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CARROLL: Haitians say that’s the way it’s done. License is not required. Codes, where they even exist, not enforced. It’s part of the reason so much was destroyed in the earthquake and why structural engineers like Kit Miyamoto from California are here now.

KIT MIYAMOTO, EARTHQUAKE AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Remove those things out, that can go right into.

CARROLL: This is Miyamoto’s first full day on the ground with a nonprofit called The Pan American Development Foundation. The goal? Rapid assessment, meaning quickly investigate the structural integrity of 10 buildings a day.

http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1001/21/ltm.01.html

(more of interview below in post)

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specialtyfabricsreview.com/articles/1009_sw6_earthquake.html

Fighting earthquake damage with fabric

Specialty Fabrics Review | October 2009

Devastation remains from the April 2009 L’Aquila  earthquake, but  Italian engineers work to stabilize structures with  textiles fortified  with carbon and glass fibers. Photo: La Provincia di  Como News.
Devastation remains from the April 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, but Italian engineers work to stabilize structures with textiles fortified with carbon and glass fibers. Photo: La Provincia di Como News.

A group of 27 companies in 13 countries is on a mission to research, develop and manufacture sensor-embedded textiles for use in geotechnical and masonry applications. The European Union partially funds POLYTECT (Polyfunctional Technical Textiles against Natural Hazards) to find technical textiles made with carbon and glass fibers to stabilize structures damaged by earthquakes, landslides or other natural disasters.

“The idea is simply to make architectural structures more like the human body, and to build a skin for those structures,” says Thomas B. Messervey, structural engineer for D’Appolonia SpA. The POLYTECT researchers are integrating fiber optic cables into geotextiles and 3D rope-like textiles, giving engineers the potential to detect temperature changes, humidity, stiffness or chemicals in building structures, as well as pass light and information back along the sensors to find out whether soil is moving. In Central Italy, the April 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (magnitude 5.8) killed 308 people, left 50,000 homeless; and damaged historic architecture. Some of the POLYTECT prototype carbon and glass fiber textiles will help stabilize those buildings and “build a relationship with the architectural structure over time,” according to Messervey. The ideal structural health modeling would tell engineers if damage occurred, damage location, damage severity, and long-term impact on building integrity. Learn more at www.polytect.net

http://specialtyfabricsreview.com/articles/1009_sw6_earthquake.html

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APPENDIX A: ALTERNATIVE CEMENTS
Asok Sarkar, formerly of the University of Dayton Research Institute, provided
this analysis of cements other than plain portland cement for potential use in cold
weather. This is not intended to be an exhaustive review but rather to serve as an
introduction to alternative cements.

A considerable amount of effort has been expended both in northern America and Eu-
rope to devise ways by which construction can continue throughout the winter season. In
general, North American concreting practices have tended towards the use of heating and
housing to protect fresh concrete during placement and curing. However, in view of the
cost and logistical problems associated with transporting the equipment needed for heating
and housing, there is a significant need for concreting and repair materials that can function
without elaborate costly protection measures.
Cementitious binder materials can be classified into three broad categories: 1) inorganic
cements, 2) organic polymer resins, and 3) hybrid inorganic-organic binders. The useful
temperature range of regular and blended portland cements can be extended by the use of
various accelerators, antifreezing agents, and combinations thereof. Several inorganic non-
portland cements have also been used for cold weather applications. For any cement mate-
rial to perform effectively at low temperatures, several key properties–such as rapid set-
ting, rapid strength gain, and self-generation of heat–are needed.
INORGANIC CEMENTS
For inorganic cements to function at low temperature, the mix water must remain liquid
during both mixing and initial hydration.
Portland cement
The main concerns for cold weather concreting with portland cement are maintaining an
adequate temperature for curing the concrete and protecting the concrete from both freez-
ing and large thermal shocks. There are two ways to overcome the low-temperature limita-
tions of portland cements: accelerating the setting and hydration reaction of the cement,
and depressing the freezing point of the free water in the cement matrix. Both of these
aspects have been discussed in the main body of this report. More research with novel
additives and admixtures is required in this area.
Supplementary and blended cements
Blended cements are made of mixtures of regular Type I portland cement with various
siliceous supplementary cementing materials, for example, blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica
fume, and natural and artificial pozzolans. Besides providing significant cost reduction of
the placed concrete, these replacement materials can act to improve workability; reduce
water/cement ratio; reduce porosity of the concrete; lead to improved durability; and can
reduce the heat of hydration of cement, leading to lower thermal stresses in large concrete
structures. While the reduced heat of hydration of blended cements is advantageous for the
construction of large concrete structures, it is a serious drawback for the construction of
smaller structures at low temperatures. For this reason, blended cements are not normally
selected for use at low temperatures unless heating and housing are available. Work is
needed to find chemicals that will speed up the normally slow hydration reaction of supple-
mentary cementing materials.
Modified portland cements
Modified portland cements are often manufactured because of raw material constraints,
and several have been formulated and produced specifically for low energy consumption
during production. Many that were developed in east Europe generally suffer from low
strength-gain characteristics. Thus, they are not expected to be good candidates for low-
temperature cements.
However, other fast-setting and very high early strength portland-cement-based binders
have been manufactured that have very good potential for low-temperature applications.
The basic matrix of these modified cements are portland cements that contain additional
phases which can react with water very rapidly, causing an early onset of setting and hard-
ening. These cements are usually manufactured from a single homogeneous clinker or can
be produced by intergrinding and/or blending special clinkers and additives with regular
portland cement clinkers. Since they are special cements and are not used routinely, they
are generally two to three times more expensive than regular portland cement. Important
physicochemical properties of these cements are described below.
Regulated-set or Jet cements
Regulated-set cement, also called Jet cement in Japan, is manufactured under patents
issued to the U.S. Portland Cement Association. A modified portland cement clinker con-
taining mainly alite (tricalcium silicate, C3S) and a calcium fluoroaluminate (11 CaO·7
Al2O3·CaF2) is made. A suitable proportion of the fluoroaluminate clinker is blended with
normal portland cement clinker and calcium sulfate so that the final cement contains about
20 to 25 percent of the fluoroaluminate compound and about 10 to 15 percent calcium
sulfate. The cement is generally very fast setting at room temperature, but can be retarded
to the desired set time by using citric acid, sodium sulfate, calcium hydroxide, boric acid,
and other retarders. A chloride analog of this cement was also made in the Soviet Union.
However, since the presence of chloride ions was found to induce corrosion in the steel
reinforcements, this cement has not enjoyed much popularity.
The basic hydration reactions of the silicates present in this cement are the same as for
regular portland cement. However, the hydration of the fluoroaluminate, which is respon-
sible for the rapid-setting characteristics of Jet cement, is extremely complex, and is further
complicated by the presence of other set-regulating compounds that are added to achieve
reasonable working time. The early strength development of regulated-set cement is due to
the rapid reaction of the haloaluminate phase with calcium sulfate forming ettringite. The
ultimate strength and other physical properties of this cement are comparable to those of
the portland cement except that, because of the high content of the reactive aluminate phase,
the sulfate resistance of structures made with these cements will be poor.
Regulated-set cement is very popular in Japan and is quite frequently used for winter
constructions and repairs at ambient temperatures of ­3° to ­5°C (27° to 23°F), although
the curing operation is facilitated by covering the constructed surfaces with canvas sheets.
Sulfoaluminate cement
The formation of large quantities of ettringite is responsible for the properties of
sulfoaluminate-phase-containing cement, also known as the very high early (VHE) strength
cement. The VHE or the sulfoaluminate cement is commercially available (manufactured)
in the United States. In contrast to the expansive Type K cements, the formation of ettringite
when these cements come in contact with water gives rise to rapid strength development.
The processing science of these cements has improved quite rapidly in recent years. Minor
expansions that were often experienced earlier with these cements have been controlled to
the point that these cements are sold as zero-shrinkage cements. In these cements, like the
haloaluminate cement, the ettringite formation is very rapid, occurring largely before the
paste has gained strength and well before hydration of the calcium silicates. The ettringite
formation reaction for this cement can be written as
4CaO·3Al2O3 SO3 + 8CaSO4 + 6Ca(OH)2 + H2O = 3(6CaO·Al2O3·3SO3·32H2O).
.
This cement is being marketed for special use and has limited use at low temperatures.
For this reason, the low-temperature properties of these phases or blended cements have
not been thoroughly studied. Moreover, because of limited use, large cement producers do
not usually market these special cements. On the other hand, companies who sell these
materials are very secretive about releasing any data on the cements except strength.
High iron cements
Just like the previous two modified portland cements, the high iron cements derive their
rapid setting and hardening characteristics from the formation of large amounts of ettringite
during the early hydration period. However, unlike the VHE cement, both sulfoaluminate
(C4A3S) and C4AF phases provide the aluminate ions. This cement is still under develop-
ment and may have considerable appeal to the construction industry again, perhaps for
economic reasons.
Pyrament cement
Pyrament was the trade name given to a blended hydraulic cement product manufac-
tured by Pyrament, Inc., of Houston, Texas. This cement was the result of a new invention
by the company and was marketed as cement compositions curable at low temperatures. It
was claimed that by employing the formulation of the invention, contrary to using existing
cements, cures could be effected at temperatures well below the freezing point of water
and, in fact, cure could be accomplished at temperatures as low as ­16°F (3.2°F).
This cement is composed of portland cement, slag, pozzolans including metakaolin, and
admixtures including potassium carbonate and water-reducing agents. Use of potassium
carbonate with the metakaolin is required to ensure continuing cure of the cement at tem-
peratures below the freezing point of water.
Calcium aluminate cement
Compared to portland cement, calcium aluminate cement (CAC) possesses many unique
properties, such as high early strength, hardening even under low-temperature conditions,
and superior durability to sulfate attack. However, CAC is not recommended for structural
use because the hardened cement can experience gradual strength retrogression. Therefore,
in most countries, CAC is now used mainly for making castable refractory linings for high-
temperature furnaces. However, since the cement has some desirable characteristics, fur-
ther examination of its properties has been advocated.
CAC is the product obtained by pulverizing calcium aluminate cement clinker manufac-
tured by partially or completely fusing calcareous materials, such as limestone or chalk,
and an alumina source, such as bauxite, to convert them to hydraulic calcium aluminates.
This is the reason why in France and Germany the cement is called ciment fondu and
tonerdeschmelz zement, respectively. Thus, unlike portland and modified portland cements,
in which di- and tricalcium silicates are the principle cementing compounds, in CAC the
monocalcium aluminate (CA) is the principal cementing compound, with C12A7, CA2,
C2AS, β-C2S, and Fss (iron solid solution) as minor compounds. Typically, the chemical
analysis of ordinary CAC corresponds to approximately 40 wt% Al2O3, and some cements
contain even higher alumina content (50 to 80 wt%). For these high alumina contents, CAC
is also referred to as high-alumina cement (HAC).
The bauxite ore used to produce CAC contains a considerable amount of iron as an
impurity, which accounts for the 10 to 17 percent iron (expressed as Fe2O3) usually present
in ordinary CAC. This is why, unlike portland cement clinker, the CAC clinker containing
high iron is in the form of completely fused melts that are made in specially designed
furnaces. On the other hand, cements meant for high-temperature applications containing
very low iron and silica are made by sintering in rotary kilns.
Although CAC materials have setting times comparable to ordinary portland cement,
the rate of strength gain at early ages is quite high, mainly due to the high reactivity of CA.
Within 24 hours of hydration, the strength of normally cured CAC concrete can attain
values equal to or exceeding the seven-day strength of ordinary portland cement. Also, the
strength-gain characteristics under subzero curing conditions are much better than for port-
land cements. CAC has been used successfully in the past for cold weather construction,
and in fact manufacturers of CAC provide data sheets promoting its use at temperatures
below ­3°C (27°F), and claim successful results at temperatures as low as ­40°C (­38°F).
It may be noted that the heat liberation rate of freshly hydrated CAC can be as high as 9 cal/
g per hour, which is about three times as high as the rate for high-early-strength portland
cements. Although CAC does not set faster than portland cement, it does develop strength
and evolve heat at a much faster rate after the initial set has commenced. After 24 hours, the
strength of CAC concrete can reach 90% of its ultimate strength, and its rapid strength gain
is accompanied by rapid evolution of heat. For this reason, CAC, after initial setting, can
tolerate much colder ambient conditions than its portland cement counterpart. However,
CAC concrete must be protected from freezing, in much the same way as portland cement
concrete, until setting and some strength development has occurred.
CAC hydration can also be accelerated like portland cement by the addition of small
quantities (~ 0.5 wt% of the water) of various compounds. Among many candidates, LiCl
has been reported to produce the greatest effect. In terms of decreasing effectiveness, the
cations have been found to follow the order Li << Na < none < K < Ca < Mg < Sr < NH4,
while the anions follow the order OH << none << Cl < NO3 < Br < acetate. Hydroxy
compounds, such as sodium and calcium hydroxide, generally accelerate the CAC hydra-
tion, whereas both magnesium and barium hydroxides have been found to act as retarders.
Citric acid is the most common retarder for the system, although glycols, glycerine, sugars,
casein, and chloride salts such as NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 can also work as retarders.
It has been found also that up to 20 wt% portland cement addition to CAC accelerates its
set reaction, and at the same time, small quantities of CAC act as set accelerators for the
portland cement. Various proprietary formulations based on the mixture of portland ce-
ment and CAC have been marketed, and preliminary research work conducted on these
combinations has shown that the acceleration effect of CAC on portland cement, and vice-
versa, is variable and depends strongly on the type and source of the CAC. Therefore, prior
trial runs should be done before any combination is used for field applications. It was also
found that when fondu cement was accelerated with lithium carbonate, it performed well in
terms of strength development on small-size specimens; however, on larger-size speci-
mens, the strength development was very poor at room temperature, probably because of
the large amount of heat generation, which might have altered the nature and morphology
of the crystalline calcium aluminate hydrates.
Currently, the major use of CAC is as refractory cements where chemical bonds develop
at high temperature, obliterating the effect of any conversion reactions. However, for use
under cold weather conditions, CAC seems to possess many of the required properties,
although the deleterious strength retrogression during service in warmer climates must be
taken into consideration before the concrete is designed for a particular job.
Calcium-sulfate (gypsum) cement
Crystallization of gypsum needles from a hydrated gypsum cement is the cause of set-
ting and hardening that has been exploited by the wallboard industry. However, gypsum is
not stable in water and therefore gypsum cement is nonhydraulic. Because of this poor
moisture resistance, its use has been mainly reserved for indoor applications.
Although unmodified gypsum cements have restricted use, the material CaSO4 has been
used as additives in many cement blends and formulations for both portland cements and
CAC to produce cement formulations for low-temperature applications.
Magnesium phosphate cement
If fast-setting and cold-weather characteristics are required simultaneously, then the most
cost-effective alternative are the phosphate cements based on MgO­ammonium phosphate­
water chemistry. These cements are not compatible with regular portland cement. Labora-
tory tests have been performed to show that these cements can be formulated to set up
within one hour (2- ↔ 2-inch specimen) at temperatures of ­20°C (­2°F), when the surfaces
are protected from quick heat loss by covering with regular polymeric materials. Areas that
need further exploration are exothermic heat control, improving hydraulicity, and freeze­
thaw durability.
Magnesia cements
There are magnesium-oxide-based cements known as magnesium oxychloride and
oxysulfate cements. These cements have very poor stability in moist environments and
therefore have not enjoyed much widespread use for outdoor applications.
Sulfur cement
Commercial development of sulfur concrete started in the 1970s in order to find poten-
tial markets for elemental sulfur. The sulfur concrete consists of elemental sulfur, sulfur
polymer stabilizer, fine filler material, and aggregates. Mix proportioning is accomplished
using a suitable dense-graded aggregate in combination with sulfur and filler to provide
good workability for the application. Sulfur concrete is produced by a hot mix procedure
similar in some respects to that of asphalt.
Sulfur concrete is a construction material with unique properties and characteristics. It
performs very well in many aggressive environments and offers many benefits as an alter-
native construction material, particularly in situations that require a fast setting time, place-
ment in excessive cold or hot climates, corrosion resistance, and impermeability.
ORGANIC POLYMER RESINS
Many polymeric systems can be used to prepare polymer mortar and concrete by com-
pletely replacing the cement hydrate binders of conventional mortar and concrete with
polymeric binders. A wide range of aggregates and monomers can be used, although the
cost and properties of the polymer concrete are strongly influenced by the gradation and
monomer. A well-graded aggregate may require as little as 5 to 8% monomer by weight,
while more than 15% may be required for gap-graded aggregate. Most of the thermosetting
resin and monomer systems for the polymer mortar and concrete are polymerized at ambi-
ent temperatures, which can vary from normal weather to cold weather.
In polymeric cement systems, the cement hydrate binders of conventional mortar and
concrete are replaced with polymeric binders, and the aggregates that are the same as the
conventional products are strongly bound to each other by the uniform polymer matrix
phases obtained from the polymeric binders. Accordingly, compared to ordinary cementitious
materials, properties such as strength, adhesion, water-tightness, chemical resistance, freeze­
thaw durability, and abrasion resistance of polymeric cement systems are generally im-
proved to a great extent by polymer replacement. On the other hand, the poor thermal and
fire resistance and large temperature dependence of mechanical properties are some draw-
backs caused by the undesirable properties of the polymer matrix phases.
The processing technology of polymeric cement systems is the same as that of the con-
ventional cement systems, so that the batching, mixing, and placing techniques for regular
cement products are applicable for polymeric systems. However, the curing methods are
different. The optimum cures, such as dry cure at ambient temperature or heat cure, are
applied to polymeric cement systems. Generally, the process technology of the polymer
systems is divided into two categories: cast-in-place and precast application systems. At
present, the cast-in-place application systems are chiefly applied for the polymer mortar,
and the precast application systems are used for the polymer concrete. In order to reduce
the cost of polymer mortar and concrete systems, it is very important to find out the effec-
tive mix proportions of the polymeric binders and the aggregates. Any of the polymeric
binders are toxic and flammable and therefore the established safety procedures should be
strictly followed.
A variety of polymeric binders to produce mortar and concrete are commercially avail-
able. These include various thermosetting resins, tar-modified resins, resin-modified as-
phalts, and vinyl monomers. Different kinds of binders are popular in different countries;
these are dictated mostly by availability and cost. For example, in Japan, the binders for
polymer mortar are chiefly epoxy resins, unsaturated polyester resin, such as polyester-
styrene systems, vinyl ester resin, and methyl methacrylate monomer whereas, for the poly-
mer concrete products, the common binder is unsaturated polyester resins. On the other
hand, the most common polymeric binder types in the United States and western Europe
are methyl methacrylate monomer, unsaturated polyester, and epoxy resins, among which
the unsaturated polyester resin has the lowest cost. Furan resin, mainly the furfural-acetone
resin, is widely used in the former Soviet Union and east European countries. In addition to
these conventional manufactured synthetic resins, application of recycled monomers and
polymers to the synthetic binders has also been made recently.
Polymeric binders cannot set or harden by themselves, and for this reason various initia-
tors, promoters, and hardeners are selected and added to the polymeric binders at the time
of mixing the mortar and concrete. As mentioned earlier, polymeric binder systems are
quite different from the ordinary hydraulic cement systems; like their regular cement coun-
terpart, there are various guidelines published by the American Concrete Institute for the
use of polymer concretes.
Unsaturated polyester and vinyl ester resins
Unsaturated polyesters are condensation polymers formed by the reaction of polyols
and polycarboxylic acids with olefinic unsaturation being contributed by one of the reac-
tants, usually the acid. The polyols and polycarboxylic acids used are usually difunctional
alcohols (glycols) and difunctional acids such as phthalic and maleic. Water is produced as
the by-product of esterification reaction and is removed from the reaction to drive the poly-
esterification reaction to completion. All of the materials used must be at least difunctional
to make the polyesterification reaction possible.
Unsaturated polyesters copolymerize with monomers having olefinic unsaturation much
more rapidly than they homopolymerize, so most unsaturated polyesters are used as mix-
tures with reactive, usually liquid, monomers. Of such monomers, styrene is by far the most
used monomer. Styrene used in polyester resins is low in cost, provides low-viscosity
resins at reasonable monomer levels, and copolymerizes readily with unsaturated polyester
alkyd at various temperatures. Laboratory tests indicate that for optimum workability, the
styrene content is 45 to 50% of the resin content, although styrene content as low as 35 wt%
has been used. The copolymerization chemistry of unsaturated polyester alkyds and unsat-
urated monomers is usually initiated by free radicals generated by the decomposition of
peroxides, azo compounds, or free radicals generated by the use of medium- to high-energy
radiation, such as ultraviolet light or electron beams. Commercially, visible-light-cure poly-
esters are also available and the curing occurs independently of ambient conditions. Micro-
wave curing of polyester resins has also been demonstrated.
Commercial polyester resins have been demonstrated to be useful at curing tempera-
tures as low as ­10°C (14°F) without many handling difficulties. Polyester­styrene con-
crete products have several advantages for the rehabilitation of portland cement concrete.
They are highly abrasion-resistant and impermeable to water and road salts, and are effec-
tive in thin layers ranging from 3/8 to 1 inch thick, thereby reducing dead load and clear-
ance problems. They are well suited to night work in heavy traffic areas where bridge or
road closures must be kept as brief as possible. The resins to produce the concrete are
relatively inexpensive and are readily available. The vinyl esters also are available as grouts
or toppings for concrete repair, although their curing properties sometimes limit their use to
applications above 10°C (50°F). There is one concern with the polyester concrete: research
has shown that the compressive strength of polyester concrete decreases as temperature

