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Anglo-Persian Oil Company

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. It was the first company using the oil reserves of the Middle East. APOC was renamed Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) in 1935 and eventually became the British Petroleum Company (BP) in 1954, as one root of the BP Company today.



BERA – Business & Economics Research Advisor – A Quarterly Guide to Business & Economics Topics
Issue 5/6: Winter 2005/Spring 2006
Updated March 2010
The Oil & Gas Industry
(see entry below)



History of the Oil and Gas Industry

The use of oil and gas has a long and fascinating history spanning thousands of years. The development of oil and gas has evolved over time and its numerous uses have also expanded and become an integral part of today’s global economy. The use of oil eventually replaced coal as the world’s primary source of industrial power in the early twentieth century. Just as oil and gas drives today’s world economy, the control and availability of oil and gas played a major role in both World Wars and still remains the critical fuel source that powers industry and transportation. This section provides an overview of the history of the oil and gas industry, looking at the use of oil and gas in ancient times, as well as the early days of the modern oil and gas industry.
Ancient     Modern     Major Oil Companies     World Oil Market

Library of Congress – source material

Ancient Use of Oil and Gas

Oil and gas have played an important role throughout world history. Ancient cultures used crude oil as a substance for binding materials and as a sealant for waterproofing various surfaces. Five thousand years ago, the Summerians used asphalt to inlay mosaics in walls and floors. Mesopotamians used bitumen to line water canals, seal joints in wooden boats and to build roads.1

By 1500 B.C., techniques for lighting consisted of a censer or fire pan filled with oil made of a certain volatility so that it would burn slowly and not cause uncontrollable flames or explosions. Over time, the wick oil lamp replaced the fire pan using a flammable oil similar to today’s kerosene lanterns.2

The Chinese were the first to discover underground oil deposits in salt wells. 3 The Chinese recognized early on the importance and potential use of oil and gas. Around 500 B.C., ancient Chinese history describes wells over 100 feet deep containing water and natural gas along the Tibetan border. The Chinese constructed extensive bamboo pipelines drawing from the wells in order to transport oil and natural gas, which was used for lighting. By 1500 A.D., the Chinese were exploring and digging wells more than 2,000 feet deep.4

The Romans used flaming containers of oil as weapons of war. The Romans also used oil surface deposits for burning lamps. The importance and significance in the use of oil and gas can clearly be seen dating back over thousands of years.

During the mid 13th century in what is now modern-day Azerbaijan, in the Persian city of Baku, inhabitants devised methods and collected from oil seeps in the surface. By the mid 1590’s, shallow pits were dug at Baku to facilitate the collecting of oil. The hand-dug holes reached depths of up to 115 feet.5 The holes dug at Baku were in essence primitive oil wells, making Baku one of the first true oil fields.

In 1650, Romania was the site of Europe’s first commercial oil reservoir. This site was a major source of oil for Europe. More than 200 years later, Ploesti, Romania became the site of the world’s first oil refinery.
The Modern Oil and Gas Industry

The modern oil and gas industry was born in the late 19th century. In the early 1800’s, merchants built damns that allowed oil to float to the waters’ surface in an area within Western Pennsylvania called Oil Creek. 6 A technique using blankets was employed placing blankets in the water, letting them soak with oil, and the oil was then retrieved by wringing out the blankets. The oil was sold for two dollars per gallon. 7

The invention of the kerosene lamp in the mid 1850’s led to the establishment of the first U.S. oil company, the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. However, the first major oil company was the Standard Oil Company founded by John D. Rockefeller in 1870. Standard Oil built its first oil refinery in Pennsylvania, then later expanded its extensive operations nationwide. After a decade of fierce competition, Standard Oil became the industry’s most dominant company controlling 80 percent of the distribution of all principal oil products, in particular kerosene. 8

In 1909 as a result of antitrust laws, federal courts ordered the break up of the Standard Oil Company dividing it up into 34 separate companies. Standard Oil dominated the first two decades of the oil and gas industry, and the U.S. accounted for more than half of the world’s production until around 1950.

As the industry became more global in nature, other world markets in Europe, Russia and Asia, began to play a much greater role. New industry giants emerged such as, Shell, Royal Dutch, and Anglo-Persian which later became British Petroleum.
Founding of the World’s Major Oil Companies

* Standard Oil Company – founded in 1870
* Gulf Oil – founded 1890
* Texaco – founded 1901
* Royal Dutch Shell – founded 1907
* Anglo-Persian Oil Company – founded 1909
* Turkish Petroleum Company – founded 1910

As the oil industry unfolded over several decades, Standard Oil of New Jersey later became Esso, then Exxon, Standard Oil of New York became Mobil, and Standard Oil of California is now Chevron. Along with Royal Dutch Shell, Texaco, Gulf, and British Petroleum (BP), these oil giants became known as the “seven sisters.”

At the beginning of the 20th century, oil production was dominated by three regions: the U.S., Russia and the Dutch East Indies. However, during the first decade of the 20th century, major efforts were underway to explore and develop oil production in the Middle East region. Oil exploration began in Persia (what is currently Iran) followed by Turkey. In the late 1930’s, the Burgan oilfield was discovered in Kuwait. A decade later, the Ghawar oilfield was then discovered in Saudi Arabia. Ghawar still remains the largest oil field ever discovered.9 After World War II, joint American and Saudi commercial oil enterprises were formed creating conglomerates, such as Casco (California Arabian Standard Oil Company), Caltex (California Texas Oil Company). Eventually, Esso (Exxon) and Mobil joined the Standard Oil Company of California to form Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company).


Global Economic & Political Affairs and the World Oil Market

During the 1950’s, oil consumption grew at a rate of 7 percent annually. Automobile manufacturing expanded rapidly leading to a dramatic increase in the demand for fuel. As the world economy and the oil and gas industry evolved over time, various political and economic events occurred, in particular wars in the Middle East during the late 1960’s and 1970’s, which had substantial impacts on the world oil and gas industry. The economic environment was experiencing a rapid rise in oil consumption and economic projections indicated that oil reserves were equivalent to only sustaining 30 years of production, leading many to fear that the oil resources would be exhausted by 2000.10

Events within the global political and economic environment have led to periodic world oil shocks. The first oil shock occurred in 1973 as a result of war in the Middle East, specifically the Yom Kippur War. This war and its political effects caused an enormous increase in world oil prices. Oil embargos were also instituted during this time period by the oil exporting countries in the region, reducing world oil production.

After the first oil shock, which resulted in real oil supply shortages for countries targeted by the embargo, the industrialized countries established the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 1974.11 This agency within the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) was made up of over 20 countries including the U.S., Canada, Western Europe and Japan.

Objectives of the IEA:

* To promote cooperation between member countries in reducing dependence on oil through energy conservation and the development of alternative energy sources
* To set up an information system on the international oil market and establish consultations with oil companies
* To cooperate with oil producing and consuming countries in efforts to stabilize world energy markets and to ensure fair and effective management of world energy resources
* To devise and implement plans to address potential major oil crisis and the disruption of world oil supplies

The second oil shock occurred in 1979, again causing dramatic increases in world oil prices. This oil shock was the result of the Iranian crisis caused by political and social discontent in Iran, which led to strikes in most sectors of the economy, in particular the oil industry.12 Iranian production fell from 6 million barrels per day in September 1978 to 400,000 barrels per day in January 1979.13

Saudi Arabia initially increased production to compensate for the Iranian supply shortage, but later placed a ceiling on its production. These series of events led to escalating oil prices and a great deal of uncertainty concerning the world oil market.
Selected Print Resources

Adelman, Morris Albert. The Genie Out of the Bottle: World Oil Since 1970. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, c1995. 350 p.
LC Call Number: HD9560 .A28 1995
LC Catalog Record: 95008271

Adelman chronicles the oil-producing companies’ monopoly on oil trade and prices since 1970, showing how OPEC nations at first overestimated their power, then held a lower price level. He introduces the basics of oil economics, explains why nearly all OPEC nations are still in debt, and debunks myths surrounding the supply and production of oil. Annotation by Book News, Inc.

Bamberg, James H. British Petroleum and Global Oil, 1950-1975: The Challenge of Nationalism. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 637 p.
LC Call Number: HD9571.9.B73 B36 2000
LC Catalog Record: 99051453
Publisher Description
Table of Contents

This work covers the history of one of the world’s biggest oil businesses between 1950 and 1975. Assessing BP’s comparative performance, the book focuses on how BP responded politically, economically and culturally to the rise of new competitors. Synopsis by Books In Print.

Black, Brian. Petrolia: The Landscape of America’s First Oil Boom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, c2000. 235 p.
LC Call Number: TN872.P4 B56 2000
LC Catalog Record: 99042473
Publisher Description
Publisher-supplied Biographical Information
Book Review (H-Net)

The author offers a geographical and social history of a region that was not only the site of America’s first oil boom but was also the world’s largest oil producer between 1859 and 1873. Against the background of the growing demand for petroleum throughout and immediately following the Civil War, Black describes Oil Creek Valley’s descent into environmental hell. Known as “Petrolia,” the region charged the popular imagination with its nearly overnight transition from agriculture to industry. Synopsis by Books In Print.

Economides, Michael J. The Color of Oil: The History, the Money, and the Politics of the World’s Biggest Business. Katy, TX: Round Oak Pub. Co., c2000. 203 p.
LC Call Number: HD9560.5 .E24 2000
LC Catalog Record: 99080030

This book describes the oil industry in a unique and introspective way, from the wildcatters of the 1930’s to the corporate giants of today. The “primary colors” or input factors in oil production are money, technology, and people. Annotation by The Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Ferrier, R.W. The History of the British Petroleum Company. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. 2 volumes.
LC Call Number: HD9571.9.B73 F47 1982
LC Catalog Record: 81018019
Publisher Description
Table of Contents

The first volume of this comprehensive history of British Petroleum covers the history of the Company from its origin up to 1975. Volume 1, covering the years 1901-32, deals with the earlier years of the D’Arcy Concession from its granting in 1901 by the Shah of Persia to the discovery of oil in 1908, the formation of the Company in 1909 and its formative years. The second volume of BP’s history aims to be an honest and comprehensive examination of the company in the period 1928-1954. Research in the book is based on unrestricted access to papers and personnel at BP, as well as numerous other sources. Synopsis by Books In Print.

Grace, John D. Russian Oil Supply: Performance and Prospects. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford University Press, 2005. 288 p.
LC Call Number: Not yet available
LC Catalog Record: 2005296716
Publisher Link: http://www.oup.co.uk/

This book traces the development of the Russian oil industry from its inception in the 1870’s through the present. Annotation by Books In Print.

Hendrix, Paul. Sir Henri Deterding and Royal Dutch-Shell: Changing Control of World Oil, 1900-1940. Bristol: Bristol Academic, 2002. 275 p.
LC Call Number: Not available
LC Catalog Record: Not available
Publisher Link: http://www.bristolacademicpress.co.uk/     [Select Publications]

The author provides the first full account in English of the controversial oil magnate Sir Henri Deterding, the founder and chief architect of Royal Dutch-Shell, and the history of the powerful oil company. This book builds on his earlier work in Dutch, Henri Deterding. De Koninklijke, de Shell en de Rothschilds (1996). Description by Publisher.

Linde, Coby Van Der. Dynamic International Oil Markets: Oil Market Development and Structure, 1860-1990. Dordrecht, Netherlands; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1991. 224 p.
LC Call Number: HD9560.5 .L565 1991
LC Catalog Record: 91035263

An analysis of long-term international oil market developments and provides insight into the fundamental organization of the oil industry. The study looks at the oil industry’s basic market structure, historical market developments, international market developments, the role of OPEC, the major oil companies, and the industry’s market process and structure.

Parra, Francisco. Oil Politics: A Modern History of Petroleum. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 364 p.
LC Call Number: HD9560.6. P37
LC Catalog Record: 2004271160
Publisher-supplied Biographical Information
Publisher Description
Table of Contents

Discusses the triangular relationship between the major players in the oil industry, host governments, and home-country governments that are at the heart of policies and politics in the international petroleum industry

Sampson, Anthony. The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Shaped. New York: Bantam Books, c1991. 414 p.
LC Call Number: HD9560.5 .S24 1991
LC Catalog Record: 91159189
Table of Contents and Selected Text (Biofuel Library)

Sampson discusses the beginning of the world’s most critical industry and how the industry came to be dominated by the seven giant oil companies.

Tarbell, Ida M. and Chalmers, David Mark. The History of the Standard Oil Company. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2003. 227 p.
LC Call Number: HD9569.S8 T37 2003
LC Catalog Record: 2002034979
Publisher Description

This reprint of the briefer version of a book that was originally serialized by McClure’s Magazine from 1902 to 1904, recounts the history of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company, the first major industrial monopoly in the US. The story, which became a model for investigative journalists, explores corporate abuses perpetrated by the company. This is an unabridged re-publication of the Harper Torchbook edition originally published by Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporated, New York, 1966. Annotation by Book News, Inc.

Toal, Brian A. “The oil & gas game,” Oil & Gas Investor. Jan 2001. Volume 21, Issue 1; page, 76.
LC Call Number: HD9561 .O49 (vol. 21, iss. 1) LC Catalog Record: 82643824
Full text also available online in the subscription database ABI-Inform (ProQuest). (Available to onsite patrons only.)

Shows highlights — and lowlights — of each year, from 1981 to 2001.

Yergin, Daniel. The prize : the Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York : Simon & Schuster, c1991. 871 p.
LC Call Number: HD9560.6 .Y47 1990
LC Catalog Record: 90047575

Daniel Yergin was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction for this history of international oil between 1850 and 1990. Part 1 (1850-1914) documents the origins of the oil industry around the world. Part 2 (1914-1940) covers the struggle of the early giants through the First World War, the automotive revolution, and the Great Depression. Part 3 relates the story of oil in World War II, while Part 4 describes the increasingly complex interrelationships between oil, international politics, and economics during the post-war period. Finally, Part 5 discusses the battle for world mastery of the oil industry in the face of the numerous shocks and massive adjustments that have characterized its modern devlopment.

Selected Internet Resources
American Oil & Gas Historical Society.

The American Oil & Gas Historical Society’s web site provides a number of useful and interesting resources. The site includes access to related news and industry historical newsletters available in full-text PDF format, links to publications, as well as interesting articles and photographs.

Extreme Oil: The History. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).

This web page, based on the PBS series “Extreme Oil,” takes a comprehensive look at the oil industry. The web site presents an interactive timeline with information, text and photos covering demographic, historic and scientific aspects of oil production. Each section includes important facts along with other useful interactive links.

History of the Oil Industry in North America. The Paleontological Research Institution.

Provides an historical overview of the oil industry in the U.S. The web page focuses on three historically important oil production sites: Titusville, Pennsylvania; Spindletop, Texas; and Signal Hill, California.

The History of the Oil Industry – Chronology of Oil Events. San Joaquin Geological Society.

The web page presents a chronology of important oil events dating from 347 B.C. to present-day oil production, and provides both a timeline of oil usage and significant oil industry dates, as well as historical summaries.

History of the Petroleum Industry in North America. Wikipedia.

Another comprehensive and very useful resource covering the history of the petroleum industry in North America. The web page includes key facts and definitions, links to articles, discussion, references, current events, and other related topics.

Oil Industry – Reader’s Companion to American History. Houghton Mifflin.

A historical summary of the oil industry that covers the early uses and discoveries of oil, and discusses the development of the modern-day oil industry.

Petroleum History Institute.

This group is a successor to the Drake Well Foundation. The site includes the Tables of Contents for the publications of the Institute, which focus on the history of oil and various oil industry segments.

Library of Congress Catalog Searches

Additional works on the history of the oil and gas industries in the Library of Congress may be identified by searching the Online Catalog under appropriate Library of Congress subject headings. Choose the topics you wish to search from the following list of Library of Congress subject headings to link directly to the Catalog and automatically execute a search for the subject selected. Please be aware that during periods of heavy use you may encounter delays in accessing the catalog. Please see the individual sections of this guide for catalog searches relating to those topics. For assistance in locating the many other subject headings which relate to this subject, please consult a reference librarian.

* Petroleum industry and trade–History
* Petroleum industry and trade–[Country]–History. For example:
Petroleum industry and trade–United States–History
* Petroleum products–History
* Petroleum products–Prices–History
* Petroleum–History
* [Company name]–History For example:
Standard Oil Company–History

1. All About Petroleum – As Old as History. American Petroleum Institute.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. The History of the Oil Industry. San Joaquin Geological Society.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production: Reserves, Costs, Contracts. Paris: Center for Economics and Management, Institut Français Du Petrole Publications, 2004, p. 5.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid.



Anglo-Persian Oil Company
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. It was the first company using the oil reserves of the Middle East.

APOC was renamed Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) in 1935 and eventually became the British Petroleum Company (BP) in 1954, as one root of the BP Company today.


The D’Arcy Oil Concession
Exploitation and discovery

In 1901 William Knox D’Arcy, a millionaire London socialite, negotiated an oil concession with the Shah Mozzafar al-Din Shah Qajar of Persia. He assumed exclusive rights to prospect for oil for 60 years in a vast tract of territory including most of Iran. In exchange the Shah received £20,000, an equal amount in shares of D’Arcy’s company, and a promise of 16% of future profits.[1]

D’Arcy hired geologist George Bernard Reynolds to do the prospecting in the Iranian desert. Conditions were extremely harsh: “small pox raged, bandits and warlords ruled, water was all but unavailable, and temperatures often soared past 50̊C”.[2] After several years of prospecting, D’Arcy’s fortune dwindled away and he was forced to sell most of his rights to a Glasgow-based syndicate, the Burmah Oil Company.”

By 1908 having sunk more than £500,000 into their Persian venture and found no oil, D’Arcy and Burmah decided to abandon exploration in Iran. In early May 1908 they sent Reynolds a telegram telling him that they had run out of money and ordering him to “cease work, dismiss the staff, dismantle anything worth the cost of transporting to the coast for re-shipment, and come home.” Reynolds delayed following these orders and in a stroke of luck, struck oil shortly after on May 26, 1908.[3]

Creation of APOC

Burmah Oil Company Ltd. created the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) as a subsidiary and also sold shares to the public.[4]

Volume production of Persian oil products eventually started in 1913 from a refinery built at Abadan, for its first 50 years the largest oil refinery in the world (see Abadan Refinery). In 1913, shortly before World War I, APOC managers negotiated with a new customer, the middle-aged Winston Churchill, who was then First Lord of the Admiralty. At Churchill’s suggestion, and in exchange for secure oil supplies for its ships, the British government injected new capital into the company and, in doing so, acquired a controlling interest in APOC. The British government became de facto hidden power behind the oil company.[5]

APOC took a 50% share in a new Turkish Petroleum Company organized in 1912 by Calouste Gulbenkian to explore and develop oil resources in the Ottoman Empire. After a hiatus caused by World War I it reformed and struck an immense gusher at Kirkuk, Iraq in 1927, renaming itself the Iraq Petroleum Company.

During this period, Iranian popular opposition to the D’Arcy oil concession and royalty terms whereby Iran only received 16 percent of net profits was widespread. Since industrial development and planning, as well as other fundamental reforms were predicated on oil revenues, the government’s lack of control over the oil industry served to accentuate the Iranian Government’s misgivings regarding the manner in which APOC conducted its affairs in Iran. Such a pervasive atmosphere of dissatisfaction seemed to suggest that a radical revision of the concession terms would be possible. Moreover, owing to the introduction of reforms that improved fiscal order in Iran, APOC’s past practice of cutting off advances in oil royalties when its demands were not met had lost much of its sting.
Renegotiating of terms by Iran

The attempt to revise the terms of the oil concession on a more favourable basis for Iran led to protracted negotiations that took place in Tehran, Lausanne, London and Paris between Abdolhossein Teymourtash, Iran’s Minister of Court 1925-32 and its nominal Minister of Foreign Affairs, and the Chairman of APOC, John Cadman, spanned 1928-32. The overarching argument for revisiting the terms of the D’Arcy Agreement on the Iranian side was that its national wealth was being squandered by a concession that was granted in 1901 by a previous non-constitutional government forced to agree to inequitable terms under duress. In order to buttress his position in talks with the British, Teymourtash retained the expertise of French and Swiss oil experts.

Iran demanded a revision of the terms whereby Iran would be granted 25% of APOC’s total shares. To counter British objections, Teymourtash would state that “if this had been a new concession, the Persian Government would have insisted not on 25 percent but on a 50-50 basis. Teymourtash also asked for a minimum guaranteed interest of 12.5% on dividends from the shares of the company, plus 2s per ton of oil produced. In addition, he specified that the company was to reduce the existing area of the concession. The intent behind reducing the area of the concession was to push APOC operations to the southwest of the country so as to make it possible for Iran to approach and lure non-British oil companies to develop oilfields on more generous terms in areas not part of APOC’s area of concession.

Apart from demanding a more equitable share of the profits of the Company, an issue that did not escape Teymourtash’s attention was that that the flow of transactions between APOC and its various subsidiaries deprived Iran of gaining an accurate and reliable appreciation of APOC’s full profits. As such, he demanded that the company register itself in Tehran as well as London, and the exclusive rights of transportation of the oil be cancelled. In fact in the midst of the negotiations in 1930, the Iranian National Consultative Assembly approved a bill whereby APOC was required to pay a 4 percent tax on its prospective profits earned in Iran.

In the face of British prevarication, Iran decided to demonstrate Iranian misgivings by upping the ante. Apart from encouraging the press to draft editorials criticizing the terms of the D’Arcy concession, a delegation consisting of Reza Shah and other political notables and journalists was dispatched to the vicinity of the oilfields to inaugurate a newly constructed road, with instructions that they refrain from visiting the oil installation in an explicit show of protest.

In 1931, Teymourtash who was travelling to Europe to enroll Crown Prince Mohammed Reza Pahlavi at a Swiss boarding school, decided to use the occasion to attempt to conclude the negotiations. According to Cadman, Teymourtash worked feverishly and diligently to resolve all outstanding issues, and succeeded in securing an agreement in principle:

He came to London, he wined and he dined and he spent day and night in negotiating. Many interviews took place. He married his daughter, he put his boy to school [Harrow], he met the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, a change took place in our government, and in the midst of all this maze of activities we reached a tentative agreement on the principles to be included in the new document, leaving certain figures and the lump sum to be settled at a later date.

However, while Teymourtash likely believed that after four years of exhaustive and detailed discussions, he had succeeded in navigating the negotiations on the road to a conclusive end; the latest negotiations in London were to prove nothing more than a cul de sac.

Matters came to a head in 1931, when the combined effects of overabundant oil supplies on the global markets and the economic destabilization of the Depression, led to fluctuations which drastically reduced annual payments accruing to Iran to a fifth of what it had received in the previous year. In that year APOC informed the Iranian government that its royalties for the year would amount to a mere £366,782 while in the same period the company’s income taxes paid to the British Government amounted to approximately £1,000,000. Furthermore, while the company’s profits declined 36 percent for the year, the revenues paid to the Iranian government pursuant to the company’s accounting practices decreased by 76 percent. Such a precipitous drop in royalties appeared to confirm suspicions of bad faith, and Teymourtash indicated that the parties would have to revisit negotiations.

However, Reza Shah was soon to assert his authority by dramatically inserting himself into the negotiations. The Monarch attended a meeting of the Council of Ministers in November 1932, and after publicly rebuking Teymourtash for his failure to secure an agreement, dictated a letter to cabinet cancelling the D’Arcy Agreement. The Iranian Government notified APOC that it would cease further negotiations and demanded cancellation of the D’Arcy concession. Rejecting the cancellation, the British government espoused the claim on behalf of APOC and brought the dispute before the Permanent Court of International Justice at the Hague, asserting that it regarded itself “as entitled to take all such measures as the situation may demand for the Company’s protection.” At this point, Hassan Taqizadeh, the new Iranian Minister entrusted with the task of assuming responsibility for the oil dossier, was to intimate to the British the cancellation was simply meant to expedite negotiations and that it would constitute political suicide for Iran to withdraw from negotiations.

After the dispute between the two countries was taken up at the Hague, the Czech Foreign Minister who was appointed mediator put the matter into abeyance to allow the contending parties to attempt to resolve the dispute. Ironically, Reza Shah who had stood firm in demanding the abolishment of the D’Arcy concession, suddenly acquiesced to British demands, much to the chagrin and disappointment of his Cabinet. A new agreement with the Anglo-Persian Oil Company was agreed to after Cadman visited Iran in April 1933 and was granted a private audience with the Shah. A new agreement was ratified by the National Consultative Assembly on May 28, 1933 and received Royal assent the following day.

1933 agreement

The terms of the new agreement provided for a new 60-year concession. The Agreement reduced the area under APOC control to 100,000 square miles, required annual payments in lieu of Iranian income tax, as well as guaranteeing a minimum annual payment of £750,000 to the Iranian government. These provisions, while appearing favourable, are widely agreed to have represented a squandered opportunity for the Iranian government. The agreement extended the life of the D’Arcy concession by an additional 32 years, negligently allowed APOC to select the best 100,000 square miles, the minimum guaranteed royalty was far too modest, and in a fit of carelessness the company’s operations were exempted from import or customs duties. Finally, Iran surrendered its right to annul the agreement, and settled on a complex and tediously elaborate arbitration process to settle any disagreements that would arise.

