Tags

, , , , ,

http://www.calgaryherald.com/business/drilling+moratorium+maintained+wake+spill+disaster/3023781/story.html

U.S. government agency map showing the Georges Bank and the boundary.

U.S. government agency map showing the Georges Bank and the boundary.

Photograph by: Canwest News Service, Handout Photo

HALIFAX — The federal and Nova Scotia governments said Thursday they will extend a moratorium on exploration and drilling for oil and gas on the Georges Bank, a rich fishing ground off the coast of Nova Scotia.

The moratorium, which dates back to 1988, was first extended in 1999. The latest ban was set to expire in 2012. This new three-year extension, to Dec. 31, 2015, will allow reachers “to gather and develop information on the delicate Georges Bank ecosystem, particularly about fishing and petroleum activities and technologies,” the governments said in a joint release.

U.S. President Barack Obama has also extended the moratorium on the much larger American side of the fishing grounds until 2017.

“We know that any decision on whether or not to lift the moratorium on Georges Bank could have significant economic and environmental impacts on the province, the country, and beyond,” Nova Scotia Premier Darrell Dexter said in a release. “It is critical that government understands these impacts before such a decision is made.”

He said “there may be important lessons to learn” from the oil spill off the coast of Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico, which has brought offshore drilling activity to the public spotlight.

“We would want solid science and a full public review before making any decision to lift the moratorium. I have heard the public’s concerns and I am confident that extending the moratorium will put people’s minds at ease,” Dexter said.

***
***
The Lucas Gusher at Spindletop. Jan 10, 1901.
(from)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spindletop

***

Tailings piles are large accumulations (tens to hundreds of acres) of finely ground rock (a by-product of the mechanical and chemical separation of lead-zinc ore from the rock matrix) that typically are placed in dammed headwater valleys. The rock is piped to the disposal site as a slurry, and compacts as the slurry water evaporates or infiltrates into the pile and subjacent bedrock. Tailings can be a source of sediment load to streams, and trace-element contamination to ground water and streams. Ground-water levels and flow directions may be altered beneath the tailings piles. A hydrologic investigation of tailings piles in the Viburnum Trend is planned to more fully understand the effect of these piles on the environment. The investigation would include drilling monitoring wells around tailings piles to collect water-level and water-quality data; an analysis of tailings material, tailings water, ground water, and surface water to assess the presence and mobility of trace elements; and an estimation of a water budget for a tailings pile.

Lead-zinc sulfide minerals and associated iron sulfide in the Viburnum Trend are far below the ground surface in an oxygen deficient environment (Lee and Goldhaber, 2001a). Natural chemical reactions between the ore-bearing rock and ground water in unmined areas can cause slightly elevated background concentrations of toxic trace elements, including heavy metals in ground and surface waters (Lee, 2000). When an ore body is mined, lead-zinc sulfides are crushed, and oxygen-rich air is brought into contact with the minerals. Compounds that were stable and immobile in an oxygen deficient environment can be mobilized by the introduction of oxygen-bearing water during mining. This process can increase the concentrations of trace-element compounds in ground water and stream water above natural background concentrations (Lee and Goldhaber, 2001b). A study of regional variations in ore mineralization and ground-water chemistry in the Viburnum Trend is planned to determine the natural background concentrations of trace elements of concern. This study also would include collection of water samples from seeps in the mine tunnels, discharged mine water, tailing ponds, and ground and surface waters from mined areas to determine post-mining concentrations of major cations and anions, trace elements, and organic compounds used in the mines. Geochemical reaction calculations would be used to evaluate the processes that control the release of trace elements during the mining process.

Tailings piles contain an abundance of heavy metals (mostly as metal sulfides) that can be released into the aquatic environment under certain conditions. Particles of nearly insoluble heavy-metal sulfides can be transported directly into stream sediments by runoff. Metal sulfides also can be made more soluble by the action of bacteria (biotic processes) or by the surface oxidation of sulfides to sulfates (abiotic processes) and leach into water moving through the tailings piles into the streams. When solubilized metals enter the stream environment, they can become re-associated with particulates by forming insoluble carbonate precipitates, sorption to particle surfaces, or complexation with stream organic matter. Depending on the hardness, pH, and other water-quality conditions, both particulate and dissolved metals are available to differing degrees for uptake by aquatic organisms. A study by Schmitt and others (1993) showed that fish from several streams in the Viburnum Trend contained elevated concentrations of lead and other mining-derived metals and decreased levels of an enzyme involved in hemoglobin synthesis. Fish from reference sites in the new exploration area (Hurricane Creek) and Big Spring contained low concentrations of lead and normal enzyme levels.

(from)

http://mo.water.usgs.gov/fact_sheets/fs-005-02-Imes/index.html

***

Spindletop is a salt dome oil field located in south Beaumont, Texas in the United States. The Spindletop dome was derived from the Louann Salt evaporite layer of Jurassic age.[1] On January 10, 1901, a well at Spindletop struck oil (“came in”). The new oil field soon produced more than 100,000 barrels of oil per day.[2] Oil prices dropped to a record low of 3 cents per barrel, less than the price of water in some areas.[3] Gulf Oil and Texaco, now part of Chevron Corporation, were formed to develop production at Spindletop.[4]

The strike at Spindletop represented a turning point for Texas and the nation. No oil field in the world had ever been so productive.[2] The frenzy of oil exploration and the economic development it generated in the state became known as the Texas Oil Boom. The United States soon became the leading oil producer in the world.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spindletop

Lucas continued drilling and on January 10, 1901, at a depth of 1,139 ft (347 m), what is known as the Lucas Gusher or the Lucas Geyser blew oil over 150 ft (46 m) in the air at a rate of 100,000 barrels per day (16,000 m3/d)(4,200,000 gallons). It took nine days before the well was brought under control.[2] Spindletop was the largest gusher the world had seen and catapulted Beaumont into an oil-fueled boomtown. Beaumont’s population of 10,000 tripled in three months and eventually rose to 50,000.[6] Speculation led land prices to increase rapidly. By the end of 1902, over 500 companies were formed and 285 active wells were in operation.[2]

  1. ^ Hyne, Norman J., Nontechnical guide to petroleum geology, exploration, drilling, and production, Pennwell Books, 2nd ed. p. 193 ISBN 978-0878148233

Spindletop is located in Texas

Location: Spindletop Hill, South of Beaumont, Texas, USA
Coordinates: 30°1′9″N 94°4′26″W / 30.01917°N 94.07389°W / 30.01917; -94.07389Coordinates: 30°1′9″N 94°4′26″W / 30.01917°N 94.07389°W / 30.01917; -94.07389
Built/Founded: 1900
Added to NRHP: November 13, 1966
Designated NHL: November 13, 1966
NRHP Reference#: 66000818

***

The biological systems of the Ozarks are human-influenced, fire-mediated systems. As far back as 14,000 years ago, Native Americans were manipulating Missouri’s landscape, primarily with fire, for food, shelter and other products. The woodlands were kept open through the use of frequent, low-intensity fires, and perhaps by elk and bison. The only heavily forested areas would have been found along major rivers and other areas that were not affected by the fire regime.

Beginning in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, this rich ecosystem and the processes that maintained it were severely disrupted. The oak and pine forests that covered the Ozarks for unbroken miles were harvested in support of mining and westward expansion. Fortunes boomed with early lead and silver mining. With the forests gone, settlers attempted to farm the thin Ozark soils, and livestock were allowed to wander the open range. The clearing, farming and grazing caused soil erosion that clogged streams with silt and gravel.

As a result of these impacts, short-lived scarlet and black oaks now dominate where once longer-lived pine, white and post oaks were found. What was once savanna or open woodlands are now thick with undesirable brush and small diameter trees. These changes, along with the suppression of fire, have resulted in lower species diversity.

The Challenge

In the early 1930’s the State of Missouri asked the Forest Service to establish national forests in Missouri, to help reestablish forest and protect the watersheds. Eroded areas were planted to stop soil erosion, wildlife preserves were built and wildlife such as deer and turkey were imported from other states. Over the years the forest began to recover.

http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/forests/marktwain/about/niche_statement/

***

Introduction:

The primary mission of the Bureau of Land Management in the Eastern U.S is the management of minerals. The Bureau issues prospecting permits, leases, exploration licenses and oversees operations for all Federally owned mineral estates regardless of surface ownership.  Most of the Federal minerals in the east are under National Forest lands administered by the U.S.D.A. Forest Service.  Some Federal mineral holdings underlie surface owned by the Department of Defense or local or state governments. Policy and procedures require environmental analysis and surface-owner consultation prior to all permitting or leasing activities.

http://www.blm.gov/es/st/en/fo/milwaukeefo_html/milwaukee_field_office5.html

MFO’s solid-minerals operations are located in the Rolla, Missouri Resource Office. The Rolla office is responsible for the assessment of solid-mineral resources and the supervision of solid mineral resource exploration, development, and production on Federal mineral lands within MFO’s twenty-state jurisdictional boundary.

The Rolla office was established in 1972 as part of the U.S Geological Survey’s Conservation Division to oversee all federal solid-mineral activities in the eastern part of the U.S. In 1983, the USGS Conservation Division and its functions were merged with the Bureau of Land Management.

Rolla is a town of 16,000 people located approximately 100 miles southwest of St. Louis, Missouri on the northern flanks of the Ozarks.  Rolla hosts, in addition to the Bureau of Land Management office, the University of Missouri-Rolla (formerly the Missouri School of Mines), the U.S. Geological Survey Mid-Continent Mapping Center and Water Resources Division Missouri State Office, the U.S. Bureau of Mines Rolla Research Center, The Mark Twain National Forest Supervisor’s Office, the Missouri State Geological and Land Survey Division Office, and the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration District Office.

***

Keeper of the Register

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the USA, the Keeper of the Register (more formally known as the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places) is a National Park Service (NPS) official, responsible for deciding on the eligibility of historic properties for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).[1][2] The Keeper’s authority may be delegated as he or she sees fit.[2] The State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) for each state submits nominations to the Keeper. Upon receipt, the Keeper has 45 days to decide whether to add the property to the NRHP.[2][3][4]

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keeper_of_the_Register

***

Missouri lead/zinc mining

The major area of activity is lead/zinc mining in the Viburnum Trend mining district, which is located entirely within the Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri.  This world-class mining district contains the largest domestic lead reserves, and also produces zinc, copper, silver, cadmium, and cobalt.

Galena, Lead ore

The district produces 90% of domestic primary lead, 65% of which is from 36 federal leases, which cover 33,600 acres of national forest land. Of the 36 federal leases, 18 are producing.  Six producing mines paid about $10 million in royalties last year and the district has paid about $160 million in royalties since 1960. Additionally, there are currently seven prospecting permits present on the Mark Twain Forest.  It is anticipated that at least one Preference Right Lease Application (PRLA) will be submitted by the permittee within the next year, or so, as a result of the drilling which has occurred on these properties.

http://www.blm.gov/es/st/en/fo/milwaukeefo_html/milwaukee_field_office5.html

Galena Lead Ore - Mining in the Mark Twain National Forest and Stream System

Galena Lead Ore - Mining in the Mark Twain National Forest and Stream System

*&&&^^

However, about a year ago, it came to the attention of the U.S. Forest Service and BLM, that the Superior National Forest Plan, a document from which the two agencies had been issuing prospecting permits for twenty years, was inadequate from a NEPA standpoint to justify permit issuance or authorize exploration activities by the industry.   As a result, there has been a temporary halt in the federal program for issuing prospecting permits and for authorizing exploration on prospecting permits and leases.  The Superior National Forest is discussing the prospects of preparing an EIS to address exploration activities on their forest. The BLM will be a cooperating agency in the process.

Michigan:

In May of 2003, Fairmount Minerals made application for a competitive lease covering approximately 320 acres of Federal land on the Huron-Manistee Forest in Michigan. The mineral commodity under application is an uncommon variety of sand used by the automotive industry for engine castings. The chemical composition for foundry-sand resources must contain the right proportions of silica and iron and aluminum oxides so that their thermal properties do not adversely affect the casting process.

Huron-Manistee National Forest intends to prepare an EIS by contracting through the Forest Service Enterprise teams. The plan is to produce a final Scoping Notice by spring of 2007.  It remains to be seen whether additional funding will be available by the Huron-Manistee forest for more EIS work beyond the Scoping Notice. The Forest has stated that they do not believe the money will be there next year.