increases, and thus the durability may be a problem under cycling temperatures.

Epoxy resins
Chemically, an epoxy resin contains more than one α-epoxy group situated terminally,
cyclically, or internally in a molecule that can be converted to a solid through a thermoset-
ting reaction. The conversion of epoxy resins from the thermoplastic state to tough, hard,
thermoset solids can occur via a variety of crosslinking mechanisms. Epoxies can catalyti-
cally homopolymerize or form a heteropolymer by coreacting through their functional ep-
oxide groups with different curatives. In epoxide technology, curatives are most frequently
called curing agents. Often, the terms hardener, activator, or catalyst are applied to specific
types of curing agents. For most commercial products, the curing agents’ chemical struc-
ture is kept proprietary, or the amount of reactive functional group is ambiguous. Epoxy
curing agents can be divided into two major classes: alkaline and acidic. The alkaline class
includes Lewis bases (tertiary amines), primary and secondary aminesand amides, and other
nitrogen-containing compounds. The acidic class of epoxy curing agents includes Lewis
acids (metal halides such as zinc, aluminum, and ferric), phenols, organic acids, carboxylic
acid anhydrides, and thiols.
The properties of epoxy resins can vary over a wide range, depending on the selection of
a formulation’s ingredients, their relative proportions, the processing of the formula, and
the configuration and environment of the final product. Some generalization about epoxy
resin properties are possible. Epoxy resins, toppings, and patching materials may be used
for the repair of cracks, spalls, joints, and other problem areas. Epoxies generally cure
within 8 to 12 hours at ambient conditions of 21°C (70°F). Liquid resins and curatives can
form low-viscosity, easily modified systems. They can cure at temperatures from ­40°C
(­40°F) to 200°C (392°F), depending on the curing agents used. They exhibit very low
shrinkage and do not evolve volatile by-products during cure. Commercially, various kinds
of modified low-temperature formulations are available, some of which can be quite appli-
cable for cold-weather applications.
Furan polymers
The term furan polymer or resin is a loosely defined term. It can be used to denote
polymers based on furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or furan. Fulfural is the starting material for
all of these compounds. The chemical resistance of furan resins has been used for many
years to advantage in chemical cements. Urea­formaldehyde­furfuryl alcohol resins for
foundry usage constitute the largest market for furans. This cement system has very good
potential for low-temperature applications.
Furan resins potentially provide the following important advantages: 1) low cost; the
fact that they do not require petroleum-based feedstock should enhance the cost/availabil-
ity outlook for these resins; 2) rapid cure and low-temperature cure; 3) extended shelf life.
The uncatalyzed furan resins have virtually unlimited shelf life. Furan resins (mainly fur-
fural-acetone resin) are widely used in the Soviet Union (now Commonwealth of Indepen-
dent States) and eastern Europe. The furan resin systems are often acid-catalyzed; because
of this, sometimes the bonding with alkaline portland cement systems has been found to be
a problem. The most popular resin used in European countries is formed using a ratio of
1.5:1 furfural to acetone, the main components of which are monofurfurylidenacetone,
difurfurylidenacetone, and furfural. Different percentages of these components in the vari-
ous resins greatly influence the polymerization mechanism, causing noticeable variances
in the properties of the material. The most popular hardener for furfural acetone resins is
benzosulfoacid; n-toluosulfochloride and toluosulfoacid are also commonly used. Chlo-
ride compounds of iron, concentrated sulfuric acid, and amine hardeners are also some-
times used.
A furfuryl-alcohol-based polymer has been developed for achieving high early strength
at ambient temperatures of 52° to ­32°C (125° to ­25°F). The polymerization of the furfu-
ryl alcohol was controlled by using a unique combination of α, α, α,-tricholorotoluene
(TCT) catalyst, and zinc chloride promoter in conjunction with a pyridine retarder. The
working time for the polymer slurry can be controlled at >15 minutes over the entire tem-
perature range by simply varying the TCT catalyst concentration while holding all of the
other constituents constant.
Polyurethanes
Technically, polyurethanes are the reaction products of molecules containing two or
more isocyanate groups (polyisocyanates) with molecules containing two or more hydroxyl
groups (glycols, polyols, glycerine, etc.) and water and phenols, to form the chain, making
a series of interconnected isocyanates and hydroxy-containing molecules. Since the con-
figurations of the ingredients can be varied to produce macromolecular polyurethanes, many
different types of polyurethane chains and spatial configurations can be designed for any
specific purposes, with one’s curiosity limited only by one’s imagination. However, the
commercial availability of raw materials and toxicity problems may limit the free design of
molecular structures.
Polyurethanes are commonly used for concrete sealing during new construction periods.
Chemical grouts are also available for nonstructural crack repairs. Polyurethanes are gener-
ally applied at temperatures above 4°C (40°F), with cure achieved within 24 to 72 hours.
However, several specially formulated polyurethanes have been commercially available
that have the potential for low-temperature use. A commercial urethane resin system known
as EP system (manufactured by Ashland Chemical Co., Columbus, Ohio 43216) can be
cured at temperatures as low as ­30°C (­20°F) as a neat solution or mixed with sand, while
maintaining low viscosity and good workability for cast-in-place construction without add-
ing any heat or protection from freezing.
Phenolic resins
Phenolic resins are the reaction product of one or more of the phenols with one or more
of the aldehydes. The use of substituted phenols and the aldehydes other than formalde-
hyde is very limited. Resins based on resorcinol can be cured at room temperature. Among
the aldehydes, furfural is the only one in commercial use other than the various forms of
formaldehyde. The presence of furfural makes the cured resin softer. Also, furfuryl alcohol
can be mixed with the resin to reduce the viscosity of the mix and allow higher filler ratio.
Commercial phenolic resin-based concretes made with BP Chemical J50/010L with acid
catalyst Phencat 15 and Foduth Chemical IR 1271 with acid catalyst CS 30 can be cured at
room temperature with higher levels of the catalyst. For lower catalyst amount, application
of pressure and heat may be required.
Phenolic concretes are claimed to possess equivalent mechanical properties and supe-
rior fire and chemical resistance to all other types of resin concrete developed to date. They
are high-temperature performance materials, have good resistance to corrosion and micro-
biological attack, do not absorb water, and have high resistance to attack by a range of
common chemicals. Phenolics are affected by alkalis and by oxidizing acids. They are
resistant to weak acids, solvents, detergents, and hydrocarbons. Extended exposure to weath-
ering and UV can cause failure.
Phenolic concrete is tougher and stiffer than ordinary concrete and is usually as tough as
polyester concrete. The level of the acid catalyst that can be successfully used in phenolic
concrete has been shown to be determined by the mix and casting process, type of catalyst,
and temperature. No cold weather use has been found for phenolic concrete.
Acrylics
Acrylic and methacrylic acid and their esters are included in the acrylic group. However,
the most important plastic in the family of acrylic resins is polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA),
a colorless transparent plastic with a higher softening point, better impact strength, and
considerably better outdoor weathering properties than polystyrene.
PMMA has received the attention of most of the work in polymer concrete development
in the United States in the last several years, especially for the repair of concrete. Benzoyl
peroxide is the most commonly used initiator, and N,N-dimethylparatoluidine and dim-
ethyl aniline are widely used promoters for this system. A multifunctional monomer known
as trimethylol propane trimethacrylate is also used in combination with the methyl meth-
acrylate in 5:95 ratio to increase the rate of polymerization of the acrylic system. The pro-
moter and initiator content can be adjusted to control the setting time at any given tempera-
ture, thus making this system usable for cold-weather patching at low temperatures.
Methacrylate systems (Degussa Corporation, Ridgefield, New Jersey) are able to cure fully
in one to two hours at temperatures down to ­29°C (­20°F) and are generally utilized for
resurfacing, patching, and joint rehabilitation.
This system has been successfully lab-tested at temperatures between ­9.4 to ­6.7°C (15
to 20°F). However, the performance of commercial systems at low temperatures needs
further investigation since no successful outside patching at low temperatures has been
reported. Also, the requirement for dry aggregates and patch surfaces and strong odor are
several handicaps of this system.
HYBRID INORGANIC-ORGANIC BINDERS
Two kinds of materials, polymer- (latex) modified and polymer-infiltrated binders, fall
under this category. In recent years, polymer latex-modified mortars and concrete have
been widely used as construction materials because of their improved properties of high
strength, extensibility, adhesion, waterproofing, and durability. Three kinds of latexes have
been used for this purpose. The most common latex has been the styrene-butadiene copoly-
mer. Other latexes, such as vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymer and polyacrylic
esters, have also been used for mortar applications. Generally, latex-modified concrete will
provide higher strength after air curing compared to water curing because of the film-form-
ing ability of dried latex particles. However, no use of such binders at low temperatures was
found in the literature. One problem with these latex suspensions is that they should not
freeze, because the suspension property would be lost and the latex particles would not be
uniformly distributed throughout the matrix.
The polymer-infiltrated concrete has been primarily used for restoration purposes. The
acrylic polymeric systems described previously under the organic binders can be used for
this purpose. The low viscosity of acrylic monomers helps the infiltration of the monomer
within the matrix. Because acrylics can be used at low temperatures, repair and restoration
of damaged concrete can be performed applying this technique.
Authors – Charles J. Korhonen and Sherri A. Orchino
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
72 Lyme Road
ERDC/CRREL TR-01-2
Hanover, New Hampshire 03755-1290

http://www.tpub.com/content/ArmyCRREL/TR-01-2/TR-01-20014.htm

http://www.tpub.com/content/ArmyCRREL/TR-01-2/TR-01-20022.htm

http://www.tpub.com/content/ArmyCRREL/TR-01-2/TR-01-20023.htm

Order this information in Print Order this information on CD-ROM Download in PDF Format

http://www.tpub-products.com/archive/?../../subscribers/./Engineering/Army_Cold_Regions_Research_and_Engineering_Laboratory_Reports/

Click here for a printable version

***

Earthquake geotechnical engineering: 4th International Conference … – Google Books Result

by Kyriazis D. Pitilakis – 2007 – Science – 486 pages

Fabric, soil stiffness and laboratory geophysics The moving yield surface defines the current region of stress space which can be reached elastically as a …

http://books.google.com/books?id=rzEn7HmQy1MC&pg=PT150&lpg=PT150&dq=Fabric,+soil+stiffness+and+laboratory+geophysics&source=bl&ots=D-9TQLexOC&sig=Kq2gGORDwsYGaGdk8KBCGMgx7_w&hl=en&ei=0DhbS4a8CMuztgfskJSnAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Fabric%2C%20soil%20stiffness%20and%20laboratory%20geophysics&f=false

pp. 154, 155, 156++, and starting with pp. 150, Chapter 7, Field Seismic Testing in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Kenneth H. Stokoe, II  – Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A.

pp. 200 – graphics of the deformed mesh along the fault rupture (soil and structural stresses)

from pp. 152 –

. . . Developments are also occurring in two other aspects of field seismic testing. The first is profiling to deeper depths in all types of geologic settings. The second is performing parametric studies in situ. The effects of parameters such as stress state, strain amplitude, and cyclic loading leading to liquefaction are being evaluated in situ. Developments in both aspects are briefly discussed below and are covered in more detail in the presentation.

