at the Center on International Cooperation at New York University. He is a contributor to the Center’s Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2007, published this March.

Mr. Gowan works on peacekeeping and multilateral security arrangements. He holds an MPhil in International Relations and BA in History from Cambridge University. As manager of the Europe Programme at The Foreign Policy Centre (London) from 2003- 5, he  published and broadcast widely on public opinion towards the European Union and relations between the EU, UN and African Union.

He has also worked with the OSCE Mission to Croatia, and published on the political philosophy of Raymond Aron.



Calls grow within G8 to expel Italy as summit plans descend into chaos

While US tries to inject purpose into meeting, Italy is lambasted for poor planning and reneging on overseas aid commitments

* Julian Borger, Diplomatic editor

* guardian.co.uk, Monday 6 July 2009 19.30 BST

* Article history

Preparations for Wednesday’s G8 summit in the Italian mountain town of L’Aquila have been so chaotic there is growing pressure from other member states to have Italy expelled from the group, according to senior western officials.

[ . . . ]

“The Italian preparations for the summit have been chaotic from start to finish,” said Richard Gowan, an analyst at the Centre for International Co-operation at New York University.

[ . . . ]

“This is a gigantic fudge,” Gowan said. “The Italians have no ideas and have decided that best thing to do is to spread the agenda extremely thinly to obscure the fact that didn’t really have an agenda.”



My Note –

So, I got to wondering who Mr. Gowan is, where he came from, who he works for and why they were being so shitty to the Italians who have had a major disaster and loss of life in their own country three months ago. I also was wondering whether he knew the person who wrote this article. It seems likely since the London assignment Gowan had in the Foreign Policy Center.

– and, then I wanted to know why Mr. G decided his purpose in the position he holds is to further the ideologies he listed as the political philosophy of Raymond Aron – or did he simply publish about it without ever taking on those beliefs?

This Mr. Gowan is what we have available to set policies, give expert analysis on the international situations and we are to consider his opinion with deferment  because  he has been paid,  published and seen on tv? Has anybody ever really vetted this guy and his judgment – his beliefs and philosophies before putting him on the air for his “expert” opinion? Is this the kind of person who we are left with that gets to say what is what – and then this is what they are doing with it?

Just my curiosity – but if the author of the story listed above from the Guardian had actually spoken with another participant in the G-8 then I’m sure he would’ve said so. And, then this article would constitute more than rumor-mongering and innuendo for the sake of starting some antagonism in the rooms of the summit which could be better served than that.

– cricketdiane

here is something else he wrote – but most interesting was the fact that he was published at the Guardian, UK for it in 2008 – the article link is available – read it or not, there are more mental gyrations than substance, but whatever.

[ . . . ]

No bed of roses for Le Roy

The new UN peacekeeping chief has a tough job ahead: to find an effective role for the blue helmets in a multipolar world


My Note – (from the time, 2009)

I can’t even imagine that “Center on International Cooperation” would be the appropriate title for anywhere that has people like that on staff. It would be more honest to call it the “Centre for Breaking Down the Dialogues between International Participants” –

The G-8 has a lot on its menu whether they have a written menu or not. This day is not the same as any other and “business as usual” is not the norm of the day this time. There are events which have changed whatever focus or facet or factmight be named.

It isn’t a “club” anymore – these summits are useful tools where the meeting of citizens elected to positions of leadership are occurring in a way that has never had to happen before this. The challenges are not an academic debate anymore. The aspects of those challenges are here today.

The G-8, the G-20 and other summits are no longer a week-long getaway where studies provided can be thrown on the bureau or in the desk drawer back home. It isn’t going to work that way when these people who were willing to take the job as our current leaders get into the same place together.

– cricketdiane, 07-07-09


G8 Summit L’Aquila Abruzzo Italy – July 8 – 10, 2009 – that would be Wednesday of this week – an antagonism from a media source and who said it ( they were rumor-mongering ) –


The Summit Programme Is Now on Line in a New Section Entitled “The Summit”

I totem del G8 2009 nella Caserma ispettori della Guardia di Finanza di Coppito

As the event itself draws closer, the section entitled “Towards the Summit” is being withdrawn and replaced by a new area in the website devoted to the three-day G8 Summit in L’Aquila.  The new item on the menu is called “The Summit” and it contains information on the programme, on the main issues under discussion, on the participants and on the collateral events planned for 8 to 10 July.



Prime Minister Berlusconi Presents L’Aquila G8 Summit in Naples

Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and the Delegate Commisioner Guido Bertolaso

29/06/2009  The international economic crisis and regional crises, food safety and security, the struggle against climate changes and the deregulation of world trade are the main issues that the world’s eight leading countries will be addressing in L’Aquila from 8 to 10 July, in the course of a Summit which will be unique in terms of the number of countries attending.  Once the Summit is over, the Guardia di Finanza School in Coppito will be used to house local people who have lost their homes in the earthquake.


Interview with Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso

06/07/2009  The economic crisis, energy efficiency, support for the developing countries and Africa, the nuclear issue and topics bound up with North Korea and Iran and cooperation between Italy and Japan are the main subjects discussed by Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso in the first ANSA interview conducted exclusively for the G8 official website during the countdown to the L’Aquila Summit.

Press conference for the G8 Summit presentation

View Video on Governo.it

Photo gallery

The Headquarters block inside the Non-Commissioned Officers School in Coppito, L’Aquila The new Summit Venue in L’Aquila



My Opinion –

It is very understandable that the number of participants would be greater with each moment as the evidence surmounts expectations, indicating the vicious and critical nature of the global economic and geopolitical situations.

– cricketdiane, 07-07-09


Brown and Sarkozy meet ahead of G8

Gordon Brown and Nicolas Sarkozy have been discussing economic recovery and tension with Iran in talks ahead of this week’s G8 summit.

The two leaders said relations between their countries were strong, following talks in the French town of Evian.

President Sarkozy said France stood “shoulder to shoulder” with Britain over attacks by Iran’s rulers.

The UK has promised France 15m for border protection in return for help deporting immigrants, it was announced.

The prime minister is expected to warn leaders at the G8 summit in Italy against complacency when the economy is at a “pivotal point” and will raise concerns about oil prices going up, protectionism and bank lending.

Truly a force of nature

Gordon Brown on Nicolas Sarkozy

Analysis: Rejuvenating summit?

President Sarkozy said action was needed to find a way to reduce the volatility of oil prices – saying that big price changes were putting the pace of economic recovery at risk.

The two leaders lavished praise on each other in a joint press conference – Mr Sarkozy remarking that the April G20 summit in London had been chaired “remarkably” by Gordon Brown. Mr Brown in response paid tribute to Mr Sarkozy’s leadership, saying he was “truly a force of nature”.

The French president said there was a “total convergence” of views between Britain and France, while Mr Brown said the countries’ relations had “never been better”.

Mr Sarkozy said the two countries were united in expecting the G20 summit in Pittsburgh in September to be “far-sighted” and to get “hard and fast results when it comes to regulation”.

Iran row

He also said they would work together to ensure progress on development, climate change and global warming at the G8 this week and would not settle for “way off” targets.

“We believe 2009 is a turning point in terms of regulation, new world governance and the battle against climate change and we will get things moving together,” he said.

We were particularly shocked by the totally unfair disproportionate attacks and criticism

President Sarkozy

The French president said on Iran he wanted to be clear about where he stood saying “our British friends” could “count unreservedly on our support and solidarity – we will do whatever they want us to do”.

“We were particularly shocked by the totally unfair disproportionate attacks and criticism,” he said.

The prime minister replied that he was grateful for French “solidarity” on the issue and any response would be made in conjunction with EU partners.

He said they had been looking at how to stimulate economic recovery, particularly in working together on industries “of the future” – like low carbon production, electric cars and biotechnology.

He added that “radical reforms” agreed at the G20 still had to be completed.

In addition, he promised to push for measures against international tax havens with new sanctions from March 2010, at this week’s G8, and expressed concerns the banks were still not lending enough.

“Both of us are worried that the banks have yet to respond in full to the situation that we have where industries and sectors are calling for help for the banks,” he said.

“We have a duty to our populations to do what we can to maintain jobs and create new jobs in difficult times.”

‘Ring of steel’

Under a deal agreed at the summit, the UK will provide £15m to pay for new technology to search vehicles and goods approaching its borders.

There are estimated to be about 1,000 migrants in makeshift camps in Calais, most hoping to enter Britain illegally.

A pilot scheme will be conducted out at Calais before being rolled out to cover Boulogne, Dunkirk and the Channel Tunnel terminal at Coquelles.

In the House of Commons, Home Secretary Alan Johnson said: “The investment will be made on the understanding that the French will, in return, effect significant returns of illegal migrants from northern French regions.”

Immigration Minister Phil Woolas said the French had promised to step up removal flights and pledged that “these changes will further strengthen the ring of steel that protects Britain”.

But shadow immigration minister Damian Green said the government had struck a bad deal for taxpayers.

He added: “We are apparently paying £15m so that the French agree to enforce their own laws. Surely they should be deporting illegal immigrants anyway?”

Meanwhile, in a parliamentary written answer, Mr Woolas said the UK government spent £26.8m on flights to remove immigrants in 2008/9 – including £18.6m for scheduled flights and £8.2m on charter services.



“We were particularly shocked by the totally unfair disproportionate attacks and criticism.”

President Sarkozy


An interesting comment from the Your Letters section, my note –

If the new head of MI6 wears a Speedo swimsuit, it will be obvious who he is, as everyone else will have a shirt and tie.

Rob Foreman, London, UK


your_letters 17:23 UK time, Monday, 6 July 2009


(More from Allen Welsh Dulles – CIA and national security groups efforts)

Dulles’ Plan

(Page in Russian about these texts)

These forgeries are poorly known in the West, e.g. there are no references to the Dulles’ Plan on English websites, except from Wikipedia.

The source of “Dulles’ Plan” text is never quoted. Some speculate it might have been Allen Dulles’ speech to the US Congress, a secret report by him or a passage from one of his books written between 1945 – 1953. There are no known speeches or writings of Dulles that contain portions or the entirety of the “Dulles’ Plan”. However, the entire text is repeated almost word-for-word by a character in the second edition of The Eternal Call (Russian: ?????? ???), a novel by Anatoly Ivanov.[5]

In modern Russia, despite the public knowledge of the fact of the forgery of the “Dulles’ Plan”, the text is quoted by prominent Russian politicians (e.g., Vladimir Zhirinovsky,[6][7] Nikolay Kondratenko,[8] Sergey Glazyev[9][10]), as well as the government press, TV, Russian Orthodox priests, writers, journalists, artists. (e.g. Sergey Kara-Murza). Based on so called “Dulles’ Plan facts”, Russian government-controlled TV channel RENTV in April 2008 created and aired a prime-time 50-minute TV “documentary” of the title “USSR: Ordered to Destroy” (Russian – “????. ????????? ??????????”).

In Russian mass-media, the term Dulles’ Plan may also refer to a series of excerpts from the program NSC 20/1 (U.S. objectives with respect to Russia) made by N.N. Yakovlev in his book CIA against USSR. The original program outlined by the National Security Council in 1948 established two basic goals for U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union: reduction of the power and influence of the U.S.S.R. to the point that it would no longer threaten international stability, as well as accomplishment of a fundamental change in the theory and practice of international relations as applied by the Soviet government.[11] This included promotion of the gradual retraction of undue Russian power and influence from Eastern Europe and of institutions of federalism in the Soviet Union which would permit a revival of the national life of the occupied Baltic peoples, termination of the projection of the subversive communist intellectual influence far abroad and attempts to compel the Soviets to recognize the practical undesirability of international antagonism. The text consists of possible measures to do this in a peace time and in a time of possible war and after it.

N. Yakovlev by choice of quotations, their “freestyle” translation into Russian and his biased comments changed the perception of the text. For example, original text

At the present time, there are a number of interesting and powerful Russian political groupings, among the Russian exiles, all of which do lip service to principles of liberalism, to one degree or another, and any of which would probably be preferable to the Soviet Government, from our standpoint, as the rulers of Russia. But just how liberal these groupings would be, if they once had power, or what would be their ability to maintain their authority among the Russian people without resort to methods of police terror and repression, no one knows. The actions of people in power are often controlled far more by the circumstances in which they arc obliged to exercise that power than by the ideas and principles which animated them when they were in the opposition.



10. Saddam Hussein once hired the James Bond director, Terence Young, to make a promotional Iraqi film.

More details (on their site at the time -)

10 things we didn’t know last week

10_things 15:06 UK time, Friday, 3 July 2009




2. ^ “NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty.”(2006). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved February 22, 2008.

1 watt hour = 3600 J

100 W lightbulb = 100 x 3600 Joules

36, 000 joules to run one lightbulb (100 watts)

* The work required to continuously produce one watt of power for one second; or one watt second (WAs) (compare kilowatt hour). This relationship can be used to define the watt.


The kilojoule (kJ) is equal to one thousand joules. Food labels in some countries express food energy in kilojoules. One kilojoule is about the amount of solar radiation received by one square metre of the Earth in one second.[4]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the unit of energy. For other uses, see Joule (disambiguation).


Standard:        SI derived unit

Quantity:         Energy

Symbol:           J

Named after:   James Prescott Joule

Expressed in:   1 J =

SI base units    1 kgAm2/s2

CGS units       1H107 erg

The joule (symbol J), named for James Prescott Joule, is the derived unit of energy in the International System of Units. It is the energy exerted by the force of one newton acting to move an object through a distance of one metre. In terms of dimensions:

The joule (pronounced /ˈdʒuːl/ or /ˈdʒaʊl/; symbol J), named after James Prescott Joule, is the derived unit of energy in the International System of Units. It is the energy exerted by the force of one newton acting to move an object through a distance of one metre. In terms of dimensions:One joule is defined as the amount of work done by a force of one newton moving an object through a distance of one metre. Other relationships are:      * The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one volt; or one coulomb volt (C·V). This relationship can be used to define the volt;     * The work required to continuously produce one watt of power for one second; or one watt second (W·s) (compare kilowatt hour). This relationship can be used to define the watt.

One joule is defined as the amount of work done by a force of one newton moving an object through a distance of one metre. Other relationships are:

* The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one volt; or one coulomb volt (CAV). This relationship can be used to define the volt;

* The work required to continuously produce one watt of power for one second; or one watt second (W/s) (compare kilowatt hour). This relationship can be used to define the watt.


* 1 Usage

* 2 Confusion with newton metre

* 3 Practical examples

* 4 Multiples

o 4.1 Nanojoule

o 4.2 Microjoule

o 4.3 Millijoule

o 4.4 Kilojoule

o 4.5 Megajoule

o 4.6 Gigajoule

o 4.7 Terajoule

* 5 Conversions

* 6 See also

* 7 References

* 8 External links


This SI unit is named after James Prescott Joule. As with every SI unit whose name is derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (J). When an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lowercase letter (joule), except where any word would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title. Note that “degree Celsius” conforms to this rule because the “d” is lowercase.

—Based on The International System of Units, section 5.2.

Confusion with newton metre

Main article: Newton metre

While it is dimensionally correct to express joules as newton metres or NAm, such use is discouraged[1] by the SI authority to avoid confusion with torque. Torque and energy are fundamentally different physical quantities. For example, adding 1 NAm of torque to 1 NAm of energy gives a dimensionally consistent result of 2 NAm, but this quantity is physically meaningless.

Practical examples

One joule in everyday life is approximately:

* the energy required to lift a small apple one meter straight up.

* the energy released when that same apple falls one meter to the ground.

* the energy released as heat by a person at rest, every hundredth of a second.

* one hundredth of the energy a person can receive by drinking a drop of beer.

* the kinetic energy of an adult human moving at a speed of about a handspan every second.

* the kinetic energy of a tennis ball moving at 23 km/h (14 mph).[2]


Main article: Conversion of units#Energy, work, or amount of heat

1 joule is equal to:

* 1H107 ergs (exactly)

* 6.24150974H1018 eV (electronvolts)

* 0.2390 cal (thermochemical gram calories or small calories)

* 2.3901H10-4 kcal (thermochemical kilocalories, kilogram calories, large calories or food calories)

* 9.4782H10-4 BTU (British thermal unit)

* 0.7376 ftAlbf (foot-pound force)

* 23.7 ftApdl (foot-poundals)

* 2.7778H10-7 kilowatt-hour

* 2.7778H10-4 watt-hour

* 9.8692H10-3 liter-atmosphere

* 1H10-44 Foe (exactly)

Units defined exactly in terms of the joule include:

* 1 thermochemical calorie = 4.184 J[7]

* 1 International Table calorie = 4.1868 J[7]

* 1 watt hour = 3600 J

* 1 kilowatt hour = 3.6H106 J (or 3.6 MJ)

* 1 ton TNT = 4.184 GJ

See also

* Conversion of units

* Orders of magnitude (energy)

* Fluence

1. ^ From the official SI website: “A derived unit can often be expressed in different ways by combining base units with derived units having special names. Joule, for example, may formally be written newton metre, or kilogram metre squared per second squared. This, however, is an algebraic freedom to be governed by common sense physical considerations; in a given situation some forms may be more helpful than others. In practice, with certain quantities, preference is given to the use of certain special unit names, or combinations of unit names, to facilitate the distinction between different quantities having the same dimension.”

2. ^ Ristinen, Robert A., and Jack J. Kraushaar. Energy and the Environment. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.

3. ^ CERN – Glossary

4. ^ “Construction of a Composite Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Time Series from 1978 to present”. http://www.pmodwrc.ch/pmod.php?topic=tsi/composite/SolarConstant. Retrieved 2005-10-05.

5. ^ IRS publication

6. ^ Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-8819, The yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions by John Malik, September 1985. Available online at http://www.mbe.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/publications/LANLHiroshimaNagasakiYields.pdf

Categories: SI derived units | Units of energy


lambda λ ≡ 1 mm3 = 1 × 10−9 m3

2. ^ “NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty.”(2006). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved February 22, 2008.

8. ^ The International System of Units, Section 2.1 (8 ed.), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, 2006, http://www.bipm.org/en/si/si_brochure/chapter2/2-1/, retrieved August 26, 2009

9. ^ International System of Units, 8th ed. (2006), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Section 4.1 Table 8.



746 Watts = One Horsepower






The 2005 Trilateral Commission Membership List

Trilateral Commission


May 2005

*Executive Committee

David Rockefeller       Founder and Honorary Chairman

Thomas S. Foley         North American Chairman

Allan E. Gotlieb          North American Deputy Chairman

Lorenzo H. Zambrano             North American Deputy Chairman

Paul A. Volcker          North American Honorary Chairman

Michael J. O’Neil        North American Director

Peter Sutherland         European Chairman

Hervé De Carmoy       European Deputy Chairman

Andrzej Olechowski   European Deputy Chairman

Georges Berthoin        European Honorary Chairman

Otto Graf Lambsdorff            European Honorary Chairman

Paul Révay      European Director

Yotaro Kobayashi       Pacific Asia Chairman

Kim Kyung-Won        Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman

Shijuro Ogata Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman

Tadashi Yamamoto     Pacific Asia Director

European Group

* Paul Adams, Chief Executive, British American Tobacco, London

* Urban Ahlin, Member of the Swedish Parliament and Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Stockholm

* Krister Ahlström, Vice Chairman, Stora Enso and Fortum; former Chairman, Finnish Employers Confederation; former Chairman, Ahlström Corp., Helsinki

* Edmond Alphandéry, Chairman, Caisse Nationale de Prévoyance, Paris; former Chairman, Electricité de France (EDF); former Minister of the Economy and Finance

* Bodil Nyboe Andersen, Chairperson of the Board of Governors, Danmarks Nationalbank, Copenhagen

* Jacques Andréani, Ambassadeur de France; former Ambassador to the United States

* *Stelios Argyros, Chairman and Managing Director, Preveza Mills, Athens; former Member of the European Parliament; Chairman of the Board, STET Hellas; former Vice President of UNICE, Brussels; former President and Chairman of the Board of the Federation of Greek Industries, Athens

* Jerzy Baczynski, Editor-in-Chief, Polityka, Warsaw

* Estela Barbot, Vice President, AGA, Porto; Vice President of the Board, AEP — Portuguese Business Association; Consul of Guatemala, Lisbon

* François Bayrou, Member of the French National Assembly; President of the UDF Party; former Minister, Paris

* *Erik Belfrage, Senior Vice President, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken; Director, Investor AB, Stockholm

* *Georges Berthoin, International Honorary Chairman, European Movement; Honorary Chairman, The Jean Monnet Association; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission, Paris

* Nicolas Beytout, Editor, Le Figaro, Paris ; former Editor, Les Echos, Paris

* Carl Bildt, Chairman, Nordic Venture Network and Senior Adviser, IT Provider, Stockholm; former Member of the Swedish Parliament, Chairman of the Moderate Party and Prime Minister of Sweden; former European Union High Representative in Bosnia-Herzegovina & UN Special Envoy to the Balkans

* Lord Black of Crossharbour, Member of the House of Lords, London

* Ana Patricia Botin, Chairman, Banesto, Madrid; Member of the Board & of the Executive Committee, Banco Santander Central Hispano

* Jean-Louis Bourlanges, Member of the European Parliament (ALDE Group/UDF) and Chairman, Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, Brussels; former President of the European Movement in France, Paris

* *Jorge Braga de Macedo, President, Tropical Research Institute, Lisbon; Special Advisor to the Secretary General, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris; Professor of Economics, Nova University at Lisbon; Chairman, Forum Portugal Global; former Minister of Finance

* Rolf-E. Breuer, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main; President, Association of German Banks (BDB), Berlin

* Lord Brittan of Spennithorne, Vice Chairman, UBS Investment Bank, London; former Vice President, European Commission

* Robin Buchanan, Senior Partner, Bain & Company, London

* *François Bujon de l’Estang, Ambassadeur de France; Chairman, Citigroup France, Paris; former Ambassador to the United States

* Sven Burmester, Writer and Explorer, Denmark; former Representative, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Beijing; former World Bank Deputy Secretary and Representative in Cairo

* Richard Burrows, Joint Managing Director, Pernod Ricard, Paris; Chairman and Chief Executive, Irish Distillers, Dublin; Deputy Governor of the Bank of Ireland; former President, IBEC (The Irish Business and Employers Confederation)

* *Hervé de Carmoy, Chairman, Almatis, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Partner, Rhône Group, New York & Paris; Honorary Chairman, Banque Industrielle et Mobilière Privée, Paris; former Chief Executive, Société Générale de Belgique

* Antonio Carrapatoso, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Vodafone Portugal, Lisbon; Member of the Board of Directors, Vodafone Spain & Vodacom

* Salvatore Carrubba, Culture Alderman, Municipality of Milan; former Managing Editor, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milan

* Henri de Castries, Chairman of the Management Board and Chief Executive Officer, AXA, Paris

* Luc Coene, Minister of State; Deputy Governor, National Bank of Belgium, Brussels

* Sir Ronald Cohen, Chairman, Apax Partners, London

* Vittorio Colao, Chief Executive Officer, RCS MediaGroup, Milan; former Managing Director, Vodafone Omnitel

* Bertrand Collomb, Chairman, Lafarge, Paris; Chairman, World Business Council for Sustainable Development

* *Richard Conroy, Chairman, Conroy Diamonds & Gold, Dublin; Member of Senate, Republic of Ireland

* Eckhard Cordes, Member of the Board, DaimlerChrysler, Stuttgart

* Alfonso Cortina, Chairman, Repsol-YPF Foundation & former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Repsol-YPF, Madrid

* Michel David-Weill, Chairman, Lazard LLC, worldwide; Managing Director and Président du Collège d’Associés-Gérants, Lazard Frères S.A.S., Paris; Deputy Chairman, Lazard Brothers & Co., Limited, London

* Baron Paul De Keersmaeker, Chairman of the Board of Domo, Corgo, Foundation Europalia International and the Canada Europe Round Table, Brussels; Honorary Chairman Interbrew, KBC, Nestlé Belgilux; former Member of the Belgian and European Parliaments and of the Belgian Government

* *Vladimir Dlouhy, Senior Advisor, ABB; International Advisor, Goldman Sachs; former Czechoslovak Minister of Economy; former Czech Minister of Industry & Trade, Prague

* Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, President of the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge Freemasons, England and has served Grand Master of the Order of St Michael and St George

* *Bill Emmott, Editor, The Economist, London

* Thomas Enders, Executive Vice President, Member of the Board of Management & Head of the Defence and Security Systems Division, EADS, Munich

* Pedro Miguel Echenique, Professor of Physics, University of the Basque Country; former Basque Minister of Education, San Sebastian

