These Federalist Papers Web pages were originally created by Rob Knautz and replace his version hosted online from 1996 to 2000. The raw text files used for this project come from Project Gutenberg. Please read the disclaimer attached to the original data if you intend to reproduce it. Many other historic texts are also available from the Gutenberg archives.

The copy of the Federalist Papers that is pictured above is a first edition in the collection of the Library of Congress. It was originally owned by Alexander Hamilton’s wife, Elizabeth, who gave it to her sister, Angelica Church, from whom her friend, Thomas Jefferson, acquired it. Apparently relying on information supplied by Madison, Jefferson assigned the pseudonymous “Publius” essays to Hamilton, Madison, and Jay in a list on the flyleaf of this volume.

The Federalist Papers remain today as an excellent reference for anyone who wants to understand the U.S. Constitution.

Federalist Papers in Numerical Order, with Frames

Federalist Papers in Numerical Order, without Frames




My Note – When I was running through the news surf tonight, there was Speaker Newt Gingrich on Hannity for FoxNews. After listening a bit, Speaker Gingrich mentioned the Federalist papers and he made a very accurate explanation of what created the rule of Constitutional Law, the Declaration and the other legal instruments that formed our government. After having been subjected to the rule of England that, at the time, chose to break the law as it suited and to deny representation for the interests of the Colonists in the House of Commons, the English subjects in the new America understood the hand of brutality under law that was no law at all, by having experienced it. The writings in the Federalist papers are worth reading, but it is not what I’m looking for tonight that help define for me what the Constitutional guarantees actually mean, although some of it is certainly found in those writings.

The part that I chose from that page was this –

Main Page

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(from, – although, to be honest – I went to the music section first to see what was there and its great – I’ll get some of those scores to learn later sometime – Haydn and everything, my note)



Marshall, John, 1755-1835

***’Sliding in another note from American Revolutionary History Sources found in Gutenburg Project***

Author Mignet, M. (François-Auguste-Marie-Alexis), 1796-1884
Title Vie de Franklin
J'ai surtout fait usage, pour composer cette _Vie de Franklin_, de ses
écrits, de ses Mémoires, de ses Lettres, publiés, en six volumes in-8°,
par son petit-fils William Temple Franklin. Voici le titre de cette
précieuse collection des oeuvres de ce grand homme «Memoirs on the
life and writings of Benjamin Franklin LL. D. F. R. S., etc., minister
plenipotentiary from the United-States of America at the Court of
France, and for the Treaty of Peace and Independance with Great Britain,
etc., written by himself to a late period, and continued to the time of
his death by his grandson William Temple Franklin.» J'ai complété ce
qui concerne ses ouvrages en me servant du recueil qui en a été formé
à Londres en trois volumes, sous le titre de _The Works of Benjamin
Franklin_. Les Mémoires ont été traduits et imprimés plusieurs fois;
il en est de même de ses principaux écrits politiques, philosophiques,

J'ai eu recours également aux deux grandes collections publiées par M.
Jared Sparks, au nom du Congrès des États Unis; l'une renfermant, en
douze volumes, toutes les correspondances des agents et du gouvernement
des États-Unis relatives à l'indépendance américaine (_the diplomatic
Correspondence of the american Revolution_; Boston, 1829); et l'autre
contenant, en douze volumes aussi, la vie, les lettres et les écrits de
Georges Washington sur la guerre, la constitution, le gouvernement
de cette république. (_The Writings of George Washington, being his
Correspondences, Addresses, Messages, and other Papers official and
private, selected and published from the original Manuscripts, with the
Life of the Author_; Boston, 1837.) Je n'ai pas consulté sans utilité
ce qu'ont dit de Franklin deux hommes qui ont vécu neuf ans dans son
intimité lorsqu'il était à Passy: l'abbé Morellet dans ses Mémoires, et
Cabanis dans la _Notice_ qu'il a donnée sur lui (tome V des _Oeuvres_ de

Enfin je me suis servi également, dans ce que j'ai dit sur l'Amérique
avant son indépendance et pendant la guerre qu'elle a soutenue pour
l'établir, de l'_History of the Colonisation of the United-States_, par
M. George Bancroft; de _Storia della Guerra dell' Independenza degli
Stati-Uniti d'America_ (quatre volumes), par M. Botta, laquelle contient
les principaux discours et actes officiels; de l'excellent ouvrage de M.
de Tocqueville sur la _Démocratie en Amérique_, et de la Correspondance
déposée aux Archives des affaires étrangères.

                           PREMIÈRE PARTIE


Enseignements qu'offre la vie de Franklin.