Book overview

The book contains the invited keynote and theme lectures presented at the 4th International Conference on Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering (4ICEGE). The conference was held in Thessaloniki, Greece, from 25 to 28 June, 2007, and was organized by the Technical Committee of Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (TC4) of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE), the Hellenic Scientific Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering and the Laboratory of Soil Dynamics and Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

It provides a comprehensive overview of the progress achieved to date in soil dynamics and geotechnical earthquake engineering, as well as in engineering seismology and seismic risk assessment and management. In situ and laboratory testing, theoretical issues and numerical modeling of soil dynamics, seismic hazard with emphasis on the long-period ground motion displacements, site effects and microzonation, liquefaction assessment and mitigation, soil-structure interaction, performance based design of geotechnical structures, earthquake resistant design and performance of shallow and deep foundations, retaining structures, embankments and dams, underground structures and lifelines, are all among the different topics covered in this book. Interdisciplinary subjects such as vulnerability assessment of, transportation networks and lifelines as well as of geotechnical structures are also discussed. Finally, the book provides a thorough presentation of the existing worldwide important large-scale testing facilities and geotechnical strong ground motion arrays.

The book is organized in nineteen chapters written by distinguished experts and includes the 2nd Ishihara Lecture given by Prof. Izzat M. Idriss in honor of Prof. Kenji Ishihara. The aim is to present the current state of knowledge and engineering practice, addressing recent and ongoing developments while also projecting innovative ideas for future research and development.

References Sections: Part A and Part B (pp. 210 – 215)

Seismic Response of Foundation – Reference Section Part B

Foundations on Fault – Reference Section Part A

**

from pp. 210 – )

“Particularly significant, although somewhat coincidental, is the very small residual rotation in both cases. This is due to the largely symmetric nature of the excitation, as a result of which the heavily loaded foundation develops “left” and “right” bearing-capacity failure mechanisms. The resulting two-sided inelastic deformations lead to a symmetric downward displacement (:  )w) with only a minor residual rotation  )2.”

(And from pps./ 201, 202, 203 – )

The use of “overstrength” factors is necessitated by the so-called “capacity design” principle, under which plastic hinging is allowed only in the superstructural elements – not in the below-ground (and thus un-inspectable) foundation and soil. Therefore, structural yielding of the footing and mobilization of bearing capacity mechanisms is not allowed. Only a “limited” amount of sliding deformation and uplifting at the foundation-soil interface is allowed. However, there is a growing awareness in the profession of the need to consider soil-foundation inelasticity (and explanar elasticity, my note), in analysis and perhaps even in design (see Paolucci, 1997; Pecker, 1998; Martin and Lam, 2000; Allotey and Naggar, 2003). This need has emerged from:

*   The large (often huge) acceleration (and velocity) (and shearing images of impact deformations in building structural materials indicating shearing velocities, my note) levels recorded in several earthquakes which are associated with even larger elastic spectral accelerations (of the order of 2 g). Enormous ductility demands would be imposed to structures by such accelerations if soil and foundation “yielding” did not effectively take place to limit the transmitted accelerations.

* In seismically retrofitting a building or a bridge, allowing for soil and foundation yielding is the only rational alternative. (Etc.)

Even with new structures, it has been recognized that with improved analysis methods we need to better evaluate performance in terms of levels of damage. For the superstructure, “performance-based” design or equivalently “displacement-based” design have been used for a number of years, with inelastic “pushover” analyses becoming almost routine in seismic design practice. It is logical to extend the inelastic analysis to the supporting foundation and soil.

3.2.  NEW DESIGN PHILOSOPHY: “PLASTIC HINGING” IN SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

Excluding structural yielding in the isolated footing or the foundation beam, three types of nonlinearity can take place and modify the overall structure-foundation response:

(a)     Sliding at the soil-foundation interface: This would happen whenever the transmitted horizontal force exceed the frictional resistance. As pointed out by Newmark (1965), thanks to the oscillatory nature of earthquake shaking, only short periods of exceedance usually exist in each one direction; hence, sliding is not associated with failure, but with permanent irreversible deformations. The designer must only ensure that the magnitude of such deformations would not be structurally or operationally detrimental. Although this philosophy has been applied to the design of earth dams and gravity retaining walls, its practical significance for foundations might be somewhat limited in view of the large values of the coefficient of friction at soil-footing interface and the passive-type resistance often enjoyed by embedded foundations.

(b)     Separation and uplifting of the foundation from the soil: This would happen when the seismic overturning moment tends to produce net tensile stresses at the edges of the foundation. The ensuing rocking oscillations in which uplifting takes place involve primarily geometric nonlinearities, if the soil is competent enough. There is no detriment to the vertical load carrying capacity and the consequences in terms of induced vertical settlements may be minor. Moreover, in many cases, footing uplifting is beneficial for the response of the superstructure, as it helps reduce the ductility demands on columns. Housner (1963), Pauley and Priestley (1992), and many others have reported that the satisfactory response of some slender structures in strong shaking can only be attributed to foundation rocking. Deliberately designing a bridge foundation to uplift in rocking has been proposed as an effective seismic isolation method by Kawashima and Hosoiri (2005). Moreover, even with very slender and relatively rigid structures, uplifting would not lead to overturning except in rather extreme cases of little concern to the engineer (Makris and Roussos, 2000; Gerolymos et al., 2005).

In soft and moderately-soft soils much of what was said above is still valid, but inelastic action in the soil is now unavoidable under the supporting edge of the uplifting footing in rocking. At the extreme, inelastic deformations in the soil take the form of mobilization of failure mechanisms, as discussed below.

( c )   Mobilisation of bearing capacity failure mechanisms in supporting soil: Such inelastic action under seismic loading would always be accompanied with uplifting of the foundation. In static geotechnical analysis large factors of safety are introduced to ensure that bearing capacity modes of failure are not even approached. In conventional seismic analysis, such as in the EC*  –  Part 5 bearing capacity is avoided thanks to an “overstrength” factor of about 1.40. The oscillatory nature of seismic shaking, however, allows the mobilisation (for a short period of time!) of the maximum soil resistance along a continuous (“failure”) surface. No “collapse” or overturning failure occurs, as the applied (causative) moment “quickly” reverses, and a similar bearing-capacity “failure” mechanism may develop under the other edge of the foundation. The problem again reduces to computing the inelastic deformations, which in this case means permanent rotation. The designer must ensure that its consequences are not detrimental.

The concept of allowing mobilization of bearing capacity mechanisms in foundation design may represent a major change in foundation design philosophy (FEMA, 1997; Pecker, 1998). However, for analysis of the ultimate response of a structure foundation system to extreme earthquake shaking, accounting for such a possibility is necessary. Martin and Lam (2000) illustrate with an example of a hypothetical structure containing a shear wall connected with a frame how dramatically different are the results of analyses in which inelastic action in the soil is considered or is ignored. With inelastic action (including uplifting) the shear wall “sheds” some of its load onto the columns of the frame, which must then be properly reinforced; the opposite is true when linear soil-foundation behaviour is assumed. Thus, computing the consequences of “plastic hinging” in shallow foundation analysis may be a necessity.

The interplay between uplifting and mobilization of bearing capacity mechanisms is governed primarily by the following factors:

*   the vertical foundation load N in comparison with the ultimate vertical capacity Nult expressed through the ratio X =   N/Nu

*   the height, h, of the mass centre of gravity from the based compared with the foundation dimensions (width B, length L) and

*   the intensity, frequency content and sequence of (dynamic) pulses of the seismic excitation.

Pp. 201 – 203

***

[PDF]

A NEW APPLICATION OF CFRP FABRICS IN EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT RC …

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML

A NEW APPLICATION OF CFRP FABRICS IN EARTHQUAKE-. RESISTANT RC BRIDGE PIERS. M. Saiidi1, F. Gordaninejad2, B. Gopalakrishnan3, and E. Reinhardt4 …

www.quakewrap.com/…/A-New-Application-Of-CFRP-Fabrics-In-Earthquake-resistant-RC%20Bridge-Piers.pdf

A-New-Application-Of-CFRP-Fabrics-In-Earthquake-resistant-RC Bridge-Piers.pdf

http://www.quakewrap.com/frp%20papers/A-New-Application-Of-CFRP-Fabrics-In-Earthquake-resistant-RC%20Bridge-Piers.pdf

***

Earthquake Resistant Technologies

external image GreatQuakeHouse.gif

Earthquakes pose a problem to the people who live near where they occur. There are many ways to protect yourself from an earthquake ane one of these is to design buildings to ‘resist’ the earthquake.

This is what I am researching and I will show my results below.

Resistant Design

racking_house.JPG

(above) When an earthquake hits a building the lateral forces make it move from side to side or ‘rack’. This can be fatal for a building and can also make it overturn or slip off its foundations.

However, there are ways that a building can be made so that it can avoid racking. These include making a house from wooden frames, flexible materials and rubber foundations. These are all explained below:

o Wooden Frame-Wood is a light; flexible and inexpensive material yet it is still very strong. Because wood is a natural product its fibres are well intertwined. This means that when subject to vibration wood absorbs and then dissipates the energy from the vibrations; hence the reason it is used in earthquake resistant buildings.

o Flexible materials-These work in much a similar way to wood; they absorb and then dissipate the energy from vibrations. However, manmade materials can be much more expensive but don’t have restrictions in terms of what size and shape they can be and how strong they can be.

o Rubber Foundations-These also work in a similar way to wood and flexible materials. Rubber foundations hold the above building in place securely when not subject to vibration. But when vibrations hit the rubber it, still holding the building in place, allows the ground to move beneath thus stopping the building move from side to side violently.

Retrofitting

When a building has not been designed to resist an earthquake it can be retrofitted after construction. This can be done many years after a building was made and can be done in many different ways.

Infill shear trusses — University of California dormitory, Berkeley, California

Infill shear trusses — University of California dormitory, Berkeley, California

(right) This building at the University of California has been retrofitted using infill shear trusses. This stabilises a building and stops it from swaying as much.

Here are some ways to retrofit a building:

o Infill shear trusses-these are shown in the photo on the right. They are placed in between beams to stabilise the structure of a building.

o Dampers-These can be used to dampen the vibrations if a building is stuck well to the ground. They convert to kinetic energy into heat energy.

o Exterior Concrete Columns-Historic buildings, made of unreinforced masonry, may have culturally important interior detail or murals that should not be disturbed. In this case, the solution may be to add steel, reinforced concrete, or poststressed concrete columns to the exterior.

o Anti Column Burst Technology-One simple retrofit is to surround the column with a jacket of steel plates formed and welded into a single cylinder. The space between the jacket and the column is then filled with concrete, a process called grouting. (shown below right)

external image 300px-BandedRetroColumn.jpg

https://istgeography.wikispaces.com/alex_research

***

1.

Textiles in Architecture

revolutionising earthquake-resistant construction. As a surface technique, braiding and weaving … distinctions, but the presence of geotextiles suggests a …

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ad.348

2.

Recent Developments in Earthquake resistant structures …

Aug 22, 2002 … Message – Recent Developments in Earthquake resistant structures. Responses | Architecture Forum | Architecture Students | Architecture …

www.designcommunity.com/discussion/21041.html

3.

Conference presenters share experiences with fabric-formed …

A conference on the use of fabric formwork for architectural structures drew … With an eye to the construction site, attention turned to geotextiles. … His requirements were that it had to be earthquake resistant, inexpensive, …

fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0908_rp_conference.html

4.

Nepal Develops Earthquake Resistant Architecture – OhmyNews …

Jan 18, 2006 … The purpose is not only to make the complex earthquake-resistant but also to restore the architectural identity, the loss of which has …

english.ohmynews.com/…/article_view.asp?at_code…1

5. [PDF]

From Textile to Geotextiles

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML

by FK Ko – Related articles

architecture is a composite rebar which has high initial resistance to ….. Ductile Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bar For Earthquake Resistant Concrete …

geosynthetica.net/tech_docs/KoernerSympFrankKo.pdf

(from google search)

***

7.

Conceptual Design of Concrete Buildings for Earthquake Resistance

design for earthquake resistance and that capacity design is the major …… If there is no architectural or conceptual design solution for the …… with the soil and/or the foundation (possibly modified with the use of geo-textiles, …

www.springerlink.com/index/x39n4644l7r662p0.pdf

8. [PDF]

ENGINEERING USE OF GEOTEXTILES

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat

by A TM – Related articles – All 17 versions

resistant geotextiles are specified. Some materials used for this purpose are designed to degrade …. earthquake activity. 7-5. General Considerations … stability), ease of construction, or architectural purposes. All geotextiles are …

www.army.mil/usapa/eng/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/tm5_818_8.pdf

9.

Geotextile

There are two components to geotextile pullout resistance-one below and one above ….. They are potentially better suited for earthquake loading because of the … (internal stability), ease of construction, or architectural purposes. …

www.scribd.com/doc/24181216/Geotextile

***

* September 2008

* Fabric-formed structures

Conference presenters share experiences with fabric-formed architectural structures

A conference on the use of fabric formwork for architectural structures drew interest from around the world.

Fabric Architecture | September 2008

By Sharon Roe

The C.A.S.T. building on the University of Manitoba campus, where the Fabric Formwork conference was held. Photo: Daniel J. Green, AIA

* Models of various cast formwork in the lab. Photo: Daniel J. Green, AIA

* Model created by Kenzo Unno in response to the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Photo: Daniel J. Green, AIA

Tags

* conference

* geosynthetics

Whether you are drawn to the sinewy, sensuous concrete forms shaped by spandex or to the simplicity, efficiency, and flexibility of the geotextile-formwork, this conference was a feast for the eyes and food for the brain. Presenters came from around the world and shared — for the first time as a collective — their experiences with fabric-formed architectural structures.

Fabric-formed concrete uses flexible, permeable textile membranes (geotextile, cotton, spandex) in place of rigid formwork for concrete construction. Excess water and trapped air are allowed to escape through the membrane while the cement paste is retained. This technology eliminates most of the problems encountered in a traditional pour. Also, with the fabric and the minimal supports required to hold the fabric in place, the fluid concrete is free to find balance with the form as the form conforms to the slurry.

Responding to dreamlike landscapes of his automatic drawings and the availability of an old T-shirt, architect Mark West produced his first fabric-formed concrete. This experience revealed a fuzzy concrete surface — one that you just had to touch. Beginning from this poetic act, he continued his experiments. Whereas Louis Kahn asked the brick what it wanted to be, West asked this of concrete. From cotton to spandex, these experiments produced sensual, skin-like, textures on the surface of concrete forms that had the anthropomorphic qualities of bound bodices and bulging bellies.

Although the elements are beautiful and seductive, most of the builders who are using fabric forms began with a need for practicality. With an eye to the construction site, attention turned to geotextiles. Not only are these durable fabrics already a part of the contractor’s supplies, they function similarly to all other fabrics that have been studied in forming concrete.

Tokyo architect Kenzo Unno developed his construction system in response to the 1995 Kobe earthquake. His requirements were that it had to be earthquake resistant, inexpensive, and easier to build than wood construction. David South, co-founder of Monolithic Constructors Inc. and the Monolithic Domes Institute, uses inflatable fabric forms that are sprayed with concrete to form thin-shelled domes. His system allows for both very large and very small construction, including hand-built housing in developing countries. Sandy Lawton, of Arro-Design, Waitsfield, Vermont, was commissioned to build on a delicate and difficult site. Using fabric Fast-Forms developed by Fab-Form Industries, they were able to drop in the fabric tubes and form five, 9m columns—each column completed in a single pour. Those five columns created a minimal footprint for the remaining construction.

Yet, in spite of all the positives, the construction market has been slow to adopt this new (no matter how simple) technology. Although it seems almost intuitive that these are excellent systems, there are still many questions and uncertainties. Because the forms have complex curves, the engineering calculations for structural loads are atypical. Researchers such as Arno Pronk, Eindhoven University of Technology, Holland, have begun to understand the structural capabilities and improved strengths possible with the fabric form. Pronk recognized the complicated curving structures draped by fabric were similar to clothing so he borrowed analytical software from the fashion industry and successfully modeled and analyzed these form-active structures.

In the end, it all came back to the T-shirt. Although people had worked independently, the integrity of the construction method had made its way around the world, through artist studios, architecture classrooms, developing countries, post-earthquake zones, research labs, and ended up at this conference — the best one I’ve attended in a decade.

