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from 29 minutes ago -(after today’s drop of the stock markets of 995.55 and of Nasdaq of similar extreme, at one point I noted it was -89.88 on my note card and the NYSE was at 9922, [90% or more programmed trades in lot groups of shares all at once according to bloomberg], my note, cricketdiane)

Reuters –

‎29 minutes ago‎

(Reuters) – Nasdaq Operations said it will cancel all trades executed between 2:40 p.m. to 3 p.m. showing a rise or fall of more than 60 percent from the last trade in that security at 2:40 p.m or immediately prior.

Nasdaq said the stocks affected and break points will be disseminated soon.

(Reporting by Chuck Mikolajczak; Editing by Andrew Hay)

Nasdaq to cancel trades

http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6456QB20100506?feedType=RSS&feedName=topNews

(CNN)

Citizens monitor Gulf Coast after oil spill By John D. Sutter, CNN May 6, 2010 2:02 p.m. EDT

GEEKS VS. SPILL

Hmmm . . .

The 26-year-old is trying to monitor the effects of the oil spill that threatens to wreak environmental and economic havoc on the Gulf Coast of the United States.

Warren knows that satellites and other official means are used to measure the extent of the oil spill, which occurred after an offshore oil rig exploded on April 20 and subsequently sank, causing an underwater oil pipeline to rupture.

But satellites only come by so often. And they are much higher in the air.

Hovering at 1,000 feet above the ground, Warren’s camera is able to take pictures with 100 to 1,000 times better resolution than the satellites, he said.

“There’s a lot of need for documentation on the scale of a person,” he said Wednesday from Louisiana, where he had just arrived to set up monitoring efforts with the help of local people and organizations.

(etc.)

http://www.cnn.com/2010/TECH/05/06/crowdsource.gulf.oil/index.html?hpt=C1

***

My Note –

Will try to continue – the cable is dead.

– cricketdiane

***

Your hair, pet’s fur can help clean oily Gulf Coast

By Matt Hickman, Mother Nature Network
May 6, 2010 2:03 p.m. EDT

(Mother Nature Network) — If you’ve been keeping tabs on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, you’ve probably been wondering how exactly you can help.Well, for those of you with furry, four-legged flatmates, it can be as easy as sweeping the floors and collecting all that errant fur and hair.

So how exactly can hoarding pet fur help with cleaning up one of the worst environmental disasters in recent memory? Enter Matter of Trust, a San Francisco-based nonprofit that’s been accepting donations of non-filthy pet fur and human hair since 1998 to craft oil-absorbing hairmats — described as “flat square dreadlocks” — and hair-stuffed containment booms made from recycled pantyhose.

(etc.)

I must say, sending along fur to Matter of Trust via Excess Access is an eco-ideal spring cleaning mission for folks with critters around the house.

In addition to pet owners, groomers and salon owners can get involved too by sending in bulk shipments of hair/fur. In fact, as of Tuesday, 400,000 pounds of hair was en route to the Gulf Coast.

(includes list of what they need )

***
Added On May 6, 2010

As operations to contain the oil disaster continue, CNN’s Brooke Baldwin takes a look at what lies beneath the sheen.

Added On May 6, 2010

As operations to contain the oil disaster continue, CNN’s Brooke Baldwin takes a look at what lies beneath the sheen.

***
Back to what I was doing – looking for the largest consumers of petroleum –
Go to wikipedia ships

Commercial vessels

Main article: Commercial vessel

Commercial vessels or merchant ships can be divided into three broad categories: cargo ships, passenger ships, and special-purpose ships.[41] Cargo ships transport dry and liquid cargo. Dry cargo can be transported in bulk by bulk carriers, packed directly onto a general cargo ship in break-bulk, packed in intermodal containers as aboard a container ship, or driven aboard as in roll-on roll-off ships. Liquid cargo is generally carried in bulk aboard tankers, such as oil tankers, chemical tankers and LNG tankers, although smaller shipments may be carried on container ships in tank containers.

Passenger ships range in size from small river ferries to giant cruise ships. This type of vessel includes ferries, which move passengers and vehicles on short trips; ocean liners, which carry passengers on one-way trips; and cruise ships, which typically transport passengers on round-trip voyages promoting leisure activities aboard and in the ports they visit.