The Anglo-Persian Oil Company continued its large Persian operations although it changed its name to the AIOC in 1935. By 1950 Abadan had become the world’s largest refinery. In spite of diversification the AIOC still relied heavily on its Iranian oil fields for three-quarters of its supplies, and controlled all oil in Iran.
Nationalization and coup
Iranian unhappiness

By 1951 Iranian support for nationalization of the AIOC was intense. Grievances included the small fraction of revenues Iran received. In 1947, for example, AIOC reported after-tax profits of £40 million ($112 million) – and gave Iran just £7 million.[6]

Conditions for Iranian oil workers and their families were very bad. The director of Iran’s Petroleum Institute wrote that

Wages were 50 cents a day. There was no vacation pay, no sick leave, no disability compensation. The workers lived in a shanty town called Kaghazabad, or Paper City, without running water or electricity, … In winter the earth flooded and became a flat, perspiring lake. The mud in town was knee-deep, and … when the rains subsided, clouds of nipping, small-winged flies rose from the stagnant water to fill the nostrils …. Summer was worse. … The heat was torrid … sticky and unrelenting – while the wind and sandstorms shipped off the desert hot as a blower. The dwellings of Kaghazabad, cobbled from rusted oil drums hammered flat, turned into sweltering ovens. … In every crevice hung the foul, sulfurous stench of burning oil …. in Kaghazad there was nothing – not a tea shop, not a bath, not a single tree. The tiled reflecting pool and shaded central square that were part of every Iranian town, … were missing here. The unpaved alleyways were emporiums for rats.[7]

Under the 1933 agreement with Reza Shah, AIOC had promised to give laborers better pay and more chance for advancement, build schools, hospitals, roads and telephone system. It had not done so.[6]

In May 1949 Britain had offered a “Supplemental oil agreement” which guaranteed royalty payments would not drop below £4 million, reduced the area in which it would be allowed to drill, and promised more Iranians would be trained for administrative positions.” The agreement, however, gave Iran no “greater voice in company’s management” or right to audit the company books. When the Iranian Prime Minister tried to dicker with AIOC head Sir William Fraser. Fraser “dismissed him” and flew back to UK.[8]

In late December 1950 word reached Tehran that the American-owned Arabian American Oil Company had agreed to share profits with Saudis on a 50-50 basis. The UK Foreign Office rejected the idea of any similar agreement for AIOC.[9]

By now expressions of Iranian anger against lack of support for nationalization included a distinct lack of mourning following the assassination of anti-nationalization prime minister Haj Ali Razmara,[10] and a raucous walkout of protest by newspaper reporters when a visiting American diplomat urged ‘reason as well as enthusiasm’ to deal with the British embargo of Iran.[11]


In March 1951, the Iranian parliament (the Majlis) voted to nationalise the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and its holdings, and shortly thereafter elected a widely respected statesman and champion of nationalization, Mohammed Mossadegh, Prime Minister.[12] This led to the Abadan Crisis where foreign countries refused to take Iranian oil and the Abadan refinery was closed. AIOC withdrew from Iran and increased output of its other reserves in the Persian Gulf.

Mossadeq broke off negotiations with AIOC in July 1951 when the AIOC threatened to pull its employees out of Iran and warned tanker owners that “the receipts from the Iranian government would not be accepted on the world market.”[13] The British ratcheted up the pressure on the Iranian government and explored the possibility of an invasion to occupy the oil area. US President Harry S. Truman and US ambassador to Iran Henry F. Grady opposed intervention in Iran but needed Britain’s support for the Korean War. Efforts by the U.S. through the International Court of Justice were made to settle the dispute, but a 50/50 profit-sharing arrangement, with recognition of nationalization, was rejected by both the British government and Prime Minister Mossadegh.

As the months went on, the crisis became acute. By mid-1952, an attempt by the Shah to replace Mossadegh backfired and led to riots nationwide; Mossadegh returned with even greater power. At the same time however, his coalition was “fraying,” as Britain’s boycott of Iranian oil eliminated a major source of government revenue, and made Iranians “poorer and unhappier by the day.”[14]
Main article: 1953 Iranian coup d’état

By 1953 both the US and the UK both had new, more anti-communist and more interventionist administrations. The United States no longer opposed intervention in Iran. Britain was unable to subvert Mossadegh as its embassy and officials had been evicted from Iran in October 1952, but successfully appealed in the U.S. to anti-communist sentiments, depicting both Mossadegh and Iran as unstable and likely to fall to communism in their weakened state.

If Iran fell, the “enormous assets” of “Iranian oil production and reserves” would fall into Communist control, as would “in short order the other areas of the Middle East”.[15] In August the American CIA with the help of bribes to politicians, soldiers, mobs, and newspapers, and contacts/information from the British embassy and secret service, organized a coup. The shah issued an edict removing Mosaddeq from power and General Fazlollah Zahedi, led tanks to Mosaddeq’s residence overthrowing him from office.

With the new pro-Western Prime Minister, Fazlollah Zahedi, Iranian oil began flowing again and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, which later changed its name to British Petroleum, tried to return to its old position. However “public opinion was so opposed that the new government could not permit it.” Instead an international consortium under the nationalized name (National Iranian Oil Company) was created, the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company being just one member and holding 40% of the shares. The consortium agreed to share profits on a 50-50 basis with Iran, “but not to open its books to Iranian auditors or to allow Iranians onto its board of directors.”[16]
Subsidiary companies
Scottish Oils Ltd

Scottish Oils Ltd (owned by Anglo-Persian) was a producer of shale oil. It was formed between 1918 and 1920 by the merger of five smaller Scottish oil shale companies: Youngs, Broxburn, Pumpherston, Oakbank and Philpstoun.[17][18][19] Shale oil production in Scotland ceased in the early 1960s but there was an unsuccessful attempt to revive it in 1973.[20] The company still exists[21] but is no longer in the shale oil business.
Tanker fleet

The British Tanker Company Limited (BTC) was formed in 1915, after the Anglo-Persian Oil Company decided to become a fully self-contained operation, directly owning a fleet of tankers for sea transport. On formation, the BTC had an initial budget of $144,000 with which to build seven steam-powered tankers. The Company’s first tanker was the British Emperor, which was launched in 1916. The names of the first seven ships, and all later additions to the fleet, bore the prefix ‘British’. Over the next decade, the demand for oil grew throughout the developed world, and the BTC expanded accordingly. By 1924, the fleet numbered 60 ships, with the 60th being the flagship, 10,762 deadweight tonnes (dwt), British Aviator. She was the BTC’s first diesel engine oil tanker, and at that time was the most powerful single-screw motor ship in the world.

The economic depression of the early 1930s saw rising unemployment amongst merchant navies around the world. However, the BTC undertook a series of strategic mergers, and coupled with the continued support of the Shah of Iran, the APOC succeeded in strengthening its position within the industry. In 1939, the British government chartered the whole fleet of 93 tankers to supply fuel to its armed forces during the Second World War. The fleet lost a total of 42 ships sunk during the war.

Within a year of peace in 1945, the BTC fleet had returned to its pre-war total of 93 vessels. The recovery continued with the building of 57 new tankers, each 12,000 dwt, which increased the tonnage of oil transported from Abadan refinery in Iran, whilst remaining light enough for the tankers to pass through the shallow waters of the Suez Canal.

In 1951, however, the situation changed dramatically, when the Iranian oil industry was nationalised, and the APOC removed all its staff from Iran.

See also

* Anglo-Persian Agreement
* Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
* National Iranian Oil Company
* Abadan Crisis timeline
* 1953 Iranian coup d’état
* Mohammad Mossadegh
* Hossein Fatemi
* Dariush Forouhar
* Operation Ajax
* Abdolhossein Teymourtash
* John Cadman, 1st Baron Cadman


1. ^ Kinzer, Stephen, All the Shah’s Men : An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, Stephen Kinzer, John Wiley and Sons, 2003, p.48
2. ^ Longhurst, Henry, Adventures in Oil: the story of British Petroleum, London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1959, p.21
3. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (2003), pp.48-9
4. ^ Michael Gasson (Former Group Archivist, BP Archive). “Home: The BP Archive”. Business History Links: Business Archives:. Association of Business Historians (abh). http://www.busman.qmul.ac.uk/abh/archive5.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
5. ^ “From Anglo-Persian Oil to BP Amoco” August 11, 1998 BBC
6. ^ a b Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (2003), p.67
7. ^ (quoted in Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (2003), p.67. source: Farmanfarmaian, Manucher, Blood and Oil: Inside the Shah’s Iran, Modern Library, 1999, p.184-5 (Manucher Farmanfarmaian became director of Iran’s petroleum institute in 1949)
8. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (2003), p.68
9. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (2003), p.76
10. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men, (2003), p.78-80
11. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men, (2003), p.106
12. ^ Abrahamian, Iran between Two Revolutions (1982), pp.55-6
13. ^ Abrahamian, Iran between Two Revolutions (1982), p.268
14. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (2003), pp.135-6
15. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (2003), p.158
16. ^ Kinzer, All the Shah’s Men (2003), pp.195-6
17. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=PduotC73nh0C&pg=PA177&lpg=PA177&dq=%22Scottish+Oils+Ltd%22&source=web&ots=aqTFGGPn_b&sig=Enj0GAgWl3geT9h83D8oss_xe9s&hl=en
18. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=j_Yty5JG4uIC&pg=PT175&lpg=PT175&dq=%22Scottish+Oils+Ltd%22&source=web&ots=HViM0451zD&sig=BUGtroGLm9dEQ2TY2RrGCJT3i90&hl=en
19. ^ Uphall On The Web – Scottish Oils
20. ^ Shale Oil Industry (Scotland) (Hansard, 4 December 1973)
21. ^ WebCHeck – Select and Access Company Information

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Persian_Oil_Company”
Categories: Oil and gas companies of the United Kingdom | BP | Economic history of Iran



1965        Jan 4, President Johnson outlined the goals of his “Great Society” in his State of the Union address. The “Great Society” was to be achieved through a vast program that included an attack on diseases, a doubling of the war on poverty, greater enforcement of Civil Rights Law, immigration law reform and greater support of education.
(AP, 1/4/98)(HNQ, 9/11/99)

1965        Jan 5, Charles Robert Jenkins (b.1940) deserted his US Army post at the Korean DMZ hoping to be arrested, turned over to Russia and returned to the US. His plan failed and he ended up living in North Korea where he married Hitomi Soga, a Japanese woman kidnapped by North Korea in the 1970s. In 2004 Jenkins reunited with his wife in Indonesia and in September turned himself in to US military authorities in Japan. [see Sep 1, 1965] In 2008 Jenkins with Jim Frederick authored “The Reluctant Communist: My Desertion, Court-Martial, and Forty-Year Imprisonment in North Korea.”
(SFC, 11/2/02, p.A5)(SSFC, 5/23/04, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/12/04, p.A1)(AP, 9/1/04)(WSJ, 3/13/08, p.D9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Robert_Jenkins)

1965        Jan 8, the Star of India and other stolen gems were returned to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
(AP, 1/8/05)

1965        Jan 13, Two U.S. planes were shot down in Laos while on a combat mission.
(HN, 1/13/99)

1965        Jan 15, Sir Winston Churchill suffered a severe stroke.
(HN, 1/15/99)

1965        Jan 24, Winston Churchill, former prime minister (1940-45, 51-55), died from a cerebral thrombosis in London at age 90. “I am always ready to learn, but I do not always like to be taught.” Lord Moran (Sir Charles Wilson), his personal physician, later authored “Churchill At War: 1940-1945.”
(AP, 1/24/98)(AP, 1/17/00)(HN, 1/24/01)(WSJ, 12/14/02, p.W10)

1965        Jan 27, Military leaders ousted the civilian government of Tran Van Huong in Saigon, South Vietnam.
(HN, 1/27/99)

1965        Jan 30, The state funeral of Winston Churchill took place.
(MC, 1/30/02)

1965        Feb 6, A Viet Cong raid on a base in Pleiku, South Vietnam, killed 7-8 US GIs.
(HN, 2/6/99)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C3)

1965        Feb 7, U.S. jets hit Don Hoi guerrilla base in reprisal for the Viet Cong raids. Pres. Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnam following the deaths of 9 US soldiers near Pleiku.
(HN, 2/7/99)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1965        Feb 8, Eastern DC-7B crashed into the Atlantic off Jones Beach, NJ, and 84 people were killed.
(MC, 2/8/02)

1965        Feb 8, South Vietnamese bombed the North Vietnamese communications center at Vinh Linh.
(HN, 2/8/98)

1965        Feb 11, Pres. Lyndon Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam. The American “Rolling Thunder” bombing campaign intensified. In 2006 Rick Newman and Don Shepperd authored “Bury Us Upside Down: The Misty Pilots and the Secret Battle for the Ho Chi Minh Trail,” an account of the pilots who flew low scouting for targets that threatened US bombers.
(HN, 2/11/02)(WSJ, 3/2/06, p.D8)

1965        Feb 15, Canada replaced the Union Jack flag with the Maple Leaf in ceremonies in Ottawa.
(CFA, ’96, p.40)(HN, 2/15/98)(AP, 2/15/98)(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1965        Feb 16, Four persons were held in a plot to blow up the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell and the Washington Monument.
(HN, 2/16/98)

1965        Feb 18, Gambia gained independence from Britain.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(www.vdiest.nl/gambia.htm)

1965        Feb 19, Fourteen Vietnam War protesters were arrested for blocking U.N. doors in New York.
(HN, 2/19/98)

1965        Feb 20, The Ranger 8 spacecraft crashed on the moon after sending back 7,000 photos of the lunar surface.
(HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)

1965        Mar 3, US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1965        Mar 3, USSR performed a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk, USSR.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1965        Mar 8, The United States landed its 1st combat troops, about 3,500 Marines, in Danang, South Vietnam. More than 4,000 Marines landed in South Vietnam. They joined some 23,000 Americans who had been serving as military advisors to South Vietnam for several years.
(AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)(SFC, 8/18/00, p.D2)

1965        Mar 12, The SF FBI sent bureau headquarters a secret 33-page report on Mario Savio, leader of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement.
(SFCM, 10/10/04, p.18)

1965        Mar 12, Edward “Teddy” Deegan was found dead in an alley in Chelsea, Mass. A week later an FBI memo named 6 men, including Vincent J. Flemmi and Joseph “The Animal” Barboza, as the killers. Barboza became a star witness and provided false testimony to convict 4 innocent men. The New England Mafia shotgunned Barboza in SF in 1976. Over the next 3 decades FBI informants in Boston murdered over 20 people.
(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A5)(SFC, 11/21/03, p.A3)

1965        Mar 15, Gamal Abdel Nasser was re-elected Egyptian President.
(HN, 3/15/99)

1965        Mar 18, The first spacewalk took place as Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov (30) left his Voskhod 2 capsule and remained outside the spacecraft for 20 minutes, secured by a tether.
(SFC, 5/27/00, p.A26)(AP, 3/18/97)

1965        Mar 19, Indonesia nationalized all foreign oil companies.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1965        Mar 19, Stoica became president and Ceausescu party leader of Romania.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1965        Mar 21, The U.S. launched Ranger 9, last in a series of lunar explorations.
(HN, 3/21/98)

1965        Mar 22, US confirmed its troops used chemical warfare against the Vietcong in South Vietnam.
(MC, 3/22/02)

1965        Mar 23, America’s first two-person space flight began as Gemini 3 blasted off from Cape Kennedy with astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young aboard for a nearly five-hour flight. Young sneaked a corned beef sandwich on board, for which he was later reprimanded.
(AP, 3/23/08)

1965        Mar 24, US Ranger 9 struck the Moon, 10 miles (16 km) NE of crater Alphonsus.
(MC, 3/24/02)

1965        Mar, In this issue of American Scientist Henry David Block showed how easy it was to build a computer that learns using just dixie cups and cardboard. Block called his computer G-1 (G is for Golem, the robot slave of Jewish legend). He used the game of Nim to illustrate his subject.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.204)

1965        Apr 1, King Hussein bin Talal of Jordanian appointed his younger brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal, as crown prince and heir to the Hashemite throne.  This required a change to the Jordan constitution to allow for fraternal succession.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1965        Apr 5, The second Indo-Pakistani conflict began when fighting broke out in the Rann of Kachchh, a sparsely inhabited region along the West Pakistan-India border.
(Encyclopaedia.com, 2002)

1965        Apr 6, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations.
(HN, 4/6/99)

1965        Apr 6,    The United States launched the Intelsat I, also known as the “Early Bird” communications satellite.
(AP, 4/6/08)

1965        Apr 9, India and Pakistan engaged in a border fight.
(MC, 4/9/02)

1965        Apr 17, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) held its 1st anti-Vietnam war protest rally in Washington DC. Daniel Ellsburg helped Patricia Marx tape the event for public radio.
(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.M1)

1965        Apr 19, An article in Electronics magazine by Gordon Moore, later Intel Chairman, noted that chips seem to double in power every 18 months. Thus was born Moore’s Law. Moore later asserted that his claim was that the number of components that can be packed on a computer chip doubles every 2 years. In 2005 Intel offered $10,000 for a pristine copy of the magazine.
(SFEC, 12/21/97, p.A2)(SFC, 10/11/00, p.A6)(SFC, 4/12/05, p.A1)(SFC, 4/18/05, p.E1)

1965        Apr 21, New York World’s Fair reopened for a 2nd and final season.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1965        Apr 24, Che Guevara, his second-in-command Victor Dreke, and twelve of the Cuban expeditionaries arrived in the Congo. Guevara, Cuba’s head of the national bank and minister of industry, left Cuba to foment revolution in the Congo. He spent most of 1965 and 1966 in Central Africa, helping anti-Mobuto revolutionaries in the Republic of Congo. This turned out to be a disaster and he went to Bolivia.

1965        Apr 27, RC Duncan patented “Pampers,” a disposable diaper.
(MC, 4/27/02)

1965        Apr 28, U.S. Army and Marines under US Pres. Lyndon Johnson invaded the Dominican Republic to stop a civil war. Johnson sent 22,800 troops at the urging of Thomas Mann (d.1999 at 87), a high state department official. The troops stayed until stay until Oct 1966.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(HN, 4/28/98)(MC, 4/28/02)

1965        Apr 29, Seattle experienced an earthquake. 7 people were killed and damage was estimated at $12.5 million.

1965        Apr 29, Australian government announced it would send troops to Vietnam.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1965        May 1, USSR launched Luna 5; later lands on Moon.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1965        May 2, Intelsat 1, also known as the Early Bird satellite, was used to transmit television pictures across the Atlantic.
(AP, 5/2/08)

1965        May 5, 1st large-scale US Army ground units arrived in South Vietnam.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1965        May 10, Warren Buffett of Omaha, Nebraska, took control of Berkshire-Hathaway. The textile company closed at $18 per share. In 2006 shares of Berkshire-Hathaway passed $100,000 per share.
(WSJ, 10/24/06, p.C1)

1965        May 11, The US 10th fighter Bomber F105D was shot down at Xien Khouong, Laos.
(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D6)

1965        May 12, West Germany and Israel exchanged letters establishing diplomatic relations.
(AP, 5/12/97)

1965        May 13, Several Arab nations broke ties with West Germany after it established diplomatic relations with Israel.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1965        May 14, An acre at the field at Runnymede, the site of the signing of the Magna Carta, was dedicated by Queen Elizabeth as a memorial to the late John F. Kennedy, US President.

1965        May 18, President Lyndon B. Johnson officially announced the Head Start program in the White House Rose Garden. The program was soon launched with Dr. Julius Richmond (1916-2008), former US surgeon general under pres. Carter, as the first director.

1965        May 24, Supreme Court declared a federal law allowing the post office to intercept communist propaganda as unconstitutional.
(MC, 5/24/02)

1965        May 25, India and Pakistan engaged in border fights.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1965        May 30, Viet Cong offensive began against US base at Da Nang, South Vietnam.
(MC, 5/30/02)

1965        Jun 3, Astronaut Edward White became the first American to “walk” in space, during the flight of Gemini 4.
(AP, 6/3/97)

1965        Jun 7, Gemini 4 completed 62 orbits.
(SC, 6/7/02)

1965        Jun 8, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized commanders in Vietnam to commit U.S. ground forces to combat.
(HN, 6/8/98)

1965        Jun 14, A military triumvirate took control in Saigon, South Vietnam.
(HN, 6/14/98)

1965        Jun 19, Air Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky became South Vietnam’s youngest premier at age 34.
(HN, 6/19/98)

1965        Jun 19, Col. Houari Boumedienne (1932-1978) overthrew Pres. Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria’s first civilian president. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was Boumedienne’s right-hand man.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, p.A22)(www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0107272.html)

1965        Jun 21, Bernard M. Baruch (94), US presidential advisor, died.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1965        Jul 5, Porfirio Rubirosa (b.1909), Dominican Republic playboy and husband to French actress Odile Rodin, died in a car crash in Paris. His 5 wives included Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton. In 2005 Shawn Levy authored “The Last Playboy: The High Life of Porfirio Rubirosa.”
(http://tinyurl.com/bfdj4)(SSFC, 10/16/05, p.M3)

1965        Jul 14, The American space probe Mariner 4 flew by Mars and sent back 22 photographs of the planet. These were the 1st images of Mars taken from a spacecraft.
(AP, 7/14/97)(SFC, 12/8/99, p.A19)

1965        Jul 14, U.S. Ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson Jr., the Democratic presidential nominee in 1952 and 1956, died in London at age 65. Jean Baker in 1996 published a 1996 biography of the Stevenson family.
(AP, 7/14/97)(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A19,21)

1965        Jul 15, US scientists displayed close-up photographs of the planet Mars taken by “Mariner Four.” It passed over Mars at an altitude of 6,000 feet.
(AP, 7/15/00)

1965        Jul 16, Mount Blanc Road tunnel between France & Italy opened.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1965        Jul 19, Syngman Rhee (90), president of South-Korea (1948-60), died.
(MC, 7/19/02)

1965        Jul 26, Republic of Maldives gained independence from Britain.

1965        Jul 28, President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam to 175,000 “almost immediately.”
(HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)

1965        Jul 30, President Johnson signed into law the Medicare bill, which went into effect the following year. John W. Gardner (d.2002), a member of Johnson’s cabinet, was responsible for starting Medicare. A statute required coverage of items that were reasonable and necessary.
(AP, 7/30/97)(SFC, 2/18/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 7/16/03, p.A1)

1965        Jul, Bill Moyers replaced George E. Reedy as press secretary to Pres. Johnson.
(SFC, 3/22/99, p.A22)

1965        Aug 2, Newsman Morley Safer filmed the destruction of the Vietnamese village of Cam Ne by US Marines. Safer sent the 1st Vietnam report indicating we are losing. Safer’s report was broadcast by CBS on August 5 and led Pres. Johnson to call CBS demanding that Safer be fired. CBS president Frank Stanton refused to fire Safer.
(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.A8)

1965        Aug 6, Indian troops invaded Pakistan. Indo-Pakistani fighting spread to Kashmir and to the Punjab, The 2nd Indo-Pakistani conflict started without a formal declaration of war. Skirmishes with Indian forces started as early as August 6 or 7.
(http://ph.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858805.html)(MC, 8/6/02)

1965        Aug 9, Singapore proclaimed its independence from the Malaysian Federation. Singapore became independent from Britain and was booted from the Malayan federation. Lee Kuan Yew became the new prime minister.
(AP,8/9/97)(WSJ,6/11/96,p.A9A)(SFC,6/8/96,p.A11)(WSJ,12/31/96, p.1)

1965        Aug 11, Rioting and looting broke out in the predominantly black Watts section of Los Angeles. A small clash between the California Highway Patrol and two black youths sets off six days of rioting in the Watts area of Los Angeles.
(AP, 8/11/97)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.4)(HN, 8/11/00)(MC, 8/11/02)

1965        Aug 12, There was a race riot in West Side of Chicago.
(SC, 8/12/02)

1965        Aug 14, The first major engagement between the regular armed forces of India and Pakistan took place. The next day, Indian forces scored a major victory after a prolonged artillery barrage and captured three important mountain positions in the northern sector. Later in the month, the Pakistanis counterattacked, moving concentrations near Tithwal, Uri, and Punch. Their move, in turn, provoked a powerful Indian thrust into Azad Kashmir. Other Indian forces captured a number of strategic mountain positions and eventually took the key Haji Pir Pass, eight kilometers inside Pakistani territory.
(Encyclopaedia.com, 2002)(http://ph.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858805.html)

1965        Aug 16, The Watts riots ended in south-central LA after six days with the help of 20,000 National Guardsmen; the riots left 34 dead, 857 injured, over 2,200 arrested, and property valued at $200 million destroyed. The riots started when police on August 11th brutally beat a black motorist suspected of drunken driving in Watts area of LA.
(HN, 8/16/00)(MC, 8/16/02)

1965        Aug 18, Operation Starlite marked the beginning of major U.S. ground combat operations in Vietnam.
(HN, 8/18/98)

1965        Aug 19, U.S. forces destroyed a Viet Cong stronghold near Van Tuong, in South Vietnam.
(HN, 8/19/98)

1965        Aug 19, The Auschwitz trials ended with only 6 life sentences.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1965        Aug 21, Gemini 5 was launched into Earth orbit atop Titan V with Cooper and Conrad.
(SFC, 7/9/99, p.A6)

1965        Aug 27, Bob Dylan was booed off stage in NY’s Forest Hills.
(MC, 8/27/01)

1965        Aug 27-1965 Sep 13, Hurricane Betsy killed 75 in Louisiana & Florida. Betsy left New Orleans under 7 feet of water.
(www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Storm_pages/betsy1965/)(WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1965        Aug 28, Bob Dylan was scorned at a concert in NY’s Forest Hills.

1965        Aug 28, The Viet Cong were routed in the Mekong Delta by U.S. forces, with more than 50 killed.
(HN, 8/28/98)

1965        Aug 29, Gemini 5, carrying astronauts Gordon Cooper and Charles (“Pete”) Conrad, splashed down in the Atlantic after eight days in space.
(AP, 8/29/97)

1965        Aug 31, The US House of Reps joined Senate to establish Dept of Housing & Urban Develop.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1965        Sep 1-19, Indian gains led to a major Pakistani counterattack in the southern sector, in Punjab, where Indian forces were caught unprepared and suffered heavy losses. The sheer strength of the Pakistani thrust, which was spearheaded by seventy tanks and two infantry brigades, led Indian commanders to call in air support. Pakistan retaliated on September 2 with its own air strikes in both Kashmir and Punjab.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(HN, 9/6/98)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)(MC, 9/1/02)(Encyclopaedia.com, 2002)

1965        Sep 2, The Treblinka trial in Dusseldorf ended.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1965        Sep 6, India and Pakistan began a second war over Kashmir. Pakistan paratroopers raided Punjab. It ended in a cease-fire that left India with control of two-thirds of Kashmir.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(HN, 9/6/98)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)

1965        Sep 8, An AFL-CIO affiliated Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), a union of mostly Filipino workers, voted to go on strike in Delano, Ca. They were joined after eleven days by Cesar Chavez and the National Farm Workers Assoc. In 1967 John Gregory Dunne (1932-2003) authored “Delano,” an account of the California grape strike.
(SFEC,10/19/97, p.C3)(SFC, 1/1/04, p.A23)

1965        Sep 9, US Navy pilot James Stockdale (d.2005) was shot down in Vietnam. He was beaten, tortured and taken to Hoa Lo prison (Hanoi Hilton) and released in 1973. In 1992 he ran as VP candidate with Ross Perot.
(SFC, 7/6/05, p.B7)

1965        Sep 9, Francois Mitterrand was nominated for French presidency.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1965        Sep 9, French President Charles de Gaulle announced that France was withdrawing from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in protest of U.S. domination in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1965        Sep 11, The US 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), arrived in South Vietnam and was stationed at An Khe.
(HN, 9/11/98)


1965        Sep 14, The situation comedy “My Mother the Car” premiered on NBC-TV.
(AP, 9/14/05)
1965        Sep 14, The TV show “F-Troop” premiered. It ended in 1967 after 65 episodes.

