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Synthetic Fuel Concept to Steal CO2 From Air

Contact: Nancy Ambrosiano, nwa@lanl.gov, (505) 667-0471 (04-349)

* White paper on Green Freedom concept

LOS ALAMOS, N.M., February 12, 2008 — Green Freedom™ for carbon-neutral, sulfur-free fuel and chemical production

Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a low-risk, transformational concept, called Green Freedom™, for large-scale production of carbon-neutral, sulfur-free fuels and organic chemicals from air and water.

Currently, the principal market for the Green Freedom production concept is fuel for vehicles and aircraft.

At the heart of the technology is a new process for extracting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and making it available for fuel production using a new form of electrochemical separation. By integrating this electrochemical process with existing technology, researchers have developed a new, practical approach to producing fuels and organic chemicals that permits continued use of existing industrial and transportation infrastructure. Fuel production is driven by carbon-neutral power.

“Our concept enhances U.S. energy and material security by reducing dependence on imported oil. Initial system and economic analyses indicate that the prices of Green Freedom commodities would be either comparable to the current market or competitive with those of other carbon-neutral, alternative technologies currently being considered,” said F. Jeffrey Martin of the Laboratory’s Decisions Applications Division, principal investigator on the project.

Martin will be presenting a talk on the subject at the Alternative Energy NOW conference in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, February 20, 2008.

In addition to the new electrochemical separation process, the Green Freedom system can use existing cooling towers, such as those of nuclear power plants, with carbon-capture equipment that eliminates the need for additional structures to process large volumes of air. The primary environmental impact of the production facility is limited to the footprint of the plant. It uses non-hazardous materials for its feed and operation and has a small waste stream volume. In addition, unlike large-scale biofuel concepts, the Green Freedom system does not add pressure to agricultural capacity or use large tracts of land or farming resources for production.

The concept’s viability has been reviewed and verified by both industrial and semi-independent Los Alamos National Laboratory technical reviews. The next phase will demonstrate the new electrochemical process to prove the ability of the system to both capture carbon dioxide and pull it back out of solution. An industrial partnership consortium will be formed to commercialize the Green Freedom concept.

Los Alamos National Laboratory, a multidisciplinary research institution engaged in strategic science on behalf of national security, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, a team composed of Bechtel National, the University of California, The Babcock & Wilcox Company, and the Washington Division of URS for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration.

Los Alamos enhances national security by ensuring the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile, developing technologies to reduce threats from weapons of mass destruction, and solving problems related to energy, environment, infrastructure, health, and global security concerns.

Los Alamos National Laboratory • Est 1943

Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy’s NNSA

http://www.lanl.gov/news/index.php/fuseaction/home.story/story_id/12554

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Showing results for water radio wave frequencies. Search instead for water radio wave frequncies
Search Results

1.
Radio propagation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Low-frequency radio waves travel easily through brick and stone and VLF even penetrates sea-water. As the frequency rises, absorption effects become more …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_propagation
2.
Electromagnetic spectrum – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Main articles: Radio frequency, Radio spectrum, and Radio waves … The water in the Earth’s atmosphere absorbs so strongly in this range that it renders …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum – 1 hour ago
Show more results from en.wikipedia.org
3.
Directory:John Kanzius Produces Hydrogen from Salt Water Using …
May 29, 2007 … The Kanzius Non-invasive Radio Wave Treatment is a potential cancer …. came up with a way to burn salt water using radio frequencies (RF), …
peswiki.com/…/Directory:John_Kanzius_Produces_Hydrogen_from_Salt_Water_Using_Radio_Waves
4.
Ionospheric Physics of Radio Wave Propagation
Furthermore, w is the frequency of our radio wave of interest and wp is the …. a radio wave can penetrate into a conductive medium (metal, salt water, …
ecjones.org/physics.html
5.
Can we really set fire to water? | COSMOS magazine
Sep 12, 2007 … John Kanzius, from Erie, Pennsylvania, blasted a test tube of salt water with high frequency radio waves, causing the water to burn like a …
www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/1578
6.
Overview of Sound Waves – Succeed in Understanding Physics: School …
Sound waves are different than light waves. Light and radio waves are electromagnetic waves. … The frequency of sound is the rate at which the waves pass a given point. … Water waves have a wavelength, while sound waves don’t …
www.school-for-champions.com › Physical Science › Physics
7.
WikiAnswers – What radio wave frequency is used to ignite water
Inventions question: What radio wave frequency is used to ignite water? 14 megahertz.
wiki.answers.com/…/What_radio_wave_frequency_is_used_to_ignite_water
8.
What are Radio Waves?
Consider lower frequencies to have more “bass,” meaning they penetrate further, especially through thick media such as water. Radio waves were first …
www.wisegeek.com/what-are-radio-waves.htm
9.
HowStuffWorks “Could salt water fuel cars?”
What he came up with is his radio frequency generator (RFG), a machine that generates radio waves and focuses them into a concentrated area. …
auto.howstuffworks.com › … › Fuel Efficiency › Alternative Fuels
10.
Radio wave transmittance
Radio waves are at low frequencies, so you need things that happen at low frequencies (slowly). Rotation of water molecules is one such thing, and so water …
www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy99/phy99245.htm

Showing results for water radio wave frequencies.
Searches related to water radio wave frequenciesradio electromagnetic waves    radio wave propagation    radio waves salt water    ionosphere radio waves
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News
Can we really set fire to water?
Wednesday, 12 September 2007

by Carolyn Barry
Cosmos Online
Can we really set fire to water?

Smoke and mirrors?: The extraordinary claims have sparked a frenzy of interest across the Internet.

Credit: iStockphoto

Related articles

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SYDNEY: A U.S. broadcast executive-turned-scientist has seemingly found a way to burn seawater. Though it has the air of a hoax, if true, it could be one of the biggest discoveries in chemistry in recent times.

John Kanzius, from Erie, Pennsylvania, blasted a test tube of salt water with high frequency radio waves, causing the water to burn like a candle, he told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette newspaper. Chemist Rustum Roy from Pennsylvania State University told the same newspaper that he had confirmed the phenomenon by replicating the experiment himself.

Though the technique and results have not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal, they are sparking a frenzy of interest on the Internet, where video clips showing the technique are beginning to circulate (such as this one on YouTube).

“Enormous potential”

“Certainly it’s interesting,” physical chemist, Scott Kable, of the University of Sydney in Australia, told Cosmos Online. The technique is theoretically possible and has “enormous potential,” he said. But without more information, Kable commented, the mechanism and role of salt and other electrolytes remains unknown.

Roy explained to the Post-Gazette, that the water itself doesn’t burn. His best guess is that the energy from the radio waves breaks the bonds between the molecules, releasing hydrogen that can be ignited with a flame. The temperature of the flame was measured at 1,650 ̊C.

The accidental discovery came out of research Kanzius was motivated to undertake when he found out he had cancer. The TV station owner decided to use his broadcast knowledge to experimentally fry cancer cells using radio waves in a garage laboratory at his home. Kanzius added a solution of nano-sized gold and carbon particles into a test tube of tumour cells. He predicted that the particles would migrate to the cancer cells and act as an antenna for the searing heat produced by radio waves – in the process killing the cells. It’s not clear how he planned to target cancer cells within the body.

However, when someone noticed condensation in the test tubes, Kanzius decided to try the technique for desalinating water. The subsequent blast of high frequency radio waves caused the water to seem to give off a gas that he was able to ignite with a match.

Future fuel

Kanzius now speculates that the technique could be used to burn water to produce energy – he says he has built an engine that runs off the heat produced by the flame. However, even if the claims turn out to be true, it remains to be seen if the energy produced could compensate for the radio wave energy required for the reaction.

Kanzius is seeking a patent on the technique and is currently tight-lipped on a more detailed explanation.

The most important potential application of the discovery is the safe production of hydrogen, said the University of Sydney’s Kable. Presently, hydrogen is produced either from reacting natural gas and steam, which emits the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, or by sending an electric current through water. The highly flammable gas requires transport in tankers, a dangerous prospect. Kable says that the ability to produce hydrogen from water while it’s already inside an engine would be an extremely useful and safe method.

But don’t worry about setting fire to your cup of coffee in the microwave. Kable believes that the amount of energy required to break molecular bonds far exceeds the energy produced in the fire. This means any practical application is likely a long way off.

More information

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette news article
http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/1578

**
My Note –

I did see this experiment repeated on a Science Channel show about salt, near the end of the show – it would be worth seeing it. There is no explanation about how much energy is required to create the high frequency radio waves used to do it, but it has potential.

– cricketdiane

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Hot Rocks Science Channel | TutorVista | web
Science Channel – The Science Channel is a cable and satellite television … Sodium chloride is the commonly available salt and so is called common salt. …
www.tutorvista.com/ks/hot-rocks-science-channel

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How Stuff Works: Salt DVD – Discovery Education Store
Discovery Channel  Science Channel  Animal Planet  Planet Green … The presentation also profiles different methods of removing salt from the ground and …
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WKYC.com | Cleveland, OH | Salt water fuel gets major university …
Sep 12, 2007 … Ph.D, say the burning of salt water is nothing more than a new twist on a high school science experiment. Scavuzzo told Channel 3’s Mike …
www.wkyc.com/news/news_article.aspx?storyid=74285

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Naked Science | Death of a Star | Photos | Image: Salt ponds …
National Geographic Channel Sign In ….. Death of a Star,Atmospheric photograph of the salt ponds. Image: Ultraviolet …
channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/naked-science/3493/Photos
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Kitchen Chemistry: Kitchen Myths – Feature – Discovery Channel
Why add salt? Cookery books give a range of answers including: “to fix the …. Discovery Channel TV shows, games, video, forums, adventure, science and …
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Salt : HowStuffWorks: Discovery Channel
So do animals, which is why hunters and farmers leave salt licks for wildlife and livestock. … CREDITS, Discovery Channel Interactive: Robin Bennefield, …
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The Fake Salt Problem – Forbes.com
Sep 22, 2009 … Why it’s so hard for researchers to create salt substitutes that taste good and won’t kill us. … up the mysterious ion channel and make us more sensitive to salt so … Givaudan’s Global Head of Science and Technology. …
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Video On Demand ~ Science Channel. $31.84. How They Do It Volume 2 … Synopsis: Retractable Ballpoint Pens, Solar Salt, Tubas …
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Howstuffworks “Materials Science Channel”
Materials Science focuses on how different building materials are created. Learn about materials sciences on the HowStuffWorks Materials Science Channel.
science.howstuffworks.com › Science › Engineering
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“Fuel” from Salt Water? : TreeHugger
Sep 11, 2007 … Erie man hopes so (newspaper), ::WIRED Science: Pennsylvania Man Claims He Made Fuel From Salt Water (blog) … Discovery Sites: Discovery Channel | TLC | Animal Planet | Discovery Health | Science Channel | Discovery …
www.treehugger.com › Science & Technology
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A system that’s worth its salt
Mar 23, 2010 … In the Y-shaped channel (in red), seawater enters from the right, … Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and colleagues in Korea. …
web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2010/desalination-0323.html

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Hydrogen vehicle – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It can then convert the fuel back into water to release the solar energy. … Main articles: List of fuel cell vehicles and List of hydrogen internal ….. Even when the fuel is stored as liquid hydrogen in a cryogenic tank or in a …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehicle
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Technology Review: A Liquid Design for Cheaper Fuel Cells
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Solar Cells from Tobacco Plants May Be a Reality Soon … Liquid Fuel Bacteria More and more people are becoming aware of the harmful effects of greenhouse …
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FCT Fuel Cells: Types of Fuel Cells
Jun 23, 2009 … Phosphoric acid fuel cells use liquid phosphoric acid as an …. fuel cell systems can also use electricity from solar power or some other …
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10. [DOC]
Myths about Solar Energy
File Format: Microsoft Word – View as HTML
Solar cells are very thin and thin film solar technology is even thinner. … Liquid fuels exclusively from plant material would only be possible by cutting …
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11. [PPT]
Fuel Cell presentation – AVRC – The Future of Transportation
File Format: Microsoft Powerpoint – View as HTML
UIUC/NPL have developed a novel all liquid fuel cell with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) …. with the recharge cycle tuned to the availability of solar energy …
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Scholarly articles for flexible thin film solar
… -temperature fabrication of transparent flexible thin-film … – Nomura – Cited by 473
Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar … – Shah – Cited by 281
… of Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells to flexible … – Kaufmann – Cited by 26
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Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells to be printed like money
Feb 23, 2009 … Scientists developing flexible, large area, cost-effective, reel-to-reel printable plastic solar cells have announced that trials have …
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Technology Review: Roll-Up Solar Panels
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Light-Weight Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells
International Solar Electric Technology. Inglewood, CA. INNOVATION. Light-weight, high power density thin film solar cells on flexible substrates …
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8.
CNN – Flexible thin-film solar cells touted – July 26, 1999
Jul 26, 1999 … The cells, called thin-film solar cells, are 100 times thinner and potentially lighter than today’s silicon cells. Because they require less …
www.cnn.com/NATURE/9907/26/solar.enn/
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Largest Roll-to-Roll Flexible Thin Film Solar Manufacturing …
Oct 8, 2008 … “Our technical leadership and innovation in flexible thin film solar, along with this facility’s capabilities of producing in excess of 10 …
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Nanosolar ‘prints’ first flexible solar cells | Green Tech – CNET News

Dec 18, 2007 … Well-financed solar start-up Nanosolar on Tuesday said it has started shipping its flexible thin-film solar cells, meeting its own deadline …
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11.
PowerFilm solar electric modules are thin film photovoltaic …
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My Note –

There was a two-page brochure in one of my electric bills that said there is a $450 per 1kW rebate for solar panels up to 10 kW – so I was wondering, how much do solar panels cost for 1 kW in the first place? – It looks like the panels are only part of the cost, however, if it averages $800 per 1 kW in the first place, it would take $8,000 plus some to put in place and then receive a one-time rebate of $4,500. Not sure how long the rebate will be in effect but it is probably available through most states coming from some DOE thing.