* Laurent Fabius, Member of the French National Assembly and of the Foreign Affairs Committee; former Prime Minister & Minister of the Economy & Finance, Paris

* Oscar Fanjul, Honorary Chairman, Repsol YPF; Vice Chairman, Omega Capital, Madrid

* Grete Faremo, Former Executive Vice President, Storebrand; former Norwegian Minister of Development Cooperation, Minister of Justice and Minister of Oil and Energy, Oslo

* *Nemesio Fernandez-Cuesta, Executive Director of Upstream, Repsol-YPF; former Chairman, Prensa Española, Madrid

* *Nemesio Fernandez-Cuesta, Corporate Director of Shared Services, Repsol-YPF; former Chairman, Prensa Española, Madrid

* Jürgen Fitschen, Member of the Group Executive Committee, Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main

* Klaus-Dieter Frankenberger, Foreign Editor, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Frankfurt am Main

* Hugh Friel, Chief Executive, Kerry Group, Dublin

* Lykke Friis, Head of European Department, Federation of Danish Industries, Copenhagen

* *Michael Fuchs, Member of the German Bundestag, Berlin; former President, National Federation of German Wholesale & Export Traders

* Lord Garel-Jones, Managing Director, UBS Investment Bank, London; Member of the House of Lords; former Minister of State at the Foreign Office (European Affairs)

* Antonio Garrigues Walker, Chairman, Garrigues Abogados y Asesores Tributarios, Madrid

* Lord Gilbert, Member of the House of Lords; former Minister for Defence, London

* Prince Phillip of Greece, member, House of Lords, London

* Mario Greco, Managing Director, RAS, Milan

* General The Lord Guthrie, Director, N M Rothschild & Sons, London; Member of the House of Lords; former Chief of the Defence Staff, London

* Grand Duke William John Hagan II, Former Chairman, New Obelisk Press; Grand Master of the Order of Ormus, London

* Sirkka Hämäläinen, Former Member of the Executive Board, European Central Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Governor, Bank of Finland

* Grand Duke Karl Habsburg, Member of European Parliament

* *Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Member of the European Parliament; former Estonian Foreign Minister and Member of the Parliament; former Ambassador to the United States, Canada and Mexico

* Alfonso Iozzo, Managing Director, San Paolo IMI Group, Turin

* *Mugur Isarescu, Governor, National Bank of Romania, Bucharest; former Prime Minister

* *Max Jakobson, Independent Consultant and Senior Columnist, Helsinki; former Finnish Ambassador to the United Nations; former Chairman of the Finnish Council of Economic Organizations

* *Baron Daniel Janssen, Chairman of the Board, Solvay, Brussels

* Zsigmond Jarai, President, National Bank of Hungary, Budapest

* Trinidad Jiménez, International Relations Secretary of the Socialist Party (PSOE) & Member of the Federal Executive Committee, Madrid

* *Béla Kadar, Member of the Hungarian Academy, Budapest; Member of the Monetary Council of the National Bank; President of the Hungarian Economic Association; Former Ambassador of Hungary to the O.E.C.D., Paris; former Hungarian Minister of International Economic Relations and Member of Parliament

* Karl Kaiser, Visiting Scholar, Weatherhead Center for International Studies, Harvard University, USA; Senior Scholar and former Otto-Wolff Director, Research Institute of the German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP), Berlin; Professor Emeritus of Political Sciences, University of Bonn

* Robert Kassai, General Vice President, The National Association of Craftmen’ s Corporations, Budapest

* *Lord Kerr, Member of the House of Lords; Director of Rio Tinto, Shell, and the Scottish American Investment Trust, London; former Secretary General, European Convention, Brussels; former Permanent Under-Secretary of State and Head of the Diplomatic Service, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London; former British Ambassador to the United States

* Denis Kessler, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Scor, Paris; former Chairman, French Insurance Association (FFSA); Former Executive Vice-Chairman, MEDEF-Mouvement des Entreprises de France (French Employers’ Confederation)

* Jiri Kunert, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Zivnostenska banka; President of the Czech Association of Banks, Prague

* *Count Otto Lambsdorff, Partner, Wessing Lawyers, Düsseldorf; Chairman, Friedrich Naumann Foundation, Berlin; former Member of German Bundestag; Honorary Chairman, Free Democratic Party; former Federal Minister of Economy; former President of the Liberal International; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission, Paris

* Emilio Lamo de Espinosa, Director, Elcano Royal Institute of International and Strategic Studies; Professor of Sociology at the Universidad Complutense, Madrid

* Kurt Lauk, Member of the European Parliament (EPP Group-CDU); Chairman, Globe Capital Partners, Stuttgart; President, Economic Council of the CDU Party, Berlin; Former Member of the Board, DaimlerChrysler, Stuttgart

* Anne Lauvergeon, Chairperson of the Executive Board, Areva; Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer, Cogema, Paris

* Pierre Lellouche, Member of the French National Assembly and of the Foreign Affairs Committee, Paris; Chairman of the French Delegation to NATO’s Parliamentary Assembly

* Enrico Letta, Member of the European Parliament (ALDE Group), Brussels; Secretary General, AREL; Vice President, Aspen Institute; former Minister of European Affairs, Industry, and of Industry and International Trade, Rome

* André Leysen, Honorary Chairman, Gevaert, Antwerp; Honorary Chairman, Agfa-Gevaert Group

* Marianne Lie, Director General, Norwegian Shipowner’s Association, Oslo

* Count Maurice Lippens, Chairman, Fortis, Brussels

* Helge Lund, Chief Executive Officer of the Norwegian Oil Company, Statoil, Oslo

* *Cees Maas, Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer of the ING Group, Amsterdam; former Treasurer of the Dutch Government

* Peter Mandelson, Member of the European Commission (Trade), Brussels; former Member of the British Parliament; former Secretary of State to Northern Ireland and for Trade and Industry

* Abel Matutes, Chairman, Empresas Matutes, Ibiza; former Member of the European Commission, Brussels; former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Madrid

* Francis Maude, Member of the British Parliament; Director, Benfield Group; former Shadow Foreign Secretary, London

* Edgar Meister, Member of the Board, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt-am-Main; Chairman, the Banking Supervisory Subcommittee of the European Monetary Institute (EMI); Chairman, the Banking Supervision Committee of the European System of the Central Banks (ESCB)

* Vasco de Mello, Vice Chairman, José de Mello SGPS, Lisbon

* Joao de Menezes Ferreira, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ECO-SOROS, Lisbon; former Member of the Portuguese Parliament

* Peter Mitterbauer, Honorary President, The Federation of Austrian Industry, Vienna; President and Chief Executive Officer, MIBA, Laakirchen

* Mario Monti, President and Professor Emeritus, Bocconi University, Milan; Chairman of BRUEGEL and of ECAS, Brussels; former Member of the European Commission (Competition Policy)

* Dominique Moïsi, Special Advisor to the Director General of the French Institute for International Relations (IFRI), Paris

* Sir Mark Moody-Stuart, Chairman, Anglo American; former Chairman, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, London

* Klaus Murmann, Honorary Chairman, Confederation of German Employers’ Associations (BDA), Berlin; Chairman, Sauer Holding, Neumünster

* Heinrich Neisser, President, Politische Akademie, Vienna; Professor of Political Studies at Innsbruck University; former Member of Austrian Parliament and Second President of the National Assembly

* Harald Norvik, Chairman and Partner, ECON Management; former President and Chief Executive, Statoil, Oslo

* Arend Oetker, Chairman, German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP); Vice Chairman, Federation of German Industries; Chairman, Atlantik-Brücke (Atlantic Bridge); Managing Director, Dr. Arend Oetker Holding, Berlin

* *Andrzej Olechowski, Leader, Civic Platform; Former Chairman, Bank Handlowy; former Minister of Foreign Affairs and of Finance, Warsaw

* Richard Olver, Chairman, BAE Systems, London

* Janusz Palikot, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Polmos Lublin; Vice President, Polish Confederation of Private Employers; Co-owner, Publishing House slowo/obraz terytoria; Member of the Board of Directors, Polish Business Council, Warsaw

* Dimitry Panitza, Founding Chairman, The Free and Democratic Bulgaria Foundation; Founder and Chairman, The Bulgarian School of Politics, Sofia

* Lucas Papademos, Vice President, European Central Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Governor of the Bank of Greece

* Schelto Patijn, Member of the Supervisory Board of the Schiphol Group and Amsterdam RAI; former Mayor of the City of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

* Lord Patten of Barnes, Chancellor of the University of Oxford; Co-Chairman, International Crisis Group, Brussels; former Member of the European Commission (External Relations), Brussels; former Governor of Hong Kong; former Member of the British Cabinet, London

* Heinrich von Pierer, Chairman of the Board, Siemens, Munich

* Josep Piqué, Chairman of the Popular Party of Catalunya, Barcelona; Member of the Parliament of Catalunya; Member of the Spanish Senate; former Minister of Foreign Affairs

* Benoît Potier, Chairman of the Management Board, L’Air Liquide, Paris

* Alessandro Profumo, Chief Executive Officer, UniCredito Italiano, Milan

* Henri Proglio, Chairman, Veolia Environnement, Paris

* Luigi Ramponi, Member of Parliament; Chairman of the Defence Committee of the Chamber of Deputies, Rome; former Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff (Italian Army)

* Wanda Rapaczynska, President of the Management Board, Agora, Warsaw

* Heinz Riesenhuber, Member of the German Bundestag; former Federal Minister of Research and Technology, Berlin

* Gianfelice Rocca, Chairman, Techint Group of Companies, Milan; Vice President, Confindustria

* H. Onno Ruding, Chairman, Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels; Retired Vice Chairman, Citibank; former Dutch Minister of Finance

* Renato Ruggiero, Vice Chairman, Citigroup European Investment Bank, Zurich; former Italian Foreign Minister and Director General of WTO

* Anthony Ruys, Chairman of the Executive Board, Heineken, Amsterdam

* Jacques Santer, Former Member of the European Parliament; former President of the European Commission; former Prime Minister of Luxembourg

* Prince Rafael of Savoy, Business Person, Lisbon

* *Silvio Scaglia, Chairman and Founcer, e.Biscom, Milan; former Managing Director, Omnitel

* Paolo Scaroni, Chief Executive Officer, ENEL, Rome

* *Guido Schmidt-Chiari, Chairman, Constantia Group; former Chairman, Creditanstalt Bankverein, Vienna

* Henning Schulte-Noelle, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Allianz, Munich

* Prince Charles of Schwarzenberg, Founder and Director, Nadace Bohemiae, Prague; former Chancellor to President Havel; former President of the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights

* Miguel Sebastian, Chairman of the Economic Bureau of the Prime Minister of Spain; Professor of Economics at the Universidad Complutense, Madrid

* *Carlo Secchi, Professor of European Economic Policy, Bocconi University, Milan; former Member of the Italian Senate and of the European Parliament

* *Tøger Seidenfaden, Editor-in-Chief, Politiken, Copenhagen

* Maurizio Sella, Chairman, Banca Sella, Biella; Chairman, Association of Italian Banks (A.B.I.), Rome; Chairman, Finanziaria Bansel

* Stefano Silvestri, President, Institute for International Affairs (IAI), Rome; Commentator, Il Sole 24 Ore; former Under Secretary of State for Defence, Italy

* Lord Simon of Highbury, Member of the House of Lords; Advisory Director of Unilever, Morgan Stanley Europe and LEK; former Minister for Trade & Competitiveness in Europe; former Chairman of BP, London

* Nicholas Soames, Member of the British Parliament, London

* Hermann Otto Solms, Vice President of the German Bundestag, Berlin

* Sir Martin Sorrell, Chief Executive Officer, WPP Group, London

* Myles Staunton, Former Member of the Irish Senate & of the Dail; Consultant, Westport, Co. Mayo

* *Thorvald Stoltenberg, President, Norwegian Red Cross, Oslo; former Co-Chairman (UN) of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on Former Yugoslavia; former Foreign Minister of Norway; former UN High Commissioner for Refugees

* *Petar Stoyanov, President, Centre for Political Dialogue, Sofia; former President of Bulgaria

* Peter Straarup, Chairman of the Executive Board, Danske Bank, Copenhagen; Chairman, the Danish Bankers Association

* *Peter Sutherland, Chairman, BP p.l.c. ; Chairman, Goldman Sachs International; former Director General, GATT/WTO; former Member of the European Commission; former Attorney General of Ireland

* Björn Svedberg, Former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Ericsson, Stockholm; former President and Group Chief Executive, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken

* Péter Székely, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Transelektro, Budapest; President, Confederation of Hungarian Employers’ Organisations for International Co-operation (CEHIC); Vice President, Confederation of Hungarian Employers and Industrialists

* Pavel Telicka, Partner, BXL-Consulting, Prague

* Jean-Philippe Thierry, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, AGF (Assurances Générales de France), Paris

* Marco Tronchetti Provera, Chairman, Telecom Italia; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pirelli & C., Milan

* Elsbeth Tronstad, Director of Information, ABB, Oslo

* Loukas Tsoukalis, Jean Monnet Professor of European Integration, University of Athens; President of the Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP); Visiting Professor at the College of Europe

* Mario Vargas Llosa, Writer and Member of the Royal Spanish Academy, Madrid

* *George Vassiliou, Head of the Negotiating Team for the Accession of Cyprus to the European Union; former President of the Republic of Cyprus; Former Member of Parliament and Leader of United Democrats, Nicosia

* Franco Venturini, Foreign Correspondent, Corriere della Sera, Rome

* Friedrich Verzetnitsch, Member of Austrian Parliament; President, Austrian Federation of Trade Unions, Vienna; President, European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)

* *Marko Voljc, General Manager of Central Europe Directorate, KBC Bank Insurance Holding, Brussels; former Chief Executive Officer, Nova Ljubljanska Banka, Ljubljana

* Alexandr Vondra, Managing Director of the Prague Office, Dutko Group Companies; former Czech Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs

* Joris Voorhoeve, Member of the Council of State; former Member of the Dutch Parliament; former Minister of Defence, The Hague

* Panagis Vourloumis, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hellenic Telecommunications Organization (O.T.E.), Athens

* Marcus Wallenberg, President and Chief Executive Officer, Investor AB, Stockholm

* Prince Charles of Wales, Duke of Cornwall of the House of Windsor, London

* *Serge Weinberg, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Weinberg Investissements; former Chairman of the Management Board, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute; former President, Institute of International and Strategic Studies (IRIS), Paris

* Heinrich Weiss, Chairman, SMS, Düsseldorf

* Nout Wellink, President, Dutch Central Bank, Amsterdam

* Arne Wessberg, Director General, YLE (Finnish Broadcasting Company) and Director General, YLE Group (YLE and Digits Oy), Helsinki; President, European Broadcasting Union (EBU)

* *Norbert Wieczorek, former Member of the German Bundestag & Deputy Chairman of the SPD Parliamentary Group, Berlin

* Hans Wijers, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Akzo Nobel, Arnhem

* Otto Wolff von Amerongen, Honorary Chairman, East Committee of the German Industry; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Otto Wolff Industrieberatung und Beteiligung, Cologne

* *Emilio Ybarra, former Chairman, Banco Bilbao-Vizcaya, Madrid

Former Members in Public Service

* Marek Belka, Prime Minister, Warsaw; former Ambassador-at-Large and Chairman, Council for International Coordination, Coalition Provisional Authority, Baghdad

* John Bruton, European Union Ambassador & Head, Delegation of the European Commission to the United States

* Patrick Devedjian, Minister for Industry, France

* Lene Espersen, Minister of Justice, Denmark

* Pedro Solbes, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Economy and Finances, Spain

* Harri Tiido, Ambassador of Estonia and Head of the Estonian Mission to NATO, Brussels

* Karsten Voigt, Coordinator for German-American Cooperation, Federal Foreign Ministry, Germany

North American Group

* Madeleine K. Albright, Principal, The Albright Group LLC, Washington, DC; former U.S. Secretary of State

* Graham Allison, Director, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

* Rona Ambrose, Member of Parliament, Ottawa, ON

* G. Allen Andreas, Chairman and Chief Executive, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL

* Michael H. Armacost, Shorenstein Distinguished Fellow, Asia/Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, Hillsborough, CA; former President, The Brookings Institution; former U.S. Ambassador to Japan; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs

* C. Michael Armstrong, Chairman, Comcast Corporation, Philadelphia, PA

* *Charlene Barshefsky, Senior International Partner, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, Washington, DC; former U.S. Trade Representative

* Alan R. Batkin, Vice Chairman, Kissinger Associates, New York, NY

* Maurizio Bevilacqua, Member of Parliament, Ottawa, ON

* Doug Bereuter, President, The Asia Foundation, San Francisco, CA; former Member, U.S. House of Representatives

* *C. Fred Bergsten, Director, Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs

* Catherine Bertini, Under-Secretary-General for Management, United Nations, New York, NY

* Dennis C. Blair, USN (Ret.), President, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA; former Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command

* Herminio Blanco Mendoza, Private Office of Herminio Blanco, Mexico City, NL; former Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Development

* Geoffrey T. Boisi, former Vice Chairman, JPMorgan Chase, New York, NY

* Stephen W. Bosworth, Dean, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, Medford, MA; former U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Korea

* David G. Bradley, Chairman, Atlantic Media Company, Washington, DC

* Harold Brown, Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC; General Partner, Warburg Pincus & Company, New York, NY; former U.S. Secretary of Defense

* *Zbigniew Brzezinski, Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC; Robert Osgood Professor of American Foreign Affairs, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; former U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

* George H.W. Bush, Former President, The United States of America, Texas

* Louis C. Camilleri, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Altria Group, Inc., New York, NY

* Gerhard Casper, President Emeritus, Stanford University, Stanford

* Lynne V. Cheney, Former Chairman, the National Endowment for the Humanities, Washington D.C.

* William Jefferson Clinton, Former President of the United States

* William T. Coleman III, Founder, Chairman, and Chief Executive Officer, Cassatt Corporation;

* Founder, former Chairman and CEO and Member, Board of Directors, BEA Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA

* William T. Coleman, Jr., Senior Partner and the Senior Counselor, O’Melveny & Myers, Washington, DC; former U.S. Secretary of Transportation

* Timothy C. Collins, Senior Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, Ripplewood Holdings, New York, NY

* E. Gerald Corrigan, Managing Director, Goldman, Sachs & Co., New York, NY; former President, Federal Reserve Bank of New York

* Michael J. Critelli, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pitney Bowes Inc., Stamford, CT

* Gerald L. Curtis, Burgess Professor of Politcial Science and Visiting Professor, Graduate Research Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo

* Douglas Daft, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Coca Cola Company, Atlanta, GA

* Dennis D. Dammerman, Vice Chairman and Executive Officer, General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT

* Lynn Davis, Senior Political Scientist, The RAND Corporation, Arlington, VA; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security

* Lodewijk J. R. de Vink, Chairman, Global Health Care Partners, Peapack, NJ; former Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Warner-Lambert Company

* Arthur A. DeFehr, President and Chief Executive Officer, Palliser Furniture, Winnipeg, MB

* André Desmarais, President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, Power Corporation of Canada, Montréal, QC; Deputy Chairman, Power Financial Corporation

* Jamie Dimon, President and Chief Operating Officer, JPMorgan Chase, New York, NY

* Peter C. Dobell, Founding Director, Parliamentary Centre, Ottawa, ON

* Wendy K. Dobson, Professor and Director, Institute for International Business, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; former Canadian Associate Deputy Minister of Finance

* Kenneth M. Duberstein, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Duberstein Group, Washington, DC

* Robert Eckert, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mattel, Inc., El Segundo, CA

* Jessica P. Einhorn, Dean, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC; former Managing Director for Finance and Resource Mobilization, World Bank

* Jeffrey Epstein, President, J. Epstein & Company, Inc., New York, NY; President, N.A. Property, Inc.

* Dianne Feinstein, Member (D-CA), U.S. Senate

* Sandra Feldman, President Emeritus, American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC

* Martin S. Feldstein, George F. Baker Professor of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; President and Chief Executive Officer, National Bureau of Economic Research; former U.S.Chairman, President’s Council of Economic Advisors

* Stanley Fischer, President, Citigroup International and Vice Chairman, Citgroup, New York, NY; former First Deputy Managing Director, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC

* Richard W. Fisher, President and Chief Executive Officer, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Dallas, TX; former U.S. Deputy Trade Representative

* *Thomas S. Foley, Partner, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld, Washington, DC; former U.S. Ambassador to Japan; former Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives; North American Chairman, Trilateral Commission

* Francis Fukuyama, Bernard L. Schwartz Professor International Political Economy, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC

* Dionisio Garza Medina, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, ALFA, Garza Garcia, NL

* Richard A. Gephardt, former Member (D-MO), U.S. House of Representatives

* David Gergen, Professor of Public Service, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; Editor-at-Large, U.S. News and World Report

* Peter C. Godsoe, Chairman of Fairmont Hotels & Resorts; Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Scotiabank, Toronto, ON

* *Allan E. Gotlieb, Senior Advisor, Stikeman Elliott, Toronto, ON; Chairman, Sotheby’s, Canada; former Canadian Ambassador to the United States; North American Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission

* Donald E. Graham, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Washington Post Company, Washington, DC

* Jeffrey W. Greenberg, Private Investor, New York, NY; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Marsh & McLennan Companies

* Maurice R. Greenberg, Chairman, American International Group, Inc., New York, NY

* Richard N. Haass, President, Council on Foreign Relations, New York, NY; former Director, Policy Planning, U. S. Department of State; former Director of Foreign Policy Studies, The Brookings Institution

* William A. Haseltine, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Haseltine Associates, Washington, DC;

* President, William A. Haseltine Foundation for Medical Sciences and the Arts; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Human Genome Sciences, Inc., Rockville, MD

* Charles B. Heck, Senior Adviser and former North American Director, Trilateral Commission, New Canaan, CT

* *Carla A. Hills, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hills & Company, International Consultants, Washington, DC; former U.S. Trade Representative; former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

* Richard Holbrooke, Vice Chairman, Perseus LLC, New York, NY; Counselor, Council on Foreign Relations; former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations; former Vice Chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston Corporation; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs; and former U.S. Ambassador to Germany

* Karen Elliott House, Senior Vice President, Dow Jones & Company, and Publisher, The Wall Street Journal, New York, NY

* James A. Johnson, Vice Chairman, Perseus LLC, Washington, DC; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)

* Alejandro Junco de la Vega, President and Director, Grupo Reforma, Monterrery, NL

* Robert Kagan, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC

* Charles R. Kaye, Co-President, Warburg Pincus LLC, New York, NY

* Henry A. Kissinger, Chairman, Kissinger Associates, Inc., New York, NY; former U.S. Secretary of State; former U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

* Michael Klein, Chief Executive Officer, Global Banking, Citigroup Inc.; Vice Chairman, Citibank International PLC; New York, NY

* Enrique Krauze, General Director, Editorial Clio Libros y Videos, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, DF

* Jim Leach, Member (R-IA), U.S. House of Representatives

* Gerald M. Levin, Chief Executive Officer Emeritus, AOL Time Warner, Inc., New York, NY

* Winston Lord, Co-Chairman of Overseeers and former Co-Chairman of the Board, International Rescue Committee, New York, NY; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs; former U.S. Ambassador to China

* E. Peter Lougheed, Senior Partner, Bennett Jones, Barristers & Solicitors, Calgary, AB; former Premier of Alberta

* Roy MacLaren, former Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom; former Canadian Minister of International Trade; Toronto, ON

* John A. MacNaughton, former President and Chief Executive Officer, Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, Toronto, ON

* Antonio Madero, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, San Luis Corporacion, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, DF

* *Sir Deryck C. Maughan, former Vice Chairman, Citigroup, New York, NY

* Jay Mazur, President Emeritus, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees); Vice Chairman, Amalgamated Bank of New York; and President, ILGWU’s 21st Century Heritage Foundation, New York, NY

* Hugh L. McColl, Jr., Chairman, McColl Brothers Lockwood, Charlotte, NC; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Bank of America Corporation

* Henry A. McKinnell, President and Chief Executive Officer, Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY

* Marc H. Morial, President and Chief Executive Officer, National Urban League, New York, NY; former Mayor, New Orleans, LA

* Anne M. Mulcahy, Chairman and CEO, Xerox Corporation, Stamford, CT

* Brian Mulroney, Senior Partner, Ogilvy Renault, Barristers and Solicitors, Montréal, QC; former Prime Minister of Canada

* *Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Distinguished Service Professor at Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs

* David J. O’Reilly, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ChevronTexaco Corp., San Ramon, CA