The First International Conference: Fabric Formwork Conference for Architectural Structures, held May 16–18, 2008, was organized by Mark West and the group from C.A.S.T. (The Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology), University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

For more information on the conference and the speakers: www.fabricforming.org/news_ff_conference.html.

http://www.fabricforming.org/news_ff_conference.html

Sharon Roe is a senior lecturer in the School of Architecture, University of Minnesota College of Design.

http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0908_rp_conference.html

medium_0908_rep_1.jpg

The C.A.S.T. building on the University of Manitoba campus, where the Fabric Formwork conference was held. Photo: Daniel J. Green, AIA

Model created by Kenzo Unno in response to the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Photo: Daniel J. Green, AIA

thumbnail_0908_rep_3.jpg

thumbnail_0908_rep_2.jpg

***

Researchers such as Arno Pronk, Eindhoven University of Technology, Holland, have begun to understand the structural capabilities and improved strengths possible with the fabric form. Pronk recognized the complicated curving structures draped by fabric were similar to clothing so he borrowed analytical software from the fashion industry and successfully modeled and analyzed these form-active structures.

The First International Conference: Fabric Formwork Conference for Architectural Structures, held May 16–18, 2008, was organized by Mark West and the group from C.A.S.T. (The Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology), University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. For more information on the conference and the speakers: www.fabricforming.org/news_ff_conference.html

Mark West is the Founder and Director of CAST, a fabric formwork researcher and inventor.

He demonstrated how fabric formwork allows the construction of a new architectural ‘language’ of sensual fluid forms. He showed how fabric provides simple ways of shaping efficiently curved structural members.

Mark explained how the search for economical construction techniques that simultaneously achieve both ends is the central focus of research at the Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology (CAST).

His presentation further described and illustrated techniques for constructing fabric-formed columns, walls, beams, trusses, panels, and thin-shell vaults using plain flat sheets of fabric and standard construction tools.

http://www.fabricforming.org/news_ff_conference.html

Remo Pedreschi, an Engineer and Professor of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland has done research into flexible formwork and how it allows the construction of a new architectural ‘language’ of sensual fluid forms.

He also demonstrated how fabric provides simple ways of shaping efficiently curved structural members. His presentation described and illustrated techniques for constructing fabric-formed columns, walls, beams, trusses, panels, and thin-shell vaults using plain flat sheets of fabric and standard construction tools, and it explored some of the architectural possibilities opened up by fabric-formed concrete.

***********

http://webdb.ucs.ed.ac.uk/ddm/ACEstaff/entry/onemessage.cfm?txt=16

Professor Remo Pedreschi

BSc PhD, MICE CEng

Professor of Archtectural Technology

Architecture: School of Arts, Culture and Environment (ACE)

The University of Edinburgh

20 Chambers Street

EH1 1JZ

Scotland

United Kingdom

***

Geotextile fabric was used to form the reduced volume, variable section, reinforced concrete beam shaped to follow the bending moment curve for a uniform load (CAST Laboratory, 2005).

Society’s Vision

In a world with increasingly scarce resources, fabric forming improves the efficiency of concrete forming, thereby allowing concrete structures to be more sustainable.

The International Society of Fabric Forming (ISOFF) was created to fill a multiplicity of needs in the concrete forming industry:

* To communicate the work of researchers in fabric forming to manufacturers, distributors and concrete contractors;

* To provide feedback to researchers from forming contractors and distributors on new technology and needs for further research;

* To communicate to the world at large of the dramatic environmental benefits of replacing rigid forms with fabric.

http://fabricforming.org/society.html

***

Pronk-de%20Haas%20TUE%20070707%20MZ.pdf

http://www.arnopronk.com/

Researchers such as Arno Pronk, Eindhoven University of Technology, Holland, have begun to understand the structural capabilities and improved strengths possible with the fabric form. Pronk recognized the complicated curving structures draped by fabric were similar to clothing so he borrowed analytical software from the fashion industry and successfully modeled and analyzed these form-active structures.

***

International Conference on Textile Composites and Inflatable Structures

STRUCTURAL MEMBRANES 2007

E. Oñate, and B. Kröplin, (Eds)

Ó CIMNE, Barcelona, 2007

HEAT-TRANSMITTING MEMBRANE

VOLUME 1

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†,MARK COX†

Eindhoven University of Technology

(TU/e)

P.O. Box 513 5600 MB The Netherlands

e-mail: a.d.c.Pronk@tue.nl , info@timdehaas.com or m.g.d.m.cox@tue.nl

Key words: Distance fabric, Climate control, Vacuum injection.

Summary: Multilayer membranes filled with a heat-transmitting substance/material make it possible to heat up or cool down a space by radiation. When a fluid is used, the principle of vacuum-injection can be used to make a heat-transmitting membrane with the capacity of 500W/m2.K The working of the heat-transmitting membrane can be improved by a proper use of the fluid dynamics. Extra membranes could increase the effects, because they filter the radiation of the sun and insulate the construction. Applications of this heat-transmitting membrane can be found in the climate control of inflatables, tents and buildings.

1 INTRODUCTION

In 2003 an Art Pavilion1 was built at the Eindhoven University of Technology, with a mould of PVC coated polyester membrane. The inflatable mould of the Art Pavilion was reused as the base of an igloo that was made one year later. Making an igloo in September in the Netherlands is quite a challenge, because the average outside temperature is 18EC. Since the exhibition was inside a building, there were two options for creating ice:

(1) to cool the air of an insulated room,

(2) to cool down the surface of the igloo

directly.

Option 1 is the most commonly used. But to insulate the exhibition space was difficult and expensive. An other argument for the researchers to look at the second option was that air has a limited cooling capacity compared

Heat capacity Heat transportation

J / kg * K W / ( m * K )

Ice 2.2 x 1000 2.1

Air 1.0 x 1000

Water 4.2 x 1000

Ice->water 345 x 1000

Glycol 2.4 x 1000

Table 1 – Thermo energy

Figure 1 – Igloo

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†, MARK COX†

2

to water and ice. The phase change of water into ice is an energy consuming process. This phase change costs approximately 150 times more energy as the heating or cooling of ice by 1 degree. There fore the most direct process is favorable. Water has a much better heat capacity than air; the heat capacity of 2330 dm3 air is equal to 1 dm3 water. Therefore the researchers choose the second option. In practice it seems an easy process if you can cool a surface below zero and spray the surface with water so that ice can develop on the surface of the igloo. From a theoretical point of view the process is very complicated and hard to calculate due to the non-linearity’s of the phase change (water-ice), the outside conditions (solar energy) and the time-dependency of the igloo construction.

To show the reader in full detail the complexity of the occurring phenomena would take a full course on turbulent flows, finite element methods, time-dependent non linear solutions of the mathematical model of such an igloo and so on. Some detailed studies have been done on the different topics and one of the conclusions is that with an integral approach the time and effort to build an igloo can be reduced significantly. The theoretical approach can help to optimize the balance between timedependent energy flows and ice formation at the surface. For example: to cool water 1 degree will cost about 4.18 KJ/kgK. To produce ice will cost approx. 334 KJ/kg. Question: Would it help to cool the water (that is sprayed on the igloo during formation of the igloo) from 11C -> 1C? The amount of energy needed to produce ice (0C) from water (0C) is 8 times greater than the energy needed to water 1 degrees. From this point of view, pre-cooling the water seems not to be very effective.

One important item has been jumped over: TIME. Time plays an important role in the whole process of making an igloo. Taking time into account, the pre-cooling is effective for the time needed to produce ice. After comparing the practical production time of the igloo with the theoretical computations of the production time, the authors concluded that the time needed to produce a certain igloo can be reduced by a factor 2 when accurate theoretical calculations are used to design the igloo cooling system. The leads to advantages in several fields, like reduction of labor cost, less energy consumption, better understanding of the physics of the process, etc.

The igloo was built similar as an ice-skating ring, with ducts around the mould of the Pavilion. The structure was sprayed with water and after 3 days with 5 people the igloo got into final shape. Evaluating this project, we can conclude that there is a lot of labor in it (5 people x 3 days x 8 hours = 120 hours) and is not very easy to construct. In search of an easier way to construct this igloo, a new mould was constructed. The result was an igloo-shaped double membrane within a fiber layer (30mm). Between the layers a fluid can be injected as a cooling layer.

2 VACUUM INJECTION

By using a vacuum injection technique, it is possible to have a flat surface without bumps. This technique is used by making objects from

Figure 2 – Vacuum injection

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†, MARK COX†

3

(fiberglass reinforced) polyester like (sailing) ships. By shipbuilding it also used to get the right proportion of resin in the fiberglass (not too much). Vacuum injection is a method in which a thermo set resin is injected between two surfaces. First a fabric is placed between two surfaces. In the end the fiber is just for reinforcement of the polymer. After closing the surfaces a pressure differential is applied that impregnates the fabric with resin. The pressure differential is obtained by means of a vacuum. The injection has to take place within the cure time of a resin. The different pressures arising on the mould are bound to limits. More in detail we have the following relevant pressures on the mould:

– air pressure (ca 1 bar)

– pressure difference between inside (water) and outside (air) which is depending on position at the surface.

This depends on factors like bend/yield force in the surface material and on the velocity of the fluid between the layers. As the fluid acts on the bottom surface by gravitational forces we can see that the height of the fluid column plays an important role in the force balance acting on the surface of the mould. By using the direction of the fluid flow and the average under or overpressure of the system compared to the atmospherical pressure we can decrease or optimize the pressures on the mould. This can be used to optimize the cooling down time for the mould.

3 HEAT ADAPTING MEMBRANE

To make a heat-adapting membrane the resin is replaced by water. The volume between the two layers is put into under-pressure. To keep space between the layers drainage (fiber) material is used. Through this space it is possible to transport water. When glycol is added to the water, the water can be cooled below 0C. In this way it is possible to make ice on the surface of the membrane. Also warm

Figure 4 – Laminar-turbulent

Figure 3 – Ice membrane

Figure 2 – With vacuum

Figure 1 –With over pressure

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†, MARK COX†

4

water can be used to use the membrane as a radiator.

Also important for cooling down and heating up fluids are the hydrodynamics, when a fluid is pumped through a surface there is an amount of flow. The Reynolds figure2 is the most important figure in hydrodynamics. It determines if the flow is turbulent (Red > 3500) or laminar (Red < 2300).

When the flow is turbulent, the fluid can give more energy to the surface it is flowing through. This is due to the effective mixing of the fluid. For laminar flow the coefficient of transition is of the order of 500 W/m2K and for turbulent flow approximately 1500-2000 W/m2K. The membrane in fig 2 turned out to be laminar.

The system works as long as the membranes are 100% fluid closed. If there comes air in the system the fluid pumps will turn down.

The amount of seams increases if the form of the object becomes more complex. It is hard to make a 100% fluid closed envelope out of a polyester reinforced membrane in a complex form with a lot of seams. The problem of the leakage and the other problem of turbulent flow were solved by an improved design. In this design the heating/cooling fluid is pumped through a tube; this tube lays within the fiber. The fiber is filled with water and has underpressure compared to the atmosphere. Therefore only water can leak from the membranes and the flow of the heating/cooling liquid is turbulent.

Important parameters for the design are the tube diameter, distance between the tubes, fluid speed and temperature, glycol/water ratio, layer thickness, coefficients of transition and the surrounding temperatures.

(etc.)

HEAT-TRANSMITTING MEMBRANE

VOLUME 2

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†,MARK COX†

Eindhoven University of Technology

(TU/e)

P.O. Box 513 5600 MB The Netherlands

e-mail: a.d.c.Pronk@tue.nl , info@timdehaas.com or m.g.d.m.cox@tue.nl

Key words: Distance fabric, Climate control, Vacuum

injection.

( . . . )

5 SIMULATIONS

To get more information about the heating or cooling capacities and to optimize the design there are some simulations done. First a simple model is made with only two membranes, fiber and a tube (Figure 7 – Simple setup).

Different situations must be regarded:

– heating/cooling of a space by a heated or cooled

membrane (no phase change (water->ice) present

and no solar radiation)

– the system used to make the igloo ( phase change

present but no solar radiation present)

– systems including phase change and solar

radiation

Figure 6 – 4 sample pieces

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†, MARK COX†

6

Designing well-functioning systems is very difficult when phase changes have to be taken into account. Systems without phase changes can be calculated rather easily with commonly used numerical methods. Depending on the purpose of the membrane some layers of fabric can be added. When this membrane is used as a roof structure, energy losses due to solar radiation can be prevented by adding an insulating layer. This space can be filled with glass wool or with air.

When the membrane is used in a hot climate with a lot of sun it’s better to use a double membrane. The firstlayer will absorb the heat of the sun and when ventilated, the hot air can be removed. The second layer is an insulating layer. The third layer is the cooling layer (Figure 8 – double top layer).

To improve properties and reduce failure, the water layer can be replaced with an aluminum foil. This foil must have enough thickness to transport the energy from the pipes effectively to the space underneath the roof. In the simulation a double 0.1 millimeter aluminum foil is used, which does not make the membrane lose its flexibility and makes it able to roll (Figure 9 – With aluminum foil). At the moment we are researching the lay-up of the complete structure, after that we start testing.

Applications for this way of heat transmitting are:

Tents:

Emergency tents (for example near a battlefield)

Red Cross tents (after a nature disaster)

Temporary accommodation (shops, festivals, etc)

Buildings:

Roof structures (courtyards, double curved roofs,

seasonal roofs, etc.)

Wall structures (seasonal separations/walls, double

curved walls, etc.)

Second skin façades (more in chapter “6 Water façade)

Figure 8 – double top layer

Figure 7 – Simple setup

Figure 8 – With isolation

Figure 9 – With aluminum foil

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†, MARK COX†

7

6 WATER FAÇADE

One of the most promising applications for this heat-transmitting membrane is the use as a second skin façade for the renovation of existing buildings. In this way it is possible to modernise the appearance of an old building in combination with the improvement of the claimed control just by adding a second skin to the existing façade.

The water façade is a second skin façade with a heat-transmitting membrane.

The purpose of this second skin façade is to insulate the building, as a sunscreen and as a solar boiler. The lay-up of the façade is similar to the one used by the climate membrane, two layers of ETFE foil, a permeable PVC layer (15 millimetres) and a water-glycol solution. To keep a nice flat surface there is underpressure between the layers. The membrane fits into a frame that is fixed to the existing façade, between the two façades there’s space for maintenance. In the prototype an inflatable sleeve is applied to stretch the membrane within the frame. The sun heats up the water-glycol solution in between the layer of foil, when this solution is pumped away it can be used to heat up the building. When a heat exchanger is put in between there is a possibility to cool the building, but also heat storage in the bottom makes it possible to heat up the building in wintertime. Chemical additives like dyes can significantly improve the absorption of solar energy.

7 CONCLUSIONS

By using (flexible) multilayer membranes filled with a fluid or an energy-transmitting layer, it is possible to heat up or cool down a space. Applications of the heat-transmitting membrane can be found in front of an existing façade to collect energy en reuse that energy in the building itself. When fluid is used, vacuum injection provides a flat surface of the membrane and therefore the membranes are Figure 11 – Prototype water façade

Figure 10 – Simulation water façade

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†, MARK COX†

8

suitable for roofs and (second skin façade) walls. If there are some extra layers added on the top of the fluid filled membrane, it can filter the radiation from the sun and work as an insulation layer. This membrane can for example be used as a roof structure.

REFERENCE

[1] Pronk, A.D.C., Osinga, D.R. “Making Igloo’s in September”, paper (2005)

[2] Recknagel, Sprenger, Schramek: “Heizung+klima technik”,(1997/98) 68e ed.

[3] De Haas, T.C.A., “Toepassen van textiele warmte plafonds”,research(2006)

Ir. A.D.C. Pronk

Den Dolech 2

Postbus 513

5600 MB Eindhoven

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Fac. Bouwkunde, Vertigo 7.14

site: www.arnopronk.com

***

Method of making fabric reinforced concrete columns to provide …

by FP Isley Jr – 1997 – Cited by 5 – Related articles – All 2 versions

Method of making fabric reinforced concrete columns to provide earthquake protection. United States Patent 5607527. Reinforced concrete columns wherein the …

www.freepatentsonline.com/5607527.html

[PDF]

A NEW APPLICATION OF CFRP FABRICS IN EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT RC …

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML

A NEW APPLICATION OF CFRP FABRICS IN EARTHQUAKE-. RESISTANT RC BRIDGE PIERS. M. Saiidi1, F. Gordaninejad2, B. Gopalakrishnan3, and E. Reinhardt4 …

www.quakewrap.com/…/A-New-Application-Of-CFRP-Fabrics-In-Earthquake-resistant-RC%20Bridge-Piers.pdf

A-New-Application-Of-CFRP-Fabrics-In-Earthquake-resistant-RC Bridge-Piers.pdf

http://www.quakewrap.com/frp%20papers/A-New-Application-Of-CFRP-Fabrics-In-Earthquake-resistant-RC%20Bridge-Piers.pdf

**

Conference presenters share experiences with fabric-formed architectural structures

A conference on the use of fabric formwork for architectural structures drew interest from around the world.