– cricketdiane

1.
Solar Panel Purchase and Use FAQ and Information
Scientists made solar cells of selenium in the 1880s. … A 1 KW solar system, will generate an average of 2000 KW hours in a year. Therefore, 1 KW will …
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Solar-Photo-Voltaic (PV) electricity generation in North Africa
Standard insolation ( energy from sunlight on a flat surface perpendicular to the suns rays ) is defined as 1 kW per square metre. So a PV cell module …
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Shopping results for 1kw solar cell

Sharp Solar Panel 175W 24V – NT-175U1
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Fieldlines.com || 1KW Solar System Completed
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**

My Note –

I was reading a journal of introduction to nanoparticles put out by our government office of nanotechnology (online) and noticed a statement about how gold when made into nanoparticles gives off heat. This and some of the other work being done with battery and fuel alternatives / energy / electricity has been very interesting, so I looked up a quick Google search to get some references about where they are with it now.The ones in bold, are the ones that interest me that I would look at first.

– cricketdiane

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Scholarly articles for gold nanoparticles heat
Heat-induced size evolution of gold nanoparticles in … – Teranishi – Cited by 74
… of alkanethiol-protected gold nanoparticles by heat … – Shimizu – Cited by 96
Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular … – Daniel – Cited by 1796
Search Results

1.
Gold nanoparticles can emit intense heat (Update)
Mar 31, 2006 … Nanoparticles of gold can act as tiny, precise and powerful heaters, which potentially could be used in biomedical applications, …
www.physorg.com/news63003999.html

2.
Size Evolution of Alkanethiol-Protected Gold Nanoparticles by Heat …
by T Shimizu – 2003 – Cited by 95 – Related articles
Recently, Dick and co-workers31 reported the size dependence of the melting temperature of silica-encapsulated gold nanoparticles determined by differential …
pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp026920g

3.
Gold nanoparticles used in temperature research > Gold News …
Apr 8, 2010 … Gold nanoparticles used in temperature research > Gold News > World Gold Council, the information resource for gold, investment, jewellery, …
www.gold.org/…/gold_nanoparticles_used_in_temperature_research/
4.
Journal of Nanobiotechnology | Full text | Intracellular gold …
by CJ Gannon – 2008 – Cited by 18 – Related articles
Intracellular gold nanoparticles release heat in a focused external radiofrequency field, that is lethal to cancer cells lines in vitro, with no resulting …
www.jnanobiotechnology.com/content/6/1/2

5.
Heat-Induced Formation of Monodisperse Gold Nanoparticles in …
We investigate the preparation of nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles by heat treatment in different conditions. The effects of various solvents, h…
www.informaworld.com/…/content~content=a920211019~db=all~jumptype=rss
6. [PDF]
Gold nanoparticle assemblies: Thermal behaviour under optical …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
by B Palpant – 2008 – Cited by 2 – Related articles
dynamics of the light-heat conversion in a gold nanoparticle and of the thermal release toward its environment appears then to be a relevant issue in all …
www.goldbulletin.org/assets/file/goldbulletin/…/07_Palpant_GB_2_41.pdf
7.
Study of gold nanoparticles effect on thermal diffusivity of …
by JL Jiménez Pérez – 2008 – Related articles
solvents (ethanol, water and ethylene glycol) with gold nanoparticles. This process corresponds to the heat transfer from the metal particles to the …
www.springerlink.com/index/08T7197488G5J388.pdf
8.
Preparation of single-crystalline gold nanoparticles through a …
by Y Luo – 2006 – Related articles
More recently, Sun et al. have developed a simple heat-treatment-based method for preparing polyelectrolyte-protected gold nanoparticles in a single process …
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167577X06003132
9.
Synthesis Methods for the Creation of Gold Nanoparticle Heat …
by E Swartz – 2010
In this work, we present a repeatable synthesis protocol for solutions of gold nanoparticles. Our investigation of the heat transfer and storage properties …

adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..APRK11009S
10.
Heat-Induced Size Evolution of Gold Nanoparticles in the Solid State
by T Teranishi – 2001 – Cited by 74 – Related articles
Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 1793. Heat-Induced Size Evolution of Gold. Nanoparticles in the Solid State. By Toshiharu Teranishi,* Satoshi Hasegawa, Takami Shimizu, …
doi.wiley.com/…/1521-4095(200111)13:22%3C1699::AID-ADMA1699%3E3.0.CO;…

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1.
Fusion Power a Step Closer After Giant Laser Blast

Jan 28, 2010
Using the most powerful laser system ever built, scientists have brought us one step closer to nuclear fusion power, a new study says. The same process …
news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/01/100128-nuclear-fusion-power-lasers-science/ – Related videos
Get more video results
2.
Nuclear fusion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Inertial confinement is also attempted in “controlled” nuclear fusion, where the driver is a laser, ion, or electron beam, or a Z-pinch. …
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3.
Timeline of nuclear fusion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: … inertial confinement fusion experiments begin on the two beam Janus laser at the …
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News Blog: World’s largest laser completed: Nuclear fusion, Death …
Apr 1, 2009 … The US D epartment of Energy (DoE) has announced that the world’s biggest laser is ready to start blasting away after 12 years in the making ...
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Image results for nuclear fusion laser

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Nuclear fusion – Laser fusion
Thanks to similarity to hydrogen bomb explosion, is laser fusion in centre of focus of military science, especially when nuclear test are prohibited by …
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World’s Largest Laser to Attempt Nuclear Fusion | Inhabitat
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National Ignition Facility & Photon Science – The Power of Light
NIF is a program of the National Nuclear Security Administration. … Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) LIFE is an advanced energy concept under …
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Laser fusion – the safe, clean way to produce nuclear energy …
May 30, 2007 … A multinational project led by British researchers aims to use a high-power laser to reproduce the physical reaction that occurs at the …
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The fusion curves of xenon, krypton, and argon
The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 618-624
A. Ferreira, L. Lobo

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WHM-4R6B2R8-1&_user=10&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1297097578&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=05966f9a55670b83f7b0c8b47e0975d1

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The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics
Volume 40, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 618-624
doi:10.1016/j.jct.2007.11.007 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.       Cited By in Scopus (2)
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The fusion curves of xenon, krypton, and argon

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(Argon)

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A.G.M. Ferreiraa and L.Q. LoboCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author

aDepartamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-290, Portugal
Received 23 October 2007;
revised 16 November 2007;
accepted 16 November 2007.
Available online 23 November 2007.

Abstract

The experimental results on the fusion of the heavier rare gases at very high pressures, obtained in the last 20 years, are examined and analysed in conjunction with the measurements made at lower pressures from 1940 onwards. The parameters in the Simon equation for the melting curves of Xe, Kr, and Ar are determined, and the coordinates of a possible high-pressure {s(fcc) + s(hcp) + l} triple-point are identified for each one of these three elements. The enthalpies of transition of the transformations involved are estimated as well as their respective values of the entropies of transition.

Keywords: Rare gases: Ar, Kr, Xe; Fusion; Simon equation; Triple-points
Article Outline

1. Introduction
2. Equations for the fusion curves

2.1. Xenon
2.2. Krypton
2.3. Argon

3. Discussion
References

Thumbnail image

FIGURE 1. The fusion curve of Xe. Legend: the solid line (–) is for the melting of the fcc-solid as calculated from equation (2); the dash-dotted line (––) is for the melting of the hcp-solid as calculated from equation (2); the dashed lines (- – -) indicate the possible limits of the fcc and hcp-solid phases. The symbols are: down triangle, filled, reference [31]; ×, reference [32]; up triangle, open, reference [33]; ?, reference [34]; up triangle, filled, reference [35]; +, reference [8]; ring operator, reference [9]; diamond, open, is the calculated {s(fcc) + s(hcp) + l} triple-point.

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Thumbnail image

FIGURE 2. The fusion curve of Kr. Legend: the solid line (–) is for the melting of the fcc-solid as calculated from equation (2); the dash-dotted line (––) is for the melting of the hcp-solid as calculated from equation (2); the dashed lines (- – -) indicate the possible limits of the fcc and hcp-solid phases. The symbols are: down triangle, filled, reference [31]; ×, reference [32]; up triangle, open, reference [33]; ?, reference [34]; up triangle, filled, reference [35]; down triangle, open, reference [36]; +, reference [8]; ring operator, reference [9]; diamond, open, is the calculated {s(fcc) + s(hcp) + l} triple-point.

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Thumbnail image

FIGURE 3. The fusion curve of Ar. Legend: the solid line (–) is for the melting of the fcc-solid as calculated from equation (2); the dash-dotted line (––) is for the melting of the hcp-solid as calculated from equation (2); the dashed lines (- – -) indicate the possible limits of the fcc and hcp-solid phases. The symbols are: down triangle, filled, reference [31]; ×, reference [32]; ?, reference [34]; up triangle, filled, reference [35]; down triangle, open, reference [36]; •, reference [37]; #, reference [38]; , reference [40]; up triangle, open, reference [41]; , reference [42]; ring operator, reference [43]; +, reference [44]; , reference [45]; diamond, open, reference [7]; , reference [8]; circled dot operator, reference [9]; , is the calculated {s(fcc) + s(hcp) + l} triple-point.

Thumbnail image

FIGURE 4. Molar volume change in fusion View the MathML source as function of temperature. Legend: the solid line (–) is for Ar; the dashed line (- – -) is for Kr; the dash-dotted line (––) is for Xe. These curves are calculated from equation (6). The symbols are, for Ar: ×, reference [35]; up triangle, open, reference [36]; +, reference [41]; •, reference [7], calculated. For Kr: ring operator, reference [35]; ?, reference [46]. For Xe: up triangle, filled, reference [35]; ?, reference [46].

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Thumbnail image

FIGURE 5. Molar enthalpies of fusion View the MathML source of Kr and Xe as functions of temperature T. The solid lines are for the fusion of the fcc-solid phases; the dash-dotted lines are for the melting of the hcp-solid phases; the arrows indicate the enthalpy change in the transition between the fcc and hcp solid phases View the MathML source of the two substances at the {s(fcc) + s(hcp) + l} plausible triple-point. The circles indicate the {s(fcc) + l + g} triple-point.

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TABLE 1.

Experimental data on the fusion of xenon used in this work
View table in article
a Values extracted as precisely as possible from the graphics in figure 2 of reference [9].
b Temperatures as given in the original papers; pressures were converted into SI units.
c TA are temperature scales used by the original authors, transformed by us into ITS-90 for the calculations. Both Clusius [32] and Michels [34] give numerical values for some particular (fixed) points in the scales they used. Clusius used a somewhat peculiar lead thermometer. In reference [35] the temperatures are given at integer figures. Boehler et al. [9] mention that the precision of their temperature measurements is ±10 K, with an uncertainty of the order of 100 K at the highest temperature.

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TABLE 2.

Experimental data on the fusion of krypton used in this work
View table in article
a Values extracted as precisely as possible from the graphics in figure 2 of reference [9].
b Temperatures as given in the original papers; pressures were converted into SI units.
c TA are temperature scales used by the original authors, transformed by us into ITS-90 for the calculations. Both Clusius [32] and Michels [34] give numerical values for some particular (fixed) points in the scales they used. Clusius used a somewhat peculiar lead thermometer. In reference [35] the temperatures are given at integer figures. Boehler et al. [9] mention that the precision of their temperature measurements is ±10 K, with an uncertainty of the order of 100 K at the highest temperature.

View Within Article

TABLE 3.