Special-purpose vessels are not used for transport but are designed to perform other specific tasks. Examples include tugboats, pilot boats, rescue boats, cable ships, research vessels, survey vessels, and ice breakers.

Most commercial vessels have full hull-forms to maximize cargo capacity. Hulls are usually made of steel, although aluminum can be used on faster craft, and fiberglass on the smallest service vessels. Commercial vessels generally have a crew headed by a captain, with deck officers and marine engineers on larger vessels. Special-purpose vessels often have specialized crew if necessary, for example scientists aboard research vessels. Commercial vessels are typically powered by a single propeller driven by a diesel engine. Vessels which operate at the higher end of the speed spectrum may use pump-jet engines or sometimes gas turbine engines.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ship

Naval vessels

Main article: Naval ship

American aircraft carrier Harry S. Truman and a replenishment ship

There are many types of naval vessels currently and through history. Modern naval vessels can be broken down into three categories: warships, submarines, and support and auxiliary vessels.

Modern warships are generally divided into seven main categories, which are: aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, submarines and amphibious assault ships. Battleships encompass an eighth category, but are not in current service with any navy in the world.[42]

Most military submarines are either attack submarines or ballistic missile submarines. Until the end of World War II , the primary role of the diesel/electric submarine was anti-ship warfare, inserting and removing covert agents and military forces, and intelligence-gathering. With the development of the homing torpedo, better sonar systems, and nuclear propulsion, submarines also became able to effectively hunt each other. The development of submarine-launched nuclear missiles and submarine-launched cruise missiles gave submarines a substantial and long-ranged ability to attack both land and sea targets with a variety of weapons ranging from cluster bombs to nuclear weapons.

Most navies also include many types of support and auxiliary vessels, such as minesweepers, patrol boats, offshore patrol vessels, replenishment ships, and hospital ships which are designated medical treatment facilities.[43]

Combat vessels like cruisers and destroyers usually have fine hulls to maximize speed and maneuverability.[44] They also usually have advanced electronics and communication systems, as well as weapons.

Fishing vessels

Main article: Fishing vessels

The Albatun Dos, a tuna boat at work near Victoria, Seychelles

Fishing vessels are a subset of commercial vessels, but generally small in size and often subject to different regulations and classification. They can be categorized by several criteria: architecture, the type of fish they catch, the fishing method used, geographical origin, and technical features such as rigging. As of 2004, the world’s fishing fleet consisted of some 4 million vessels.[37] Of these, 1.3 million were decked vessels with enclosed areas and the rest were open vessels.[37] Most decked vessels were mechanized, but two-thirds of the open vessels were traditional craft propelled by sails and oars.[37] More than 60% of all existing large fishing vessels[45] were built in Japan, Peru, the Russian Federation, Spain or the United States of America.[46]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ship

My Note –

All good to know because that represents a massive amount of petroleum products being burned across the board each and every minute of every day – but I want to know a little more about how much it takes to move these ships across the water in fuel consumption and then add to that airplanes and other sources using it (more or less).

So I’m going down the ships page a little ways to see if I can find it –

– cricketdiane

**

As environmental laws are strictening, ship designers need to create their design in such a way that the ship -when it nears its end-of-term- can be disassmbled or disposed easily and that waste is reduced to a minimum.

MS Freedom of the Seas under construction in a shipyard in Turku.

Construction

Main article: Shipbuilding

Ship construction takes place in a shipyard, and can last from a few months for a unit produced in series, to several years to reconstruct a wooden boat like the frigate Hermione, to more than 10 years for an aircraft carrier. Hull materials and vessel size play a large part in determining the method of construction. The hull of a mass-produced fiberglass sailboat is constructed from a mold, while the steel hull of a cargo ship is made from large sections welded together as they are built.

A ship launching at the Northern Shipyard in Gdansk, Poland

Generally, construction starts with the hull, and on vessels over about 30 meters, by the laying of the keel. This is done in a drydock or on land. Once the hull is assembled and painted, it is launched. The last stages, such as raising the superstructure and adding equipment and accommodation, can be done after the vessel is afloat.