Fabric Architecture | September 2008

By Sharon Roe

The C.A.S.T. building on the University of Manitoba campus, where the Fabric Formwork conference was held. Photo: Daniel J. Green, AIA

* Models of various cast formwork in the lab. Photo: Daniel J. Green, AIA

* Model created by Kenzo Unno in response to the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Photo: Daniel J. Green, AIA

* geosynthetics

Whether you are drawn to the sinewy, sensuous concrete forms shaped by spandex or to the simplicity, efficiency, and flexibility of the geotextile-formwork, this conference was a feast for the eyes and food for the brain. Presenters came from around the world and shared — for the first time as a collective — their experiences with fabric-formed architectural structures.

Fabric-formed concrete uses flexible, permeable textile membranes (geotextile, cotton, spandex) in place of rigid formwork for concrete construction. Excess water and trapped air are allowed to escape through the membrane while the cement paste is retained. This technology eliminates most of the problems encountered in a traditional pour. Also, with the fabric and the minimal supports required to hold the fabric in place, the fluid concrete is free to find balance with the form as the form conforms to the slurry.

Although the elements are beautiful and seductive, most of the builders who are using fabric forms began with a need for practicality. With an eye to the construction site, attention turned to geotextiles. Not only are these durable fabrics already a part of the contractor’s supplies, they function similarly to all other fabrics that have been studied in forming concrete.

Tokyo architect Kenzo Unno developed his construction system in response to the 1995 Kobe earthquake. His requirements were that it had to be earthquake resistant, inexpensive, and easier to build than wood construction. David South, co-founder of Monolithic Constructors Inc. and the Monolithic Domes Institute, uses inflatable fabric forms that are sprayed with concrete to form thin-shelled domes. His system allows for both very large and very small construction, including hand-built housing in developing countries. Sandy Lawton, of Arro-Design, Waitsfield, Vermont, was commissioned to build on a delicate and difficult site. Using fabric Fast-Forms developed by Fab-Form Industries, they were able to drop in the fabric tubes and form five, 9m columns—each column completed in a single pour. Those five columns created a minimal footprint for the remaining construction.

Yet, in spite of all the positives, the construction market has been slow to adopt this new (no matter how simple) technology. Although it seems almost intuitive that these are excellent systems, there are still many questions and uncertainties. Because the forms have complex curves, the engineering calculations for structural loads are atypical. Researchers such as Arno Pronk, Eindhoven University of Technology, Holland, have begun to understand the structural capabilities and improved strengths possible with the fabric form. Pronk recognized the complicated curving structures draped by fabric were similar to clothing so he borrowed analytical software from the fashion industry and successfully modeled and analyzed these form-active structures.

In the end, it all came back to the T-shirt. Although people had worked independently, the integrity of the construction method had made its way around the world, through artist studios, architecture classrooms, developing countries, post-earthquake zones, research labs, and ended up at this conference — the best one I’ve attended in a decade.

The First International Conference: Fabric Formwork Conference for Architectural Structures, held May 16–18, 2008, was organized by Mark West and the group from C.A.S.T. (The Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology), University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

For more information on the conference and the speakers: http://www.fabricforming.org/news_ff_conference.html.

http://www.fabricforming.org/news_ff_conference.html

Sharon Roe is a senior lecturer in the School of Architecture, University of Minnesota College of Design.

http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0908_rp_conference.html

Remo Pedreschi, an Engineer and Professor of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland has done research into flexible formwork and how it allows the construction of a new architectural ‘language’ of sensual fluid forms.

He also demonstrated how fabric provides simple ways of shaping efficiently curved structural members. His presentation described and illustrated techniques for constructing fabric-formed columns, walls, beams, trusses, panels, and thin-shell vaults using plain flat sheets of fabric and standard construction tools, and it explored some of the architectural possibilities opened up by fabric-formed concrete.

***

International Conference on Textile Composites and Inflatable Structures

STRUCTURAL MEMBARNES 2007

E. Oñate, and B. Kröplin, (Eds)

Ó CIMNE, Barcelona, 2007

HEAT-TRANSMITTING MEMBRANE

VOLUME 1

ARNO PRONK*, TIM DE HAAS†,MARK COX†

Eindhoven University of Technology

(TU/e)

P.O. Box 513 5600 MB The Netherlands

***

Win $250,000 for Innovative Solar Power and Customer Financing Systems

Solar energy provides a clean, sustainable, and reliable electrical source. Yet solar power is expensive and in the developing world, buyers often do not have the ability to purchase these systems. So they buy dirty, unreliable, but cheap petrol and diesel generators instead.

Looking for a new solar power

The Solar for All initiative wants to revolutionize this situation by creating systemic change in the entire solar PV value chain and related financial services so solar energy can be affordable to the 1.6 billion people without access to electricity. They’ll achieve that change with three interlocking efforts:

1. $250,000 for New Solar Power Designs

Solar For All is sponsoring a design contest for manufacturers and PV system integrators to develop a “perfectly” designed and adapted solar PV system for rural electrification. The winner receiving a $250,000 investment by Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation.

2. $100 Million for Solar Investments & Financing

The Solar for All investment fund will support the entire solar ecosystem – raw material supply to the production of wafers, PV cells, solar panels, and other components – to make solar energy systems and low energy appliances available and affordable to lower income communities. It also will have financing for social enterprise distributors and end users.

3. Solar Industry Capacity Building

Solar for All is not stopping at chaining the solar power equipment or its financing, they also want to aggregate off-grid PV distributors to create a unified voice for them in industry, government and international development organizations.

Apply to Win Today!

The “Solar for All” contest is now open. “Solar for All” is looking for organizations that demonstrate either:

1. Innovative PV off-grid power supply solutions for low-income end-users in developing countries. These may be solar home systems, mini-grids, hybrid solutions or PV systems with special applications as long as they produce AC or DC power and are focused on end-users.

2. Market-based approaches with business plans, market penetration strategies, or end-user financing – applicants may focus on one or on several of these aspects.

Apply today and good luck improving PV systems and the financing schemes to purchase them.

http://www.ictworks.org/news/2009/12/18/win-250000-innovative-solar-power-and-buyer-financing-systems

DETAILS – Solar for All Contest

The Challenge

Presently 1.6 billion people worldwide, mostly in developing countries, live without access to energy. Modern energy fulfils basic needs, but is also a necessary motor for socio-economic development. Electricity advances developmental factors such as small business development, access to appliances (e.g., refrigeration), extended operation and working hours, access to communications, more security, enhanced education levels and rural development. Energy can improve the life of millions.

In many developing countries with limited access to energy, decentralized solar energy provides a sustainable and reliable energy source. Yet access to energy remains constrained by factors like limited access to well-adapted affordable technology, fragmented small markets, prohibitive taxes, and limited financial resources. The ‘Solar for All’ initiative wants to meet these technical and financial challenges with a global design contest.

KeyCriteria

The “Solar for All” contest focuses on end-user needs. Applications shall demonstrate improvements to the modularity, scalability and replicability of PV systems and advance innovative payment and financing schemes:

1. We are looking for innovative PV off-grid power supply solutions for low-income end-users in developing countries. These may be solar home systems, mini-grids, hybrid solutions or PV systems with special applications. We are open to a broad variety of solutions as long as they produce AC or DC power and are focused on end-users. The technical innovation might be a modular system, that is highly adaptable to local conditions with an intelligent payment system (e.g. RFID) or an anti-theft measure.

2. We are looking for contributors who in addition to their technical innovation, have already developed a market approach. This can be a business plan, a market penetration strategy, installation and maintenance (like after sales services), end-user financing, geographic scalability or other positive socio-economic impacts like the involvement of women. Applicants may focus on one or on several of these aspects.

The “Solar for All” Contest focuses on technical solutions and encourages applications that can also address all other challenges.

Who can apply for the “Solar for All” Contest?

We are looking forward to applications amongst others by manufacturers (e.g. PV modules, battery), system integrators, social entrepreneurs, NGOs or universities. Important is the will and capability of realizing a technical production facility in a challenging environment as the off-grid market in developing countries.

Timeline

1 December 2009 – Contest Announcement

28 February 2010 – Expression of Interest (optional)

30 April 2010 – End of Submission

12 July 2010 – Award Ceremony

Click here to download the Solar for All contest guidlines.adobe

Click here to download the Solar for All contest application form.word

Click here to download contest information in Spanish.pdf

Click here to download contest information in Chinese.pdf

Contact

Canopus Foundation

E-Mail contest@canopusfund.org

Phone +49 761 2020 172

contact: info@canopusfund.org                    © Canopus Foundation

http://www.canopusfund.org/solar_for_all_contest_details.html

***

Guidelines_SfA_Contest_091203.pdf

“Solar For All”

Changing The Energy Landscape

In Developing Countries

Contest For Innovative Photovoltaic Off-Grid

Power Supply Systems

Guidelines

Presented by

2

Content

1. ABSTRACT 3

THE CHALLENGE 3

THE SOLUTION 3

EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION PROCESS 4

AWARD 4

WHO CAN APPLY FOR THE “SOLAR FOR ALL” CONTEST? 4

TIMELINE 5

THE JURY 5

CONTACT 5

2. REQUIREMENTS 5

3. DETAILED SPECIFICATION ON TECHNICAL DESIGN OF THE PV SYSTEM AND MARKET APPROACH 7

3.1 TECHNICAL DESIGN OF THE PV SYSTEM 7

3.1.1 Technical design of innovative PV off-grid power supply systems 7

3.1.2 Technical specifications 7

3.1.3 Metering, control and monitoring 8

3.1.4 Other indicators for large-scale production 9

3.1.5 Quality assurance 9

3.2 MARKET APPROACH 9

3.2.1 Market penetration strategy 10

3.2.2 Installation / Maintenance 11

3.2.3 End-user financing 11

3.2.4 Business plan 11

3.2.5 Geographic scalability 12

3.2.6 Other socio-economic impacts 12

4. EVALUATION CRITERIA 13

4.1 PARTICIPANT QUALIFICATIONS 13

4.2 PARTICIPANTS ELIGIBILITY 13

4.3 PROOF OF CAPACITY AND EXPERIENCE 13

4.4 CONFORMANCE OF SYSTEM DESIGN AND MARKET APPROACH 13

6. ANNEX I: RECOMMENDATIONS ON TECHNICAL COMPONENT SPECIFICATIONS 15

6.1 SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES 15

6.2 PHOTOVOLTAIC CHARGE / SYSTEM CONTROLLER 15

6.3 RECHARGEABLE DEEP CYCLE BATTERY 15

6.4 INVERTERS 15

3

Guidelines for the “Solar for All” contest for

innovative PV off-grid power supply system solutions

together with strategies for market implementation

The “Solar for All” Initiative invites contestants to submit proposals to participate

in a contest to find the most innovative PV power supply system solutions for low

income off-grid customers together with strategies for their market

implementation.

1. Abstract

Ashoka and the Canopus Foundation, initiators of the ‘Solar for All’ initiative, are

launching the “Solar for All” contest to find the most innovative solutions for

providing affordable solar photovoltaic systems to low income off-grid

households. The competition is open to all participants from across the PV

supply chain including manufacturers, PV system integrators, and social

entrepreneurs working to provide sustainable and reliable energy to low income

end-users without access to the electricity grid.

The Challenge

Presently 1.6 billion people worldwide, mostly in developing countries, live

without access to energy. Modern energy fulfils basic needs, but is also a

necessary engine for socio-economic development. Electricity advances

developmental factors such as small business development, access to

appliances (e.g., refrigeration), extended operation and working hours, access to

communications, more security, enhanced education levels and rural

development. Energy can improve the life of millions.

In many developing countries with limited access to energy, decentralized solar

energy provides a sustainable and reliable energy source. Yet, access to energy

remains constrained by factors such as limited access to well-adapted affordable

technology, fragmented small markets, prohibitive taxes, and limited financial

resources. The ‘Solar for All’ initiative wants to meet these technical and financial

challenges with a global design contest.

The Solution

The “Solar for All” contest focuses on end-user needs. Applications should

demonstrate improvements to the modularity, scalability and replicability of PV

systems and advance innovative payment and financing schemes:

1. We are looking for innovative PV off-grid power supply solutions which would

be optimal for low-income end-users in developing countries. These may be

solar home systems, mini-grids, hybrid solutions or PV systems with special

applications. We are open to a broad variety of solutions as long as they

produce AC or DC power and are focused on the needs of the end-users.

The technical innovation might be a modular system, that is highly adaptable

4

to local conditions, delivered with an intelligent payment system (e.g. RFID)

or an anti-theft measure.

2. We are looking for contributors who in addition to their technical innovation

have already developed, or are developing, a strategy for market

implementation. This could be a business plan, covering for example: a

market penetration strategy, installation and maintenance (e.g. after sales

support), end-user financing, as well as the product’s potential for geographic

scalability or other positive socio-economic impacts such as the involvement

of women. Applicants may choose to focus on one or on several of these

aspects.

The “Solar for All” Contest focuses on technical solutions but also encourages

applications which also address the additional challenges of effective delivery to

the end-user as well.

Evaluation criteria for the selection process

In order to carry out the evaluation of the proposals evaluation criteria have been

given for each category. The qualification of each item may have three different

marks according to general requirements, category and added value.

If you want to discuss whether your work is relevant to the “Solar for All” contest,

or have questions about how to fill in the form, then you are welcome to contact

us at contest@canopusfund.org, and one of our team will get in touch with you.

Award

The winner of the ‘Solar for All’ contest will be awarded a $250,000 investment

by Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation. Three of the finalists will also be

recognized for innovations in technology, finance and marketing. Participants in

the contest could also be supported by a projected $100 million solar investment

fund. This new fund, to be established by the ‘Solar for All’ initiative, will invest

across the PV solar value chain, including microfinance or other end-user

financing schemes that help making the product affordable to the end-user.

Who can apply for the “Solar for All” Contest?

We are looking forward to applications by manufacturers (e.g. PV modules,

battery), system integrators, social entrepreneurs, NGOs or universities amongst

others. The winning applicants will demonstrate the drive and capability needed

to overcome the challenges of bringing their product to the off-grid market in

developing countries.

5

Timeline

1 December 2009 Announcement of the contest

31 February 2010 Expression of interest (optional)

30 April 2010 End of submission

12 July 2010 Award ceremony

The Jury

Prof. Eicke Weber, Director Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems

(ISE), Chairman of the jury, Germany

Dipal C. Barua, Director Grameen Shakti, Bangladesh

Patricio Boyd, Director Emprenda, Argentina

David Green, Vice President Ashoka International, USA

Gary Hattem, Managing Director Deutsche Bank and President Deutsche

Bank Americas Foundation, USA

Peter Heller, Director Canopus Foundation, Germany

Andreas Kirchschläger, Director elea Foundation, Switzerland

Richenda Van Leeuwen, Board member Good Energies Foundation,

Switzerland

Ms. Hélène Pelosse, Director General IRENA, France

All the information sent will be seen by the judges and technical assessors. If you

become a finalist it may also be shown to Awards funders and to our publicity

team, and used in publicity materials. Please make it clear if any information

should be restricted to judges only.

Contact

Canopus Foundation

E-Mail contest@canopusfund.org

Phone +49 761 2020 172

Website http://www.sfa-pv.org

2. Requirements

Proposals for innovative PV off-grid power supply systems should cover the

technical design of the PV off-grid power supply system and set out a market

approach (i.e. which off-grid market the product is designed for and a

business plan setting out how that product might be rolled out in that target

market)

6

Each part comprises compulsory and optional categories (which provide

additional value). Each category will be evaluated based on the suggested

and expected items.

The proposal should follow the “application form” and has to cover all the

required criteria.

Applications should be submitted in English. Please contact us if submitting a

proposal in English presents difficulties for you.

The contest proposals must include already-commercialised and established

products or at least a promising prototype which has been proven under

laboratory conditions. Applications with already-commercialized products

should confirm the performance capabilities of the system by providing

operational data as well as details of technical applications and

demonstration of customer acceptance. If necessary, a technical assessor

will contact the applicant to carry out system inspections.