Experimental data on the fusion of argon used in this work
View table in article
a Values extracted as precisely as possible from the graphics in figure 2 of reference [9].
b Temperatures as given in the original papers; pressures were converted into SI units.
c TA are temperature scales used by the original authors, transformed by us into ITS-90 for the calculations. Both Clusius [32] and Michels [34] give numerical values for some particular (fixed) points in the scales they used. Clusius used a somewhat peculiar lead thermometer. In reference [35] the temperatures are given at integer figures. Boehler et al. [9] mention that the precision of their temperature measurements is ±10 K, with an uncertainty of the order of 100 K at the highest temperature.

View Within Article

TABLE 4.

Molar enthalpies of fusion View the MathML source of Xe and Kr (estimated)
View table in article

View Within Article

Corresponding author. Tel.: +351 239 798 733; fax: +351 239 798 703.
The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics
Volume 40, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 618-624

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Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids
Volume 36, Issue 3, March 1975, Pages 145-162
doi:10.1016/0022-3697(75)90004-9 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 1975 Published by Elsevier Ltd.       Cited By in Scopus (52)
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Experimental equations of state for the rare gas solids
Purchase the full-text article

References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must purchase this article.

M.S. Andersona and C.A. Swensona

aAmes Laboratory, USAEC and Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010, U.S.A.
Received 13 May 1974.
Available online 29 August 2002.

Abstract

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Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids
Volume 36, Issue 3, March 1975, Pages 145-162

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The EMP-708WP miniature Bone Conduction Element in the in-ear headphone offers the first real breakthrough enhancing listening purity with a fuller range of …
www.ecrater.com/product.php?pid=5737643
(just because it is an interesting use of it, my note)

[PDF]
The Breakthrough Technology in Algae Production
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
No caustic chemicals. § Limitations. § Energy intensive. § Technology unproven at industrial scale … Highly tuned EMP ruptures algae cells …
www.originoil.com/pdf/OOIL_World_Biofuels_Markets_100316.pdf

First space-to-earth solar power station targeted for Oct. 2010
San Francisco  Gadgets and Tech Breakthrough Energy Examiner …. He wrote the nuclear EMP test software for the Pershing II missile system, worked on the …
www.examiner.com/x-8199-Breakthrough-Energy-Examiner~y2009m7d4-First-spacetoearth-solar-power-station-targeted-for-Oct-2010

***

High-altitude nuclear explosions
Jan 28, 2009 … For such detonations, ionization of the upper atmosphere can produce a brief intense pulse of radio frequency radiation which can damage or …
www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/hane.html

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Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary – Nuclear explosion
Jump to Electromagnetic pulse?: The moving electric charge causes a single wide-frequency radio pulse. The pulse is powerful enough so that most long …
www.fact-archive.com/encyclopedia/Nuclear_explosion
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Pulse detonation engine: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia …
Start a new discussion about ‘Pulse detonation engine’ …. literally begetter) is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O.. …. (Video) An experimental PDE operating with a detonation frequency of 1 Hz where …
www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Pulse_detonation_engine
#
Nuclear explosion
Jump to Electromagnetic pulse?: The moving electric charge causes a single wide-frequency radio pulse. The pulse is powerful enough so that most long …
www.fact-index.com/n/nu/nuclear_explosion.html
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Documentation and Diagrams of the Atomic Bomb
The atomic detonation also has the hidden lethal surprise of affecting the future … Pulse) that is radiated from a high-altitude atomic detonation. …. The value of this new frequency is measured by the built-in microchips. …
www.serendipity.li/more/atomic.html
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Project Orion (nuclear propulsion) at AllExperts
The Orion nuclear pulse drive combines a very high exhaust velocity, …. The shock wave and radiation from the detonation would impact against … On the reference design, the mechanical absorber was tuned to 1/2 the pulse frequency, …
en.allexperts.com/e/p/pr/project_orion_(nuclear_propulsion).htm

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Nuclear weapon; Types; Advanced Thermonuclear Effects Blast Damage …
When a nuclear detonation occurs in air near sea-level, most of the soft X-rays … The moving electric charge causes a single wide-frequency radio pulse. …
www.battle-fleet.com/pw/his/Nuclear%20weapon.htm
# [PDF]
Direct Effects of Nuclear Detonations
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
Direct Effects of Nuclear DetOnations. 7 duration of the thermal pulse. A I-Mt airburst, ….. The nuclear EMP frequency spectrum is also very broad …
globalecology.stanford.edu/…28…/SCOPE_28-1_1.1_Chapter1_1-23.pdf
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NEMO Nuclear Emergency Management : EMPulse
Electromagnetic Pulse was reputed to the H-bomb atomic nuclear air-tests of the … to ensure their own survivability under atomic detonation EMP jamming. … It is essentially a Radio-Frequency “Photon” bomb, that is particularly …
grandadmiralpetry.tripod.com/EMPulse.html
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Yorkshire CND – Nuclear Explosions in Orbit – 6/04
One small atomic warhead detonated at the optimum altitude over the U.S. “could have a very …. field gives rise to a low-frequency electric field pulse. …
cndyorks.gn.apc.org/…/nuclear_explosions.htm – United Kingdom
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Reference for Electromagnetic pulse – Search.com
In the case of a nuclear detonation or an asteroid impact, most of the energy of the electromagnetic pulse is distributed in the frequency band between 3 Hz …
www.search.com/reference/Electromagnetic_pulse
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Advanced charged particle beam ignited nuclear pulse propulsion …
by F Winterberg – 2009 – Related articles
There a fission assisted thermonuclear detonation wave would be launched from a … 1 (where ? is the electron cyclotron frequency and ? is the electron–ion …
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0094576509000022
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Glossary: CTBTO Preparatory Commission
A sharp pulse of radio-frequency (long wavelength) radiation produced when an … 1945, the first atomic bomb was detonated at Alamogordo Air Base. …
www.ctbto.org/glossary/?textonly=1&letter=e&cHash…
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UCLA Micro Systems Laboratories: Dr. Feng-Yuan Zhang
May 8, 2006 … Research on High-Frequency-Operation Pulse Detonation Engines, … and Atomic Number Density with Optical Absorption Tomography. …
ho.seas.ucla.edu/members/alumni/feng-yuan_zhang.php

**

TOP >  J-EAST >  List of Journal Titles (A) >  Annual Progress Report. Institute for Laser Technology(1997) > Field experiment of laser-triggered lightening dischage for generation of artificial triggered lightning. (Laser Technology Laboratory S).
Field experiment of laser-triggered lightening dischage for generation of artificial triggered lightning. (Laser Technology Laboratory S).
Accession number;99A0823142
Title;Field experiment of laser-triggered lightening dischage for generation of artificial triggered lightning. (Laser Technology Laboratory S).
Author;UCHIDA NARUAKI(Rezagijutsusogokenkyusho)   SHIMADA YOSHINORI(Rezagijutsusogokenkyusho)   YASUDA HIROHIKO(Rezagijutsusogokenkyusho)   HON’ETSU SHINJI(Rezagijutsusogokenkyusho)   KAWASAKI ZEN’ICHIRO(Rezagijutsusogokenkyusho)   YAMANAKA TATSUHIKO(Rezagijutsusogokenkyusho)   YAMANAKA CHIYOE(Rezagijutsusogokenkyusho)
Journal Title;Annual Progress Report. Institute for Laser Technology
Journal Code:J0650A
ISSN:1340-6167
VOL.1997;NO.;PAGE.1,3-10(1997)
Figure&Table&Reference;FIG.1, TBL.1, REF.5
Pub. Country;Japan
Language;Japanese
Abstract;

http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/199923/000019992399A0823142.php

**

F-35 Lightning Vertical Landing Performed For First Time EVER …
Mar 22, 2010 … The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a fifth-generation, single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, …
article.wn.com/…/F35_Lightning_Vertical_Landing_Performed_For_First_Time_EVER/

(just ‘cause it is interesting, my note)

F-35 Lightning II – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a fifth-generation, single-seat, single-engine stealth multirole fighter, that can perform close air support, …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-35_Lightning_II

F-35-Lightning II: Composites on Trial Part III
Jul 22, 2009 … The F-35 Lightning II will be a test bed for the significant use of composite parts in next generation jet fighters, particularly with …
www.environmentalgraffiti.com/…/lightening…on…iii/13305

lockheed martin f-35
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightening II is a 5th generation, single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, designed to meet the bulk …
www.flightglobal.com/…/lockheed%20martin%20f-35.html

F-35 Lightning II Electro-optical Targeting System | Lockheed Martin
The low-drag, stealthy EOTS is integrated into the Lightning II’s fuselage … The EOTS uses a staring mid-wave 3rd-generation forward-looking infrared that …
www.lockheedmartin.com › Products

Chinese fourth generation fighter an improved J-10
Nov 24, 2009 … The Chinese fourth generation fighter is the fourth such fighter under development after F-22 Raptor, F-35 Lightening II and the Russian …
kuku.sawf.org › News

India MMRCA Programme – SP’s Aviation
The F16IN Super Viper is a unique new fighter sharing a heritage with the only fifth generation fighters – the F35 Lightening II Joint Strike Fighter and …
spsaviation.net/mmrca.asp?id=5

**

Lightning – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 1900, Nikola Tesla generated artificial lightning by using a large Tesla coil, enabling the generation of enormous high frequency voltages sufficient to …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightning

Science, Technology, Nuclear — Limerick Energy Information Center …
See live Demonstrations of man-made lightening, generation of electricity, electrical safety and more. See a number of Audio/Visual Presentations on many …
www.fieldtrip.com/pa/04956767.htm

Surprise! Lightning Has Big Effect On Atmospheric Chemistry
Mar 20, 2003 … About 77 million lightning bolts annually strike the U.S. Measurements before and after lightning strikes have confirmed the generation of …

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/03/030320073502.htm

#
Hydrogen Generation and Deturium – Advanced Physics Forums
15 posts – 4 authors – Last post: Jan 22, 2005
Hydrogen Generation and Deturium Applied Physics and Other. … Do you really want to mess around with lightening? …
www.advancedphysics.org › … › Applied Physics and Other
Get more discussion results
#
Amazon.com: Stealing God’s Thunder: Benjamin Franklin’s Lightning …
That was their genius, and it’s what separates Franklin’s generation from ours. …. Dray focuses on Franklin’s invention of the lightening rod, …
www.amazon.com › … › People, AZ › ( F ) › Franklin, Benjamin

Where are radioactive elements made?
15 posts – 5 authors – Last post: Sep 7, 2008
The obvious mechanism is one of lightening generation and not only within the cloud layer but much higher up and well beyond the dense layer …
www.galaxyzooforum.org/index.php?topic=272190.0
(interesting)

National Lightning Safety Institute (NLSI) Home Page. We provide …
NLSI promotes proactive defenses to mitigate the effects of lighting hazards. … including explosives; mining; petrochemical; and power generation. …
www.lightningsafety.com/

Storm Highway – Cloud-to-Ground Lightning
While there are several theories, the exact mechanism of lightning generation within a thunderstorm is not yet known. Strong updrafts in a thunderstorm …
wvlightning.com/cgdesc.shtml

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Cold Fusion Controversy
Most notabley, they (in Post-World War II) have atempted to use Nikola’s ball-lightening generation for a so called Fireball Fusion Reactor (apparently …
business.gorge.net/zdkf/zdki/zil-cfc.html
#
Directory:Lightning Power – PESWiki
This directory addresses the power of lightning and it’s utilization. … “Gigantic Jets” Blast Electricity Into the Ionosphere – These lightning bolts that reach from cloud ….. Fusion  Geothermal  Gravity Motors  Home Generation …
peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Lightning_Power

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Cassini Sees Lightening on Saturn – Space & Earth
Cassini Sees Lightening on Saturn – Space & Earth -(PhysOrg.com) — NASA’s … (AP) — Call it NASA: The Next Generation. The president is pointing America …
enterprisepost.com/space/…/cassini-sees-lightening-on-saturn.html?…
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EETimes.com – White LED lamp market brightens
Jul 18, 2002 … Taking a different approach from current white-LED methods, a government-supported project for next-generation lighting is in progress at …
www.eetimes.com/pw/fo/OEG20020718S0013

Generation of autonomous long-lived plasma objects in free atmosphere
by LV Furov – 2005 – Cited by 3 – Related articles
ensuring the generation of such plasma objects are determined.
© 2005 Pleiades Publishing …. Ball Lightning in the Laboratory: Collection of Articles, …
www.springerlink.com/index/D5L2H21H12746N44.pdf

What Causes thunder & Lightening? – Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers
Jun 12, 2007 … Lightening is much brighter than fluorescent lights and is even brighter and hotter than the surface of the sun. This sudden generation of …

uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid… – United Kingdom

RaserTech: Raser Technologies Lightening Dock Geothermal Power Plant
Raser Technologies had on July 3 announced its plans to construct the Lightning Dock geothermal electric generation plant on 2500 acres in Hidalgo County …
www.economywatch.com › Renewable Energy