Once completed, the vessel is delivered to the customer. Ship launching is often a ceremony of some significance, and is usually when the vessel is formally named. A typical small rowboat can cost under US$100, $1,000 for a small speedboat, tens of thousands of dollars for a cruising sailboat, and about $2,000,000 for a Vendée Globe class sailboat. A 25 metres (82 ft) trawler may cost $2.5 million, and a 1,000-person-capacity high-speed passenger ferry can cost in the neighborhood of $50 million. A ship’s cost partly depends on its complexity: a small, general cargo ship will cost $20 million, a Panamax-sized bulk carrier around $35 million, a supertanker around $105 million and a large LNG carrier nearly $200 million. The most expensive ships generally are so because of the cost of embedded electronics: a Seawolf class submarine costs around $2 billion, and an aircraft carrier goes for about $3.5 billion.

Repair and conversion

An able seaman uses a needlegun scaler while refurbishing a mooring winch at sea

Ships undergo nearly constant maintenance during their career, whether they be underway, pierside, or in some cases, in periods of reduced operating status between charters or shipping seasons.

Most ships, however, require trips to special facilities such as a drydock at regular intervals. Tasks often done at drydock include removing biological growths on the hull, sandblasting and repainting the hull, and replacing sacrificial anodes used to protect submerged equipment from corrosion. Major repairs to the propulsion and steering systems as well as major electrical systems are also often performed at dry dock.

Vessels that sustain major damage at sea may be repaired at a facility equipped for major repairs, such as a shipyard. Ships may also be converted for a new purpose: oil tankers are often converted into floating production storage and offloading units.

Ship graveyard in France

End of service

Main article: Ship disposal

Most ocean-going cargo ships have a life expectancy of between 20 and 30 years. A sailboat made of plywood or fiberglass can last between 30 and 40 years. Solid wooden ships can last much longer but require regular maintenance. Carefully maintained steel-hulled yachts can have a lifespan of over 100 years.

As ships age, forces such as corrosion, osmosis, and rotting compromise hull strength, and a vessel becomes too dangerous to sail. At this point, it can be scuttled at sea or scrapped by shipbreakers. Ships can also be used as museum ships, or expended to construct breakwaters or artificial reefs.

Many ships do not make it to the scrapyard, and are lost in fires, collisions, grounding, or sinking at sea. There are more than 3 million shipwrecks on the ocean floor, the United Nations estimates.[49] The Allies lost some 5,150 ships during World War II.[50]

Propulsion systems

A bird’s eye view of a ship’s engineroom

Main article: Marine propulsion

Propulsion systems for ships fall into three categories: human propulsion, sailing, and mechanical propulsion. Human propulsion includes rowing, which was used even on large galleys. Propulsion by sail generally consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, supported by stays and spars and controlled by ropes. Sail systems were the dominant form of propulsion until the nineteenth century. They are now generally used for recreation and competition, although experimental sail systems, such as the turbosails, rotorsails, and wingsails have been used on larger modern vessels for fuel savings.

Mechanical propulsion systems generally consist of a motor or engine turning a propeller, or less frequently, an impeller. Steam engines were first used for this purpose, but have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships. Nuclear reactors producing steam are used to propel warships and icebreakers, and there have been attempts to utilize them to power commercial vessels (see the NS Savannah).

There are many variations of propeller systems, including twin, contra-rotating, controllable-pitch, and nozzle-style propellers. Smaller vessels tend to have a single propeller. Large vessels use multiple propellers, supplemented with bow- and stern-thrusters. Power is transmitted from the engine to the propeller by way of a propeller shaft, which may or may not be connected to a gearbox. Some modern vessels use electric motors connected directly to the propeller shaft, usually powered by generators. These electric systems are often more energy efficient than other systems where the engine is mechanically connected to the propeller.

(etc.)

Design considerations

Hydrostatics

Some vessels, like the LCAC, can operate in a non-displacement mode.

Boats and ships are kept on (or slightly above) the water in three ways:

  • For most vessels, known as displacement vessels, the vessel’s weight is offset by that of the water displaced by the hull.
  • For planing ships and boats, such as the hydrofoil, the lift developed by the movement of the foil through the water increases with the vessel’s speed, until the vessel is foilborne.
  • For non-displacement craft such as hovercraft and air-cushion vehicles, the vessel is suspended over the water by a cushion of high-pressure air it projects downwards against the surface of the water.