* Richard N. Perle, Resident Fellow, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC; member and former Chairman, Defense Policy Board, U.S. Department of Defense; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy

* Thomas R. Pickering, Senior Vice President, International Relations, The Boeing Company, Vienna, VA; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs; former U.S. Ambassador to the Russian Federation, India, Israel, El Salvador, Nigeria, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and the United Nations

* Franklin D. Raines, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Fannie Mae (Federal National Mortgage Association), Washington, DC; former Director, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Office of the President

* Joseph W. Ralston, USAF (Ret)., Vice Chairman, The Cohen Group, Washington, DC; former Commander, U.S. European Command, and Supreme Allied Commander NATO; former Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Department of Defense

* Charles B. Rangel, Member (D-NY), U.S. House of Representatives

* Hartley Richardson, President and Chief Executive Officer, James Richardson & Sons, Ltd., Winnipeg, MB

* Joseph E. Robert, Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive Office, J.E. Robert Companies, McLean, VA

* John D. Rockefeller IV, Member (D-WV), U.S. Senate

* Kenneth Rogoff, Professor of Economics and Director, Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Chief Economist and Director, Research Department, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC

* David M. Rubenstein, Co-founder and Managing Director, The Carlyle Group, Washington, DC

* Luis Rubio, President, Center of Research for Development (CIDAC), Mexico City, DF

* Arthur F. Ryan, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Prudential Financial, Inc., Newark, NJ

* Jaime Serra, Chairman, SAI Consulting, Mexico City, DF; former Mexican Minister of Trade and Industry

* Anne-Marie Slaughter, Dean, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

* Gordon Smith, Director, Centre for Global Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC; Chairman, Board of Governors, International Development Research Centre; former Canadian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Personal Representative of the Prime Minister to the Economic Summit

* Donald R. Sobey, Chairman Emeritus, Empire Company Ltd., Stellarton, NS

* George Soros, Chairman, Soros Fund Management LLC, New York, NY; Chairman, The Open Society Institute

* Ronald D. Southern, Chairman, ATCO Group, Calgary, AB

* James B. Steinberg, Vice President and Director of the Foreign Policy Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former U.S. Deputy National Security Advisor

* Barbara Stymiest, Chief Operating Officer, RBC Financial Group, Toronto, ON

* Lawrence H. Summers, President, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury

* John J. Sweeney, President, AFL-CIO, Washington, DC

* Strobe Talbott, President, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State

* Luis Tellez, Managing Director, The Carlyle Group, Mexico City, DF; former Executive Vice President, Sociedad de Fomento Industrial (DESC); former Mexican Minister of Energy

* John Thain, Chief Executive Officer, New York Stock Exchange, Inc.; former President and Co-Chief Operating Officer, Goldman Sachs & Co., New York, NY

* G. Richard Thoman, Managing Partner, Corporate Perspectives and Adjunct Professor, Columbia University, New York, NY; formerly President and CEO, Xerox Corporation; formerly CFO and Nº 2 officer, IBM Corporation

* *Paul A. Volcker, former Chairman, Wolfensohn & Co., Inc., New York; Frederick H. Schultz Professor Emeritus, International Economic Policy, Princeton University; former Chairman, Board of Governors, U.S. Federal Reserve System; Honorary North American Chairman and former North American Chairman, Trilateral Commission

* William H. Webster, Senior Partner, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP, Washington, DC; former U.S. Director of Central Intelligence; former Director, U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation; former Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit

* Fareed Zakaria, Editor, Newsweek International, New York, NY

* *Lorenzo H. Zambrano, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, CEMEX, Monterrey, NL; North American Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission

* Ernesto Zedillo, Director, Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Yale University, New Haven, CT; former President of Mexico

* Mortimer B. Zuckerman, Chairman and Editor-in-Chief, U.S. News & World Report, New York, NY

* Robert S. McNamara, Lifetime Trustee, Trilateral Commission, Washington, DC; former President, World Bank; former U.S. Secretary of Defense; former President, Ford Motor Company

* David Rockefeller, Founder, Honorary Chairman, and Lifetime Trustee, Trilateral Commission, New York, NY

Former Members In Public Service

* Richard B. Cheney, Vice President of the United States

* Paula J. Dobriansky, U.S. Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs

* Bill Graham, Canadian Minister of National Defence

* William J. McDonough, Chairman, Public Company Accounting Oversight Board

* Paul Wolfowitz, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense

* Robert B. Zoellick, U.S. Deputy Secretary of State


Trilateral Commission


(for – this list of members – Pacific Asian Group, see link above) – Pacific Asian Group

Pacific Asian Group

* Ali Alatas, Advisor and Special Envoy of the President of the Republic of Indonesia; former Indonesian Minister for Foreign Affairs; Jakarta

* Narongchai Akrasanee, Chairman, Seranee Holdings Co., Ltd., Bangkok

* Philip Burdon, former Chairman, Asia 2000 Foundation; New Zealand Chairman, APEC; former New Zealand Minister of Trade Negotiations; Wellington

* Fujio Cho, President, Toyota Motor Corporation

* Cho Suck-Rai, Chairman, Hyosung Corporation, Seoul

* Chung Mong-Joon, Member, Korean National Assembly; Vice President, Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA); Seoul

* Barry Desker, Director, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore

* Takashi Ejiri, Attorney at Law, Asahi Koma Law Office

* Jesus P. Estanislao, President and CEO, Institute of Corporate Directors/Institute of Solidarity in Asia; former Philippine Minister of Finance; Manila

* Hugh Fletcher, Director, Fletcher Building, Ltd.; former Chief Executive Officer, Fletcher Challenge; Auckland

* Hiroaki Fujii, Advisor and former President, The Japan Foundation; former Japanese Ambassador to the United Kingdom

* Shinji Fukukawa, Executive Advisor, Dentsu Inc.

* Yoichi Funabashi, Chief Diplomatic Correspondent and Columnist, The Asahi Shimbun

* Carrillo Gantner, Vice President, Myer Foundation; Melbourne

* Ross Garnaut, Head, Department of Economics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra

* *Toyoo Gyohten, President, Institute for International Monetary Affairs; Senior Advisor, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd.

* Han Sung-Joo, President, Seoul Forum for International Affairs; former Korean Minister of Foreign Affairs; former Korean Ambassador to the United States; Seoul

* *Stuart Harris, Professor of International Relations, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University; former Australian Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, Canberra

* Tan Sri Dato’ Azman Hashim, Chairman, AmBank Group, Kuala Lumpur

* John R. Hewson, Member, Advisory Council, ABN AMRO Australia

* Earnest M. Higa, President and CEO, Higa Industries

* Shintaro Hori, Managing Partner, Bain & Company Japan, Inc.

* Murray Horn, Managing Director, Institutional Banking, ANZ Banking Group, Ltd.; former Parliament Secretary, New Zealand Treasury; Auckland

* Hyun Hong-Choo, Senior Partner, Kim & Chang, Seoul; former Korean Ambassador to the United Nations and to the United States; Seoul

* Hyun Jae-Hyun, Chairman, Tong Yang Group, Seoul

* Shin’ichi Ichimura, Counselor, International Centre for the Study of East Asian Development, Kitakyushu

* Nobuyuki Idei, Chairman and Group CEO, Sony Corporation

* Takeo Inokuchi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Company, Ltd.

* Noriyuki Inoue, Chairman and CEO, Daikin Industries, Ltd.

* Rokuro Ishikawa, Chairman, Kajima Corporation

* Motoo Kaji, Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo

* Koji Kakizawa, former Member, Japanese House of Representatives; former Minister for Foreign Affairs

* Kasem Kasemsri, Chairman, Natural Park Public Co., Ltd., Bangkok.; former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand;

* Koichi Kato, Member, Japanese House of Representatives; former Secretary-General, Liberal Democratic Party

* Trevor Kennedy, Chairman, Oil Search, Ltd.; Chairman, Cypress Lakes Group, Ltd.; Sydney

* K. Kesavapany, Director, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore

* Kim Kihwan, International Advisor, Goldman Sachs, Seoul; former Korean Ambassador-at-Large for Economic Affairs

* *Kim Kyung-Won, Adviser, Kim & Chang Law Office, Seoul; President Emeritus, Seoul Forum for International Affairs; former Korean Ambassador to the United States and the United Nations; Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission; Seoul

* Kakutaro Kitashiro, Chairman of the Board, IBM Japan, Ltd.; Chairman, Japan Association of Corporate Executives

* Shoichiro Kobayashi, Advisor, Kansai Electric Power Company, Ltd.

* *Yotaro Kobayashi, Chairman of the Board, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.; Pacific Asia Chairman, Trilateral Commission

* Akira Kojima, Chairman, Japan Center for Economic Research ( JCER )

* Koo John, Chairman, LS Cable Ltd.; Chairman, LS Industrial Systems Co.; Seoul

* Kenji Kosaka, Member, Japanese House of Representatives

* *Lee Hong-Koo, Chairman, Seoul Forum for International Affairs, Seoul; former Korean Prime Minister; former Korean Ambassador to the United Kingdom and the United States

* Lee In-ho, former President, Korea Foundation; former Korean Ambassador to Finland and Russia; Seoul

* Lee Jay Y., Vice President, Samsung Electronics, Seoul

* Lee Kyungsook Choi, President, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul

* Adrianto Machribie, Chairman, PT Freeport Indonesia, Jakarta

* *Minoru Makihara, Senior Corporate Advisor, Mitsubishi Corporation

* Hiroshi Mikitani, Chairman, President and CEO, Rakuten, Inc.

* Yoshihiko Miyauchi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ORIX Corporation

* Isamu Miyazaki, Special Advisor, Daiwa Institute of Research, Ltd.; former Director-General of the Japanese Economic Planning Agency

* *Kiichi Miyazawa, former Prime Minister of Japan; former Finance Minister; former Member, House of Representatives

* Yuzaburo Mogi, President and Chief Executive Officer, Kikkoman Corporation

* Mike Moore, former Director-General of the World Trade Organization; former Prime Minister of New Zealand; Member, Privy Council; Geneva

* Moriyuki Motono, President, Foreign Affairs Society; former Japanese Ambassador to France

* Jiro Murase, Managing Partner, Bingham McCutchen Murase, New York

* *Minoru Murofushi, Counselor, ITOCHU Corporation

* Masao Nakamura, President and Chief Executive Officer, NTT Docomo Inc.

* Masashi Nishihara, President, National Defense Academy

* Taizo Nishimuro, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Toshiba Corporation

* Roberto F. de Ocampo, President, Asian Institute of Management; Former Secretary of Finance, Manila

* Toshiaki Ogasawara, Chairman and Publisher, The Japan Times Ltd.; Chairman, Nifco Inc.

* Sadako Ogata, President, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA); former United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

* *Shijuro Ogata, former Deputy Governor, Japan Development Bank; former Deputy Governor for International Relations, Bank of Japan; Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission

* Sozaburo Okamatsu, Chairman, Research Institute of Economy, Trade & Industry (RIETI)

* *Yoshio Okawara, President, Institute for International Policy Studies; former Japanese Ambassador to the United States

* Yoichi Okita, Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies

* Ariyoshi Okumura, Chairman, Lotus Corporate Advisory, Inc.

* Anand Panyarachun, Chairman, Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI); former Prime Minister of Thailand; Bangkok

* Ryu Jin Roy, Chairman and CEO, Poongsan Corp., Seoul

* Eisuke Sakakibara, Professor, Keio University; former Japanese Vice Minister of Finance for International Affairs

* Sakong Il, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Institute for Global Economics; former Korean Minister of Finance; Seoul

* Yukio Satoh, President, The Japan Institute of International Affairs; former Japanese Ambassador to the United Nations

* Sachio Semmoto, Chief Executive Officer, eAccess, Ltd.

* Masahide Shibusawa, President, Shibusawa Ei’ichi Memorial Foundation

* Seiichi Shimada, President and Chief Executive Officer, Nihon Unisys, Ltd.

* Yasuhisa Shiozaki, Member, Japanese House of Representatives; former Parliamentary Vice Minister for Finance

* Arifin Siregar, International Advisor, Goldman Sachs & Co.; former Ambassador of Indonesia to the United States; Jakarta

* Tan Sri Dr. Noordin Sopiee, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Institute of Strategic and International Studies, Kuala Lumpur

* Suh Kyung-Bae, President and CEO, Amore Pacific Corp., Seoul

* Tsuyoshi Takagi, President, The Japanese Foundation of Textile, Chemical, Food, Commercial, Service and General Workers’ Unions (UI ZENSEN)

* Keizo Takemi, Member, Japanese House of Councillors; former State Secretary for Foreign Affairs

* Akihiko Tanaka, Director, Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo

* Naoki Tanaka, President, The 21st Century Public Policy Institute

* Sunjoto Tanudjaja, President and Chief Executive Officer, PT Great River International, Jakarta

* Teh Kok Peng, President, GIC Special Investments Private Ltd., Singapore

* Shuji Tomita, Senior Executive Vice President, NTT Communications Corporation

* Kiyoshi Tsugawa, Executive Advisor & Member of Japan Advisory Board, Lehman Brothers Japan, Inc.; Chairman, ARAMARK ASIA

* Junichi Ujiie, Chairman and CEO, Nomura Holdings, Inc.

* Sarasin Viraphol, Executive Vice President, Charoen Pokphand Co., Ltd.; former Deputy Permanent Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Thailand; Bangkok

* Cesar E. A. Virata, Director, Corporate Vice Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation (RCBC); former Prime Minister of Philippines; Manila

* *Jusuf Wanandi, Co-founder and Member of the Board of Trustees, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta

* Etsuya Washio, President, National Federation of Workers and Consumers Insurance Cooperatives (ZENROSAI): former President, Japanese Trade Union Confederation (RENGO)

* Koji Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Japan Center for International Exchange; former Japanese Ambassador to Russia

* Osamu Watanabe, Chairman, Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO)

* Taizo Yakushiji, Executive Member, Council for Science and Technology Policy of the Cabinet Office of Japan; Executive Research Director, Institute for International Policy Studies

* Tadashi Yamamoto, President, Japan Center for International Exchange; Pacific Asia Director, Trilateral Commission

* Noriyuki Yonemura, Counselor, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.

Note: Those without city names are Japanese Members. Korean names are shown with surname first.

Former Members in Public Service

* Hong Seok-Hyun, Korean Ambassador to the United States

* Masaharu Ikuta, Director General, Postal Services Corporation.

* Yoriko Kawaguchi, Special Advisor to the Prime Minister of Japan

* Hisashi Owada, Judge, International Court of Justice

* Takeshi Kondo, President, Japan Highway Public Corporation (Nihon Doro Kodan)

* Richard B. Cheney, Vice-President, the United States of America

Participants From Other Areas: “Triennium Participants”

* Abdlatif Al-Hamad, Director General and Chairman, Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development; former Kuwait Minister of Finance and Planning

* André Azoulay, Adviser to H.M. King Mohammed VI, Rabat, Morocco

* Domingo F. Cavallo, President, Accion por la Republica, Buenos Aires; former Economy Minister of Argentina

* Morris Chang, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Taipei

* Hüsnü Dogan, General Coordinator, Nurol Holding, Ankara; former Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Development Foundation of Turkey; former Minister of Defence

* Jacob A. Frenkel, Vice Chairman, American International Group, Inc. and Chairman, AIG’s Global Economic Strategies Group, New York, NY; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, G-30; former Chairman, Merrill Lynch International; former Governor, Bank of Israel; former Economic Counselor and Director of Research, IMF; former Chairman, Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank; former David Rockefeller Professor of Economics, University of Chicago

* Victor K. Fung, Chairman, Li & Fung, Hong Kong

* Frene Ginwala, Speaker of the National Assembly, Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, Cape Town

* H.R.H. Prince El Hassan bin Talal, President, The Club of Rome; Moderator of the World Conference on Religion and Peace; Chairman, Arab Thought Forum, Amman, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

* Serhiy Holovaty, Member of the Supreme Rada; President of the Ukrainian Legal Foundation; former Minister of Justice, Kiev, Ukraine

* Enrique V. Iglesias, President, Inter-American Development Bank; former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Uruguay

* Wang Jun, Chairman, China International Trust & Investment Corp., China

* Sergei Karaganov, Deputy Director, Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences; Chairman of the Presidium of the Council on Defense and Foreign Policy, Moscow, Russian Federation

* Jeffrey L.S. Koo, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Chinatrust Financial Holding Co., Taipei

* Richard Li, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pacific Century Group Holdings Ltd., Hong Kong

* Itamar Rabinovich, President, Tel Aviv University, Israel; former Ambassador to the United States

* Rüsdü Saracoglu, President of the Finance Group, Koç Holding; Chairman, Makro Consulting, Istanbul; former State Minister and Member of the Turkish Parliament; former Governor of the Central Bank of Turkey

* Roberto Egydio Setubal, Director President, Banco Itaú S.A., Brazil

* Stan Shih, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Acer Group, Taipei

* Gordon Wu, Chairman and Managing Director, Hopewell Holdings Ltd., Hong Kong

* Grigory A. Yavlinsky, former Member of the State Duma; Leader of the “Yabloko” Parliamentary Group; Chairman of the Center for Economic and Political Research, Moscow, Russian Federation

* Yu Xintian, President, Shanghai Institute for International Studies, Shanghai

* Yuan Ming, Director, Institute of International Relations, Peking University, Peking

* Zhang Yunling, Director, Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), Beijing

* Wang Jisi, Director, Institute for American Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), Beijing


Trilateral Commission


When the Trilateral Commission was first launched, the plan was for an equal number of members from each of the three regions. The numbers soon began to grow, and ceilings were imposed about 1980. These ceilings have been raised somewhat since then as new countries came to be represented in the groups. The European group, which includes members from Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Cyprus, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, now has a ceiling of 160 members. The ceiling for the North American group is 120, including 20 Canadian members, 13 Mexican members and 87 U.S. members. In 2000, the Japanese group of 85 members expanded to become a Pacific Asian group of 96 members, and includes 57 members from Japan, 15 members from Korea, 8 from Australia and New Zealand, 16 from the original five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand). The new Pacific Asian group also includes participants from the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.

To help preserve the Commission’s unofficial character, members who take up positions in their national administration give up Trilateral Commission membership. New members are chosen on a national basis. The procedures used for rotation off and for invitation of new members vary from national group to national group. Three chairmen (one from each region), deputy chairmen, and directors constitute the leadership of the Trilateral Commission, along with an Executive Committee including 36 other members. The current full membership list is available by e-mail or by contacting any of the regional offices.

Executive Committee

Erik Belfrage, Senior Vice President, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken; Director, Investor AB, Stockholm

C. Fred Bergsten, Director, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington DC; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs

Georges Berthoin, International Honorary Chairman, European Movement; Honorary Chairman, The Jean Monnet Association; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission

Jorge Braga de Macedo, President, Tropical Research Institute, Lisbon; Professor of Economics, Nova University at Lisbon; Chairman, Forum Portugal Global; former Minister of Finance

Zbigniew Brzezinski, Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington DC; Robert Osgood Professor of American Foreign Affairs, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; former Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

François Bujon de l’Estang, Ambassadeur de France; Chairman, Citigroup France, Paris; former Ambassador to the United States

Richard Conroy, Chairman, Conroy Diamonds & Gold, Dublin; Member of Senate, Republic of Ireland

Vladimir Dlouhy, Senior Advisor, ABB; International Advisor, Goldman Sachs; former Czechoslovak Minister of Economy; former Czech Minister of Industry & Trade, Prague

Bill Emmott, former Editor, The Economist, London

Nemesio Fernandez-Cuesta, Executive Director of Upstream, Repsol-YPF; former Chairman, Prensa Española, Madrid

Michael Fuchs, Member of the German Bundestag; former President, National Federation of German Wholesale & Foreign Trade, Berlin

Antonio Garrigues Walker, Chairman, Garrigues Abogados y Asesores Tributarios, Madrid

Toyoo Gyohten, President, The Institute for International Monetary Affairs; Senior Advisor, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, UFJ, Ltd., Tokyo

Stuart Harris, Professor of International Relations, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University; former Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, Canberra

Carla A. Hills, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hills & Company, Washington, DC; former U.S. Trade Representative; former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Karen Elliott House, Writer, Princeton, NJ; Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Senior Vice President, Dow Jones & Company, and Publisher, The Wall Street Journal

Mugur Isarescu, Governor, National Bank of Romania, Bucharest; former Prime Minister of Romania

Baron Daniel Janssen, Honorary Chairman, Solvay, Brussels

Béla Kadar, Member of the Hungarian Academy, Budapest; Member of the Monetary Council of the National Bank; President of the Hungarian Economic Association; former Ambassador of Hungary to the O.E.C.D., Paris; former Hungarian Minister of International Economic Relations and Member of Parliament

Lord Kerr of Kinlochard, Deputy Chairman and Senior Independent Non-Executive Director of Royal Dutch Shell; Member of the House of Lords; Director of Rio Tinto, the Scottish American Investment Trust, London; former Secretary General, European Convention, Brussels; former Permanent Under-Secretary of State and Head of the Diplomatic Service, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London; former British Ambassador to the United States

Sixten Korkman, Managing Director, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA) and Finnish Business and Policy Forum (EVA), Helsinki

Count Otto Lambsdorff, Partner, Wessing Lawyers, Düsseldorf; Chairman, Friedrich Naumann Foundation, Berlin; former Member of German Bundestag; Honorary Chairman, Free Democratic Party; former Federal Minister of Economy; former President of the Liberal International; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission, Paris

Lee Hong-Koo, Chairman, Seoul Forum for International Affairs; former Prime Minister of Korea; former Korean Ambassador to the United Kingdom and the United States

Marianne Lie, Director General, Norwegian Shipowners Association, Oslo

Cees Maas, Honorary Vice Chairman of the ING Group and former Chief Financial Officer, Amsterdam; former Treasurer of the Dutch Government

Roy MacLaren, former Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom; former Canadian Minister of International Trade; Toronto, ON

Minoru Makihara, Senior Corporate Advisor, Mitsubishi Corporation, Tokyo

Sir Deryck C. Maughan, Managing Director and Chairman, KKR Asia, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co., New York, NY; former Vice Chairman, Citigroup

Minoru Murofushi, Counselor, ITOCHU Corporation, Tokyo

Indra K. Nooyi, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo, Inc., Purchase, NY

Yoshio Okawara, President, Institute for International Policy Studies, Tokyo; former Japanese Ambassador to the United States

Susan Rice, Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies and Global Economy and Development Programs, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs; former Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for African Affairs, National Security Council

Luis Rubio, President, Center of Research for Development (CIDAC), Mexico City, DF

Silvio Scaglia, Founder, Chairman and Financial Backer of Babelgum, London; Chairman, S.M.S. Finance S.A., Luxembourg

Guido Schmidt-Chiari, Chairman, Supervisory Board, Constantia Group; former Chairman, Creditanstalt Bankverein, Vienna

Carlo Secchi, Professor of European Economic Policy and former Rector, Bocconi University; Vice President, ISPI, Milan; former Member of the Italian Senate and of the European Parliament

Tøger Seidenfaden, Editor-in-Chief, Politiken, Copenhagen

Petar Stoyanov, former President of the Republic of Bulgaria; Member of the Bulgarian Parliament; Chairman, Parliamentary Group of United Democratic Forces; Chairman, Union of Democratic Forces; Sofia

Harri Tiido, Undersecretary for Political Affairs, Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallinn; former Ambassador of Estonia and Head of the Estonian Mission to NATO, Brussels

George Vassiliou, former Head of the Negotiating Team for the Accession of Cyprus to the European Union; former President of the Republic of Cyprus, former Member of Parliament and Leader of United Democrats; Nicosia

Paul Volcker, former Chairman, Wolfensohn & Co., Inc., New York; Frederick H. Schultz Professor Emeritus, International Economic Policy, Princeton University; former Chairman, Board of Governors, U.S. Federal Reserve System; Honorary North American Chairman and former North American Chairman, The Trilateral Commission

Marko Voljc, Chief Executive Officer, K & H Bank, Budapest; former General Manager of Central Europe Directorate, KBC Bank Insurance Holding, Brussels; former Chief Executive Officer, Nova Ljubljanska Banka, Ljubljana

Panagis Vourloumis, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hellenic Tellecommunications Organization (O.T.E.), Athens

Jusuf Wanandi, Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees; Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta

Serge Weinberg, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Accor; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Weinberg Capital Partners; former Chairman Management Board, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute; former President, Institute of International and Strategic Studies (IRIS), Paris

Heinrich Weiss, Chairman, SMS, Düsseldorf; former Chairman, Federation of German Industries, Berlin

The full membership list is available by e-mail or by contacting any of the regional offices.