7

3. Detailed specification on technical design of the PV

system and market approach

Please note that general requirements are compulsory, whereas others add

value to your application and can rather be seen as suggestions.

3.1 Technical Design of the PV System

Description of the main categories and items for the technical design for

innovative PV off-grid power supply systems:

3.1.1 Technical design of innovative PV off-grid power supply systems

General requirements

For each proposal only one system design will be accepted;

All systems have to be designed to generate and provide electricity. If extra

heat/power generation or other by-products are also produced in addition to

electricity this is also eligible;

The system design proposed has to be based on Photovoltaic solar energy.

Categorisation

The PV system design:

May be combined with other different renewable energy technologies (Wind,

Hydro, Biomass, etc.) as hybrid PV system solutions;

is able to provide DC and/or AC power;

May have a storage system;

May have one of the following configurations:

Stand-alone (i.e. solar home systems)

Hybrid PV systems powering stand-alone applications

Hybrid PV systems powering mini-grids

PV systems for special applications, e.g. solar water pumps or others

applications

Exclusions

Systems based on renewable energy solutions which do not include solar PV or

proposals not including the compulsory items will not be considered.

Technical specifications

The description of the system and the technical design have to include the

following technical specifications:

8

General requirements

Size, dimension and capacity of the system design;

Layout and blueprints;

Installation, construction and commissioning (e.g. Installation manuals).

Added value

Product safeties such as anti-theft measures;

Special or innovative features of the design;

The extent to which the product is adapted for local conditions: e.g.

modularity, use of local content for materials or components, installation and

operation advantages, etc.;

Main performance indicators of the components and the system. They may

highlight the advantages of the system design;

Training and user information (e.g. User manuals).

3.1.2 Metering, control and monitoring

The PV Off-Grid Power Supply System design should include a measurement

system that provides values of the relevant input and output variables during the

operation of the system. Relevant input/output variables include for example the

generation of kWh of the solar module, the battery throughput and the energy

consumed by the end users.

The Innovative PV Off-Grid Power Supply System has to include:

General requirements

Methods/instruments or other concepts that make it possible to generate

information about the operation of the system;

The scope of the metering, control and monitoring system has to be specified

for each system design and may include the following components:

Added value

Methods and instruments to guarantee the expected electricity service for the

end-user (quality assurance);

Methods/instruments/system-interfaces that provide information about the

electricity supply for the operator (quality assurance);

Identification of electricity demand growth;

Identification of failures, O&M abnormalities, maintenance & replacement

needs and intervals;

Communication possibilities/capabilities for cross-border information and data

transfer;

Innovative concepts for metering and payment (e.g. RFID)

A technology platform to facilitate end-user finance.

9

3.1.3 Other indicators for large-scale production

Added value

Delivery, construction and commissioning time, specified numbers;

After sales services, delivery time and effort for replacement and

maintenance;

Transportation weight, needed space, special requirements for

transportation;

Maximization of the potential for local sourcing (materials and work force)

3.1.4 Quality assurance

Quality assurance comprises not only the quality of the system design, but also

of the installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance, as well as long

term after-sales support. Warranties and certified components enable

standardisation across the off-grid industry and ensure that the customer is both

protected and aware of the service levels that can be expected.

The Proposal should include:

General requirement

Description of components (technical specifications) of the system design;

Minimum warranties for products have to be included. Detailed technical

system specifications for main components (PV module or other generators,

charge controllers, inverters, storage) and others may be submitted with

annexes;

The Innovative PV Off-Grid Power Supply System may also include:

Added value

Detailed technical system specifications/certifications for main components

(PV module or other generators, charge controllers, inverters, storage);

Operation and maintenance services, and after-sales services may be

specified;

Modularity and flexibility of the systems and their components to meet

unpredictable demand;

The possibility of upgrading already existing systems with new products;

Recommendations for quality conformance.

3.2 Market approach

The proposal should set out the contestant’s proposed market approach i.e.

setting out a strategy of how the PV system will be produced, installed,

maintained and made affordable for low income customers in the target off-grid

market.

10

The market approach section of the Proposal should include discussion of:

1. Market penetration strategy: e.g. which geography? How many systems are

expected to be installed? In what time frame?; Description of the marketing

approach;

2. Installation and maintenance: e.g. which product packages will be offered,

and description of after sales services; discussion of installation

capacity/skills needed/staff required;

3. End-user financing: e.g. which consumer financing models will be adopted,

the partnerships needed to offer these, and description of any innovative

payment collection methods;

4. Business plan: e.g. description of financing requirements and potential

sources of finance; provision of cash flow forecasts with underlying

assumptions. The information should demonstrate the economic feasibility of

the business plan;

5. Geographic scalability: e.g. is the product region-specific or can it easily be

adapted and rolled out in other geographies? Is the product adapted for local

cultural preferences in any way?

6. Other socio-economic impacts: e.g. how does the product improve living

conditions, what quantifiable measurements demonstrate this? Are there any

other societal benefits? (e.g. economic empowerment of women, local job

creation).

The main categories and items to guide applicants in setting out their market

approach for delivering their innovative PV off-grid power supply system are as

follows:

3.2.1 Market penetration strategy

The Proposal should set out a market penetration strategy describing overall

marketing and sales projections. The recommended information could cover the

following:

Sales forecast, e.g. number of systems, time frame, number of people

served;

Marketing campaign, e.g. which channels will be used to market the product?

Examples might be education, communication media, through strategic

partners such as NGOs etc;

Promoters, e.g. number of promoters and the incentives offered to them;

Sales network;

Branches/regional offices;

Staffing requirements, recruiting strategy, incentives offered to staff;

Use of any existing distribution channels, such as micro-finance networks.

11

3.2.2 Installation / Maintenance

The Proposal should set out the contestant’s strategy for installing and providing

ongoing maintenance for the solar PV system, including:

Description of the installation and support package offered to consumers;

Organization and Logistics for installation and maintenance;

Technical staff needed (including describing recruiting strategy, training

compensation);

Description of how equipment performance will be monitored.

3.2.3 End-user financing

The Proposal should set out the Contestant’s ideas on how to make the solar PV

system affordable to the end-user, for example whether through leasing or

through partnership with a micro-finance institution to offer a hire-purchase loan.

This section of the Proposal should discuss:

What would be the basic consumer finance offer (if any) to the end-user? e.g.

Cash payment only, rent, or some form of micro-loan? On what terms?

Will this financing be delivered in partnership with an MFI or bank, or inhouse?

How much capital will be needed to support the end-user financing?

What are the technical solutions for collecting payment? e.g. RFID

What is the depth of poverty outreach, e.g. can multi-tier pricing be employed

in order to reach the lowest income households?

What would the applicant’s policy be in event of Non Repayment of the

micro-loan (if applicable)?

3.2.4 Business plan

The Proposal should set out an indicative business plan, covering the following:

Cash flow forecasts for next 5 years, setting out the underlying cost and

revenue assumptions (e.g. based on price and sales forecasts)

For projects that are already operating, financial statements for the previous

2 years should also be provided (to extent available)

Expected working capital requirements of the business and how working

capital will be financed

Amount of funding needed to implement the business plan

Sources and uses of funds, i.e:

Where will the capital be sourced? (e.g. Bank debt, equity, grants)

What will the capital be used for?

How will the capital be repaid? In what time-frame, and with what

potential return?

12

End-user finance plan – what are the financing requirements of the consumer

finance proposal (if applicable) set out in the Proposal?

Risk Assessment of the business plan, highlighting the key risks to

implementation and factors to mitigate those risks.

3.2.5 Geographic scalability

The Proposal should address the extent to which the PV system and market

implementation strategy are adaptable to other geographies and markets, for

example by discussing:

Suitability of the product under different solar radiation variances;

Environmental adaptivity of the PV system ; e.g. performance in different

climates;

Cultural preferences – is the product design tailored for a specific market?

Regional expansion strategy;

Availability of local financial institutions who may be needed as key partners

for marketing, distribution, maintenance or end-user finance;

Local human resource capabilities – to what extent will module

construction/installation/maintenance depend on skilled local staff? Will these

be readily available?

3.2.6 Other socio-economic impacts

The Proposal may wish to highlight any other particular socio-economic impacts

that the Contestant believes to be important arising from his or her market

solution, such as:

Improving livelihood and health conditions;

Creation of new green jobs;

Economic empowerment of women;

Encouraging small-business entrepreneurs;

Reduction of CO2 emissions;

Any other social impacts e.g. contribution to social development.

13

4. Evaluation Criteria

The contest proposals must include already-commercialised and established

products or at least a promising prototype which has been proven under

laboratory conditions. Applications with already-commercialized products should

confirm the performance capabilities of the system by providing operational data

as well as details of technical applications and demonstration of customer

acceptance. If necessary, a technical assessor will contact the applicant to carry

out system inspections.

4.1 Participant Qualifications

An assessment will be made of the candidate’s practical experience in PV

systems and applications.

4.2 Participants Eligibility

Any organisation or individual that provides solutions for off-grid power supply

based on PV can apply, e.g. suppliers, installers, producers, distributors, system

integrators, and others.

4.3 Proof of Capacity and Experience

Proof of adequate capacity (financial and human resources) as well as

experience in order to meet the minimum requirements must be provided. An

assessment will be undertaken to evaluate all proposals.

Previous experience in similar projects (off grid electrification);

Quality technical staff;

Quality of management team;

Quality of project management plan;

Financial stability.

4.4 Conformance of system design and market approach

The categories for Technical Design of the PV System are:

1. Technical design of innovative PV off-grid power supply systems;

2. Technical specifications;

3. Metering, control and monitoring;

4. Other indicators for large-scale production;

5. Quality assurance.

14

The categories for assessing the Market Approach are:

1. Market penetration strategy;

2. Installation and maintenance;

3. End user financing;

4. Business plan;

5. Geographic scalability;

6. Other socio-economic impacts.

15

5. Annex I: Recommendations on Technical Component

Specifications

5.1 Solar Photovoltaic Modules

The Solar Panels shall meet the requirements set in IEC 61215:2005.

If thin film silicon modules are used, they shall meet the requirements set in IEC

61646: Thin Film Silicon Terrestrial PV Modules Design Qualification and Type

Approval.

Each module must be labelled with Manufacturer, Model, Peak Watt Rating, etc.

Manufacturer of solar panels along with date of manufacture must be stated in

current production.

Performance guarantee has to cover at least 20 years of operation.

5.2 Photovoltaic Charge / System Controller

The charge controller shall meet the recommended specifications PVRS 6/6A of

the Photovoltaic Global Approval Program-PVGAP.

The regulator or charge controller must protect the battery against overcharging

and excessive discharge, as well as provide user-information on the general

state of the system.

The regulator must protect the loads against damaging related to operation

without a battery.

The regulator must include, as a minimum, the following signs:

Charging mode;

State of battery: charged, half full and empty;

The performance guarantee shall cover at least 3 years of operation.

5.3 Rechargeable Deep Cycle Battery

The battery should be a maintenance free deep-cycle battery. The battery can be

either vented or VRLA gel type lead-acid.

Alternative battery types (e.g. lithium batteries) are allowed as well, if they meet

given requirements as it is described in (3).

The battery shall meet the requirements and recommendations given in IEC

61427: 2005.

5.4 Inverters

The inverters shall meet at least the recommended specifications

PVRS 8/8A of the Photovoltaic Global Approval Program-PVGAP

http://www.canopusfund.org/docs/Guidelines_SfA_Contest_091203.pdf

***

http://www.canopusfund.org/solar_for_all_contest_details.html

http://www.canopusfund.org/docs/Application%20Form.doc

Click here to download the Solar for All contest application form.word

***

commons@usaid.com

Website:

http://www.usaid.gov/commons

http://and

http://www.GlobalDevelopmentCommons.net

Office:

USAID – Global Development Commons

Location:

1300 Pennsylvania Ave

Washington, DC

Basic Info

Name:

Global Development Commons (GDC)

Category:

Organizations – Advocacy Organizations

Description:

The Global Development Commons promotes innovation in international development through knowledge sharing, partnerships, and collaborative problem solving.

This initiative has been introduced and catalyzed by the US Agency for International Development (USAID).

Connect. Collaborate. Innovate.

Privacy Type:

Open: All content is public

News:

Check out our newly launched website at http://www.GlobalDevelopmentCommons.net.

Category:

Organizations – Advocacy Organizations

Description:

The Global Development Commons promotes innovation in international development through knowledge sharing, partnerships, and collaborative problem solving.

This initiative has been introduced and catalyzed by the US Agency for International Development (USAID).

***

From Anderson Cooper 360 Show on CNN,  (01-20-2010)

COOPER: Breaking news out of Washington about our top story tonight: why badly needed supplies have been so slow in coming? Just moments ago, we heard this from a senior administration official who said and was involved in the operation. The official knowledge that medical supplies were not getting in fast enough and there is, quote, “great concern on the part of the U.S. about this problem”.

The official says the problem is basically there’s a pair of factors involved. Coordination — some flights with medical teams, equipment and supplies were diverted and that the folks making those decisions didn’t really know what was on board those things. And the right people weren’t sitting there to help them decide which to prioritize.

They hope that’s going to change. They made a decision that somebody with knowledge of what’s on the planes is going to be sitting in the air traffic control. That’s going to change within the next day, they say. Also in the next 24 hours, they’re going to open up other airport facilities.

The other factor the official says is security. We’ve been talking about this security issue, which I think is just kind of completely overblown. Yes, there’s looting in some places. But there’s this U.N. rule that any convoy has to have security if it’s working at night or anything like that. I don’t know. We all go around all the time.

IVAN WATSON, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Can I point something out? Last night I was at a rescue operation. And there’s some medics, British medics who had to get to a clinic about 250 yards away with about a two-minute walk that I would do with a flashlight by myself. They had to be escorted in pickup trucks by U.N. security to make that drive, which really did seem ridiculous.

COOPER: And that’s — that causes time, that causes delays, it doesn’t let supplies leave the airport because they’ve got to round up some security people and there’s clearly not enough to go around.

GUPTA: I saw this firsthand, obviously, doctors leaving — being escorted.

COOPER: Right on Friday night.

GUPTA: By U.N. because of security concerns as well.

At some point someone made a decision that we’re going to emphasize security and that’s going to cost some of this medical and humanitarian relief. Here’s the thing as you and I talked about this. If you give medical and humanitarian relief, you much dramatically decrease the need for security. You decrease desperation and desperation obviously could possibly lead to problems.

But they’re not getting medical aid there. And that’s going to cause a security problem.

COOPER: Frankly, I’m amazed at how receptive and after eight days patient and tolerant the Haitian people are in Port-au-Prince. I mean, desperate people, yes, but by and large getting along with one another; incredibly happy to see anybody trying to help them. And it’s not as if we’re in a bunker here and need constant around the clock, an army of people around us.

WATSON: I had the same experience the entire time here. This is my first assignment in Haiti. I knew it was a tough place. I have not felt physically threatened a single time. And let’s face it, I don’t blend here.

http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1001/20/acd.02.html

***

BLITZER: Hurricane Katrina is the closest the U.S. has come in modern times to a disaster like the one in Haiti. That’s not lost on New Orleans’ Mayor Ray Nagin. The mayor is here in Washington for some meetings with the U.S. Conference of Mayors. Listen to what he said over at the White House earlier today.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

MAYOR RAY NAGIN, NEW ORLEANS: But it strikes me as being eerily similar, the phases that the Haitian people are going through and what I experienced after Hurricane Katrina. And I’m still very concerned that not only is our nation not prepared for a catastrophe, but the whole world seems to be struggling with dealing with this catastrophe. If another catastrophe like Katrina happened in our country, I’m not sure we’re ready for it because we haven’t made the fundamental changes that we need to make.

http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1001/21/sitroom.03.html

***

Life in Haiti this morning largely taking place on the streets and in makeshift tent communities in part because survivors are simply terrified that the remaining structures could still collapse. We talked about that huge aftershock yesterday. So what will it take to rebuild Haiti?

Our Jason Carroll is live in Port-au-Prince. And we know that as engineers go through and start to examine things, they have to figure out whether there’s anything that can be salvaged or if they have to start over from scratch.

JASON CARROLL, CNN NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Exactly. We spent part of our day with engineers yesterday. This effort is going to take time. It’s going to take money, and it’s going to take discipline. Discipline to adopt uniform building codes when they decide to rebuild.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

CARROLL (voice-over): Port-au-Prince is about to face many questions about its future. How does the city rebuild when there’s still so much destruction? Should damaged structures still standing be torn down?