A vessel is in equilibrium when the upwards and downwards forces are of equal magnitude. As a vessel is lowered into the water its weight remains constant but the corresponding weight of water displaced by its hull increases. When the two forces are equal, the boat floats. If weight is evenly distributed throughout the vessel, it floats without trim or heel.

A vessel’s stability is considered in both this hydrostatic sense as well as a hydrodynamic sense, when subjected to movement, rolling and pitching, and the action of waves and wind. Stability problems can lead to excessive pitching and rolling, and eventually capsizing and sinking.

Hydrodynamics

Fishing boat Dona Delfina

The advance of a vessel through water is resisted by the water. This resistance can be broken down into several components, the main ones being the friction of the water on the hull and wave making resistance. To reduce resistance and therefore increase the speed for a given power, it is necessary to reduce the wetted surface and use submerged hull shapes that produce low amplitude waves. To do so, high-speed vessels are often more slender, with fewer or smaller appendages. The friction of the water is also reduced by regular maintenance of the hull to remove the sea creatures and algae that accumulate there. Antifouling paint is commonly used to assist in this. Advanced designs such as the bulbous bow assist in decreasing wave resistance.

A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull in relation to its wake. At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed, the wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. As the hull approaches the wave propagation speed, however, the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than it can dissipate, and so it grows in amplitude. Since the water is not able to “get out of the way of the hull fast enough”, the hull, in essence, has to climb over or push through the bow wave. This results in an exponential increase in resistance with increasing speed.

This hull speed is found by the formula:

\mbox{knots} \approx 1.34 \times \sqrt{L  \mbox{ft}}

or, in metric units:

\mbox{knots} \approx 2.5 \times \sqrt{L  \mbox{m}}

where L is the length of the waterline in feet or meters.

When the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 0.94, it starts to outrun most of its bow wave, and the hull actually settles slightly in the water as it is now only supported by two wave peaks. As the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 1.34, the hull speed, the wavelength is now longer than the hull, and the stern is no longer supported by the wake, causing the stern to squat, and the bow rise. The hull is now starting to climb its own bow wave, and resistance begins to increase at a very high rate. While it is possible to drive a displacement hull faster than a speed/length ratio of 1.34, it is prohibitively expensive to do so. Most large vessels operate at speed/length ratios well below that level, at speed/length ratios of under 1.0.

Vessels move along the three axes: 1. heave, 2. sway, 3. surge, 4. yaw, 5. pitching, 6. roll

For large projects with adequate funding, hydrodynamic resistance can be tested experimentally in a hull testing pool or using tools of computational fluid dynamics.

Vessels are also subject to ocean surface waves and sea swell as well as effects of wind and weather. These movements can be stressful for passengers and equipment, and must be controlled if possible. The rolling movement can be controlled, to an extent, by ballasting or by devices such as fin stabilizers. Pitching movement is more difficult to limit and can be dangerous if the bow submerges in the waves, a phenomenon called pounding. Sometimes, ships must change course or speed to stop violent rolling or pitching.

***

My Note –

Hmmm . . . That is an interesting part of this –

Some modern vessels use electric motors connected directly to the propeller shaft, usually powered by generators. These electric systems are often more energy efficient than other systems where the engine is mechanically connected to the propeller.

(from wikipdedia ship entry)

***

***
More from the wikipedia entry about ships – and commercial shipping –

Ship pollution

Ship pollution is the pollution of air and water by shipping. It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized, posing an increasing threat to the world’s oceans and waterways as globalization continues. It is expected that, “…shipping traffic to and from the USA is projected to double by 2020.”[51] Because of increased traffic in ocean ports, pollution from ships also directly affects coastal areas. The pollution produced affects biodiversity, climate, food, and human health. However, the degree to which humans are polluting and how it affects the world is highly debated and has been a hot international topic for the past 30 years.

Oil spills

Main article: Oil spill

The Exxon Valdez spilled 10.8 million gallons of oil into Alaska’s Prince William Sound.[52]

Oil spills have devastating effects on the environment. Crude oil contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment.[53] Marine species constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems, susceptibility to disease, and abnormal reproductive cycles.