2008 Bilderberg conference

People related to 2008 Bilderberg conference:

Josef Ackermann – participant

Fouad Ajami – participant

Keith B. Alexander – participant

Roger C. Altman – participant

Ben S. Bernanke – participant

Timothy C. Collins – participant

Chester A. Crocker – participant

Tom Daschle – participant

Thomas E. Donilon – participant

N. Murray Edwards – participant

Martha J. Farah – participant

Martin S. Feldstein – participant

Paul Gigot – participant

Donald E. Graham – participant

Richard C. Holbrooke – participant

Allan B. Hubbard – participant

Kenneth M. Jacobs – participant

James A. Johnson – participant

Charles P. Rose Jr. – participant

Harold E. Ford Jr. – participant

Henry M. Paulson Jr. – participant

Paul Desmarais Jr. – participant

Vernon E. Jordan Jr. – participant

Henry A. Kissinger – participant

Klaus Kleinfeld – participant

Henry R. Kravis – participant

Marie-Josee Kravis – participant

Jessica Tuchman Mathews – participant

William J. McDonough – participant

Craig J. Mundie – participant

Frank H. Pearl – participant

Richard N. Perle – participant

Condoleezza Rice – participant

David Rockefeller – participant

Dennis B. Ross – participant

Barnett R. Rubin – participant

Mark Sanford – participant

Eric E. Schmidt – participant

George P. Shultz – participant

Lawrence H. Summers – participant

Peter A. Thiel – participant

Sanam Vakil – participant

Jacob Wallenberg – participant

John Vincent Weber – participant

James D. Wolfensohn – participant

Paul Wolfowitz – participant



My Note –

This program was actually put together and put in place by the Bush administration and Republican agency representatives during the Bush administration although President Obama signed it . . . found it a couple years ago when I was looking at something else about the Persian Crescent –

Among these types of programs in the Middle Eastern oil rich countries are also SBA, Chamber of Commerce, Department of Commerce, State Department, USAID, and a number of other programs devised to make small business and expansion loans, grants and subsidies to the businesses of the Middle East using our money intended to support small businesses, expansion and innovation in the United States.

– cricketdiane, 05-22-10




In a step toward a new era of partnership between the United States and the countries of the Middle East and North Africa, first called for by President Obama in his June 4, 2009, speech in Cairo, the U.S. Small Business Administration signed Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) with two Middle Eastern nations this week.
The MOUs, which lay out broad frameworks of mutual engagement and support between the SBA and the governments of Oman and Bahrain, will be followed by detailed plans of action to promote entrepreneurship abroad and support good paying jobs in the U.S.

SBA will provide training and support in access to capital, entrepreneurial development and government procurement to strengthen the competitiveness of small and medium enterprises in the region.


(Further -)

The first agreement of this kind, the MOU between SBA and the Sultanate of Oman was signed on Feb. 16, at the opening of the Oman SME Financing Conference. More than 200 business owners and entrepreneurs attended the conference, where SBA Associate Administrator for Entrepreneurial Development Penny Pickett gave the keynote address. On Feb. 18, SBA and the Kingdom of Bahrain signed a similar agreement.

“The SBA has over 60 years of experience supporting small businesses as they start, grow, and thrive. We will draw on that experience to help the people of Oman and Bahrain as they work to expand small business ownership in the region,” Pickett said.

The MOUs are the result of an agreement between the SBA and the State Department’s Office of Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) to support entrepreneurial development and provide technical assistance in the Middle East and North Africa. MEPI creates vibrant partnerships between the U.S. and the citizens of the Middle East and North Africa to foster development of pluralistic, participatory, and prosperous societies throughout the region.

MEPI works with local and international non-governmental organizations, the private sector, academic institutions and governments to expand political participation, strengthen civil society and the rule of law, empower women and youth, create educational opportunities, and foster economic growth.




Real GDP Growth - IMF - World Economic Outlook

Real GDP Growth - IMF - World Economic Outlook




Steven R. Ayers, a Kentucky native, was named District Director of the Kentucky District of the Small Business Administration (SBA) on May 10, 2004. He is responsible for delivery of SBA’s loans, technical assistance, and contract coordination programs throughout the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

Steve was selected as a charter member of the SBA Administrator’s Field Advisory Council in FY 2006/07 and subsequentaly served as the first District Director to rotate to Washington, DC, on a 90-day special assignment reporting directly to the Administrator as an Advisor.

In this capacity, he played a key leadership role in the launch and implementation of a precedent setting training initiative—SBA University which provided mission critical training to more than half of SBA’s employees.

Steve has more than 20 years of highly diversified technical and administrative management experience that spans public, private, and international business sectors. Prior to joining SBA, he served more than 13 years with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in Chattanooga, TN. TVA is a $9 billion federal corporation that supplies electricity to more than 8 million people through 159 electric power distributors in a seven state service territory.

Key positions held at TVA include General Manager, Corporate Contracts, in Procurement, responsible for leading a contract management team in implementing cost effective,strategically sourced, contract solutions for TVA business units; General Manager, Materials Management, with enterprise-wide responsibility for inventory management and warehousing; Senior Manager, Supplier & Distributor Relations, responsible for the small business, mentoring, suncontracting, supplier performance management, and distributor procurement partnership programs; and Senior Manager, Contract Projects, in Transmission/Power Supply responsible for effective delivery (engineering and construction) of electric system capital projects across all product lines—transmission lines, substations, and telecom.

Steve played a key leadership role as a member of TVA’s Supply Chain Reengineering Team and made a significant contribution to both creating and implementing this team’s innovative vision which saved TVA more than $270 million in five years.

He also served as a consultant supporting TVA’s Business Transformation Initiative Teams and was a member of TVA’s Minority Economic Development and Corporate Contributions Committees, and Diversity Council. In addition, he led a team effort to donate over 2000 surplus computers to more than 125 needy schools throughout the Tennessee Valley.

Steve gained extensive private and international sector experience as an executive with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). SAIC, a high technology, Fortune 500 company, provides high-tech solutions to world-wide customers in the defense, energy, and environment industry sectors.

As a Vice President for SAIC’s Real Time System’s Group in Huntsville, AL, Steve led a company division responsible for delivery of supervisory control data acquisition/security systems to commercial, government, and international customers.

Other key positions held at SAIC include Assistant Vice President for Administration and Operations Administrator in Huntsville, AL, and Installation Project Manager for SAIC’s McLean, VA, office responsible for delivering a $365 million command/control/ communications system project to the Royal Saudi Navy through a contract with the U.S. Navy. This project included a 16 month assignment in Saudi Arabia.

Steve holds a Global Masters of Business Administration (GMBA) degree from National University, San Diego, CA, and a BA degree, Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine. He is a Vietnam veteran and served fours years in the United States Marine Corps (1968-72) achieving the rank of Platoon Sergeant. Steve and his wife Carol, reside in Louisville, KY.



Note – have to change computers.

– cicketdiane


European shares fell 1 percent in early trade after Asian stock markets slid again. Japan’s Nikkei average closed 2.5 percent down for a loss of 6.5 percent on the week, mostly driven by worries about the euro zone.

The German parliament was poised to approve the lion’s share of a $1 trillion safety net for troubled euro zone nations and an EU task force of policymakers in Brussels will look to toughen regulations within the bloc blighted by a debt crisis.

The lower house was to vote on the 750 billion euro rescue package that is unpopular with voters at around 1000 GMT after rejecting opposition motions to delay or shelve the decision.

Europe’s biggest economy may have to fork out up to 148 billion euros in guarantees, on top of an equally divisive 22.4 billion euro contribution to a package for debt-ridden Greece.

Chancellor Angela Merkel’s center-right coalition has the necessary votes to get the bill passed, but it wants as much cross-party backing as possible to ease public opposition to bailing out weaker euro zone states.

In an effort to rally broader public support, her government stunned markets this week by unilaterally banning speculative trades in some financial instruments. The move sent stocks and the euro plunging and drew sharp criticism from EU partners, including close ally France, which were not consulted.

However, Merkel failed to satisfy the opposition Social Democrats, who were threatening to abstain from Friday’s vote unless the government backed a motion to push for an international financial transaction tax.

The vote follows pledges by the leaders of Germany and France on Thursday to set aside differences and work together to solve the European debt crisis and support the euro.

Later on Friday, European finance ministers were to discuss tightening the bloc’s tattered budget discipline rules and improving economic policy coordination in the 16-nation euro zone at a working group meeting in Brussels.

Berlin wants harsher sanctions on deficit sinners and an unprecedented insolvency procedure for states crippled by debt. No immediate decisions were expected.

The talks were sensitive because some euro zone countries oppose a European Commission proposal to scrutinize member’s budget plans before they are submitted to their own parliaments, seen as a threat to national sovereignty.



2008 - 2009 comparative economic values

2008 - 2009 comparative economic values




Brief of CNTAC
China National Textile & Apparel Council (CNTAC), is the national Federation of all textile-related industries, and is a non-profit organization formed on volunteer basis……(Details)

CTEI Source


China National Textile & Apparel Council (CNTAC)

China Textile Information Center

China Textile International Exchange Center

China Cotton Textile Association

China Wool Textiles Association

China Silk Association

China Chemical Fibres Association

China Dyeing & Printing Association

China Knitting Industrial Association

China Nonwovens & Industrial Textile Association

China Textile Machinery & Accessories Association

China National Garment Association

China Fashion Color Association

The Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT

Magazines :

Textile and Apparel Weekly

Home Textile Times

China Textile





Comparative Government Debt – Agence France Tresor – International

Comparative Chart - International - Government Debt -  as of May 2010 - Eurostat, Insee, OECD - from Agence France Tresor 2010

Comparative Chart - International - Government Debt - as of May 2010 - Eurostat, Insee, OECD - from Agence France Tresor 2010


main page portal – economic indicators on the left hand side bar



Profits as Percent of GDP - US - 1959 through 2003

Profits as Percent of GDP - US - 1959 through 2003

My apologies that I don’t know where I found this – but I will give it due credit and find where it originated, thankyou for your patience. – cricketdiane


Consumer Price Index Comparisons - International - from Agence France Tresor - statistical institutes - as of May 2010

Consumer Price Index Comparisons - International - from Agence France Tresor - statistical institutes - as of May 2010 - Comparisons of Japan, USA, UK, Euro Zone, France





According to “Vietnam Economic Times” reported on May 19, the ASEAN Secretariat, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Commodity Trade Agreement (ATIGA) 5 月 17 officially starts. This is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations coordination activities within the overall trade in goods agreement is based on CEPT / AFTA and its commitment to the basis of relevant agreements signed. Agreement specified the older 4 countries to eliminate tariffs Burma Cambodia postponed to 2018 time frame. (China Trade Remedy Information Network)


English translation from Google translation tools for the page –

(also on the right side-bar of this page – )

· U.S. Federal Reserve raised U.S. GDP growth expected in 2010


Trade: general for the better, variables still remain

Renewed growth in the coming months do not change the trend

This year’s “51” holiday, Chongqing Customs Customs officers stationed in the port office is particularly busy. They not only did not break, but also overtime clearance 2454 TEUs import and export goods, the value of 102 million.

Chongqing Customs statistics show that this year, Chongqing, export-oriented economy gradually out of the shadow of the crisis, a strong rebound. April, 9277 the customs declarations were handled, up by 38.9%, to declare the import and export volume of a single month record high since 2008.

This year, the world economy continues to recover, Guonei good momentum of economic recovery to consolidate, to leave for China’s foreign trade Yan Xu 年底 since the restorative growth, showing Buduan better state, foreign trade rapidly towards Ping Heng.

According to customs statistics, from January to April, China’s import and export value of 855.99 billion U.S. dollars, up 42.7% over the same period last year. April, import and export value of 238.16 billion U.S. dollars, up 39.4%. Ago in April, China’s trade surplus decreased 16.2 billion year on year, down 78.6%. April trade surplus of 1.68 billion U.S. dollars, down 87%.

State Council Development Research Center of Foreign Economic Research Department, Minister Long Guoqiang said: “Although foreign trade returned to surplus in April, but remained stable in both import and export volume growth under the premise of continued distinct surplus narrowed sent a positive signal that out that foreign trade development will be more balanced. ”

He believes that the next few months, import and export trends in restorative growth do not change.

Exports, global economic recovery and resumption of international trade, foreign trade growth to provide a good foundation. Not long ago, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) report released in the spring raised its forecast for world economic growth, world economic growth in 2010 4.2%, 3.1% growth in the U.S., euro zone growth of 1%, up 1.9% in Japan ; world trade in goods will grow by 8%.

Imports, despite the recent introduction of a series of domestic regulation of the real estate market moves, You Keneng steel and other industries will emerge some impact, short-term Nei will Yizhi on iron ore and other bulk commodities of Xu Qiu. But the regulation does not affect the property market fundamentals, as the steady recovery in domestic demand, imports will continue to be stable overall growth.

National Information Center on May 7 report released expects the second quarter of this year, China’s export growth will remain relatively high. Preliminary estimate of 25% export growth, import growth of 35%, the trade surplus continued to reduce the size.


东盟商品贸易协定启动 (2010-05-21)


U.S. Federal Reserve raised U.S. GDP growth expected in 2010

Newswire (press chapters into) the U.S. Federal Reserve Board by the end of April this year U.S. economic growth will be higher than originally expected growth, but slow the pace of the economy out of recession, inflation in 2012 is expected to remain moderate. Fed is expected to grow the U.S. economy in 2010 3.2% -3.7%. This increase was higher than in January gives -3.5% 2.8% growth forecast, although Fed officials are expected to enhance economic performance, it is expected that inflation will remain moderate and the unemployment rate will remain high next few years. This prompted the Fed to maintain the current policy stance unchanged, that for the time being will remain at historically low short-term interest rates to support the economic recovery.

The pace of the U.S. economy out of recession prompted the Federal Reserve is expected to slow this year, the unemployment rate will remain at 9% above the inflation rate before the end of 2012 will remain below 2%. Fed officials expect the fourth quarter of 2010, the unemployment rate will drop to between 9.1% -9.5%, slightly better than expected given this year in January. U.S. April unemployment rate was 9.9%.





April 21, 2010Transcript of a Press Briefing on the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook by Olivier Blanchard, Economic Counsellor and Director of the Research Department, with Jörg Decressin, Assistant Director, Petya Koeva Brooks, Chief of the World Economic Studies Division, and Abdul Abiad, Senior Economist in the World Economic Studies Division




So, when it comes to advanced economies we forecast growth to be 2.3 percent for 2010, and 2.4 percent for 2011, and this is just not enough to make up for the ground lost during the recession. Output for these countries is now 7 percent below its precrisis trend, and this output gap is expected to remain large for many years to come.

Associated with this prolonged output gap is persistent high unemployment. We forecast the unemployment rate in advanced economies to reach 8.4 percent in 2010, and to decline to only 8 percent in 2011.

What is the main factor behind this weak performance and this prolonged output gap? We think it is weak private demand. In the U.S., consumers, who were the drivers of the economy before the crisis, are being more prudent. In Europe, where banks play a central role in the financial intermediation, the weak banking sector limits credit supply. In Japan, deflation has reappeared, leading to higher real interest rates and putting in danger an already weak recovery.


From –


Above excerpt from Mr. Olivier Blanchard, Economic Counsellor and Director of the Research Department, (with Jörg Decressin, Assistant Director, Petya Koeva Brooks, Chief of the World Economic Studies Division, and Abdul Abiad, Senior Economist in the World Economic Studies Division)
Wednesday, April 21, 2010
Washington, DC


Transcript of a press Briefing by Caroline Atkinson, Director, External relations Department

Washington, D.C.
Thursday, May 6, 2010


I would just like to start by reminding you of some upcoming events. You probably don’t need too much reminding, but we will be having an IMF Board meeting on Greece this coming Sunday, May 9th. We expect that there will be press availability from the Managing Director. After that we will also have a press release.

After that, the Managing Director will be traveling to Zurich to participate in a high level seminar on the international monetary system, and at the end of that there will be a press release and a press conference with the Swiss National Bank Governor Philipp Hildebrand and the Managing Director.

. . .

And on May 12th, here at Fund Headquarters, Nicholas Stern, Lord Stern will deliver a speech and participate in a panel discussion on the topic of Climate Change from Copenhagen to Cancun: Prospects for Reaching a Global Agreement. This event, which is sponsored jointly by the World Bank and the IMF will be open to the press between, and it takes place between 5:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. You can contact Media Relations at the IMF for details on all of these events.

So, maybe I can turn to your questions. I have one online straight away which maybe I’ll take although that’s a bit unusual. But I suspect that it deals with some of the questions that you all are going to ask. “How to assess the strong opposition by the Greek public to the EU/IMF program and are you concerned that extremists are trying to direct the peaceful legitimate protests towards violence?”

First of all I do want to emphasize that the program is the Greek authorities’ program. It’s not surprising that the Greek people are concerned and worried and upset. The program will involve sacrifices, but I think it is important to understand two things. First of all, the financial support from the EU and the IMF is aimed to help the Greek economy—to support it with this difficult adjustment and to focus on addressing the two problems that the Greek economy has been suffering from—on debt and competitiveness– and put the economy back onto a path of strong, sustainable growth with jobs and employment down the road. The other thing is that we are impressed by the determination of the Greek authorities, themselves, to carry through this difficult plan. Obviously, this is a very challenging situation, but we have seen a lot of determination from the authorities behind this plan.

On the second issue, of course legitimate protests are exactly that, legitimate, but violence is deplorable. And again, I think that Prime Minister Papandreou put it well yesterday when he said, “Protests and demonstrations are one thing and violence is quite another.”

QUESTIONER: I have heard from many economists today that the bailout package cannot prevent Greece from defaulting on their debts. What is your comment?

MS. ATKINSON: Our view is that, that is quite wrong. We have deliberately designed a package of financial support that gives Greece the ability to stay out of the markets for more than 18 months until 2012. If implemented, the package of the adjustments will address and it addresses both the fiscal issue and the competitiveness issue with structural reforms, and will put Greece, we believe, in a position to fully pay its debts as well as partly by allowing down the road growth, renewed growth in the Greek economy.


And also, that a number of other countries, which need to have some fiscal adjustment, are indeed considering or in some cases implementing already fiscal adjustment measures. I think that these fundamental steps are what is most important to fight contagion. And the markets, I think, are looking for –in a way we may be able to provide some assurance that there is unprecedented effort in the Greek program to address Greece’s problems and also unprecedented support from European countries and the IMF.

On your second question, we don’t know exactly yet which currencies will be used for the initial disbursements. We may have some more details on that next week. But I think the main point to stress is that when the IMF makes a loan, we’re a cooperative like a credit union. So every country’s contribution to that in some broad sense reflects their contribution to the IMF or their quota in the IMF. And that’s really the fundamental point rather than how we manage it financially.


(my note, there is also discussion here of the handling of the contagion that might result from the Greek crisis and national exposures as part of the IMF commitments of currency based exchange-rated exposures, etc. – cricketdiane, 05-22-10)


Real Disposable Personal Income and Real Consumer Spending - 2009 - Bureau of Economic Analysis

Real Disposable Personal Income and Real Consumer Spending - 2009 - Bureau of Economic Analysis

(from )

US Bureau of Economic Analysis



My Note –

(changing back to my other computer – )

– cricketdiane


NASA’s International Space Station Program Wins Collier Trophy

NASA’s International Space Station Program Wins Collier Trophy

Final STS-132 Spacewalk Complete; Hatch to New Module Opened

Mission Specialists Michael Good and Garrett Reisman completed the final STS-132 spacewalk at 1:13 p.m. EDT Friday. The spacewalk lasted 6 hours, 46 minutes.

› Read more about the STS-132 mission

International Space Station Expedition 23 Commander Oleg Kotov and Flight Engineer Alexander Skvortsov opened the hatch of the Mini Research Module-1, named Rassvet, Thursday.

Actual entry into the module and transfer of the 3,086 pounds of cargo it holds will occur after space shuttle Atlantis departs.

The 11,000-pound module delivered by Atlantis was attached to its permanent home on the Russian segment of the station Tuesday.

The new module will host a variety of biotechnology and biological science experiments and fluid physics and educational research. Rassvet contains a pressurized compartment with eight workstations, including a glove box to keep experiments separated from the in-cabin environment; two incubators to accommodate high- and low-temperature experiments; and a special platform to protect experiments from onboard vibrations.

Attached to its exterior is an experiment airlock that will be used on another Russian laboratory module set for delivery in 2012.

› Read more about the Russian-built Mini-Research Module-1

› View Gulf of Mexico oil spill images
› Read more about Expedition 23
› View crew timelines

› Video: Station crew discusses Internet access from space
› Video: Astronaut Jeff Williams answers questions posted on YouTube
› NASA Extends the World Wide Web Out Into Space
› Read T.J. Creamer’s first tweet from space
› Hear Commander Jeff Williams thank ground team for its work –>

2010 International Space Station Calendar

NASA is offering a 2010 calendar that describes the work being done on the International Space Station and gives information about the crews that have lived there. The calendar contains photographs taken from the space station and highlights historic NASA milestones and fun facts about the international construction project of unprecedented complexity that began in 1998. (Please Note: To print this large calendar on 8.5 by 11 paper, printer may need to be set on a “shrink to printable area” option.)

› Download calendar (8.6 Mb PDF)



Centimetre gram second system of units

The CGS system goes back to a proposal made in 1832 by the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss.[1] In 1874, it was extended by the British physicists James Clerk Maxwell and William Thomson with a set of electromagnetic units.

The values (by order of magnitude) of many CGS units turned out to be inconvenient for practical purposes. For example, many everyday length measurements yield hundreds or thousands of centimetres, such as those of human height and sizes of rooms and buildings. Thus the CGS system never gained wide general use outside the field of electrodynamics and laboratory science. Starting in the 1880s, and more significantly by the mid-20th century, CGS was gradually superseded internationally by the MKS (metre-kilogram-second) system, which in turn became the modern SI standard.

From the international adoption of the MKS standard in the 1940s and the SI standard in the 1960s, the technical use of CGS units has gradually declined worldwide, in the United States more slowly than elsewhere. CGS units are today no longer accepted by the house styles of most scientific journals, textbook publishers, or standards bodies, although they are commonly used in astronomical journals such as the Astrophysical Journal. CGS units are still occasionally encountered in technical literature, especially in the United States in the fields of material science, electrodynamics and astronomy.

The units gram and centimetre remain useful as prefixed units within the SI system, especially for instructional physics and chemistry experiments, where they match the small scale of table-top setups. However, where derived units are needed, the SI ones are generally used and taught instead of the CGS ones today. For example, a physics lab course might ask students to record lengths in centimeters, and masses in grams, but force (a derived unit) in newtons, a usage consistent with the SI system.

Centimetre gram second system of units

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Cgs unit)

The centimetre-gram-second system (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a metric system of physical units based on centimetre as the unit of length, gram as a unit of mass, and second as a unit of time. All CGS mechanical units are unambiguously derived from these three base units, but there are several different ways of extending the CGS system to cover electromagnetism.

The CGS system has been largely supplanted by the MKS system, based on metre, kilogram, and second. MKS was in turn extended and replaced by the International System of Units (SI). The latter adopts the three base units of MKS, plus the ampere, mole, candela and kelvin. In many fields of science and engineering, SI is the only system of units in use. However, there remain certain subfields where CGS is prevalent.

In measurements of purely mechanical systems (involving units of length, mass, force, energy, pressure, etc.), the differences between CGS and SI are straightforward and rather trivial; the unit-conversion factors are all powers of 10 arising from the relations 100 cm = 1 m and 1000 g = 1 kg. For example, the CGS derived unit of force is the dyne, equal to 1 gAcm/s2, while the SI derived unit of force is the newton, 1 kgAm/s2. Thus it is straightforward to show that 1 dyne=10-5 newton.

On the other hand, in measurements of electromagnetic phenomena (involving units of charge, electric and magnetic fields, voltage, etc.), converting between CGS and SI is much more subtle and involved. In fact, formulas for physical laws of electromagnetism (such as Maxwell’s equations) need to be adjusted depending on what system of units one uses. This is because there is no one-to-one correspondence between electromagnetic units in SI and those in CGS, as there is for mechanical units. Furthermore, within CGS, there are several plausible choices of electromagnetic units, leading to different unit “sub-systems”, including Gaussian, “ESU”, “EMU”, and Heaviside-Lorentz. Among these choices, Gaussian units are the most common today, and in fact the phrase “CGS units” is often used to refer specifically to CGS-Gaussian units.