1965        Sep 15, The TV show “Lost in Space,” with its Space Family Robinson and robot premiered on CBS. It was set in the year 1997 and cancelled in 1968. The CBS TV show featured Guy Williams, June Lockhart, Billy Mumy and Jonathon Harris (d.2002 at 87).
(SFC, 8/27/96, p.B2)(AP, 9/15/97)(SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.28)(SFC, 11/6/02, p.A34)

1965        Sep 16, “The Dean Martin Show” premiered on NBC.
(AP, 9/16/05)

1965        Sep 17, “The Smothers Brothers Show”, debuted on CBS TV.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1965        Sep 18, The NBC situation comedies “I Dream of Jeannie” and “Get Smart” premiered.
(AP, 9/18/05)

1965        Nov 8, “Days of Our Lives” premiered on NBC TV.
(AP, 11/8/05)

1965        Dec 9, “A Charlie Brown Christmas,” premiered.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1965        Bill Cosby starred in the “I Spy” TV show. It ran to 1968.
(SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.C10)(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.39)

1965        The first animated Peanuts TV Special was broadcast on CBS.
(SFC, 12/15/99, p.E1)

1965        The TV series Wild, Wild West began and ran to 1970. Government agents Jim West and Artemus Gordon tracked Arliss Loveless, who sought to assassinate Pres. Grant.
(SFEC, 6/27/99, BR p.45)

1965        Louis Armstrong sang “Hello Dolly.” The song was written by Jerry Herman for the remake of the Thornton Wilder play “Matchmaker.” The name of the play was changed to “Hello, Dolly!” after the song became a hit before the play opened.
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.1)

1965        Syd Barrett (1946-2006) co-founded Pink Floyd with Roger Waters, Nick Mason and Rick Wright, and wrote many of the band’s early songs. Barrett became mentally unstable from the pressures of drugs and fame and had to leave the band in 1968, five years before Pink Floyd’s most popular album, “Dark Side of the Moon.”
(AP, 7/11/06)

1965        James Brown (1928-2006), the dynamic “Godfather of Soul,” produced his classic song “I Got You (I Feel Good),” later considered one of the all-time greatest in rock’s cannon.
(SFC, 12/26/06, p.A7)


1965        Sep 14, Dmitry Medvedev was born in Leningrad. In 2008 with the backing of Vladimir Putin, he became prime minister of Russia.
(WSJ, 2/28/08, p.A14)

1965        Sep 14, The 4th meeting of 2nd Vatican council opened.

1965        Sep 20, Seven U.S. planes were downed in one day over Vietnam.
(HN, 9/20/98)

1965        Sep 20, The India-Pakistani war was at the point of stalemate when the UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution that called for a cease-fire. New Delhi accepted the cease-fire resolution on September 21 and Islamabad on September 22, and the war ended on September 23. The Indian side lost 3,000 while the Pakistani side suffered 3,800 battlefield deaths.

1965        Sep 22, Pakistan agreed to the UN brokered cease-fire that India affirmed the day before. [see Jan 10, 1966]
(HNQ, 4/26/99)

1965        Sep 30, President Lyndon Johnson signed legislation that established the National Foundation for the Arts and the Humanities.
(HN, 9/30/98)

1965        Sep 30, In Indonesia procommunist military officers, calling themselves the September 30 Movement (Gestapu), attempted to seize power.

1965        Oct 1, In Indonesia a small force of junior military officers abducted and killed six generals in the early morning hours and seized several key points in the capital city of Jakarta. Gen. Suharto crushed the coup and soon seized power from Pres. Sukarno.

1965        Oct 4, Pope Paul VI became the first reigning pontiff to visit the Western Hemisphere as he addressed the U.N. General Assembly.
(AP, 10/4/97)

1965        Oct 5, U.S. forces in Saigon, South Vietnam, received permission to use tear gas.
(HN, 10/5/98)

1965        Oct 6, Patricia Harris took post as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium, becoming the first African-American U.S. ambassador.
(HN, 10/6/98)

1965        Oct 8, London’s Post Office Tower opened as the tallest building in England.
(MC, 10/8/01)

1965        Oct 10, Ronald Reagan spoke at Coalinga Junior College and called for an official declaration of war in Vietnam.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)

1965        Oct 10, The “Vinland Map” was introduced by Yale University as being the 1st known map of America, drawn about 1440 by Norse explorer Lief Eriksson.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1965          Oct 21, Robert B. Woodward was awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry, “for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis.”

1965        Oct 20, Mass arrests of communists took place in Indonesia. Some 500,000 Chinese Indonesians were killed in anti-Communist riots in this year. Laws restricting Chinese culture were later established, reportedly to promote assimilation and protect Chinese Indonesians. [see 1966] The laws included a ban on publicly celebrating the Chinese New Year. An estimated 300,000 Communists were massacred by the army in immediate and later reprisals in Indonesia after an attempted overthrow of the government in 1965.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A23)(SFC, 2/5/98, p.A14)(HNQ, 5/21/98)(MC, 10/20/01)

1965        Oct 21, The Orlando Sentinel announced that Disney is coming to Orlando, Florida. Disney World property, 27,000 acres, was purchased by Disney for $5 million.
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.28)

1965        Oct 28, The Gateway Arch (630′ (190m) high), designed by Eero Saarinen, was completed in St Louis, Missouri.

1965        Oct 28, Pope Paul VI issued a decree, Nostra Aetate, absolving Jews of collective guilt for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
(AP, 10/28/99)(SFC, 3/11/06, p.B10)

1965        Oct 29, Mehdi Ben Barka (b.1920), Moroccan opposition leader, was kidnapped in Paris and never seen again.
(SFC, 4/13/01, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehdi_Ben_Barka)(AP, 11/17/07)

1965         Oct, In Britain child serial killers Myra Hindley (d.2002) and her boyfriend, Ian Brady (the Moors Murderers), were caught. [see 1966]
(AP, 11/16/02)

1965        Nov 1,  In Cairo, Egypt, a trackless trolley plunged into Nile River drowning 74.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1965        Nov 8, The US Higher Education Act became law. It was intended to strengthen the educational resources of US colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance to students in postsecondary and higher education. The student loan system was part of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program.
(www.higher-ed.org/resources/HEA.htm)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.28)

1965        Nov 9, A major power failure hit the East Coast of the US. New York City experienced a major blackout just after 5:30 PM. In the great Northeast blackout several US states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of power failures lasting up to 13 1/2 hours. Nine Northeastern states and parts of Canada went dark in the worst power failure in history, when a switch at a station near Niagara Falls failed.
(HFA, ’96,p.42)(SFE,10/1/95, Z1, p.10)(AP, 11/9/97)(HN, 11/9/98)

1965        Nov 9, Roger Allen LaPorte a 22 year old former seminarian and a member of the Catholic worker movement, immolated himself at the United Nations in New York City in protest of the Vietnam War.
(HN, 11/9/98)

1965        Nov 11, Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) under PM Ian D. Smith (d.2007) proclaimed its independence from Britain.
(AP, 11/11/97)(SFC, 11/23/07, p.B14)

1965        Nov 12, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president of Philippines.
(MC, 11/12/01)

1965        Nov 13, The ship “Yarmouth Castle” burned and sank off Bahamas, killing 89.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1965        Nov 14, US government sent 90,000 soldiers to Vietnam.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1965        Nov 14, Bruce Crandall (32) flew through a gantlet of enemy fire, taking ammunition in and wounded Americans out of the Battle at Ia Drang Valley, one of the fiercest battles of the Vietnam War. Crandall’s actions were depicted in the Hollywood movie “We Were Soldiers,” adapted from the book “We Were Soldiers Once … And Young.” In 2007 he was awarded a Medal of Honor.
(AP, 2/26/07)

1965        Nov 15, In the second day of combat, regiments of the 1st Cavalry Division battle on Landing Zones X-Ray against North Vietnamese forces in the Ia Drang Valley, South Vietnam.
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)(HN, 11/15/99)

1965        Nov 16, Walt Disney launched Epcot Center: Prototype Community of Tomorrow in Florida. Epcot opened in 1982.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1965        Nov 16, In the last day of the fighting at Landing Zone X-Ray, regiments of the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division repulsed NVA forces in the Ia Drang Valley. Joe Galloway served at LZ X-ray. He later received the Bronze Star for his actions during the epic battle. Based on that and his subsequent actions in Vietnam, Galloway came to be regarded by the military leadership and the GIs alike as a journalist who was fair, objective, and who could be trusted to get the story right. He co-authored with Lt. Gen. Hal More “We Were Soldiers Once…Any Young.”
(HN, 11/16/99)(HNQ, 10/2/02)

1965        Nov 17, The NVA ambushed American troops of the 7th Cavalry at Landing Zone Albany in the Ia Drang Valley, almost wiping them out. Some 500 US troops from Landing Zone X-Ray encountered some 500 North Vietnamese troops at L-Z Albany and more soldiers were killed than in the previous 3 days of fighting. Among the wounded was Jack Smith (d.2004), son of TV commentator Howard K. Smith. Jack Smith went on to become an ABC New correspondent.
(HN, 11/17/00)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.E1)
1965        Nov 17, General Meeting of UN refused admittance of China.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1965        Nov 18, Henry A. Wallace (77), VP (1941-45) and founder (Progressive Party), died.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1965        Nov 20, UN Security council called for a boycott of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
(MC, 11/20/01)

1965        Nov 24, Congo had a military coup under Gen. Mobutu and Pres. Kasavubu was overthrown. Larry Devlin, US CIA station chief, had encouraged Mobutu to launch the coup. In 2007 Devlin authored “Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot Zone.”
(www.briefbio.com/pages/2974/Seko-Mobutu-Sese.html)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.95)

1965        Nov 26, Arlo Guthrie (17) was arrested in Stockbridge, Mass., for dumping some trash following a Thanksgiving feast at a restaurant run by Alice Brock. He wrote a song about the event that became a folk classic and was turned into a movie in 1969.
(WSJ, 11/22/06, p.A1)

1965        Nov 26, France launched its first satellite, sending a 92-pound capsule into orbit.
(AP, 11/26/97)

1965        Nov 27, 15-25,000 demonstrated in Wash DC against the war in Vietnam.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1965        Nov, John Lindsay was elected mayor of NYC. In 2001 Vincent J. Cannato authored “The Ungovernable City,” a look at Lindsay’s 8 years as mayor.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A10)

1965        Nov,  The 1st major American battle of the Vietnam war using armored vehicles was at Ap Bau Bang. The 1st Infantry Division engaged in its first major battle near the village of Ap Bau Bang, along National Route 13–known as “Thunder Road.” General William E. DePuy later called it “one of the most gallant stands of the Vietnam War.”
(HNQ, 8/2/02)

1965        Nov, British-born Rick Rescorla served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry when they made their fateful air assault into LZ Albany in the Ia Drang Valley. He features prominently in Hal Moore’s and Joe Gallway’s acclaimed book, “We Were Soldiers Once…And Young.” He later helped save thousands of people and died a hero’s death at the World Trade Towers on September 11, 2001. As the security director for a major American corporation, Rescorla was a hero of both attacks on the World Trade Center. On 9-11 he managed to get all but a few of his company’s thousands of employees out of the tower. He was last seen heading back into the building with FDNY rescue crews when it collapsed.
(HNQ, 6/10/02)

1965        Nov, The British Indian Ocean Territory (Biot) was created by detaching the Chagos island group from Mauritius and other small islands from the Seychelles, then both British colonies. Mauritius was given £3m in compensation; the following year, Britain signed a military agreement with the US leasing it the largest island, Diego Garcia, for 50 years.

1965        Nov, Yao Wenyuan (1931-2005), one of China’s Gang of Four, published a piece titled “On the New Historical Beijing Opera ‘Hai Rui Dismissed from Office.” It was a 10,000 word diatribe against the popular play.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.84)

1965        Dec 1, An airlift of refugees from Cuba to the United States began in which thousands of Cubans were allowed to leave their homeland.
(AP, 12/1/97)

1965        Dec 1, South Africa government said children of white fathers are white.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1965        Dec 3, Beatles began their final UK concert tour in Glasgow.
(MC, 12/3/01)

1965        Dec 3, The National Council of Churches asked the U.S. to halt the massive bombings in North Vietnam.
(HN, 12/3/98)

1965        Dec 4, The United States launched Gemini 7 with Air Force Lt. Col. Frank Borman and Navy Comdr. James A. Lovell aboard.
(AP, 12/4/97)

1965        Dec 5, Several dozen activists gathered in central Moscow to demand that the trial of two Soviet writers charged with anti-Soviet activity in their yet-unpublished writings, Andrei Sinyavsky (d.1997) and Yuliy Daniel, be open. They were tried in 1966 and sentenced to 6 years in prison for publishing anti-Soviet works. The rally, which was quickly dispersed, was later regarded as the first pro-democracy demonstration in the Soviet Union’s history.
(SFC, 2/26/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/26/97, p.A1)(AP, 12/06/05)

1965        Dec 9, Nikolai V. Podgorny replaced Anastas I. Mikoyan as president of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.
(AP, 12/9/97)

1965        Dec 15, The U.S. dropped 12 tons of bombs on an industrial center near Haiphong.
(HN, 12/15/98)

1965        Dec 15, Two U.S. manned spacecraft, Gemini 6 and Gemini 7, maneuvered to within 10 feet of each other while in orbit.
(AP, 12/15/97)

1965        Dec 16, Taufa’ahau Tupou IV (1918-2006) became king of Tonga following the death of his mother Queen Salote Tupou III.
(SSFC, 6/16/02, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taufa’ahau_Tupou_IV)

1965        Dec 17, Ending an election campaign marked by bitterness and violence, Ferdinand Marcos was declared president of the Philippines.
(HN, 12/17/98)

1965        Dec 18, U.S. Marines attacked VC units in the Que Son Valley, South Vietnam, during Operation Harvest Moon.
(HN, 12/18/98)

1965        Dec 18, The Borman and Lovell splash down in the Atlantic ended a 2 week Gemini VII mission.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1965        Dec 19, French president De Gaulle was re-elected. Mitterrand got 45% of the vote.
(MC, 12/19/01)

1965        Dec 20, In the largest U.S. drug bust to date, 209 lb. of heroin was seized in Georgia.
(HN, 12/20/98)

1965        Dec 21, Four pacifists were indicted in New York for burning draft cards.
(HN, 12/21/98)

1965        Dec 22, The EF-105F Wild Weasel made its first kill over Vietnam.
(HN, 12/22/98)

1965        Dec 24, US troops in Vietnam reached 184,300.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)

1965        Dec 25, Sherman Poppen invented the “Snurfer,” the first snowboard by screwing together two pairs of children’s skis.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)

1965        Dec 28, U.S. barred oil sales to Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
(HN, 12/28/98)

1965        Dec 29, “Thunderball” premiered in US.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1965        Dec 29, A Christmas truce was observed in Vietnam, while President Johnson tried to get the North Vietnamese to the bargaining table.
(HN, 12/29/98)

1965        Dec 30, Ferdinand E. Marcos was sworn in as the Philippine Republic’s sixth president.
(SFC, 8/23/96, p.A26)(HN, 12/30/98)

1965        Dec 31, California became the largest state in population.
(HN, 12/31/98)

1965        Salvador Dali donated a sketch depicting Jesus Christ to the prison at Riker’s Island, NYC, in lieu of a planned visit. On Mar 1, 2003, 4 prison officials staged a fake fire drill, stole the sketch and replaced it with a fake. The guards were caught by June and claimed the original was destroyed.
(SFC, 10/6/03, p.A2)

c1965        Sigmar Polke, German artist, created his work “Potato Heads: Nixon and Khrushchev.”
(WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A20)

1965        The play “The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds,” written by Paul Zindel (d.2003), was 1st produced at the Alley Theater in Houston. It opened off Broadway in 1970 and was made into a film in 1972.
(SFC, 4/1/03, p.A16)

1965        Ian Barbour, physicist, published “Issues in Science and Religion.”
(SFC, 3/11/99, p.A2)

1965        Raymond Dasmann (d.2002 at 83) authored “The Destruction of California.” He later authored “Wildlife Biology” (1981) and “Environmental Conservation” (1984). In 2002 he authored “’The Autobiography of a Conservationist.”
(SFC, 11/7/02, p.A26)
1965        Pop art gave way to Op art.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965        Richard Diebenkorn painted his “Cityscape.”
(SFC, 10/9/97, p.E1)

1965        Willem de Kooning (1904-1997), abstract artist, painted “Nude.”
(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A6)

1965        Robert Motherwell (1915-1991), painter of the New York School, made  his “Lyric Suite.”
(SFEC, 3/16/97, BR p.8)

1965        Stanford Prof. Gerald Gunther (d.2002 at 75) authored the textbook “Constitutional Law.” It became a gold standard on the subject.
(SFC, 8/2/02, p.A27)

1965        Richard Hofstadter authored “The Paranoid Style in American Politics: An Other Essays.” These essays deal with the conditions that have given rise to the extreme right of the 1950s and the 1960s, and the origins of certain characteristic problems of the earlier modern era when the American mind was beginning to respond to the facts of industrialism and world power.
(WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W8)(www.powells.com/biblio/9780674654617)

1965        Consumer advocate Ralph Nader published “Unsafe At Any Speed,” a book criticizing the auto industry for knowingly producing unsafe cars and not installing proper safety devices. It specifically attacked the Chevrolet Corvair.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFEC, 10/13/96, Z1 p.3)

1965        Mancur Olson (d.1998 at 66), economist, published “The Logic of Collective Action,” based on his doctoral thesis. He asked how interest groups were created. His reply was that people joined interest groups when the returns exceeded the cost. He showed how groups organized around a narrow interest affected laws and policies. His 1982 work “The Rise and Decline of Nations” extended his ideas to countries. In 2000 his last work “Power and Prosperity” was published. It sought to identify the incentives that spur producers, consumers and holders of political power.
(FT, 3/4/98, p.7)(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)

1965        Harold Fielding (d.2003 at 86) produced “Charlie Girl” in London. It ran for over 5 years.
(SFC, 10/4/03, p.A18)

1965        Charlton Heston took over as president of the Screen Actors Guild. He held the position until a liberal revolt in 1971.
(WSJ, 9/2/06, p.P9)

1965        In NYC the 1910 grand Pennsylvania Station was torn down and replaced. Demolition had begun in 1963.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T4)
1965        NYC enacted its landmark Preservation Act. Lawyer Albert Bard (1866-1963) was chief among the preservation champions. The act was prompted by the demolition of the original Pennsylvania Station, to make way for the construction of the current Madison Square Garden, which was being relocated from 50th Street and Eighth Avenue. In 2008 Anthony C. Wood authored “Preserving New York,” and illustrated history of how the act came about.
(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.W8)(http://tinyurl.com/3afjyj)

1965        In Detroit, Mich., Dr. Charles Wright began a private collection of African American cultural artifacts that developed into the 1997 $38.4 million Museum of African American History.
(SFEC, 2/23/96, p.T5)

1965        Ron Karenga founded US, a black power movement in Southern California shortly after the Watts riots. In 2003 Scot Brown authored “Fighting for US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization and Black Cultural Nationalism.”
(SSFC, 8/3/03, p.M6)

1965        Bernard Rimland (1928-2006), psychologist, founded “The Autism Society of America.” In 1964 he had authored “Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior.” In 1967 he started what came to be called the Autism Research Institute in San Diego.
(www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=History)(SFC, 11/27/06, p.B6)

1965        The Scopitone was a quick fad that used jukebox machines to show music, video-like, short films.
(SFC, 10/14/96, p.A23)

1965        The PGA began its Tournament Training and Qualifying Program as a sort of finishing school for aspiring golf professionals. In 2000 David Gould authored “Q School Confidential: Inside Golf’s Cruelest Tournament.”
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)

1965        Richard Feynman won Nobel prize in Physics for his work in quantum electrodynamics.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, BR p.3)

1965        Mikhail Sholokhov (b.1905), Russian novelist (And Quiet Flows the Don),  won a Nobel Prize in Literature.
(HN, 5/24/01)(MC, 5/24/02)

1965        Lyndon Johnson escalated the war in Vietnam.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965        The US sustained bombing mission known as “Rolling Thunder” was begun in Vietnam.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)

1965        Bobby Garwood, a marine private motor pool driver, was reported to have gone over to the enemy in Vietnam. He became hunted by Col. Tom McKenney who led a US assassin team to track down deserters and POWs accused of working with the Communists. Garwood maneuvered his release from a POW camp in 1979 and underwent a military trial in 1980. His story is told by Monika Jensen-Stevenson in the 1997 book: “Spite House: The Last Secret of the War in Vietnam.”
(SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.9)

1965        John Paul Vann (d.972), American military adviser, returned to Vietnam as a civilian adviser. He had achieved outstanding tactical results in the field, but retired from the Army. In 1963 Lieutenant Colonel John Paul Vann was the adviser to the ARVN 7th Infantry Division, commanded by Colonel Huynh Van Cao. Despite Vann’s success in the field, he alienated Cao and the military-political rulers in Saigon. Reassigned to the Pentagon after his advisory tour, Vann decided that his experience in Vietnam would cost him further promotion, and he retired from the Army. After a stint in the private sector, Vann returned to Vietnam in 1965 as a pacification representative for the Agency of International Development (AID). Vann eventually rose to the level of senior adviser for the Central Highlands, a position that gave him authority over all U.S. military forces in the region. The authority was equivalent to that of a major general. As principal adviser for an ARVN general who commanded 158,000 troops in the region, he was one of the most influential Americans in Vietnam, after the ambassador and the commanding general of MACV.
(HNQ, 9/27/01)

1965        Medicare and Medicaid began to provide health insurance for the elderly, poor and disabled.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, zone 1 p.5)

1965        The Supreme Court ruled in Griswold vs. Connecticut to invalidate a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives. The court ruled that the government cannot regulate a married couple’s use of birth control.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.A22)(NW, 6/30/03, p.44)

1965        The Federal Immigration Act abolished quotas by national origin and allowed nearly 300,000 immigrants per year.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)

1965        Congress established the Land and Water Conservation Fund. It was to receive $900 million a year from federal oil and gas revenues for acquisition of sensitive lands and wetlands, but the money was never dedicated for the intended purpose.
(SFC, 2/22/99, p.A21)

1965        The US National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) was established. Its initial budget was $2.5 million. In 2000 Lynne Munson authored “Exhibitionism: Art in an Era of Intolerance,” which in part covered the history of the NEA. In 2001 Michael Brenson authored “Visionaries and Outcasts: The NEA, Congress, and the Place of Visual Arts in America.”
(SFC,12/9/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/13/00, p.A24)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)

1965        Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927-2003), while employed under Pres. Kennedy at the Dept. of Labor,  authored a report that attributed problems among blacks to the deterioration of the family structure. In this year 8% of children were born to unmarried parents. By 2006 a third of all US children were born to unmarried parents as well as nearly 70% of black children.
(SFC, 3/27/03, p.A15)(WSJ, 11/20/06, p.A1)

1965        The US $2 bill was discontinued.
(SFC, 9/14/96, p.A4)

1965        A long term bear market began in the US that lasted to 1982. The following bull market ran to 2000.
(Econ, 10/18/08, p.86)

1965        The United States replaced silver-alloy quarters and dimes with coins of copper-and-nickel composition. Non-silver half-dollars and dollar coins were introduced in the U.S. in 1971.
(HNQ, 10/30/99)

(my note – Gold Standard removed – 1971)

1965        George P. Cressman (1919-2008) was named head of the US National Weather Service. In 1966 he started expressing its forecasts in terms of probability.
(WSJ, 5/10/08, p.A8)

1965        LSD was restricted by the government. [see Oct 1966]
(SFEC, 10/6/96, Par p.4)

1965        The US Navy lowered SeaLab II was lowered off the coast of San Diego to see if divers could be sustained on a helium-oxygen mix. Lawrence Jue (1915-2005), a Chinese-American, was the principal of the project [see 1969].
(SFC, 3/29/02, p.A2)(SFC, 12/9/05, p.B5)

1965        A Navy dolphin named Tuffy carried tools and messages to Sealab II divers off the coast of La Jolla, Ca.
(SFC, 4/11/03, p.D1)

1965        Sam Giancana, a mob boss, was jailed under US Attorney Edward Hanrahan.
(SFEC, 8/31/97, p.B5)

1965        California State Assemblyman John Williamson (d.1998 at 85) authored the California Land Conservation Act that offered tax breaks to farmers who agreed not to sell their property for at least 10 years. In 1998 the Williamson Act was amended to increase the farm preservation contracts from 10 to 30 years.
(SFC, 10/14/98, p.C3)

1965        US Steel workers negotiated the right to retire on a full pension after 30 years of service, regardless of age.
(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)

1965        Fred DeLuca, fresh out of high school, founded Subway, a sandwich shop, with $1,000 start-up money from a family friend. By 2007 it was the world’s largest sandwich chain with over 25,000 stores in 83 countries.
(WSJ, 1/10/07, p.C2)

1965        International Harvester introduced its turbocharged Farmall 1206 tractor.
(WSJ, 1/3/07, p.A1)

1965        Carroll Shelby began producing the Shelby 427 Cobra. It was a 2-seater with a race-car body designed in Britain and an 8-cylinder, 500 horsepower engine from Ford.
(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.B1)

1965        In San Francisco the 16-story building at 450 Sansome St. was built with a design by architect Richard Hadley.
(SSFC, 4/26/09, p.B3)

1965        Fritz Maytag saved the Anchor Brewing Co. in San Francisco when he returned it to traditional brewing methods.
(SFC, 8/7/96, p.B1)

1965        The Pepsi-Cola Co. changed its name to PepsiCo.
(SFC, 2/18/98, p.B2)

1965        The Philip Morris Tobacco Co. began using ammonia compounds to make smoke less acidic and provide a stronger dose of nicotine.
(SFC, 2/9/98, p.A2)

1965        A 7-Eleven manager happened upon an Icee machine in a rival’s store. He saw potential and got them into three 7-Eleven stores. Slurpee was born in Kansas at a Dairy Queen where owner Omar Knedlik served semi-frozen bottled soft drinks. When they were a hit, he worked with a Dallas company to develop the “Icee” machine that replicated that consistency in slushy soft drinks served at 28 degrees.
(USAT, 7/11/05)

1965        Time Magazine entered the fledgling cable TV business.
(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)

1965        Helen Gurley Brown, author of “Sex and the Single Girl” (1963), took over the running of Cosmopolitan magazine.
(SFC, 8/19/05, p.E9)

1965        David Lett (d.2008 at 69) began Eyrie Vineyards in the Dundee Hills of Oregon with some 3,000 baby vines of the Pinot Noir grape. His 1975 vintage ranked among the top 10 at a prestigious Paris tasting in 1979.
(SSFC, 10/12/08, p.B6)

1965        In this year 30 chiefs from big [US] companies were paid 44 times more than the average American employee. In 1995 the multiple was 212.
(WSJ, 5/13/96, p.B-1)

1965        Oil companies began eyeing the Grand Banks of Canada when seismic surveys revealed oil potential.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.D5)

1965        A Univ. of Florida professor invented Gatorade. The drink earned him and his school millions in royalties.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.C1)

1965        Kevlar was invented by Stephanie Kwolek, a chemist for DuPont, while experimenting with polymers for new ways to reinforce car tires. In 1970 Herbert Blades of DuPont developed a process for mass production. Marketing began in 1971.
(SFC, 4/7/03, p.E2)

1965        Martin Seligman, psychologist, conducted experiments with dogs subjected to electric shock and found that they “learned helplessness” when unable to escape shocks.
(Econ, 3/31/07, p.63)

1965        The Big Bang Theory of the Universe was announced.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965         At California’s Berkeley Univ. campus, engineering professor Lotfi Zadeh introduced the ideas of Fuzzy Logic.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.102)

1965        In Berkeley, Ca., a groups of native plant enthusiasts banded together to save a Berkeley native plant botanic garden from being sacrificed for development. This gave birth to the California Native Plant Society (CNPS), dedicated to the preservation and enjoyment of native plants.