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Science Links Japan | Forefront technology of environment-friendly …
by K SHIBATA – 2006
Lightening measures based on FRPs, and perspectives for near-future cars. Movement surrounding the materials of next generation automobiles and recycling …
sciencelinks.jp › … › Engineering Materials(2006)

**

cold plasma physics

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Plasma (physics) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Even in a “cold” plasma, the electron temperature is still typically several thousand degrees ….. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Plasma physics …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_(physics)
#
Cold Plasma Ignites Hot Applications
We probably produce more total cold plasma than anyone else in the world, … Interest in plasma physics initially developed because of radio communications …

www.odu.edu/ao/instadv/quest/ColdPlasma.html
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Trek-Like ‘Cold Plasmas’ Shield, Cloak
A good cold plasma could really help out by reflecting or absorbing energy … Robert Barker, program manager for plasma physics in the Air Force’s Office

www.space.com/…/technology/cold_plasma_000724.html
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Advent of Cold Plasma
Sep 22, 2005 … This development of cold plasma can have far reaching effects not only in … Physics / General Physics created Apr 07, 2010 | popularity …
www.physorg.com/news6688.html
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Applied Plasma Physics AS > Home
APP’s experience within electro physics and plasma physics has led to … modular systems utilizing Non-Thermal Plasma (Cold Plasma) to reduce odour, …
www.appliedplasma.com/
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Cold Plasma: Air/surface plasma disinfection/sterilization technology
Atmospheric & Pressurized Cold Plasma Technologies …. Journal of Applied Physics 88:6060 (2000). Hwang, H. H., E. R. Keiter, and M. J. Kushner. …
www.air-techinternational.com/plasma.html
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CJO – Abstract – The resonant nonlinear Schrödinger equation in …
by JH LEE – 2006 – Cited by 11 – Related articles
The resonant nonlinear Schrödinger equation in cold plasma physics. Application of Bäcklund–Darboux transformations and superposition principles …
journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0022377806004648

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Wapedia – Wiki: Plasma (physics)
In physics and chemistry, plasma is a gas in which a certain portion of the …. Even in a “cold” plasma, the electron temperature is still typically …

wapedia.mobi/en/Plasma_(physics)
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[physics/9805009] Stopping of Gyratory Fast Particle in Magnetized …
by HB Nersisyan – 1998 – Related articles
Abstract: The energy loss by a test gyratory particle in a cold plasma in the presence of … Cite as: arXiv:physics/9805009v1 [physics.plasm-ph] …
arxiv.org › physics
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Book results for cold plasma physics
Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and … – Donald A Gurnett, Amitava Bhattacharjee – 2005 – 466 pages
The Framework of Plasma Physics – Richard D Hazeltine, F Waelbroeck – 2004 – 346 pages
Fundamentals of plasma physics – Paul Murray Bellan – 2006 – 631 pages

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=vFx&rlz=1R1GGGL_en___US363&q=cold+plasma+physics&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=

**

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Spontaneous Cold Plasma | Physical Review Focus
An ultracold plasma can form spontaneously from a cloud of cold, excited atoms. … Rolston calls it exploratory physics. “We don’t know what to expect and …
focus.aps.org/story/v6/st23
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How is cold Plasma possible? [Archive] – Physics Forums
17 posts – 10 authors – Last post: Jan 19
[Archive] How is cold Plasma possible? Atomic, Solid State, Comp. Physics.
www.physicsforums.com/archive/index.php/t-59693.html
Get more discussion results
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Cold plasma oscillations according to Weber’s law. An unphysical …
by RA Clemente – 1993 – Cited by 1 – Related articles
International Journal of Theoretical Physics. Vol. 32, No. 7, 1993. Cold Plasma Oscillations According to Weber’s Law. An Unphysical Result …
www.springerlink.com/index/H712LMX27J122616.pdf
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Three-wave Interaction in a Cold Plasma with Sharp Boundaries
0032-1028/83%3.00 + .XI. 0 1983 Institute of Physics and Pergamon Press Ltd. RESEARCH NOTE. Three-wave Interaction in a Cold Plasma with Sharp Boundaries …
iopscience.iop.org/0032-1028/25/12/416/…/0032-1028_25_12_416.pdf
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Turbulization of nonlinear Langmuir oscillations in a cold plasma …
by AV Kovalenko – 1997 – Cited by 2 – Related articles
The notion about nonlinear wave-breaking in a cold plasma was used in Ref. in …. F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Plenum, …
link.aip.org/link/?PHPAEN/4/3200/1

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Amazon.com: Plasma Waves, 2nd Edition (Series in Plasma Physics …
Transport and Structural Formation in Plasmas, (Plasma Physics Series) by K. … Plasma Physics for Astrophysics by R. M. Kulsrud. Discusses: cold plasma
www.amazon.com › … › Internal Medicine › Hematology
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YouTube – Cold Plasma

17 sec – Sep 11, 2009 –

Rated 5.0 out of 5.0

Cold Atmospheric Plasma Added to. Quicklist0:33  Cold Atmospheric Plasma … Ruzic on Plasma physics. Added to. Quicklist4:16  Ruzic on …
www.youtube.com/watch?v=1r1vzFAPyG0
Get more video results
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Mars 96 Orbiter Payload – Plasma Physics
Measure martian ionosphere and the cold plasma convection in the Martian magnetosphere … to Mars 96 Orbiter Space Physics/Plasma Payload …
www.msss.com/mars/mars9x/plasma.html
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Introduction to plasma physics – Google Books Result
R. J. Goldston, Paul Harding Rutherford – 1995 – Science – 491 pages
In the cold plasma dispersion relation, then, we see that the wave-vector k enters only through the k2 term in equation (18.15), with its direction entering …
books.google.com/books?isbn=075030183X…

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APPH E6101x Class Homepage
This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence in plasma physics. … (Mathemmatica Notebook that solves cold plasma dispersion relationship. …
www.columbia.edu/~mem4/ap6101/
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The inner magnetosphere of Saturn: Cassini RPWS cold plasma …
by JE Wahlund – 2005 – Cited by 16 – Related articles
The inner magnetosphere of Saturn: Cassini RPWS cold plasma results from the first encounter. J.-E. Wahlund. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, …
www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2005/2005GL022699.shtml
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Introduction to plasma physics: with space and laboratory applications – Google Books Result
Donald A. Gurnett, Amitava Bhattacharjee – 2005 – Science – 452 pages
4 Waves in a cold plasma Due to the presence of long-range forces, various types of waves can exist in a plasma that have no counterpart in ordinary gases …
books.google.com/books?isbn=0521364833…
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Cold and Ultra Cold Plasma and Rydberg Physics Schedule
James Shaffer – Cold Cs Rydberg Gas Collisions Studied Using Photofragment Kinetic Energy Distributions (View Talk) (PDF abstract) …
itamp.harvard.edu/ColdUltraCold2005/CUCOLDschedule.html
# [PDF]
029:194 Plasma Physics I: Summary
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
The Overall Framework of Plasma Physics: connecting … (e) Cold Plasma Equations. (f) Velocity moments of kinetic equation. (g) Closure Problem …
www.physics.uiowa.edu/~ghowes/teach/phys194/194ReviewTopics.pdf
# [PDF]
Cold Plasma Physics in an Optical Lattice
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
Ultra-cold plasma physics. From Killian et al., physics/0612097. Low temperature low density plasma. BUT: at low temperatures can reach the …
massey.dur.ac.uk/research/strontium/background_web.pdf
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Magnetoacoustic resonance for nonlinear excitation in a cold …
by K Fässler – 1968
Tverd. Tela. 5 (1963) 3264. Soviet Physics, Solid State 5 (1964) 2387. MAGNETOACOUSTIC RESONANCE FOR NONLINEAR EXCITATION IN A COLD PLASMA K. FASSLER, …
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0375960168906439
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Plasma physics via computer simulation – Google Books Result
Charles K. Birdsall, A. Bruce Langdon – 2004 – Science – 479 pages
The linear response of a cold plasma is /i?0k-F(k,at) /j(k,co) = ; (1) mar We multiply this by S(k), replace F using 10-7(1), replace k by kp, …
books.google.com/books?isbn=0750310251…
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BW Online | January 8, 2001 |

Hot Prospects for Cold Plasma
Jan 8, 2001 … A bluish substance that resembles a foglike gas, cold plasma can destroy … program manager for plasma physics at the Air Force’s Office of …

www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/…/nf2001018_024.htm
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[physics/9804039] Nonlinear wave propagation through cold plasma
by SG Bindu – 1998 – Related articles
Abstract: Electromagnetic wave propagation through cold collision free plasma is studied using the nonlinear perturbation method. …
arxiv.org › physics

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“long lasting plasma physics electricity” – google search term

# [PDF]
A New Plasma Physics Periodic Kinetic Electrostatic Electron …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
by B Afeyan – Cited by 2 – Related articles
ABSTRACT: This topic, new to basic nonlinear plasma physics, … surprisingly, it was impossible to generate long-lasting waves weak … structures thus produced proved to have too little self-generated electric field to survive on …
epsppd.epfl.ch/London/pdf/P5_070.pdf
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Long-lasting plasma membrane permeabilization in mammalian cells …
by AG Pakhomov – 2007 – Cited by 27 – Related articles
Long-lasting plasma membrane permeabilization in mammalian cells by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). Pakhomov AG, Kolb JF, White JA, Joshi RP, …
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17654532

(there are a number of studies of this kind which I include because they show a different application of the same science at the cellular level in mammals. I’ll probably take a quick look at some them to pick up some ideas, my note)
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Fusion
From basic electricity, like charges repel while opposite charges attract. … A fusion reactor control room at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory … The long-lasting radiation found in fission reactors is not produced. The plasma …

www.asa3.org/asa/newsletter/Fusion.htm
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Plasma Membrane Permeabilization by Trains of Ultrashort Electric …
by BL Ibey – 2009 – Related articles
Ultrashort electric pulses (USEP) cause long-lasting increase of cell membrane … ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM PLASMA PHYSICS AND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS …
oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html…
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Ball lightning – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Scientists have long attempted to produce ball lightning in laboratory experiments. … The effect is caused by electricity arcing between the conductive carbon … have reportedly consistently made small long-lasting balls using this method. …. of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society (Paper J-15 ed. …

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ball_lightning – 21 hours ago
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Physics Science Fair Projects, Ideas, and Experiments
… to include nuclear physics, particle physics, plasma physics, and cryogenics. … To explore how one can create bubbles that are long lasting or permanent. … To use static electricity to separate a mixture of salt and pepper …
www.sciencefairadventure.com/Physics.aspx
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Condon Report, Sec VI, Chap 7: Atmospheric Electricity and Plasma
For this reason, reports of ball lightning lasting as long as a few seconds …… in either plasma physics or atmospheric electricity met in Boulder, Cob, …
www.ncas.org/condon/text/s6chap07.htm
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Characterization of avalanche-like events in a confined plasma …
by PA Politzer – 2002 – Cited by 12 – Related articles
Plasma turbulence. Physics of plasmas and electric discharges. ….. i.e., long lasting trends. For the long term trend is to anticorrelation. …

link.aip.org/link/?PHPAEN/9/1962/1
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Boris Stoicheff: Gerhard Herzberg — An Illustrious Life in Science
by L Nemes – 2005
Herzberg tried to set up independent research units for theoretical physics, plasma physics and solid state physics, but none of these became long lasting …
www.springerlink.com/index/Y2357558R3K121L8.pdf

NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE MODELING OF A LONG-LASTING CORONAL SIGMOID
by A Savcheva – 2009 – Related articles
A study of the magnetic configuration and evolution of a long-lasting quiescent … and find that it has a hollow-core distribution, i.e., electric currents are … Particle physics and field theory, Plasma physics, Quantum gases, …
iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/703/2/1766/…/0004-637X_703_2_1766.pdf