By the sheer amount of oil carried, modern oil tankers must be considered something of a threat to the environment. An oil tanker can carry 2 million barrels (320,000 m3) of crude oil, or 62,000,000 gallons. This is more than six times the amount spilled in the widely known Exxon Valdez incident. In this spill, the ship ran aground and dumped 10.8 million gallons of oil into the ocean in March 1989. Despite efforts of scientists, managers, and volunteers, over 400,000 seabirds, about 1,000 sea otters, and immense numbers of fish were killed.[53]

The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation has researched 9,351 accidental spills since 1974.[54] According to this study, most spills result from routine operations such as loading cargo, discharging cargo, and taking on fuel oil.[54] 91% of the operational oil spills were small, resulting in less than 7 tons per spill.[54] Spills resulting from accidents like collisions, groundings, hull failures, and explosions are much larger, with 84% of these involving losses of over 700 tons.[54]

Following the Exxon Valdez spill, the United States passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), which included a stipulation that all tankers entering its waters be double-hulled by 2015. Following the sinkings of the Erika (1999) and Prestige (2002), the European Union passed its own stringent anti-pollution packages (known as Erika I, II, and III), which require all tankers entering its waters to be double-hulled by 2010. The Erika packages are controversial because they introduced the new legal concept of “serious negligence”.[55]

Ballast water

A cargo ship pumps ballast water over the side

When a large vessel such as a container ship or an oil tanker unloads cargo, seawater is pumped into other compartments in the hull to help stabilize and balance the ship. During loading, this ballast water is pumped out from these compartments.

One of the problems with ballast water transfer is the transport of harmful organisms. Meinesz[56] believes that one of the worst cases of a single invasive species causing harm to an ecosystem can be attributed to a seemingly harmless jellyfish. Mnemiopsis leidyi, a species of comb jellyfish that inhabits estuaries from the United States to the Valdés peninsula in Argentina along the Atlantic coast, has caused notable damage in the Black Sea. It was first introduced in 1982, and thought to have been transported to the Black Sea in a ship’s ballast water. The population of the jellyfish shot up exponentially and, by 1988, it was wreaking havoc upon the local fishing industry. “The anchovy catch fell from 204,000 tons in 1984 to 200 tons in 1993; sprat from 24,600 tons in 1984 to 12,000 tons in 1993; horse mackerel from 4,000 tons in 1984 to zero in 1993.”[56] Now that the jellyfish have exhausted the zooplankton, including fish larvae, their numbers have fallen dramatically, yet they continue to maintain a stranglehold on the ecosystem. Recently the jellyfish have been discovered in the Caspian Sea. Invasive species can take over once occupied areas, facilitate the spread of new diseases, introduce new genetic material, alter landscapes and jeopardize the ability of native species to obtain food. “On land and in the sea, invasive species are responsible for about 137 billion dollars in lost revenue and management costs in the U.S. each year.”[53]

Ballast and bilge discharge from ships can also spread human pathogens and other harmful diseases and toxins potentially causing health issues for humans and marine life alike.[57] Discharges into coastal waters, along with other sources of marine pollution, have the potential to be toxic to marine plants, animals, and microorganisms, causing alterations such as changes in growth, disruption of hormone cycles, birth defects, suppression of the immune system, and disorders resulting in cancer, tumors, and genetic abnormalities or even death.[53]

Exhaust emissions

Exhaust stack on a container ship.

Exhaust emissions from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution. “Seagoing vessels are responsible for an estimated 14 percent of emissions of nitrogen from fossil fuels and 16 percent of the emissions of sulfur from petroleum uses into the atmosphere.”[53] In Europe ships make up a large percentage of the sulfur introduced to the air, “…as much sulfur as all the cars, lorries and factories in Europe put together.”[58] “By 2010, up to 40% of air pollution over land could come from ships.”[58] Sulfur in the air creates acid rain which damages crops and buildings. When inhaled sulfur is known to cause respiratory problems and increase the risk of a heart attack.[58]

Ship breaking

Main article: ship breaking

Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for scrap recycling, with the hulls being discarded in ship graveyards. Most ships have a lifespan of a few decades before there is so much wear that refitting and repair becomes uneconomical. Ship breaking allows materials from the ship, especially steel, to be reused.