1965        Bethlehem Steel built the Bradley, a carrier escort ship. This was its last ship that Bethlehem built at SF Pier 70 facility. During the 1960s 57 sections of underwater steel tubes for BART were created at the shipyards.
(SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A11)

1965        The astronaut, Ed White, took a walk in space.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965        There were just 587,000 visitors to Hawaii.
(WSJ, 9/18/96, Ad. Supl. p.16)

1965        Prof. Kenneth Norris (1924-1998) helped create the UC Natural Reserve System (NRS). In 1998 the system encompassed 120,000 acres of protected habitat across California.
(SFC, 8/31/98, p.A22)

1965        Milton Avery (b.1893), artist, died. His work was collected by Roy Neuberger, founder of the Neuberger Museum of Art in Purchase, N.Y.
(WSJ, 7/13/99, p.A20)

1965        Dickey Chalelle, Female correspondent and photographer, died in Vietnam.
(WSJ, 12/15/98, p.A20)

1965        Dorothy Dandridge (41), actress, died of a prescription drug overdose. Earl Mills later authored “Dorothy Dandridge: S Portrait in Black,” and Donald Bogle wrote “Dorothy Dandridge: A Biography.” A 1999 HBO biopic was based on the Mills book.
(SFEC, 8/15/99, DB p.44)

1965        Charles E. Jeanneret (b.1887), aka Le Corbusier, Swiss-born French architect and city planner, died. He and Amedee Ozenfant had authored the modernist manifesto “After Cubism.”
(HN, 10/6/00)(V.D.-H.K.p.363)

1965        John Kelly Jr. (41), Bell Labs researcher, died in NYC. His Kelly System, reduced to 2 axioms, instructed how to distribute wagers among different stocks and how big wagers should be relative to a bankroll. In 2005 William Poundstone authored “Fortune’s Formula,” the story of the Kelly System.
(WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W8)

1965        William Pitsenbarger, an Air Force Pararescue man, died. He volunteered to descend from a helicopter to the jungle floor to help a company of the 1st Infantry Division that was pinned down and fighting for its life. He rescued many wounded soldiers, and he refused evacuation himself after he was wounded several times, finally fatally. He was awarded a posthumous Air Force Cross, but the men of the company he went to help fought for many years to get the award upgraded to the Medal of Honor. Pitsenbarger was one of only two Air Force enlisted men to earn the Medal of Honor in Vietnam, and the first since the end of World War II.
(HNQ, 6/18/02)

1965        Henry A. Wallace (b.1888), former vice-president (1941-1945), died. He was the founder of Pioneer Hi-Bred Corp. and served as the Sec. of Agriculture from 1933-1940. In 2000 John C. Culver and John Hyde authored the biography “American Dreamer.”
(WSJ, 4/5/00, p.A24)(WUD, 1994 p.1606)


(my note – but this was the biggest one with implications for the oil industry and petroleum drilling – which resulted in 1967 decisions concerning America’s fuel security)

1965        Arab states signed the Charter of Arab Honor, an Arab league ordnance designed to curb an aggressive Lebanese press and to discourage mutually hostile regimes from attacking each other.
(SFC, 6/19/00, p.A5)


1965        In Britain Bob Guccione founded Penthouse Magazine. It was a sex magazine with more provocative poses than Playboy Magazine.
(WSJ, 3/22/96, p.A-1)

1965        The first automatic teller machines came from England.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)

1965        Imre Lakatos of London’s School of Economics organized a session chaired by Karl Popper at which philosopher Thomas Kuhn spoke. In 2003 Steve Fuller authored “Kuhn vs. Popper: The Struggle for the Soul of Science.”
(Econ, 8/9/03, p.71)

1965        In the Central African Republic Col. Jean-Bedel Bokassa, commander of the army and minister of defense, was picked by France to overthrow David Dacko when Dacko began establishing close ties with China.
(SFC, 11/4/96, p.A22)

1965        The Gang of Four included Wang Hongwen, Yao Wen-yuan, Zhang Chunqiao (1917-2005) and Mao Zedong’s third wife, Jiang Qing. All four were relatively low-ranking members of the Communist party, albeit favored by Mao. Beginning around 1965, they were able to manipulate the media and youth to leverage their positions over party moderates, such as Deng Xiaoping. Mao’s death in 1976 ended their influence and led to their imprisonment and trial in 1980-81 for their role in the Cultural Revolution.
(HNQ, 6/6/01)(SFC, 5/11/05, p.B7)

1965        China began the construction of a subway system in Beijing. The first line of 17 miles began regular service in 1981. By 2008 the subway network boasted 8 lines over 120 miles.
(WSJ, 1/6/09, p.A10)

1965        In China the local government of Pingyang, near the southern provincial capital of Nanning, built a smelting factory for lead and antimony. For decades the waste was discarded in piles near farmland, where rains washed the metals into fields and ponds used to water crops. Villagers later tested for extremely high levels of lead, cadmium and other metals. The factory was torn down in 2004.
(WSJ, 6/30/07, p.A12)
1965        Chinese military researchers isolated artemisinin, a compound based on sweet wormwood, and found to be very effective against malaria.
(SFC, 5/10/04, p.A5)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.81)

1965        In Cuba Carlos Rafael Rodriguez (d.1997 at 84), “El Tio,” was a founding member of the Cuban Communist Party. From 1962-1965 he was the head of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform and became a deputy prime minister in charge of foreign affairs in 1972.
(SFC,12/10/97, p.C5)
1965        Czechoslovakia adopted the economic ideas of Ota Sik to improve on stagnant industrial growth. His “new economic model” called for limited reforms of the Soviet system including less central planning.
(SFC, 8/25/04, p.B7)

1965        In the Dominican Republic Jose Pena Gomez incited a popular uprising on radio and demanded the restoration of Pres. Bosch. Leftists in the army revolted and Pres. Lyndon Johnson sent in 23,000 US Marines to prevent a Cuban-style revolution.
(SFC, 5/12/98, p.A21)

1965        In Egypt journalist Mustafa Amin was arrested while meeting an American diplomat in Alexandria and accused of being an American spy. He was later freed by Pres. Anwar Sadat.
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)

1965        Former King Farouk of Egypt died at a restaurant in Rome. The obese monarch was notorious for his decadent lifestyle. The David Freeman novel “One of Us” is based on his life and times.
(SFEC,11/9/97, Par p.2)

1965        In France IBM established a large manufacturing plant in Montpellier.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R23)

1965        India and Pakistan began a second war over Kashmir.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)

1965        The 1983 film “The Year of Living Dangerously” with Mel Gibson was set in Indonesia’s 1965 civil war. An estimated 250-500 thousand Indonesians were killed on suspicion of being Communist Party members or sympathizers. US CIA and Embassy officials later admitted that they furnished as many as 5000 names of “communist” leaders to the Indonesian army.
(WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T6)(SFC, 5/16/00, p.A12,14)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.D2)
1965         Indonesia became the first nation ever to withdraw from the United Nations. Indonesia withdrew in protest of the seating of Malaysia on the UN Security Council. The former Dutch colony bitterly opposed the formation of its neighbor Malaysia in 1963, refusing to recognize it and waging a guerilla war against it. In 1966 a peace agreement with Malaysia was reached and shortly thereafter Indonesia resumed its membership in the UN.
(HNQ, 5/14/98)

1965        Teddy Kollek (1911-2007) was elected as mayor of Jerusalem. He sought to bring Arabs into the Jewish governed city as social and economic equals. In 1993 he was defeated in a run for a 7th term by Ehud Olmert of the Likud Party.
(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.A2)

1965        Luciano Benetton was one of 4 family members who launched the Italian Benetton clothing group.
(Econ, 11/3/07, p.82)

1965        Ivory Coast, formerly French West Africa, established independence.
(WUD, 1994, p.759)

1965        The government of Japan signed a peace treaty with South Korea that covered reparation claims of South Korean women used as sex slaves.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(SFC, 4/22/98, p.A11)

1965        Japan’s PM Eisaku Sato told US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara that American military forces could launch a nuclear attack on China by sea if needed. This information was not made public until 2008.
(AP, 12/21/08)

1965        Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program (BIP) was first introduced. It led to the construction of foreign-owned maquiladoras (assembly plants) to produce goods for export.
(MT, summer 2003, p.22)

1965        Yasser Arafat formed his Fatwah movement for the Liberation of Palestine.
(SFC, 9/8/03, p.A8)

1965        Rarotonga of the Cook Islands was colonized by the British but ruled until this year by New Zealand.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T6)

1965        Television arrive in Saudi Arabia. It caused riots until senior clerics grasped that they could use it to promote their faith.
(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.9)

1965        Hafez al-Assad became Syria’s defense minister. He was a member of the Alawite clan, an offshoot of Shiite Islam. Nearly 80% of Syrians are Sunnis.
(WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1)

1965        The United Nations added 4 non-permanent seats to the Security Council, bringing the non-permanent  total to 10 and the whole to 15.

1965        The 21st Vatican Council, begun in 1962 and later known as the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II), ended. In 2008 John W. O’Malley authored “What Happened at Vatican II.”
(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A11)

1965        Nguyen Van Thieu, the South Vietnam ruling junta’s chairman of the National Directorate, became chief of state.
(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)
1965        In Vietnam the Thuan Thanh center was established for wounded soldiers. In 1997 it was but one of 57 veteran’s centers across the country.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)

1965        In Zaire Laurent-Desiree Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, fought with Ernesto “Che” Guevara on behalf of the People’s Revolutionary Party.
(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)
1965        In Zaire (later Congo) Army Chief-of-Staff Mobutu Sese Seko, a member of the Gbandi tribe, seized power in a military coup and began his dictatorship. His name meant “the cock who goes from homestead to homestead leaving no hen uncovered.”
(SFC, 10/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.61)

1965-1966    King Faisal bin Abd al-Aziz defied Islamist opposition and introduced women’s education and television. There were 70 female university students in Saudi Arabia. In 2001 the number reached 200,000, 54% of the student population.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)

1965-1968    The 3rd Betty Crocker [General Mills advertising icon] made her appearance.
(WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A6)

1965-1968    The Mamas and the Papas consisted of Dennis Doherty, Michelle Phillips, John Phillips and Cass Elliot (d.1974). Their songs over this period included “California Dreamin’” and “Monday Monday.”
(SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)

1965-1969    Roberto Sanchez Vilella (1913-1997) became the 2nd governor of Puerto Rico.
(SFC, 3/26/97, p.C3)

1965-1970    Cheryl Scott killed 4 of her children, aged 11 days to 14 months, during this period. 3 died in southern California and the 4th in Mendocino County. In 2006 Cheryl Athene Miller was charged in Ukiah, Ca., with the murders after her brother revealed the secret they had kept for decades. In 2007 Miller was released for lack of evidence.
(SFC, 11/2/06, p.B1)(SFC, 6/23/07, p.B6)

1965-1972    Sir Martin Jones (d.1997 at 84) led M15, the British counterintelligence agency. He had succeeded Sir Roger Hollis.
(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A22)

1965-1973    General Bob Worley was the only U.S. Air Force general officer to die in actual combat during the Vietnam War. He was a tactical fighter pilot whose RF-4C Phantom caught fire while on a patrol over North Vietnam.
(HNQ, 12/18/02)
1965-1973    Some 300,000 South Korean troops fought alongside US forces in Vietnam. In 1998 South Korea expressed to Hanoi its regret for its participation in the war.
(WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A1)

1965-1975    Solomon Barkin (d.2000), labor economist, writer and professor, covered this period in his book “Worker Militancy and Its Consequences.” His work also included “The Decline of the labor Movement and What Can Be Done About It.”
(SFC, 4/8/00, p.A23)

1965-1979    In Indonesia Pramoedya Ananta Toer, outspoken writer, was arrested and put into a labor camp on the island of Buru. He was never charged with a crime.
(WSJ, 4/30/99, p.W9)

1965-1975    In Tajikistan the large aluminum smelting plant at Tursunzadeh was built.
(WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1)

1965-1981    In Bolivia military regimes ran the country. Their human rights violations were documented in the 1993 book “Never Again for Bolivia” by Jesuit author Federico Aguilo.
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A11)



See also: History of the petroleum industry in the United States
Jonah Sperm Oil, an old label

In the Colonial era the energy policy of the United States was for free use of standing timber for heating and industry. In the 19th century, it was access to coal and its use for transport, heating and industry. Whales were rendered into lamp oil.[5] Later, coal gas was fractionated for use as lighting and town gas. Natural gas was first used in America for lighting in 1816. [2], it has grown in importance for use in homes, industry, and power plants, but natural gas production reached its U.S. peak in 1973, [3] and the price has risen significantly since then.

Coal provided the bulk of the US energy needs well into the 20th century. Most urban homes had a coal bin and a coal fired furnace. Over the years these were replaced with oil furnaces, not because of it being cheaper but because it was easier and safer.[6] Coal remains far cheaper than oil. The biggest use of oil has come from the development of the automobile.
US oil reserves increased until 1970, and then began to decline.

By 1950, oil consumption exceeded that of coal.[7][8] The abundance of oil in California, Texas, Oklahoma, as well as in Canada and Mexico, coupled with its low cost, ease of transportation, high energy density, and use in internal combustion engines, lead to its increasing use. Following World War II, oil heating boilers took over from coal burners along the Eastern Seaboard; diesel locomotives took over from coal-fired steam engines under dieselisation; oil-fired electricity plants were built; petroleum-burning buses replaced electric streetcars in a GM driven conspiracy, for which they were found guilty, and citizens bought gasoline powered cars. Interstate Highways helped make cars the major means of personal transportation.[9] As oil imports increased, US foreign policy was inexorably drawn into Middle East politics, supporting oil-producing Saudi Arabia and patrolling the sea lanes of the Persian Gulf.[10]
Grand Coulee Dam

Hydroelectricity was the basis of Nikola Tesla’s introduction of the U.S. electricity grid, starting at Niagara Falls, NY in 1883. [4] Electricity generated by major dams like the Jensen Dam, TVA Project, Grand Coulee Dam and Hoover Dam still produce some of the lowest-priced ($0.08/kWh), clean electricity in America. Rural electrification strung power lines to many more areas.[5][11]

Utilities have their rates set to earn a revenue stream that provides them with a constant 10% – 13% rate of return based on operating costs. Increases or decreases of the operating costs of electricity production are passed directly through to the consumers.[12]

The federal government provided substantially larger subsidies to fossil fuels than to renewables in the 2002-2008 period. Subsidies to fossil fuels totaled approximately $72 billion over the study period, representing a direct cost to taxpayers. Subsidies for renewable fuels, totaled $29 billion over the same period.[13]

Energy independence and resilience
See also: 1973 oil crisis and U.S. Energy Independence
United States oil production peaked in 1970 and began to decline. By 2005 imports were about twice as great as production.

The 1973 oil crisis made energy a popular topic of discussion in the US.[14] The Federal Department of Energy was started with steps planned toward energy conservation and more modern energy producers. A National Maximum Speed Limit of 55 mph (88 km/h) was imposed to help reduce consumption, and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (aka CAFE)standards were enacted to downsize automobile categories.[15] Year-round Daylight Saving Time was imposed, the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created and the National Energy Act of 1978 was introduced. Alternate forms of energy and diversified oil supply resulted.[16]

The United States receives approximately 84% of its energy from fossil fuels.[17] This energy is used for transport, industry, and domestic use. The remaining portion comes primarily from Hydro and Nuclear stations.[18] Americans constitute less than 5% of the world’s population, but consumes 26% of the world’s energy[19] to produce 26% of the world’s industrial output. They account for about 25% of the world’s petroleum consumption, while producing only 6% of the world’s annual petroleum supply[20] and having only 3% of the world’s known oil reserves.[21]

In the United States, oil is primarily consumed as fuel for cars, buses, trucks and airplanes (in the form of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Two-thirds of U.S. oil consumption is in the transportation sector.[22] The US – an important export country for food stocks – will convert 18% of its grain output to ethanol in 2008. Across the US, 25% of the whole corn crop went to ethanol in 2007.[23] The percentage of corn going to biofuel is expected to go up.[24] In 2006, U.S. Senators introduced the BioFuels Security Act.[25]

The proposal has been made for a hydrogen economy, where cars and factories are powered by fuel cells, although the hydrogen would still have to be produced at an energy cost, and hydrogen cars have been called one of the least efficient, most expensive ways to reduce greenhouse gases.[26][27] Other plans include making society carbon neutral and using renewable energy, including solar, wind and methane sources.

Automobiles, on the other hand, possibly could be powered 60% by grid electricity, 20% by biofuels and 20% direct solar. Re-design of cities, telecommuting, mass transit, higher housing density and walking could also reduce automobile fuel consumption and obesity.[28] Carpooling, flexcars, Smart cars, and shorter commutes could all reduce fuel use.[29][30]

It should be noted that between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fueled irrigation.[31] The peaking of world hydrocarbon production (Peak oil) may test Malthus’ critics.[32]


United States’ relationships with oil-producing countries

The US imports petroleum from many countries. Canada is the biggest source, followed by Mexico, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela

The close relationship the United States has with Saudi Arabia, the world’s single largest oil producer, may best be understood as a symbiotic relationship: America’s energy needs in lieu of Saudi Arabia’s needs for capital. The American posture toward Saudi Arabia and many other OPEC counties, has been touted as a “special relationship” in the media. This relationship was shaken by the rise of Islamic militancy, and most acutely by the events of September 11, 2001.

The Saudis alone invested approximately 70 billion dollars around the globe, 60% of which was invested in the United States.As American demand for Saudi oil continues at 1.5 million barrels (240,000 m3) per day, U.S. service and merchandise exports revenues to the Kingdom cover nowhere near the level of expenditures for petroleum.

One enabler of U.S. consumption has been the historic Saudi Arabian willingness to finance this trade deficit by investing in the United States. Saudi Arabian investments in the United States have traditionally been a welcome counterweight to the systemic U.S. trade deficit with the Kingdom. This relationship, while symbiotic, and necessary to a U.S. economy addicted to consumption, is viewed by many as “golden hand-cuffs” voluntarily worn by the United States.

The current account is the broadest measure of a nation’s balance of income payments with the rest of the world, and it is the difference between a nation’s receipts (exports and returns on domestic holdings of foreign investment) and its payments (imports and returns on foreign holdings of domestic investment). Just like a household that spends more than it earns, a nation must finance its current account deficit through borrowing. The balance of payments is one reflection of a nation’s financial economic stability. The U.S. account balance is a ‘negative value.’ As of 2004, the account balance in the U.S. was minus (-) 665.5 billion dollars. This borrowing on the part of the United States has, predictably, led to an enormous foreign debt. In contrast, Saudi affluence is soaring, with a record 70 billion dollar budget surplus for 2006.[33]


Almost all of Canada’s energy exports go to the United States, making it the largest foreign source of U.S. energy imports: Canada is the top source of U.S. oil imports, and it is the largest source of U.S. natural gas and electricity imports.[34]


The plan of Repower America is to generate 100% of electricity by 2020 using renewable resources, plus the current mix of 17% nuclear power, minus a 28% efficiency increase, clean plug-in electric cars, and a unified national grid.[36]

Buildings and their construction consume more energy than transportation or industrial applications, and because buildings are responsible for the largest portion of greenhouse emissions, they have the largest impact on man-made climate change. The AIA has proposed making buildings carbon neutral by 2030, meaning that the construction and operation of buildings will not require fossil fuel energy or emit greenhouse gases, and having the U.S. reduce CO2 emissions to 40 to 60% below 1990 levels by 2050.[37]

When President Carter created the U.S. Department of Energy in 1977, one of their first successful projects was the Weatherization Assistance Program.[38] During the last 30 years, this program has provided services to more than 5.5 million low-income families. On average, low-cost weatherization reduces heating bills by 31% and overall energy bills by $358 per year at current prices. Increased energy efficiency and weatherization spending has a high return on investment.[39]

The “Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007” has a significant impact on U.S. Energy Policy. It includes funding to help improve building codes, and will make it illegal to sell incandescent light bulbs, as they are less efficient than fluorescents and LEDs.[3]

Technologies such as passive solar building design and zero energy buildings (ZEB) have demonstrated significant new-construction energy bill reductions. The “Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007” includes funding to increase the popularity of ZEBs, photovoltaics, and even a new solar air conditioning program. Many energy-saving measures can be added to existing buildings as retrofits, but others are only cost-effective in new construction, which is why building code improvements are being encouraged. The solution requires both improved incentives for energy conservation, and new energy sources.

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 increases average gas mileage to 35 mpg by 2020. The current administration and 2007 legislation are encouraging the near-term use of plug-in electric cars, and hydrogen cars by 2020. Toyota has suggested that their third-generation 2009 Prius[40] may cost much less than the current model.[41] Larger advanced-technology batteries have been suggested to make it plug-in rechargeable. Photovoltaics are an option being discussed to extend its daytime electric driving range. Improving solar cell efficiency factors will continue to make this a progressively more-cost-effective option.

US energy consumption by primary source

About 86% of all types of energy used in the United States is derived from fossil fuels. In 2007, the largest source of the country’s energy came from petroleum (40%), followed by natural gas (24%) and coal (23%). The remaining 15% was supplied by nuclear power, hydroelectric dams, and miscellaneous renewable sources.[42]


The US consumes 20.8 million barrels (3,310,000 m3) of petroleum a day,[43] of which 9 million barrels (1,400,000 m3) is motor gasoline. Transportation has the highest consumption rates, accounting for approximately 68.9% of the oil used in the United States in 2006,[44] and 55% of oil use worldwide as documented in the Hirsch report. Automobiles are the single largest consumer of oil,[45] consuming 40%, and are also the source of 20% of the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions.[46]
An offshore oil platform

The USA has about 22 billion barrels (3.5×109 m3) reserves while consuming about 7.6 billion barrels (1.21×109 m3) per year.[43] This has created pressure for additional drilling. New oilfields would not solve the oil crisis however, but only delay it.[47] A far simpler solution is to reduce demand. The average U.S. car gets 20.4 mpg., while the average European car gets 40 mpg. Improving fuel economy is seen as a superior route to energy security.[47][48][49] In a memo to the EPA, Obama has asked the EPA to reconsider denying an exception to California,[50] and also asked that updated fuel standards for 2011 be published by March 30, 2009.[51] European gasoline prices were artificially raised to $4 per gallon through taxation long before they reached $4/gallon in the U.S., leading to better fuel economy.[52][53]

Problems associated with oil supply include volatile oil prices, increasing world and domestic petroleum product demand, dependence on unstable imported foreign oil, falling domestic production (peak oil), and declining infrastructure, like the Alaska pipeline and oil refineries.

American dependence on imports grew from 10% in 1970 to 65% by the end of 2004. At the current rate of unchecked import growth, the US would be 70% to 75% reliant on foreign oil by the middle of the next decade.[54]


In terms of the production of energy from domestic sources, from 1885 through 1951, coal was the leading source of energy in the United States. Crude oil and natural gas then vied for that role until 1982. Coal regained the position of the top domestic resource that year and again in 1984, and has retained it since.[62] The US burns 1 billion tons of coal every year.

Concern for climate change has led to a call for a moratorium on all coal consumption, unless carbon capture is utilized. Coal is the largest potential source of CO2 emissions.[63][64][65] The simplest, most stable form of carbon sequestration is to simply leave the coal in the ground.[66]

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is the cleanest currently-operational coal-fired electricity generation technology. FutureGen is an experimental U.S. research project to investigate the possibility of sequestering IGCC CO2 emissions underground.

Natural gas
See also: Shale gas in the United States

Natural gas production and consumption quadrupled between 1950 and 1970 to 20 Tcf, but declined steadily to stabilize in 1986. Since then, the United States imports a rising share of its gas. In 2008 consumption of natural gas stood at 23.2 Tcf, while domestic production was at 20.6 Tcf. Approximately 3.0 Tcf were imported, mainly by pipelines from Canada, which accounted for 90% of foreign supplies, while the remainder is delivered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) tankers carrying gas from five different countries.[67]

The largest gas producing states in 2007 were Texas (30%), Wyoming (10%), Oklahoma (9%) and New Mexico (8%), while 14% of the country’s production came from the federal offshore lands in the Gulf of Mexico.[67] Recent development in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased interest for shale gas across the United States in recent years. Leading fields are the Barnett Shale in Texas and the Antrim Shale in Michigan. Natural gas reserves in the United States were 35% higher in 2008 than two years earlier largely due to shale gas discoveries.[68]


International cooperation

Former Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson has said the United States and China have a strong mutual interest in avoiding energy supply disruptions.[133]


1920     Federal Water Power Act     Created Federal Power Commission to coordinate federal hydroelectric projects
1935     Federal Power Act     Put electricity sale/transportation regulation under Federal Power Commission
1935     Public Utility Holding Company Act     Regulated size of electric utilities, limiting each to a specific geographic area
1936     Rural Electrification Act     Funded electric cooperatives to bring electricity to underserved rural areas
1938     Natural Gas Act     Gas pipelines regulated under Federal Power Commission
1946     Atomic Energy Act     Put development of nuclear weapons/power under civilian control (instead of military)
1954     Atomic Energy Act     Opened way for civilian nuclear power program
1975     Energy Policy and Conservation Act     Created Strategic Petroleum Reserve, established first automobile fuel economy standards
1977     Department of Energy Organization Act     Created federal Department of Energy
1978     National Energy Act
-National Energy Conservation Policy Act
-Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act
-Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act
-Energy Tax Act
-Natural Gas Policy Act
Encouraged conservation efforts in homes, schools, and other public buildings
Restricted new power plants using oil or natural gas. Repealed in 1987.
Opened electric markets to alternate power producers
Taxed gas-guzzlers, gave income tax credits for alternate fuel use
Phased deregulation of gas wellhead prices



Middle East History: Nixon Administration Ignores Saudi Warnings …
Since the beginning of 1973, Saudi Arabia’s King Faisal ibn Abdul Aziz had been warning the Nixon administration with increasing urgency that he would …
washington-report.org/backissues/1097/9710070.html – Cached
President Nixon’s proposed plan to invade Saudi Arabia to covet …
Mar 15, 2008 … The declassified British memorandum said the United States considered launching airborne troops to seize oil fields in Saudi Arabia, …
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Nixon Doctrine
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The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by U.S. President Richard Nixon. He stated that the United States henceforth expected its allies to take care of their own military defense, but that the U.S. would aid in defense as requested. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies.