Eva Michelle isn’t waiting for answers. Her house destroyed, she salvaged what she could and watched as workers started demolishing it. It’s being torn down the same way it was built, by unlicensed workers. No codes to follow on tearing down. Or Michelle says, to build.

EVA MICHELLE, HOME DESTROYED IN EARTHQUAKE: No.

CARROLL: None?

MICHELLE: No.

CARROLL: No code?

MUCHELLE: No.

CARROLL: No regulation?

MICHELLE: No.

CARROLL: Haitians say that’s the way it’s done. License is not required. Codes, where they even exist, not enforced. It’s part of the reason so much was destroyed in the earthquake and why structural engineers like Kit Miyamoto from California are here now.

KIT MIYAMOTO, EARTHQUAKE AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Remove those things out, that can go right into.

CARROLL: This is Miyamoto’s first full day on the ground with a nonprofit called The Pan American Development Foundation. The goal? Rapid assessment, meaning quickly investigate the structural integrity of 10 buildings a day.

This was the Ministry of Finance. It’s symbolic of what went wrong with many buildings, including their presidential palace.

MIYAMOTO: The reinforced ministry wall, right? Because that’s the brick and without no rebar. That’s dangerous.

CARROLL: Miyamoto says rebar can make a building more flexible when it shakes, but much of the city’s businesses and homes use brick without the reinforced steel bar.

(on camera): What do you do? Do you just demolish these buildings and then cart out all the debris and then start fresh?

MIYAMOTO: It depends. For example, this one. Probably it’s not solid. But many buildings can be repaired.

CARROLL: Engineers tell us when Port-au-Prince does rebuild, they have to use new building codes and make sure those codes are enforced.

(voice-over): And engineers like Keith Martin with the Los Angeles County Fire Department say rebuilding, or retrofitting, is not something that can or should be rushed.

KEITH MARTIN, LA COUNTY FIRE SEARCH AND RESCUE: You’re talking to be done correctly something that’s going to take years to do.

CARROLL (on camera): Years?

MARTIN: Years, to do it correctly.

CARROLL (on camera): Years?

MARTIN: Years, to do it correctly.

CARROLL (voice-over): Even Michelle (ph) says she doesn’t have the money right now to rebuild, but if she does, she hopes there are guidelines to show her and the other people of Port-au-Prince a better way.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

CARROLL: And you know, Kiran, the reality is it may be very difficult to change old ways here. But the engineers say at least what Haiti has to do is have these building codes for key buildings, such as schools, hospitals, government buildings. They say that, at least, will be a start — Kiran?

CHETRY: Certainly, a major, major challenge ahead, no doubt. Jason Carroll for us this morning in Port-au-Prince. Thanks.

(from)

http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1001/21/ltm.01.html

CARROLL: Haitians say that’s the way it’s done. License is not required. Codes, where they even exist, not enforced. It’s part of the reason so much was destroyed in the earthquake and why structural engineers like Kit Miyamoto from California are here now.

KIT MIYAMOTO, EARTHQUAKE AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Remove those things out, that can go right into.

CARROLL: This is Miyamoto’s first full day on the ground with a nonprofit called The Pan American Development Foundation. The goal? Rapid assessment, meaning quickly investigate the structural integrity of 10 buildings a day.

http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1001/21/ltm.01.html

***

Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and related structures: Controlled synthesis and directed assembly

Melechko, A. V., V. I. Merkulov, T. E. McKnight, M. A. Guillorn, K. L. Klein, D. H. Lowndes, and M. L. Simpson

Abstract

The controlled synthesis of materials by methods that permit their assembly into functional nanoscale structures lies at the crux of the emerging field of nanotechnology. Although only one of several materials families is of interest, carbon-based nanostructured materials continue to attract a disproportionate share of research effort, in part because of their wide-ranging properties. Additionally, developments of the past decade in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have opened additional possibilities for their use as functional elements in numerous applications. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a subclass of carbon nanostructured materials that can be produced with a high degree of control using catalytic plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (C-PECVD). Using C-PECVD the location, diameter, length, shape, chemical composition, and orientation can be controlled during VACNF synthesis. Here we review the CVD and PECVD systems, growth control mechanisms, catalyst preparation, resultant carbon nanostructures, and VACNF properties. This is followed by a review of many of the application areas for carbon nanotubes and nanofibers including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, scanning probe microscopy tips, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), hydrogen and charge storage, and catalyst support. We end by noting gaps in the understanding of VACNF growth mechanisms and the challenges remaining in the development of methods for an even more comprehensive control of the carbon nanofiber synthesis process. ©2005 American Institute of Physics

References

1. T.V. Hughes and C.R. Chambers, Manufacture of Carbon Filaments, US Patent No. 405, 480, (1889).

L. V. Radushkevich and V. M. Lukyanovich, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 26, 88 (1952).

http://tolik.sciencedom.com/publications/papers/paper40.htm

This article appeared in J. Appl. Phys. 97, 041301 (2005) and may be found at (URL/link for published article abstract).

Copyright (2005) American Institute of Physics.

Contact information

Anatoli V. Melechko

Department of Materials Science and Engineering

North Carolina State University

Campus Box 7919

Raleigh, NC 27695

(and)

218 Research Building I

Department of Materials Science and Engineering

North Carolina State University

1001 Capability Dr.

Raleigh, NC 27695

USA

***

doi:10.1063/1.1857591

PACS: 81.05.Uw, 81.07.De, 81.16.Hc, 81.15.Gh, 79.70.+q, 61.46.+w, 68.65.-k, 52.77.-j, 85.85.+j, 85.35.Kt        Additional Information

View ISI’s Web of Science data for this article: [ Source Abstract  | Related Articles  ]

VACNF_review.pdf

M. L. Simpsona!

Molecular-Scale Engineering and Nanoscale Technologies Research Group, Oak Ridge National

Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6006, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6006, Materials Science

and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200, and Center

for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056

M. A. Guillorn

Cornell Nanoscale Science and Technology Facility, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-2000

http://tolik.sciencedom.com/publications/papers/pdf_papers/VACNF_review.pdf

A. V. Melechko

Molecular-Scale Engineering and Nanoscale Technologies Research Group, Oak Ridge National

Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6006, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6006 and Materials Science

and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200

A. Methods of synthesis of carbon materials

The methods for synthesizing carbon nanostructures include

laser vaporization,5 arc discharge,6,37 catalytic

chemical-vapor deposition sC-CVDd, and catalytic plasmaenhanced

chemical-vapor deposition sC-PECVDd. While arc

discharge and laser ablation are very efficient methods for

producing high-quality nanotube material in large quantities,

they do not offer control over the spatial arrangement of the

produced nanostructures. Complex purification procedures

are also required to remove amorphous carbon particles and

entangled catalyst in order to obtain a useful material. At this

time, only C-CVD allows controlled synthesis of carbon

nanotubes and nanofibers and only C-PECVD allows deterministic

synthesis in which the location, alignment, size,

shape, and structure of each individual nanofiber are controlled

during synthesis. The material obtained by this

method can be considered phase pure, that is, no purification

process is necessary. Furthermore, the defined and accessible

position of the catalyst particle, especially at the tip, makes

its optional extraction simplified.38,39 Here we review only

CVD and PECVD synthesis methods in detail

B. Catalytic thermal chemical-vapor deposition

1. Thermal CVD and catalytic thermal CVD

Chemical-vapor deposition involves the adsorption, desorption,

evolution, and incorporation of vapor species at the

surface of a growing film. Since heat is the main energy

source for reactions to occur, the CVD process is also often

referred to as thermal CVD sTCVDd. Process temperatures

for TCVD production of carbon nanostructures typically lie

in the range from 400 to 1000 °C. Catalytic CVD sor

C-CVDd differs from CVD by involvement of a catalyst in

the decomposition of vapor species on the catalyst surface

and requires process temperatures similar to TCVD. Accordingly,

the catalytically controlled thermal CVD will be abbreviated

as C-TCVD. In addition to thermal excitation,

methods include photoexcitation and electrical glow discharge

sor plasmad.

In a catalytic growth the deposition of carbon usually

occurs on one side of the surface of a catalyst particle. Thus,

two of the dimensions of the growing “film” are limited by

the size of the particle, while the third dimension is not

bound, leading to quasi-one-dimensional growth. In many

synthesis processes, the diameter of the resultant carbon filament

is approximately equal to that of the nanoparticle in the

range from 5 to 500 nm. However, there is evidence that, for

example, single-walled carbon nanotubes originate on catalyst

particles that are significantly larger in size than the

nanotubes themselves s1 nmd.

The apparatus for C-TCVD usually consists of a quartz

tube inside a furnace with a controllable source gas flow

sFig. 6d. There are two common methods of introducing the

catalyst into the system: supported catalyst and floating catalyst.

In the supported catalyst method, the catalyst is deposited

onto a substrate which is then placed inside the tube

furnace se.g., Ref. 40d. In the floating catalyst method, the

catalyst particles form from a source gas and are not attached

to a substrate. For example, the high-pressure carbon monoxide

sHiPcod process, which allows a high volume production

of carbon nanotubes, is one such floating catalyst

method.41

C-TCVD has been successfully used to synthesize a

whole range of carbon nanostructures. Carbon nanofiber synthesis

using C-TCVD has been observed since the late

1950s.2,3 Recently, C-TCVD has been optimized for the

growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes sMWCNTsd,42 and

even single-walled carbon nanotubes sSWCNTsd.40,43 It is

believed that SWCNTs are favored in CVD if the catalyst

particles are small and the carbon supply is low, with sufficient

energy in the system sT.900 °Cd.44 The catalyst particle

preparation was found to be crucial in control of the

structure of nanotubes.

By combining an efficient trilayer catalyst thin film ssupported

catalystd, developed by Delzeit et al.,45 with introduction

of ferrocene sfloating catalystd in addition to acetylene,

Eres et al. produced dense arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled

nanotubes by C-TCVD that are 3.5 mm tall.46 Recently

Eres et al. reported that after optimization, the maximum

length of the nanotube achieved by this method was

9.25 mm.47

2. C-TCVD growth mechanisms

The catalytic nature of the carbon filament growth process

was established by Tesner and co-workers48,49 who

showed that carbon filaments had metal particles associated

with them. The growth mechanism leading to the formation

of carbon nanofibers has been studied by many different

groups. Baker et al. used in situ electron microscopy techniques

to directly observe the manner by which small metal

particles generated carbon nanofibers during the decomposition

of acetylene.50 From an analysis of recorded image sequences

they measured the rates of growth of the material

and determined some of the kinetic parameters involved in

the process. On the basis of these experiments, a growth

mechanism was proposed that was later refined to include the

following steps: sid adsorption and decomposition of the reactant

hydrocarbon molecule on a surface of catalyst, siid

dissolution and diffusion of carbon species through the metal

particle, and siiid precipitation of carbon on the opposite surface

of the catalyst particle to form the nanofiber structure.

Figure 7 shows a schematic diagram that illustrates the key

features of this growth model for a tip-type carbon nanofiber

structure, where precipitation occurs on the bottom surface

of the catalyst particle, thus elevating the particle, which remains

at the tip throughout the growth. The chemical nature

of the metal catalyst, the reaction temperature, and the composition

of the reactant gas dictate the morphology and degree

of crystalline perfection exhibited by the carbon nanofibers.

The kinetics of the three steps listed above determines

the growth rate. The supply-limited process depends on the

rates of arrival of different gas species to the catalyst surface,

their adsorption rates, and their respective decomposition

rates. It has been argued that diffusion of carbon through the

metal catalyst particle is the rate-determining step, as supported

by the close agreement between the measured activation

energy for nanofiber growth and that for carbon diffusion

through the respective metals used as catalysts. Initially,

the driving force for the bulk diffusion of carbon through the

metal particle was ascribed to a temperature gradient,50,51

which was believed to develop due to exothermic reactions

of decomposition on the surface of the catalyst. Later, it was

proposed that concentration gradients drove the carbon diffusion

through the catalyst particle, and there are several

hypotheses about the processes involved in the formation of

such concentration gradient. Nielsen and Trimm proposed

that the carbon solubility at the gas/metal interface differs

from that at the metal/carbon interface, since the activity of

carbon in the gas phase may be much higher than one.52

Sacco et al. suggested that the mass flux originates from the

solubility difference between carbon at the alpha-iron/Fe3C

interface and that between alpha-iron and carbon itself.53

Kock et al. proposed that the driving force for bulk carbon

diffusion is the gradient of the carbon content of substoichiometric

carbides, whereby the carbon content decreases in the

direction of the metal/carbon interface.54 Central to the

model of Alstrup is the assumption that the carbon atoms

entering the selvedge, which consists of subsurface layers

that differ from the ideal structure of bulk crystal, create a

“surface carbide” that forms the source of carbon atoms diffusing

through the bulk of the metal particle.55

(Etc.)

Downloaded 04 Feb 2005 to 128.219.65.64. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright, see http://jap.aip.org/jap/copyright.jsp

http://tolik.sciencedom.com/publications/papers/pdf_papers/VACNF_review.pdf

***

http://www.bnl.gov/CFN/docs/Secretarial_Policy_Statement_rev2.pdf

Secretarial_Policy_Statement_rev2.pdf

implementation of the BNL Interim Procedure “Approach to Nanomaterial ESH”

o BNL is in receipt of the recently issued (December, 2007) ASTM International’s standard ASTM E2535-07, Standard Guide for Handling Unbound Engineered Nanoscale Particles in Occupational Settings. Review of that standard and discussions between the participants in the NSRC Directors’ ES&H Nanomaterial ES&H working group and BNL nanotechnology SMEs, indicate that BNL has achieved compliance with all the recommendations of this consensus standard except for the training section. Plans for completion of the recommended training are in progress.

[ . . . ]

2 Identification and Management of EH&S Hazards

2 In conformance the general principle in the National Research Council’s Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories, Laboratory personnel should treat “all new compounds, or those of unknown toxicity, as though they could be acutely toxic in the short run and chronically toxic in the long run”

DOE Policy: “DOE and its contractors will identify and manage potential health and safety hazards and potential environmental impacts at sites through the use of the existing Integrated Safety Management System, including Environmental Management Systems”.

January 7, 2008 2

ISM at BNL is implemented through the Environmental Management System (ISO 14001 registered), the Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSAS 18001 registered), and the Work Planning program which drives the following;

.. Establishing goals that drive continual improvement of ESH programs,

.. Measuring progress towards achieving these goals,

.. Establishing operational controls to reduce risk,

.. Review of all work activities for risk analysis and control,

.. Periodically reviewing performance with management,

.. Communicating with stakeholders and neighbors to address concerns.

o All proposed experimental work performed on nanoscale materials at BNL is reviewed using the BNL Experimental Safety Review (ESR) process (a subset of the Work Planning program), to identify the hazards associated with the proposed work and to establish the necessary set of ESH controls to allow the experimental work to be performed safely.

.. The ESR process is managed by a Departmental Experimental Review Coordinator

.. Information required for a comprehensive ESH review is collected when a proposal is made for work at BNL using a screening process. This includes:

o Identification of materials and precursors to be brought on site

o Identification of equipment needed for handling and analysis of the nanoscale materials.

o A description of the tasks involved.

o A risk analysis

o A contingency plan (if appropriate).

o A waste disposal plan.

.. The SBMS interim procedure “Approach to Nanomaterial ESH” is used to identify specific controls appropriate for the type of nanomaterials used in the experiment.

http://www.bnl.gov/CFN/docs/Secretarial_Policy_Statement_rev2.pdf

***

http://geosynthetica.net/tech_docs/KoernerSympFrankKo.pdf

KoernerSympFrankKo.pdf

Seminar in Honor of Professor Robert Koerner

September 13,2004

1

From Textile to Geotextiles

Frank K. Ko

Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Drexel University

ABSTRACT

A wealth of textile structures is available for a broad range of geotechnical applications.

An understanding of the dynamic interaction between the textile structure and the

geotechnical environment is essential in the design and selection of textile materials for

geotextile applications. Multiaxial warp knit structures and braided structures are

introduced as examples of this understanding while demonstrating their potential as

multifunctional structural geotextiles. This paper concludes by reviewing a new way of

joining geotextiles by robotic one-side stitching technology and by examining the

implication of emerging nanofiber technologies for the next generation of geotextiles.