«Né dans l'indigence et dans l'obscurité, dit Franklin en écrivant ses
Mémoires, et y ayant passé mes premières années, je me suis élevé dans
le monde à un état d'opulence, et j'y ai acquis quelque célébrité. La
fortune ayant continué à me favoriser, même à une époque de ma vie
déjà avancée, mes descendants seront peut-être charmés de connaître les
moyens que j'ai employés pour cela, et qui, grâce à la Providence, m'ont
si bien réussi; et ils peuvent servir de leçon utile à ceux d'entre eux
qui, se trouvant dans des circonstances semblables, croiraient devoir
les imiter.»

Ce que Franklin adresse à ses enfants peut être utile à tout le monde.

(etc.- quite)

French to English translationShow romanization
I mostly used to compose this _Vie of Franklin_, its written his memoirs of his Letters, published in six volumes 8vo, by his grand-son William Temple Franklin. This is the title of this valuable collection of works by this great man "Memoirs on the Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin LL. D. F. R. S., etc.., Minister plenipotentiary from the United-States of America at the Court of France, and for the Treaty of Peace and Independence with Great Britain, etc.., written by himself to a late period, and continued to the time of his death by his grandson William Temple Franklin. "I completed this on its books as I used the code that has been formed in London in three volumes under the title _The Works of Benjamin Franklin_. The memoirs have been translated and printed many times; it is the same with its major political writings, philosophical, scientists. I also used two large collections published by Mr. Jared Sparks, on behalf of the United States Congress, one containing, in twelve volumes, all matches of agents and government the United States for American independence (_the diplomacy Correspondence of the American Revolution_, Boston, 1829) and the other containing, in twelve volumes, too, the life, letters and writings George Washington on the war, constitution, government This republic. (_The Writings of George Washington, being his Correspondence, Addresses, Messages, and other papers and official private, selected and published from the Original Manuscripts, with the Life of the Author_, Boston, 1837.) I have not consulted useless what was said of Franklin two men who lived in his nine years privacy when he was at Passy: Abbe Morellet in his memoirs, and Cabanis in _Notice_ he has given to him (Volume V of the _Oeuvres_ Cabanis). Finally I also served in what I said about America before independence and during the war it continued to the setting, the _History of the colonization of the United States_-by Mr. George Bancroft; of _Storia della Guerra dell 'degli Independenza Stati Uniti-of America_ (four volumes), by M. Botta, which contains major speeches and official documents; the excellent work of M. Tocqueville on _Démocratie in Amérique_, and Correspondence filed in the Archives of Foreign Affairs. PART CHAPTER ONE Courses offered by the life of Franklin. "Born into poverty and obscurity," said Franklin in her writing Memoirs, and having spent my early years I am in high the world in a state of opulence, and I acquired some celebrity. The fortunes have continued to encourage me, even at a time in my life already advanced, my descendants might be delighted to know means that I used for this and that, thanks to Providence, me so successful and they can serve as a useful lesson to those of them who find themselves in similar circumstances would believe duty imitate them. " What Franklin addressed to his children may be useful to everyone.

(from Google translation tools and Gutenberg Project)



And then, after choosing the A – Z list from the Book Catalog page –

I chose “M” to find this –

Project Trinity 1945-1946 by Carl R. Maag and Steve Rohrer

HelpAvailable eBook formats (including mobile)Read online

Bibliographic Record
Author Maag, Carl R.
Author Rohrer, Steve
Title Project Trinity 1945-1946
Language English
LoC Class QC: Science: Physics
LoC Class U: Military science
Subject Nuclear weapons — Testing
Subject Atomic bomb — New Mexico — Testing
EText-No. 548
Release Date 1996-06-01
Copyright Status Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook
Base Directory /files/548/




 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and Identify by
   block number):
    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
    Alamogordo Bombing Range
    Manhattan Engineer District
    Manhattan Project
    Personnel Dosimetry
    Radiation Exposure
    Nuclear Weapons Testing
 20. ABSTRACT: This report describes the activities of an estimated
   1,000 personnel, both military and civilian, in Project TRINITY, which
   culminated in detonation of the first nuclear device, in New Mexico in
   1945.  Scientific and diagnostic experiments to evaluate the effects
   of the nuclear device were the primary activities engaging military

Defense Nuclear Agency
Public Affairs Office
Washington, D C. 20305

Subject: Project TRINITY

Project TRINITY, conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED),
was designed to test and assess the effects of a nuclear weapon.  The
TRINITY nuclear device was detonated on a 100-foot tower on the
Alamogordo Bombing Range in south-central New Mexico at 0530 hours on
16 July 1945.  The nuclear yield of the detonation was equivalent to
the energy released by detonating 19 kilotons of TNT.  At shot-time,
the temperature was 21.8 degrees Celsius, and surface air pressure was
850 millibars.  The winds were nearly calm at the surface; at 10,300
feet above mean sea level, they were from the southwest at 10 knots.
The winds blew the cloud resulting from the detonation to the
northeast.  From 16 July 1945 through 1946, about 1,000 military and
civilian personnel took part in Project TRINITY or visited the test
site.  The location of the test site and its major installations are
shown in the accompanying figures.