Minnesota:

Exploration for copper, gold, zinc, platinum, palladium, and other metals in the northern national forests within MFO’s jurisdiction has been intense during the last 5 to10 years.  The area of greatest interest has been the geologic terrane of the Duluth Complex on the Superior National Forest, Minnesota. Presently, there are 2 Preference Right Leases, 3 prospecting permits, 25 prospecting permit applications and 1 preference right lease application totaling about 45,000 acres.

http://www.blm.gov/es/st/en/fo/milwaukeefo_html/milwaukee_field_office5.html

West Virginia coal lease applications

Argus Energy LLC (Argus) has submitted a coal LBA (WVES-50556) to BLM for 7,624.60 acres bordering a portion of the southern shore of the East Lynn Lake Project in Wayne County, West Virginia.  Rockspring Development (Rockspring) also submitted an LBA for 5,449.92 acres (WVES-50560) that borders a portion of the north shore of the lake. Both companies propose to mine the Federal coal under their respective lease application areas by underground methods. This would be accomplished by Argus and Rockspring cutting drifts from their existing, adjacent underground mines located on private land. Argus would access the Federal reserves from the south and Rockspring from the north.  No surface mining would occur.  Before any coal lease can be granted, coal-mining issues will be analyzed in a Land Use Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (LUA/EIS) paid for by the applicants through a third party contract.  By letters dated June 29, 2006 and July 14, 2006 from Argus Energy and Rockspring Development, respectively, both companies accepted BLM’s selection of Golder and Associates to prepare the LUA/EIS.  Individual contracts between Golder and each company were signed on September 20, 2006, legally acknowledging Golder as the preparing contractor of the LUA/EIS at East Lynn Lake.  In October of 2006, the East Lynn Lake EIS project was officially launched with the holding of a Kickoff Meeting at East Lynn, West Virginia. The projected completion date of the EIS is early 2009.

On The Horizon:

This office expects the Doe Run Company of Missouri to submit Preference Right Lease Applications on at least one of their prospecting permits on the Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri.  We also anticipate renewed and accelerated exploration activity on the Superior National Forest in northern Minnesota at the completion of the proposed exploration EIS.  This office believes that as soon as the NEPA documentation is met on that forest, the BLM will receive additional PRLA’s for leasing and eventually mining.

***

[PDF]

BROCHURE 8

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
The Mark Twain National Forest overlies some of the largest lead-zinc mineral deposits in the world. The Forest and surrounding private lands in southern
http://www.moenviron.org/pdf/Plan%20Brochure%202.pdf

***

Founders of the petroleum industry

(from there – I chose this one – )

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kootenay_Brown

Kootenay Brown

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John George Brown (10 October 1839 – 18 July 1916), better known as “Kootenay” Brown, was an Irish-born Canadian polymath, soldier, trader and conservation advocate.

Born in Ennistymon, Ireland, Brown was commissioned as a British Army officer in 1857 “without purchase”[1] (a reference to the practise then common of wealthy Britons purchasing officers’ commissions), joining the 8th Regiment as an ensign[1]

After serving in India in 1858 and 1859, in 1862 he sold his commission and joined the flood of prospectors joining the Cariboo Gold Rush. He proved unsuccessful as a prospector, turning to trapping and then briefly policing, serving as constable in Wild Horse Creek, BC[1] (now gone).

In 1865, he moved on, to Waterton Lakes , being wounded by a Blackfoot Indian on his way to Fort Garry (now Winnipeg), where he settled and became a whisky trader.[1]

Subsequent to that, he worked briefly for a company delivering mail to the United States Army until 1874, during which time he was captured and nearly killed by Sitting Bull in 1869.[1]

The same year, Brown married a local Metis woman and ultimately made a living bison hunting and wolfing.[1]

After a quarrel (and obligatory gunfight) at Fort Benton, Montana, with “celebrated hunter” Louis Ell, in which Ell was killed, and subsequent trial, and acquittal, by a territorial jury,[1] Brown returned to his beloved Kootenay, where he settled, building a reputation as a guide and packer.

In the North West Rebellion, he acted as chief scout to the Rocky Mountain Rangers.

Always arguing vigorously for the region’s preservation, after the Kootenay Forest Reserve (a Canadian version of a national forest) was established in 1895,Brown became a fishery officer and in 1910, a forest ranger.[1]

He lived to see the reserve expanded into Waterton Lakes National Park, which became contiguous with Glacier National Park in Montana, in 1914.

He died at Waterton Lakes, Alberta.

The 1991 movie “Showdown at Williams Creek” starring Tom Burlinson, Raymond Burr and Donnelly Rhodes provides a loose portrayal of his life.

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Rodney, William. “Brown, John George, ‘Kootenai'”, in The Canadian Encyclopedia (Edmonton: Hurtig Publishing, 1988), Volume 1, p.289.

Sources

  • Marsh, James H. (1988). Brown, John George, ‘Kootenai’. Edmonton: Hurtig Publishing. pp. p. 289. ISBN 0888303262.

Categories: Founders of the petroleum industry

Always arguing vigorously for the region’s preservation, after the Kootenay Forest Reserve (a Canadian version of a national forest) was established in 1895,Brown became a fishery officer and in 1910, a forest ranger.[1]

He lived to see the reserve expanded into Waterton Lakes National Park, which became contiguous with Glacier National Park in Montana, in 1914.

****

  1. [PDF]

    Technical Resource Document: Extraction and Beneficiation of Ores

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    by SW Branch – 1994 – Related articles
    purpose of mining lead, zinc, and copper in the Mark Twain National Forest. The main purpose of the contract was to delineate boundaries and establish
    http://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/industrial/special/mining/techdocs/leadzinc.pdf

  2. [PDF]

    Mark Twain National Forest

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
    Sep 30, 2001 Minerals – There are 36 mineral leases for the right to mine lead, zinc, and copper from under Mark Twain National Forest. The Forest
    http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/forests/marktwain/…/2001-09-30-1096660636.pdf

[PDF]

Effects of Lead-Zinc Mining on Crayfish (Orconectes hylas) in the

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
by ANNL ALLERT – 2008 – Cited by 3Related articles
EFFECTS OF LEAD-ZINC MINING ON CRAYFISH. 109 as part of a Congressionally-funded investigation of the effects of mining in the Mark Twain National Forest of
http://www.mostreamteam.org/…/Allert%20etal%20Black%20River%20Mining%20FC%202008.pdf

The Ozarks – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In 1939, Congress established Mark Twain National Forest at nine sites in Missouri. …. The Ozarks contain ore deposits of lead, zinc, iron, and barite.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ozarks

***

History of the petroleum industry.

Category:History of the petroleum industry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of the petroleum industry, including oil drilling, oil refining, oil transport and related developments.

2000s energy crisis

Defunct oil companies

Founders of the petroleum industry

Harkness family

History of oil in Oklahoma

Rockefeller family

**

1970s energy crisis

1973 oil crisis

1979 energy crisis

***

Google Search –

history of automotive industry

Issue 2: Fall 2004 : The Automotive Industry

Automotive History

The history of the automobile begins with the technological breakthroughs that occurred in Europe during the early 1800’s and continues a century later with the pioneering efforts of American manufactures to begin mass-producing cars. The world economic downturn leading up to World War II led to consolidation in the fragmented automobile manufacturing market, while in the Postwar period, renewed economic growth, television advertising, and a expanding road system accelerated sales for automobile producers in many industrialized countries. Design, service, and speed became trademarks of the successful companies, as evidence by the every growing range of car models and the increasing popularity of NASCAR racing in the United States.

Advertisement for Ford cabriolet
Advertisement for Ford cabriolet from the
Wittemann Collection
(Library of Congress)
Reproduction number: LC-USZC4-2697

Table of Contents

Introduction
Automotive History
Global Automobile Industry
North American Market
European Market
East Asian Market
Automobile Manufacturing
Retail
Company Research
Statistics
Associations
Industry News and Analysis
Electronic Resources

However, as the industry matured, manufacturers had to reach an accommodation with labor unions, increasing government controls, and consumer expectations for annual changes in product design. Trade conflicts led to Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) and new questions about the value of globalization. The automobile, while providing greater personal freedom and economic growth, also served as the basis for questioning the value of technological progress. Scholars considered the effects of urban sprawl (and the advantages of urban planning), and the tradeoffs between economic growth, pollution, and conservation. Subsequent industry mergers, the ongoing threat of oil crises, and environmental degradation continues to affect the automobile industry today.

The list of resources below provide access to the rich and varied literature on automobile manufacturing and marketing history. These titles though are only illustrative of the popular and scholarly literature that has built up over the past two centuries around the industry.

(from)

http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/BERA/issue2/history.html

***

Brown, Lester Russell. The Future of the Automobile in an Oil-Short World. Washington: Worldwatch Institute, 1979
LC Call Number: TL154 .B73
LC Catalog Record: 79067316

One in a series of works written in the aftermath of the energy crisis appealing for changes in automobile standards and production.

**

Coffey, Frank and Joseph Layden. America on Wheels : The First 100 Years : 1896-1996.
Los Angeles : General Pub. Group, 1998
LC Call Number: TL23 .C595 1998
LC Catalog Record: 98224898

The companion volume to the PBS documentary highlighting the contributions by past and present innovators in the industry. Heavily illustrated with color and black-and-white photographs

**

Davis, Donald Finlay. Conspicuous Production : Automobiles and Elites in Detroit, 1899-1933. Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1988.
LC Call Number: HD9710.U53 D473 1988
LC Catalog Record: 87026745

Looks at the interaction, and subsequent tensions, between the dominant industry and the social elite of Detroit.

http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/BERA/issue2/history.html

***

[PDF]

U.S. Automotive Industry: Policy Overview and Recent History

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
U.S. Automotive Industry: Policy Overview and Recent History. Introduction and Key Findings. In the immediate post-World War II era, the auto industry was
ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/05apr/RL32883.pdf

Encyclopedia of Cleveland History:AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

Jul 11, 1997 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY. The automotive industry includes the manufacture of automobiles, parts, and accessories. 20th-century Cleveland is part
ech.cwru.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=AI3