In Nixon’s own words (Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam November 3, 1969):[1]

* First, the United States will keep all of its treaty commitments.
* Second, we shall provide a shield if a nuclear power threatens the freedom of a nation allied with us or of a nation whose survival we consider vital to our security.
* Third, in cases involving other types of aggression, we shall furnish military and economic assistance when requested in accordance with our treaty commitments. But we shall look to the nation directly threatened to assume the primary responsibility of providing the manpower for its defense.

The doctrine was also applied by the Nixon administration in the Persian Gulf region, with military aid to Iran and Saudi Arabia, so that these U.S. allies could undertake the responsibility of ensuring peace and stability in the region.[2] According to author Michael Klare,[3] application of the Nixon Doctrine “opened the floodgates” of U.S. military aid to allies in the Persian Gulf, and helped set the stage for the Carter Doctrine and for the subsequent direct U.S. military involvement of the Gulf War and the Iraq War.
[edit] Doctrine In Practice

Both Nixonians and Contrarians argue that the Guam Doctrine may have masked other needs, intentions, and motives.[citation needed] Nixon was president when a resolution of the Vietnam War was essentially mandatory due to growing public opinion in favor of withdrawal;[4] A Gallup poll in May showed 56% of the public believed sending troops to Vietnam was a mistake. Of those over 50, 61% expressed that belief, compared to 49% of those between 21 and 29, even if tacit abandonment of the SEATO Treaty was ultimately required, resulting in a complete communist takeover of South Vietnam despite previous US guarantees.[5]

US retreat from unconditional defense guarantees to lesser allies in general was driven as much by financial concerns[6] as by policy re-examination of strategic and foreign policy objectives, reflected in Nixon’s goals of detente and nuclear arms control with the Soviet Union, and establishment of formal diplomatic relations with Communist China. As a consequence of this shift, direct sales of weaponry[7] to nations no longer under the nuclear umbrella of previous US security guarantees dramatically increased as US guarantees were withdrawn.
[edit] References

1. ^ Richard M. Nixon (November 3, 1969.). “President Nixon’s Speech on “Vietnamization”” (reprint). http://vietnam.vassar.edu/doc14.html.
2. ^ Beinart, Peter (2007-01-04). “Return of the Nixon Doctrine”. TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1574151,00.html?iid=sphere-inline-bottom.
3. ^ author of Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America’s Growing Petroleum Dependency (New York: Henry Holt, 2004)
4. ^ http://people-press.org/commentary/?analysisid=57
5. ^ [Todd, Olivier. Cruel April: The Fall of Saigon. W.W. Norton & Company, 1990. (originally published in 1987 in French)
6. ^ [The Gold Battles Within the Cold War: American Monetary Policy and the Defense of Europe, 1960-1963. Francis J. Gavin, University of Texas at Austin]
7. ^ [Resource: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: http://www.sipri.org/contents/armstrad/at_db.html%5D

[edit] Further reading

* J. Kimball (2006). “The Nixon Doctrine: A Saga of Misunderstanding”. Presidential Studies Quarterly 36 (1): 59–74. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00287.x.
* H. Meiertöns (2010): The Doctrines of US Security Policy — An Evaluation under International Law, Cambridge University Press, ISBN-13: 9780521766487.


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United States presidential administrations | History of the United States (1964–1980) | Richard Nixon

# 1966 – Department of Transportation created
# 1966 – National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
1967 – 25th Amendment

Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution
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The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. It supersedes the ambiguous wording of Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 of the Constitution, which does not expressly state whether the Vice President becomes the President, as opposed to an Acting President, if the President dies, resigns, is removed from office or is otherwise unable to discharge the powers of the presidency.[1] The Twenty-fifth Amendment was ratified in 1967.[2]

* 1 Text
* 2 Background
o 2.1 Keating-Kefauver proposal
o 2.2 Bayh-Celler proposal
* 3 Proposal and ratification
* 4 Effect
o 4.1 Section 1: Presidential succession
o 4.2 Section 2: Vice Presidential vacancy
o 4.3 Section 3: Presidential declaration
o 4.4 Section 4: Vice Presidential-Cabinet declaration
* 5 Invocations
o 5.1 Appointment of Gerald Ford as Vice President (1973)
o 5.2 Succession of Gerald Ford to Presidency (1974)
o 5.3 Appointment of Nelson Rockefeller as Vice President (1974)
o 5.4 Acting President George H. W. Bush (1985)
o 5.5 Acting President Dick Cheney
+ 5.5.1 2002
+ 5.5.2 2007
* 6 Considered Section 4 invocations
o 6.1 1981: Reagan assassination attempt
o 6.2 1987: Reagan’s alleged incapacity
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 External links

“     Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.


Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 of the Constitution states:

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

That clause was unclear regarding Presidential succession or inability; it did not state who had the power to declare a President incapacitated.[1] Also, it did not provide a mechanism for filling a Vice Presidential vacancy prior to the next Presidential election. The vagueness of this clause caused difficulties many times before the Twenty-fifth Amendment’s adoption:

* In 1841, President William Henry Harrison became the first U.S. President to die in office. Vice President John Tyler asserted that he had succeeded to the office of President, as opposed to only obtaining its powers and duties. He also declined to acknowledge documents referring to him as “Acting President”. Despite some strong calls against it, Tyler took the oath of office, becoming the tenth President. Tyler’s claim was not formally challenged and so the precedent of full succession was established.[3] This became known as the “Tyler Precedent”.

* There had been many occasions when a President was incapacitated. For example, following President Wilson’s stroke no one officially assumed the Presidential powers and duties.[1]

* The office of Vice President had been vacant sixteen times due to the death or resignation of either the President or Vice President.[1]

All of these incidents made it evident that clearer guidelines were needed.[1] There were two proposals for providing those guidelines:

Keating-Kefauver proposal

In 1963, Senator Kenneth Keating of New York proposed a Constitutional amendment which would have enabled the Congress to enact legislation providing for how to determine when a President is disabled, rather than, as the Twenty-fifth Amendment does, having the Constitution so provide.[4] This proposal was based upon a recommendation of the American Bar Association in 1960.[5]

The text of the proposal reads:[6]

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the said office shall devolve on the Vice President. In case of the inability of the President to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the said powers and duties shall devolve on the Vice President, until the inability be removed. The Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then be President, or, in case of inability, act as President, and such officer shall be or act as President accordingly, until a President shall be elected or, in case of inability, until the inability shall be earlier removed. The commencement and termination of any inability shall be determined by such method as Congress shall by law provide.

In the Senate, concerns were raised that the Congress could either abuse such authority[7] or neglect to enact any such legislation after the adoption of this proposal.[8] Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver (the Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments), a long-time advocate for addressing the disability question, spearheaded the effort until he died because of a heart attack on August 10, 1963.[9][10]
[edit] Bayh-Celler proposal

On January 6, 1965, Senator Birch Bayh (Kefauver’s successor as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments) proposed in the Senate and Representative Emanuel Celler (Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee) proposed in the House of Representatives what would become the Twenty-fifth Amendment. Their proposal specified the process by which a President could be declared disabled, thereby making the Vice President an Acting President, and by which he could regain the powers of that office. Also, their proposal provided a way to fill a vacancy in the office of Vice President before the next presidential election. This was as opposed to the Keating-Kefauver proposal, which did not provide for filling a vacancy in the office of Vice President prior to the next presidential election or itself provide a process for determining presidential disability. In 1964, the American Bar Association endorsed the type of proposal which Bayh and Celler advocated.[11]

On February 19, the Senate passed the amendment, but the House passed a different version of the amendment on April 13. On July 6, after a conference committee ironed out differences between the versions,[12] the final version of the amendment was passed by both Houses of the Congress and presented to the states for ratification.[13]

Proposal and ratification

The Congress proposed the Twenty-fifth Amendment on July 6, 1965 and the amendment was ratified by the following states:[2]

1. Nebraska (July 12, 1965)
2. Wisconsin (July 13, 1965)
3. Oklahoma (July 16, 1965)
4. Massachusetts (August 9, 1965)
5. Pennsylvania (August 18, 1965)
6. Kentucky (September 15, 1965)
7. Arizona (September 22, 1965)
8. Michigan (October 5, 1965)
9. Indiana (October 20, 1965)
10. California (October 21, 1965)
11. Arkansas (November 4, 1965)
12. New Jersey (November 29, 1965)
13. Delaware (December 7, 1965)
14. Utah (January 17, 1966)
15. West Virginia (January 20, 1966)
16. Maine (January 24, 1966)
17. Rhode Island (January 28, 1966)
18. Colorado (February 3, 1966)
19. New Mexico (February 3, 1966)
20. Kansas (February 8, 1966)
21. Vermont (February 10, 1966)
22. Alaska (February 18, 1966)
23. Idaho (March 2, 1966)
24. Hawaii (March 3, 1966)
25. Virginia (March 8, 1966)
26. Mississippi (March 10, 1966)
27. New York (March 14, 1966)
28. Maryland (March 23, 1966)
29. Missouri (March 30, 1966)
30. New Hampshire (June 13, 1966)
31. Louisiana (July 5, 1966)
32. Tennessee (January 12, 1967)
33. Wyoming (January 25, 1967)
34. Washington (January 26, 1967)
35. Iowa (January 26, 1967)
36. Oregon (February 2, 1967)
37. Minnesota (February 10, 1967)
38. Nevada (February 10, 1967)

Ratification was completed on February 10, 1967. The amendment was subsequently ratified by the following states:

1. Connecticut (February 14, 1967)
2. Montana (February 15, 1967)
3. South Dakota (March 6, 1967)
4. Ohio (March 7, 1967)
5. Alabama (March 14, 1967)
6. North Carolina (March 22, 1967)
7. Illinois (March 22, 1967)
8. Texas (April 25, 1967)
9. Florida (May 25, 1967)

The following states have not ratified the amendment:

1. North Dakota
2. Georgia
3. South Carolina

Just six days after its submission, Nebraska and Wisconsin were the first states to ratify the amendment. On February 10, 1967, Minnesota and Nevada were the 37th and 38th states to ratify, respectively. On February 23, 1967, in a ceremony in the East Room of the White House, General Services Administrator Lawson Knott certified the amendment’s adoption.

Section 1: Presidential succession

Section 1 codified the “Tyler Precedent” regarding when a President is removed from office, dies or resigns. In any of those situations, the Vice President immediately becomes President.

Section 2: Vice Presidential vacancy

The Constitution did not provide for Vice Presidential vacancies until the Twenty-fifth Amendment was adopted. The Vice Presidency has been vacant several times due to death, resignation, or succession to the Presidency. Often these vacancies lasted for many years.

Under Section 2, whenever there is a vacancy in the office of Vice President, the President nominates a successor who becomes Vice President if confirmed by a majority vote of both Houses of the Congress.

Section 3: Presidential declaration

Section 3 provides that when the President transmits a written declaration to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, stating that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the Presidency, and until the President sends another written declaration to the aforementioned officers declaring himself able to resume discharging those powers and duties, the Vice President serves as Acting President.

Section 4: Vice Presidential-Cabinet declaration

Section 4 is the only part of the amendment never to have been invoked.[14] It allows the Vice President, together with a majority of either “the principal officers of the executive departments” (i.e., the Cabinet) or of “such other body as Congress may by law provide”, to declare the President disabled by submitting a written declaration to the President pro tempore and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. As with Section 3, the Vice President would become Acting President.

Section 4 is meant to be invoked if the President’s incapacitation prevents him from discharging the duties of his office and to provide a written declaration to that effect. The President may resume exercising the Presidential duties by sending a written declaration to the President pro tempore and the Speaker of the House.

Should the Vice President and Cabinet remain unsatisfied with the President’s condition, they may within four days of the President’s declaration submit another declaration that the President is incapacitated. The Congress must then assemble within 48 hours if not in session. Within 21 days of assembling or of receiving the second declaration by the Vice President and the Cabinet, a two-thirds vote of each House of Congress is required to affirm the President as unfit. Upon this finding by the Congress, Section 4 states that the Vice President would “continue” to be Acting President. Should the Congress resolve the issue in favor of the President, or if the Congress makes no decision within the 21 days allotted, then the President would “resume” discharging all of the powers and duties of his office. The use of the words “continue” and “resume” imply that the Vice President remains Acting President while Congress deliberates.

However, the President may again submit a written declaration of recovery to the President pro tempore and the Speaker of the House. That declaration could be responded to by the Acting President and the Cabinet in the same way as stated earlier. The allotted 21-day Congressional procedure would start again.


The Twenty-fifth Amendment has been invoked six times since its ratification.

Appointment of Gerald Ford as Vice President (1973)

On October 12, 1973, following Spiro Agnew’s resignation two days earlier, President Richard Nixon nominated long-time Representative Gerald Ford of Michigan to succeed Agnew as Vice President.

The United States Senate voted 92–3 to confirm Ford on November 27 and, on December 6, the House of Representatives did the same by a vote of 387–35. Ford was sworn in later that day before a joint session of the United States Congress.[15]

Succession of Gerald Ford to Presidency (1974)
Nixon’s resignation letter, August 9, 1974.

President Richard Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, resulting in Vice President Gerald Ford succeeding to the office of President. This made Gerald Ford the only person ever to be Vice President, and later President, without being elected to either office.[16][17]

Appointment of Nelson Rockefeller as Vice President (1974)

When Gerald Ford became President, the Vice Presidency became vacant. On August 20, 1974, after having previously considered Melvin R. Laird and George H. W. Bush, President Ford nominated former New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him as Vice President.

On December 10, 1974, Rockefeller was confirmed 90–7 by the Senate. On December 19, 1974 Rockefeller was confirmed 287–128 by the House and sworn into office.[15]

Acting President George H. W. Bush (1985)
Further information: Confusion regarding Reagan invocation

On July 12, 1985, President Ronald Reagan underwent a colonoscopy, during which a pre-cancerous lesion called a villous adenoma was discovered. Upon being told by his physician (Dr. Edward Cattow) that he could undergo surgery immediately or in two to three weeks, Reagan elected to have it removed immediately.

That afternoon, Reagan consulted with White House counsel Fred Fielding by telephone, debating whether to invoke the amendment and, if so, whether such a transfer would set an undesirable precedent. Fielding and White House Chief of Staff Donald Regan both recommended that Reagan transfer power and two letters doing so were drafted: the first specifically referencing Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, the second not.

At 10:32 a.m. on July 13, Reagan signed the second letter and ordered its delivery to the appropriate officers as required under the amendment.

Books such as The President Has Been Shot: Confusion, Disability and the 25th Amendment, by Herbert Abrams, and Reagan’s autobiography, An American Life, argue Reagan’s intent to transfer power to Bush was clear. Fielding himself adds:

I personally know he did intend to invoke the amendment, and he conveyed that to all of his staff and it was conveyed to the VP as well as the President of the Senate. He was also very firm in his wish not to create a precedent binding his successor.

Acting President Dick Cheney
Further information: Invocations of 25th Amendment

On June 29, 2002, President George W. Bush underwent a colonoscopy and chose to invoke the amendment, temporarily transferring his powers to Vice President Cheney.

The procedure began at 7:09 a.m EDT and ended at 7:29 a.m. EDT. Bush woke up twenty minutes later, but did not resume his presidential powers and duties until 9:24 a.m. EDT after the president’s doctor, Richard Tubb, conducted an overall examination. Tubb said he recommended the additional time to make sure the sedative had no after effects.

Unlike Reagan’s 1985 letter, Bush’s 2002 letter specifically cited Section 3 in his letter transferring power.


On July 21, 2007, President George W. Bush again underwent a colonoscopy and chose to invoke the amendment, temporarily transferring his powers to Vice President Cheney. President Bush invoked Section 3 at 7:16 a.m. EDT. He reclaimed his powers, pursuant to Section 3, at 9:21 a.m. EDT. As happened in 2002, Bush specifically cited Section 3 when he transferred the Presidential powers to the Vice President and when he reclaimed those powers.

Considered Section 4 invocations

There are two documented instances in which invocation of Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment was considered.
1981: Reagan assassination attempt

Following the assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan on March 30, 1981, a number of cabinet officials unsuccessfully attempted to convince Vice President George H. W. Bush to assume the role of Acting President under Section 4.

In 1995, Birch Bayh, the primary sponsor of the amendment in the Senate, said that Section 4 should have been invoked.[18]

1987: Reagan’s alleged incapacity

Upon assuming the role of White House Chief of Staff in 1987, Howard Baker was advised by his predecessor’s staff to be prepared for a possible invocation of the Twenty-fifth Amendment due to Reagan’s perceived laziness and ineptitude.

According to PBS’s American Experience program recalling the Reagan administration: “What Baker’s transition team was told by Donald Regan’s staff that weekend shocked them. Reagan was ‘inattentive, inept,’ and ‘lazy,’ and Baker should be prepared to invoke the 25th Amendment to relieve him of his duties.” Reagan biographer Edmund Morris stated in an interview aired on the program,

“The incoming Baker people all decided to have a meeting with him on Monday, their first official meeting with the President, and to cluster around the table in the Cabinet room and watch him very, very closely to see how he behaved, to see if he was indeed losing his mental grip.”

Morris went on to explain,

“…Reagan who was, of course, completely unaware that they were launching a death watch on him, came in stimulated by the press of all these new people and performed splendidly. At the end of the meeting, they figuratively threw up their hands realizing he was in perfect command of himself.”[19]

See also

* Acting President of the United States
* United States presidential line of succession
* Presidential Succession Act


1. ^ a b c d e The Constitution And Democracy
2. ^ a b Mount, Steve (January 2007). “Ratification of Constitutional Amendments”. http://www.usconstitution.net/constamrat.html. Retrieved February 24 2007.
3. ^ “John Tyler, Tenth Vice President (1841)”. Senate.gov. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_John_Tyler.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
4. ^ One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968), p. 345
5. ^ One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968), p. 27
6. ^ One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968), p. 350
7. ^ One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968), p. 30
8. ^ One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968), pp. 34 and 35
9. ^ One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968), p. 28
10. ^ Amendment25.com – Proposal & Ratification
11. ^ One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968), pp. 348-350
12. ^ Amendment25.com – Conference Committee Report on Senate/House Joint Resolution 1 (1965)
13. ^ One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968), pp. 354-358
14. ^ Amendment25.com – Historical Invocations
15. ^ a b Gerald R Ford Presidential Library.
16. ^ FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Twenty-Fifth Amendment
17. ^ Presidency: What the 25th Amendment Overlooks
18. ^ Birch Bayh, “The White House Safety Net”, The New York Times, April 8, 1995
19. ^ American Experience – The Presidents, Chapter 26: Reagan


* Constitution of the United States.
* The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Johnny Kilman and George Costello (Eds). (2000)
* One Heartbeat Away by Birch Bayh (1968).
* CNN Transcript of White House press briefing re G.W. Bush temporary transfer of power to VP Cheney June 29, 2002 (URL accessed June 4, 2006).
* CNN Story of White House statement regarding G.W. Bush temporary transfer of power to VP Cheney July 21, 2007.
* The Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Its Complete History and Applications by John Feerick (1992).
* Presidential Inability and the Twenty-Fifth Amendment’s Unexplored Removal Provisions by Scott Gant, Michigan State Law Review (1999), p. 791.

External links

* National Archives: Twenty-fifth Amendment
* CRS Annotated Constitution: Twenty-fifth Amendment
* Amendment25.com


Executive Order 11246
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Executive Order 11246, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 24, 1965 required Equal Employment Opportunity. The Order “prohibits federal contractors and federally assisted construction contractors and subcontractors, who do over $10,000 in Government business in one year from discriminating in employment decisions on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.”[1] Contractors are also required to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, color, religion, sex or national origin.”

The order was a follow-up to Executive Order 10479 signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on August 13, 1953 establishing the anti-discrimination Committee on Government Contracts, which itself was based on a similar Executive Order (EO 8802) written by FDR in 1941. Eisenhower’s Executive Order has been amended and updated by at least six subsequent Executive Orders.[2]

The term Equal Opportunity Employment originated here.

The Executive Order also required contractors with 50 or more employees and contracts of $50,000 or more to implement affirmative action plans to increase the participation of minorities and women in the workplace if a workforce analysis demonstrates their underrepresentation. Underrepresentation is defined as there being fewer minorities and women than would be expected, given the statistics of the area from which the workforce is drawn. The statistics used are those minorities and women qualfied to hold the positions available, not all minorities or women in a given geographical area. Pursuant to federal regulations, affirmative action plans must consist of an equal opportunity policy statement, an analysis of the current work force, identification of underrepresented areas, the establishment of reasonable, flexible goals and timetables for increasing employment opportunities, specific action-oriented programs to address problem areas, support for community action programs, and the establishment of an internal audit and reporting system.

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*All out-of-state same-sex marriages are given the benefits of marriage under California law, although only those performed before November 5, 2008 are granted the designation “marriage”.
^The law authorizing civil unions in Connecticut will be repealed effective October 1, 2010. Any civil unions entered into prior to that date will automatically become marriages, by operation of law, effective October 1, 2010.
^^The law authorizing civil unions in New Hampshire was repealed effective January 1, 2010. Any civil unions entered into prior to that date will automatically become marriages, by operation of law, effective January 1, 2011.
^^^ As of September 1, 2009, civil unions can no longer be performed in Vermont, however, the state will still recognize one that was validly performed in another jurisdiction.
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* Executive Order 11246 from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration website.

[edit] References

1. ^ http://www.dol.gov/compliance/laws/comp-eeo.htm
2. ^ http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/1953-eisenhower.html


Executive Order 11375
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Executive Order 11375, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 13, 1967 amended Executive Order 11246.

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* Executive Order 11375 from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration website.




Category:1967 in the United States
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Articles and events specifically related to the year 1967 in the United States.
? 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 ?
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This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.

[+] 1967 in American politics (2 C)
[+] 1967 in American football (2 C, 2 P)


[+] 1967 in United States case law (27 P)


[+] 1967 elections in the United States (1 P)

Pages in category “1967 in the United States”

The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).

* 1967 in the United States


* 1967 Oak Lawn tornado outbreak
* 1967 Plainfield riots
* 1967 USS Forrestal fire


* 21st Tony Awards
* 25th World Science Fiction Convention


* Air France Robbery (1967)
* Apollo 1
* Apollo 4


* Central Park be-in


* Executive Order 11375


* Fantasy Fair & Magic Mountain Music Festival
* List of American films of 1967


* Glassboro Summit Conference


* Haight-Ashbury Switchboard
* Human Be-In


* 1967 Indianapolis 500


* 1967 World Judo Championships


* Long Hot Summer of 1967


* Miss USA 1967
* Miss Universe 1967
* Mohawk Airlines Flight 40
* Monterey Pop Festival


* 1967 Newark riots


* Operation Crosstie


* Piedmont Airlines Flight 22

P cont.

* 1967 Pulitzer Prize


* 1967 Detroit riot


* Silver Bridge (bridge)
* 1967 Southern Minnesota tornado outbreak
* 1967 St. Louis tornado outbreak
* Summer of Love


* TWA Flight 128
* TWA Flight 159
* TWA Flight 553
* Tanglewood Symposium
* Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution


* Writers Guild of America Awards 1967



Colonial era

Portuguese expansion into the Indian Ocean in the early sixteenth century following Vasco da Gama’s voyages of exploration saw them battle the Ottomans up the coast of the Persian Gulf. In 1521, a Portuguese force led by commander Antonio Correia invaded Bahrain to take control of the wealth created by its pearl industry. IIn April 29 of 1602, Sha-h Abba-s, the Persian emperor of Safavid Persian Empire expelled the Portuguese from Bahrain.[52][52], and that date is commemorated as National Persian Gulf day in Iran[53]. With the support of the British fleet, in 1622 ‘Abba-s took the island of Hormuz from the Portuguese: much of the trade was diverted to the town of Bandar ‘Abba-s which he had taken from the Portuguese in 1615 and had named after himself. The Persian Gulf was therefore opened by Persians to a flourishing commerce with Portuguese, Dutch, French, Spanish and British merchants, which were granted particular privileges.
See also: British Residency of the Persian Gulf

From 1763 until 1971, the British Empire maintained varying degrees of political control over some Persian Gulf states, including the United Arab Emirates (originally called the “Trucial Coast States”[citation needed]) and at various times Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Qatar through the British Residency of the Persian Gulf.