From 1945 to 1962, the U.S. Government, through the Manhattan Engineer
District (MED) and its successor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission
(AEC), conducted 235 tests of nuclear devices at sites in the United
States and in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.  In all, an estimated
220,000 Department of Defense (DOD)* participants, both military and
civilian, were present at the tests.  Project TRINITY, the war-time
effort to test-fire a nuclear explosive device, was the first
atmospheric nuclear weapons test.

Project TRINITY was the name given to the war-time effort to produce
the first nuclear detonation.  A plutonium-fueled implosion device was
detonated on 16 July 1945 at the Alamogordo Bombing Range in
south-central New Mexico.

Three weeks later, on 6 August, the first uranium-fueled nuclear bomb,
a gun-type weapon code-named LITTLE BOY, was detonated over the
Japanese city of Hiroshima.  On 9 August, the FAT MAN nuclear bomb, a
plutonium-fueled implosion weapon identical to the TRINITY device, was
detonated over another Japanese city, Nagasaki.  Two days later, the
Japanese Government informed the United States of its decision to end
the war.  On 2 September 1945, the Japanese Empire officially
surrendered to the Allied Governments, bringing World War II to an

In the years devoted to the development and construction of a nuclear
weapon, scientists and technicians expanded their knowledge of nuclear
fission and developed both the gun-type and the implosion mechanisms
to release the energy of a nuclear chain reaction.  Their knowledge,
however, was only theoretical.  They could be certain neither of the
extent and effects of such a nuclear chain reaction, nor of the
hazards of the resulting blast and radiation.  Protective measures
could be based only on estimates and calculations.  Furthermore,
scientists were reasonably confident that the gun-type uranium-fueled
device could be successfully detonated, but they did not know if the
more complex firing technology required in an implosion device would
work.  Successful detonation of the TRINITY device showed that
implosion would work, that a nuclear chain reaction would result in a
powerful detonation, and that effective means exist to guard against
the blast and radiation produced.

In response to the potential threat of a German nuclear weapon, the
United States sought a source of uranium to use in determining the
feasibility of a nuclear chain reaction.  After Germany occupied
Belgium in May 1940, the Belgians turned over uranium ore from their
holdings in the Belgian Congo to the United States.  Then, in March
1941, the element plutonium was isolated, and the plutonium-239
isotope was found to fission as readily as the scarce uranium isotope,
uranium-235.  The plutonium, produced in a uranium-fueled nuclear
reactor, provided the United States with an additional source of
material for nuclear weapons (7; 12).

In the summer of 1941, the British Government published a report
written by the Committee for Military Application of Uranium
Detonation (MAUD).  This report stated that a nuclear weapon was
possible and concluded that its construction should begin immediately.
The MAUD report, and to a lesser degree the discovery of plutonium,
encouraged American leaders to think more seriously about developing a
nuclear weapon.  On 6 December 1941, President Roosevelt appointed the
S-1 Committee to determine if the United States could construct a
nuclear weapon.  Six months later, the S-1 Committee gave the
President its report, recommending a fast-paced program that would
cost up to $100 million and that might produce the weapon by July 1944

The President accepted the S-1 Committee's recommendations.  The
effort to construct the weapon was turned over to the War Department,
which assigned the task to the Army Corps of Engineers.  In September
1942, the Corps of Engineers established the Manhattan Engineer
District to oversee the development of a nuclear weapon.  This effort
was code-named the "Manhattan Project" (12).

Within the next two years, the MED built laboratories and production
plants throughout the United States.  The three principal centers of
the Manhattan Project were the Hanford, Washington, Plutonium
Production Plant; the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U-235 Production Plant;
and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in northern New Mexico.  At
LASL, Manhattan Project scientists and technicians, directed by Dr. J.
Robert Oppenheimer,* investigated the theoretical problems that had to
be solved before a nuclear weapon could be developed (12).

 * This report identifies by name only those LASL and MED personnel who
 are well-known historical figures.