In mechanics, the CGS and SI systems of units are built in an identical way. The two systems differ only in the scale of two out of the three base units (centimetre versus metre and gram versus kilogram, respectively), while the third unit (second as the unit of time) is the same in both systems.

There is a one-to-one correspondence between the base units of mechanics in CGS and SI, and the laws of mechanics are not affected by the choice of units. The definitions of all derived units in terms of the three base units are therefore the same in both systems, and there is an unambiguous one-to-one correspondence of derived units:

v = \frac{dx}{dt}  (definition of velocity)

F=m\frac{d^2x}{dt^2}  (Newton’s second law of motion)

E = \int \vec{F}\cdot \vec{dx}  (energy defined in terms of work)

p = \frac{F}{L^2}   (pressure defined as force per unit area)

\eta = \tau/\frac{dv}{dx}  (dynamic viscosity defined as shear stress per unit velocity gradient).

Thus, for example, the CGS unit of pressure, barye, is related to the CGS base units of length, mass, and time in the same way as the SI unit of pressure, pascal, is related to the SI base units of length, mass, and time:

1 unit of pressure = 1 unit of force/(1 unit of length)2 = 1 unit of mass/(1 unit of lengthA(1 unit of time)2)

1 Ba = 1 g/(cmAs2)

1 Pa = 1 kg/(mAs2).

Expressing a CGS derived unit in terms of the SI base units, or vice versa, requires combining the scale factors that relate the two systems:

1 Ba = 1 g/(cmAs2) = 10-3 kg/(10-2 mAs2) = 10-1 kg/(mAs2) = 10-1 Pa.

* CGS system avoids introducing new base units and instead derives all electric and magnetic units from centimeter, gram, and second based on the physics laws that relate electromagnetic phenomena to mechanics.

* The first is Coulomb’s law, F = k_C \frac{q \cdot q^\prime}{d^2}, which describes the electrostatic force F between electric charges q and q^\prime, separated by distance d. Here kC is a constant which depends on how exactly the unit of charge is derived from the CGS base units.

* The second is Ampère’s force law, \frac{dF}{dL} = 2 k_A\frac{I \, I^\prime}{d}, which describes the magnetic force F per unit length L between currents I and I’ flowing in two long parallel wires, separated by distance d. Since I = q / t and I^\prime=q^\prime/t, the constant kA also depends on how the unit of charge is derived from the CGS base units.

Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism relates these two laws to each other. It states that the ratio of proportionality constants kC and kA must obey kC / kA = c2, where c is the speed of light. Therefore, if one derives the unit of charge from the Coulomb’s law by setting kC = 1, it is obvious that the Ampère’s force law will contain a prefactor 2 / c2. Alternatively, deriving the unit of current, and therefore the unit of charge, from the Ampère’s force law by setting kA = 1 or kA = 1 / 2, will lead to a constant prefactor in the Coulomb’s law.

Indeed, both of these mutually-exclusive approaches have been practiced by the users of CGS system, leading to the two independent and mutually-exclusive branches of CGS, described in the subsections below. However, the freedom of choice in deriving electromagnetic units from the units of length, mass, and time is not limited to the definition of charge. While the electric field can be related to the work performed by it on a moving electric charge, the magnetic force is always perpendicular to the velocity of the moving charge, and thus the work performed by the magnetic field on any charge is always zero. This leads to a choice between two laws of magnetism, each relating magnetic field to mechanical quantities and electric charge:

* The first law describes the Lorentz force produced by a magnetic field B on a charge q moving with velocity v:

\mathbf{F} = \alpha_L q\;\mathbf{v} \times \mathbf{B}\;.

* The second describes the creation of a static magnetic field B by an electric current I of finite length dl at a point displaced by a vector r, known as Biot-Savart law:

d\mathbf{B} = \alpha_B\frac{I d\mathbf{l} \times \mathbf{\hat r}}{r^2}\;, where r and \mathbf{\hat r} are the length and the unit vector in the direction of vector r.

Physical constants in CGS units

Commonly used physical constants in CGS units[8] Constant          Symbol            Value

Atomic mass unit        u          1.660 538 782 H 10-24 g

Bohr magneton           ?B        9.274 009 15 H 10-21 erg/G (EMU, Gaussian)

2.780 278 00 H 10-10 statAAcm2 (ESU)

Bohr radius     a0        5.291 772 0859 H 10-9 cm

Boltzmann constant    k          1.380 6504 H 10-16 erg/K

Electron mass me       9.109 382 15 H 10-28 g

Elementary charge      e          4.803 204 27 H 10-10 Fr (ESU, Gaussian)

1.602 176 487 H 10-20 abC (EMU)

Fine-structure constant           ? ? 1/137          7.297 352 570 H 10-3

Gravitational constant             G         6.674 28 H 10-8 cm3/(gAs2)

Planck constant           h          6.626 068 85 H 10-27 ergAs

\hbar    1.054 5716 H 10-27 ergAs

Speed of light in vacuum        c          ? 2.997 924 58 H 1010 cm/s

Pro and contra

While the absence of explicit prefactors in some CGS subsystems simplifies some theoretical calculations, it has the disadvantage that sometimes the units in CGS are hard to define through experiment. Also, lack of unique unit names leads to a great confusion: thus “15 emu” may mean either 15 abvolt, or 15 emu units of electric dipole moment, or 15 emu units of magnetic susceptibility, sometimes (but not always) per gram or per mole. On the other hand, SI starts with a unit of current, the ampere, which is easier to determine through experiment, but which requires extra prefactors in the electromagnetic equations. With its system of unique named units, SI also removes any confusion in usage: 1 ampere is a fixed quantity of a specific variable, and so are 1 henry and 1 ohm.

A key virtue of the Gaussian CGS system is that electric and magnetic fields have the same units, 4??0 is replaced by 1, and the only dimensional constant appearing in the equations is c, the speed of light. The Heaviside-Lorentz system has these desirable properties as well (with ?0 equaling 1), but it is a “rationalized” system (as is SI) in which the charges and fields are defined in such a way that there are many fewer factors of 4? appearing in the formulas, and it is in Heaviside-Lorentz units that the Maxwell equations take their simplest form.

In SI, and other rationalized systems (e.g. Heaviside-Lorentz), the unit of current was chosen such that electromagnetic equations concerning charged spheres contain 4?, those concerning coils of current and straight wires contain 2? and those dealing with charged surfaces lack ? entirely, which was the most convenient choice for electrical-engineering applications. In those fields where formulas concerning spheres dominate (for example, astronomy), it has been argued that the non-rationalized CGS system can be somewhat more convenient notationally.

In fact, in certain fields, specialized unit systems are used to simplify formulas even further than either SI or CGS, by using some system of natural units. For example, the particle physics community uses a system where every quantity is expressed by only one unit, the eV, with lengths, times, etc. all converted into eV’s by inserting factors of c and \hbar. This unit system is very convenient for particle-physics calculations, but would be impractical in other contexts.

See also

* Scientific units named after people

* SI electromagnetism units

* SI units

* Units of measurement

[edit] References and notes

1. ^ Hallock, William; Wade, Herbert Treadwell (1906). Outlines of the evolution of weights and measures and the metric system. New York: The Macmillan Co. p. 200. http://books.google.com/books?id=NVZKAAAAMAAJ.

2. ^ For historical reasons, 1 ampere is chosen such that the magnetic force exerted by two infinitely long, thin, parallel wires 1 m apart and carrying this current is exactly 2H10–7 N/m. This definition makes all SI electromagnetic units consistent (up to some integer powers of 10) with the EMU CGS system described in further sections.

3. ^ a b c d e f g h Jackson, John David (1999). Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley. pp. 775–784. ISBN 0-471-30932-X.

4. ^ Cardarelli, F. (2004). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 20. ISBN 1-8523-3682-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=6KCx8Ww75VkC.

5. ^ a b Leung, P. T. (2004). “A note on the ‘system-free’ expressions of Maxwell’s equations”. European Journal of Physics 25 (2): N1–N4. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/25/2/N01.

6. ^ a b c d e f Cardarelli, F. (2004). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 20–25. ISBN 1-8523-3682-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=6KCx8Ww75VkC.

7. ^ Bennett, L. H.; Page, C. H.; and Swartzendruber, L. J. (1978). “Comments on units in magnetism”. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards 83 (1): 9–12.

8. ^ A.P. French, Edwind F. Taylor (1978). An Introduction to Quantum Physics. W.W. Norton & Company.

[edit] General literature

* Griffiths, David J. (1999). “Appendix C: Units”. Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X.

* Jackson, John D. (1999). “Appendix on Units and Dimensions”. Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-30932-X.

* Littlejohn, Robert (Fall 2007). “Gaussian, SI and Other Systems of Units in Electromagnetic Theory” (pdf). Physics 221A, University of California, Berkeley lecture notes. http://bohr.physics.berkeley.edu/classes/221/0708/notes/emunits.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-06.


v • d • e

Systems of measurement

Metric systems

International System of Units A metre-kilogram-second A centimetre-gram-second A metre-tonne-second A gravitational system

Natural units

Geometric A Planck A Stoney A Lorentz–Heaviside A “Schrödinger” A Atomic A Electronic A Quantum chromodynamical

Conventional systems

Astronomical A Electrical A Temperature

Customary systems

Avoirdupois A Apothecaries’ A Canadian A Chinese A Danish A Dutch A English A Finnish A French A German A Hindu A Hong Kong A Imperial A Irish A Japanese A Maltese A Norwegian A Pegu A Polish A Romanian A Russian A Scottish A Spanish and Portuguese A Swedish A Taiwanese A Tatar A Troy A US

Ancient systems

Greek A Roman A Egyptian A Hebrew A Arabic A Mesopotamian A Persian A Indian

Other systems

Non-standard A Mesures usuelles A N-body

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centimetre_gram_second_system_of_units&#8221;

Categories: Systems of units | Centimetre gram second system of units







Size of this preview: 800 H 547 pixels

Full resolution? (1,120 H 766 pixels, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/png)

Wikimedia Commons logo

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. The description on its description page there is shown below.

Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. You can help.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons

Description      Energy consumption versus GDP.png

English: Note: Data is 2004 in 2000 US dollars.

Author: Frank van Mierlo

Please credit the author if you are using this image. Graph was produced from data in the 2006 Key World Energy Statistics from the International Energy Agency.

en:Category:Energy use comparisons


2007-02-01 (first version); 2007-02-01 (last version)


Transferred from en.wikipedia; transfer was stated to be made by User:feministo.


Original uploader was Mierlo at en.wikipedia


(Reusing this file)








World energy resources and consumption

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rate of world energy usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005[1]

Global energy usage in successively increasing detail[2][3]

Energy intensity of different economies The graph shows the ratio between energy usage and GNP for selected countries. GNP is based on 2004 purchasing power parity and 2000 dollars adjusted for inflation.[4]

Energy consumption per capita versus the GNP per capita The graph plots the per capita energy versus the per capita income for all countries with more than 20 million inhabitants, the data more than 90% of the world’s population. The image shows the broad relation between wealth and energy consumption.[5]

GDP and energy consumption in Japan from 1958 – 2000 The data shows the correlation between GDP and energy use; however, it also shows that this link can be broken. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 the energy use stagnated while Japan’s GDP continued to grow, after 1985, under the influence of the then much cheaper oil, energy use resumed its historical relation to GDP.[6]

Worldwide energy sources (TW)(2004)[4]

Remaining Oil Breakdown of the remaining 57 ZJ oil on the planet. The annual oil consumption was 0.18 ZJ in 2005. There is significant uncertainty surrounding these numbers. The 11 ZJ of future additions to the recoverable reserves could be optimistic.[7][8]

Renewable energy sources worldwide at the end of 2008 Source: REN21[9]

Available renewable energy The volume of the cubes represent the amount of available geothermal, hydropower, wind and solar energy in TW, although only a small portion is recoverable. The small red cube shows the proportional global energy consumption.[10]

Solar energy as it is dispersed on the planet and radiated back to space. Values are in PW =1015 watt.[11]

In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules (5H1020 J) with 80 to 90 percent derived from the combustion of fossil fuels.[1] This is equivalent to an average power consumption rate of 15 terawatts (1.504H1013 W). Not all of the world’s economies track their energy consumption with the same rigor, and the exact energy content of a barrel of oil or a ton of coal will vary with quality.

Most of the world’s energy resources are from the sun’s rays hitting earth. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via wind, hydro- or wave power. The term solar constant is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth’s atmosphere, in a plane perpendicular to the rays. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation, not just visible light. It is measured by satellite to be roughly 1366 watts per square meter, though it fluctuates by about 6.9% during a year—from 1412 W m-2 in early January to 1321 W m-2 in early July, due to the Earth’s varying distance from the sun, and by a few parts per thousand from day to day. For the whole Earth, with a cross section of 127,400,000 km2, the total energy rate is 174 petawatts (1.740H1017 W), plus or minus 3.5%. This value is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89 PW, reaches the Earth’s surface.

The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0.4 YJ (1 YJ = 1024J) and the available nuclear fuel such as uranium exceeding 2.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0.6-3 YJ if estimates of reserves of methane clathrates are accurate and become technically extractable. Mostly thanks to the Sun, the world also has a renewable usable energy flux that exceeds 120 PW (8,000 times 2004 total usage), or 3.8 YJ/yr, dwarfing all non-renewable resources.


* 1 Consumption

o 1.1 Primary energy

+ 1.1.1 Fossil fuels

+ 1.1.2 Nuclear power

+ 1.1.3 Renewable energy

# Hydropower

# Biomass and biofuels

# Wind power

# Solar power

# Geothermal

o 1.2 By country

o 1.3 By sector

o 1.4 Fossil fuel

+ 1.4.1 Coal

+ 1.4.2 Oil

+ 1.4.3 Sustainability

o 1.5 Nuclear power

+ 1.5.1 Nuclear fission

+ 1.5.2 Nuclear fusion

o 1.6 Renewable resources

+ 1.6.1 Solar energy

+ 1.6.2 Wind power

+ 1.6.3 Wave and tidal power

+ 1.6.4 Geothermal

+ 1.6.5 Biomass

+ 1.6.6 Hydropower

* 2 Alternative energy paths

* 3 See also

* 4 References

* 5 Further reading

* 6 External links


Primary energy

The United States Energy Information Administration regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources.

Fuel type         Average power in TW[12]

1980    2004    2006

Oil       4.38     5.58     5.74

Gas      1.80     3.45     3.61

Coal     2.34     3.87     4.27

Hydroelectric 0.599   0.933   0.995

Nuclear power             0.253   0.914   0.929

Geothermal, wind,

solar energy, wood      0.016   0.133   0.158

Total    9.48     15.0     15.8

Fossil fuels

Main article: Fossil fuel

The twentieth century saw a rapid twentyfold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%.[1] According to the US Energy Information Administration’s 2006 estimate, the estimated 471.8 EJ total consumption in 2004 was divided as follows, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world’s energy:

Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, airplanes and the spreading use of electricity, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil.[13] Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U.S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world.[5] From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal, which is one of the dirtiest sources of energy,[14] was the fastest growing fossil fuel.[15].

Nuclear power

In 2005 nuclear power accounted for 6.3% of world’s total primary energy supply.[16] The nuclear power production in 2006 accounted 2,658 TWh (23.3 EJ), which was 16% of world’s total electricity production.[17][18] In November 2007, there were 439 operational nuclear reactors worldwide, with total capacity of 372,002 MWe. A further 33 reactors were under construction, 94 reactors were planned and 222 reactors were proposed.[17]

Renewable energy

Main article: Renewable energy

In 2004, renewable energy supplied around 7% of the world’s energy consumption.[19] The renewables sector has been growing significantly since the last years of the 20th century, and in 2005 the total new investment was estimated to have been 38 billion US dollars. Germany and China lead with investments of about 7 billion US dollars each, followed by the United States, Spain, Japan, and India. This resulted in an additional 35 GW of capacity during the year.[3]


Main article: hydropower

Worldwide hydroelectricity consumption reached 816 GW in 2005, consisting of 750 GW of large plants, and 66 GW of small hydro installations. Large hydro capacity totaling 10.9 GW was added by China, Brazil and India during the year, but there was a much faster growth (8%) in small hydro, with 5 GW added, mostly in China where some 58% of the world’s small hydro plants are now located.[3]

In the Western world, although Canada is the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world, the construction of large hydro plants has stagnated due to environmental concerns.[20] The trend in both Canada and the United States has been to micro hydro because it has negligible environmental impacts and opens up many more locations for power generation. In British Columbia alone the estimates are that micro hydro will be able to more than double electricity production in the province.

Biomass and biofuels

Main articles: biomass and biofuel

Until the end of the nineteenth century biomass was the predominant fuel, today it has only a small share of the overall energy supply. Electricity produced from biomass sources was estimated at 44 GW for 2005. Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100% in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain. A further 220 GW was used for heating (in 2004), bringing the total energy consumed from biomass to around 264 GW. The use of biomass fires for cooking is excluded.[3]

World production of bioethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach 33 billion litres (8.72 billion US gallons), with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil.[3] Biodiesel increased by 85% to 3.9 billion litres (1.03 billion US gallons), making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.[3]

Wind power

Main article: Wind power

According to the World Wind Energy Association, the installed capacity of wind power increased by 29 % from the end of 2007 to the end of 2008 to total 121  GW, with over half the increase in the United States, Spain and China.[21] Doubling of capacity took about three years. The total installed capacity is approximately three to eight times that of the actual average power produced as the nominal capacity represents peak output; actual capacity is generally from 13[22]-40% of the nominal capacity.[23]

Solar power

Main article: Solar energy

The available solar energy resources are 3.8 YJ/yr (120,000 TW). Less than 0.02% of available resources are sufficient to entirely replace fossil fuels and nuclear power as an energy source. Assuming that our rate of usage in 2005 remains constant, we will run out of conventional oil in 40 years (2045), coal in 154 yrs (2159). In practice neither will actually run out, as natural constraints will force production to decline as the remaining reserves dwindle.[24][25][26]

In 2007 grid-connected photovoltaic electricity was the fastest growing energy source, with installations of all photovoltaics increasing by 83% in 2009 to bring the total installed capacity to 15 GW. Nearly half of the increase was in Germany, now the world’s largest consumer of photovoltaic electricity (followed by Japan). Solar cell production increased by 50% in 2007, to 3,800 megawatts, and has been doubling every two years.[27]

The consumption of solar hot water and solar space heating was estimated at 88 GWt (gigawatts of thermal power) in 2004. The heating of water for unglazed swimming pools is excluded.[3]


Main article: Geothermal power

Geothermal energy is used commercially in over 70 countries.[28] In the year 2004, 200 PJ (57 TWh) of electricity was generated from geothermal resources, and an additional 270 PJ of geothermal energy was used directly, mostly for space heating. In 2007, the world had a global capacity for 10 GW of electricity generation and an additional 28 GW of direct heating, including extraction by geothermal heat pumps.[3][29] Heat pumps are small and widely distributed, so estimates of their total capacity are uncertain and range up to 100 GW.[28] Heat pump capacity factors are low since demand is seasonal.

By country

See also: Energy by country and List of countries by energy consumption per capita

Energy consumption is loosely correlated with gross national product, but there is a large difference even between the most highly developed countries, such as Japan and Germany with 6 kW per person and United States with 11.4 kW per person. In developing countries such as India the per person energy use is closer to 0.7 kW. Bangladesh has the lowest consumption with 0.2 kW per person.

The US consumes 25% of the world’s energy with a share of global GDP at 22% and a share of the world population at 5%. The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China, which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people (20% of the world population) is consuming energy at a rate of 1.6 kW per person.

Over the past four years, electricity consumption per capita in the U.S. has decreased about 1% per year between 2004 and 2008. Power consumption is projected to hit 4,333,631 million kilowatt hours by 2013, an annual growth rate of 1.93% for the next five years. Consumption increased from 3,715,949 in 2004 to an expected 3,937,879 million kilowatt hours per year in 2008, an increase of about 1.5% per year. The rate of increase has been steadily decreasing – it was 2.5% in the 1990s.[30] U.S. population has been increasing about 1.3% per year, a total increase of about 6.7% over five years.[31] The decrease has been mostly due to efficiency increases. Compact fluorescent bulbs, for example use about one third as much electricity as incandescents. LED bulbs, however, use about one tenth as much, and over their 50,000 to 100,000 hour lifetime are cheaper than compact fluorescents.

One metric of efficiency is energy intensity. This is a measure of the amount of energy it takes a country to produce a dollar of gross domestic product.

By sector

Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) consume about 37% of the total 15 TW. Personal and commercial transportation consumes 20%; residential heating, lighting, and appliances use 11%; and commercial uses (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) amount to 5% of the total. [32]

The other 27% of the world’s energy is lost in energy transmission and generation. In 2005, global electricity consumption averaged 2 TW. The energy rate used to generate 2 TW of electricity is approximately 5 TW, as the efficiency of a typical existing power plant is around 38%.[33] The new generation of gas-fired plants reaches a substantially higher efficiency of 55%. Coal is the most common fuel for the world’s electricity plants.[34]

Fossil fuel

Main article: Fossil fuel

Remaining reserves of fossil fuel are estimated as: Assessment Team |url= http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-060/ESpt4.html#Table | accessdate=2007-01-18}}</ref>

Fuel     Energy reserves in ZJ

Coal     290.0

Oil         18.4

Gas        15.7

Significant uncertainty exists for these numbers. The estimation of the remaining fossil fuels on the planet depends on a detailed understanding of the Earth crust. This understanding is still less than perfect. While modern drilling technology makes it possible to drill wells in up to 3 km of water to verify the exact composition of the geology, one half of the ocean is deeper than 3 km, leaving about a third of the planet beyond the reach of detailed analysis. The Energy Watch Group reports suggest that supplying the demand for oil may be insufficient,[35] and that uranium resources would be exhausted within 70 years.[36] However, these views are greatly at variance with those of most industry observers.


Main article: World coal reserves

Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. This was the fuel that launched the industrial revolution and has continued to grow in use; China, which already has many of the world’s most polluted cities,[37] was in 2007 building about two coal fired power plants every week.[38][39] Coal is the fastest growing fossil fuel and its large reserves would make it a popular candidate to meet the energy demand of the global community, short of global warming concerns and other pollutants.[40] According to the International Energy Agency the proven reserves of coal are around 909 billion tonnes, which could sustain the current production rate for 155 years,[41] although at a 5% growth per annum this would be reduced to 45 years, or until 2051. With the Fischer-Tropsch process it is possible to make liquid fuels such as diesel and jet fuel from coal. Citing concern for global warming, the Stop Coal campaign calls for a moratorium on the construction of any new coal plants and on the phase out of all existing plants.[42] In the United States, 49% of electricity generation comes from burning coal.[43]


See also: Oil reserves and Peak oil

It is estimated that there may be 57 ZJ of oil reserves on Earth (although estimates vary from a low of 8 ZJ,[1] consisting of currently proven and recoverable reserves, to a maximum of 110 ZJ) consisting of available, but not necessarily recoverable reserves, and including optimistic estimates for unconventional sources such as tar sands and oil shale. Current consensus among the 18 recognized estimates of supply profiles is that the peak of extraction will occur in 2020 at the rate of 93-million barrels per day (mbd). Current oil consumption is at the rate of 0.18 ZJ per year (31.1 billion barrels) or 85-mbd.

There is growing concern that peak oil production may be reached in the near future, resulting in severe oil price increases.[44] A 2005 French Economics, Industry and Finance Ministry report suggested a worst-case scenario that could occur as early as 2013.[45] There are also theories that peak of the global oil production may occur in as little as 2–3 years. The ASPO predicts peak year to be in 2010. Some other theories present the view that it has already taken place in 2005. World crude oil production (including lease condensates) according to US EIA data decreased from a peak of 73.720 mbd in 2005 to 73.437 in 2006, 72.981 in 2007, 73.697 in 2008.[46] According to peak oil theory, increasing production will lead to a more rapid collapse of production in the future, while decreasing production will lead to a slower decrease, as the bell-shaped curve will be spread out over more years.

In a stated goal of increasing oil prices to $75/barrel, which had fallen from a high of $147 to a low of $40, OPEC announced decreasing production by 2.2 mbd beginning January 1, 2009.[47]


Political considerations over the security of supplies, environmental concerns related to global warming and sustainability are expected to move the world’s energy consumption away from fossil fuels. The concept of peak oil shows that we have used about half of the available petroleum resources, and predicts a decrease of production.