The United Kingdom maintains a high profile in the region; in 2006, over 1 million Britons visited Dubai alone.[54]



These are some of the major events of 1965 which affected the energy policy we live with today – that has resulted in the mess of it as well – (my note)


1965        Jan 4, President Johnson outlined the goals of his “Great Society” in his State of the Union address. The “Great Society” was to be achieved through a vast program that included an attack on diseases, a doubling of the war on poverty, greater enforcement of Civil Rights Law, immigration law reform and greater support of education.
(AP, 1/4/98)(HNQ, 9/11/99)

1965        Jan 15, Sir Winston Churchill suffered a severe stroke.
(HN, 1/15/99)

1965        Jan 24, Winston Churchill, former prime minister (1940-45, 51-55), died from a cerebral thrombosis in London at age 90. “I am always ready to learn, but I do not always like to be taught.” Lord Moran (Sir Charles Wilson), his personal physician, later authored “Churchill At War: 1940-1945.”
(AP, 1/24/98)(AP, 1/17/00)(HN, 1/24/01)(WSJ, 12/14/02, p.W10)

1965        Feb 11, Pres. Lyndon Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam. The American “Rolling Thunder” bombing campaign intensified. In 2006 Rick Newman and Don Shepperd authored “Bury Us Upside Down: The Misty Pilots and the Secret Battle for the Ho Chi Minh Trail,” an account of the pilots who flew low scouting for targets that threatened US bombers.
(HN, 2/11/02)(WSJ, 3/2/06, p.D8)

1965        Feb 16, Four persons were held in a plot to blow up the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell and the Washington Monument.
(HN, 2/16/98)

1965        Feb 19, Fourteen Vietnam War protesters were arrested for blocking U.N. doors in New York.
(HN, 2/19/98)

1965        Nov 9, Roger Allen LaPorte a 22 year old former seminarian and a member of the Catholic worker movement, immolated himself at the United Nations in New York City in protest of the Vietnam War.
(HN, 11/9/98)

1965        Feb 20, The Ranger 8 spacecraft crashed on the moon after sending back 7,000 photos of the lunar surface.
(HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)

1965        Mar 3, US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1965        Mar 3, USSR performed a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk, USSR.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1965        Mar 15, Gamal Abdel Nasser was re-elected Egyptian President.
(HN, 3/15/99)

1965        Mar 18, The first spacewalk took place as Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov (30) left his Voskhod 2 capsule and remained outside the spacecraft for 20 minutes, secured by a tether.
(SFC, 5/27/00, p.A26)(AP, 3/18/97)

1965        Mar 19, Indonesia nationalized all foreign oil companies.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1965        Apr 1, King Hussein bin Talal of Jordanian appointed his younger brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal, as crown prince and heir to the Hashemite throne.  This required a change to the Jordan constitution to allow for fraternal succession.
(MC, 4/1/02)

1965        Apr 6,    The United States launched the Intelsat I, also known as the “Early Bird” communications satellite.
(AP, 4/6/08)

1965        Apr 28, U.S. Army and Marines under US Pres. Lyndon Johnson invaded the Dominican Republic to stop a civil war. Johnson sent 22,800 troops at the urging of Thomas Mann (d.1999 at 87), a high state department official. The troops stayed until stay until Oct 1966.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(HN, 4/28/98)(MC, 4/28/02)

1965        May 1, USSR launched Luna 5; later lands on Moon.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1965        Jul 14, The American space probe Mariner 4 flew by Mars and sent back 22 photographs of the planet. These were the 1st images of Mars taken from a spacecraft.
(AP, 7/14/97)(SFC, 12/8/99, p.A19)

1965        Jul 15, US scientists displayed close-up photographs of the planet Mars taken by “Mariner Four.” It passed over Mars at an altitude of 6,000 feet.
(AP, 7/15/00)

1965        Jul 14, U.S. Ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson Jr., the Democratic presidential nominee in 1952 and 1956, died in London at age 65. Jean Baker in 1996 published a 1996 biography of the Stevenson family.
(AP, 7/14/97)(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A19,21)

1965        Oil companies began eyeing the Grand Banks of Canada when seismic surveys revealed oil potential.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.D5)

1965        May 13, Several Arab nations broke ties with West Germany after it established diplomatic relations with Israel.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1965        Dec 31, California became the largest state in population.
(HN, 12/31/98)

1965        Jun 8, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized commanders in Vietnam to commit U.S. ground forces to combat.
(HN, 6/8/98)

1965        Jun 14, A military triumvirate took control in Saigon, South Vietnam.
(HN, 6/14/98)

1965        Jun 19, Air Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky became South Vietnam’s youngest premier at age 34.
(HN, 6/19/98)

1965        Jul 28, President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam to 175,000 “almost immediately.”
(HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)

1965        May 24, Supreme Court declared a federal law allowing the post office to intercept communist propaganda as unconstitutional.
(MC, 5/24/02)

1965        Sep 9, French President Charles de Gaulle announced that France was withdrawing from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in protest of U.S. domination in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1965        Nov 26, France launched its first satellite, sending a 92-pound capsule into orbit.
(AP, 11/26/97)

1965        Oct 10, Ronald Reagan spoke at Coalinga Junior College and called for an official declaration of war in Vietnam.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)

1965        Nov 9, A major power failure hit the East Coast of the US. New York City experienced a major blackout just after 5:30 PM. In the great Northeast blackout several US states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of power failures lasting up to 13 1/2 hours. Nine Northeastern states and parts of Canada went dark in the worst power failure in history, when a switch at a station near Niagara Falls failed.
(HFA, ’96,p.42)(SFE,10/1/95, Z1, p.10)(AP, 11/9/97)(HN, 11/9/98)

1965        Congress established the Land and Water Conservation Fund. It was to receive $900 million a year from federal oil and gas revenues for acquisition of sensitive lands and wetlands, but the money was never dedicated for the intended purpose.
(SFC, 2/22/99, p.A21)

1965        The United States replaced silver-alloy quarters and dimes with coins of copper-and-nickel composition. Non-silver half-dollars and dollar coins were introduced in the U.S. in 1971.
(HNQ, 10/30/99)

(my note – Gold Standard removed – 1971)

(my note – but this was the biggest one with implications for the oil industry and petroleum drilling – which resulted in 1967 decisions concerning America’s fuel security)

1965        Arab states signed the Charter of Arab Honor, an Arab league ordnance designed to curb an aggressive Lebanese press and to discourage mutually hostile regimes from attacking each other.
(SFC, 6/19/00, p.A5)


Richard Nixon –

He was elected in 1946 as a Republican to the House of Representatives representing California’s 12th Congressional district, and in 1950 to the United States Senate. He was selected to be the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party nominee, in the 1952 Presidential election, becoming one of the youngest Vice Presidents in history. He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and an unsuccessful campaign for Governor of California in 1962; following these losses, Nixon announced his withdrawal from political life. In 1968, however, he ran again for president of the United States and was elected.


Although Nixon’s first choice was to get a job with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, he returned to California and was admitted to the bar in 1937. He began practicing with Wingert and Bewley,[10] where he worked on commercial litigation for local petroleum companies and other corporate matters as well as on wills.


Vice Presidency (1953–1961)

In part because of his reputation as an ardent anti-communist, 39-year-old Nixon was selected by Republican party nominee General Dwight D. Eisenhower to be the Vice Presidential candidate at the Republican National Convention in July 1952.[31] In September, the New York Post published an article claiming that campaign donors were buying influence with Nixon by providing him with a secret cash fund for his personal expenses.[31] Nixon responded that the fund was not secret, and the campaign commissioned an independent review which showed that it was used only for political purposes.[32] Republicans, including some within Eisenhower’s campaign, pressured Eisenhower to remove Nixon from the ticket, but Eisenhower realized that he was unlikely to win without Nixon.[33]

Vice President and Mrs. Nixon in Ghana, 1957

Vice President Nixon with Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschev, 1959

Nixon appeared on television on September 23, 1952, to defend himself against the allegations. He detailed his personal finances and mentioned the independent third-party review of the fund’s accounting.[31] While it was the first time that a national politician released his tax returns, the speech became better known for its rhetoric, such as when he remarked that his wife Pat did not wear mink, but rather “a respectable Republican cloth coat,” and that, although he had been given an American Cocker Spaniel named Checkers in addition to his other campaign contributions, he was not going to give the dog back because his daughters loved it.[31] Now known as the “Checkers speech,” it resulted in much support from the base of the Republican Party and from the general public,[34] and greatly aided Nixon in remaining on the ticket.[31] In the 1952 presidential elections, Eisenhower and Nixon defeated Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson and Alabama Senator John Sparkman by seven million votes.[31]

As Vice President, Nixon expanded the office into an important and prominent post.[31][35] Nixon would conduct National Security meetings in the president’s absence.[31] As President of the Senate, he intervened to make procedural rulings on filibusters to assure the passage of Eisenhower’s 1957 civil rights bill, which created the United States Commission on Civil Rights and protected voting rights.[36]

Although he had little formal power, Nixon had the attention of the media and the Republican Party. Using these, he and his wife undertook many foreign trips of goodwill to garner support for American policies during the Cold War.[31] On one such trip to Caracas, Venezuela, anti-American protesters disrupted and assaulted Nixon’s motorcade, pelting his limousine with rocks, shattering windows, and injuring Venezuela’s foreign minister.[31] Nixon was lauded and attracted international media attention for his calm and coolness during the incidents.[31]

In March 1957, he visited Libya for a program of economic and military aid.[37] Nixon was, and is still, the highest-ranking U.S. official to visit the African nation. In July 1959, President Eisenhower sent Nixon to the Soviet Union for Moscow’s opening of the American National Exhibition.[31] On July 24, while touring the exhibits with Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, the two stopped at a model of an American kitchen and engaged in the impromptu “Kitchen Debate” about the merits of capitalism versus communism.[31]

As Vice President, he officially opened the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, California.[38]

1960 presidential election

Nixon debates John F. Kennedy in the first-ever televised U.S. presidential election debate.

In 1960, Nixon launched his campaign for President of the United States. He faced little opposition in the Republican primaries, and chose former Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. as his running mate.[31]


(My note – this part especially)

Wilderness years

Nixon playing the piano, Beverly Hills, California, 1962

Following his loss to Kennedy, Nixon and his family returned to California, where he practiced law and wrote a bestselling book, Six Crises.[31] It recorded his political involvement as a congressman, senator and vice president and used six different crises Nixon had experienced throughout his political career to illustrate his political memoirs. The work won praise from many policy experts and critics. It also found a favorable critic in Mao Zedong, who referred to the book during Nixon’s visit in 1972.[45]

Local and national Republican leaders encouraged Nixon to challenge incumbent Pat Brown for Governor of California in the 1962 election.[31] Despite initial reluctance, Nixon entered the race.[31] The campaign was clouded by public suspicion that Nixon viewed the governorship as a political “stepping-stone” to a higher office, some opposition from the far-right of the party, and his own lack of interest in being California’s governor.[31] He lost to Brown by nearly 300,000 votes.[31] This loss was widely believed to be the end of his career;[31] in an impromptu concession speech the morning after the election, Nixon famously blamed the media for favoring his opponent, saying, “You won’t have Nixon to kick around anymore because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference.”[31] The California defeat was highlighted in the November 11, 1962, episode of ABC‘s Howard K. Smith: News and Comment entitled “The Political Obituary of Richard M. Nixon.”[46]

The Nixon family traveled to Europe in 1963; Nixon gave press conferences and met with leaders of the countries he visited.[47] The family soon moved to New York City, where Nixon became a senior partner in the leading law firm Nixon, Mudge, Rose, Guthrie & Alexander.[31]

In 1963 the family bought an apartment at 810 Fifth Avenue.[48] Nelson Rockefeller lived upstairs, and during the Presidential campaign of 1968 the two used different entrances and elevators.[49][50][51]

Though largely out of the public eye, he was still supported by much of the Republican base who respected his knowledge of politics and international affairs.[31] This reputation was enhanced when Nixon wrote an article in Foreign Affairs entitled “Asia After Vietnam”,[31] in which he proposed a new relationship with China.[52] He campaigned for Republican candidates in the 1966 Congressional elections[31] and took an extended trip to South America and parts of the Middle East in 1967.[53]


From this –

He campaigned for Republican candidates in the 1966 Congressional elections[31] and took an extended trip to South America and parts of the Middle East in 1967.[53]

(and this)

Although Nixon’s first choice was to get a job with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, he returned to California and was admitted to the bar in 1937. He began practicing with Wingert and Bewley,[10] where he worked on commercial litigation for local petroleum companies and other corporate matters as well as on wills.

(and this – )

1968 presidential election

Throughout the campaign, Nixon portrayed himself as a figure of stability during a period of national unrest and upheaval.[55] He appealed to what he called the “silent majority” of socially conservative Americans who disliked the hippie counterculture and the anti-war demonstrators, and secured the nomination in August. His running mate, Maryland governor Spiro Agnew, became an increasingly vocal critic of these groups, solidifying Nixon’s position with the right.[56]

Nixon waged a prominent television campaign, meeting with supporters in front of cameras and advertising on the television medium.[57] He stressed that the crime rate was too high, and attacked what he perceived as a surrender by the Democrats of the United States’ nuclear superiority.[58]


– and _

Another large part of Nixon’s plan was the detachment of the dollar from the gold standard.[78] By the time Nixon took office, U.S. gold reserves had declined from $25 billion to $10.5 billion. Gold was an underpriced commodity, as the dollar was overpriced as a currency. The United States was on the verge of running its first trade deficit in over 75 years.[86] The price of gold had been set at $35 an ounce since the days of Franklin Roosevelt‘s presidency; foreign countries acquired more dollar reserves, outnumbering the entire amount of gold the United States possessed. Nixon completely eradicated the gold standard, preventing other countries from being able to claim gold in exchange for their dollar reserves, but also weakening the exchange rate of the dollar against other currencies and increasing inflation by driving up the cost of imports.[79] Nixon felt that the dollar should float freely like other currencies.[87] Said Nixon in his speech:

“The American dollar must never again be a hostage in the hands of international speculators…. Government… does not hold the key to the success of a people. That key… is in your hands. Every action I have taken tonight is designed to nurture and stimulate that competitive spirit to help us snap out of self-doubt, the self-disparagement that saps our energy and erodes our confidence in ourselves… Whether the nation stays Number One depends on your competitive spirit, your sense of personal destiny, your pride in your country and yourself.”[88]

Other parts of the Nixon plan included the reimposition of a 10% investment tax credit, assistance to the automobile industry in the form of removal of excise taxes (provided the savings were passed directly to the consumer),[87] an end to fixed exchange rates, devaluation of the dollar on the free market, and a 10% tax on all imports into the U.S.[78] Income per family rose, and unionization declined.[78]

Nixon wanted to lift the spirits of the country as polls showed increasing concern about the economy. His program was viewed by nearly everyone as exceptionally bold, and astounded the Democrats.[88] Nixon soon experienced a bounce in the polls.[89] His economic program was determined to be a clear success by December 1971.[90] One of Nixon’s economic advisers, Herbert Stein, wrote: “Probably more new regulation was imposed on the economy during the Nixon administration than in any other presidency since the New Deal.”[79]

(and – this part )

Indo-Pakistani War

A conflict broke out in Pakistan in 1971 following independence demonstrations in East Pakistan; President Yahya Khan instructed the Pakistani Army to quell the riots, resulting in widespread human rights abuses. President Nixon liked Yahya personally, and credited him for helping to open a channel to China; accordingly, he felt obligated to support him in the struggle.[116] There were limits to how far the U.S. could associate itself with Pakistan, however.[116] American public opinion was concerned with the atrocities[117] and the emigration of over 10 million people into India.[116]

Nixon relayed messages to Yahya, urging him to restrain Pakistani forces.[118] His objective was to prevent a war and safeguard Pakistan’s interests, though he feared an Indian invasion of West Pakistan that would lead to Indian domination of the sub-continent and strengthen the position of the Soviet Union,[119] which had recently signed a cooperation treaty with India. Nixon felt that the Soviet Union was inciting the country.[118]

Nixon met with Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and did not believe her assertion that she would not invade Pakistan;[120] he did not trust her and once referred to her as an “old witch”.[121] On December 3, Yahya attacked the Indian Air Force and Gandhi retaliated, pushing into East Pakistan.[122] Nixon issued a statement blaming Pakistan for starting the conflict and blaming India for escalating it[122] because he favored a cease-fire.[123] The United States was secretly encouraging the shipment of military equipment from Iran, Turkey, and Jordan to Pakistan, reimbursing those countries[124] despite Congressional objections.[125] A cease fire was reached on December 16 and Bangladesh was created.[126]



Nixon had begun entreating China a mere month into office by sending covert messages of rapprochement through Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania[128] and Yahya Khan of Pakistan[129] in December 1970. He reduced many trade restrictions between the two countries, and silenced anti-China voices within the White House.

(see 1965 timeline entries from long list above also)

Chinese Premier Chou En-lai, through Pakistani intermediaries, had relayed a message to Nixon reading: “The Chinese government reaffirms its willingness to receive publicly in Peking a special envoy of the president of the United States, or the U.S. secretary of state, or even the president himself.”[133] Nixon sent then-National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger on a secret mission to China in July 1971, to arrange a visit by the president and first lady.[133] Soon, the world was stunned to learn that Nixon intended to visit Communist China the following year.[134]

1965        Nov 17, General Meeting of UN refused admittance of China.
(MC, 11/17/01)

(from timeline above)


Nixon and Brezhnev met in Yalta, where they discussed a proposed mutual defense pact, détente, and MIRVs. While he considered proposing a comprehensive test-ban treaty, Nixon felt that it would take far too long to accomplish.[148] There were not any significant breakthroughs in these negotiations.[148]


However, the controls on oil and natural gas prices persisted for several years.[79] Nixon also dramatically increased spending on federal employees’ salaries while the economy was plagued by the 1973–1974 stock market crash.[158]

In his 1974 State of the Union address, Nixon called for comprehensive health insurance.[159] On February 6, 1974, he introduced the Comprehensive Health Insurance Act. Nixon’s plan would have mandated employers to purchase health insurance for their employees, and in addition provided a federal health plan, similar to Medicaid, that any American could join by paying on a sliding scale based on income.[159][160][161] The New York Daily News writes that Ted Kennedy rejected the universal health coverage plan offered by Nixon because it wasn’t everything he wanted it to be. Kennedy later realized it was a missed opportunity to make major progress toward his goal.[162]


Yom Kippur War and 1973 oil crisis

President Richard Nixon with King Faisal of Saudi Arabia following talks at Riasa Palace in 1974

The Nixon administration supported Israel, a powerful American ally in the Middle East, during the Yom Kippur War. When an Arab coalition led by Egypt and Syria attacked in October 1973, Israel suffered initial losses and pressed European powers for help, but (with the exception of the Netherlands) the Europeans responded with inaction. Nixon cut through inter-departmental squabbles and bureaucracy to initiate an airlift of American arms. By the time the U.S. and the Soviet Union negotiated a truce, Israel had penetrated deep into enemy territory. A long-term effect was the movement of Egypt away from the Soviets toward the U.S. But Israel’s victory came at the cost to the U.S. of the 1973 oil crisis; the members of OPEC decided to raise oil prices in response to the American support of Israel.[163]

After Nixon chose to go off the gold standard, foreign countries increased their currency reserves in anticipation of currency fluctuation, which caused deflation of the dollar and other world currencies. Since oil was paid for in dollars, OPEC was receiving less value for their product. They cut production and announced price hikes as well as an embargo targeted against the United States and the Netherlands, specifically blaming U.S. support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War for the actions.[164]

On January 2, 1974, Nixon signed a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 miles per hour (90 km/h) to conserve gasoline during the crisis.[165] This law was repealed in 1995, though states had been allowed to raise the limit to 65 miles per hour in rural areas since 1987.[166][167]


President Richard Nixon with King Faisal of Saudi Arabia following talks at Riasa Palace in 1974

President Richard Nixon with King Faisal of Saudi Arabia following talks at Riasa Palace in 1974 - wikipedia


1965        Japan’s PM Eisaku Sato told US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara that American military forces could launch a nuclear attack on China by sea if needed. This information was not made public until 2008.
(AP, 12/21/08)

1965        Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program (BIP) was first introduced. It led to the construction of foreign-owned maquiladoras (assembly plants) to produce goods for export.
(MT, summer 2003, p.22)


1967        Jan 5, Ronald Reagan was sworn in as Gov. of California.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)

1967        Jan 16, Alan S. Boyd was sworn in as the first US secretary of transportation.
(AP, 1/16/98)
1967        Jan 16, Gov. Reagan met with FBI agents at his governor’s mansion in Sacramento, Ca., for information on UC campus radicals.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F1)

1967        Jan 20, Clark Kerr, president of the UC system, was fired by Gov. Reagan and the UC Regents for being too soft on student protesters at Berkeley. In 2003 Kerr authored vol. 2 of his memoir: “The Gold and the Blue: A Personal Memoir of the Univ. of California.
(SSFC, 2/17/02, p.M6)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)

1967        Feb 14, Ramparts Magazine published an ad in the NY Times and Washington Post saying: “In its March issue, Ramparts magazine will document how the CIA has infiltrated and subverted the world of American student leaders over the past fifteen years.”
(WSJ, 1/23/08, p.D8)(www.nytimes.com/books/first/m/mackenzie-secrets.html)

1967        Jan 27, During a launch pad test of the Apollo I (AS-204) mission at Cape Kennedy, a flash fire suddenly broke out in the vehicle’s command module and killed its crew, Lt. Col. Edward White, II (U.S. Air Force), Lt. Col. Virgil “Gus” Grissom (U.S. Air Force) and Lt. Cmdr. Roger Chaffee (U.S. Navy). The fire consumed the command module mere seconds after the crew had reported it.
(AP, 1/27/98)(HNPD, 1/27/99)

1967        Jan 27, The US signed the Outer Space Treaty with Russia. More than 60 nations signed a treaty banning the orbiting of nuclear weapons. All weapons of mass destruction were banned from orbit, as was military activity on the moon and other celestial bodies.
(SFC, 1/28/67, p.A1)(AP, 1/27/98)(SSFC, 7/15/07, p.D1)

1967        Feb 7, Henry Morgenthau (b.1891), 52nd US secretary of the treasury, died. He served under President Franklin D. Roosevelt from January 1, 1934 to July 22, 1945.

1967        Feb 10, The 25th Amendment to the Constitution, dealing with presidential disability and succession, went into effect as Minnesota and Nevada adopted it.
(HFA, ’96, p.22)(AP, 2/10/08)

1967        Feb 15, France launched its Diademe-D satellite into Earth orbit. This followed the launch of Diademe-C on Feb 8. These satellites were magnetically stabilized which limited their trackability in the southern hemisphere.

1967        Feb 18, Robert Oppenheimer (62), theoretical physicist and leader of atomic bomb development, died. His work included outlining processes by which old stars of sufficient mass might collapse beyond the Schwarzschild radius and become black holes. Physicist John Wheeler named the phenomena black holes. In 2005 Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin authored “American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer,” and Priscilla J. McMillan authored “The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer.”
(SFC, 12/19/98, p.C3)(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.B1)(SSFC, 7/31/05, p.F2)

1967        Feb 21, Ford recalled 217,000 cars to check brakes and steering.
(HN, 2/21/98)

1967        Feb 22, More than 25,000 US and South Vietnamese troops launched Operation Junction City, aimed at smashing a Vietcong stronghold near the Cambodian border. In order to deny the Vietcong cover, and allow men to see through the dense vegetation, herbicides were dumped on the forests near the South Vietnamese borders as well as Cambodia and Laos. The operation continued to May 14.
(HN, 2/22/99)(AP, 2/22/07)(HN, 2/23/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Junction_City)
1967        Feb 26, USSR performed an underground nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk, USSR.

1967        Mar 2, The US performed a nuclear test at its Nevada Test Site. The Rivet III test was part of Operation Latchkey.

1967        Mar 3, The US performed a nuclear test at its Nevada Test Site. The Mushroom test was part of Operation Latchkey.

1967        Mar 3, Grenada became an associated state of Britain. Full independence came on Feb 7, 1974.

1967        Mar 5, Mohammed H. Mosaddeq (b.1882), former prime minister of Iran (1951-53), died in Iran following a period of house arrest. He had been ousted in a military coup organized by the CIA and British intelligence.

1967        Mar 6, The daughter of Josef Stalin, Svetlana Alliluyeva, appeared at the US Embassy in India and announced her intention to defect to the West.
(AP, 3/6/07)

1967        Mar 6, Svetlana Alliluyeva, the daughter of Josef Stalin, appeared at the US Embassy in India and announced her intention to defect to the West. She arrived at New York in April and held a press conference during which she denounced her father’s regime.
(AP, 3/6/07)(www.economicexpert.com/a/Svetlana:Alliluyeva.htm)

1967        Mar 26, Jim Thompson, American ex-serviceman, disappeared while on holiday in the Cameron Highlands of Northern Malaysia. He revived the Thai silk industry after WW II. He was one of the first to adopt a classic Thai house to the requirements of modern life, and his home is now a museum in Bangkok, Thailand.
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.63)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T14)

1967        Mar 27, A North Vietnamese spokesman unequivocally rejected a new peace plan proposed by UN Sec. General U Thant (1907-1974) on March 14.

1967        Mar 29, France launched its first nuclear submarine. It did not enter operational service until 1972, when it began its first patrol on 28 January.

1967        Mar 31, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Consular Treaty, the first bi-lateral pact with the Soviet Union since the Bolshevik Revolution.

1967        Apr 7, A, Israeli-Syrian minor border incident escalated into a full-scale aerial battle over the Golan Heights, resulting in the loss of six Syrian MiG-21s to Israeli Air Force (IAF) Dassault Mirage IIIs, and the latter’s flight over Damascus.

1967        Apr 9, The 1st Boeing 737-100 made its maiden flight.

1967        Apr 21, In Greece “The Colonels” led by Colonel George Papadopoulos (1919-1999) took power in a bloodless military coup. Papadopoulos, Stylianos Pattakos, and Nikolaos Makarezos (1919-2009) imposed martial law and cracked down heavily on political opponents, imprisoning or exiling thousands of mostly left-wing supporters, many of whom were tortured by military police.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)(SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)(AP, 8/6/09)
1967        Apr 23, Soyuz 1 was launched, and Vladimir Komarov became the first in-flight casualty.
(AP, 4/23/98)

1967        Apr 25, Britain granted internal self-government to Swaziland.

1967        Apr 27, Expo ’67 was officially opened in Montreal by Canadian Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson. The urban theme park, La Ronde, was built on the Ile Sainte-Helene for the exposition and continues on to today. The Expo featured the big-screen, multi-projector film Polar Life. This led to the formation of Multiscreen Corporation and eventually IMAX in 1970.
(Hem., 7/95, p.129)(Hem., 3/97, p.81)(AP, 4/27/97)

1967        Apr 28, Gen. William C. Westmoreland told Congress the United States “would prevail in Vietnam.”
(AP, 4/28/97)

1967        Apr, French author Regis Debray (b.1940) was imprisoned in Bolivia shortly before the capture of Che Guevara [see Nov 17].

1967        Apr-1967 May, The US military conducted chemical warfare tests, Red Oak, Phase 1, in the Upper Waiakea Forest Reserve of Hawaii using shells and rockets filled with sarin gas.
(SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

1967        May 2, The Stockholm Vietnam Tribunal opened and continued to May 10. The formation of this investigative body immediately followed the 1966 publication of Bertrand Russell’s book, “War Crimes in Vietnam.” It condemned US aggression in Vietnam and Cambodia. A 2nd session of the tribunal was held at Roskilde, Denmark, Nov 20 – Dec 1, 1967.

1967        May 11, The United Kingdom re-applied to join the European Community. It is followed by Ireland and Denmark and, a little later, by Norway. General de Gaulle is still reluctant to accept British accession.

1967        May 11, French President Charles de Gaulle for a second time said he will veto Britain’s application to join the Common Market.