Ship breaking near Chittagong, Bangladesh

In addition to steel and other useful materials, however, ships (particularly older vessels) can contain many substances that are banned or considered dangerous in developed countries. Asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical examples. Asbestos was used heavily in ship construction until it was finally banned in most of the developed world in the mid 1980s. Currently, the costs associated with removing asbestos, along with the potentially expensive insurance and health risks, have meant that ship-breaking in most developed countries is no longer economically viable. Removing the metal for scrap can potentially cost more than the scrap value of the metal itself. In the developing world, however, shipyards can operate without the risk of personal injury lawsuits or workers’ health claims, meaning many of these shipyards may operate with high health risks. Protective equipment is sometimes absent or inadequate. Dangerous vapors and fumes from burning materials can be inhaled, and dusty asbestos-laden areas around such breakdown locations are commonplace.

Aside from the health of the yard workers, in recent years, ship breaking has also become an issue of major environmental concern. Many developing nations, in which ship breaking yards are located, have lax or no environmental law, enabling large quantities of highly toxic materials to escape into the environment and causing serious health problems among ship breakers, the local population and wildlife. Environmental campaign groups such as Greenpeace have made the issue a high priority for their campaigns.[59]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ship

***

from 29 minutes ago -(after today’s drop of the stock markets of 995.55 and of Nasdaq of similar extreme, at one point I noted it was -89.88 on my note card and the NYSE was at 9922, [90% or more programmed trades in lot groups of shares all at once according to bloomberg], cricketdiane, my note.)

Reuters –

‎29 minutes ago‎

(Reuters) – Nasdaq Operations said it will cancel all trades executed between 2:40 p.m. to 3 p.m. showing a rise or fall of more than 60 percent from the last trade in that security at 2:40 p.m or immediately prior.

Nasdaq said the stocks affected and break points will be disseminated soon.

(Reporting by Chuck Mikolajczak; Editing by Andrew Hay)

Nasdaq to cancel trades

http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6456QB20100506?feedType=RSS&feedName=topNews

(CNN)

Citizens monitor Gulf Coast after oil spill By John D. Sutter, CNN May 6, 2010 2:02 p.m. EDT

GEEKS VS. SPILL

I wanted to add this part because it is happening now – and then I can go back and look at it better later –

TOPWRAP 8-Greece backs austerity plan but euro, US stocks fall

Reuters – George Georgiopoulos, Angela Moon – ‎1 hour ago‎
ATHENS/NEW YORK, May 6 (Reuters) – The Greek parliament backed an austerity plan on Thursday despite violent unrest, as European Central Bank inaction on the nation’s debt crisis helped to trigger major falls in

NewsweekMarketWatchNew York TimesThe AtlanticWikipedia: 2010 European sovereign debt crisis

And This –

Lessons of the Spill

BusinessWeek – Peter Coy, Stanley Reed – ‎1 hour ago‎
Poised for dramatic expansion, high-tech offshore drilling was considered ultrasafe. Then came BP’s Deepwater Horizon disaster.

***
On CNN a little while ago they said there were several thousands of people and hundreds of ships out in the Gulf of Mexico working on this right now – I had the numbers right here on a card somewhere – I’ll find it
– cricketdiane

**
There are 44 lobbyists listed for Goldman Sachs in Washington / Congress (from 04-20-10 news story on CNN at 8.22 pm 04-20-10) – if you ever needed to know that
And there are 99,000 total US schools (from show “Fixing America’s Schools, 04-18-10, 6.16 p, – CNN)
Also from a chart shown during the same show – $19,388 is the Average in-state college cost per? year or tuition?
– I’ll find it, just a minute –
those are the wrong notes . . .
**
I might have stuck it in the encyclopedia I was checking awhile ago about how plants and animals physically process out substances from a physiological perspective (elimination processes) – wait, I’ll go look.
Nope, but it was either 800 boats and 2,000 people or 200 boats and 8,000 people working on the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico according to my memory which is why I write it down . . .
But I did find this – there are 30 segments of the tectonic plates from the show about what if there were an earthquake in New York City – and that there are 29,000 structures of unreinforced masonry throughout NYC.
That probably  isn’t a very good thing and I keep thinking there needs to be a retrofit masonry permeable thing of some kind preferably in liquid form that could keep from those brittle connections giving away during a high wind or extreme event such as an earthquake -(sorry about that – just thought I would put it here while I had it in my hand)
– cricketdiane, 05-06-10