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Directory:Electric Vehicles – PESWiki
Nov 12, 2009 … transatlantic21 – “sun21” is a 14-meter-long electric catamaran powered …. high energy, long-lasting, low cost and environment-friendly zinc-air ….. Electric Drag Racing – Oregon racer, John Wayland (Plasma Boy), …
peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Electric_Vehicles
#
Nanomaterial Converts Radiation to Electricity [Archive] – Physics …
26 posts – 7 authors
Instead, harvest the electricity, and use that to energize a plasma, … of course means the power they supply is much lower too, although long-lasting. …

www.physicsforums.com › … › Nuclear Engineering
Get more discussion results
# [PDF]
The Contribution of Nikola Tesla to Plasma Physics and Current …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
by ZL Petrovic’ – 2006 –
well as their role in conduction of electricity through the atmosphere. … plasma physics include first of all rf breakdown and rf discharges, then he was ….. development of rf discharges that has the longest lasting legacy in plasma
www.journal.tfc.kg.ac.rs/Vol_3-2/07-Petrovic.pdf
# [PPT]
Physics 1301: Lecture 1
File Format: Microsoft Powerpoint – View as HTML
Large Upward Parallel Electric Fields from FAST and Polar …. minutes before onset, rather than being long-lasting growth phase arc (Lyons et al., 2002) … Auroral plasma physics remains a quickly developing field combining aspects of …
ham.space.umn.edu/~bob/iuggreporterreview03.ppt
# [PDF]
A Prospect – Plasma Physics, quo vadis.
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
by I Kimitaka – Related articles
has identified that the radial electric field near plasma surface is subject to bifurcation. … A typical example of the long-lasting fundamental …
www.jspf.or.jp/JPFRS/PDF/Vol4/jpfrs2001_04-180.pdf
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Physics Today July 2004- Dusty Plasmas in the Laboratory, Industry …

… ferocious and long lasting, and the resulting accumulation of dust could be enormous. ….. P. K. Shukla, A. A. Mamun, Introduction to Dusty Plasma Physics, … The red region is about 2 cm long, and the displayed field comprises about … the plasma’s quasistatic electric field balances them against gravity. …
dusty.physics.uiowa.edu/~goree/papers/PhysicsTodayJuly2004.html
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The road to sustainability – physicsworld.com
Oct 1, 2009 … Nuclear & particle physics, Plasma physics, Statistical, mathematical & computational physics ….. The sustainability profile of nuclear electricity shares many … In terms of lasting a long time and doing no harm, therefore, …. 2007 Driving the hydrogen economy Physics World July pp32–36 …
physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/40527

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Anatomy of plasma turbulence : Article : Nature Physics
by T Yamada – 2008 – Cited by 16 – Related articles
Jul 27, 2008 … This electric field is within an error-bar of the profile measurement. …. showing long-lasting (meso-scale) nonlinear structures in the …
www.nature.com › Journal home › Archive › Letter
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Space Plasma Environment ans Spacecraft Charging, Sun, Solar Wind …
by H Koskinen – 2001
INTRODUCTION Space plasma physics and spacecraft charging technology are two ….. drift perpendicular to the externally imposed magnetic and electric fields. … Assume that a CME with sufficiently long-lasting southward IMF hits the .
..
adsabs.harvard.edu/full/2001ESASP.476…13K
# [PDF]
Biographical Sketch Frank R. Toffoletto August, 2009 Address …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
J. R. Jasperse, MIT Center for Theoretical Geo/Cosmo Plasma Physics, Cambridge, …. System: Can Long Lasting. Disturbance Electric Fields be Accounted For? …
rocco.rice.edu/~toffo/toffo/cv_toffo_0809.pdf
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Physicists create great balls of fire – physics-math – 07 June …
Jun 7, 2006 …

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics and the … and lasting for several seconds or in rare cases even minutes. … Long-lived. “The balls survive up to 0.3 seconds after the … I want 2 know how that electricity current was produced and the things that they used in producing it …
www.newscientist.com/…/dn9293-physicists-create-great-balls-of-fire.html
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The Earth’s Electrical Environment
The regions of space involved in creating upper atmosphere electric fields are illus- ….. 202 \ near the Sun’s surface but sometimes are a long-lasting, ….. Earth s magnetosphere: Global problems in Magnetospheric plasma physics,
www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=195
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Creating a Star: The Science of Fusion Fusion Power Would Not …
Fusion is perhaps the only option for a truly sustainable, long-term energy source. … the dream of commercial electricity production will become a reality. …. longer-lasting coatings onto medical implants, machine tools, recording media, and other items. … Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience. (2004). …
www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009383592

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<a href=”http://arXiv.org/abs/physics/0410240v1″>arXiv:physics …
by A Illiberi – 2004 –
Oct 24, 2004 … In that limit, the electric potential ? is proportional to the stream … period) the electron plasma can approach the equilibrium with a stable … passing through a series of long lasting states characterized by …
arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0410240
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Cocktail Party Physics: Electromagnetism
Feb 6, 2010 … These instabilities can have very long-lasting effects on the ionosphere as well. …. Specifically, he wanted to prove that electricity did not come ….. You’ve got yourself a working plasma antenna! Physics history …
twistedphysics.typepad.com/cocktail…physics/electricity/
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The Amazing Electric Universe by Rolf Witzsche
On Earth, we see a tiny example of these long and efficient channels in the case ….. (the interglacial climates) each lasting roughly 12000 years, if that. … Sweden’s Hannes Olof Alfven – pioneer explorer of solar plasma physics and …
lovescapenovels.rolf-witzsche.com/electric_universe.html

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Simulation study of a positive ionospheric storm phase observed at …
by M Swisdak – 2006 – Cited by 1 – Related articles
Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., USA … are primarily due to the influence of a long-lasting eastward electric field, …

www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2006/2005GL024973.shtml
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Reflectometry in conventional and advanced plasma scenarios on …
by ME MANSO – 2001 –
EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics No28, … Modelling ; Magnetic measurement ; Reflectometry ; Plasma diagnostics ; Long lasting …
cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14134222
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Colloquia
Where in the World Can We Find Clean, Safe, Long-lasting, and Economical … Abstract: The movement of an electrical conductor through a magnetic field will generate electric currents owing … DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory …
cestar.seas.ucla.edu/colloquia.html
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Twentieth century physics – Google Books Result
Laurie M. Brown, Abraham Pais, Brian Pippard – 1995 – Science
He is nevertheless to be honoured in the field of modern plasma physics for a … began a long-lasting friendship and a working relationship with Nils Bohr. …
books.google.com/books?isbn=0750303107…
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Storm-time penetration electric fields and their effects …
by C Huang – 2007
bDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA … It is identified with the inner edge of the plasma sheet. … The model simulations suggest the possibility of long-lasting (many hours) penetration …
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364682607000600
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THE HIGH-VOLTAGE (HV) electric field detector uses
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
by JN Thomas – 2004 – Cited by 6 – Related articles
into why positive strokes create such large, long lasting strato- …. experimental space plasma physics and atmospheric electrodynamics. …
www.ess.washington.edu/students/jnt/thomas_ieee_paper.pdf
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HOLOSCIENCE – News
Dec 15, 2001 … Thunderstorms are not electricity generators, they are passive … Standard physics says that narrow plasma streams are unstable and should dissipate fast. … When two Birkeland currents are parallel they experience a long range …. main sprite, lasting up to a hundred milliseconds in some cases, …
www.holoscience.com/news/balloon.html

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Phys. Rev. E 65, 016408 (2002): Yan et al. – Local and fast …
by M Yan – 2001
FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics “Rijnhuizen,” P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein, … the electrostatic oscillation, the long lasting potential structure, … The relaxation of the local electric field lasts 100 rf cycles with the …
link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.65.016408
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Plasma Physics From Laboratory To Cosmos-the Life And Achievements …
by CG Falthammar – 1997 – Related articles
the foundations of major parts of modern plasma physics and its applications in areas as diverse as industrial processes, …. A circumstance contributing to the long nonacceptance may …. that time, Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, …. contributions will remain a lasting heritage. REFERENCES …

ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/27/13092/00597253.pdf
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Brochure CRPP En
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
The Plasma Physics Research Centre (CRPP) is a Centre in the Faculty of Basic Sciences of the EPFL. … cover the electricity requirements of Switzerland for tens of millen- … have been obtained in pulses lasting for several seconds. …. a sustained research program with a long-term vision of fusion as an ener- …
crppwww.epfl.ch/pdf/crpp_en.pdf

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France selected as location of multinational fusion power project
Jun 28, 2005 … studies of plasma physics and tomorrow’s electricity-producing … There is no long-lasting radioactive waste to create a burden on …

www.finfacts.com/…/publish/article_10002403.shtml – Ireland

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# [PDF]
COPYRIGHT NOTICE: For COURSE PACK and other PERMISSIONS, refer to …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
As an example, it easily explains why a galaxy can have a long-lasting …. Plasma physics also concerns itself with electric and magnetic fields some of
press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7908.pdf
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AccessScience | News
05/02/2004 The Electron’s Other Charge: Workhorse of electricity shows its weak side 02/04/2007 The mystery of the missing … 09/20/2009 Locust wings built for the long haul … 03/20/2005 Silicon chips land a lasting laser …. Plasma physics 01/20/2008 Dusty Fireball: Can lab-made blob explain ball lightning? …
www.accessscience.com/news.aspx?type=subject&subject=PHYS
# [PDF]
From Lightning to Lighting: Physics and Technology Discharged from …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
Nov 16, 2006 … St. Elmo’s Fire: Low T plasma caused by atmospheric electrical …. 1880 – Edison patents long-lasting light bulb …. Pointed rod used to draw electricity from the sky thus preventing lightning strikes …
www2.avs.org/benjaminfranklin/McGrath.pdf
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Earth and Atmospheric Electricity
Tidal wind interaction with the ionospheric plasma at dynamo layer heights. … Each component discharge, lasting of the order of tens of milliseconds, …. long magnetic tail on the downward night time side, several hundred earth radii long. … Inc. 1978 Nishida, A.–Magnetospheric Plasma Physics, D. Reidel Pub. …
www.scribd.com › Research › Science
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Anharmonic Excitations, Time Correlations and Electric …
by AP Chetverikov – 2007 – Cited by 6 – Related articles
… excitations lead to long lasting time correlations and, correspondingly, … Contributions to Plasma Physics. Enter words or phrases. Select a Field …
www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/116310910/abstract
# [PDF]
Is there a plasma density gradient role on the generation of short …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
by C Haldoupis – 2005 – Cited by 2 – Related articles
the ambient electric field, even when electron drifts are below the ion acoustic velocity threshold ….. a long-lasting dense layer between 100 and 110km which …… Kelley, M. C.: The Earth’s Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Elec- …
www.ann-geophys.net/23/3323/2005/angeo-23-3323-2005.pdf

Title page for 966203008
by YY Sun – 2009 – Related articles
Jul 19, 2009 … Kallenrode M. (1998) Space physics : an introduction to plasmas and … Long-lasting disturbances in the equatorial ionospheric electric … Schunk, R. W., and A. F. Nagy (2000), Ionosphere: Physics, Plasma Physics, …
thesis.lib.ncu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN…

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Global Warming: TR10 Liquid Battery
Mar 20, 2009 … Without a good way to store electricity on a large scale, solar power is useless at night. … The liquid battery has the advantage of being cheap, long-lasting, … The Day the Earth Froze  Dense Plasma Physics Update … by Physics Essays published by the American Institute of Physics and will …

globalwarming-arclein.blogspot.com/…/tr10-liquid-battery.html
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mems electricity Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
Electrical Discharge: Corona (surface activation) and Plasma . … For MEMS , we need smaller & long lasting power sources. … Information technology – People @ TAMU Physics. Electric-to-optical conversion is slow and expensive. …

ulings.com/shtml/7439.shtml
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Arc lamp: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article
An electric arc is an electrical breakdown of a gas which produces an ongoing plasma discharge, … The electric arc in an arc lamp consists of gas which is initially ion …. While teaching physics at Central High School in Philadelphia , he helped design an … and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. …

www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Arc_lamp
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Nanosecond electric explosion of a tungsten wire in different media
by AE Ter-Oganesyan – 2005 – Cited by 6 – Related articles
Plasma Physics Reports, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2005, pp. 919–926. Translated from Fizika Plazmy, ….. ceded by a long-lasting (~100 ns) current pause, during …
www.springerlink.com/index/D37612Q2MH6X2840.pdf

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Ball_lightning
May 19, 2009 … Laboratory experiments Scientists have long attempted to produce ball … have reportedly consistently made small long-lasting balls using this method. … The effect is caused by electricity arcing between the conductive …. Nolit Division of Plasma Physics of the (Beograd, Yugoslavia), 368-370. …

www.docstoc.com/docs/6059442/Ball_lightning

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# [PDF]
arXiv:physics/0512128 v1 14 Dec 2005
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
by M Swisdak – 2005 – Cited by 1 – Related articles
Dec 15, 2005 … eastward electric field, as was previously suggested by Huang et al. … After an extended quiet period lasting from 29 March to 2 April 2004 a … collisionally-coupled plasma is driven up the field lines. …. by ?1000 K. We primarily attribute these dramatic changes to the long-lasting eastward …
cdsweb.cern.ch/record/915568/files/0512128.pdf
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Research – Energy – – Events
Demonstrations of smart electricity distribution network solutions …. aspects in the realization of fusion as a clean and lasting energy source. … This report outlines the current situation of biofuels and presents a long-term view on how …. 32nd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics. This conference continues the …

ec.europa.eu/research/energy/nn/nn_ne/article_1077_en.htm
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Beyond NIF
Laser diodes also permit the long-term vision of electrical power … about 1 joule of output energy in a pulse lasting a few nanoseconds. … Examples of plasma physics experiments we would perform at the prototype beamline facility include: … efforts is to tap this inexhaustible source of producing electricity. …
https://www.llnl.gov/str/Payne.html