***

Contents Federal Register
Vol. 66, No. 103
Tuesday, May 29, 2001

Agency for International Development
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Submission for OMB review; comment request,
29075 [01–13323] [TEXT] [PDF]
Agriculture Department
See Food Safety and Inspection Service
See Forest Service
Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Bureau
RULES
Organization, functions, and authority delegations:
Appropriate ATF officers,
29021–29031 [01–12803] [TEXT] [PDF]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29134–29135 [01–13319] [TEXT] [PDF]
29135–29136 [01–13320] [TEXT] [PDF]
29136–29137 [01–13321] [TEXT] [PDF]
29137–29138 [01–13322] [TEXT] [PDF]
Grants and cooperative agreements; availability, etc.:
Tanzania; Strengthening Emergency Medical Preparedness,
29138–29139 [01–13376] [TEXT] [PDF]
Children and Families Administration
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29140 [01–13317] [TEXT] [PDF]
Submission for OMB review; comment request,
29140–29141 [01–13318] [TEXT] [PDF]
Commerce Department
See Export Administration Bureau
See International Trade Administration
See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Energy Department
See Energy Information Administration
See Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
NOTICES
Atomic energy agreements; subsequent arrangements,
29096–29097 [01–13391] [TEXT] [PDF]
Committees; establishment, renewal, termination, etc.:
National Nuclear Security Administration Advisory Committee,
29097 [01–13495] [TEXT] [PDF]
Energy Information Administration
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29097–29098 [01–13392] [TEXT] [PDF]
Environmental Protection Agency
PROPOSED RULES
Air quality implementation plans; approval and promulgation; various States:
Pennsylvania,
29064–29066 [01–13414] [TEXT] [PDF]
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29125 [01–13410] [TEXT] [PDF]
29125–29126 [01–13419] [TEXT] [PDF]
Air programs:
State implementation plans; adequacy status for transportation conformity purposes—
Indiana,
29126–29127 [01–13412] [TEXT] [PDF]
Air quality; prevention of significant deterioration (PSD):
State commitments and potential violations—
North Dakota,
29127–29128 [01–13409] [TEXT] [PDF]
Confidential business information and data transfer,
29128–29129 [01–13421] [TEXT] [PDF]
Grants and cooperative agreements; availability, etc.:
Source water protection,
29129–29131 [01–13407] [TEXT] [PDF]
Meetings:
Children’s Health Protection Advisory Committee,
29131 [01–13415] [TEXT] [PDF]
Reports and guidance documents; availability, etc.:
State, local, and Tribal technical assistance for implementing revised 40 part 63, subpart E provisions,
29131–29132 [01–13417] [TEXT] [PDF]
Waste transfer stations; decision making manual; voluntary guide,
29132–29133 [01–13408] [TEXT] [PDF]
Senior Executive Service:
Performance Review Board; membership,
29133 [01–13418] [TEXT] [PDF]
Superfund; response and remedial actions, proposed settlements, etc.:
San Fernando Valley Crystal Springs (Area 2) Site-Glendale Operable Units, CA,
29133–29134 [01–13411] [TEXT] [PDF]
Export Administration Bureau
NOTICES
Meetings:
Materials Technical Advisory Committee,
29079 [01–13390] [TEXT] [PDF]
Regulations and Procedures Technical Advisory Committee,
29079–29080 [01–13389] [TEXT] [PDF]
Federal Aviation Administration
RULES
Class E airspace,
29017 [01–13308] [TEXT] [PDF]
29018 [01–13312] [TEXT] [PDF]
29018–29019 [01–13313] [TEXT] [PDF]
Class E airspace; correction,
29019 [01–13314] [TEXT] [PDF]
PROPOSED RULES
Class D and Class E airspace,
29056–29057 [01–13309] [TEXT] [PDF]
29057–29058 [01–13310] [TEXT] [PDF]
Class E airspace,
29058–29059 [01–13311] [TEXT] [PDF]
NOTICES
Exemption petitions; summary and disposition,
29201–29202 [01–13440] [TEXT] [PDF]
29202 [01–13441] [TEXT] [PDF]
29202–29203 [01–13442] [TEXT] [PDF]
Meetings:
Aging Transport Systems Rulemaking Advisory Committee,
29203–29205 [01–13438] [TEXT] [PDF]
Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee,
29205 [01–13315] [TEXT] [PDF]
Passenger facility charges; applications, etc.:
North Bend Municipal Airport, OR,
29205–29206 [01–13439] [TEXT] [PDF]
Federal Communications Commission
RULES
Television broadcasting:
Low Power Television Digital Data Services Pilot Project; implementation,
29040–29046 [01–13380] [TEXT] [PDF]
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Submission for OMB review; comment request,
29098–29099 [01–13356] [TEXT] [PDF]
Electric rate and corporate regulation filings:
Desert Power, L.P., et al.,
29110–29111 [01–13350] [TEXT] [PDF]
Environmental statements; availability, etc.:
Pacific Gas & Electric Co.,
29111–29112 [01–13393] [TEXT] [PDF]
Hydroelectric applications,
29112–29113 [01–13352] [TEXT] [PDF]
29113–29114 [01–13353] [TEXT] [PDF]
29114–29115 [01–13354] [TEXT] [PDF]
29115–29116 [01–13355] [TEXT] [PDF]
29116–29117 [01–13364] [TEXT] [PDF]
29117–29118 [01–13365] [TEXT] [PDF]
29118–29119 [01–13366] [TEXT] [PDF]
Meetings; Sunshine Act,
29119–29121 [01–13496] [TEXT] [PDF]
Natural Gas Policy Act, etc.:
California market; natural gas sales; reporting requirements,
29121–29124 [01–13349] [TEXT] [PDF]
Applications, hearings, determinations, etc.:
ANR Pipeline Co.,
29099 [01–13358] [TEXT] [PDF]
Dominion Transmission, Inc.,
29099 [01–13361] [TEXT] [PDF]
Entergy Services, Inc.,
29100 [01–13394] [TEXT] [PDF]
Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC,
29100 [01–13362] [TEXT] [PDF]
New York Independent System Operator,
29100 [01–13357] [TEXT] [PDF]
Northwest Pipeline Corp.,
29101–29102 [01–13359] [TEXT] [PDF]
San Diego Gas & Electric Co. et al.,
29102–29109 [01–13351] [TEXT] [PDF]
Tuscarora Gas Transmission Co.,
29110 [01–13360] [TEXT] [PDF]
Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Co.,
29110 [01–13363] [TEXT] [PDF]
Federal Highway Administration
NOTICES
Environmental statements; notice of intent:
Etowah County, AL,
29206 [01–13324] [TEXT] [PDF]
Federal Reserve System
RULES
Extensions of credit by Federal Reserve banks (Regulation A):
Discount rate change,
29009–29010 [01–13373] [TEXT] [PDF]
Fish and Wildlife Service
PROPOSED RULES
Wild Bird Conservation Act:
Captive-bred species; approved list; review,
29072–29074 [01–13348] [TEXT] [PDF]
Food and Drug Administration
RULES
Animal drugs, feeds, and related products:
Lasalocid and bacitracin zinc,
29020–29021 [01–13300] [TEXT] [PDF]
Oxytetracycline hydrochloride soluble powder,
29019–29020 [01–13379] [TEXT] [PDF]
PROPOSED RULES
Human drugs:
Topical antifungal products (OTC); final monograph amendment,
29059–29064 [01–13299] [TEXT] [PDF]
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29141–29142 [01–13298] [TEXT] [PDF]
29142–29143 [01–13301] [TEXT] [PDF]
29143–29147 [01–13303] [TEXT] [PDF]
Submission for OMB review; comment request,
29147–29148 [01–13304] [TEXT] [PDF]
Biological product licenses:
Hollister-Stier Laboratories, LLC and BioPort Corp.; revocation,
29148–29149 [01–13306] [TEXT] [PDF]
Medical devices:
Blood products; Autopheresis-C System; reclassification from class III to class II; comment request,
29149–29152 [01–13302] [TEXT] [PDF]
Meetings:
National Center for Toxicological Research Science Advisory Board,
29152 [01–13378] [TEXT] [PDF]
Food Safety and Inspection Service
NOTICES
Meetings:
Meat and poultry food products; port-of-entry reinspection modernization,
29075–29076 [01–13387] [TEXT] [PDF]
Meat and Poultry Inspection National Advisory Committee,
29076–29077 [01–13388] [TEXT] [PDF]
Forest Service
NOTICES
Environmental statements; availability, etc.:
Mark Twain National Forest, MO,
29077–29078 [01–13375] [TEXT] [PDF]
Environmental statements; notice of intent:
Siskiyou National Forest, OR and CA,
29078–29079 [01–13374] [TEXT] [PDF]
General Services Administration
PROPOSED RULES
Federal Management Regulation:
Federal mail management,
29067–29072 [01–13282] [TEXT] [PDF]
Health and Human Services Department
See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
See Children and Families Administration
See Food and Drug Administration
See National Institutes of Health
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Submission for OMB review; comment request,
29134 [01–13386] [TEXT] [PDF]
Immigration and Naturalization Service
NOTICES
Meetings:
Airport and Seaport Inspections User Fee Federal Advisory Committee,
29175 [01–13377] [TEXT] [PDF]
Interior Department
See Fish and Wildlife Service
See Land Management Bureau
See National Park Service
Internal Revenue Service
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29206–29207 [01–13401] [TEXT] [PDF]
29207 [01–13402] [TEXT] [PDF]
29207–29208 [01–13403] [TEXT] [PDF]
International Trade Administration
NOTICES
Antidumping:
Brake rotors from—
China,
29080–29086 [01–13406] [TEXT] [PDF]
Stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from—
Japan,
29086 [01–13405] [TEXT] [PDF]
Tin mill products from—
Japan,
29086–29089 [01–13404] [TEXT] [PDF]
International Trade Commission
NOTICES
Import investigations:
Digital display receivers and digital display contollers and products containing same,
29173 [01–13371] [TEXT] [PDF]
Foundry coke from—
China,
29173–29174 [01–13369] [TEXT] [PDF]
Polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip from—
India and Taiwan,
29174–29175 [01–13370] [TEXT] [PDF]
Semiconductor chips with minimized chip package size and products containing same,
29175 [01–13372] [TEXT] [PDF]
Justice Department
See Immigration and Naturalization Service
See National Institute of Corrections
Labor Department
See Occupational Safety and Health Administration
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Submission for OMB review; comment request,
29176–29177 [01–13383] [TEXT] [PDF]
Land Management Bureau
NOTICES
Motor vehicle use restrictions:
California,
29163–29164 [01–13538] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NOTICES
Patent licenses; non-exclusive, exclusive, or partially exclusive:
Phoenix Systems International, Inc.,
29185–29186 [01–13396] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Institute of Corrections
NOTICES
Grants and cooperative agreements; availability, etc.:
Executive Leadership Training Program for Women,
29176 [01–13347] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Institutes of Health
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29152–29153 [01–13344] [TEXT] [PDF]
Inventions, Government-owned; availability for licensing,
29153–29155 [01–13345] [TEXT] [PDF]
29155–29156 [01–13346] [TEXT] [PDF]
Meetings:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,
29156 [01–13335] [TEXT] [PDF]
29156 [01–13336] [TEXT] [PDF]
29156–29157 [01–13338] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research,
29158–29159 [01–13339] [TEXT] [PDF]
29159 [01–13340] [TEXT] [PDF]
29159 [01–13341] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders,
29158 [01–13334] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Institute on Drug Abuse,
29157–29158 [01–13333] [TEXT] [PDF]
29159–29160 [01–13342] [TEXT] [PDF]
29160 [01–13343] [TEXT] [PDF]
Scientific Review Center,
29160–29163 [01–13332] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
RULES
Endangered and threatened species:
White abalone,
29046–29055 [01–13430] [TEXT] [PDF]
Marine mammals:
Incidental taking—
Atlantic large whale take reduction plan; correction,
29213 [C1–12326] [TEXT] [PDF]
PROPOSED RULES
Fishery conservation and management:
West Coast States and Western Pacific fisheries—
Pacific Coast groundfish,
29074 [01–13434] [TEXT] [PDF]
NOTICES
Endangered and threatened species:
Incidental take permits—
Oregon Fish and Wildlife Department; anadromous fish,
29089–29090 [01–13433] [TEXT] [PDF]
Washington Fish and Wildlife Department; anadromous fish,
29089 [01–13432] [TEXT] [PDF]
Grants and cooperative agreements; availability, etc.:
Sea scallop research projects,
29090–29094 [01–13416] [TEXT] [PDF]
Meetings:
Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council,
29094–29095 [01–13437] [TEXT] [PDF]
New England Fishery Management Council,
29095–29096 [01–13436] [TEXT] [PDF]
Permits:
Marine mammals,
29096 [01–13435] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Park Service
NOTICES
Environmental statements; availability, etc.:
Glen Echo Park, MD,
29164–29172 [01–13429] [TEXT] [PDF]
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NOTICES
Environmental statements; availability, etc.:
South Carolina Electric & Gas Co.,
29187 [01–13399] [TEXT] [PDF]
Applications, hearings, determinations, etc.:
TXU Electric,
29186–29187 [01–13398] [TEXT] [PDF]
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29177–29178 [01–13382] [TEXT] [PDF]
Nationally recognized testing laboratories, etc.:
Intertek Testing Services, NA, Inc.,
29178–29185 [01–13427] [TEXT] [PDF]
Postal Service
RULES
Domestic Mail Manual:
Preparation changes for securing packages of mail; ensuring packages of periodicals and standard mail maintain their integrity during transport,
29031–29040 [01–13397] [TEXT] [PDF]
Public Health Service
See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
See Food and Drug Administration
See National Institutes of Health
Securities and Exchange Commission
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29187–29188 [01–13385] [TEXT] [PDF]
Self-regulatory organizations; proposed rule changes:
Canadian Derivatives Clearing Corp.,
29193 [01–13330] [TEXT] [PDF]
International Securities Exchange LLC,
29193–29196 [01–13325] [TEXT] [PDF]
29188–29192 [01–13328] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc.,
29196–29198 [01–13329] [TEXT] [PDF]
National Securities Clearing Corp.,
29192 [01–13326] [TEXT] [PDF]
29198–29199 [01–13327] [TEXT] [PDF]
Stock Clearing Corp. of Philadelphia,
29199–29200 [01–13384] [TEXT] [PDF]
Small Business Administration
RULES
Program for Investment in Microentrepreneurs Act; implementation:
Disadvantaged entrepreneurs; training and technical assistance grants,
29010–29017 [01–13230] [TEXT] [PDF]
NOTICES
Disaster loan areas:
Pennsylvania,
29200 [01–13425] [TEXT] [PDF]
Grants and cooperative agreements; availability, etc.:
Program for Investment in Microentrepreneurs Program,
29200 [01–13231] [TEXT] [PDF]
Social Security Administration
NOTICES
Meetings:
President’s Commission to Strengthen Social Security,
29200–29201 [01–13486] [TEXT] [PDF]
Transportation Department
See Federal Aviation Administration
See Federal Highway Administration
Treasury Department
See Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Bureau
See Internal Revenue Service
Veterans Affairs Department
NOTICES
Agency information collection activities:
Proposed collection; comment request,
29208–29209 [01–13423] [TEXT] [PDF]
Submission for OMB review; comment request,
29209 [01–13422] [TEXT] [PDF]
Privacy Act:
Systems of records,
29209–29212 [01–13424] [TEXT] [PDF]

Reader AidsConsult the Reader Aids section at the end of this issue for phone numbers, online resources, finding aids, reminders, and notice of recently enacted public laws.

[Search Federal Register]
Browse FR Contents:
[ 1998 ] [ 1999 ] [ 2000 ] [ 2001 ]

(from)

http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/fedreg/a010529c.html

***

Ozark Research Projects

http://ozarks.cr.usgs.gov/ozark_research.htm

Scientist mapping stream morphology

Multi-agency Research

Development of Missouri Ecological Landtypes

A group of state, federal and university scientists has been working together since 1998 to develop an ecological classification system (ECS) for the state of Missouri.  An ECS is a framework that allows natural resource managers to identify, map, and describe land with similar physical and biological characteristics at scales suitable for natural resources planning and management.

map showing landtypes in the Springfield, MO area

The Missouri ECS Project has been applying the US Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units to ecological land mapping in Missouri. This is a systematic method for classifying and mapping the earth’s surface based on ecological associations at various geographic scales. The Section, Subsection and Landtype Association levels are described in the Atlas of Missouri Ecoregions. This work has already been used as the framework for the MDC Comprehensive Wildlife Strategy and other ecological planning efforts in Missouri (e.g., The Nature Conservancy, and American Bird Conservancy). The next and final ecological units to be mapped and described are Ecological Landtypes (ELTs).