A government led move away from fossil fuels would most likely create economic pressure through carbon emissions and green taxation. Some countries are taking action as a result of the Kyoto Protocol, and further steps in this direction are proposed. For example, the European Commission has proposed that the energy policy of the European Union should set a binding target of increasing the level of renewable energy in the EU’s overall mix from less than 7% today to 20% by 2020.[48]

The antithesis of sustainability is a disregard for limits, commonly referred to as the Easter Island Effect, which is the concept of being unable to develop sustainability, resulting in the depletion of natural resources.[49]

Nuclear power

See also: Nuclear power and Nuclear energy policy

Nuclear fission

See also: Nuclear fuel

The International Atomic Energy Agency estimates the remaining uranium resources to be equal to 2500 ZJ.[50] This assumes the use of breeder reactors which are able to create more fissile material than they consume. IPCC estimated currently proved economically recoverable uranium deposits for once-through fuel cycles reactors to be only 2 ZJ. The ultimately recoverable uranium is estimated to be 17 ZJ for once-through reactors and 1000 ZJ with reprocessing and fast breeder reactors.[51]

Resources and technology do not constrain the capacity of nuclear power to contribute to meeting the energy demand for the 21st century. However, political and environmental concerns about nuclear safety and radioactive waste started to limit the growth of this energy supply at the end of last century, particularly due to a number of nuclear accidents. Concerns about nuclear proliferation (especially with plutonium produced by breeder reactors) mean that the development of nuclear power by countries such as Iran and Syria is being actively discouraged by the international community.[52]

Nuclear fusion

Fusion power is the process driving our sun and other stars. It generates large quantities of heat by fusing the nuclei of hydrogen or helium isotopes, which may be derived from seawater. The heat can theoretically be harnessed to generate electricity. The temperatures and pressures needed to sustain fusion make it a very difficult process to control. The tantalizing potential of fusion is its theoretical ability to supply vast quantities of energy, with relatively little pollution.[53] Although both the United States and the European Union, along with other countries, are supporting fusion research (such as investing in the ITER facility), according to one report, inadequate research has stalled progress in fusion research for the past 20 years.[54]

Renewable resources

Main article: Renewable resource

Renewable resources are available each year, unlike non-renewable resources which are eventually depleted. A simple comparison is a coal mine and a forest. While the forest could be depleted, if it is managed properly it represents a continuous supply of energy, vs the coal mine which once it has been exhausted is gone. Most of earth’s available energy resources are renewable resources. Renewable resources account for more than 93 percent of total U.S. energy reserves. Annual renewable resources were multiplied times thirty years for comparison with non-renewable resources. In other words, if all non-renewable resources were uniformly exhausted in 30 years, they would only account for 7 percent of available resources each year, if all available renewable resources were developed.[55]

Solar energy

Main article: Solar energy

Renewable energy sources are even larger than the traditional fossil fuels and in theory can easily supply the world’s energy needs. 89 PW[56] of solar power falls on the planet’s surface. While it is not possible to capture all, or even most, of this energy, capturing less than 0.02% would be enough to meet the current energy needs. Barriers to further solar generation include the high price of making solar cells and reliance on weather patterns to generate electricity. Also, solar generation does not produce electricity at night, which is a particular problem in high northern and southern latitude countries; energy demand is highest in winter, while availability of solar energy is lowest. This could be overcome by buying power from countries closer to the equator during winter months. Globally, solar generation is the fastest growing source of energy, seeing an annual average growth of 35% over the past few years. Japan, Europe, China, U.S. and India are the major growing investors in solar energy. Advances in technology and economies of scale, along with demand for solutions to global warming, have led photovoltaics to become the most likely candidate to replace nuclear and fossil fuels.[57]

Wind power

Main article: Wind power

The available wind energy estimates range from 300 TW to 870 TW.[56][58] Using the lower estimate, just 5% of the available wind energy would supply the current worldwide energy needs. Most of this wind energy is available over the open ocean. The oceans cover 71% of the planet and wind tends to blow stronger over open water because there are fewer obstructions.

Wave and tidal power

Main articles: Wave power and Tidal power

At the end of 2005, 0.3 GW of electricity was produced by tidal power.[3] Due to the tidal forces created by the Moon (68%) and the Sun (32%), and the Earth’s relative rotation with respect to Moon and Sun, there are fluctuating tides. These tidal fluctuations result in dissipation at an average rate of about 3.7 TW.[59] As a result, the rotational speed of the Earth decreases, and the distance of the Moon to the Earth increases, on geological time scales. In several billion years, the Earth will rotate at the same speed as the Moon is revolving around it. So, several TW of tidal energy can be produced without having a significant effect on celestial mechanics.

Another physical limitation is the energy available in the tidal fluctuations of the oceans, which is about 0.6 EJ (exajoule).[60] Note this is only a tiny fraction of the total rotational energy of the Earth. Without forcing, this energy would be dissipated (at a dissipation rate of 3.7 TW) in about four semi-diurnal tide periods. So, dissipation plays a significant role in the tidal dynamics of the oceans. Therefore, this limits the available tidal energy to around 0.8 TW (20% of the dissipation rate) in order not to disturb the tidal dynamics too much.

Waves are derived from wind, which is in turn derived from solar energy, and at each conversion there is a drop of about two orders of magnitude in available energy. The total power of waves that wash against our shores add up to 3 TW.[61]


Main article: Geothermal power

Estimates of exploitable worldwide geothermal energy resources vary considerably, depending on assumed investements in technology and exploration and guesses about geological formations. According to a 1999 study, it was thought that this might amount to between 65 and 138 GW of electrical generation capacity ‘using enhanced technology’.[62] Other estimates range from 35 to 2000 GW of electrical generation capacity, with a further potential for 140 EJ/year of direct use.[29]

A 2006 report by MIT that took into account the use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) concluded that it would be affordable to generate 100 GWe (gigawatts of electricity) or more by 2050, just in the United States, for a maximum investment of 1 billion US dollars in research and development over 15 years.[28] The MIT report calculated the world’s total EGS resources to be over 13 YJ, of which over 200 ZJ would be extractable, with the potential to increase this to over 2 YJ with technology improvements – sufficient to provide all the world’s energy needs for several millennia.[28] The total heat content of the Earth is 13,000,000 YJ.[29]


Main articles: biomass and biofuel

Production of biomass and biofuels are growing industries as interest in sustainable fuel sources is growing. Utilizing waste products avoids a food vs fuel trade-off, and burning methane gas reduces greenhouse gas emissions, because even though it releases carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide is 23 times less of a greenhouse gas than is methane. Biofuels represent a sustainable partial replacement for fossil fuels, but their net impact on greenhouse gas emissions depends on the agricultural practices used to grow the plants used as feedstock to create the fuels. While it is widely believed that biofuels can be carbon-neutral, there is evidence that biofuels produced by current farming methods are substantial net carbon emitters.[63][64][65] Geothermal and biomass are the only two renewable energy sources which require careful management to avoid local depletion.[66]


Main article: hydropower

In 2005, hydroelectric power supplied 16.4% of world electricity.[67]

Alternative energy paths

Denmark and Germany have started to make investments in solar energy, despite their unfavorable geographic locations. Germany is now the largest consumer of photovoltaic cells in the world. Denmark and Germany have installed 3 GW and 17 GW of wind power respectively. In 2005, wind generated 18.5% of all the electricity in Denmark.[68] Brazil invests in ethanol production from sugar cane which is now a significant part of the transportation fuel in that country. Starting in 1965, France made large investments in nuclear power and to this date three quarters of its electricity comes from nuclear reactors.[69] Switzerland is planning to cut its energy consumption by more than half to become a 2000-watt society by 2050 and the United Kingdom is working towards a zero energy building standard for all new housing by 2016. In 2005, the Swedish government announced the oil phase-out in Sweden with the intention to become the first country to break its dependence on fossil fuel by 2020.

See also

Energy portal

Sustainable development portal

* Category: Energy by country

* Cubic mile of oil

* Domestic Energy Consumption

* Earth’s energy budget

* Electricity generation

* The End of Energy Obesity (book)

* Energy development

* Energy policy

* Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom

* Energy use in the United States

* Kardashev scale

* List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

* List of countries by energy intensity

* List of countries by electricity consumption

* List of countries by energy consumption per capita

* List of countries by electricity production

* List of countries by renewable electricity production

* Asian brown cloud

* Oil phase-out in Sweden

* Peak oil

* Sustainable energy

* A Thousand Barrels a Second: The Coming Oil Break Point and the Challenges Facing an Energy Dependent World (book)


1. ^ a b c d Energy – Consumption’!A1 “Consumption by fuel, 1965 – 2008” (XLS). Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, BP. July 31, 2006. http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy_review_2008/STAGING/local_assets/2009_downloads/statistical_review_of_world_energy_full_report_2009.xls#’Primary Energy – Consumption’!A1. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

2. ^ “BP Statistical review of world energy June 2006” (XLS). British Petroleum. June 2006. http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy_review_2006/STAGING/local_assets/downloads/spreadsheets/statistical_review_full_report_workbook_2006.xls. Retrieved 2007-04-03.

3. ^ a b c d e f g h i “Renewables, Global Status Report 2006” (PDF). Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century. 2006. http://www.ren21.net/globalstatusreport/download/RE_GSR_2006_Update.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-03.

4. ^ a b “World Energy Intensity: Total Primary Energy Consumption per Dollar of Gross Domestic Product using Purchasing Power Parities, 1980-2004” (XLS). Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. August 23, 2006. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/tablee1p.xls. Retrieved 2007-04-03.

5. ^ a b “Key World Energy Statistics” (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2006. http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2006/key2006.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-03.  pp. 48–57

6. ^ “Historical Statistics of Japan”. Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/chouki/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-03.

7. ^ Smil, p. 204

* Tester, et al., p. 303

* “OPEC 2005 Annual Statistical Bulletin” (PDF). Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). 2005. http://www.opec.org/library/Annual%20Statistical%20Bulletin/pdf/ASB2005.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-25.

8. ^ “USGS World Energy Assessment Team”. http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-060/ESpt4.html#Table. Retrieved 2007-01-18.

9. ^ Renewables Global Status Report 2009 (PDF).

10. ^ Exergy (the useful portion of energy) flow charts

11. ^ Data to produce this graphic was taken from a NASA publication.

12. ^ World Consumption of Primary Energy by Energy Type and Selected Country Groups December 31, 2008 Microsoft Excel file format]] table

13. ^ Yergin, p. 792

14. ^ Coal Pollution

15. ^ Yergin, p. ?

16. ^ “Key World Energy Statistics 2007” (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2007. http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/key_stats_2007.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-08.

17. ^ a b “World Nuclear Power Reactors 2006-07”. Uranium Information Centre. 2007-12-07. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/reactors.html. Retrieved 2007-12-08.

18. ^ “Nuclear Power in the World Today. Briefing Paper 7”. Uranium Information Centre. August 2007. http://www.uic.com.au/nip07.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-08.

19. ^ “Photovoltaics” (PDF). U. S. Department of Energy—National Renewable Energy Laboratory. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/power_databook/docs/pdf/db_chapter02_pv.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-20.

20. ^ “Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies (adapted from material in the UCS book Cool Energy: Renewable Solutions to Environmental Problems, by Michael Brower (MIT Press, 1992), 220 pp)”. Union of Concerned Scientists. 10 August 2005. http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/renewable_energy_basics/environmental-impacts-of-renewable-energy-technologies.html. Retrieved 2007-04-08.

21. ^ “World Wind Energy Report 2008” (PDF). WWEA. 2009-02-12. http://www.wwindea.org/home/images/stories/worldwindenergyreport2008_s.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-20.

22. ^ http://www.aweo.org/windtechnology.html

23. ^ Basics: Energy Output of Wind Turbines

24. ^ Oil, the Dwindling Treasure

25. ^ World Energy Reserves

26. ^ World Energy Consumption in Standard U.S. Physical Units

27. ^ Solar Cell Production Jumps 50 Percent in 2007

28. ^ a b c d “The Future of Geothermal Energy” (PDF). MIT. http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_energy.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-07.

29. ^ a b c Fridleifsson,, Ingvar B.; Bertani, Ruggero; Huenges, Ernst; Lund, John W.; Ragnarsson, Arni; Rybach, Ladislaus (2008-02-11). O. Hohmeyer and T. Trittin. ed (pdf). The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change. Luebeck, Germany. pp. 59–80. http://iga.igg.cnr.it/documenti/IGA/Fridleifsson_et_al_IPCC_Geothermal_paper_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-06.

30. ^ Electricity Demand retrieved 8 June 2009

31. ^ March 2008, Cashing in on Climate Change, IBISWorld

32. ^ “International Energy Outlook 2007”. United States Department of Energy – Washington, DC. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html. Retrieved 2007-06-06.

33. ^ “Energy efficiency measures and technological improvements.”. e8.org. http://www.e8.org/index.jsp?numPage=138. Retrieved 2007-01-21.  Article by group of ten leading electricity companies

34. ^ “Coal Facts 2006 Edition” (PDF). World Coal Institute. September 2006. http://www.worldcoal.org/assets_cm/files/PDF/coal_fact_card_2006.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-08.

35. ^ Energy Watch Group Oil Report

36. ^ Energy Watch Group Uranium Report

37. ^ The Middle Landfill

38. ^ China building more power plants

39. ^ COAL: Scrubbing its future

40. ^ Pollution From Chinese Coal Casts a Global Shadow accessed 14 October 2007

41. ^ IEA (2006), p. 127

42. ^ Want to stop global warming? STOP COAL!

43. ^ EIA sources of electricity

44. ^ Gold Russell, Davis Ann (2007-11-10). “Oil Officials See Limit Looming on Production”. The Wallstreet Journal. http://www.theoildrum.com/node/3265.

45. ^ Porter, Adam (June 10, 2005). “‘Peak oil’ enters mainstream debate”. BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4077802.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-02.

46. ^ International Petroleum Monthly Retrieved 10 November 2009

47. ^ Opec agrees record oil output cut retrieved 21 December 2008

48. ^ “Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: Renewable Energy Roadmap: Renewable Energies in the 21st century; building a sustainable future – COM(2006) 848” (PDF). Commission of the European Communities. January 10, 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/energy_policy/doc/03_renewable_energy_roadmap_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-27.

49. ^ Basic Concepts of Sustainable Development for Business Students

50. ^ “Global Uranium Resources to Meet Projected Demand: Latest Edition of “Red Book” Predicts Consistent Supply Up to 2025″. International Atomic Energy Agency. June 2, 2006. http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/News/2006/uranium_resources.html. Retrieved 2007-02-01.

51. ^ Nakicenovic, Nebojsa et al.. “IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios”. Inergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/emission/071.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-20.

52. ^ Syria ‘had covert nuclear scheme’

53. ^ Fusian Energy: Safety European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). 2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-03

54. ^ Fifty years of U.S. fusion research – An overview of programs

55. ^ Renewable Resources in the U.S. Electricity Supply

56. ^ a b Tester, Jefferson W.; et al. (2005). Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-20153-4.

57. ^ Why PV is important.

58. ^ Exergy Flow Charts

59. ^ Munk & Wunsch, 1999

60. ^ Marchuk, G.I. and Kagan, B.A. (1989) “Dynamics of Ocean Tides”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-9027725523. See page 225.

61. ^ Tester, et al., p. 593

62. ^ “All About Geothermal energy”. Geothermal Energy Association – Washington, DC. http://www.geo-energy.org/aboutGE/potentialUse.asp#world. Retrieved 2007-02-07.

63. ^ Rosenthal, Elisabeth (2008-02-08). “Biofuels Deemed a Greenhouse Threat”. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/08/science/earth/08wbiofuels.html.  Registration required. “Almost all biofuels used today cause more greenhouse gas emissions than conventional fuels if the full emissions costs of producing these “green” fuels are taken into account, two studies being published Thursday have concluded.

” “In the wake of the new studies, a group of 10 of the United States’s most eminent ecologists and environmental biologists today sent a letter to President Bush and the speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi, urging a reform of biofuels policies. “We write to call your attention to recent research indicating that many anticipated biofuels will actually exacerbate global warming””

“International environmental groups, including the United Nations, responded cautiously to the studies, saying that biofuels could still be useful. “We don’t want a total public backlash that would prevent us from getting the potential benefits,” said Nicholas Nuttall, spokesman for the United Nations Environment Program, who said the United Nations had recently created a new panel to study the evidence.

“There was an unfortunate effort to dress up biofuels as the silver bullet of climate change,” he said.” “the papers published Thursday suggested that, if land use is taken into account, biofuels may not provide all the benefits once anticipated. Dr. Searchinger said the only possible exception he could see for now was sugar cane grown in Brazil, which take relatively little energy to grow and is readily refined into fuel.”

64. ^ Farigone, Joseph; Hill, Jason; Tillman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Hawthorne, Peter (2008-02-29), “Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt”, Science 319: 1235–1238, doi:10.1126/science.1152747

65. ^ Searchinger, Timothy; Heimlich, Ralph; Houghton, R. A.; Dong, Fengxia; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto; Tokgaz, Simla; Hayes, Dermot et al. (2008-02-29), “Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change”, Science 319: 1238–1240, doi:10.1126/science.1151861

66. ^ The New Math of Alternative Energy

67. ^ Key World Energy Statistics 2007

68. ^ “Danish Annual Energy Statistics” (XLS). Danish Energy Authority. December 2006. http://www.energistyrelsen.dk/graphics/UK_Facts_Figures/Statistics/yearly_statistics/Figures2005.xls. Retrieved 2007-01-27.

69. ^ Smil, p. ?

[edit] Further reading

* International Energy Agency. (2006) World Energy Outlook 2006. ISBN 92-64-10989-7

* MacKay, David J C. (2008) Sustainable Energy – without the hot air UIT Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-954452933. Also available free online

* Smil, Vaclav. (2003) Energy at the crossroads MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19492-9

* Tester, Jefferson W. et al.. (2005) Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-20153-4

* Yergin, Daniel (1993). The Prize. Simon & Schuster: New York. ISBN 0-671-79932-0

[edit] External links

* World Energy Outlook

* Official Energy Statistics from the US government

* Energy Statistics and News from the European Union

* Annual Energy Review 2006, DOE/EIA-0384(2006), by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (PDF)

* Statistical Review of World Energy 2007, annual review by BP

* Energy Export Databrowser – A visual review of production and consumption trends for individual nations; data from the British Petroleum Statistical Review.

v • d • e

Topics on human population

Major articles

World population A Family planning A Green revolution A Overpopulation A Over-consumption (water crisis) A Reproductive rights  A Sustainable development

Biological topics

Population biology A Population control (one-child policy A Immigration reduction) A Population decline A Population density A Population growth A Population pyramid

Population ecology

Carrying capacity A Ecological footprint A I = P • A • T A Malthusian growth model A World3 model A Food security A World energy resources and consumption A Habitat destruction A Optimum population

Literary works

A Modest Proposal A An Essay on the Principle of Population A Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth A How Much Land Does a Man Need? A The Limits to Growth A The Population Bomb A The Ultimate Resource A The Skeptical Environmentalist


Most highly populated countries A Metropolitan areas by population

Events and


International Conference on Population and Development  A Optimum Population Trust  A United Nations Population Fund A World Population Foundation

Related articles

World Population Day A “The Day of Six Billion” A Easter Island downfall A Classic Maya collapse A Holocene extinction

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_resources_and_consumption&#8221;

Categories: Energy development | Energy policy | Alternative energy | Sustainability | Development | Energy economics | Peak oil | Energy use comparisons




William King Harvey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William King “Bill” Harvey (September 13, 1915 in Danville, Indiana – June 1976) was a CIA officer, best known for his role in Operation Mongoose.

Harvey was the son of a lawyer and graduated from Indiana University School of Law – Bloomington and then opened a one person law firm in Kentucky. He joined the FBI in December 1940. He resigned from the FBI in July 1947 after breaking a FBI regulation and refusing a resulting re-assignment to Indianapolis, Indiana. He joined the CIA shortly thereafter.

Operation Mongoose was a CIA operation from Miami, Florida, that enlisted the help of the Mafia to plot an assassination attempt against Fidel Castro, the Cuban president. Harvey was one of case officers who dealt with John Roselli.[1]

Harvey was also posted to Berlin, Germany as station chief in the 1950s, where he led the operation that built an underground tunnel to the Russian sector, to spy on Russian communication channels. This operation was called PBJOINTLY.

Harvey died in 1976 from a heart attack. The previous year he testified before the Church Committee on the some of the CIA’s past operations.

* Bayard Stockton (2006). Flawed Patriot: The Rise and Fall of CIA Legend Bill Harvey. Dulles: Potomac Books.

In fiction

* Norman Mailer (1992). Harlot’s Ghost: A Novel. New York: Random House.

In Robert Littell (author)’s novel The Company, the character Harvey Torritti (portrayed by Alfred Molina in the 2007 miniseries adaptation) bears a number of resemblences to the real-life Bill Harvey. Torriti served at the FBI before joining CIA, after being fired by J. Edgar Hoover for wearing a loosened tie at FBI headquarters. Torriti also serves as the station chief in Berlin in the early 1950s, as a mentor to the major character Jack McAullife. During this part of the novel, Harvey Torriti has an antagonistic relationship with real life CIA counterintelligence chief, James Angleton over his suspicion that Kim Philby, a wartime friend of Angleton, was a Soviet mole. Further in the novel Harvey Torriti acts as the cutout between the CIA and Mafia for the latter to assassinate Fidel Castro, on behalf of the former.


* Spartacus Educational – William King Harvey

1. ^ Jack Anderson (1971-01-18). “6 Attempts to Kill Castro Laid to CIA”, The Washington Post.

External links

* Codshit – William King Harvey

* New York Times Review of Harlot’s Ghost

United States This United States biographical article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_King_Harvey&#8221;

Categories: 1915 births | 1976 deaths | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | FBI agents | Deaths from cardiovascular disease | American spies | American anti-communists | American people stubs



E. Howard Hunt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

E. Howard Hunt

Born    October 9, 1918(1918-10-09)

Hamburg, New York, U.S.

Died    January 23, 2007 (aged 88)

Miami, Florida, U.S.

Charge(s)         Conspiracy, burglary, illegal wiretapping

Penalty            33 month imprisonment

Status Deceased

Occupation      CIA agent, author

Spouse             Dorothy Louise Wetzel, Laura E. Martin

Parents            Everette Howard Hunt Sr. and Ethel Jean Totterdale

Children          Saint John Hunt, David Hunt, Kevan Spence (nee Hunt), Lisa Hunt

Everette Howard Hunt, Jr. (October 9, 1918 – January 23, 2007) was an American author and spy. He worked for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and later the White House under President Richard Nixon. Hunt, with G. Gordon Liddy and others, was one of the White House’s “plumbers” — a secret team of operatives charged with fixing “leaks.” Information disclosures had proved an embarrassment to the Nixon administration when defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg sent a series of documents, which came to be known as the Pentagon Papers, to The New York Times.

Hunt, along with Liddy, engineered the first Watergate burglary. In the ensuing Watergate Scandal, Hunt was convicted of burglary, conspiracy, and wiretapping, eventually serving 33 months in prison. In 2007 his son released audio tape of Hunt naming President Lyndon B. Johnson and others as the orchestrators of the John F. Kennedy assassination.[1]


* 1 Early life and career

* 2 CIA and anti-Castro efforts

* 3 Watergate

* 4 Later life

* 5 JFK assassination allegations by family member

* 6 Audio-taped testament regarding the JFK assassination plot

* 7 Books

* 8 Notes

* 9 Trivia

* 10 External links

Early life and career

Hunt was born in Hamburg, New York, United States, of English and Welsh descent.[1] An alumnus of Nichols School in Buffalo, New York and a 1940 graduate of Brown University, Hunt during World War II served in the U.S. Navy on the destroyer USS Mayo, United States Army Air Forces, and finally, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) which he worked for in China [1] . During and after the war, he also wrote several novels under his own name — East of Farewell (1942), Limit of Darkness (1944), Stranger in Town (1947), Bimini Run (1949) (with a hero named “Hank Sturgis”), and The Violent Ones (1950) — and, more famously, several spy and hardboiled novels under an array of pseudonyms, including Robert Dietrich, Gordon Davis and David St. John.

CIA and anti-Castro efforts

Warner Bros. had just bought rights to Hunt’s novel Bimini Run when he joined the CIA in October 1949. He became station chief in Mexico City in 1950, and supervised William F. Buckley, Jr., who worked for the CIA in Mexico during the period 1951–1952. Buckley and Hunt remained lifelong friends.[2]

In Mexico, Hunt helped devise Operation PBSUCCESS, the covert plan to overthrow Jacobo Arbenz, the elected president of Guatemala. Following assignments in Japan and as station chief in Uruguay, Hunt was assigned to forge Cuban exile leaders in the United States into a broadly representative government-in-exile that would, after the Bay of Pigs Invasion, form a provisional government to take over Cuba.[3] The failure of the invasion damaged his career.