1967        May 11, David Galula (b.1919), Tunisia-born French military officer and scholar, died in France. He was influential in developing theories of counterinsurgency. He wrote his experiences in two books, later published by the RAND Corporation: “Pacification in Algeria” (1963), and “Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice” (1964).
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Galula)(WSJ, 3/14/09, p.W9)

1967        May 18, In Mexico schoolteacher Lucio Cabanas began a guerilla campaign in Atoyac de Alvarez, west of Acapulco in the state of Guerrero. The government responded with widespread repression and hundreds of civilians were killed or disappeared.
(SFEC, 9/30/96, p.A12)

1967        May 19, The Soviet Union ratified a treaty with the United States and Britain banning nuclear weapons from outer space: “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies.” The Int’l. Outer Space Treaty barred nations from appropriating celestial bodies but did not mention individuals.
(AP, 5/19/97)(SFC, 6/25/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.8)

1967        May 22, Egyptian president Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to Israel.

1967        May 29, Pope Paul VI named 27 new cardinals, including Karol Wojtyla, archbishop of Krakow, who later became Pope John Paul II.
(SSFC, 4/3/05, p.A13)

1967        May, The Olympic Committee banned a number of substances including narcotics, steroids and amphetamines and announced that small-scale drug-testing would begin at the 1968 Olympics in Grenoble and Mexico City.
(WSJ, 8/7/06, p.B1)(www.steroid.com/)

1967         Jun 1, In Israel pressure from the army and a threat by some parties to quit the governing coalition forced PM Levi Eshkol to bring in Moshe Dayan as defense minister.
(www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9029562)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.43)

1967        Jun 2, In Germany Benno Ohnesorg, a newly wed student of literature, was shot in the back of the head during a protest in West Berlin against the visiting shah of Iran. Police officer Karl-Heinz Kurras, who claimed he was threatened by knife-wielding protesters, was acquitted of manslaughter charges on Nov 23. The led to the formation of the Red Army Faction, also known as the Baader-Meinhof gang. In 2009 Kurras was found to have been a long-time agent of East Germany’s secret police, the Stasi.
(Econ, 5/30/09, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gudrun_Ensslin)

1967        Jun 3, Arthur Ransome (b.1884), English author of children’s adventure stories, died. He is best known for writing the “Swallows and Amazons” series of children’s books. It is believed that he served as a double agent and worked in the Russian service after the collapse of the Czarist regime. In 1918 he wrote a propaganda pamphlet titled: “On Behalf of Russia: An Open Letter to America.” In 2009 Roland Chambers authored “The Last Englishman: The Double Life of Arthur Ransome.”
(Econ, 8/29/09, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Ransome)

1967        Jun 5, The Six Day War erupted in the Middle East as Israel, convinced an Arab attack was imminent, raided Egyptian military targets. Syria, Jordan and Iraq entered the conflict. Jordan lost the West Bank, an area of 2,270 sq. miles. War broke out as Israel reacted to the removal of UN peace-keeping troops, Arab troop movements and the barring of Israeli ships in the Gulf of Aqaba.
(AP, 6/5/97)(HN, 6/5/98)(NG, 5/93, p.58)(HNQ, 5/22/00)

1967        Jun 5-1967 Jun 10, Israel fought the Six-Day War against Syria and captured the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Allegations that Israeli soldiers killed hundreds of Egyptian prisoners with the knowledge of national leaders were made by Israeli historians in 1995. Israel occupied Syrian territory. The Gaza Strip and the West Bank were captured by Israel. Israel annexed the largely Arab East Jerusalem, which included the Old City, and has since ringed it with Jewish neighborhoods.
(WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-13)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1967        Jun 6, Israeli troops occupied Gaza on the 2nd day of the 6-day war.

1967        Jun 7, Israel captured the Wailing Wall in East Jerusalem. 3rd day of the 6-day war.

1967        Jun 8, On the 4th day of the Six-Day War Israel captured the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, as well as the West Bank and Eastern Jerusalem from Jordan. Israel’s occupation of Gaza continued for the next 38 years.
(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.E6)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.9)

1967        Jun 8, Israeli forces raided the USS Liberty, a US Navy ship stationed in the Mediterranean. Israel called the attack a tragic mistake. The Israeli Air Force attack on the intelligence gathering auxiliary ship Liberty killed 34 crewmen and wounded 171. The attack took place on the 4th day of the Six-Day War in international waters off the coast of Israel. While still a controversy, the official explanation was that Israel believed the Liberty was an Egyptian vessel. Commander William L. McGonagle (d.1999 at 73) was awarded the Medal of Honor for keeping Liberty afloat and remaining on the bridge for 17 hours despite his own wounds. Israel apologized and paid over $12 million in compensation.
(AP, 6/8/97)(SFC, 3/9/99, p.A22)(WSJ, 5/9/01, p.A24)(WSJ, 5/16/01, p.A23)

1967        Jun 10, Israel completed its final offensive in the Golan Heights in the 6-Day Middle East War. The next day Israel and Syria agreed to observe a United Nations-mediated cease-fire. Israel took Gaza and the Sinai from Egypt, Old Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. In 2002 Michael B. Oren authored “Six Days of War: June 1967 and the making of the Modern Middle East.” Israeli military historian Arieh Yitzhaki later said that his research showed Israeli troops killed 300 Egyptian prisoners of war. Israel said soldiers on both sides committed atrocities. In 2007 Tom Segev authored “1967: Israel, the War and the Year that Transformed the Middle East.”
{Israel, Palestine, Syria, Egypt}
(AP, 6/10/97)(WSJ, 6/5/02, p.D7)(AP, 3/6/07)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.97)

1967        Jun 11, Israel and Syria accepted a UN cease-fire. The UN brokered a cease-fire between Israel and the defeated Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, ending the Six-Day War with Israel occupying the Sinai, West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. Israel annexed the largely Arab East Jerusalem, which included the Old City, and has since ringed it with Jewish neighborhoods.
(HN, 6/11/98)(AP, 6/11/03)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)

1967        Jun 13, President Johnson nominated Solicitor-General Thurgood Marshall to become the first black justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. The seat on the court formerly held by Justice Tom Clark was filled by the first African-American Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall. In 1967, President Lyndon Johnson convinced Clark, a fellow Texan who had served on the court since 1949, to resign so he could name Marshall to the bench. Marshall, a leading civil rights lawyer, had been the U.S. Solicitor General since 1965. He served on the court until he resigned in 1991.
(AP, 6/13/97)(HNQ, 2/16/99)

1967        Jun 14, The movie “To Sir, with Love,” starring Sidney Poitier, was first released.
(AP, 6/14/07)
1967        Jun 14, The space probe Mariner 5 was launched from Cape Kennedy on a flight that took it past Venus.
(AP, 6/14/97)

1967        Jun 15, Gov. Ronald Reagan signed the Therapeutic Abortion Act, which permitted abortions in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy if a woman’s life or health was threatened or the pregnancy was the result of rape or incest.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)(AP, 6/15/07)

1967        Jun 17, China detonated its 1st hydrogen bomb and became the world’s 4th thermo-nuclear power.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teller%E2%80%93Ulam_design)


1967        Jun 23, President Johnson and Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin held the first of two meetings in Glassboro State College in New Jersey.
(AP, 6/23/07)


1967        Jun 24, Pope Paul VI published his encyclical Sacerdotalis Caelibatus (priestly celibacy).

1967        Jun 27, The first recognizably automated teller machine (ATM) was placed outside the Barclays PLC branch in Enfield, a north London suburb.
(AP, 6/27/07)

1967        Jun 28, Israel formally declared Jerusalem reunified under its sovereignty following its capture of the Arab sector in the June 1967 war.
(AP, 6/28/98)

1967        Jun 29, Jerusalem was reunified as Israel removed barricades separating the Old City from the Israeli sector.
(AP, 6/29/97)(HN, 6/29/98)

1967        Jul 4, The Freedom of Information Act became official, making government information more readily available. To withhold information, the government must prove its need to be classified.
(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1967        Jul 5, Bruce Barton (b.1886), advertising king and former US Congressman from NY (1937-1941), died in NYC. In 1925 he authored “The Man Nobody Knows,” in which he argued that Jesus was a pre-eminent business executive. In 2005 Richard M. Fried authored “”The Man Everybody Knew,” a biography of Bruce Barton.
(www.infoplease.com/biography/us/congress/barton-bruce.html)(WSJ, 10/25/05, p.D8)

1967        Jul 6, The Biafran War erupted. The war, which lasted more than two years, claimed some 600,000 lives. The Republic of Biafra was proclaimed when the eastern region of Nigeria, the homeland of the Igbo people, seceded. This was followed by civil war. The federal troops of Nigeria held most of rebellious Biafra by the end of 1968 but the Igbos attempted to hold out in a small and crowded area. The war broke out when the Igbos, led by Colonel Emeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu of the Nigerian army, launched a rebellion to form a separate state following allegations of ethnic cleansing, neglect and marginalization against federal forces.
(AP, 7/6/97)(HNQ, 5/27/98)(AFP, 1/10/07)

1967        Jul 12, Greek regime deprived 480 Greeks of their citizenship.
(MC, 7/12/02)

1967        Jul 14, The Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization, or WIPO Convention, was signed at Stockholm, Sweden, and entered into force on April 26, 1970. As its name suggests, it established the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). WIPO Convention has 184 Contracting Parties. The Convention is written in English, French, Russian and Spanish, all texts being equally authentic. The Convention was amended on September 28, 1979.

1967        Jul 19, The 1st air conditioned NYC subway car was R-38 on the F line.
(MC, 7/19/02)

1967        Jul 21, In South Africa ANC president Albert Luthuli died after being hit by a train in what was widely thought to have been an assassination operation. The anti-apartheid icon received the 1960 Nobel prize for his role in the struggle against whites-only rule.
(AP, 7/11/07)

1967        Jul 23-30, Racial riots in the city of Detroit left 40 dead, 2,000 injured and 5,000 homeless in the worst riot of the summer. The rioting, looting and burning was quelled with the arrival of 4,700 paratroops dispatched by President Lyndon Johnson. Nearly all of America’s large cities were wracked by racial violence during the 1965-’68 period. The event inspired Rev. William Cunningham (d.1997 at 67) to found Focus: Hope, a volunteer project that grew to become one of the largest programs in the country dedicated to feeding and teaching job skills to the urban poor.
(SFC, 5/29/97, p.C4)(HNQ, 7/11/98)

1967        Jul 24, French President Charles de Gaulle stirred controversy during a visit to Montreal, Canada, when he declared, ”Vive le Quebec libre!” (Long live free Quebec!).
(AP, 7/24/07)

1967        Jul 25, Construction began on SF MUNI Metro (Market Street subway).
(SC, 7/25/02)

1967        Jul 29, Fire swept the USS Forrestal in the Gulf of Tonkin, off the coast of Vietnam, killing 134 servicemen with $100 million in damage. One survivor was Navy Lt. Cmdr. John McCain, who later became a US senator.
(AP, 7/29/07)

1967        Jul 30, General William Westmoreland claimed that he was winning the war in Vietnam but needed more men.
(HN, 7/30/98)

1967        Jul, In the wake of the Six Day War some 2,000 Jews in Libya were compelled to leave the country.
(WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A19)
1967        Jul, In Somalia Mohamed Ibrahim Egal (d.2002) served as the prime minister until 1969.
(SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

1967        Aug 3, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced plans to send 45,000 more troops to Vietnam.
(HN, 8/3/98)

1967        Aug 7, In China a speech by Wang Li to the Red Guards led their violent takeover of the Foreign Ministry building. In the weeks that followed they rampaged among foreign diplomats and often beat envoys.
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.C2)

1967        Aug 8, The Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN was established in Bangkok by the five original Member Countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.  Brunei Darussalam joined on 8 January 1984, Vietnam on 28 July 1995, Laos and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999.

1967        Aug 11,  Roy M. Wheat (20) led a team from Company K, 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines, providing security for a Navy construction crew on the Liberty Road in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam. Lance Corporal Roy Wheat accidentally triggered a well-concealed, bounding type anti-personnel mine. He yelled for team members Lance Corporals Vernon Sorenson and Bernard Cannon to run. Then he flung himself onto the mine as it exploded, absorbing the tremendous impact with his body. Roy Wheat was killed, but his companions were spared certain injury and possible death. Marine Roy M. Wheat was the only Mississippian to earn the Medal of Honor during the Vietnam War.
(HN, 9/19/01)

1967        Aug 24, Abbie Hoffman and the Yippies tossed fistfuls of paper money onto the floor of the NY Stock Exchange. Plexiglas screens were soon installed to prevent such displays.
(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.T4)(www.metroactive.com/papers/sonoma/02.13.97/bk-raskin-9707.html)

1967        Aug 25, George Lincoln Rockwell (b.1918), founder of the American Nazi Party, was shot to death in the parking lot of a shopping center in Arlington, Va. Former party member John Patler (29) was later convicted of the killing. In 1999 Frederick J. Simonelli authored “American Fuehrer” George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party.”
(AP, 8/25/07)(AH, 2/06, p.60,64)

1967        Aug 25,  Paraguay accepted its constitution.
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1967        Aug 29, Charles Darrow (b.1889), self-claimed inventor of Monopoly, died.

1967        Aug 30, The U.S. Senate confirmed the appointment of Thurgood Marshall as the first black justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
(AP, 8/30/97)

1967        Aug 31, Haydee Tamara Bunke Bider, aka Tania the Guerrilla, was killed when her guerrilla column was ambushed by Bolivian soldiers. The remains of Bider, who was born in Argentina, were uncovered in Sep. 1998 in Vallegrande and returned to Cuba, her adopted homeland.
(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A17)

1967        Sep 2, Paddy Roy Bates, retired British army major, landed on the island of Sealand, a WW II military fortress 6 miles off the coast of England, and declared it a sovereign nation, the Principality of Sealand.
(SFEC, 6/4/00, p.A4)(www.sealandgov.com/history.html)


1967        Sep 3, Muhammad Bin Laden (b.1908), a Yemeni immigrant to Saudi Arabia, died in a plane crash. He made a fortune in the construction business and left King Faisal in charge of some 55 of his children.
(Econ, 4/12/08, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_bin_Laden)


1967        Sep 3, Lieutenant General Nguyen Van Thieu was elected president of South Vietnam under a new constitution.
(AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)

1967        Sep 4, Michigan Gov. George Romney told a TV interview he’d undergone a “brainwashing” by U.S. officials during a 1965 visit to Vietnam, a comment that apparently damaged Romney’s bid for the Republican presidential nomination.
(AP, 9/4/97)

1967        Sep 10, Gibraltar voted 12,138 to 44 to remain British and not Spanish.
(MC, 9/10/01)

1967        Sep 20, The 963-foot passenger ship Queen Elizabeth II was launched.

1967        Sep 26, Hanoi rejected a U.S. peace proposal.
(HN, 9/26/99)

1967        Sep, The government delegations of China, Tanzania and Zambia held talks in Beijing and formally signed the “Agreement of the Government of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Government of the Republic of Zambia on the Construction of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway”.

1967        Sep, The British, French and German governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to start development of the 300 seat Airbus A300 in order to compete with American companies. Airbus Industrie was formally set up in 1970.

1967        Oct 3, William J. Knight (d.2004), US Air Force test pilot, set a speed record in a rocket-powered X-15-2A that reached 4,520 mph. Knight later served as a California state senator (1996-2004).
(SSFC, 5/9/04, p.B7)

1967        Oct 5, Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’Izzaddin Waddaulah, the 29th Sultan of Brunei, ascended to the throne.

1967        Oct 8, Che Guevara was captured by US trained Bolivian Rangers near Vado del Yeso.
(SFC, 5/12/96, Z1p.4)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.A10)
1967        Oct 8, Clement R. Attlee (84), former premier of Great Britain (1945-51), died.
(AP, 10/8/07)

1967        Oct 9, The British Road Safety Act, providing for use of the “breathalyser” (or breathalyzer) to detect intoxicated motorists, went into effect.
(AP, 10/9/07)

1967        Oct 10, The Outer Space Treaty, which prohibits the placing of weapons of mass destruction on the moon or elsewhere in space, entered into force.
(AP, 10/10/07)

1967        Oct 17, American forces of the black Lion battalion walked into an ambush set by NV commander Vo Minh Triet and 61 were killed. In 2003 David Maraniss authored “They Marched Into Sunlight: War and Peace, Vietnam and America,” which centered on this battle and a protest in Wisconsin on Oct 18.
(Econ, 11/22/03, p.82)(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.M3)

1967        Oct 17, Aisin-Gioro Henry Puyi (61), the last emperor of China, died of cancer. Official reports said his death occurred while under persecution from ultra-leftists of the Cultural Revolution.
(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Puyi)

1967        Oct 18, A protest in Madison, Wisc., against recruiting by Dow Chemical, the maker of napalm and Agent Orange, turned violent. In 2003 David Maraniss authored “They Marched Into Sunlight: War and Peace, Vietnam and America.” It centered on an Oct 17 battle in Vietnam and the Wisconsin protest.
(Econ, 11/22/03, p.82)(SSFC, 12/28/03, p.M3)
1967        Oct 18, A Russian unmanned spacecraft made the first landing on the surface of Venus.
(HN, 10/18/98)

1967        Oct 19, Amy Carter, Pres Carter’s daughter and peace activist, was born.
(MC, 10/19/01)
1967        Oct 19, The US space probe Mariner V flew past Venus.
(AP, 10/19/07)

1967        Oct 20, Seven men were convicted in Meridian, Miss., of violating the civil rights of three murdered civil rights workers.
(AP, 10/20/97)

1967        Oct 21, Tens of thousands of Vietnam War protesters marched in Washington, D.C. 35,000 people assembled outside the Pentagon to protest the war in Vietnam. The “March on the Pentagon,” protesting American involvement in Vietnam , drew 50,000 protesters.
(TMC, 1994, p.1967)(AP, 10/21/97)(HN, 10/21/98)
1967        Oct 21, The Israeli destroyer INS Eilat was sunk by Egyptian missile boats near Port Said; 47 Israeli crew members were lost.
(AP, 10/21/07)

1967        Oct 23, A secret US State Dept. cable reported that covert Guatemalan security operations included “kidnapping, torture and summary executions.”
(SFC, 3/11/99, p.A12)

1967        Oct 26, US Navy pilot John McCain, later US Senator, was shot down in his A-4 over North Vietnam and spent 5 1/2 years in prison, two in solitary confinement. He signed a confession following torture admitting to being a war criminal and in 1999 published the family saga “Faith of My Fathers.” The 1995 book “The Nightingale’s Song” by Robert Timberg was about McCain.
(SFC, 8/16/99, p.A1,4) (WSJ, 9/8/99, p.A24)

1967        Oct, US Capt. John McCain, bomber pilot, bailed out from his damaged plane and fell into Hanoi’s Truc Bach Lake. He was rescued by Main Van On of the People’s Army of Vietnam. McCain later became a US senator.
(SFC, 11/14/96, p.A11)
1967        Oct 26, The Shah of Iran crowned himself and his Queen after 26 years on the Peacock Throne.
(AP, 10/26/97)

1967        Oct 31, Nguyen Van Thieu took the oath of office as the first president of South Vietnam’s second republic.
(AP, 10/31/97)

1967        Oct, Pres. Johnson named Edward M. Korry (d.2003 at 81) to serve as the US ambassador to Chile. Korry served until 1971 and was kept ignorant by the Nixon administration of plans for a coup.
(SFC, 2/1/03, p.A19)

1967        Oct, TV journalist Charles Kuralt (1934-1997) hit the nation’s roads with a 3-person crew for a trial run of what would become the “On the Road” series.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A5)
1967        Nov 5, US troops conquered Loc Ninh South Vietnam.
(MC, 11/5/01)

1967        Nov 7, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed a bill establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
(AP, 11/7/97)(HN, 11/7/98)

1967        Nov 7, Carl Stokes (1927-1996) was elected the first black mayor of a major city — Cleveland, Ohio. He served two terms as mayor from 1967 to 1971 and was a leading advocate for increased federal aid to American cities. After serving as mayor, Stokes became a television commentator and later a judge in Cleveland.
(AP, 11/7/97)(HNQ, 1/9/03)

1967        Nov 9, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) launched Apollo 4 into orbit from Cape Kennedy with the first successful test of a Saturn V rocket.
(AP, 11/9/97)(HN, 11/9/98)

1967        Nov 14, Barney Kilgore (b.1908), WSJ columnist and Chairman of Dow Jones & Co., died. He is credited as the visionary who made The Wall Street Journal into a national newspaper. In 2009 Richard J. Tofel authored “Restless Genius: Barney Kilgore, The Wall Street Journal, and the Invention of Modern Journalism.”
(www.nassauchurch.org/cemetery/docs/bernard_kilgore.htm)(WSJ, 3/9/09, p.A17)

1967        Nov 17, Surveyor 6 made a six-second flight on moon, the first lift off on lunar surface.
(HN, 11/17/98)

1967        Nov 17, French author Regis Debray (b.1940) was sentenced to 30 years in Bolivia. Debray (b.1940) was jailed in Bolivia shortly before Che Guevara was captured and was convicted of having been part of Guevara’s guerrilla group. He was released in 1970 after an international campaign for his release which included Jean-Paul Sartre, André Malraux, General De Gaulle and Pope Paul VI.

1967        Nov 18, A Detroit newspaper strike began and shut down both daily papers for 267 days. The strike ended on August 9, 1968.
(SFC, 9/18/97, p.C2)(www.loc.gov/rr/news/chronological/exception_report.html)

1967        Nov 18, A photograph of the planet Earth was made from a space vehicle, the ATS-III Satellite.
(E&IH, 1973, p.1)

1967         Nov 19, In Vietnam, the Tiger Force, an elite US Army unit of the 101st Airborne Division, achieved their 327th kill. The unit had killed hundreds of civilians in Hanh Thien, a Central Highland area, over the last seven months. US Army Lt. Col. Gerald Morse had called for 327 kills to match the name of the 327th infantry regiment. In 2006 Michael Sallah and Mitch Weiss authored “Tiger Force: A True Story of Men and War.” It was based on secret documents from Henry Tufts (d.2002), former head of the Army’s Criminal Investigations Command (CID).
(AP, 10/25/03)(SSFC, 5/14/06, p.M1)

1967        Nov 20, The Census Clock at the US Commerce Department ticked past 200 million.
(AP, 11/20/97)

1967        Nov 21, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Air Quality Act, allotting $428 million for the fight against pollution.
(HN, 11/21/98)(AP, 11/21/07)

1967        Nov 22, The U.N. Security Council approved Resolution 242, which called for Israel to withdraw from territories it captured in 1967, and implicitly called on adversaries to recognize Israel’s right to exist.
(AP, 11/22/97)

1967        Nov 24, Cambodian triple agent Inchin Lam was murdered. Special Forces Captain John J. McCarthy was accused and later tried for the murder in a court in Vietnam. [see Jan 29, 1968]

1967        Nov 26, Cloudburst over Lisbon, Portugal, killed 250-450.
(MC, 11/26/01)(AP, 11/26/02)

1967        Nov 27, The Beatles’ “Magical Mystery Tour,” album was released in Britain.
1967        Nov 27, Lyndon Johnson appointed Robert McNamara to the presidency of the World Bank. McNamara served 2 terms from 1968-1981.
(HN, 11/27/98)(SFC, 9/28/99, p.C16)
1967        Nov 27, Charles DeGaulle vetoed Britain’s entry into the Common Market again.
(HN, 11/27/98)

1967        Nov 28, Actress-model Anna Nicole Smith (d.2007) was born Vickie Lynn Hogan in Houston.
(AP, 11/28/07)
1967        Nov 28, The first pulsating radio source (pulsar) was detected.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)

1967        Nov 28, Yemen gained independence from Britain. British troops withdrew and the People’s Republic of Yemen was declared with Qahtan ash-Sha’abi as the country’s first President.