Ecological Landtypes are the most detailed scale of land units within the ECS framework (i.e., 10-100s of acres). These are site-scale or management scale units that define local ecosystems or communities that exist within a given landscape. Specifically, ELTs recognize variations in landforms, topography, soils, and ecological disturbance factors that ultimately affect the potential vegetation associations within an area.

A recent poster of the progress was presented at the 2009 Missouri Natural Resources Conference.

For more information, contact:
Tim Nigh, Resource Scientist
Missouri Department of Conservation
573.882.9909 ext. 3244
Timothy.Nigh@mdc.mo.gov

Cooperators:
Missouri Resource Assessment Partnership
– Kyle Steele
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
– Fred Young, Doug Wallace
Missouri Department of Natural Resources
– Dennis Meinert
USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station
– John Kabrick
University of Missouri School of Natural Resources
– Randy Miles

**

Featured USGS Research

The projects featured here are a sampling of ongoing work by the US Geological Survey. If your or your agency would like to feature projects, contact us.

U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet: The Ozark Highlands

Biology

Geography

Geology

Water

If you would like to have your research project included here, please contact us.

**

Biology

Concentrations of Metals in Aquatic Invertebrates from the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri
This study was conducted as a pilot for part of a park-wide monitoring program being developed for the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) of southeastern Missouri. The objective was to evaluate using crayfish (Orconectes spp.) and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) for monitoring concentrations of metals associated with lead-zinc mining. Lead-zinc mining presently (2007) occurs near the ONSR and additional mining has been proposed. Three composite samples of each type (crayfish and Asian clam), each comprising ten animals of approximately the same size, were collected during late summer and early fall of 2005 from five sites on the Current River and Jacks Fork within the ONSR and from one site on the Eleven Point River and the Big River, which are outside the ONSR. The Big River has been contaminated by mine tailings from historical leadzinc mining. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for lead, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, and nickel concentrations. All five metals were detected in all samples; concentrations were greatest in samples of both types from the Big River, and lowest in samples from sites within the ONSR. Concentrations of zinc and cadmium typically were greater in Asian clams than in crayfish, but differences were less evident for the other metals. In addition, differences among sites were small for cobalt in Asian clams and for zinc in crayfish, indicating that these metals are internally regulated to some extent. Consequently, both sample types are recommended for monitoring. Concentrations of metals in crayfish and Asian clams were consistent with those reported by other studies and programs that sampled streams in southeast Missouri.

Evaluation of Contaminant Risks to the Endangered Tumbling Creek Cavesnail

The Tumbling Creek cavesnail (Antrobia culveri) is restricted to a single cave stream in Taney County, Missouri. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service classified this species as Endangered in 2002, based on recent population surveys that documented recent sharp decreases in its population. Potential causes for this decline include sedimentation and/or deterioration of water quality due to human activities in the recharge area of the cave stream. Along with remedial efforts in the surface watershed, USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center scientists have investigated factors that may limit recovery of cavesnail populations. Instrumentation has been installed to monitor water quality in the stream, and passive sampling devices have been deployed to determine concentrations of organic contaminants. Chemical analysis of metals and persistent organic contaminants in sediments from cavesnail habitat did not identify elevated contaminant levels, and laboratory toxicity tests with these sediments did not show evidence of toxicity. Ongoing studies are evaluating the suitability of culture apparatus, diets, and water for in-situ propagation of cavesnails to enhance the depleted population.

Contact: John Besser

Mapping Vegetation Communities in Ozark National Scenic Riverways
Vegetation communities were mapped at two levels in Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) using a hybrid combination of statistical methods and photointerpretation. The primary map includes 49 cover classes, including 24 classes that relate to vegetation associations currently described by the United States National Vegetation Classification Standard. Important additional products include 1) a general probability map for all vegetation associations, and 2) individual probability maps for each association. A field key and photo guide to assocations and complete community descriptions were produced, along with a photo guide of fuel conditions.Contact:  Matthew Struckhoff
Phone:  573-441-2781

Ozarks Stream Geomorphology Project

This project was a multidisciplinary study to determine cause-and-effect links between historical land-use changes, climatic shifts, and the quality and stability of stream habitat in the Ozarks. During the last 100 years, stream channels in the Ozarks have become wider and shallower and deepwater fish habitat has been lost. Recreational fishing and ecosystem preservation are important to the economy of the Ozarks, and degradation of aquatic habitat is of concern to Federal, State, and local land managers. This technical document describes a method for mapping stream habitats with hydraulic models. Also included in this project were studies on Tributary Land Use and Aquatic Habitat Quality, Buffalo National River and Ozark National Scenic Riverways and an Assessment of Physical Stream Habitat, Bear Creek, Arkansas.

Passive sampling of organic contaminants in karst groundwater systems inhabited by endangered Ozark cavefish

We conducted a study to describe groundwater chemical concentrations in sites inhabited by the Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). Purposes of the study included characterizing baseline conditions and identifying potential threats to water quality to enhance conservation of the species and these unique systems, and demonstrating a novel application of passive sampling devices.

The systems selected for study included six karst groundwater systems in southwest Missouri. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used for the determination of concentrations of trace organic contaminants.

In total, 66 of the 148 targeted chemicals (45%) were detected in at least one site. Few chemicals related to wastewater effluents were detected suggesting little to no impact to these groundwater streams from municipal treatment facilities. Although the individual, acute concentrations of chemicals detected were low, the potential impact on sensitive species such as the Ozark cavefish from exposure to these chemicals is not known. Chronic cumulative and interactive effects from exposure to the chemicals detected may also threaten troglobitic aquatic organisms that are generally long-lived with low metabolic rates.

Contact: David Alvarez

Geography

Land Cover Trends in the Ozark Region

    The Land Cover Trends project is using a consistent, statistically reliable method for quantifying, analyzing, and understanding the character of land use and land cover change.  Our contributions for the examination of thirty years of land cover change within each of 84 ecoregions of the conterminous United States will ultimately contribute to a national synthesis of change.  Understanding the changes over previous time periods will lead to an understanding of future costs of landscape change.        Scientists in the Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center are supporting this national scale project by focusing on three ecoregions: the Interior River Lowlands (southern Illinois, southwester Indiana, northwestern Kentucky, and southeastern Missouri), the Boston Mountains (northwestern Arkansas), and the Ozark Highlands (southern Missouri and northern Arkansas).

The Land Cover Trends project is using a consistent, statistically reliable method for quantifying, analyzing, and understanding the character of land use and land cover change. Our contributions for the examination of thirty years of land cover change within each of 84 ecoregions of the conterminous United States will ultimately contribute to a national synthesis of change. Understanding the changes over previous time periods will lead to an understanding of future costs of landscape change. Scientists in the Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center are supporting this national scale project by focusing on three ecoregions: the Interior River Lowlands (southern Illinois, southwester Indiana, northwestern Kentucky, and southeastern Missouri), the Boston Mountains (northwestern Arkansas), and the Ozark Highlands (southern Missouri and northern Arkansas).

The Land Cover Trends project is using a consistent, statistically reliable method for quantifying, analyzing, and understanding the character of land use and land cover change.  Our contributions for the examination of thirty years of land cover change within each of 84 ecoregions of the conterminous United States will ultimately contribute to a national synthesis of change.  Understanding the changes over previous time periods will lead to an understanding of future costs of landscape change.
Scientists in the Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center are supporting this national scale project by focusing on three ecoregions: the Interior River Lowlands (southern Illinois, southwester Indiana, northwestern Kentucky, and southeastern Missouri), the Boston Mountains (northwestern Arkansas), and the Ozark Highlands (southern Missouri and northern Arkansas).  Our study will provide temporal land cover data from five time intervals between 1973 and 2000, field observations, and an examination of the influences directing the changes reflected in these unique ecoregions.  Our investigation will provide an assessment of the changes occurring over this interval and the potential consequences of future activities in this geographic region.

Contact: David Shaver
Phone:  573-308-3866

Ozarks Karst – Science on the Landscape

Accurately identifying the location of sinkholes is critical to ensuring a more complete understanding of the hydrology of karst landscapes, and to anticipating the consequences of contaminants being introduced into the system. More importantly, knowing the factors that contribute to sinkhole formation and the ability to predict where sinkholes are likely to exist or suddenly occur is important to understand fully the effects of various planned or preexisting land use activities on the quality of surface and subsurface water in the Ozarks, and to mitigate the threat associated with the catastrophic collapse of a sinkhole in an urban area.

Accurately identifying the location of sinkholes is critical to ensuring a more complete understanding of the hydrology of karst landscapes, and to anticipating the consequences of contaminants being introduced into the system. More importantly, knowing the factors that contribute to sinkhole formation and the ability to predict where sinkholes are likely to exist or suddenly occur is important to understand fully the effects of various planned or preexisting land use activities on the quality of surface and subsurface water in the Ozarks, and to mitigate the threat associated with the catastrophic collapse of a sinkhole in an urban area.

The objective of this project is to use surface form, surface features, and selected biological, hydrological, and geological characteristics of the landscape to develop a probabilistic model for identifying the major factors that determine the occurrence of sinkholes in the Ozarks. The locations of Ozark springs and caves are well documented. The locations of larger and better known springs and caves are typically symbolized and labeled on topographic maps. The locations of smaller or lesser known features can be found in digital and tabular inventories maintained by a variety of federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. The locations of sinkholes are not as well documented as attempts to map and document sinkholes have been only partially successful due to their size, lack of surface expression, or geographic isolation.

Accurately identifying the location of sinkholes is critical to ensuring a more complete understanding of the hydrology of karst landscapes, and to anticipating the consequences of contaminants being introduced into the system. More importantly, knowing the factors that contribute to sinkhole formation and the ability to predict where sinkholes are likely to exist or suddenly occur is important to understand fully the effects of various planned or preexisting land use activities on the quality of surface and subsurface water in the Ozarks, and to mitigate the threat associated with the catastrophic collapse of a sinkhole in an urban area.

Contact:  Jeff Spooner
Phone:  573-308-3526

Land Cover and Water Quality in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas
Preliminary analysis of water quality data from the Boston Mountains ecoregion indicates a decrease in water quality trending from east to west. - Land Cover and Water Quality in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas

Preliminary analysis of water quality data from the Boston Mountains ecoregion indicates a decrease in water quality trending from east to west. - Land Cover and Water Quality in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas

Preliminary analysis of water quality data from the Boston Mountains ecoregion indicates a decrease in water quality trending from east to west. This roughly parallels regional development patterns. Specifically, the northwest part of the coregion has experienced declines in forest cover that have been replaced by urban expansion and increases in agricultural activity. Previous research has shown that increases in nitrate concentrations can be correlated with conversion of forest to these other uses. This project is analyzing multi-decadal data from the Land Cover Trends project with nitrate data from wells and springs to assess whether land conversions have had an impact on water quality.
Contact: Gary Krizanich
Phone:  573-308-3546
Occurrence of Karst and Karst Related Hazards
Catastrophic sinkhole collapse and vulnerable aquifers are two common hazards encountered in karst terrain. When combined with biological and hydrological data, these geospatial datasets will aid in determining vulnerabilities in karst regions.

Catastrophic sinkhole collapse and vulnerable aquifers are two common hazards encountered in karst terrain. When combined with biological and hydrological data, these geospatial datasets will aid in determining vulnerabilities in karst regions.

Catastrophic sinkhole collapse and vulnerable aquifers are two common hazards encountered in karst terrain.  Quantifying the risk associated with these hazards is dependent on identifying and describing occurrences of karst development.  Scientists in the Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center are using the distribution of sinkholes, caves, losing streams, springs, well logs, and high resolution elevation data to determine the factors that indicate karst development.  When combined with biological and hydrological data, these geospatial datasets will aid in determining vulnerabilities in karst regions.  This information will provide resource managers with data necessary to implement best management practices.

Contact: Jim Kaufmann
Phone:  573-308-3882

Table Rock Lake Eutrophication Study
Increases in nutrient input to Table Rock Lake have resulted in declining water quality. Suspected nutrient sources are from municipal wastewater effluent, on-site wastewater treatment systems and agricultural activities in the watershed. Declining water quality has manifested itself through decreasing water clarity and severe algal blooms. Water quality has a significant impact on tourism, a major contributor to the regional economy. The objective of this project is to use remote sensing techniques to monitor chlorophyll a concentrations over time. Chlorophyll a is a surrogate indicator for phytoplankton production. Identifying areas with high chlorophyll a concentrations may help to identify potential areas of nutrient sources.

Contact: Gary Krizanich

Clearwater Lake Sediment Study
Missouri has a long history as a major United States and world producer of lead ore. Possibly the most famous of these ore deposits is the New Lead Belt or Viburnum Trend of southeast Missouri. The Viburnum Trend has been developed largely within the Mark Twain National Forest, some of the most pristine lands found anywhere in the state. Land managers charged with administering programs on federal lands continue to have concerns about the long-term environmental effects of lead mining and related activities in the region.
The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution and concentration of trace metals in sediments of Clearwater Lake. Understanding how trace metals are released to and transported in an aquatic environment is important to the overall understanding of the impacts of mining on the natural environment.
Preliminary results indicate that the sediments in Clearwater Lake act as a sink for mining related trace elements and that the source of these trace elements can be identified through isotopic “fingerprinting”. Temporal trends in the concentration of lead and zinc show relatively little change in the subbasin where no mining has taken place and increasing concentrations in the subbasins where active mining occurs. Analysis of pre- and post-mining concentrations in deep lacustrine sediments shows a doubling of the lead concentration and a nearly fifty percent increase in zinc concentration following the development of mines along the Viburnum Trend. All of the Pb-Zn concentrations however, remain well below the probable effects concentration derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines.
This information will be used to assess the potential impact of proposed mining operations in other parts of the Viburnum Trend. The overall benefit is to better understand the impact of long-term mining activities on the environment of the Missouri Ozarks. Results of this work will be used by Federal Land Managers to assess requests for additional mining permits in the Viburnum Trend.