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The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb. The project was led by the United States, and included scientists from the United Kingdom and Canada. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1942–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer.[1]

The project's roots lay in scientists' fears since the 1930s that Nazi Germany was also investigating nuclear weapons of its own. Born out of a small research program in 1939, the Manhattan Project eventually employed more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US$2 billion ($22 billion in current value). It resulted in the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in secret.[2]

Project research took place at over thirty sites across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium-production facility at what is now the Hanford Site, the uranium-enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the weapons research and design laboratory now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory. The MED maintained control over U.S. weapons production until the formation of the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947.

*Enrico Fermi



Frisch–Peierls memorandum

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The opening paragraph of the Frisch–Peierls memorandum
The Frisch–Peierls memorandum was written by Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls while they were both working at the University of Birmingham, England. The memorandum contained new calculations about the size of the critical mass needed for an atomic bomb, and helped accelerate British and U.S. efforts towards bomb development during World War II. Given to Marcus Oliphant, Oliphant passed the document on to Henry Tizard, chairman of the Committee on the Scientific Survey of Air Defence who, as a result, requested the setting-up of what was to become the secret MAUD Committee. The memorandum (a copy of which is held in the Public Record Office at Kew) is dated March 1940. The two men were the first to calculate that an atomic bomb would require about 1 lb of the isotope uranium-235. (The estimate of 1 lb turned out to be too low; see Critical mass.) Before it had been assumed that the bomb itself would require many tons of uranium, implying that it was theoretically possible, but not a practical military device. An earlier letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, signed by Albert Einstein (but written by Leo Szilárd), had suggested it may need to be delivered by ship but could not be small enough to drop from the air. The memo was written in two parts. The second was an explanation of the science supporting their conclusions. The first was an elegant and comprehensive outline of the implications of their calculations. It included a proposal that the best defence against such a weapon would be to develop one before Germany did so. In a few short pages these two scientists had anticipated the policies of deterrence which would later shape Cold War geopolitics. The memorandum opens with:
Strictly Confidential
Memorandum on the properties of a radioactive “super-bomb”
The attached detailed report concerns the possibility of constructing a “super-bomb” which utilizes the energy stored in atomic nuclei as a source of energy. The energy liberated in the explosion of such a super-bomb is about the same as that produced by the explosion of 1000 tons of dynamite. This energy is liberated in a small volume, in which it will, for an instant, produce a temperature comparable to that in the interior of the sun. The blast from such an explosion would destroy life in a wide area. The size of this area is difficult to estimate, but it will probably cover the centre of a big city.
In addition, some part of the energy set free by the bomb goes to produce radioactive substances, and these will emit very powerful and dangerous radiations. The effect of these radiations is greatest immediately after the explosion, but it decays only gradually and even for days after the explosion any person entering the affected area will be killed.
Some of this radioactivity will be carried along with the wind and will spread the contamination; several miles downwind this may kill people.
The memorandum helped galvanize both Britain and America down a path which lead to a report by the British MAUD Committee, the Tube Alloys project, the Manhattan Project, and ultimately the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

See also


External links

Search Wikisource Wikisource has original text related to this article:



*In 1933 Hungarian physicist Leó Szilárd had proposed that if any neutron-driven process released more neutrons than those required to start it, an expanding nuclear chain reaction might result. Chain reactions were familiar as a phenomenon from chemistry (where they typically caused explosions and other runaway reactions), but Szilárd was proposing them for a nuclear reaction for the first time. However, Szilárd had proposed to look for such reactions in the lighter atoms, and nothing of the sort was found. Upon experimentation shortly after the uranium fission discovery, Szilárd found that the fission of uranium released two or more neutrons on average, and immediately realized that a nuclear chain reaction by this mechanism was possible in theory. Szilárd kept this secret at first because he feared its use as a weapon by fascist governments. He convinced others to do so, but identical results were soon published by the Joliot-Curie group, to his great dismay.
// <![CDATA[// <![CDATA[
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/*A few months after he was put in charge of fast neutron research, Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer convened a conference on the topic of nuclear weapon design.

Now that the bomb project was under the OSRD, the project leaders began to accelerate the work. Arthur Compton organized the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory in early 1942 to study plutonium and fission piles (primitive nuclear reactors), and asked theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California, Berkeley to take over research on fast neutron calculations—key to calculations about critical mass and weapon detonation—from Gregory Breit, who had quit because of concerns over lax operational security.[17] John Manley, a physicist at the Metallurgical Laboratory, was assigned to help Oppenheimer find answers by coordinating and contacting several experimental physics groups scattered across the country.