After the Bay of Pigs, Hunt became a personal assistant to Allen Dulles.[4] Tad Szulc states that Hunt was asked to assist Dulles in writing a book, The Craft of Intelligence, that Dulles wrote following his involuntary retirement in 1961.[5] The book was published in 1963.

Hunt told the Senate Watergate Committee in 1973 that he served as the first Chief of Covert Action for the CIA’s Domestic Operations Division. He told the New York Times in 1974 that he spent about four years working for the division, beginning shortly after it was set up, in 1962, over the “strenuous opposition” of Richard Helms and Thomas H. Karamessines. He said that the division was assembled shortly after the Bay of Pigs operation, and that “many men connected with that failure were shunted into the new domestic unit.” He said that some of his projects from 1962 to 1966, which dealt largely with the subsidizing and manipulation of news and publishing organizations, “did seem to violate the intent of the agency’s charter.”[6]

According to Tad Szulc, Hunt was assigned to temporary duty as the acting CIA station chief in Mexico City for the period of August and September 1963,[7] at the time of Lee Harvey Oswald’s alleged visit there.[8][9] In his 1978 testimony, however, Hunt denied having been in Mexico at all between 1961 and 1970.[10]

Hunt was undeniably bitter about what he saw as President John F. Kennedy’s lack of spine in overturning the Castro regime.[11] In his semi-fictional autobiography, Give Us this Day, he wrote: “The Kennedy administration yielded Castro all the excuse he needed to gain a tighter grip on the island of Jose Marti, then moved shamefacedly into the shadows and hoped the Cuban issue would simply melt away.”[12] Disillusioned, he retired from the CIA on May 1, 1970. The following year, he was hired by Charles Colson, chief counsel to President Richard Nixon, and joined the President’s Special Investigations Unit (alias White House Plumbers) [1].


Main article: Watergate scandal

Hunt testifies before the Watergate Committee

Hunt’s first assignment for the White House was a covert operation to break into the Los Angeles office of Daniel Ellsberg’s psychiatrist, Dr. Lewis J. Fielding.[13] In July 1971, Fielding had refused an FBI request for psychiatric data on Ellsberg.[14] Hunt and Liddy cased the building in late August.[15] The burglary, on September 3, 1971, was not detected, but no Ellsberg files were found.[16]

Also in the summer of 1971, Colson authorized Hunt to travel to New England to seek potentially scandalous information on Senator Edward Kennedy. Hunt sought and used CIA disguises and other equipment for the project.[17]

Hunt’s White House duties included assassinations-related disinformation. In September 1971, Hunt forged and offered to a Life magazine reporter top-secret State Department cables designed to prove that President Kennedy had personally and specifically ordered the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.[18] Hunt told the Senate Watergate Committee in 1973 that that he had fabricated the cables to show a link between President Kennedy and the assassination of Diem, a Catholic, to estrange Catholic voters from the Democratic party, after Colson suggested he “might be able to improve upon the record.”[19]

According to Seymour Hersh, writing in The New Yorker, Nixon White House tapes show that after presidential candidate George Wallace was shot on May 15, 1972, Nixon and Colson agreed to send Hunt to the Milwaukee home of the gunman, Arthur Bremer, to place McGovern presidential campaign material there. The intention was to link Bremer with the Democrats. Hersh writes that, in a taped conversation, “Nixon is energized and excited by what seems to be the ultimate political dirty trick: the FBI and the Milwaukee police will be convinced, and will tell the world, that the attempted assassination of Wallace had its roots in left-wing Democratic politics.” Hunt did not make the trip, however, because the FBI had moved too quickly to seal Bremer’s apartment and place it under police guard.[20]

Hunt organized the bugging of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate office building.[21]

A few days after the break-in, Nixon was recorded saying, to H. R. Haldeman, “This fellow Hunt, he knows too damn much.”[22]

[V]ery bad, to have this fellow Hunt, ah, you know, ah, it’s, he, he knows too damn much and he was involved, we happen to know that. And that it gets out that the whole, this is all involved in the Cuban thing, that it’s a fiasco, and it’s going to make the FB, ah CIA look bad, it’s going to make Hunt look bad, and it’s likely to blow the whole, uh, Bay of Pigs thing which we think would be very unfortunate for CIA and for the country at this time, and for American foreign policy, and he just better tough it and lay it on them.[23]

Hunt and fellow operative G. Gordon Liddy, along with the five arrested at the Watergate, were indicted on federal charges three months later.

Hunt’s wife, Dorothy, was killed in the December 8, 1972 plane crash of United Airlines Flight 553 in Chicago. Congress, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the crash, and found it to be an accident caused by crew error.[24] Over $10,000 in cash was found in Dorothy Hunt’s handbag in the wreckage.[25]

Hunt eventually spent 33 months in prison on a conspiracy charge, and said he was bitter that he was sent to jail while Nixon was allowed to resign.

Later life

“Give Us This Day”, Hunt’s book on the Bay of Pigs Invasion, was published late in 1973. In the book’s foreword, he commented on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as follows:

Once again it became fashionable to hold the city of Dallas collectively responsible for his murder. Still, and let this not be forgotten, Lee Harvey Oswald was a partisan of Fidel Castro, and an admitted Marxist who made desperate efforts to join the Red Revolution in Havana. In the end, he was an activist for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. But for Castro and the Bay of Pigs disaster there would have been no such “Committee.” And perhaps no assassin named Lee Harvey Oswald.[26]

On November 3, 1978, Hunt gave a security-classified deposition for the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA). The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) released the deposition in February 1996.[27]

Two newspaper articles published a few months before the deposition stated that a 1966 CIA memo linking Hunt to the assassination of President Kennedy had recently been provided to the HSCA. The first article, by Victor Marchetti—author of the book The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (1974)—appeared in the Liberty Lobby newspaper The Spotlight on August 14, 1978. According to Marchetti, the memo said in essence, “Some day we will have to explain Hunt’s presence in Dallas on November 22, 1963.”[28] He also wrote that Hunt, Frank Sturgis, and Gerry Patrick Hemming would soon be implicated in a conspiracy to kill John F. Kennedy.

The second article, by Joseph J. Trento and Jacquie Powers, appeared in the Wilmington, Delaware Sunday News Journal six days later. It alleged that the purported memo was initialed by Richard Helms and James Angleton and showed that, shortly after Helms and Angleton were elevated to their highest positions in the CIA, they discussed the fact that Hunt had been in Dallas on the day of the assassination and that his presence there had to be kept secret. However, nobody has been able to produce this supposed memo, and the United States President’s Commission on CIA activities within the United States determined that Hunt had been in Washington, DC on the day of the Assassination.[29]

Hunt sued Liberty Lobby but not the Sunday News Journal—for libel. Liberty Lobby stipulated, in this first trial, that the question of Hunt’s alleged involvement in the assassination would not be contested.[30] Hunt prevailed and was awarded $650,000 damages. In 1983, however, the case was overturned on appeal because of error in jury instructions.[31] In a second trial, held in 1985, Mark Lane made an issue of Hunt’s location on the day of the Kennedy assassination.[32] Lane successfully defended Liberty Lobby by producing evidence suggesting that Hunt had been in Dallas. He used depositions from David Atlee Phillips, Richard Helms, G. Gordon Liddy, Stansfield Turner, and Marita Lorenz, plus a cross-examination of Hunt. On retrial, the jury rendered a verdict for Liberty Lobby.[33] In spite of Lane’s claim that he convinced the jury that Hunt was a JFK assassination conspirator, most of the jurors who were interviewed by the media said they disregarded the conspiracy theory and judged the case (according to the judge’s jury instructions) on whether the article was published with “reckless disregard for the truth.”[34] Lane outlined his theory about Hunt’s and the CIA’s role in Kennedy’s murder in a 1991 book, Plausible Denial.[35]

Many conspiracists have believed that two of the three tramps marched through Dealey Plaza in the wake of the assassination to be Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis, although several other men, Charles Harrelson for example, were also identified as tramps. The mystery was apparently solved in the early 1990s when researcher Mary LaFontaine discovered documents identifying the men as Harold Doyle, John Forester Gedney, and Gus W. Abrams. Both the F.B.I. and independent researchers confirmed the identifications.[36]

The Mitrokhin Archive[37] by Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, on the evidence supplied by Mitrokhin’s transcribed versions of Top Secret KGB files, allege the Soviet Union was principal in falsely connecting E. Howard Hunt to the Kennedy Assassination. Among its allegations are the recruitment and secret financial support for Mark Lane and other conspiracy theorist authors, including Carl Aldo Marzani and Joachim Joesten[38].

Hunt was also the addressee of a forged letter, purportedly from Oswald, dated two weeks before the assassination. Intended to raise suspicion of the CIA, and Hunt in particular, it was based upon the erroneous belief that Hunt had been in Dallas on the day of the assassination. The carefully-created letter was accepted as genuine by Oswald’s widow, and left the House Select Committee on Assassinations (1978) unable to verify or discredit its authenticity. Eventually, it appeared in the American press, although the “Mr. Hunt,” it was addressed to, was mistakenly assumed to be the oil magnate H. L. Hunt. Ironically, it was H. L. Hunt whom the Kremlin first suspected of plotting the assassination[39].

Hunt was a prolific author, primarily of spy novels.[40] He declared bankruptcy in 1995 and lived in Biscayne Park, Florida. [41]

A fictionalized account of Hunt’s role in the Bay of Pigs operation appears in Norman Mailer’s 1991 novel Harlot’s Ghost.

Canadian journalist David Giammarco interviewed Hunt for the December 2000 issue of Cigar Aficionado magazine.[42] Writing later in Controversy magazine,[43] Giammarco related an interview with a “former high-ranking CIA officer” in Miami who was “intrinsically involved in the CIA’s disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion of April 1961 and the many plots to kill Castro.” The subject, whose description closely resembles Hunt’s, is not identified by name. However, the individual reportedly told Giammarco that “he would confess to his part in the JFK assassination for a price tag of $14 million.”[44] E. Howard Hunt also wrote the foreword to David Giammarco’s best-selling book “For Your Eyes Only: Behind the Scenes of the James Bond Films” (ECW Press, 2002). Over the course of their long friendship, the elder spy Hunt apparently shared many secrets with David Giammarco. However, the exact details have not been publicly disclosed by Giammarco.

Hunt died on January 23, 2007 in Miami, Florida of pneumonia[45][46] and is buried in Prospect Lawn Cemetery, Hamburg, New York. His son Saint John delivered a eulogy at a memorial service.[47] Hunt’s memoir American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate, and Beyond was published by John Wiley & Sons in March 2007.[48]

JFK assassination allegations by family member

Main article: Kennedy assassination theories

The April 5, 2007 issue of Rolling Stone contained an extensive article on Hunt, based in large part on an interview with his eldest son, Howard (nicknamed Saint John by his mother). It describes Hunt’s alleged deathbed confessions of his supposed knowledge and indirect complicity in the JFK assassination.[1]

Among other things, the article claims that Hunt, in hand-written notes and a voice recording to Saint John, implicated Lyndon B. Johnson and CIA operative Cord Meyer as the key players in the JFK assassination conspiracy.

According to Hunt’s son, Hunt claimed the other assassin was a French gunman on the grassy knoll, often identified in other assassination theories as Lucien Sarti.

Among the materials provided by Hunt to his son are several handwritten documents detailing the participants and chronology of events involved with the assassination plot, including a “Chain of Command” indicating the involvement of several CIA agents and placing then Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson as the head of command. [2]

Audio-taped testament regarding the JFK assassination plot

On the April 28, 2007 edition of Coast to Coast Live hosted by Ian Punnett, a portion of an audio tape sent by Saint John containing his father’s January 2004 recounting of activities of several of fellow operatives played on-air for the first time. In the tape, Hunt named Cord Meyer, Frank Sturgis, David Sánchez Morales, and David Atlee Phillips as participants in the assassination with Vice-President Lyndon Johnson apparently approving the assassination for political gain.

A clip of this tape can be heard here.

The following is a transcript of Hunt’s testament on the audio tape clip:

I heard from Frank that LBJ had designated Cord Meyer, Jr. to undertake a larger organization while keeping it totally secret. Cord Meyer himself was a rather favored member of the Eastern aristocracy. He was a graduate of Yale University and had joined the Marine Corps during the war and lost an eye in the Pacific fighting.

I think that LBJ settled on Meyer as an opportunist like himself and a man who had very little left to him in life ever since JFK had taken Cord’s wife as one of his mistresses. I would suggest that Cord Meyer welcomed the approach from LBJ, who was after all only the Vice President at that time and of course could not number Cord Meyer among JFK’s admirers—quite the contrary.

As for Dave Phillips, I knew him pretty well at one time. He worked for me during the Guatemala project. He had made himself useful to the agency in Santiago, Chile where he was an American businessman. In any case, his actions, whatever they were, came to the attention of the Santiago station chief and when his resume became known to people in the Western hemisphere division he was brought in to work on Guatemalan operations.

Sturgis and Morales and people of that ilk stayed in apartment houses during preparations for the big event. Their addresses were very subject to change, so that where a fellow like Morales had been one day, you’d not necessarily associated [sic] with that address the following day. In short, it was a very mobile experience.

Let me point out at this point, that if I had wanted to fictionalize what went on in Miami and elsewhere during the run up for the big event, I would have done so. But I don’t want any unreality to tinge this particular story, or the information, I should say. I was a benchwarmer on it and I had a reputation for honesty.

I think it’s essential to refocus on what this information that I’ve been providing you — and you alone, by the way — consists of. What is important in the story is that we’ve backtracked the chain of command up through Cord Meyer and laying [sic] the doings at the doorstep of LBJ. He, in my opinion, had an almost maniacal urge to become President. He regarded JFK, as he was in fact, an obstacle to achieving that. He could have waited for JFK to finish out his term and then undoubtedly a second term. So that would have put LBJ at the head of a long list of people who were waiting for some change in the executive branch.

This is only a portion of the tape, and Saint John Hunt states that his father provided more specific information related to the assassination during this and other sessions.[49] These other sessions, however, were not taped, and the totality of this particular audio tape has yet to be aired or publicly disclosed.



* Give Us This Day: The Inside Story of the CIA and the Bay of Pigs Invasion—by One of Its Key Organizers (1973)

* Undercover: memoirs of an American secret agent / by E. Howard Hunt (1974)

* “For Your Eyes Only: Behind the Scenes of the James Bond Films” / by David Giammarco; foreword by E. Howard Hunt (2002)

* American spy: my secret history in the CIA, Watergate, and beyond / E. Howard Hunt; with Greg Aunapu; foreword by William F. Buckley, Jr. (2007)

Novels published as Howard Hunt or E. Howard Hunt:

* East of Farewell (1943)

* Limit of darkness, a novel by Howard Hunt (1944)

* Stranger in town (1947)

* Calculated risk: a play / by Howard Hunt (1948)

* Maelstrom / Howard Hunt (1948)

* Bimini run / by Howard Hunt (1949)

* The Violent Ones (1950)

* Berlin ending; a novel of discovery (1973)

* Hargrave deception / E. Howard Hunt (1980)

* Gaza intercept / E. Howard Hunt (1981)

* Cozumel / E. Howard Hunt (1985)

* Kremlin conspiracy / E. Howard Hunt (1985)

* Guadalajara / E. Howard Hunt (1990)

* Murder in State / E. Howard Hunt (1990)

* Body count / E. Howard Hunt (1992)

* Chinese Red / by E. Howard Hunt (1992)

* Mazatlán / E. Howard Hunt (1993) (lists former pseudonym P. S. Donoghue on cover)

* Ixtapa / E. Howard Hunt (1994)

* Islamorada / E. Howard Hunt (1995)

* Paris edge / E. Howard Hunt (1995)

* Izmir / E. Howard Hunt (1996)

* Dragon teeth: a novel / by E. Howard Hunt (1997)

* Guilty knowledge / E. Howard Hunt (1999)

* Sonora / E. Howard Hunt. (2000)

As Robert Dietrich:

* Cheat (1954)

* Be My Victim (1956)

* Murder on the rocks: an original novel (1957)

As P. S. Donoghue:

* Dublin Affair (1988)

* Sarkov Confession: a novel (1989)

* Evil Time (1992)

As David St. John

* Hazardous Duty (1966)

* Mongol Mask (1968)

* Sorcerers (1969)

* Diabolus (1971)

* Coven (1972)

As Gordon Davis:

* I Came to Kill (1953)

* House Dick (1961)

* Counterfeit Kill (1963)

* Ring Around Rosy (1964)

* Where Murder Waits (1965)

As John Baxter:

* A Foreign Affair


1. ^ a b c d Hedegaard, Erik (April 5, 2007). The Last Confessions of E. Howard Hunt Rolling Stone

2. ^ William F. Buckley, Jr. (January 26, 2007), “Howard Hunt, RIP”. Buckley describes their early friendship in Mexico in his introduction to Hunt’s posthumously-published memoir, American Spy.

3. ^ Tad Szulc, Compulsive Spy: The Strange Career of E. Howard Hunt (New York: Viking, 1974), 78.

4. ^ HSCA Deposition (November 3, 1978), Part II, p. 6:10–17

5. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 95

6. ^ Seymour M. Hersch, “Hunt Tells of Early Work For a CIA Domestic Unit,” New York Times (December 31, 1974), p. 1, col. 6.

7. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 96, 99: “Hunt spent August and September 1963 in Mexico City in charge of the CIA station there.”

8. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 99: “Through an extraordinary coincidence, Lee Harvey Oswald also visited Mexico City during September 1963.”

9. ^ John Armstrong, “Mexico City—Pandora’s Box” – pp. 614–706 of Harvey & Lee (Arlington, Texas: Quasar Press, 2003).

10. ^ HSCA Deposition (November 3, 1978), Part I, p. 7:14–16

11. ^ Rosenberg, Carol (June 28, 2001). Plotter of Bay of Pigs, Watergate conspirator: ‘File and forget’ Castro. Miami Herald

12. ^ Hunt, Give Us This Day, 13–14

13. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 128

14. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 127

15. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 130

16. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 131

17. ^ Marjorie Hunter, “Colson Confirms Backing Kennedy Inquiry but Denies Knowing of Hunt’s CIA Aid,” New York Times (June 30, 1973), p. 15.

18. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 134–135.

19. ^ David E. Rosenbaum, “Hunt Says He Fabricated Cables on Diem to Link Kennedy to Killing of a Catholic; Testifies Colson Sought To Alienate Democrats,” New York Times (September 25, 1973), p. 28.

20. ^ Molotsky, Irvin (December 7, 1992). Article Says Nixon Schemed to Tie Foe to Wallace Attack. “[T]he agent picked for the mission was E. Howard Hunt.” The New York Times

21. ^ Reynolds, Tim (January 23, 2007). Watergate Figure E. Howard Hunt Dies. Associated Press

22. ^ Weiner, Tim (January 24, 2007). E. Howard Hunt, Agent Who Organized Botched Watergate Break-In, Dies at 88. The New York Times

23. ^ Transcript of a Recording of a Meeting Between the President and H. R. Haldeman, the Oval Office, June 23, 1972

24. ^ NTSB report

25. ^ CNN Live Today, “Deadly Plane Skid in Chicago” Aired December 9 2005.

26. ^ Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 99. Szulc, writing in 1974, calls this “a bizarre passage.”

27. ^ HSCA Deposition (November 3, 1978)

28. ^ Victor Marchetti, “CIA to Admit Hunt Involvement in Kennedy Slaying,” The Spotlight (August 14, 1978)

29. ^ Were Watergate Conspirators Also JFK Assassins?

30. ^ Hunt v. Marchetti, 824 F.2d 916 (11th Cir. 1987). “In arguing that the stipulation should be binding on retrial, Hunt attempts to characterize the statements of the Liberty Lobby attorney as stipulating to the fact that Hunt was not in Dallas on the day of the Kennedy assassination. The statements, however, are more accurately viewed as a stipulation that the question of Hunt’s alleged involvement in the assassination would not be contested at trial. They thus served merely to narrow the factual issues in dispute.” Id. at 917–18 (citations omitted).

31. ^ Hunt v. Liberty Lobby, 720 F.2d 631 (11th Cir. 1983). “Libel Award for Howard Hunt overturned by appeals court,” New York Times (December 4, 1983).

32. ^ Hunt v. Marchetti, 824 F.2d 916 (11th Cir. 1987). “Hunt was aware throughout discovery prior to the retrial that Liberty Lobby intended to make Hunt’s location on the day of the Kennedy assassination an issue on retrial.” Id. at 928.

33. ^ Hunt v. Marchetti, 824 F.2d 916 (11th Cir. 1987). “The jury on retrial rendered a verdict for Liberty Lobby. We affirm.” Id. at 918.

34. ^ Implausible Assertions

35. ^ Isaacs, Jeremy (1997). Cold War: Howard Hunt interview excerpts and full transcript. CNN

36. ^ JFK Assassination a Hobo Hit?

37. ^ [ISBN_0-713-99358-8]

38. ^ [The Mitrokhin Archive, Pp. 293-297]

39. ^ [The Mitrokhin Archive, Pp. 293-299]

40. ^ Vidal, Gore (December 13, 1973), The Art and Arts of E. Howard Hunt. New York Review of Books

41. ^ Bardach, A.L. (Oct. 6, 2004). Scavenger Hunt. slate.com

42. ^ Cigar Aficionado, November/December 2000

43. ^ Vol. 3, No. 1.

44. ^ Buell, Gary, in The Education Forum (August 17, 2005)

45. ^ Cabron, Lou (January 25, 2007), 20 Secrets of an Infamous Dead Spy. 10 Zen Monkeys

46. ^ Cornwell, Rupert (January 25, 2007). E. Howard Hunt obituary. The Independent

47. ^ Eulogy – E. Howard Hunt

48. ^ Reed, Christopher (January 25, 2007). E Howard Hunt obituary. The Guardian

49. ^ Saint John Hunt, Chain of Command


* Hunt was portrayed by Ed Harris in the 1995 biopic Nixon.

External links

* “The secrets and lies that a Cold-War warrior took to his grave” — Erik Hedegaard’s Rolling Stone article, as republished in The Sunday Times (April 15, 2007)

* Don Fulsom, Blowing Smoke From the Grave: E. Howard Hunt and the JFK Assassination, Crime Magazine (June 6, 2007)

* Don Fulsom, Richard Nixon’s Greatest Coverup: His Ties to the Assassination of President Kennedy, Crime Magazine (May 28, 2007)

* “Howard Hunt’s Final Mission” — Review of American Spy by James Rosen in The Politico (February 7, 2007)

* “Watergate plotter may have a last tale” Los Angeles Times (March 20, 2007)

* “E. Howard Hunt – Testament” — Audio of E. Howard Hunt’s Testament regarding CIA agents’ involvement in JFK Assassination.

* “Chain of Command” — Handwritten document, provided by Hunt to his eldest son Saint John Hunt, purporting to reveal the JFK assassination “Chain of Command”

* “The Eulogy for E. Howard Hunt” — Presented at Hunt’s Memorial Service

* “The Art and Arts of E. Howard Hunt” 1973 review by Gore Vidal in the New York Review of Books

* “Literary Agent” Review essay by Rachel Donadio in the New York Times Sunday Book Review (February 18, 2007)

* E. Howard Hunt at the Internet Movie Database

* Video of Nixon discussing Hunt in the Watergate tapes

* Deposition for the House Select Committee on Assassinations (1978) — Released in 1996

* Hunt’s Ties to JFK & Nixon

* “Howard Hunt and the JFK Assassination” — Discussion of the 1978 Spotlight and Sunday News Journal articles

* “If This Is Hunt Are There Any Other Photos?” — Discussion of proposal identifying Hunt in photographs of Dealey Plaza

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Howard_Hunt&#8221;

Categories: American spies | Cold War spies | People of the Central Intelligence Agency | Watergate-break-in team members | Watergate figures | CREEP alumni | American criminals | American spy fiction writers | American military personnel of World War II | Brown University alumni | Office of Strategic Services | John F. Kennedy assassination | People from Buffalo, New York | 1918 births | 2007 deaths

This page was last modified on 18 September 2008, at 12:26.