Contact: Gary Krizanich

Geology

Geologic Mapping Studies at Buffalo National River, Northern Arkansas
USGS-CR-ESP-Buffalo River

USGS-CR-ESP-Buffalo River - Detailed geologic mapping is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in and adjacent to the Buffalo National River, a park administered by the National Park Service, to better understand and characterize the natural resources and associated ecosystems of this area within the Ozark Plateau region.

Detailed geologic mapping is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in and adjacent to the Buffalo National River, a park administered by the National Park Service, to better understand and characterize the natural resources and associated ecosystems of this area within the Ozark Plateau region. General-purpose geologic maps are created to provide a framework for a host of natural resource, natural history, and public education uses.  More information…
Ozarks Mineral Deposits Workgroup
The purpose of our workgroup was to provide scientific information on the economic and environmental characteristics of Ozark-region mineral deposits. Most of our investigations were centered on the world class lead-zinc ore deposits of the Ozarks region. These deposits are commonly known as Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) ore deposits.

Water

Geohydrological and Biological Investigations Associated with Lead Lead-Zinc Exploration and Mining in Southeastern Missouri
In response to diminishing economic ore reserves in the Viburnum Trend, exploration for new sources of lead-zinc ore began in an area south of Winona, Missouri, and north of the Eleven Point River. Much of the exploration drilling is in the Mark Twain National Forest, which is managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (FS) and U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM).
The exploration area is within a region highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities, including two federally designated scenic rivers that are visited annually by more than 2 million people: the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) administered by the National Park Service (NPS); and the Eleven Point National Scenic River (EPNSR) administered by the FS.
National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) – Ozark Plateaus Study Unit
The long-term goals of this program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources, and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary factors affecting the quality of these resources.
Ozark Aquifer Study

The Ozark Aquifer is an important water supply source for cities, rural water districts, agriculture, and industry in southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma. Water supply wells in some areas of the Ozark aquifer have experienced water level declines in recent years. With a growing demand for water within the region, concerns about future water availability prompted by water-level declines and water-quality degradation, mostly in Kansas, have created a need to better understand this valuable resource in order to better address its long-term management.
Lead Mining Studies in the Ozarks

    In response to diminishing economic ore reserves in the Viburnum Trend, exploration for new sources of lead-zinc ore began in an area south of Winona, Missouri, and north of the Eleven Point River. Much of the exploration drilling is in the Mark Twain National Forest, which is managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (FS) and U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM).       The exploration area is within a region highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities, including two federally designated scenic rivers that are visited annually by more than 2 million people: the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) administered by the National Park Service (NPS); and the Eleven Point National Scenic River (EPNSR) administered by the FS. -BuickMIne from USGSWRDMO

In response to diminishing economic ore reserves in the Viburnum Trend, exploration for new sources of lead-zinc ore began in an area south of Winona, Missouri, and north of the Eleven Point River. Much of the exploration drilling is in the Mark Twain National Forest, which is managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (FS) and U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The exploration area is within a region highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities, including two federally designated scenic rivers that are visited annually by more than 2 million people: the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) administered by the National Park Service (NPS); and the Eleven Point National Scenic River (EPNSR) administered by the FS. - BuickMIne from USGSWRDMO

In response to diminishing economic ore reserves in the Viburnum Trend, exploration for new sources of lead-zinc ore began in an area south of Winona, Missouri, and north of the Eleven Point River. Much of the exploration drilling is in the Mark Twain National Forest, which is managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (FS) and U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM).
The exploration area is within a region highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities, including two federally designated scenic rivers that are visited annually by more than 2 million people: the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) administered by the National Park Service (NPS); and the Eleven Point National Scenic River (EPNSR) administered by the FS.

Because of the many environmental concerns associated with potential lead-zinc mining in the new exploration area, the FS, BLM, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have supported several investigations since 1988 designed to quantify background physical and chemical characteristics of ground, surface, and spring water and sediment; assess aquifer and confining unit hydraulic properties; study background concentrations of trace elements in aquatic biota; and provide geological mapping to establish a geohydrologic framework in the exploration area. Additional financial support has been provided by the U.S. Congress since 2000 to conduct more thorough investigations of the potential effects of mining on the environment of the exploration area, and the effect of current mining and mining-related activities on the environment in the Viburnum Trend area. Completed studies examined geologic setting, geohydrology, ground-water levels and quality, surface-water quantity and quality, streambed sediment, biologic assessments and toxicity studies, and studies of spring recharge areas and water quality.

Contact: Mike Kleeschulte
Phone: 573.308.3667

Assessment of Possible Sources of Microbiological Contamination in the Water Column and Streambed Sediment of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR), the Nation’s first federally protected riverway, was created by an Act of Congress on August 27, 1964, for “the purposes of conserving and interpreting unique scenic and other natural values and objects of historic interest, including preservation of parts of the Current River and the Jacks Fork in Missouri as free-flowing streams, preservation of springs and caves, management of wildlife, and provisions for use and enjoyment of the outdoor recreation resources thereof by the people of the United States” (Public Law 88-492).

The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR), the Nation’s first federally protected riverway, was created by an Act of Congress on August 27, 1964, for “the purposes of conserving and interpreting unique scenic and other natural values and objects of historic interest, including preservation of parts of the Current River and the Jacks Fork in Missouri as free-flowing streams, preservation of springs and caves, management of wildlife, and provisions for use and enjoyment of the outdoor recreation resources thereof by the people of the United States” (Public Law 88-492).

The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR), the Nation’s first federally protected riverway, was created by an Act of Congress on August 27, 1964, for “the purposes of conserving and interpreting unique scenic and other natural values and objects of historic interest, including preservation of parts of the Current River and the Jacks Fork in Missouri as free-flowing streams, preservation of springs and caves, management of wildlife, and provisions for use and enjoyment of the outdoor recreation resources thereof by the people of the United States” (Public Law 88-492).
The intense recreational use of the Jacks Fork has caused concerns regarding the effects that this use might be having on the river. A river use management plan prepared by the National Park Service (NPS) (Sullivan and others, 1989) states that the increasing popularity of the recreational area has created concerns associated with greater competition for the use of a finite resource base. Also, because of inappropriate or intensive use, resource damage has increased in some areas. Concerns include crowding and increased conflicts between river users, the need to improve and provide more sanitation facilities, the proliferation of litter, congestion at river accesses and campgrounds, and balancing the need to protect water quality with the recreational needs of the public.

In 1998, a 5 river-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri’s list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. The length of the impaired reach was changed to 7 miles on the Missouri 2002 303(d) list because of data indicating the fecal coliform bacteria problem existed over a broader area.

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 7-mile 303(d) reach. The study was completed in 2006. Ten sites were sampled from June 2003 through October 2003 and from June 2004 through October 2004. Water-column and streambed sediment samples were collected from main-stem and tributary sites mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of recreational season river uses and analyzed for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. Isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from water samples collected at five sites were submitted for rep-PCR analysis to identify presumptive sources of fecal indicator bacteria in the Jacks Fork. Results indicate that recreational users (including boaters and swimmers) are not the primary source of fecal coliform bacteria in the Jacks Fork; rather, the presence of fecal coliform bacteria is associated with other animals, of which horses are the primary source. Increases in fecal coliform bacteria densities in the Jacks Fork are associated with cross-country horseback trail-riding events.

Contact: Jerri Davis
Phone: 573.308.3667

Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 mi (miles) along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri.

The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 mi (miles) along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 mi (miles) along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. The karst terrain of the study area is characterized by many sinkholes, caves, losing streams and springs, including Big Spring, the largest spring in Missouri with an average discharge of 445 ft3/s (cubic feet per second).
An understanding of the hydrology outside the ONSR, therefore, is important to manage the water resources of the ONSR. Certain landscape characteristics are important because they affect how precipitation falling on the land surface moves from areas outside the park to the park. These characteristics vary throughout the area contributing water to the ONSR, and knowledge of this variation allows for a better understanding of where, for example, precipitation is likely to recharge the ground-water system and later discharge at springs along the ONSR.

This investigation is being conducted with the National Park Service and will be completed in fall 2008. A USGS Scientific Investigations Report is in preparation that describes hydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The hydrologic investigations are both a compilation of existing information and the addition of new information. A potentiometric-surface map is presented that combines newly-acquired and interpreted data in the northern part of the study area with a previously published potentiometric map in the southern part of the study area. Data for a low-flow seepage run of the Current River, Jacks Fork and Sinking Creek conducted for this investigation are presented, as well as the results of a temperature profile of the Current River conducted at the same time to detect inflow of spring water in the stream bed. Spring discharge data are presented and spring recharge areas are compiled from previously published studies, with slight modification based on the newly-interpreted potentiometric surface. The results of previously conducted dye traces and two new dye tracer tests for this investigation are shown, upon which the spring recharge areas are estimated. A series of maps at locations along the Current River and Jacks Fork show the surface-water and ground-water basins and spring recharge areas, which together provide water to the ONSR. Also shown are a series of maps which depict the variation of landscape characteristics relevant to surface-water or ground-water flow to the ONSR.

Contact: Doug Mugel
Phone: 573.308.3667

Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Ground Water used as a Source of Public Supply in Southern Missouri—Phase I, May 1997–March 1998

The microbiological data indicate that microbiological contamination at public-water-supply wells in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is not widespread. A relatively small percentage of the wells show contamination by potentially pathogenic viruses or other pathogen indicator organisms.

The microbiological data indicate that microbiological contamination at public-water-supply wells in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is not widespread. A relatively small percentage of the wells show contamination by potentially pathogenic viruses or other pathogen indicator organisms.

Missouri is widely dependent on ground water as a source of drinking water for its public-water systems, businesses, farms, and rural homes. Ninety-five percent of the public-water systems in the State depend on ground water, and about 3,700 public-water-supply (PWS) wells are located within the State (fig. 1). Historically, water provided from the deep bedrock aquifers in the Ozark Plateaus (most of the southern one-half of Missouri) generally has been free of total and fecal coliform bacterial contamination. Years of bacteriological monitoring have confirmed that water drawn from properly constructed wells in this area is generally free of total and fecal coliform bacteria (Kenneth Duzan, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 1997).

During 2000, the  U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Quality, Public Drinking Water Program, has completed a two-phase study to characterize the microbiological and chemical quality of ground water in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, which underlies the Ozark Plateaus region. During Phase I of the study, 109 public-water-supply wells were sampled in water year 1997 and again in water year 1998. Samples from each well were analyzed for the following microbiological species—total human enteric viruses, male-specific and somatic coliphage, and fecal indicator bacteria. In addition, samples were collected and analyzed for physical properties and chemical constituents, such as nutrients, total organic carbon, and tritium, that may serve as indicators of possible surficial sources of contamination of the aquifer.

The microbiological data indicate that microbiological contamination at public-water-supply wells in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is not widespread. A relatively small percentage of the wells show contamination by potentially pathogenic viruses or other pathogen indicator organisms. Of the 109 wells sampled during the first round, 94 (86 percent) showed no presence of microbiological contamination. Human enteric viruses were present in a sample from 1 of the 109 wells at a concentration of 2.1 most probable number per 100 liters; coliphage were observed in samples from 11 of the 109 wells at concentrations ranging from 38 to 2,600 plaque forming units per 100 liters; and fecal indicator bacteria were observed at small densities in samples from 3 wells. Of the 109 wells sampled during the second round, 98 (90 percent) showed no presence of microbiological contamination, coliphage were present in samples from 3 wells at concentrations ranging from 41 to 78 plaque forming units per 100 liters, and fecal indicator bacteria were observed in samples from 8 wells at densities ranging from 15 to 50 colonies per 100 milliliters. Results varied considerably between the first and second rounds of sampling, and no apparent correlation exists between the presence of enteric viruses and coliphage or indicator bacteria.
Contact: Jerri Davis
Phone: 573.308.3667

Simulation Of Ground-Water Withdrawals From The Ozark Aquifer Near Springfield, Missouri

Simulation Of Ground-Water Withdrawals From The Ozark Aquifer Near Springfield, Missouri

A study of the water resources of the Springfield, Missouri, area in the 1970s determined that a cone of depression, formed by ground-water pumping, had developed in the Ozark aquifer beneath the city (Emmett and others, 1978).