During the spring of 1942[when?], Oppenheimer and Robert Serber of the University of Illinois worked on the problems of neutron diffusion (how neutrons moved in the chain reaction) and hydrodynamics (how the explosion produced by the chain reaction might behave). To review this work and the general theory of fission reactions, Oppenheimer convened a summer study at the University of California, Berkeley, in June 1942.[18] Theorists Hans Bethe, John Van Vleck, Edward Teller, Felix Bloch, Emil Konopinski, Robert Serber, Stanley S. Frankel, and Eldred C. Nelson (the latter three all former students of Oppenheimer) quickly confirmed that a fission bomb was feasible.

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/*The Los Alamos National Laboratory was built on a mesa that previously hosted the Los Alamos Ranch School, a private school for teenage boys. The site was chosen primarily for its remoteness. Oppenheimer had known of it from his horse-riding near his ranch in New Mexico, and he showed it as a possible site to the government representatives, who promptly bought it for $440,000. In addition to being the main "think-tank", Los Alamos was responsible for final assembly of the bombs, mainly from materials and components produced by other sites. Manufacturing at Los Alamos included casings, explosive lenses, and fabrication of fissile materials into bomb cores.

Oak Ridge facilities covered more than 60,000 acres (243 km²) of several former farm communities in the Tennessee Valley area. Some Tennessee families were given two weeks' notice to vacate family farms that had been their homes for generations.[citation needed] So secret was the site during World War II that the state governor was unaware that Oak Ridge (which was to become the fifth largest city in the state) was being built. At one point Oak Ridge plants were consuming 1/6th of the electrical power produced in the U.S., more than New York City. Oak Ridge mainly produced uranium-235.

Chalk River, was established to house the allied effort that was going on at McGill University, in Montreal. Since the site was 120 miles west of Ottawa, a new community was also built at Deep River, Ontario to be the home of the project team members. Both were established in 1944, with scientists, engineers, trades from Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, France, Norway, etc. providing their contribution to the war effort.

The Hanford Site, which grew to almost 1,000 square miles (2,600 km²), took over irrigated farm land, fruit orchards, a railroad, and two farming communities, Hanford and White Bluffs, in a highly populated area where three cities converge called the Tri Cities, (Kennewick, Pasco, and Richland. WA),adjacent to the Columbia River. Hanford hosted nuclear reactors cooled by the river and was the plutonium production center.

The existence of these sites and the secret cities of Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Richland, and Chalk River were not made public until the announcement of the Hiroshima explosion, and the sites remained secret until after the end of WWII.

The project originally was headquartered at 270 Broadway in Manhattan. Other offices were scattered throughout the city,[26] including the New York Friars' Club building.[27] The Broadway headquarters lasted little more than a year before it was moved in 1943, although many of the other offices in Manhattan remained.[28]


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Vannevar Bush

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Vannevar Bush

Vannevar Bush, ca. 1940-44
Born March 11, 1890(1890-03-11)
Everett, Massachusetts
Died June 28, 1974 (aged 84)
Belmont, Massachusetts
Institutions MIT
Alma mater B.A. Tufts College 1913
Ph.D. MIT 1917
Doctoral students Claude E. Shannon
Known for Helped create the National Science Foundation
Influenced Ted Nelson

Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974; pronounced /væˈniːvɑr/ van-NEE-var) was an American engineer and science administrator known for his work on analog computing, his political role in the development of the atomic bomb as a primary organizer of the Manhattan Project, and the idea of the memex, an adjustable microfilm-viewer which is somewhat analogous to the structure of the World Wide Web. As Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Bush coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare.[1]

Bush was a well-known policymaker and public intellectual during World War II and the ensuing Cold War [2], and was in effect the first presidential science advisor. Bush was a proponent of democratic technocracy and of the centrality of technological innovation and entrepreneurship for both economic and geopolitical security.

Seeing later developments in the Cold War arms race, Bush became troubled. "His vision of how technology could lead toward understanding and away from destruction was a primary inspiration for the postwar research that led to the development of New Media." [3]



Marshall, John, 1755-1835


Author Mignet, M. (François-Auguste-Marie-Alexis), 1796-1884
Title Vie de Franklin
Language French
EText-No. 17810
Release Date 2006-02-20
Copyright Status Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook.
Base Directory /files/17810/
Faiblesse des gouvernements fédératifs.--Nécessité de fortifier
l'Union américaine.--Retour de Franklin à Philadelphie.--Admiration
et reconnaissance qu'il excite.--Sa présidence de l'État de
Pensylvanie.--Sa nomination à la convention chargée de reviser le pacte
fédéral et de donner aux États-Unis leur constitution définitive.--Sa
retraite.--Sa mort.--Deuil public en Amérique et en France.--Conclusion.