Bernard Barker

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bernard Barker

Bernard Leon Barker (born 17 March 1917) was a former member of the Cuban secret police under the Batista regime. He joined Operation 40 and the Bay of Pigs invasion. Later, he was recruited by his former CIA boss, E. Howard Hunt, as one of the “Plumbers”, the Nixon White House’s so-called “Special Investigations Unit”. In 1972, Barker was one of the five burglars paid by the Committee to Re-elect the President (CRP), Nixon’s re-election campaign fundraising committee, for a break-in at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee, and subsequently was convicted in the Watergate scandal. The others were Frank Sturgis, Virgilio Gonzalez, Eugenio Martinez and James McCord.

Along with the other Watergate burglars, G. Gordon Liddy, and E. Howard Hunt, Barker was charged with, and pled guilty to, wiretapping, planting electronic surveillance equipment, and theft of documents.

Barker also worked with CRP to get money into the Nixon campaign coffers off the books; it was via his bank account that twenty-five thousand dollars from Archer Daniels Midland Chief Executive Dwayne Andreas was obtained by CRP in violation of campaign finance laws.

Barker was said by some to be implicated in the JFK assassination, together with other Watergate figures like Frank Sturgis and E. Howard Hunt, after a Dallas police officer supposedly recognized him during the time of the Watergate scandal, however this theory is not widely held.

Frank Sturgis and Bernard Barker, 1960 (top) and 1972

In September 1971, Barker had begun his work for the Nixon administration when he was recruited by Hunt for obtaining background information on Daniel Ellsberg. Ellsberg was under watch for releasing what came to be known as the “Pentagon Papers”, a series of articles featured in the New York Times in 1971 detailing administration secrets concerning the Vietnam War. Barker had been recruited along with Eugenio Martínez to help Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy break into the office of Dr. Lewis J. Fielding, Ellsberg’s psychiatrist. The mission’s purpose was to find discrediting information on Ellsberg. The mission was completed, but largely unsuccessful in finding any damaging information about Ellsberg. On March 2, 1974 Barker was indicted for the break-in. [1] He was released pending appeal after serving one year of a two-and-a-half to six-year sentence.

After Barker’s release from prison, he worked as a building inspector for the city of Miami, Florida, earning $18,512 per year. He elected early retirement in 1982 rather than fight proceedings seeking his dismissal for loafing on the job.

External links

* “Bernard Barker to Retire From Miami Job Early”, New York Times, Jan. 28, 1982

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Barker&#8221;

Categories: Watergate-break-in team members | American criminals | 1917 births | Living people


CIA officials and freelance agents such as William Harvey, Thomas G. Clines, Porter Goss, Gerry Patrick Hemming, E. Howard Hunt, David Sánchez Morales, Carl Elmer Jenkins, Bernard Barker, Barry Seal, Frank Sturgis, William Robert Plumlee (“Tosh” Plumlee), and William C. Bishop also joined the project.

Dulles went on to be successful with the CIA’s first attempts at removing foreign leaders by covert means. Notably, the elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh of Iran was deposed in 1953 (via Operation Ajax), and President Arbenz of Guatemala was removed in 1954. The Guatemalan coup was called Operation PBSUCCESS. Dulles was on the board of the United Fruit Company. Dulles saw these kind of clandestine activities as an essential part of the struggle against communism.

During the Kennedy Administration, Dulles faced increasing criticism. The failed Bay of Pigs Invasion and several failed assassination plots utilizing CIA-recruited operatives from the Mafia and anti-Castro Cubans directly against Fidel Castro undermined the CIA’s credibility, and pro-American but unpopular regimes in Iran and Guatemala that he helped put in place were widely regarded as brutal and corrupt. The reputation of the agency and its director declined after the Bay of Pigs Invasion fiasco; he and his staff (including Director for Plans Richard Bissell and Deputy Director Charles Cabell) were forced to resign (September 1961). President Kennedy did not trust the CIA, and he reportedly intended to dismantle it after the Bay of Pigs failure. Kennedy said he wanted to “splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter it into the winds.”[3] Ironically, Dulles was later appointed to the Warren Commission, the official government investigation of the assassination of John F. Kennedy.


Beginning in 1939 and lasting for five years, the Council achieved much greater prominence with government and the State Department when it established the strictly confidential War and Peace Studies, funded entirely by the Rockefeller Foundation.[20] The secrecy surrounding this group was such that the Council members (total at the time: 663) who were not involved in its deliberations were completely unaware of the study group’s existence.[20]

It was divided into four functional topic groups: economic and financial, security and armaments, territorial, and political. The security and armaments group was headed by Allen Welsh Dulles who later became a pivotal figure in the CIA’s predecessor, the OSS. It ultimately produced 682 memoranda for the State Department, marked classified and circulated among the appropriate government departments. As a historical judgment, its overall influence on actual government planning at the time is still said to remain unclear.[20]



War and Peace Studies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

War and Peace Studies was a project carried out by the Council on Foreign Relations between 1939 and 1945 before and during American involvement in World War II. It was intended to advise the U.S. Government on conduct in the war and the subsequent peace.

The project was divided into four major areas: economic and financial, security and armaments, territorial, and political. Over 100 men took part. Funding was provided by the Rockefeller Foundation, which provided almost $350,000 over the course of the project. A steering committee was created in December 1939 chaired by U.S diplomat Norman Davis with Foreign Affairs editor Hamilton Fish Armstrong as vice-chairman. Initial area heads were:[1]

* Alvin Hansen and Jacob Viner led the economic and financial group

* Whitney Shepardson, who led the political group

* Allen Welsh Dulles and Hanson W. Baldwin, who led the armaments group, and

* Isaiah Bowman, who led the territorial group.

A research secretary was appointed to each group:

* William Diebold, for the economic and financial group

* Walter R. Sharp, for the political group, and

* Grayson L. Kirk, for the armaments group

* William P. Maddox, for the territorial group

From March 1942, the project supplied research secretaries to the State Department’s Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policy, with each group’s secretary serving the corresponding subcommittee at the State Department. Meetings were scheduled to allow secretaries to carry out Council work during the first half of each week with the remainder of the week spent at the Department of State.[2]


1. ^ Laurence H. Shoup, William Minter (1977). Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy. ISBN 0595324266.

2. ^ Imperial Brain Trust, p. 156.

[edit] External links

* The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996 – War and Peace

This organization-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_and_Peace_Studies&#8221;

Categories: Organization stubs



The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996 – War and Peace

John Foster Dulles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles

52nd United States Secretary of State

In office

January 26, 1953 – April 22, 1959

President         Dwight D. Eisenhower

Preceded by    Dean Acheson

Succeeded by Christian Herter

United States Senator

from New York

In office

July 7, 1949 – November 8, 1949

Preceded by    Robert F. Wagner

Succeeded by Herbert H. Lehman

Born    February 25, 1888(1888-02-25)

Washington, D.C.

Died    May 24, 1959 (aged 71)

Washington, D.C.

Political party Republican

Profession       Lawyer, Diplomat, Politician

Religion           Presbyterian

John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism around the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and it is widely believed that he refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954. He also played a great part in the CIA operations to overthrow the democratic Mossadegh government of Iran in 1953 (Operation Ajax) and the democratic Arbenz government of Guatemala in 1954 (Operation PBSUCCESS). Many believe his former role on the Board of the United Fruit Company led him to support the American-backed coup in this small Central American country.


* 1 Biography

* 2 Political career

* 3 Secretary of State

* 4 Death and legacy

* 5 Bibliography

* 6 See also

* 7 References

* 8 External links


Born in Washington, D.C., he was one of five children and the eldest son born to Presbyterian minister Allen Macy Dulles and his wife Edith (Foster). He attended public schools in Watertown, New York. After attending Princeton University and The George Washington University Law School he joined the New York City law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, where he specialized in international law. He tried to join the United States Army during World War I but was rejected because of poor eyesight. Instead, Dulles received an Army commission as Major on the War Industries Board.

Both his grandfather John W. Foster and his uncle Robert Lansing served as Secretary of State. He was also the older brother of Allen Welsh Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence under Eisenhower. On June 26, 1912, he married Janet Avery, with whom he had two sons and a daughter. One of their sons, Avery Dulles, converted to Catholicism, entered the Jesuit order and became the first American priest to be directly appointed Cardinal. He currently teaches and resides at Fordham University in The Bronx, New York. His other son, John W. F. Dulles (1913-2008), was a professor of history at the University of Texas at Austin.[1]

Political career

In 1918, Woodrow Wilson appointed Dulles as legal counsel to the United States delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference where he served under his uncle, Robert Lansing, then Secretary of State. Dulles made an early impression as a junior diplomat by clearly and forcefully arguing against imposing crushing reparations on Germany. Afterwards, he served as a member of the War Reparations Committee at the request of President Wilson. Dulles, a deeply religious man, attended numerous international conferences of churchmen during the 1920s and 1930s. In 1924, he was the defense counsel in the church trial of Rev. Harry Emerson Fosdick, who had been charged with heresy by opponents in the denomination, a case settled when Fosdick, a liberal Baptist, resigned his pulpit in the Presbyterian Church, which he had never joined. Dulles also became a partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, an international law firm.

According to Karlheinz Deschner’s book The Moloch Dulles gave assets of 1 bio. $ to the Nazi party in 1933 after Hitler’s election, and according to Stephen Kinzer’s 2006 book Overthrow, the firm benefited from doing business with the Nazi regime, and throughout 1934, Dulles was a very public supporter of Hitler. However, the junior partners, led by his brother Allen[2], were appalled by Nazi activities and threatened to revolt if Dulles did not end the firm’s association with the regime. In 1935, Dulles closed Sullivan & Cromwell’s Berlin office; later he would cite the closing date as 1934, no doubt in an effort to clear his reputation by shortening his involvement with Nazi Germany.[3]

Dulles was a close associate of Thomas E. Dewey, who became the presidential candidate of the United States Republican Party in the 1944 election and 1948. During the elections Dulles served as Dewey’s chief foreign policy adviser. In 1944 as Dewey’s adviser Dulles took an active role in establishing the Republican plank calling for the establishment of a Jewish commonwealth in Palestine.[4]

In 1945, Dulles participated in the San Francisco Conference and worked as adviser to Arthur H. Vandenberg and helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter. He subsequently attended the United Nations General Assembly as a United States delegate in 1946, 1947 and 1950. Dulles was appointed to the United States Senate as a Republican from New York on July 7, 1949, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Democrat Robert F. Wagner. Dulles served from July 7, 1949, to November 8, 1949, when a successor, Herbert Lehman, was elected, having beaten Dulles in a special election to fill the senate vacancy.

In 1950, Dulles published War or Peace, a critical analysis of the American policy of containment, which at the time was favored by many of the foreign policy elites in Washington. Dulles criticized the foreign policy of Harry S. Truman. He argued that containment should be replaced by a policy of “liberation”. When Dwight Eisenhower became President in January, 1953, he appointed Dulles as his Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, Dulles still carried out the “containment” policy of neutralizing the Taiwan Strait during the Korean War, which had been established by President Truman in the Treaty of Peace with Japan of 1951.

Secretary of State

Dulles with president Eisenhower in 1956

As Secretary of State, Dulles spent considerable time building up NATO as part of his strategy of controlling Soviet expansion by threatening massive retaliation in event of a war, as well as building up friendships, including that of Louis Jefferson, who would later write a good-humored biography on Dulles. In 1950, he helped instigate the ANZUS Treaty for mutual protection with Australia and New Zealand. One of his first major policy shifts towards a more aggressive posture against communism, Dulles directed the CIA at this point now under the directorship of John Foster Dulles’ brother Allen Dulles, in March 1953, to draft plans to overthrow the Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran [1]. This led directly to the Coup d’état via Operation Ajax in support of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran.

After the war, the United Nations conducted a lengthy inquiry regarding the status of Eritrea, with the superpowers each vying for a stake in the state’s future. Britain, the last administrator at the time, put forth the suggestion to partition Eritrea between Sudan and Ethiopia, separating Christians and Muslims. The idea was instantly rejected by Eritrean political parties as well as the UN.[5] The United States point of view was expressed by its then chief foreign policy advisor John Foster Dulles who said:

From the point of view of justice, the opinions of the Eritrean people must receive consideration. Nevertheless, the strategic interests of the United States in the Red Sea Basin and considerations of security and world peace make it necessary that the country [Eritrea] be linked with our ally, Ethiopia.

—John Foster Dulles, 1952

A UN plebiscite voted 46 to 10 to have Eritrea be federated with Ethiopia which was later stipulated on December 2, 1950 in resolution 390 (V). Eritrea would have its own parliament and administration and would be represented in what had been the Ethiopian parliament and would become the federal parliament. In 1961 the 30-year Eritrean Struggle for Independence began, following the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I’s dissolution of the federation and shutting down of Eritrea’s parliament. The Emperor declared Eritrea the fourteenth province of Ethiopia in 1962.[6]

Dulles was also the architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) that was created in 1954. The treaty, signed by representatives of Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and the United States provided for collective action against aggression. In that same year, due to his relationship with his brother Allen Dulles, a member of the Board Of Directors of the United Fruit Company, based in Guatemala, Foster Dulles was pivotal in promoting and executing the CIA-led Operation PBSUCCESS that overthrew the democratically elected Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán.

Dulles was one of the pioneers of massive retaliation and brinkmanship. In an article written for Life Magazine Dulles defined his policy of brinkmanship: “The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art.” His critics blamed him for damaging relations with Communist states and contributing to the Cold War.

Dulles upset the leaders of several non-aligned countries when on June 9, 1956, he argued in one speech that “neutrality has increasingly become an obsolete and, except under very exceptional circumstances, it is an immoral and shortsighted conception.”

Dulles provided some consternation and amusement to the British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand ambassadors by his repeated attempts to tell substantially different versions of events to them. Apparently, unbeknownst to Dulles, the men had all attended Cambridge together and followed up meetings with Dulles by comparing notes and reporting the discrepancies to their home countries.[citation needed]

In 1956, Dulles strongly opposed the Anglo-French invasion of the Suez Canal, Egypt (October–November 1956). However, by 1958, he was an outspoken opponent of President Gamal Abdel Nasser and stopped him from receiving weapons from the United States. This policy seemingly backfired, enabling the Soviet Union to gain influence in the Middle East.

Dulles also served as the Chairman and Co-founder of the Commission on a Just and Durable Peace of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America (succeeded by the National Council of Churches), the Chairman of the Board for the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, a Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1935 to 1952, and was a founding member of the Council of Foreign Relations.

Death and legacy

Suffering from cancer, Dulles was forced by his declining health to resign from office in April 1959. He died in Washington, D.C. on May 24, 1959, at the age of 71, and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Sylvanus Thayer Award in 1959. A central Berlin road was (re-)named “John-Foster-Dulles-Allee” in 1959 in presence of Christian Herter, Dulles’ successor as Secretary of State.

The Washington Dulles International Airport (located in Dulles, Virginia) and John Foster Dulles High, Middle and Elementary School (Sugar Land, Texas) were all named in honor of Dulles. Watertown, NY named the Dulles State Office Building in his honor.

In 1954, Dulles was named Man of the Year in Time Magazine.[7]

Carol Burnett first rose to prominence in the 1950s singing a novelty song, I Made a Fool of Myself Over John Foster Dulles; more recently, Gil Scott Heron commented “John Foster Dulles ain’t nothing but the name of an airport now” in the song B-Movie. In the book Fierce Invalids Home from Hot Climates, Switters and Case both spit whenever they refer to John Foster Dulles. Dulles’ rollback policy was later implemented by the Reagan Administration during the 1980s and it is sometimes credited with the collapse of, the Soviet Empire, the Communist Bloc in eastern Europe as well as the Soviet Union itself.[8][9]

On December 1958, Dulles and Dr. Milton Eisenhower attended Mexico’s new president Adolfo Lopez Mateos’ inauguration, where Dulles made the candid quote, “The United States of America does not have friends; it has interests”. At the time the quote was actually interpreted positively, but has with time become infamous in some sectors due to the country’s future foreign policies.


* Biographies

o Power and Peace: The Diplomacy of John Foster Dulles by Frederick Marks (1995) ISBN 0-275-95232-0

o John Foster Dulles: Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy by Richard H. Immerman (1998) ISBN 0-8420-2601-0

o Devil and John Foster Dulles by Hoopes Townsend (1973) ISBN 0-316-37235-8. Most famous book on Dulles.

o The actor; the true story of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State, 1953-1959 by Alan Stang, Western Islands (1968)

o The John Foster Dulles Book of Humor by Louis Jefferson (1986), St. Martin’s Press, ISBN 0-312-44355-2

o John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power. by Ronald W. Pruessen (1982), The Free Press ISBN 0-02-925460-4

* General History

o Kinzer, Stephen, Overthrow. Henry Holt and Company (2006). ISBN 0-8050-8240-9

See also

* Vietnam War

* Brinkmanship

* New Look


1. ^ “90-year-old Still Active at University, The Daily Texan”

2. ^ Grose, Peter. 1994. Gentleman Spy, The Life of Allen Dulles. Houton Mifflin. New York.ISBN 0-395-51607-2

3. ^ Kinzer, Stephen, Overthrow. Henry Holt and Company (2006), p. 114, ISBN 0-8050-8240-9

4. ^ Isaac Alteras 1993 Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.-Israeli Relations, 1953-1960 University Press of Florida ISBN 0813012058 pp 53-55

5. ^ 1950:Eritrea’s Future : IN OUR PAGES:100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO – International Herald Tribune

6. ^ Semere Haile The Origins and Demise of the Ethiopia-Eritrea Federation Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 15, 1987 (1987), pp. 9-17

7. ^ TIME.com: Man of the Year — Jan. 3, 1955 — Page 1

8. ^ Coulter, Ann. 2003. Treason. Crown Forum. New York. pp. 156-157, ISBN 1-4000-5030-8

9. ^ “Kennan and Containment, 1947”. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2008-03-26.

[edit] External links

* Papers of John Foster Dulles, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library

* Works by John Foster Dulles at Project Gutenberg

* John Foster Dulles page at Arlington National Cemetery.

* John Foster Dulles at Find A Grave

* Annotated bibliography for John Foster Dulles from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues

United States Senate

Preceded by

Robert F. Wagner       United States Senator (Class 3) from New York


Served alongside: Irving Ives             Succeeded by

Herbert H. Lehman

Political offices

Preceded by

Dean Acheson             United States Secretary of State

1953 – 1959    Succeeded by

Christian Herter

Honorary titles

Preceded by

Ernest O. Lawrence    Sylvanus Thayer Award recipient

1959    Succeeded by

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.

v • d • e

United States Senators from New York

Class 1

Schuyler • Burr • Schuyler • Hobart • North • Watson • Morris • Bailey • Armstrong • Mitchill • German • Sanford • Van Buren • Dudley • Tallmadge • Dickinson • Fish • P. King • Morgan • Fenton • Kernan • Platt • Miller • Hiscock • Murphy • Depew • O’Gorman • Calder • Copeland • Mead • Ives • Keating • Kennedy • Goodell • Buckley • Moynihan • H. Clinton

United States Senate

Class 3

R. King • Laurance • Armstrong • D. Clinton • Armstrong • Smith • R. King • Sanford • Marcy • Wright • Foster • Dix • Seward • Harris • Conkling • Lapham • Evarts • Hill • Platt • Root • Wadsworth • Wagner • Dulles • Lehman • Javits • D’Amato • Schumer

v • d • e

United States Secretaries of State

Jefferson • Randolph • Pickering • J Marshall • Madison • Smith • Monroe • Adams • Clay • Van Buren • Livingston • McLane • Forsyth • Webster • Upshur • Calhoun • Buchanan • Clayton • Webster • Everett • Marcy • Cass • Black • Seward • Washburne • Fish • Evarts • Blaine • Frelinghuysen • Bayard • Blaine • Foster • Gresham • Olney • Sherman • Day • Hay • Root • Bacon • Knox • Bryan • Lansing • Colby • Hughes • Kellogg • Stimson • Hull • Stettinius • Byrnes • G Marshall • Acheson • Dulles • Herter • Rusk • Rogers • Kissinger • Vance • Muskie • Haig • Shultz • Baker • Eagleburger • Christopher • Albright • Powell • Rice

v • d • e

Cold War

Participants   NATO A Non-Aligned Movement A People’s Republic of China A Warsaw Pact


Yalta Conference * Operation Unthinkable * Potsdam Conference * Gouzenko Affair * Iran crisis * Chinese Civil War * Greek Civil War * Restatement of Policy on Germany * Truman Doctrine * Marshall Plan * Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia * Tito-Stalin split * Berlin Blockade * Western Betrayal


Korean War A First Indochina War A 1953 Iranian coup d’état A 1954 Guatemalan coup d’état A Uprising of 1953 in East Germany A First Taiwan Strait Crisis A Poznan’ 1956 protests A Hungarian Revolution of 1956 A Suez Crisis A Sputnik crisis A Second Taiwan Strait Crisis A Cuban Revolution A Kitchen Debate A Bandung Conference


Congo Crisis * Sino-Soviet split * U-2 Crisis of 1960 * Bay of Pigs Invasion * Cuban Missile Crisis * Berlin Wall * Vietnam War * 1964 Brazilian coup d’état * U.S. Invasion of Dominican Republic * South African Border War * Transition to the New Order *8 Domino Theory * Bangkok Declaration * Laotian Civil War * Greek military junta of 1967-1974 * Cultural Revolution * Prague Spring * Goulash Communism * Sino-Soviet border conflict


Détente * Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty * Black September in Jordan * Cambodian Civil War * Ping Pong Diplomacy * Four Power Agreement on Berlin * 1972 Nixon visit to China * 1973 Chilean coup d’état * Yom Kippur War * Strategic Arms Limitation Talks * Angolan Civil War * Mozambican Civil War * Ogaden War * Sino-Vietnamese War * Iranian Revolution


Soviet war in Afghanistan * Olympic boycotts * Polish Solidarity Movement * Central American Crisis * Able Archer 83 * Strategic Defense Initiative * Invasion of Grenada * Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 * Singing Revolution * Fall of the Berlin Wall * Revolutions of 1989


Breakup of Yugoslavia * Dissolution of the USSR

See also

Bricker Amendment * Glasnost * Iron Curtain * McCarthyism * Operation Condor * Operation Gladio * Perestroika * Soviet espionage in US A Soviet-United States relations


Central Intelligence Agency * Comecon * European Community * KGB * Stasi


Arms race * Nuclear arms race * Space Race


Capitalism * Liberal democracy * Communism * Stalinism * Trotskyism * Maoism


Pravda * Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty  * Voice of America  * Voice of Russia

Foreign policy

Brezhnev Doctrine * Ulbricht Doctrine * Carter Doctrine * Containment * Domino theory * Eisenhower Doctrine * Johnson Doctrine * Kennedy Doctrine * Nixon Doctrine * Ostpolitik * Peaceful coexistence * Reagan Doctrine * Rollback * Truman Doctrine * Marshall Plan

Timeline of events A Portal A Category

v • d • e

Time Persons of the Year

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) A Elizabeth II (1952) A Konrad Adenauer (1953) A John Foster Dulles (1954) A Harlow Curtice (1955) A Hungarian Freedom Fighter (1956) A Nikita Khrushchev (1957) A Charles de Gaulle (1958) A Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) A U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960) A John F. Kennedy (1961) A Pope John XXIII (1962) A Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963) A Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) A William Westmoreland (1965) A The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) A Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) A The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968) A The Middle Americans (1969) A Willy Brandt (1970) A Richard Nixon (1971) A Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972) A John Sirica (1973) A King Faisal (1974) A American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Carol Sutton / Susie Sharp / Addie L. Wyatt (1975)

Complete roster A 1927–1950 A 1951–1975 A 1976–2000 A 2001–present


NAME            Dulles, John Foster


SHORT DESCRIPTION       United States Secretary of State

DATE OF BIRTH      February 25, 1888

PLACE OF BIRTH    Washington, D.C.

DATE OF DEATH    May 24, 1959

PLACE OF DEATH Washington, D.C.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Foster_Dulles&#8221;

Categories: 1888 births | 1959 deaths | American anti-communists | American people of the Vietnam War | Burials at Arlington National Cemetery | Cold War diplomats | George Washington University alumni | New York Republicans | People from Washington, D.C. | People from Watertown, New York | Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients | Princeton University alumni | Rockefeller Foundation | Time magazine Persons of the Year | United States Secretaries of State | United States Senators from New York | American Presbyterians | Cancer deaths in Washington, D.C.



My Note –

Of course there’s more . . .

– cricketdiane, 05-22-10


Need to work on the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico a bit –

Will do that on the next post and then come back to this subject on another post after that sometime later this weekend.