(from)

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=2mc&rlz=1R1GGGL_en___US363&q=long+lasting+plasma+physics+electricity&start=50&sa=N

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“harnessing nuclear reaction fusion fission plasma”

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ITER – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is the goal of a fusion power plant to harness this energy to produce electricity. … In ITER and many other magnetic confinement reactors, the plasma, …. far less radioactive pollution than an ordinary fission nuclear plant. …. 14 – 27, 2006); ^ Nuclear fusion reactor project in France: an expensive and …

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITER

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Fusion-fission hybrids revisited : Article : Nature Physics
by JP Freidberg – 2009 – Related articles
Many have suggested that harnessing nuclear fusion could provide a better way to … Each fission reaction releases a huge amount of energy (about 200 MeV) but …. Still, there are remaining plasma physics issues facing the leading …
www.nature.com › Journal home › Archive › Commentary

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# [PDF]
Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
The Star Factory: Harnessing Nuclear Fusion to Create a Star on Earth … Fusion reactions should be distinguished from fission reactions, … Context: Millions of tons of electrically charged plasma may be thrown out into space after a …
streaming.discoveryeducation.com/…/9-12_Science_NuclearFusionThePowerOfTheSun.pdf
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Nuclear fusion power project to start in 2018: official
Jun 18, 2009 … An experimental reactor that could harness nuclear fusion, the power that fuels … reactor, with a target date for “first plasma” by the end of 2018. … In contrast, nuclear fission, which entails splitting the nucleus …
www.physorg.com/news164558159.html
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Nuclear Fusion – humans, body, used, water, process, Earth …
Nuclear fission: A nuclear reaction in which one large atomic nucleus breaks apart … Plasma: A form of matter that consists of positively charged particles and … Dreams of harnessing fusion power for human use developed alongside …
www.scienceclarified.com › Mu-Oi
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Nuclear Fusion Containment Complex And Systems Network For The …
A systems network for harnessing nuclear fusion power and, more particularly, … [0019] As all fusion (and fission) nuclear facilities and reactor systems …
www.freshpatents.com/Nuclear-fusion-containment-complex-and-systems-network-for-the-thermal-durational-enhancement-of-contained-heat…
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Directory:Fusion – PESWiki
Institute of Plasma Physics – Overview of various fusion approaches. …. Nuclear Fusion-Fission Hybrid Could Contribute to Carbon-Free Energy Future … challenges involved in harnessing nuclear fusion as a viable energy source. …. Resonant Nuclear Reactor that uses U-238 – Not “free” energy since it uses U-238 …
peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Fusion
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MIT Experiment Envisions a New Way to Harness Fusion Power (With a …
Jan 25, 2010 … Nuclear fusion, of course, is the same process that provides the sun with its … But creating a working fusion reactor with a solid energy output has proven … The result: random turbulence caused the plasma to become denser – a …. a fission blanket to amplify the power output of the reactor and …
www.popsci.com/…/mit-experiment-takes-step-toward-fusion-powered-future
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WikiAnswers – What kind of energy is given off from a nuclear …
Most of the energy from nuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium, which is the most likely reaction to be harnessed by man, is given off as … even when the plasma can be contained and made to fuse, which has only been … What is usally given in a nuclear reactions? Determine how a fission reaction is started? …
wiki.answers.com/…/What_kind_of_energy_is_given_off_from_a_nuclear_fusion_reaction_and_from_a_nuclear_fission_reaction

(from)
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=harnessing+nuclear+reaction+fusion+fission+plasma&sourceid=navclient-ff&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&ie=UTF-8

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CERN – the European Organization for Nuclear Research
EU Projects  Knowledge and technology transfer. European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN CH-1211. Genève 23. Switzerland. +41 22 76 761 11 …

public.web.cern.ch/

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CERN – The Large Hadron Collider
CERN – European Organization for Nuclear Research – The Large Hadron Collider. listitem About us listitem Science listitem Research listitem …
public.web.cern.ch/public/en/LHC/LHC-en.html
Show more results from public.web.cern.ch
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CERN – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire), known as CERN (see History), …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CERN
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CERN Courier
International journal of high-energy physics, published by the Institute of Physics (october 1998-present).

cerncourier.com/ – 12 hours ago
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CERN Document Server: Home
CERN Document Server – CERN Document Server. … CERN Document Server. Over 900000 bibliographic records, including 360000 fulltext documents,

cdsweb.cern.ch/
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CERN Document Server: Photos
(© CERN Geneva). 30 Mar 2010. CERN Control Centre on 30 March 2010 … search also CERN PhotoLab Archive of unscanned pictures (1952-) …
cdsweb.cern.ch › Home › Multimedia & Outreach

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CERN e-Recruitment Home Page
CERN is a truly unique organisation. A genuine collaboration between countries, universities and scientists, driven not by profit margins, …
ert.cern.ch/
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Welcome to info.cern.ch
From CERN, a complete introduction to the world’s largest particle physics laboratory.

info.cern.ch/
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Origins: CERN, the world’s largest particle accelerator
Join the Exploratorium as we visit CERN, the world’s largest particle accelerator, and see what we’re discovering about antimatter, mass, and the origins of …
www.exploratorium.edu/origins/cern/

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“nitrogen dioxide fuel”
Nitrogen dioxide regenerative fuel cell – Patent 3979225
by SW Smith – 1976 – Cited by 4 – Related articles
A fuel cell is disclosed in which the cathode is a gaseous diffusion fuel cell electrode operating with an acid electrolyte and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 …
www.freepatentsonline.com/3979225.html

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Process of refining diesel fuel with nitrogen dioxide – Patent 3135680
Process of refining diesel fuel with nitrogen dioxide. United States Patent 3135680. US Patent References: Treatment of hydrocarbon oils 2009898 …
www.freepatentsonline.com/3135680.html
Show more results from http://www.freepatentsonline.com
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Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) – Air quality fact sheet
Sep 16, 2009 … Some nitrogen dioxide is formed naturally in the atmosphere by lightning and some is … implementing national fuel quality standards; …
www.environment.gov.au › … › Publications › Air quality
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NOx – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
where nitric oxide will oxidize to form nitrogen dioxide that again reacts with water … is the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx during combustion. …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NOx
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About Oxides of Nitrogen and Magnetizer Fuel Treatment
Nitrogen dioxide is the reddish brown haze that we associate with smog. The formula for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) looks quite similar to the formula for carbon …

www.wholly-water.com/test.htm
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Nitrogen Dioxide | Indoor Environmental Asthma Triggers | US EPA
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) can be a byproduct of fuel-burning appliances, such as gas stoves, gas or oil furnaces, fireplaces, wood stoves and unvented kerosene …

www.epa.gov/asthma/no2.html
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Natural Gas and the Environment – NaturalGas.org
Coal and fuel oil also release ash particles into the environment, …. Acid rain is formed when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water vapor …
www.naturalgas.org/environment/naturalgas.asp
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Car Exhaust, Air Pollution; Combustion Engines: Carbon Dioxide …
Fuel + Air => Hydrocarbons + Nitrogen Oxides + Carbon Dioxide + Carbon Monoxide + water. Hydrocarbon emissions are fragments of fuel molecules,

www.nutramed.com/environment/carsepa.htm – Canada
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Major Air Pollutants — Infoplease.com
Nitrogen dioxide mostly comes from power plants and cars. Nitrogen dioxide is formed in two ways—when nitrogen in the fuel is burned, or when nitrogen in …
www.infoplease.com › … › Environment

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Nitrogen Dioxide, NO2, has been used as a catalyst in certain …
National Stock Number (NSN) Applicable to Nitrogen Dioxide, MIL Specs/ Fed Specs … as an oxidizing agent; as a rocket fuel; as a flour bleaching agent and …

www.c-f-c.com/specgas_products/nitrogen-dioxide.htm

Searches related to nitrogen dioxide fuel

nitrogen dioxide no2    nitrogen oxides global warming    nitrogen dioxide asthma    nitrogen dioxide pollution
nitrogen oxides emissions    nitrogen dioxide ozone    nitrogen dioxide greenhouse gas    nitrogen oxides acid rain

http://www.google.com/search?q=nitrogen+dioxide+fuel&btnG=Search&hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&sa=2

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Combustion – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The flames caused as a result of a fuel undergoing combustion (burning) … Carbon will yield carbon dioxide, nitrogen will yield nitrogen dioxide, …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustion
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# [PDF]
Air Issues — Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Gas Fact Sheet (PDF format)
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a red-brown gas produced when fuel burns. It is present in vehicle exhaust and the fumes from burning fuel oil, kerosene, propane, …
dhs.wi.gov/eh/Air/pdf/NitrDioxde.pdf
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Scientific Facts on Air Pollution Nitrogen Dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide is part of a group of gaseous air pollutants produced as a result of road traffic and other fossil fuel combustion processes. …
http://www.greenfacts.org/en/nitrogen-dioxide-no2/index.htm – Cached – Similar
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nitrogen oxides | Healthy Child Healthy World
Nitrogen oxides are a family of gases produced whenever fuel burns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a corrosive, brownish gas, is of major concern to the health of …
healthychild.org/issues/chemical-pop/nitrogen_oxides/ – Cached – Similar

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Environmental Protection Agency — Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Nature and Sources of the Pollutant: Nitrogen dioxide belongs to a family of highly reactive gases called nitrogen oxides (NOx). These gases form when fuel …
http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd95/no2.html – Cached – Similar
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yet2.com – TechPak – Dual-fuel engine reduces nitrogen dioxide and …
The need to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions is not solely aimed at the automobile industry, but also includes the aerospace and maritime industry.
http://www.yet2.com/app/utility/external/indextechpak/37161 – Cached
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Industrial Emissions | Air Pollution | Nitrogen Oxides
Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish-brown gas. It is a strong oxidant and soluble … The reaction of oxygen with nitrogen compounds in the fuel – this is termed …
http://www.air-quality.org.uk/28.php – Cached – Similar

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“nitrogen dioxide conversion to fuel”

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Catalytic converter – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx ? xO2 + N2 …. This increases the amount of fossil fuel consumed and the carbon dioxide …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalytic_converter – Cached – Similar
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NOx – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
where nitric oxide will oxidize to form nitrogen dioxide that again reacts with water … is the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx during combustion. …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NOx – Cached

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Emission control of nitrogen oxides in the oxy-fuel process – Elsevier
by F Normann – 2009 – Cited by 3 – Related articles
Nitrogen oxides or NOx include nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). … The conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen contributes to most of the NO formed …
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0360128509000185
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Glossary | Mobile Source Emissions | US EPA
Benzene emissions occur in exhaust as a byproduct of fuel combustion and also … The common pollutant nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can often be seen combined …
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/invntory/overview/definitions.htm – Cached
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New catalytic converter material could make for cleaner, cheaper …
Mar 26, 2010 … Getting cars today to be both fuel efficient and low-emission is a … up the conversion of the nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide into …
content.usatoday.com/communities/sciencefair/post/…for…/1 – Cached
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Glossary of Terms: N
Nitrogen dioxide is a component in the production of photochemical smog. … Sources for nitrous oxide include: land-use conversion; fossil fuel combustion; …
http://www.physicalgeography.net/physgeoglos/n.html – Cached – Similar
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Catalytic conversion
When a nitric oxide or nitrogen dioxide molecule comes into contact with the … The electronic control unit, or ECU, monitors the air-fuel ratio by using …
http://www.cdxetextbook.com/fuelSys/emission/…/catalyticconversion.html – Cached
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Conversion of Fuels Containing Nitrogen to Oxides
by WD Woolley – 2004 – Cited by 7 – Related articles
There is a complete conversion of fuel nitrogen in all cases to oxides of ….. the oxides of nitrogen but the conversion of nitrogen dioxide to nitric …
doi.wiley.com/10.1002/fam.810020306
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US Patent 6213032 – Use of oil water emulsion as a reburn fuel
Fuel is combusted in a first zone, whereby nitrogen oxides are generated. … and significantly improve NO.sub.x conversion to molecular nitrogen. …
http://www.wikipatents.com/…/use-of-oil-water-emulsion-as-a-reburn-fuel – Cached

http://www.google.com/search?q=nitrogen+dioxide+conversion+to+fuel&btnG=Search&hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&sa=2