***

I should probably get out of my notes and go back to the online resources –
but if someone wants a quick look -this is how the Comparative Overview of Elimination Schemes in the “Elimination” entry of the Encyclopedia Britannica reads –
and this is what will be used by the plants, plankton, insects, marine life, marine mammals, shore animals, birds and fish (more or less) –
Note – there are over 400 species in jeopardy in the Gulf of Mexico because of this oil spill (and along the Gulf Coast shores, barrier islands, and estuaries.)
***
It is on pp. 720, vol.6; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1978
Protista –
No specialized elimination mechanisms are present in algae, fungi, protozoans, and slime molds, the main groups of protists. Metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide, water, oxygen and nitrogenous compounds) diffuse through the cell membranes of these single-celled organisms directly into the outside environment. Particulate wastes pass from the bodies of certain protozoas to the
Exterior by way of small openings in the body surface  – anal pores and other cell openings.
elimination in protists is carried out passively and therefore requires little or no expenditure of metabolic energy on the part of the organism.
Plants –
Plants are not generally considered to possess special mechanisms of elimination. Photosynthetic activities of green plants, in the presence of light, produce oxygen, which diffuses out through openings in the leaves (stomata) or through the cell walls of roots and other plant structures. Excess water passes to the exterior via similar routes and is eliminated by processes of guttation (droplet exudation) and transpiration (evaporation of water from plant surfaces).
Green plants in darkness or plants that do not contain chlorophyll produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory waste products. Carbon dioxide is secreted in the same manner as oxygen via diffusion through stomata and cell walls. Materials that are exuded by some plants — resins, saps, latexes, etc. — are forced from the interior of the plant by hydrostatic pressures inside the plant and by absorptive forces of plant cells. These forces are passive in nature, and exudation requires no energy expenditure on the part of the plant.
Animals –
Diverse mechanisms have evolved that enable the various animal species to inhabit a wide range of environments. In animals whose bodies consist of a single layer of cells, waste disposal is accomplished principally by diffusion from the site of waste production to the outside environment. This method is very efficient when the distances over which wastes diffuse are relatively short, when there is a high surface area to volume relationship, and when the rate of waste production is relatively low.
In more complex animals, however, waste elimination by diffusion through the body wall to the exterior is less efficient because individual cells are further removed from the exterior surface of the organism. The presence of specialized mechanisms of elimination in higher animals enables wastes to be rapidly transported to the exterior surface of the body (see Excretion and Excretory systems.)
Sponges –
Phylogenetically, the sponges (phylum Porifera) are the simplest of animals, being multicellular and composed of specialized cells in a single layer for the maintenance of life processes. Elimination in these aquatic animals proceeds by diffusion of gaseous wastes into the surrounding water and by the ejection of solid wastes and indigestible material from the digestive cells into the streams of water that constantly flow through the animal.
Coelenterates – The jellyfishes, coral animals, ctenophores, and comb jellies possess a rudimentary canal-like cavity in their two-layered bodies for the ingestion, digestion, and egestion of food and wastes. Gaseous wastes are eliminated by diffusion, and solid wastes in dissolved or undissolved form pass out through an opening in the body wall that serves the dual purposes of food intake and waste elimination.
(etc.)
Other invertebrates
Increasing structural complexity is accompanied, in invertebrates, by more efficient waste–disposal mechanisms. In the phylum Mollusca (clams, snails, oysters, mollusks, octopuses, and squids), gills are present, adding another more efficient channel for waste disposal. A heart increases the rate of flow in the circulatory system and speeds the transport of wastes to the gills. an excretory, kidney-like organ acts to remove metabolic wastes from the circulation and body fluid prior to excretion. All basic mechanisms of excretion are thus present in relatively simple animals. As invertebrates become more specialized and complex, as in the arthropods (insects, crabs, and other joint-legged animals) and annelids (segmented worms), adaptations exist whereby excretion is modified for purposes of survival in nonaquatic environments.
Vertebrates –
Though the wastes produced by vertebrates differ little qualitatively from those of higher invertebrates, increased structural complexity and body size, in combination with environmental adaptations, require more specific waste-disposal mechanisms in order to maintain a constant internal environment. the presence of highly efficient, water-retaining kidneys, for example, permits vertebrates to inhabit arid, hot regions of the Earth. It seems proper, within the vertebrate group to consider elimination schemes as variations of mechanisms common to all higher animals but which enable animals to inhabit widely diversified environments.
(from – )
pp. 720 – 721, vol. 6; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1978.
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My Note –
The reason those passages are important about the plants, nascent marine life, and other wildlife in the areas of the Gulf of Mexico affected by the crude oil spill is because these organisms, including humans and marine mammals and all forms of sea creatures are not made to process crude oil and light oil slicks in the sea water. The elimination systems are not there for it because that is not a naturally occurring event on a massive scale as it is now and as is common around these oil drilling accidents generally and oil spills specifically.
– cricketdiane, 05-06-10
(also from pp. 720, vol. 6 – on the far side of the page – actually starts on pp. 719 a little ways starting with -)
Respiratory system –
This pathway is concerned principally with the gaseous waste products of metabolism (carbon dioxide and ammonia), which move to the external environment by means of diffusion from the cells of origin.
In animals, transport is by means of the circulatory system when present or simply by diffusion through the cell membranes of lower animals.
A few multicellular, aquatic animals lose carbon dioxide t the surrounding water by way of diffusion through the thin vascular membranes of their general body surface. In most higher animals, however, the skin is too hard or thick and nonvascular to function effectively in gas disposal. In these animals, gills and lungs — aggregations of thin, moist, vascular membranes — have evolved. Membranes of the gills of aquatic animals and the lungs of terrestrial forms are provided with large surface areas for the diffusion of waste gases from the circulatory system to the outside environment. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in the body water, it can easily diffuse into the circulatory system.
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(continuing on pp. 720 – down the first column – )
Carbon Dioxide Elimination –
transport and excrtion of carbon dioxide requires little energy as it diffuses along concentration gradients from cells to the circulation and finally to the outside environment.
Because more carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by metabolic activity than can be carried in the circulation system in the form of dissolved CO2, the major portion is transported to the gills and lungs as bicarbonate (HCO3 -), via two chemical reactions:
xxxx – put them in a minute – xxxxx
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〖CO〗_(2 )+ H_2 O ⇆ H_2 CO_3 ⇆ H^+ + HCO_3^-