A study of the water resources of the Springfield, Missouri, area in the 1970s determined that a cone of depression, formed by ground-water pumping, had developed in the Ozark aquifer beneath the city (Emmett and others, 1978). Continued ground-water usage in the 1970s and 1980s caused concern that ground-water resources would not be sufficient to meet the future needs of Springfield, Missouri, during periods of drought. As a result, a ground-water flow model of the Springfield area was developed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) to assess the future role of ground water as a water source for the area (Imes, 1989). Results of the USGS model led to a decision by the City Utilities of Springfield to primarily rely on surface water from Stockton Lake as a source of city drinking water. Municipal and industrial ground-water usage continues in Springfield, but at lower rates than previously experienced (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007).
Rapid growth in the area has caused commercial, industrial, and domestic water use to increase. Population growth has been especially rapid in Nixa, Ozark, and Republic, and water use in the vicinity of these cities has grown an estimated 39 percent since 1990 (Dintelmann and others, 2006). Unlike Springfield, ground water is the primary source of water for these cities. The increased stress on the Ozark aquifer, the primary aquifer in the study area, has raised new concerns about possible further water-level declines in the areas of increased ground-water use. Although there continues to be new development in the Ozark aquifer, since 1987 no new water-supply wells that produce water from the Springfield Plateau aquifer have been allowed to be constructed in most of Greene and northern Christian counties (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007). There is concern that if the potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer continues to decline, increased leakage of contaminants into the Ozark aquifer from the overlying Springfield Plateau aquifer could occur (Jim Vandike, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, written commun., 2007).

To address concerns about water ground-water quantity and quality, in 2006, the USGS, in cooperation with Greene County, Missouri, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,  began a 4 year study to construct a 3-D ground-water flow model for Greene County and pasts of adjacent counties in southwestern Missouri. As part of this study, a potentiometric map of the Ozark aquifer for 2006-2007 was constructed in conjunction with the with Greene County, Missouri, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the  Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The map can be compared to previously constructed potentiometric-surface maps for are area to evaluate changes in ground-water flow directions. The ground-water modeling project will be completed in early federal fiscal year 2010.

Contact: Joe Richards
Phone: 573.308.3667

Featured USGS Research

The projects featured here are a sampling of ongoing work by the US Geological Survey. If your or your agency would like to feature projects, contact us.

U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet: The Ozark Highlands

Biology

Geography

Geology

Water

If you would like to have your research project included here, please contact us.

Multi-agency Research

Development of Missouri Ecological Landtypes

A group of state, federal and university scientists has been working together since 1998 to develop an ecological classification system (ECS) for the state of Missouri.  An ECS is a framework that allows natural resource managers to identify, map, and describe land with similar physical and biological characteristics at scales suitable for natural resources planning and management.

The Missouri ECS Project has been applying the US Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units to ecological land mapping in Missouri. This is a systematic method for classifying and mapping the earth’s surface based on ecological associations at various geographic scales. The Section, Subsection and Landtype Association levels are described in the Atlas of Missouri Ecoregions. This work has already been used as the framework for the MDC Comprehensive Wildlife Strategy and other ecological planning efforts in Missouri (e.g., The Nature Conservancy, and American Bird Conservancy). The next and final ecological units to be mapped and described are Ecological Landtypes (ELTs).

Ecological Landtypes are the most detailed scale of land units within the ECS framework (i.e., 10-100s of acres). These are site-scale or management scale units that define local ecosystems or communities that exist within a given landscape. Specifically, ELTs recognize variations in landforms, topography, soils, and ecological disturbance factors that ultimately affect the potential vegetation associations within an area.

A recent poster of the progress was presented at the 2009 Missouri Natural Resources Conference.

For more information, contact:
Tim Nigh, Resource Scientist
Missouri Department of Conservation
573.882.9909 ext. 3244
Timothy.Nigh@mdc.mo.gov

Cooperators:
Missouri Resource Assessment Partnership
– Kyle Steele
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
– Fred Young, Doug Wallace
Missouri Department of Natural Resources
– Dennis Meinert
USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station
– John Kabrick
University of Missouri School of Natural Resources
– Randy Miles

***

GEOHYDROLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH LEAD–ZINC EXPLORATION AND MINING IN SOUTHEASTERN MISSOURI

Study area locations Study Area
Study Area Locations
Image links to larger photo.
Galena - primary lead ore
Galena Primary Lead Ore
Image links to larger photo.
Exploration study area and location of the approximately 300 lead-zinc exploration boreholes near Winona, Missouri

In response to diminishing economic ore reserves in the Viburnum Trend, exploration for new sources of lead-zinc ore began in an area south of Winona, Missouri, and north of the Eleven Point River. Much of the exploration drilling is in the Mark Twain National Forest, which is managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (FS) and U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

The exploration area is within a region highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities, including two federally designated scenic rivers that are visited annually by more than 2 million people: the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) administered by the National Park Service (NPS); and the Eleven Point National Scenic River (EPNSR) administered by the FS.

Photograph of Big Spring, the largest spring in Missouri. Photograph of Big Spring, the largest spring in Missouri.

There is concern that mine dewatering in the exploration area could substantially lower ground-water levels and, thereby, decrease the  discharge of the many springs in the area. Also, mining-related support activities could potentially degrade the quality of ground and surface water in the area and threaten aquatic biota by introducing lead and other heavy metals into stream and spring sediments. Of particular concern is the possibility that lead-zinc mining in the new exploration area could adversely affect the flow and quality of water at Big Spring and Greer Spring. Dye-trace data indicate the recharge area of Big Spring (the largest spring in Missouri and part of the ONSR) encompasses much of the exploration area. Greer Spring (the second largest spring in Missouri and part of the EPNSR) is only a few miles south of the area of most intense exploration drilling.

Exploration study area and location of the approximately 300 lead-zinc exploration boreholes near Winona, Missouri - in Mark Twain National Forest lands

Exploration study area and location of the approximately 300 lead-zinc exploration boreholes near Winona, Missouri - in Mark Twain National Forest lands

Because of the many environmental concerns associated with potential lead-zinc mining in the new exploration area, the FS, BLM, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have supported several investigations since 1988 designed to quantify background physical and chemical characteristics of ground, surface, and spring water and sediment; assess aquifer and confining unit hydraulic properties; study background concentrations of trace elements in aquatic biota; and provide geological mapping to establish a geohydrologic framework in the exploration area. Additional financial support has been provided by the U.S. Congress since 2000 to conduct more thorough investigations of the potential effects of mining on the environment of the exploration area, and the effect of current mining and mining-related activities on the environment in the Viburnum Trend area.

For more information contact:

Michael J. Kleeschulte, Hydrologist

U.S. Geological Survey

Missouri Water Science Center

1400 Independence Rd., MS 100

Rolla, MO 65401

Telephone: (573) 308-3675

Fax:(573) 308-3645

(from)

http://mo.water.usgs.gov/projects/mining/index.html

***

This 1886 photo shows Ransom E. Olds in the Olds "Pirate," the first race car to run on Daytona Beach. It hit speeds of 57 mph. Olds would be the first auto manufacturer in Detroit, beginning in 1896.

This 1886 photo shows Ransom E. Olds in the Olds "Pirate," the first race car to run on Daytona Beach. It hit speeds of 57 mph. Olds would be the first auto manufacturer in Detroit, beginning in 1896. From The Detroit News: http://apps.detnews.com/apps/history/index.php?id=176#ixzz0o2PYa4HM

The auto industry’s family trees

By Richard A. Wright / Special to The News

April 10, 2001

Of the several thousand auto manufacturers who have operated in the United States, only three remain. But many nameplates that were once well-known are in the family trees of those three surviving auto makers.

Ransom E. Olds, a young automotive wizard from Lansing who began building Oldsmobiles in 1896, was the first to produce cars in Detroit. Among his top aides were Roy D. Chapin, who later left to co-found Hudson Motor Car Co., and Jonathan Maxwell, who would later build the Maxwell, butt of Jack Benny’s jokes for many years.

In March, 1901, fire destroyed most of the Olds Motor Works near the Belle Isle Bridge, most recently the site of Uniroyal’s tire factory, including 10 of 11 models the plant was building. The only car saved was a small single-cylinder Curved Dash Olds. Olds decided to rebuild immediately and put all the firm’s production resources into the little Curved Dash Olds, the “Merry Oldsmobile” of musical fame. It was a momentous decision, because it committed Olds to production of a small, relatively inexpensive car, the first “high-volume” model.

“MachineMachine shop owner Henry M. Leland began by making engines for Olds, and would go on to found the Cadillac and Lincoln motor companies.

By late summer, Olds had so many orders that he sought an outside source for engines. So he went to see another man who was a potent factor in making Detroit the Motor City, Henry M. Leland, head of Leland and Faulconer Co. His company was the foremost machine shop in the Midwest, located just north of the Eastern Market at Trombley and Dequindre. Leland agreed to build engines for Olds.

(etc. – there is a lot more here – and it very nifty – fascinating, my note)

***

My Note –

:Keys to the Universe –

You Wanna Drive?

– cricketdiane, 05-15-10

Just looking at a note I made the other day when I though of it – and that is what it is like to do this and to understand things better. It is like having the keys to entire universes and beyond all imagination.

***

Continuing –

Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

1967 Oil Embargo

1973 oil crisis

1979 energy crisis

1980s oil glut

1995 world oil market chronology

Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry

2000s energy crisis

**

from 1995 –

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995_world_oil_market_chronology

1995 world oil market chronology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  • January 14: Mexico pledges profits from state-owned Pemex‘s $7-billion-per-year oil revenues in an effort to secure United States Congress approval of $40 billion worth of loan guarantees. Subsequently, U.S. President Bill Clinton approved a $20-billion U.S. aid package for Mexico.
  • January 30: Norway‘s Statoil announces that a newly-formed consortium of 11 oil companies will develop a plan to supply Norwegian natural gas to the European continent. Three Norwegian companies signed a contract with Gaz de France to bring 1.4 trillion cubic feet (40 km3) of Norwegian gas to France between 2001 and 2027.
  • February 28: The Pentagon announces that it monitored Iranian installation of surface-to-air Hawk missiles in the Strait of Hormuz. The Iranians also took possession of and fortified the nearby Abu Musa and the Tunb Islands, which are claimed by both Iran and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
  • June 14: After OPEC‘s bi-annual meeting in Vienna, President Ida Bagus Sudjana] discloses the organization’s intention to roll over its present crude oil production ceiling of 24.52 million barrels per day (3,898,000 m3/d). The announcement is followed by a trip to Norway by Saudi Arabian Oil Minister Hisham M. Nazer. Upon arriving, the Saudi Minister asks Norwegian Minister of Industry and Energy Jens Stoltenberg to restrain his country’s oil production in the hopes of stabilizing world oil prices.
  • June 30: Exxon signs a $15.2-billion deal to develop oil and gas fields near Russia‘s Sakhalin Island. The Sakhalin I project will develop the offshore Shayvo, Odoptu, and Arkutun-Dagi fields that together are estimated to contain 2.5 billion barrels (400,000,000 m3) of crude oil and 15 trillion cubic feet (420 km3) of natural gas. Exxon has a 30 percent stake in the project.
  • July 6: Venezuela‘s Congress approves the country’s first investment law allowing for foreign participation in oil exploration and production. The newly-passed “model agreement” authorizes the state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) to offer 10 exploration blocks to foreign investors. If oil is discovered, the government will maintain a majority stake in any joint venture formed to develop the new fields.
  • July 27: Saudi Aramco awards the giant Shaybah oil field development project to U.S.-based Parsons Corporation. The $2.5-billion project will develop the 7-billion-barrel (1.1 km3) field, including the construction of crude oil production facilities, gas-oil separation plants, and a 372-mile (599 km) pipeline. The Shaybah field is located on the SaudiUnited Arab Emirates border and is expected to produce 500 million barrels per day (79,000,000 m3/d) after it comes on line in 1999.
  • July 28: Norwegian Finance Minister Sigbjorn Johnsen says that Norway should not lower its crude oil production in an attempt to boost world oil prices. Norwegian Oil Minister Jens Stoltenberg believes production cuts may be necessary if prices begin to fall. Minister Johnsen’s remarks follow last month’s visit by Saudi Arabian Oil Minister] Hisham M. Nazer, who asked Minister Stoltenberg to cut Norway’s crude oil production.
  • August 2: Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd issues a decree replacing all members of the Council of Ministers who do not have blood ties so the royal family. While most of the Council’s top positions are unaffected by the reshuffling, Oil Minister Hisham Nazer is replaced with Ali bin Ibrahim al-Naimi.
  • August 14: Iran’s official news agency, IRNA, reports that Iran has been unable to sell 200 million barrels per day (32,000,000 m3/d) of crude oil since the imposition of a unilateral oil embargo by the U.S. Iran increasingly has sold its crude oil on spot markets as opposed to long-term contracts. Larger purchases by France, Spain, Italy, China, India, Pakistan, and Thailand have failed to offset decreased demand by German and Japanese refiners. Before the U.S. embargo was announced in April 1995, U.S. companies were buying between 400,000 and 450 million barrels per day (72,000,000 m3/d), down from roughly 600 million barrels per day (95,000,000 m3/d) in 1994.
  • August 28: Kuwaiti Oil Minister Abdul Mohsen al-Medej announces that his country will increase its oil production capacity to as much as 3.5 million barrels per day (560,000 m3/d) by 2005.
  • September 13: The Kuwaiti Oil Ministry states its intention to seek a 200-million-barrel-per-day (32,000,000 m3/d) increase to its current 2-million-barrel-per-day (320,000 m3/d) crude oil production quota at the November 1995 OPEC meeting in Vienna. The announcement comes amidst growing non-OPEC oil production and weak oil prices.
  • November 22: OPEC states that it will roll over its current oil production quota of 25.42 million barrels per day (4,041,000 m3/d). The roll-over was widely anticipated because of slack world oil demand, rising non-OPEC production, and weak prices.
  • November 29: President Clinton approves legislation lifting a 22-year-old ban on exports of oil from the Alaskan North Slope (ANS). The ban was imposed after the oil embargo by Arab oil producers in 1973. The lifting of the ban opens up about one-quarter of U.S. crude oil production for export. The ANS legislation also waives royalty payments on deep water oil and gas leases in the Gulf of Mexico.
  • December 12: Speaking in New York during a U.S. visit by Angolan President Eduardo dos Santos, Joaquim David, president of the state-owned oil company , Sonangol, states that Angola will increase its crude oil production by 10 percent per year over the next five years, reaching 720 million barrels per day (1.14E+8 m3/d) by the end of 1996 and 1 million barrels per day (160,000 m3/d) by 2001. The statement comes amidst sporadic violence involving government forces and the rebel group UNITA, less than a year after a peace accord was signed ending the country’s 20-year-old civil war. At the end of 1995, Angola had raised its crude oil production to 690 million barrels per day (110,000,000 m3/d).
previous year:
1994 world oil market chronology
This article is part of the
Chronology of world oil market events (1970-2005)
following year:
1996 world oil market chronology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995_world_oil_market_chronology