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Nitrogen oxide: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article
It forms upon mixing equal parts of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide and cooling ….. is the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx during combustion. …
http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Nitrogen_oxide – Cached – Similar
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Low nitrogen oxides emissions from carbonaceous fuel combustion …
by R Ashworth – 2001 – Cited by 4 – Related articles
Method and apparatus for reducing sulfur dioxide content in flue gases … a) introducing a carbonaceous fuel containing fuel-bound nitrogen into any …
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6325003.html
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NETL: Coal Becomes a “Future Fuel”
In the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen oxides became the pollutants of most concern. …. dolomite) in with the coal to absorb sulfur dioxide and convert it into a … The conversion process – achieved by reacting coal with steam and oxygen …
http://www.netl.doe.gov › Key Issues & Mandates – Cached – Similar

Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems – Elsevier
by P Glarborg – 2003 – Cited by 106 – Related articles
Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are acid rain precursors and …… Temperatures for 50% conversion of fuel nitrogen compounds at long and short residence …
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S036012850200031X

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Nitrogen, oxides of (EHC 4, 1977)
The production of nitric oxide per unit mass of fuel burned decreases with decreasing … Physical properties of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide a Oxides of …. for the nitric oxide-nitrogen dioxide conversion is wholly satisfactory …
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc004.htm – Cached – Similar
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Catalysts for Nitrogen Oxides Control under Lean Burn Conditions
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
by TJ Truex – 1992 – Cited by 36 – Related articles
at air:fuel ratios of 17.5-19: 1. A correlation exists between nitrogen oxides conversion and the hydrocarbonxitrogen oxides ratio in the …
http://www.platinummetalsreview.com/pdf/pmr-v36-i1-002-011.pdf
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Conversion of Acid Products of Industrial Emissions
by VI Glazunov – 2001 – Related articles
The solubility of acid products (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide) in water from the stack gas plume at fuel-burning plants at the smoke …
http://www.springerlink.com/index/T7614754161L7466.pdf
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Researchers Convert Biomass Into Fuel | The Fu Foundation School …
Nov 12, 2009 … The study — CO2 as a Carbon Neutral Fuel Source via Enhanced Biomass … in pure carbon dioxide and in a mixture of steam, nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide. … The researchers believe that the use of carbon dioxide in …
http://www.engineering.columbia.edu/professors-convert-biomass-fuel – Cached

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Sources and Emissions | Nitrous Oxide | Climate Change | U.S. EPA
Mobile and stationary sources of fossil fuel combustion. Nitrous oxide is a product of the reaction that occurs between nitrogen and oxygen during fossil …
http://www.epa.gov › Climate Change › Nitrous Oxide – Cached – Similar
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Nitrogen Oxides: Pollution Prevention and Control
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
on the nitrogen content of the fuel. Formation of thermal NOx depends on combustion tempera- …. dioxide when used as fuel. Other cost-effective …
http://www.ifc.org/…pguiNitrogenOxidesPollutionControl/…/HandbookNitrogenOxidesPollutionPreventionAndControl.pdf – Similar

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transportation sector – NaturalGas.org
Natural gas is a key fuel to the transportation sector, and there are … This conversion is costly, and typically results in less efficient use of natural gas. … sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides (which combine in the atmosphere to …
http://www.naturalgas.org/overview/uses_transportation.asp – Cached – Similar
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Effect of SO2 and NO on the conversion of fuel nitrogen to N2O and …
by CJ TULLIN – 1995 – Cited by 4 – Related articles
Effect of SO2 and NO on the conversion of fuel nitrogen to N2O and NO in single … Pollutant emission ; Sulfur dioxide ; Nitrogen monoxide ; Nitrogen …
cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3667048

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Simulation of Fuel-Bound Nitrogen Evolution in Biomass …
by J Zhou – Cited by 2 – Related articles
Fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) in biomass can be converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) or pollutants such as oxides …. gas-phase conversion of NH, to N2 in gasified peat. Their ….. Carbon Gasification in Oxygen, Steam and Carbon Dioxide,” …
ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel4/5277/14311/00656694.pdf
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Automotive Dictionary – “OX”
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“nitrogen cracking”

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/i260044a024

i260044a024.fp.png.jpg

Thermal Cracking of n-Nonane

* First Page
* PDFHi-Res PDF[732 KB]

D. Kunzru, Y. T. Shah, E. B. Stuart
Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 1972, 11 (4), pp 605–612
DOI: 10.1021/i260044a024
Publication Date: October 1972

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Nitrogen-tolerant cracking process – US Patent 5051163 Description
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Posted: February 5, 2009
Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube catalyst systems for low-cost fuel cells
(Nanowerk Spotlight) Platinum nanoparticles are widely used as the cathode material in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells (like the polymer electrolyte fuel cell – PEFC) due to their efficiency in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the process that breaks the bonds of the oxygen molecules. Although platinum is still considered the state-of-the-art ORR catalyst, it does not exhibit good stability. Typically, catalyst performance degradation begins as soon as the catalyst is introduced into a fuel cell and continues until it is no longer active.
Platinum can lose its effectiveness either by clumping together or by becoming ‘poisoned’ by carbon monoxide, requiring high hydrogen purity or higher catalyst densities for the fuel cell to stay effective. This, together with the high cost of platinum is seen as one of the major showstoppers to producing mass market fuel cells for commercial applications.
Researchers have been searching for viable non-precious metal ORR catalysts – an effort that is by no means new but dates back to 1960s, and several different classes of non-precious metal catalysts have been investigated over the years (see for instance: “A new promising class of non-precious metal catalysts for fuel cells “). Recent intensive research efforts in reducing or replacing the platinum-based electrode in fuel cells have led to the development of new ORR electrocatalysts such as platinum-based alloys and nanowires (see: Nanotechnology is key to improving fuel cell performance), transition metal chalcogenides, carbon-nanotube-supported metal particles, enzymatic electrocatalytic systems, and even conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-coated membranes.
Liming Dai, a professor of materials engineering at the University of Dayton (UD), and his group have been working on the growth and functionalization of aligned carbon nanotubes for some years. In a new study, they found that vertically-aligned nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (VA-NCNTs) produced by pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc, a metal heterocycle molecules containing nitrogen), in either the presence or absence of additional NH3 vapor, could be used as effective ORR electrocatalysts even after a complete removal of the residual iron catalyst by electrochemical purification.
” We have shown that these metal-free VA-NCNTs catalyze a four-electron ORR process with a much higher electrocatalytic activity, more resistant to CO-poisoning, and better long-term operation stability even than that of commercially available or similar platinum-based electrodes in alkaline electrolytes” Dai explains to Nanowerk.
Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays can act as metal-free electrodes with a higher electrocatalytic activity than platinum for oxygen reduction in alkaline fuel cells

id9177.jpg

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays can act as metal-free electrodes with a higher electrocatalytic activity than platinum for oxygen reduction in alkaline fuel cells. (Image: Dr. Dai, University of Dayton)
Apart from these advantages, the high surface area, good electrical and mechanical properties, and superb thermal stability intrinsically characteristic of aligned carbon nanotubes provide additional benefits for the nanotube electrode to be used in fuel cells under both ambient and harsh conditions (e.g. for high temperature use).
Dai says that the newly-found catalyst is thus better than platinum and its substitutes previously reported.
The UD team, who worked with scientists from the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory and the University of Akron, discovered that the incorporation of electron-accepting nitrogen atoms in the conjugated nanotube carbon plane makes adjacent carbon atoms carry a relatively high positive charge density.
“This, coupled with the unique alignment structure, provides an efficient four-electron pathway for the oxygen reduction reaction on vertically-aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes,” explains Dai.”The process involves reduction of the positively-charged carbon atoms by the action of the electrochemical cycling and reoxidation of the reduced carbon atoms to their preferred oxidized state by reducing absorbed oxygen molecules.”
While these novel nitrogen-containing carbon nanotube electrodes are clearly of practical significance, the demonstration of the role of nitrogen-doping to create net positive charge on adjacent carbon atoms for facilitating the oxygen reduction reaction is an important finding in itself. It could be applied to the design and development of various other metal-free efficient ORR catalysts, even to new materials for applications beyond fuel cells.
Dai and his team are already exploring novel low-cost nitrogen-containing catalyst systems for the oxygen reduction reaction while at the same time they continue work on their nitrogen-doped aligned carbon nanotube arrays to construct prototype fuel cell units.
This work was published in the February 6, 2009 isue of Science (Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Arrays with High Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction).
By Michael Berger, Copyright 2009 Nanowerk LLC
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Science 6 February 2009:
Vol. 323. no. 5915, pp. 760 – 764
DOI: 10.1126/science.1168049

Prev | Table of Contents | Next
Reports
Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Arrays with High Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction
Kuanping Gong,1 Feng Du,1 Zhenhai Xia,2 Michael Durstock,3 Liming Dai1,4*

The large-scale practical application of fuel cells will be difficult to realize if the expensive platinum-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) cannot be replaced by other efficient, low-cost, and stable electrodes. Here, we report that vertically aligned nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (VA-NCNTs) can act as a metal-free electrode with a much better electrocatalytic activity, long-term operation stability, and tolerance to crossover effect than platinum for oxygen reduction in alkaline fuel cells. In air-saturated 0.1 molar potassium hydroxide, we observed a steady-state output potential of –80 millivolts and a current density of 4.1 milliamps per square centimeter at –0.22 volts, compared with –85 millivolts and 1.1 milliamps per square centimeter at –0.20 volts for a platinum-carbon electrode. The incorporation of electron-accepting nitrogen atoms in the conjugated nanotube carbon plane appears to impart a relatively high positive charge density on adjacent carbon atoms. This effect, coupled with aligning the NCNTs, provides a four-electron pathway for the ORR on VA-NCNTs with a superb performance.

1 Departments of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469, USA.
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA.
3 Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, RXBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433, USA.
4 Department of Chemistry and University of Dayton Research Institute and Institute for the Development and Commercialization of Advanced Sensor Technology and Wright Brothers Institute, Dayton, OH 45469, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ldai@udayton.edu

Read the Full Text

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;323/5915/760

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Effect of Fuel-Nitrogen on the Emission of N2O from Combustion Systems(Chemical Kinetic Calculation at Constant Temperature and Pressure).
Accession number;99A0501321
Title;Effect of Fuel-Nitrogen on the Emission of N2O from Combustion Systems(Chemical Kinetic Calculation at Constant Temperature and Pressure).
Author;AZETSU AKIHIKO(Univ. of Tokyo)
Journal Title;Nihon Hakuyo Kikan Gakkai Gakujutsu Koenkai Gakujutsu Koen Ronbunshu
Journal Code:S0822A
ISSN:0919-4002
VOL.62nd;NO.;PAGE.17-20(1999)
Figure&Table&Reference;FIG.12, REF.6
Pub. Country;Japan
Language;Japanese
Abstract;

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#
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**

nitrogen fission catalyst

#
The Catalytic Fission of the Carbon-Nitrogen Bond. I. The …
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which the rate of ammonia formation, and hence the rate of fission of the carbon- nitrogen bond, would be 0.0001 % min-1 cm-2 of catalyst surface. …
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#
The catalytic fission of the carbon-nitrogen bond II. The …
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The Catalytic Fission of the Carbon-Nitrogen Bond. I. The …
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The Catalytic Fission of the Carbon-Nitrogen Bond. I. The …
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6.
Uncatalyzed Reductive Fission of Azoarenes to Aminoarene(s) by …
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7.
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8.
Dealkylation of N, N-dialkylanilines over transition metal …
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9.
Anionic copolymerization of [beta]-lactones in correlation with …
by Y Yamashita – 1968
ganoaluminium catalyst systems7-9). While the two modes of fission of ….. placed in nitrogen atmosphere a dispersion of 0.075 mole of catalyst in 25 ml of …
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10.
K Region Fission and Addition Products of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a …
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On Fission Product Retention of Degraded Kerosene with Nitric Acid
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Method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels – US …
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# [PPT]
Slide 1 – Department of Physics and Astronomy
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PMR: Potential Applications of Fission Platinoids in Industry
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LeIgh G 3, Rahman M T & Walton 0 R M. Carbon-carbon triple-bond fission in the homogeneous catalysis of acetylene metathesis. I. Chem. Soc. Chem. Common. …
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Biochem. J. (1998) 331, 703-711 – S. Bounaga and others …
by PR Shepherd – 1998 – Related articles
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(biochemistry – interesting, my note)

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http://www.google.com/search?q=nitrogen+fission+catalyst&btnG=Search&hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&sa=2

# [PDF]
uQL~1 Lt3
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also rithout -17 bond fission. Using rhodium as the catalyst, both hydrazine and bydrazine hydrochloride decompose to give nitrogen molecules, the two atoms …
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#
The Mechanisms of Catalysis by Metallo ?-Lactamases
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Zeolite – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Report on conference: American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting …
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Catalysis in chemistry and biochemistry: summary and concluding …
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Thermal Stability of Acetohydroxamic Acid/Nitric Acid Solutions
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[PDF]
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[PDF]
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article.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ppv/RPViewDoc?issn=1480…5… – Simila