well durn it – I had it right in the Windows 7 Word doc

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CO2 +  H2O  <=>   H2CO3 <=> H+ +  HCO3

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xxx – xxx
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Thus, carbon dioxide reacts with water, producing carbonic acid, which in turn dissociates to produce a hydrogen ion and a bicarbonate ion. In the lungs or gills, the reverse of these reactions occurs, and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the body into the outside environment. Certain aquatic animals are capable of eliminating gaseous ammonia — derived from protein breakdown — by way of specialized cells in their gill tissues.
Salt secretion by way of specialized cells in the gills occurs in marine vertebrates whose bodies constantly absord salt through thin membranes of their oral, respiratory, and body surfaces.
(from)
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1978; vol. 6, pp. 719 – 720
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My Note –
Well, I didn’t see anything in there about processing crude oil – by gills or any other system – it doesn’t look like kidneys would be able to process it very well either. This section did not include birds but, my guess is that they don’t process crude oil for the same reason – it is not designed into the system. That exhibit of the LaBrea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California both outside where the animals have been placed in the tar to express what happened to them and also inside in the exhibits with their explanations of how the animals are covered in the tar and end up starving to death unable to feed themselves nor free themselves is a good way to understand what it does. As the animals and marine wildlife are captive victims in a sea filled with floating slicks of oil products and in some areas, thick crude crud – they have nowhere to go to escape it, nor to find something to eat elsewhere, nor can they do what we can do and go to a different air zone to breathe some fresher air.
– cricketdiane
I’m going to start another post after this. As soon as I eat some dinner right quick . . .
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