***

From my Encyclopedia Britannica, 1978; vol.9, pp. 633

Entry – “Instrumentation”

(starting at the bottom of the page – )

Monitoring Chemical Properties –

Chemical and petroleum processing plants play a large role in industry throughout the world. Since their processes involve the continuous flow of large volumes of materials through different steps, they are most amenable to monitoring and control by instrumentation.

Indeed, such methods have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. For many years, however, only singl-function instruments that measured temperature, pressure, or flow, and actuated simple control mechanisms were used.

By 1945, it had become clear that further progress depended upon development of sensors that would continuously analyze the composition of a given stream of chemicals.

Although automatic analytical instruments used in industry embody principles of laboratory instruments, the industrial devices look quite different. A production instrument must operate continuously over long periods, often in a harsh environment; hence, the instrument must be much more rugged than the laboratory model.

Of the many laboratory principles employed in the process analytical instruments, the three in widest use today are refractometry, absorption spectroscopy, and gas chromatography.

(from Encyclopedia Britannica, 1978; vol. 9, pp. 633 – goes on to explain what each of these instruments do, how they analyze, what they analyze and how it is important to have that information along with how it applies for various industry uses and science / laboratory applications, my note)

***

http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Environment/E_Overview/E_Overview4.htm

The Automobile and the Environment in American History

by Martin V. Melosi

Auto Emissions and Air Pollution

The Santa Barbara oil spill was a dramatic reminder of the risks inherent in the search for energy resources. Emissions from the internal combustion engine, however, have proved to be the most significant environmental consequence of oil production. Street cleaners who sang the praises of the motor car for delivering them from tons of horse manure could not appreciate that the environmental panacea of one generation proved to be the bane of another. The technical limits of the internal combustion engine and the scale of automobile use produced devastating forms of pollution.

Some pollution crises in the postwar years were harbingers of things to come. In 1948, a temperature inversion kept a dense smoke cloud of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter close to the ground for six days in the steel mill town of Donora, Pennsylvania. On the fifth day, October 30, seventeen people died, followed by two more deaths twenty-four hours later. Almost 43 percent of the townspeople became ill, with more than 10 percent (1,440) “severely affected.”

The tragedy at Donora made postwar Americans aware of the health hazards of air pollution. Those dangers were reconfirmed by the “killer smog” that hit London in 1952 (4,000 deaths) and the serious smog attack in New York City in 1953 (200 deaths). Congress enacted the National Air Pollution Control Act in 1955 to generate research on air pollution, but how automobile emissions fit into the story took several years to evaluate and even longer to address.

A relatively new source of air contamination, automobile emissions posed different problems than manufacturing discharges such as coal smoke. Before the Industrial Revolution, levels of toxic chemicals in the air were relatively low, but increased fossil-fuel production and use dramatically decreased air quality. The addition of many thousands of cars on the road in the years after World War II intensified the spread of air pollution, added more and newer sources of pollutants, and most immediately threatened many major cities.

In the 1940s, citizens of the car-dominated Los Angeles basin complained about a white or sometimes yellow-brown haze that made their eyes tear. They referred to this irritation as “smog.” The word was taken from a combination of “smoke” and “fog,” a term purportedly coined in 1905 by Dr. H.A. Des Voeux of London ’s Coal Smoke Abatement Society. The more recent version of smog, primarily from automobile emissions, is composed of a complex of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, waste heat, and aerosols (liquid droplets, solid particles, and other various mixtures of liquids and solids suspended in air).

Tropospheric ozone, located a few feet above ground, is another significant component of smog. In the late 1980s, at least 60 million people in North America regularly breathed air that failed to achieve federal air quality standards established ten years earlier; during the summer heat wave in 1988, the number rose to 120 million. Ozone is clearly one of the worst offenders, especially in cities such as Houston, Los Angeles, Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., and Toronto.

Individually or together, the various components pose a health hazard to humans. Auto emissions can cause headaches, contribute to lung cancer, emphysema, and various other respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and have been linked to low birth weight in infants. They also modify weather conditions, damage vegetation, and eat away at rubber, textiles, dyes, and other materials.

The use of tetraethyl lead as a gasoline additive in 1923 introduced yet another toxic substance to automobile emissions that threatened human health. Concerns among public health officials about the poisonous nature of the substance did not deter General Motors and others from promoting leaded gasoline. As environmental historian Ted Steinberg noted, “With the burning of huge quantities of gasoline (especially in the three decades after 1950), lead was deposited on the soil and, unknowingly, tracked into houses across the nation. Infants crawling on the floor then picked it up on their fingers and ingested it, interfering with the development of their nervous systems and contributing to hyperactivity and hearing loss, among other effects, although it would be decades . . . before the full scope of the problem became evident.” Unfortunately, lead does not break down once released into the air, and between the 1920s and 1986—when it finally was being phased out as a gasoline additive—seven million tons of lead was spewed out by cars across the country.

While air pollution from cars was a growing problem throughout the immediate postwar period, it was not an issue among automobile manufacturers, oil companies, or the public. Los Angeles, the “smog capital of America,” was probably the first city to raise major public concern over auto emissions, and became the living laboratory for studying the causes and effects of massive doses of smog. The State of California also was the first state to establish new-car emission standards.

As early as 1959, eye irritation was reported in Los Angeles County on 187 days; in 1962, 212 days. A typical car produced in 1963 (without pollution control devices) discharged 520 pounds of hydrocarbons, 1,700 pounds of carbon monoxide, and 90 pounds of nitrogen oxide for every 10,000 miles traveled. In 1966, 86 million of approximately 146 million tons of pollutants discharged into the air in the United States was attributable to motor vehicle traffic.

Beginning in 1947 Los Angeles had reduced sulfur dioxide emissions by banning the use of coal and fuel oils for industrial purposes, but the smog problem continued to increase. In the 1950s suspicions were being raised about the contribution of motor vehicles to the air pollution problem of the area. Dr. A.J. Haagen-Smit and other scientists conducting pioneering chemistry research at the California Institute of Technology discovered that nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons exposed to sunlight produced secondary pollutants (photochemical smog or PCS) that caused eye and throat irritations and reduced visibility in the Los Angeles area. Further studies indicated that the complex and various pollutants existing in automobile emissions came from four sources: engine exhaust, crankcase blowby (through the engine ventilation system), the carburetor, and the fuel tank. These investigations were central to the development of various emissions-control technologies.

Multiplied by thousands of cars, the smog problem in Los Angeles was critical. California became the logical testing ground for several emissions-control devices and some pioneering legislation. Initially, neither the automobile industry nor the petroleum industry was a willing participant in addressing the problem. For its part, the auto industry was not interested in committing time or money to redesigning its cars, and only reluctantly and largely because of new legislation was forced to retrofit cars with emission-control devices. (Interestingly, little serious consideration was given to encouraging or requiring motorists to alter their driving habits.)

As early as 1953, Los Angeles County Supervisor Kenneth Hahn inquired of Detroit automobile makers as to whether research was being conducted to eliminate emissions. The response was vague. With the threat of mandatory federal regulations, the auto industry began to install crankcase blowby devices (which returned unburned gases to the combustion chambers) on their cars. This was a significant advance because crankcase blowby produced 25 percent of the engine’s hydrocarbon emissions. This equipment became mandatory on all cars sold in California beginning with the 1963 models.

This was only a start, since no effort was made to control exhaust emissions that were responsible for 55 percent of the hydrocarbons, most of the waste heat, and all of the carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead emissions. Once again the industry balked, but in 1966 California required exhaust-control devices on all new cars. However, the 12 percent drop in hydrocarbon emissions and reduction in carbon monoxide experienced in Los Angeles between 1965 and 1968 was accompanied by a 28 percent rise in nitrogen oxides. By 1968, nitrogen dioxide, which is highly poisonous, exceeded the “adverse” level on 132 days. The serious increases in nitrogen oxides were due to the inability of available antiemissions technology to act on them, as well as to the increase in automobiles and rising gasoline consumption. A new technical fix was sought from the automobile industry and, in response, catalytic exhaust devices were developed to convert nitrogen oxides into harmless by-products. Catalytic converters were required on all 1975 cars sold in California. Leaded gasoline, however, played havoc with the catalysts. One solution was to use lead-free or unleaded gasoline. (Another was the unauthorized removal of the devices by motorists.) While non-leaded gas became available, the complete phase-out of leaded gasoline, as stated earlier, did not commence until 1986.

Outside of California, the states moved slowly to combat automobile emissions. By 1966, motor vehicles contributed more than 60 percent of the pollutants in the atmosphere throughout the nation. Temperature inversions in at least 27 states and the District of Columbia produced serious smog problems. The more widespread use of trucks and airplanes exacerbated the nation’s air pollution problems.

It became apparent during the 1960s that smog was not a local problem, but a national one requiring the attention of the federal government. While California still led the way in emissions-control legislation, federal laws moved toward recognition of the problem. The 1963 Clean Air Act for the first time gave the federal government limited enforcement power over interstate pollution. The Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Act of 1965 produced national standards comparable to California law for the 1968 model year. Also in 1967, the Air Quality Act was the first piece of federal legislation designed to control lead emissions. Federal funds became available to defray part of the cost of inspection programs. Hydrocarbon emissions came under federal jurisdiction in 1968.

The meteoric rise in environmental concern, the dissatisfaction with existing federal laws, and the lackluster accomplishments of the states provided the momentum for the 1970 Clean Air Amendments. Dealing with both auto emissions and stationary sources of pollution, the new legislation was the most stringent air pollution law ever passed in the United States. An amendment to the 1970 Clean Air Act called for further reductions in emissions and authorized the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set emissions standards for new automobiles and other motor vehicles concerning pollutants that would adversely affect human health.

Intentions, however, were not always equal to actions. Implementation of the Clean Air Amendments was made difficult by a reluctant automobile industry and the energy crisis of the early 1970s. The 1970 act gave the auto industry a temporary way out of meeting the tougher standards. Under the provisions of the act, the EPA administrator could grant a one-year delay if the companies made “good faith” efforts to meet the new standards. Some critics questioned whether the manufacturers had, in fact, made such a gesture, since they relied on the research and development work of independent companies for emissions-control technology rather than utilizing their own resources.

EPA Administrator William Ruckelshaus denied the delay on the grounds that the companies were capable of meeting the 1975 deadline. Four auto companies then sued the EPA for refusing to extend the deadline, and, in 1973, the Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the plaintiffs. The onset of the energy crisis prompted Congress to extend the deadline further, and apprehension about the safety of the catalytic converters again pushed back the deadline. In 1977, a three-year suspension was granted.


While emissions standards attempted to address one environmental problem associated with motor vehicles, it actually helped produce another. During the period frpm 1968 to 1974, with the primary emphasis of regulation on emissions control, fuel economy of motor vehicles suffered, thus increasing demand for gasoline.

One way of enhancing fuel economy was reducing the weight of vehicles, and data for 1977-1980 indicates that fuel economy improved almost in direct proportion to reduced vehicle weight. (Of course, concerns about the safety of vehicles arose as some cars on the road became lighter, while older models retained their bulk.) The introduction of the oxidation catalytic converter in 1975 also helped to improve fuel economy as well as reduce emissions. Electronic engine control later added another layer of technology.