**
#
Glossary of Nuclear Science
12C serves as a catalyst, an ingredient which is necessary for the reaction but is not consumed. … Hot Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen Cycle (see also C-N-O cycle) …. Nuclear decay by splitting the nucleus into two parts (fission fragments), …
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Technetium (Tc) – Chemical properties, Health and Environmental …
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Method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels …
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skoool.ie :: exam centre
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Thiol-catalysed hydrolysis of cephalosporins and possible rate …
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Isotope separation/production
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VANADIUM OXYTRICHLORIDE (VANADYL TRICHLORIDE)
… strength and a low fission neutron cross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. …. Vanadyl Oxalate [CAS RN: 15500-04-6] Used as a catalyst to remove sulfur and nitrogen in oil … Vanadyl Etioporphyrin III [VC32H36N4O, CAS RN: 25878-85-7] … Vanadyl Phthalocyanine [VC32H16N8O, CAS RN: 13930-88-6] …
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# [PDF]
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as the catalyst, and the hydrogen sulfide-water system (Girdler. Sulfide process). …. production and n induced fission. The fusion bomb is triggered by …
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# [PDF]
Effects of Oxygen and Decomposition Rate Catalyst on Tetraphenylborate
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by D Rate
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Method for enhancing personnel safety in operating a nuclear …
… steam producing, boiling water nuclear fission reactor wherein a portion of … steam and an volatile nitrogen compounds with a metallic oxide catalyst. …
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#
Supported phosphine-free palladium catalysts for the Suzuki …
K3PO4 in water/toluene under a nitrogen atmosphere (based on GC data) …. typical organometallic catalysts where C–M bond fission can result in leaching. …
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Potential for the Use of Hydrochloric Acid in Fission Reactor Fuel …
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better without the reductive load of the nitrogen oxides. It is obvi- …. added to destroy nitrite which acts as a catalyst to the HNO3 oxidation …
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Fission product: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article
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Thermal Fission Factor: Topics by WorldWideScience.org
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(from)

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=nitrogen+fission+catalyst&start=40&sa=N

**

# [DOC]
The collision theory of reactions
File Format: Microsoft Word – View as HTML
A homogeneous catalyst forms an intermediate compound before breaking down to the final product … Radicals such as hydroxyl and nitrogen monoxide can destroy ozone, … Homolytic Fission forms radicals eg when a halogenoalkane absorbs …
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# [PDF]
Controlling progeny droplets emitted during the Coulombic fission …
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nitrogen atom, deeply inside the molecular structure, is shielded by the numerous electron …… applied to generate catalyst layers for fuel cells with …
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# [PDF]
AS Chemistry – Revision Notes Unit 3 – Introduction To Organic …
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Catalytic cracking – a zeolite catalyst is used (acts as a Lewis acid and involves … temperature causes the oxidation of nitrogen gas to form NOx gases. … Homolytic fission – one electron goes to each atom to form free radicals. …
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Energy Generation in Stars – STARBASE
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# [PDF]
DISTRIBUTED BY: National Technical Inferm Sce U. S. DEPARTMENT OF …
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catalyst produces nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia in relative quantities … one hydrazine molecule without nitrogen-nitrogen bond fission. As the reaction …
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vanadium
Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst. … tetrachloride & with carbon & nitrogen at high temperatures forming VC & VN, respectively. … Vanadium has good structural strength & a low fission neutron cross section, …
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The electroreduction of organic compounds in the presence of …
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methylation of the ephedrine nitrogen atom (a maximum optical …. As long as fission of alkyl and protonation of the dealkylated catalyst does not occur …
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ADVi\NCED FISSION POWER REA<=TORS
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Acidic and Catalytic Properties of Modified Silica Catalyst with …
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Radioactive Waste (Radwaste) Treatment Methods
The principles employed, include sub-critical fission reactions attended by … nitrogen and oxygen compounds and various metals capable of facilitating low … of a proprietary catalyst for initiating nuclear reactions at relatively …
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Rhodium – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodium – Cached – Similar
#
Earth: Project Protection
Heat is generated from fission, not from burning fossil fuel, … charged gas called plasma and a catalyst which reduces the NO into harmless nitrogen gas. …
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#
Highly selective catalytic reduction of NO by H2 over Au0 and Au(I …
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Shari.com: PHYS 1412: Quiz – The Stars
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#
Oxidation Activity and Acidity of V205-P205 Catalyst
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Catalyst Using Synthesis Gas as a Reducing Agent. 15. Production of Highly Charged Ions for Fusion-Related Research-. 16. Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides …
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# [PDF]
Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning
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consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON principle) to reduce the ….. [30] M. Ozawa, Fission Product Recycling as Catalysts for Hydrogen …
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Surface Chemistry and Catalysis Group Publications
“Separation of fission products based on ionic liquids: Task-specific ionic …. Journal of Catalysis 222: 167-173. Xu, J., R. W. Zhang, N. Anderson, …
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#
Fusion
D uranium fission. the energy released in one fusion reaction is roughly equal …. A carbon acts as a catalyst during the fusion of hydrogen into helium … C nitrogen. D carbon. E iron. at the end of the helium “burning” process the …
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#
Microporous framework solids – Google Books Result
Paul A. Wright – 2008 – Science – 429 pages
This has the attraction of preventing catalyst loss during catalytic processes … selective radical reactions of H2O2 that has undergone homolytic fission. …
books.google.com/books?isbn=085404812X…

Glossary of Terms
Fission reactions can be closely controlled and are finding increasing … The catalyst is iron with small amounts of potassium and aluminum oxides present. … is removed by liquefaction at -50oC and the remaining nitrogen and hydrogen …
nobel.scas.bcit.ca/resource/glossary/d-h.htm – Cached – Similar

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2010, Cilt 14, Say? 1, Sayfa(lar) 041-046
[ Özet ] [ PDF ] [ Benzer Makaleler ] [ Yazara E-Posta ] [ Editöre E-Posta ]
Reduction of aromatic and heteroaromatic azo compounds with hydrazine hydrate
Sevim Rollas
Marmara Üniversitesi Eczac?l?k Fakültesi, Farmasötik Kimya, I.stanbul, Türkiye
Keywords: Reduction, azo compounds, uncatalyzed reduction, hydrazine hydrate
Abstract
The azo compounds have been reduced with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of a catalyst or without a catalyst. This reaction is an atractive alternate for the reduction of azo functional group to obtain new amines. In this review, the reduction of aromatic or heteroaromatic azo compounds with hydrazine hydrate have been reported.
#     Top
# Abstract
# Introduction
# Conclusion
# References
Introduction
Reduction of azo compounds to the amines is a useful chemical reaction for synthetic organic chemistry because of the fact that the amino group serves as a site for further derivatization. The amines are also essential in the production of many pharmaceuticals, polymers, photographic materials, dyes and pigments. The primary aromatic amines are generally prepared by reduction of aromatic nitro1,2,3 or azo4,5,6 compounds. Hydrazine hydrate has been commonly used for reduction of nitro group in the presence of catalysts7,8. The reduction of azo compounds have also been performed with hydrazine hydrate in presence of catalyst9,10. Pasha and Nanjundaswany11 demonstrated the reduction of azoarenes to aminoarenes with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of aluminium powder in ethanol. For the reduction of azo compounds, Ergenç and Rollas (Aç?kkol)12-21 have already been using hydrazine hydrate without catalyst since 1972. Ross and Warwick22 have shown that the azo derivatives reduced by hydrazine hydrate. However in this study, reduction product have not been isolated. To the best of our knowledge, Ergenç and Rollas were the first authors who reported reductive cleavage of azo compounds to give the corresponding amines without a catalyst. Recently, Zhang and Wang23, Pasha and Nanjundaswamy24, Koppes et al.25 have also reported the reduction of azo compounds using hydrazine hydrate without catalyst. Certain aminophenyl substituted 1,2,4-triazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles were synthesized from corresponding azo compounds using hydrazine hydrate without catalyst by Rollas26,27. In this review, the reducing properties of hydrazine hydrate and the reductive cleavage of azo compound with hydrazine hydrate will be discussed.

2. THE REDUCTION OF AZO COMPOUNDS USING HYDRAZINE HYDRATE WITHOUT CATALYST
Hydrazine hydrate is a strong reducing agent. Generally, it has been used the reduction of nitro group28. In the reduction of the azo compounds with hydrazine hydrate, Raney nickel has been used as a catalyst9,29. In 1955, Ross and Warwick22 showed that the azo derivatives could be reduced by hydrazine hydrate. They reported the tumour-growth inhibitory activity of azo-derivatives of aromatic nitrogen mustards and the reduction of azo-linkage with hydrazine hydrate to correlate the ease of reduction of N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)- 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline1 with its biological activity. Therefore the substituted derivatives of 1 have been prepared. Of the reducing agents examined, the most consistent results were obtained using hydrazine hydrate. However in this research, the reduction products, hydrazo-compounds or amines, have not been isolated.

Click Here to Zoom     FIGURE 1: N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline.

In 1972, Ergenç and Aç?kkol (Rollas)12 published the first report of the reductive cleavage of azo compounds with hydrazine hydrate without a catalyst for the synthesis of 4-amino- 3,5-dimethylpyrazole 2. In this reaction, isoxazole ring was observed to be converted to pyrazole ring while the azo function is reduced to amino group.(Scheme 1).

Click Here to Zoom     SCHEME 1: The reduction of azoisoxazoles with hydrazine hydrate.

(etc.)

References

1) Furniss BS, Hannaford AJ, Smith PWG, Tatchell AR. Vogel’s Textbook Practical Organic Chemistry; Wiley: New York, 1989, pp 891.

2) Mohapatra SK, Sonavane SU, Jayaram, RV, Selvam, P. Heterogeneous catalytic transfer hydrogenation of aromatic nitro and carbonyl compounds over cobalt (II) substituted hexagonal mesoporous aluminophosphate moleculer sieves. Tetrahedron Lett, 43: 8527-8529, 2002.

3) Khan FA, Dash J, Sudheer CH, Gupta R.K. Chemoselective reduction of aromatic nitro and azo compounds in ionic liquids using zinc and ammonium salts. Tetrahedron Lett, 44: 7783-7787, 2003.

4) Alonso F, Radivoy G, Yus M. Reduction of hydrazine, azo and azoxy compounds, and amine N-oxides with the Ni-Cl2.2H2O-Li-DTBB (cat.) combination. Tetrahedron, 56: 8673-8678, 2000.

5) Mohapatra SK, Sonavane SU, Jayaram RV, Selvam P. Reductive cleavage of azo dyes and reduction of nitroarenes over trivalent iron incorporated hexagonal mesoporous aluminophosphate molecular sieves. Applied Catalysis B Environmental, 46: 155-163, 2003.

6) Selvam P, Sonavane SU, Mohapatra SK, Jayaram RV. Selective reduction of alkenes, ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, nitroarenes, nitroso compounds, N,N-hydrogenolysis of azo hydrazo functions as well as simultaneeous hydrodehalogenation and reduction of substituted aryl halides over PdMCM-41 catalyst under transfer hydrogen conditions. Tetrahedron Lett, 45: 3071-3075, 2004.

7) Lauwiner M, Roth R, Rys P. Reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of an iron oxide/hydroxide catalyst. III. The selective reduction of nitro groups in aromatic azo compounds. Applied Catalysis A, 177: 9-14, 1999.

8) Kumarraja M, Pitchumani. Simple and efficient reduction of nitroarenes by hydrazine in faujasite zeolites. Applied Cataysis A, 265: 135-139, 2004.

9) Staffort WH, Los M, Thomson N. The reduction of azo compounds with hydrazine. Chemistry Industry, 1277, 1956. C.A. 51: 6636a, 1957.

10) Gowda DC, Gowda S, Abiraj K. Rapid cleavage azo compounds to amine/s using Raney nickel and ammonium formate or formic acid. Indian J Chem Sec B-Org Chem Inc Med Chem, 42: 1774-1776, 2003.

11) Phasa MA, Nanjundaswamy HM. Reductive fission of azoarenes to aminoarenes by aluminium/hydrazine hydrate. J Chem Res, 750-752, 2004.

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http://www.marmaraeczacilikdergisi.com/text.php3?id=240

figure_MPJ_240_14.jpg
(I just thought this was nifty for the basics that it presents, my note)

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My Note – These are the things that I see and that I lookup when I’m thinking about how alternative fuels / alternative energy systems could be made practical.

– cricketdiane

(and a few things in astrophysics, about plasma arc welders and that nifty microscope at MIT which allows single moleculat particles to be manipulated, nanochemistry nuclear science experiments, and dye-based photo chem solar cell technology to see where it is now.)

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