1967        Nov 29, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announced he was leaving the Johnson administration to become president of the World Bank.
(AP, 11/29/97)

1967        Nov 30, Sen. Eugene McCarthy began a run for US presidency.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1967        Dec 1, Queen Elizabeth inaugurated the 98-inch (249-cm) Isaac Newton telescope.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1967        Dec 3, The 20th Century Ltd., the famed luxury train, completed its final run from New York City to Chicago.
(AP, 12/3/97)

1967        Dec 3, Surgeons in Cape Town, South Africa, led by Dr. Christiaan Barnard, performed the first human heart transplant at the Groote Shur Hospital. Louis Washkansky lived 18 days with the new heart. The first heart transplant operation in the U.S. was on December 6, 1967, in New York City.
(AP, 12/3/97)(HNQ, 1/9/99)

1967        Dec 4, Bert Lahr (72), [Irving Lahrheim], US comic (Wizard of Oz), died.
(MC, 12/4/01)

1967        Dec 6, Dr. Adrian Kantrowitz (1918-2008) performed the first US human heart transplant on a baby in Brooklyn, who died 6 hours later.
(SFC, 11/21/08, p.B6)

1967        Dec 8, In the biggest battle yet in the Mekong Delta, 365 Vietcong were killed.
(HN, 12/8/98)
1967        Dec 8, Major Robert Lawrence Jr. was killed in the crash of an F-104 fighter during a training exercise, six months after being named to the Air Force’s manned orbiting laboratory program. in 1997 he was recognized as a full-fledged astronaut, the first black astronaut.
(SFC,12/897, p.A6)

1967        Dec 9, Nicolae Ceausescu became president (dictator) of Romania.
(MC, 12/9/01)

1967        Dec 10, Singer Otis Redding (26) and 6 others died in the crash of his private plane in Lake Monona, Wisconsin. He had recently recorded “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay,” which became a big hit in 1968.
(SFC, 4/25/06, p.B5)(AP, 12/10/07)

1967        Dec 11, The Concorde, a joint British-French venture and the world’s first supersonic airliner, was unveiled in Toulouse, France.
(HN, 12/11/98)

1967        Dec 12, The U.S. ended the airlift of 6,500 men in Vietnam.
(HN, 12/12/98)

1967        Dec 14, DNA was created in a test tube.
(MC, 12/14/01)

1967        Dec 14, Israel submitted to the United Nations a five-year plan to solve the Arab refugee problem conditioned on a general peace settlement between Israel and the Arab states.
(AP, 12/14/02)

1967        Dec 15, The US Age Discrimination Employment Act became public law.

1967        Dec 15, In Point Pleasant, West Virginia, it took less than 30 seconds for the Silver Bridge to tumble into the Ohio River, killing 46 people and leaving towns on either side stunned and bereft. The bridge had linked Point Pleasant and Kanauga, Ohio, since 1928.
(AP, 12/15/07)

1967        Dec 17, Australia’s PM Harold Holt (59) plunged into the surf at Victoria during a stroll on the beach and vanished. In 2005 a coroner officially confirmed that Holt had drowned.
(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.26)(AP, 9/2/05)

1967        Dec 20, Some 474,300 US soldiers were stationed in Vietnam.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1967        Dec 23, President Johnson, on his way home from a visit to Southeast Asia, held an unprecedented meeting with Pope Paul VI at the Vatican.
(AP, 12/23/07)

1967        Dec 24, Burt Baskin (b.1913) co-founder of the Baskins-Robbins ice cream chain, died. He and Irvine Robbins (1917-2008) had become partners in 1948.
(WSJ, 5/10/08, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burt_Baskin)

1967        Dec 24, Greek Junta freed ex-Premier Papandreou.
(HN, 12/24/98)

1967        Dec, In Greece the military junta crushed an attempted counter rebellion led by King Constantine. The Royal family fled the country and Colonel George Papadopoulos emerged as the junta leader.
(SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)

1967        Dec 26, Atlantic Richfield oil workers struck oil on Alaska’s North Slope at Prudhoe Bay.
(AH, 10/04, p.42)

1967        Dec 29, A Turkish-Cypriot government formed in Cyprus.
(MC, 12/29/01)

1967        Trudy Baker, Rachel Jones and Donald Bain authored “Coffee, Tea or Me: The Uninhibited Memoirs of Two Airline Stewardesses.” The pseudonymous author turned out to be a male airline publicist.
(http://tinyurl.com/33hh6e)(Econ, 5/5/07, p.105)

1967        Anthony Nutting published “No End of a Lesson” which explained why he quit his British government position during the 1956 Suez crises.
(SFC, 2/26/99, p.A25)

1967        Charles Plunket Bourchier Taylor (1935-1997), Beijing correspondent for the Globe & Mail, published “Reporter in Red China.”
(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)

1958        Telford Taylor published “The Breaking Wave.” He helped write the rules for Nuremberg Trials.
(SFC, 5/26/98, p.B2)

1967        Hunter Thompson authored “Hells Angels: A Strange and Terrible Saga.” Sonny Barger, founder of the Angels, co-wrote his auto-biography in 2000 with Kent and Keith Zimmerman.
(SFC, 6/10/00, p.B1)

1967        The film “Titicut Follies” was directed by Frederick Wiseman. It was banned by the Massachusetts Supreme Court for its stark portrayal of inmate conditions in Bridgewater, Mass.
(WSJ, 11/11/06, p.P2)

1967        Aretha Franklin (b.1942) recorded “Chain of Fools.”
1967        Aretha Franklin (b.1942) sang “Respect,” “Baby I Love You” and “I Never Love a Man (the Way I Love You).”
(SSFC, 6/30/02, Par p.30)

1967        Arlo Guthrie recorded the 18.5 minute ballad “Alice’s Restaurant.” It was about his arrest for dumping garbage that had piled up at the former Episcopal Church where Alice and Ray Brock lived in Great Barrington, Mass. Guthrie bought the building in 1991 for $300,000 and set up a foundation to promote understanding among religious traditions. “It’s a bring your own god church.”
(SFC, 1/5/02, p.A2)
1967        In Cuba the Orquesta de Musica Moderna, a government sponsored group, was formed. It was the basis for the later jazz group Irakere.
(SFC, 6/16/96, BR p.42)

c1967        John Portman designed the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Atlanta, the first with a large atrium-style lobby.
(WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B1)

1967        In Maryland developer James W. Rouse started the town of Columbia, an experiment in urban idealism.
(WSJ, 4/5/08, p.A1)

1967        Ashleigh Brilliant began to copyright pithy mottoes for a living. By 1997 he had copyrighted 7,540 aphorisms which he licensed for postcards, T-shirts and other products. “Fundamentally, there may be no basis for anything.”
(WSJ, 1/27/97, p.B1)

1967        The American Film Institute was founded.
(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.B1)

1967        Chuck Carpy (1928-1996) founded the Freemark Abbey Winery in Napa Valley. He later founded Rutherford Hill Winery (1976) and the Napa Valley Bank (1982).
(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A20)

1967        Rick Klein, the son of a Pittsburgh physician, took his $50,000 inheritance and bought 100 acres near Taos, N.M. where he founded New Buffalo. It became a commune that was used by the likes of Timothy Leary, Ram Dass (aka Richard Alpert), Dennis Hopper, and was the model for the commune in the film Easy Rider. Klein later converted the facility to a Bed & Breakfast Inn.
(SFC, 12/10/95, p.T-9)

1967        Dennis Pulestin (d.2001 at 95) helped found the Environmental Defense Fund to fight DDT spraying and to campaign for better environmental protection.
(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A27)

1967        Board sailing was invented in Southern California.
(Sp., 5/96, p.104)

1967        John Fulton (d.1998 at 65), American professional bullfighter, was confirmed in his ranking by Madrid’s renowned Las Ventas bullring. He later did illustrations for Michener’s “Miracle in Seville” and wrote a primer on how to be a matador titled “Bullfighting.”
(SFEC, 2/22/98, p.D8)

1967        Monroe “Bud” Karmin (e.1999 at 69) won a Pulitzer Prize in journalism for an expose of Mafia dominance in gambling in the Bahamas.
(SFC, 1/18/99, p.A21)

1967        Miguel A. Asturias (1899-1974) of Guatemala won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
(AP, 10/8/09))(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_%C3%81ngel_Asturias)

1967        Hans Bethe (1906-2005), German-born peace worker and physicist, won the Nobel Prize for explaining how the sun and stars generate energy.
(SFC, 3/8/05, p.B5)
1967        George Wald (d.1997 at 90),  won a Nobel Prize for his work on the biochemistry of vision. As a National Research Council fellow in Germany in 1932 he helped discover Vitamin A in the retina and retinol as a component of the visual cycle.
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)

1967        Ray Knisley, owner of Camp Richardson at Lake Tahoe, Ca., deeded the land to the government to keep it out of the hands of developers. It was initially developed by entrepreneur Alonzo Richardson in 1924, who in 1921 had begun ferrying guests between Placerville and Lake Tahoe in his fleet of Pierce Arrow touring cars.
(SSFC, 8/31/08, p.E6)

1967        Pres. Johnson began the practice of placing a wreath on the graves of deceased presidents on their birthdays.
(SFC, 12/30/98, p.A5)

1967        The government WIN program, work incentive, mandated job training for some welfare recipients.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, zone 1 p.5)

1967        Raymond Hurlbert (1902-1996) helped persuade Congress to pass the Public Broadcasting Act.
(SFC, 11/13/96, p.C3)

1967        Muriel Siebert became the first woman to own a seat on the NY stock exchange.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1967        Robert Kearns (1928-2005) patented automobile intermittent windshield wipers.
(SFC, 3/2/05, p.B7)

1967        James M. Roche (d.2004) became chairman and CEO of General Motors. He stepped down as chairman in 1971.
(SFC, 6/8/04, B7)

1967        James Whitman McLamore and Dave Edgarton sold Burger King to Pillsbury. Pillsbury later sold it to Britain’s Grand Metropolitan PLC.
(SFC, 8/10/96, p.A20)

1967        The California Packing Co. (Calpak) changed its name to Del Monte.
(SFC, 3/1/97, p.B1)(SSFC, 10/3/04, p.J1)

1967        Gablinger’s beer, named after Swiss chemist Hersch Gablinger, was launched by Rheingold Breweries. Joseph Owades (1919-2005, brewmaster, developed the process to remove starch from beer and gave the formula to Meister Brau. The product failed but Meister Brau was sold to Miller Brewing. Miller successfully marketed the beer as Miller Lite.
(www.ereader.com/product/book/excerpt/17067)(SFC, 12/20/05, p.B7)

1967        Warner Brothers Corp. was acquired by Canadian-based Seven Arts Productions and became Warner-Seven Arts.
(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)

1967        IBM opened a plant in Austin, Texas, to make Selectric typewriters. The plant moved on to make mainframe circuit boards, terminals and eventually personal computers.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.74)

1967        Robert Kearns patented the intermittent windshield wiper. He later sued Ford Motor Co. and settled for 33 cents for every one of 20 million Ford cars sold with the device.
(WSJ, 7/26/99, p.A22)

1967        Robert Mishell (1934-2008), immunologist, discovered how to grow antibodies in a petri dish using air with 7% oxygen rather than the usual 20%. This later led to the discovery of T cells , B cells and other components of the immune system.
(SFC, 4/5/08, p.B3)

1967        Syukuro Manabe and Richard Wetherald of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab. in Princeton, New Jersey, performed one of the first serious computer analysis of the climate using computers. Later GCMs (global circulation models) reached wide use.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.59)

1967        Simon Sze and Dawon Kahng, researchers at Bell Labs in New Jersey, devised a new semiconductor memory device in which information could be stored and updated, and which was non-volatile. It retained its contents even after it was turned off.
(Econ, 3/11/06, Survey p.26)

1967        Jocelyn Bell, research student at Cambridge discovered objects in the sky emitting regular pulses of radio waves, later named pulsars. Fast-spinning pulsars rotate at 50,000 rpm.
(BHT, Hawking, p.93)(NH, 3/97, p.70)

1967        A cosmic gamma ray burster was first detected by a fleet of American spy satellites called Vela Hotel. The satellites had been flying over the poles since 1963 to make sure the Soviets were not conducting illegal nuclear tests in outer space.
(SFC, 3/26/99, p.A2)(SFC, 11/5/99, p.D7)
1967        The first neutrino detector was built in South Dakota. It was designed to capture solar neutrinos with energies on the order of millions of electron volts.
(PacDis, Spring/’94, p. 40)

1967        The first successful heart transplant was performed in South Africa.
(TMC, 1994, p.1967)

1967        U Thant, the UN secretary-general from Burma, began an archeological project in Nepal that in 1996 claimed to discover the birthplace of Siddartha, the monk Buddha.
(WSJ, 2/6/96, p.A-11)

1967        The US declared the eagle an endangered species.
(SFC, 6/18/99, p.A3)

1967        In Livermore a small amount of plutonium accidentally leaked out of the Lawrence Livermore Lab. and into the sewer system. The sewer sludge was sold to Tri-Valley residents as a soil conditioner for gardens and lawns. The 4.2-acre Big Trees Park later tested higher than background for plutonium but experts assured residents that there was no real danger.
(SFC, 2/27/98, p.A22)

1967        Surveyor 5 landed on the moon at the Sea of Tranquility with an alpha-scattering spectrometer to analyze the surface elements. The device was made by Prof. Anthony L. Turkevich (1916-2002).
(SFC, 9/23/02, p.B5)

1967        Venera 4, a space probe of the Soviet Union, was launched. It transmitted information on the atmosphere of Venus.
(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)

1967        Three US astronauts died when their capsule caught fire on the ground.
(TMC, 1994, p.1967)

1967        The USS John F. Kennedy aircraft carrier was christened by 9-year-old Caroline Kennedy.
(WSJ, 8/22/96, p.A12)

1967        J. Frank Duryea (1869-1967) died. He and his brother Charles were the first to successfully build a gasoline-engine motor vehicle in 1893 in Springfield, Mass.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1967        Sidney Gottlieb (d.1999 at 80) rose to the top of the technical services division of the CIA. For 22 years he experimented with LSD and participated in the MKULTRA program of secret experiments with mind-altering drugs.
(SFC, 4/6/99, p.)

1967        Robert Lipka, a National Security Agency clerk at Fort Meade, Md., from 1964-1967, passed documents to Soviet agents thought to contain descriptions of US troop movements, NATO communications, and NSA electronic eavesdropping targets. His meetings with Russians continued on and off until 1974. He was arrested by the FBI in 1996. His indictment said he received $27,000 for his alleged espionage. He pleaded guilty to one charge of espionage in 1997 in exchange for a prison term not to exceed 18 years.
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A19)(SFC, 5/24/97, p.A7)

1967        The IRS began arguing that the Church of Scientology should loose its tax-exempt status because it was a for-profit business that enriched its church officials. The case was settled on Oct 1, 1993.
(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A12)

1967        An outbreak of hoof-and-mouth disease in Britain led to the slaughter of 400,000 animals.
(SFC, 2/21/01, p.A12)

1967-1973    The entire population of the Chagos archipelago, which lies 2,200 miles east of Africa and around 1,000 miles southwest of India, was relocated by this year. Britain leased Diego Garcia, the main island, to the US and barred anyone from entering the archipelago except by permit. In 2003 a British judge ruled that former residents have no right to return home or get compensation.
(AP, 10/9/03)

1967        The President’s Crime Commission recommended the creation of a single national number for emergency phone calls. ATT reserved 911 in 1968.
(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1967-1974    A military junta ruled Greece and was supported by the US government.
(SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A19)

1967        Brazil passed legislation stipulating that journalists must obtain a diploma and register with the labor ministry, in order to prevent troublemakers from voicing their opinions. In the name of national security, legislation censored news media, composers, playwrights and writers and allowed for the seizure of publications. In 2009 Brazil’s Supreme Court struck down the press censorship legislation.
(Econ, 10/25/08, p.48)(AP, 5/1/09)
1967        Brazil, in an attempt to foment progress (and diminish regional inequalities), created a tax free zone was created called Zona Franca de Manaus. Manaus is the only city in Amazonas where an industrial park has been developed.

1967        The Chinese Cultural Revolution briefly spilled over into Hong Kong with street riots.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)
1967        Liu Shaoqi (d.1969), president of China since 1959, and his wife Wang Guangmei were put under house arrest in Beijing. The couple were soon separated and imprisoned. Liu died in prison. Wang Guangmei (d.2006) spent nearly 12 years in prison before she was released in 1979.
(SFC, 10/19/06, p.B5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Shaoqi)

1967        In Indonesia Pres. Sukarno was placed under house arrest and Suharto became acting president.
(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.A15)

1967        In Namibia a 23-year brush war began with the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) rebel movement demanding independence from South Africa.
(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.20A)

1967        In Hong Kong Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB) received a rare license to operate by the colonial government. In the 1970s Sir Run Run Shaw gained control. Its film production ceased operations in 1985. In 1999 it sold its vast library of films to a Malaysian firm.
(Econ, 5/24/08, p.88)

1967        McDonald’s opened its first restaurant outside the US in Canada.
(WSJ, 5/13/99, p.B13)

1967        Pakistan’s 7-year, $518 million Mangla Dam project on the River Jhelum was completed. Richard Byers (d.2004) served as chief project engineer for the Guy F. Atkinson Co.
(www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/md.pdf)(SFC, 12/22/04, p.B4)

1967        The government of Canada took over the coal mines of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. In the 1970s the government lured some 1,800 new workers to the mines to secure a cheap source of energy for Nova Scotia. In 1999 the government attempted to end the costly public venture but faced strikes by miners who claimed inadequate severance packages.
(WSJ, 1/12/00, p.A18)

1967        The East African Community (EAC) of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda established a common shilling. The EAC lasted only a decade as cooperation fizzled. The project was revived in 1999 and expanded in 2007 to include Burundi and Rwanda.
(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(Econ, 9/5/09, p.52)

1967        Alberta, Canada, began to develop its oil sands. Fort McMurray, population 4,000, grew to 65,000 residents by 2007, including some 200 families from Venezuela.
(WSJ, 6/26/07, p.A12)

1967        Freeport-McMoran Copper & Gold Inc. arrived in Indonesia. The government was given a 10% stake in the world’s largest copper and gold deposit.
(WSJ, 9/29/98, p.A1)

1967        Diamonds were discovered in Botswana. It was later thought that the deposits would run out by 2030.
(Econ, 10/24/09, p.59)

1967        Britain started pumping oil from the North Sea.
(Econ, 7/14/07, p.60)

1967        The US government announced that all silver coins would be withdrawn from circulation


1967        The US introduced the concept of the SDR (special drawing right) as an alternative to the dollar and gold as an int’l. reserve currency to finance global trade.
(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.A29)

1967        This year marked the beginning of oil production in Oman.
(NG, 5/95, p.120)


1967        Soviet Gen. Sakharovsky became chief intelligence adviser in Romania. He helped bring Yasser Arafat to the Soviet Union via Romania for training and indoctrination. The soviets maneuvered to have Arafat named chairman of the PLO with help from Egypt’s ruler, Gamal Abdel Nasser.
(WSJ, 1/10/02, p.A12)



(there’s more)

(and this -)

Bretton Woods system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Bretton Woods system is commonly understood to refer to the international monetary regime that prevailed from the end of World War II until the early 1970s. Taking its name from the site of the 1944 conference that created the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, the Bretton Woods system was history’s first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern currency relations among sovereign states. In principle, the regime was designed to combine binding legal obligations with multilateral decision-making conducted through an international organization, the IMF, endowed with limited supranational authority. In practice the initial scheme, as well as its subsequent development and ultimate demise, were directly dependent on the preferences and policies of its most powerful member, the United States.

Setting up a system of rules, institutions, and procedures to regulate the international monetary system, the planners at Bretton Woods established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which today is part of the World Bank Group.



Fears of dollar collapse as Saudis take fright – Telegraph

Sep 19, 2007 Kuwait became the first of the oil sheikhdoms to break its dollar peg in May, a move that has begun to rein in rampant money supply growth.

Petrodollar warfare – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The topic of oil currency warfare under the title U.S. Dollar vs. the Euro: China Daily: Ahmadinejad: Remove US dollar as major oil trading currency


Most oil sales throughout the world are denominated in United States dollars (USD).[1] According to proponents of the petrodollar warfare hypothesis, because most countries rely on oil imports, they are forced to maintain large stockpiles of dollars in order to continue imports. This causes demand for USDs to remain high, regardless of economic conditions in the United States. This in turn allegedly allows the US government to gain revenues through seignorage and by issuing bonds at lower interest rates than they otherwise would be able to. As a result the U.S. government can run higher budget deficits at a more sustainable level than can most other countries.

OPEC Considers Move Off U.S. Dollar Peg, Will Russia Be First

Nov 19, 2007 Kuwait in May moved its national currency off a US dollar peg to a “As the U.S. dollar is likely to continue to fall, oil prices will be

Dropping Gulf dollar peg would ease inflation: Greenspan | Reuters

Feb 25, 2008 fall significantly were the oil producers to drop their dollar pegs, in. the shortcomings of the dollar peg,” said Simon Williams,

Canadian Dollar reaches parity with US dollar, peg of oil

Sep 21, 2007 The oil rich countries in the Gulf have traditionally pegged their currencies to the US Dollar, for example is that 3.75 Saudi Riyals bought


And in case you ever need to look it up –

put NIOSH Petroleum in the Google search –

  1. CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Petroleum

    Feb 3, 2009 A – NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens Synonyms & Trade Names. Aliphatic petroleum naphtha, Petroleum naphtha, Rubber solvent

  2. CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Asphalt fumes

    Feb 3, 2009 Asphalt: Asphaltum, Bitumen (European term), Petroleum asphalt, At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL,

  3. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

    Aliphatic petroleum naphtha, Petroleum naphtha, Rubber solvent, DOT ID & Guide 1255 128. Exposure Limits, NIOSH REL: TWA 350 mg/m3 C 1800 mg/m3 [15-minute]


    Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are contained in PETROLEUM ETHER, (NIOSH, 2003) _____Dupont Average Standardized Breakthrough Times_____ (for
  1. Chemical Sampling Information: Petroleum Distillates (Naphtha

    Sep 10, 2007 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Petroleum distillates (naphtha): chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous

  2. [PDF]


    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons. (for hydrocarbon of concern). NIOSH 1500 or Equivalent. *3. *1 For more detailed analysis or when the possibility exists for

  3. 508. Light petroleum (WHO Food Additives Series 16)

    by B DATA
    NIOSH (1977b) Criteria for a recommended standard occupational exposure to refined petroleum solvents, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare

  4. OSHA, NIOSH, ASTM Methods listed by Chemical Hazard listed by

    Petroleum distillate (naphthas), 8002-05-9, NIOSH 1550, Sorbent Tube 226-01. Pump 210-1002MH. GC-FID — Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector

  5. MSDS – Fisher Scientific – Welcome

    Chemical Name, ACGIH, NIOSH, OSHA – Final PELs. Petroleum Ether, 300 ppm TWA Epidemiology: Epidemiological studies involving petroleum refinery workers
Searches related to NIOSH petroleum

niosh pocket guide to chemical hazards

niosh analytical method

niosh exposure limits

  1. [PDF]


    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    Refer to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134, ANSI Z88.2-1992, NIOSH Respirator Decision Repeated inhalation of the petroleum coke dust (10.2 and 30.7 mg/m3) over a

  2. Sperian SAF-T-FIT Plus (NIOSH)

    NIOSH 42 CFR 84. Historical Brand. Willson. Warranty Information N95 – 95% against solid particulates & non-petroleum based liquid aerosols N99 – 99%

  3. MSDS Petroleum distillate CAS 8002-05-9 MSDS

    CAS 8002-05-9 Petroleum distillate msds toxicity property. NIOSH REL TO PETROLEUM DISTILLATES-air:TWA 350 mg/m3;CL 1.8 gm/m3 REFERENCE : NIOSH* National


    Ingredient #, 01. Ingredient Name, PETROLEUM SOLVENT. CAS Number, 64742467. NIOSH Number, 1000113PS. Proprietary, NO. Percent, 70-80. OSHA PEL, N/K

  5. [PDF]

    MSDS for Petroleum Ether – Back to Petroleum Ether (Certified ACS

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    NIOSH. OSHA – Final PELs. Petroleum Ether none listed none listed none listed. OSHA Vacated PELs: Petroleum Ether: No OSHA Vacated PELs are listed for this

  6. Sperian Filters & Cartridges : S-Series (NIOSH)

    NIOSH 42 CFR 84. Historical Brand. Survivair. Warranty Information N95 – 95% against solid particulates & non-petroleum based liquid aerosolsN99 – 99%

  7. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

    Limits, NIOSH REL: TWA 350 mg/m3 C 1800 mg/m3 [15-minute] None reported [Note: VM&P Naphtha is a refined petroleum solvent predominantly C7-C11 which is

  8. [PDF]

    SR-100 NIOSH MSHA Manual 031403 Added NIOSH Table.pub

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    (In accordance with Section “S” of the NIOSH cautions and limitations) …. submerge the SR-100 in water or use petroleum solvents to clean.

  9. Petroleum (Oil & Gas) – Seismic Exploration – Sat May 15, 2010

    Injury Prevention Resources for Petroleum (Oil & Gas) – Seismic Exploration Source: NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
  1. Two-Year Inhalation Toxicity Study of Petroleum Coke in Rats and

    by DR Klonne – 1987 – Cited by 11Related articles
    NIOSH (1981): Petroleum Refinery Workers’ Exposure to PAHs at Fluid Catalytic-Cracker, Coker, and. Asphalt Processing Units. U.S. Dept of Health and Human

  2. [PDF]


    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View


    PETROLEUM SPIRITS (8032-32-4)’s ,Uses,Safety,Toxicity,Consensus,History,Production For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Naphthas, 1550.
  1. Exposure and health risks potentially posed to petroleum storage

    by TC Keener – 1999 – Cited by 2Related articles
    (NIOSH, Refined Petroleum Solvents, pg. 211). As a result, according to Elkins, “the benzene vapor concen- tration resulting from handling such mixtures

  2. [PDF]

    Industry Guide – Petroleum Refineries – Publication # 1449

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    by P Refineries – Related articles
    Modern petroleum refineries utilize a vast array of chemical processes to convert the raw By NIOSH Method 7903. SKC Publication #1016. Sulfuric Acid

  3. [PDF]

    NAPHTHAS 1550

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    by S PREPARATION – Related articles
    NIOSH: Table 1. ACGIH: Table 1. PROPERTIES: Table 1. SYNONYMS: Petroleum ether (benzin), rubber solvent, petroleum naphtha, VM&P naphtha, mineral spirits,

  4. [PDF]

    Material Safety Data Sheet Petroleum Coke

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    toxic by-products of combustion should require NIOSH/MSHA- approved High concentrations of airborne petroleum coke dusts may be ignited by contact

  5. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

    Asphalt: Asphaltum, Bitumen (European term), Petroleum asphalt, Petroleum bitumen, At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL,

  6. [PDF]


    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/80-106.html. B. AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API). 1220 L STREET NORTHWEST. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20005. PHONE: 202-682-8000 http://www.api.org

  7. Fact Sheet: List of Major Federal Regulations and Standards

    Further, NIOSH has developed non-regulatory guidance addressing the control of fire hazards specific to petroleum drycleaning operations.


HHE Report No. HETA-99-0196-2860, Future Aviation, Inc., Naples

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
The NIOSH REL for petroleum distillates. (naphtha) is 350 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) of air as a TWA exposure.2. In addition, a ceiling


Sumithrin (see Figure 1) is an

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
by C COX – Related articles
Material safety data sheet: Anvil 10+10 ULV. Rosedale, IL. 7. NIOSH. 2000. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances: Mineral oil, petroleum distil-

    Values listed are for petroleum ether. Extremely Flammable Liquid and Vapor! In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved

  2. [PDF]


    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    Oil/Petroleum Spills, Industrial waste. 30 (FL). 7.2 (FL) .3/3. (NIOSH/OSHA). 3/15. (NIOSH/OSHA). Sulfur Dioxide coal/petro burning, apricot preservative,
  1. Chemical Sampling Information: Asphalt Fumes (Petroleum)

    Jan 22, 2010 Synonyms: Asphalt: Asphaltum, Bitumen (European term), Petroleum asphalt NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Asphalt Fumes: chemical

  2. [PDF]

    Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic, and the manufacturer for additional guidance …. crude oil, refined, and unrefined petroleum products and any indigenous
  1. Organic Industrial Hygiene Lab Services

    Petroleum Ether Petroleum Naphtha Polynucleararomatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) NIOSH 1300. NIOSH 1606. NIOSH 1604. NIOSH 1500. NIOSH 1003. NIOSH 1024

  2. [PDF]


    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    1000 ppm (1800 mg/m3) NIOSH recommended TWA 10 hour(s). LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG): 1000 ppm (1800 mg/m3) OSHA TWA. 1000 ppm (1800 mg/m3) NIOSH


There might be something among those that is fairly helpful. Going to go to sleep now for awhile . . .

Most of it is self-explanatory and most of the NIOSH Petroleum search results sites – will be easy to use regardless of what the entrypoint says from this list – just use it to get into the site and look around – they are pretty easy.

– cricketdiane



Feb 12, 2002 API Publication 2015, Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks (May 1994) 3. NIOSH, Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Working

Oil Spill Update: Is BP Protecting Responders? | Earth Matters

May 15, 2010 For petroleum distillates in mist form, NIOSH recommended exposure limit is 15 minutes. OSHA, NIEHS and NIOSH have available in English,

Almost forgot –

from the 1967 listings the father of Osama Bin Laden – (among the list above)


1967        Sep 3, Muhammad Bin Laden (b.1908), a Yemeni immigrant to Saudi Arabia, died in a plane crash. He made a fortune in the construction business and left King Faisal in charge of some 55 of his children.
(Econ, 4/12/08, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_bin_Laden)