The energy crisis of the 1970s produced a mixed record with respect to auto emissions. The American automobile industry, especially Chrysler, was woefully unprepared to meet the challenge of fuel economy demanded by the rise in gasoline prices. Americans turned to small Japanese and European cars, while Detroit plunged into a deep depression.

Alternatives to the internal combustion engine were not quick in developing either. One exception was the greater availability of the more economical and less-polluting diesel engine. Faced with the crisis in the automobile industry, the federal government sought to ease air pollution and safety standards. In this way, the energy crisis blunted enthusiasm for more stringent air pollution laws. However, the mandated 55-mile-an-hour national speed limit and the decline in gasoline usage (by more than 5 percent) contributed to some reductions in air pollution.

Despite the mixed signals about the chance for cleaner air—more regulation, more technology, but also more vehicles and more gasoline usage—progress was made in reducing some forms of air pollution by the late 1980s. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions began to decline. Lead usage in gasoline dropped by 99 percent between 1975 and 1988. Yet 44 urban areas failed to meet ambient air standards for carbon monoxide, and 101 urban areas failed to meet air standards for the serious problem of ozone.

The Clean Air Amendments of 1990—debated vigorously in Congress especially by those who feared a watering down of standards and others who did not want more teeth in the older law—substantially revised the 1970 and 1977 acts. Two of the eleven titles focused particularly on transportation. They involved a new plan to classify cities according to the severity of their emission problems and their degree of attainment of earlier goals, with different levels of action required for each category. The categories were: marginal, moderate, serious, severe, and extreme. For example, “marginal areas” for ozone had to complete an emissions inventory and reduce volatile organic compounds emissions (reductions from other federal programs could be credited toward those reductions). Urban communities classified as “nonattaiment areas” were required to take more substantial actions.

The new law also set more stringent emissions standards for automobiles and some trucks for model years 1996 to 2003. Efforts to tighten exhaust standards essentially ratified innovations underway in California (referred to as a Phase I strategy) and being enacted by other states. The automobile industry, for its part, was already making good progress toward the California standards.

However, the administration of George H.W. Bush strongly opposed more stringent exhaust standards like those to be implemented in California (Phase II) in 1996. Instead, it promoted a “clean fuels” and a “clean car” alternative, which mandated the use of new fuels (reformulated gasoline, methanol, ethanol, and natural gas) and the introduction of cleaner cars in cities with the worst ozone problems. Predictably, the oil and automotive industries strongly opposed the “clean fuels” and “clean car” strategies, but they accepted a diluted version rather than be forced to accept something similar to California ’s Phase II exhaust standards.

Despite the lukewarm provisions for cleaner cars, the new policy helped to stimulate interest in alternatives to the standard internal combustion engine. Some movement in this direction had occurred during the energy crisis and earlier with the rotary engine and other technologies. Also, under certain conditions some electric-powered vehicles were in use, especially in urban settings. Cars equipped with electric batteries or hydrogen fuel cells (zero emission vehicles or ZEVs) and even hybrid systems (sporting a combination of electric and gasoline power) were back on the drawing board and some even entered the market. For example, Amory and Hunter Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute promoted the development of a “Hypercar,” an aerodynamically designed vehicle powered by a small electric-generating engine utilizing gasoline, liquid gas, or hydrogen cell. The Lovinses also have promoted various forms of a hydrogen-powered vehicle.

Legislation and technical fixes were a start in the battle for clean air, but no magic solutions were achieved overnight. The automobile and oil industries continued to resist tougher standards. The public paid homage to clean air but resented carrying the burden of responsibility through higher costs and reduced automobile performance. Cities groped with ways to keep air quality from diminishing further. But as long as Americans cherished the automobile, emissions problems would remain. The intimacy between the individual and an energy source was nowhere more apparent than in the relationship between Americans and their cars.

Small, imported cars made in-roads into the American market beginning in 1957, while American automobile manufacturers concentrated on bigger vehicles with larger engines. The Big Three—GM, Ford, and Chrysler—were not convinced that a large enough market existed for small cars. As long as gasoline was abundant and cheap, they would produce more powerful automobiles.

High-compression engines offered greater horsepower and quicker acceleration for highway travel. Automatic transmissions—an option on 91 percent of the cars sold by 1970—made driving easier. These were luxuries of a high-octane age, luxuries to which the Big Three committed their futures. The side effects of more cars, bigger engines, and automatic transmissions, however, were loss of fuel economy and increased air pollution.

In the late 1980s, at least 60 million people in North America regularly breathed air that failed to achieve federal air quality standards established ten years earlier; during the summer heat wave in 1988, the number rose to 120 million.

http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Environment/E_Overview/E_Overview4.htm

The Automobile and the Environment in American History

by Martin V. Melosi

Auto Emissions and Air Pollution

***

RIGZONE – President Petroleum Completes La. Drilling Program

Apr 20, 2010 Stephen Gutteridge, Chairman of President Petroleum, said, “Our recent drilling program in Louisiana has substantially increased production,
http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=91284

***

On the same day as the Deepwater Horizon exploded in the Gulf of Mexico –

April 20, 2010

http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=91284

President Petroleum Completes La. Drilling Program
President Petroleum Corp. plc
|
  • Contact Rigzone
  • 5870 Hwy 6 North, Suite 107
  • Houston, TX 77084
  • (281) 345-4040

Stephen Gutteridge, Chairman of President Petroleum, said, “Our recent drilling program in Louisiana has substantially increased production, particularly of oil, and cash-flow. Given the current strong oil price we will be looking to add further production from both fields wherever possible.”

President Petroleum announced an update on its operations.

Highlights

  • Q1 oil production up by 50% on Q4 2009
  • Successful 4 well program completed in Louisiana, USA
  • Current net daily oil and gas production of around 300 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boepd), the highest level since June 2009
  • Production from East White Lake up 200% over last two months
  • Location for Northumberland 2 well on PEL 82 confirmed
  • Airborne gravity and magnetic survey over PEL 132 acreage successfully completed

Operations – Louisiana, USA

East Lake Verret

The Simmons 3 well (21.9% net revenue interest (NRI)), which was a minor gas producer has been re-completed as an oil producer, currently producing a gross 100 bbls/day. Gross daily revenue from this well has been increased from around US $500 to over US $8000.

East White Lake (21.875% NRI)

The A-41 side-track well was completed late last week and initial gross flow rates are significantly better than expected at 140 bbls/day of oil and over 400 mcfd of natural gas.

The work-over of the A-29 well was also successfully completed last week and the well was returned to production at a gross rate of 60 bbls/day of oil

Production from the A-52 well, brought on-stream in March, has settled at a gross 100 bbls/day and 80 mcfd of gas

Production

Production has been increasing steadily in 2010 as a result of the development drilling program and in particular, the Company has successfully increased its exposure to the current strong oil price.

Net oil production in Q1 2010 was 60 bbls/day, a substantial increase on the 38 bbls/day in Q4 2009. With the contribution from the new wells, current April production has shown a further increase to 130 bbls/day of oil and around 300 boepd of hydrocarbons in total.

At East White Lake, in which the Company acquired a working interest in January, net daily hydrocarbon production has increased from 30 boepd in February to a current level of over 90 boepd.

Operations – South Australia

PEL 82

The initial well on PEL 82 will be named the Northumberland 2 well, located 3.2 km north-west of Port MacDonnell and will test the Flaxman and Waarre reservoirs. The combined target prospectivity for Northumberland 2 is 40 million barrels of oil or 54 bcf of natural gas, with a target depth of 3200 meters.

The Company has been engaged in negotiations with drilling contractors for potentially suitable rigs for the PEL 82 drilling program. The Company is anxious to avoid excessive mobilization costs, and has been seeking sharing arrangements with other operators in South Australia and Victoria. A satisfactory agreement in principle has now been reached with an Australian contractor who has a suitable rig currently outside Australia, and has already contracted to bring it into the country. Detailed discussions on the drilling contract and timetable are now underway.

PEL 132

The airborne gravity and magnetic survey on PEL 132 has been completed over 900 kms north-west of Lake Frome. Processing of the data will take two months.

Stephen Gutteridge, Chairman of President Petroleum, said, “Our recent drilling program in Louisiana has substantially increased production, particularly of oil, and cash-flow. Given the current strong oil price we will be looking to add further production from both fields wherever possible.”

Stephen Gutteridge, Chairman of President Petroleum, said, “Our recent drilling program in Louisiana has substantially increased production, particularly of oil, and cash-flow. Given the current strong oil price we will be looking to add further production from both fields wherever possible.”

  • Contact Rigzone
  • 5870 Hwy 6 North, Suite 107
  • Houston, TX 77084
  • (281) 345-4040

(from)

RigZone

http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=91284

***

History of the oil shale industry

History of the petroleum industry in Canada (frontier exploration and development)

**

The History of the Standard Oil Company

History of the petroleum industry in the United States

History of the petroleum industry in Canada

U.S. Oil and Refining

**

Texas Independent Producers and Royalty Owners Association


Production Operations, Volumes 1 and 2

Deepwater Petroleum Exploration & Production: A Nontechnical Guide

Texas Court Ruling Deals Blow to Lawsuits over Withdrawn Lease Offers
by  Jack Z. Smith
|

Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Texas

|
Friday, May 14, 2010

http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=93336

Tarrant County property owners suing natural gas producers and energy leasing companies over withdrawals of high-dollar leasing offers in 2008 suffered a significant legal blow Wednesday.

Judge Don Cosby, of the 67th state District Court in Fort Worth, ruled that Arlington property owner Velma Ann Myles lacks legal standing to sue on “antitrust and conspiracy claims” under the Texas Free Enterprise and Antitrust Act of 1983.

The ruling is also applicable to more than 20 lawsuits filed by three Dallas law firms, known as the North Texas Lease Litigation Group, on behalf of property owners in southwest Fort Worth and southeast Arlington. Large neighborhood coalitions negotiated lucrative lease agreements with gas producers and leasing companies, but before many of the residents could sign, the offers were abruptly withdrawn in October 2008 after gas prices plunged.

Lease offers became much less attractive and remain markedly lower.

Cosby’s ruling could be appealed and does not prevent the property owners from pursuing lawsuits on other grounds, including claims of breach of contract and fraud. But the ruling is expected to narrow the range of damages that property owners can seek and restrict information their attorneys can obtain through discovery proceedings.

“We need to evaluate our position concerning whether to appeal this ruling,” said Dallas attorney Kip Petroff, who represents Myles.

“Not a single one of our cases will be dismissed as a result of this ruling,” he said. “We still have the breach of contract and fraud claims, which have always been the foundation of our cases anyway. … This ruling has no effect whatsoever on the validity of those breach-of-contract claims.”

The ruling “will simplify the cases and allow us to focus squarely on the way each gas company backed out of their separate agreements” with the homeowners, Petroff said.

Defendants include gas producers XTO Energy, Chesapeake Energy, Vantage Energy and Titan Operating, and leasing firms Caffey Group, Dale Property Services and Permian Land Co.

Fort Worth attorney Don Herrmann, representing Vantage and Caffey, said they are “pleased and gratified” by the ruling, “which we believe to be absolutely correct.”

“I look forward to visiting soon with plaintiffs’ and defendants’ counsel regarding plans for further proceedings,” said Herrmann, of the Kelly Hart & Hallman firm.

Before the energy companies withdrew their high-dollar lease offers, a neighborhood coalition called the Southwest Fort Worth Alliance negotiated an agreement with Vantage Energy and Caffey Group calling for a bonus of $27,500 an acre and a 23 percent royalty for a three-year lease, plus a $27,500-an-acre bonus if the lease were renewed for two more years. South East Arlington Communities of Texas negotiated a bonus of $26,517 an acre and a 26.5 percent royalty.

Lease offers now are lower, sometimes for bonuses of $2,000 an acre or less, and only a 20 percent royalty.

***

Energy Use and the Internal Combustion Engine

(from)

http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Environment/E_Overview/E_Overview4.htm#TrafficJam

Noise, Visual Pollution, and Derelict Cars
Environmental Cost of the Automobile Production Process

***

(from a Google search using the terms – history of automotive industry)

As the auto industry

600 × 350 – 134k – jpg
images.businessweek.com

traces the story of

900 × 717 – 101k – jpg
theerrantaesthete.com
***
(and)

the automotive

550 × 320 – 30k – jpg
automopedia.org

automotive industry

1851 × 944 – 238k – jpg
russiancars.lefora.com

Soviet automobile

500 × 369 – 46k – jpg
realussr.com

the Turkish auto

430 × 322 – 30k – jpg
examiner.com
***

Today In History: The

564 × 528 – 20k – jpg
ridelust.com

Today, automobile

245 × 245 – 36k – jpg
cnesbau-export.com
***

History of the petroleum industry in Canada (oil sands and heavy oil)

of the auto industry

468 × 457 – 74k – jpg
weburbanist.com
(from google image search cont. from above – history of automotive industry)

2000 world oil market chronology

1999 world oil market chronology

1998 world oil market chronology

1997 world oil market chronology

1996 world oil market chronology

1995 world oil market chronology

1994 world oil market chronology

1993 world oil market chronology

1992 world oil market chronology

1991 world oil market chronology

1990 world oil market chronology

Advertisements