INTRODUCTION

The name of Professor Robert Koerner is synonymous with geotextiles and

geosynthetics. His name is associated with pioneering development in the 1970’s, fueled

by his tireless offering of a series of courses in geotextiles in the Philadelphia Engineers

Club, around the US and the world. These lectures cumulated in the first book on

geotextiles in 1980. At Drexel, he played a leadership role in stimulating the formation of

various centers of excellence in 1986, thus officially kicking off the steady growth of the

Geotextile Research Institute (GRI) into a leading R&D center for geosynthetics.

Professor. Koerner’s tireless efforts in educating generations of civil engineers and

textile/polymer material engineers (as well as the creative design and characterization

methodologies that he developed) have played a major role in the explosive growth of

geotextiles in the past three decades (Figure 1). It would not be exaggerating to honor

Professor Koerner by calling this the Koerner Growth Curve.

FABRIC PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

Fabric performance characteristics are a result of the interaction between fiber (material

properties), yarn and fabric geometry, and finishing treatment. Textile structures in fabric

form (produced by yarn-to-fabric such as woven and knitted fabrics or fiber-to-fabric

processes such as nonwoven fabrics) can be characterized in terms of geometric and

performance properties. Performance maps provide an overview of the range of behavior

of various fabrics as a function of four geometric parameters and four performance

parameters.

Geometric parameters include:

1) Porosity: the amount of open space in a unit volume of the fabric. As the fiber

diameter and yarn diameter increases, the structure tends to be porous. The

porosity of a fabric is inversely proportional to the areal coverage or cover factor

of a fabric. A porous fabric tends to be lighter and more permeable.

2) Surface Texture: The surface geometry of a fabric is characterized by the

smoothness of the surface, which in turn is governed by fiber and yarn diameter.

Modular fiber or yarn length are the geometric repeating units of the fabric.

3) Voluminosity: A reflection of the bulkiness of a fabric for a given areal density

(mass per unit area). A fabric tends to be more voluminous if the fiber/yarn

diameter is larger and the freedom of fiber mobility in the geometric repeating

unit is high. Voluminosity is directly related to fiber thickness in that a

voluminous fabric tends to be thick.

4) Thickness of the fabric: Similar to voluminosity, fabric thickness is related to

fiber and yarn diameter. The larger the fiber and yarn diameter, the thicker and

bulkier the fabric.

Preform parameters include:

1) Permeability: The ease of air or liquid flow through a fabric. The permeability

of a fabric is higher when the fabric porosity is high. Porosity and fiber volume

fraction (1-porosity) are related to packing efficiency, which is influenced by fiber

diameter and fiber cross-sectional geometry. Permeability is a strong function of

fiber or yarn diameter for a given fiber architecture (fiber orientation).

2) Compressibility: The ability of a fabric to resist transverse (through the

thickness ) compression. A voluminous fabric tends to be more compressible.

On the other hand, compressibility decreases as fiber and yarn stiffness, which is

significantly influenced by fiber diameter, increases. As fiber diameter increases,

the bending stiffness and longitudinal compressive stiffness of the fiber increases

geometrically.

3) Extensibility of a fabric: A measure of the ability of a fabric to stretch and

conform. Fabric extensibility is affected by fabric geometry and inherent fiber

bending elongation. A yarn that consists of finer fibers tends to have a higher

potential for fabric extensibility.

4) Toughness of a fabric: A measure of the durability of the fabric. As reflected

in the areas under the stress-strain curve of a fabric, a high strength fabric with

high elongation at break usually produces high toughness. Fabrics having high

compliance and extensibility are usually tougher.

A summary of the geometric and performance properties of the yarn-to-fabric structures

and the fiber-to-fabric structures in the form of performance maps are shown in Figures

3-6. These performance maps show that geometric parameters play an important role in

the structural and physical properties of fabrics. The fineness of the component fiber is a

key geometric factor.

THE DYNAMICS OF SOIL-TEXTILE INTERACTION

Although there are numerous textile structures suitable for geotechnical applications, a

textile structure is not a geotextile until the interaction of the fabric with soil or the

geotechnical environment is considered as a total system. This was clearly elucidated by

Professor Koerner in the 1982 Las Vegas conference [1]. Observing the lack of

understanding at the time on the importance of soil/fabric interaction, Professor Koerner

pointed out that almost every geotextile application is multifunctional, involving

separation, reinforcement and drainage; and that fabric forming deals with water and its

proper dissipation [6,7].

[ . . . ]

Braided Structures

Braiding, as detailed by Ko [17,18], is a well established technology which intertwines

two or more systems of yarns to form a tubular structure. Longitudinal yarns can be laidin

between the braiding yarns to form a triaxial braid and/or placed in the core of the

braided tubular structure. Depending on the yarn diameter and the braiding angle, a

continuous length of micron diameter to meter diameter structure can be produced.

Taking advantage of the design flexibility and the wide availability of manufacturing

capacity in the industry, braided structures can be employed as the foundation fiber

architecture for the construction of ductile composite rebar systems as well as for

seamless soil containment columns.

By judicious selection of fiber materials and fiber architecture for the braid sleeve and the

core structure, the load-deformation behavior of the braided fibrous assembly can be

tailored. For example, the sleeve structure may be a tough aramid (e.g. Kevlar)

filamentous structure, whereas the core structure would be high modulus carbon fibers to

provide initial resistance to deformation. The rib effect, as commonly incorporated in

steel rebars to increase bond strength between the rebar and concrete, can also be

introduced to the sleeve structure during the braiding process. By proper combination of

the braided fibrous assembly with a protective resin matrix system to form a composite

material system, the stress transfer from the rebar structure to the fibers can be

controlled. The end product of this hybridization of material systems and fiber

architecture is a composite rebar which has high initial resistance to tensile deformation

followed by a graceful failure process manifested by a gradual reduction in the slope of

the stress strain curve before reaching a high level of ultimate strain. This hybrid

geometric and hybrid material effects can be realized by combining the braiding and the

productive pultrusion process or the “Braidtrusion” process developed at Drexel with the

participation of several civil engineering and materials engineering students, including

Frank Hampton, a Koerner Fellow [19,20,21]. This unique manufacturing process can be

used to develop a wide spectrum of products with various mechanical properties

depending on the application. Also, the flexibility of the process allows for tailorability

of specific mechanical properties including strength, stiffness, ductility, and surface

geometry.

As illustrated in Figure 10, the design methodology developed for Braidtrusion considers

five tailorable levels of translation efficiency: fiber, yarn, twist, woven, and braid levels.

Careful consideration of each material level results in an optimized structure. The

process is especially attractive for hybrid composites using two or more yarn materials.

A core of one material can be used as a mandrel while yarns of another material can be

braided around the core. Depending on material selection and application, a wide variety

of properties can be developed. The Braidtrusion process includes five zones of

manufacturing as shown in Figure 11, including core formation, sleeve formation,

consolidation, curing, and finished product.

Various processing parameters including the braid angle, the fiber volume fraction,

curing process, and the core and sleeve materials influence the mechanical properties of

the finished composite. Four areas of tailorability were investigated using the

Braidtrusion process: 1) tailoring of the composite modulus along the length using inline

change of fiber orientation; (2) traction tailoring by introduction of ribs for surface

geometry; (3) co-braiding of hybrid materials and geometry for stress-strain property

tailoring; and (4) combination of braiding and pultrusion to facilitate continuous and

scalable manufacturing.

The Ductile Rebar Concept –

The ductile rebar concept is illustrated with a case studies using the Braidtrusion process

include the manufacturing and development of a ductile hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer

bar (DHFRP) for reinforced concrete structures. [21,22]. The DHFRP bar, manufactured

in sizes up to 10 mm, demonstrates three of the four tailoring parameters. The bars are a

material hybrid of aramid fiber (Kevlar 49) and carbon fiber (Thornel P-55S). First, the

tailoring of traction was done by integrating rib yarns into the bar surface geometry, thus

producing a pultruded bar with non-uniform cross-section. Second, using the theory of

similitude, the bars were manufactured in 3-mm, 5-mm and 10-mm diameter sizes. The

scaling effects were studied from model to prototype sizes. Third, the DHFRP bars are

designed to have a tri-linear stress-strain behavior with a yield point and an ultimate

strength greater than yield. This pseudo-ductile behavior is caused by using both material

and architecture hybrids. This stress-strain tailoring enables the development of a family

of tri-linear stress-strain curves depending on processing parameters and material

selection. Experimental verification of the properties of DHFRP are shown in Figure 12.

With the demonstration of the ductile composite rebars having metal-like behavior, steel

rebar design code may be used for this new class of non-corrosive composite rebars thus

opening up opportunities for a wide range of geotechnical reinforcement applications

including walls, bulkheads, embankment and various concrete structures.

Joining of geotextiles in the field is a well

established practice using traditional

sewing machines. A new one-sided sewing

technology is now available from

Germany. The ALTIN system, shown in

Figure 13, consists of an industrial scale

robot arm, a sewing head, and a

programmable control module. Unlike a

traditional sewing machine, which requires

access to the fabric from both top and

bottom (thus limiting the size and shape of

the fabrics to be sewn), stitch formation

utilizing Robotic One-side Stitching

(ROSS) Technology can be accomplished

from the top side of the fabric alone.

Various stitch geometries (including the

chain stitch, lock stitch and tuft stitch) may

be employed.

Figure 14 illustrates the formation of a chain stitch using two needles coming from the

same (top) side of the fabric. ROSS is recognized as an important emerging technology in

the advanced composite performing and protective textile industry; because of the

programmable robot arm and single-side access to the fabric, the ROSS can join very

complex shapeed structures over a large surface area. It can also provide a means to place

local, through- the-thickness reinforcement for composite structures.

It can also provide a means to place

local, through- the-thickness reinforcement for composite structures. Considering the

unique capability of one sided stitching, Boeing has purchased a similar ROSS unit for

their composite wing manufacturing program (wherein stiffeners are stitched to the wing

skin for a 737 wing structure). The ROSS at Drexel is one of only two systems in the US.

Considering the versatility of the stitching head, it is quite conceivable that a field robot

could be equipped with an OSS unit to perform automatic field sewing of geotextiles.

Nanofiber Technology

When looking to future generations of geotextiles, an examination of the role of

nanotechnology in the functional enhancement of geotextiles is in order. By reducing

fiber diameter down to the nanoscale, an enormous increase in specific surface area to the

level of 1000 m2/g is possible. This reduction in dimension and increase in surface area

greatly affects the chemical/biological reactivity and electroactivity of polymeric fibers.

Because of the extreme fineness of the fibers (as illustrated qualitatively in Figures 15-

17) there is an overall impact on the geometric and thus the performance properties of the

fabric. There is an explosive growth in worldwide research efforts recognizing the

potential nanoeffect that will be created when fibers are reduced to nanoscale [23].

Briefly, nanofiber technology is the synthesis, processing, manufacturing and application

of fibers in the nanoscale. By definition, nanofibers are fibers with diameter equal to or

less than 100 nm. Due to product requirements and manufacturing capability limitations,

some industries tend to consider any fibers of submicron diameter to be “nanofibers”.

The rapid growth of nanofiber technology in recent years can be attributed to the

rediscovery of electrostatic spinning (or electrospinning) technology originally developed

in the 1930s [24]. This technique has been used to produce high-performance filters

[25,26], wearable electronics [27] and scaffolds for tissue engineering [28] that utilize the

high surface area unique to these fibers. A schematic drawing of the electrospinning

process is shown in Figure 15a, where a high electric field is generated in a polymer fluid

contained in a glass syringe with a capillary tip and a metallic collection screen. When

the voltage reaches a critical value, the electric field overcomes the surface tension of the

deformed drop of the suspended polymer solution formed on the tip of the syringe and a

jet of ultra-fine fibers is produced. The electrically-charged jet undergoes a series of

electrically-induced bending instabilities during its passage to the collection screen that

results in the hyper-stretching of the jet. This stretching process is accompanied by the

rapid evaporation of the solvent molecules, which reduces the diameter of the jet in a

cone-shaped radius. The dry fibers are accumulated on the surface of the collection

screen, resulting in a non-woven mesh of nanometer to micron-diameter fibers. The

process can be adjusted to control fiber diameter by varying the electric field strength

and polymer solution concentration, while the duration of electrospinning controls the

thickness of the fiber deposition. Nanofibers in linear yarn or planar nonwoven mat form

can be produced by proper control of the electrodes.

Although there is a large family of textile structures available for geotechnical applications, a fundamental understanding of the dynamic interaction between textile structure and the geotechnical environment is essential for proper design and selection of geotextiles for a specific application. To provide a basis for assessment of the various fiber architectures for geotextiles, the geometric and performance properties of various textile structures have been shown in terms of performance maps.

Specific examples of textile technologies suitable for linear and planar multiaxial reinforcement have been presented along with the introduction of a new robotic based sewing technology. This paper is concluded by connecting geotextiles with the emerging nanofiber technology which may play a useful role in nanocomposite reinforcement, hydraulic, geoenvironmental and energy mining applications (as outlined by Professor Koerner in his thought provoking Thirty-second Terzaghi Lecture almost eight years ago) [30].

http://geosynthetica.net/tech_docs/KoernerSympFrankKo.pdf

***

The enormous specific surface area of these nanofibrous assemblies may make them

excellent candidates for gas collection layers in landfill cover systems. By controlling the

porosity and proper selection of the polymer system, barrier membranes may be produced

having selective permeable characteristics similar to that used in chem./bio protective

barriers [29].

Seminar in Honor of Professor Robert Koerner

September 13,2004

18

REFERENCES

1. Koerner, R.M., and Ko, F.K., Laboratory Studies of Long Term Drainage Capability of

Geotextiles, Proceedings, Part I. Second International Congress on Geotextiles, Las

Vegas, August, 1982

2. Kaswell, E. R, Handbook of Industrial Textile, New York, West Point Pepperell, 1963

3. George B. Haven., Mechanical Fabrics, John Wiley & Sons, 1932

4. Journal of Industrial Fabrics, Vol.1, Number 1,Summer 1982, IFAI

5. Chou, T.W. and Ko, F.K., Textile Structural Composites, Elsevier, 1989

6. Koerner, R.M. and Welsh, J.P., Construction and Geotechnical Engineering Using

Synthetic Fabrics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1980.

7. Rankilor, P.R., Membranes in Ground Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York,

1981.

8. Dierickx, W; The influence of Filter Materials and their Use as Wrapping Around

Agricultural Drains, C.R. Coll. Int. Sols Textiles, Paris, 1977, Vol.2,pp.225-229.

9. Hoffman,G.L. and Malasheskie, G., Laboratory Evaluation of Materials and Design

Characteristics of PennDOT Underdrain System, Transportation Res. Rec. 675, Natl.

Acad. Sci., Washington, DC, 1978, pp.32-43

10. Koerner, R.M., Gugliemetti, J.L. and Rosenfarb, J.L., On the Permeability Testing of

Fabrics and Fabric/Soil Systems, Proc. 8th Tech. Symp. on Nonwovens – Innovative

Fabrics for the Future, INDA, Kissimmee, Florida, March 19-21, 1980, pp.143-154

11. Ko, F. K., Bruner, J., Pastore, A. & Scardino, F. 1980, Development of Multi-Bar

Weft Insertion Warp Knit Fabric for Industrial Applications, ASME Paper No. 90-

TEXT-7, October.

12. Ko, F. K., Krauland, K. & Scardino, F. 1982, Weft Insertion Warp Knit for Hybrid

Composites, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Composites.

13. Ko, F. K., Fang, P. & Pastore, C. 1985, Multilayer Multidirectional Warp Knit

Fabrics for Industrial Applications, J. Industrial Fabrics, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1985.

14. Ko, F.K., Pastore, C.M., Yang, J.M. & Chou, T.W. 1986. Structure and Properties of

Multidirectional Warp Knit Fabric Reinforced Composites, in Composites ’86: Recent

Advances in Japan and the United States, Kawata, K., Umekawa, s. and Kobayashi,

A., eds. Proceedings, Japan

15. Ko, F.K. & Kutz, J. 1988b. Multiaxial Warp Knit for Advanced Composites, Proceedings

of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advanced Composites, ASM

International, pp.377-384

16. Du, G.W. & Ko, F.K. 1992. Analysis of Multiaxial Warp Knitted Preforms for

Composite Reinforcement, Proceedings of Textile Composites in Building

Construction Second International Symposium, Lyon, France, June 23-25.

17. Ko, F. K. 1988a. Braiding, Engineering Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, Composites,

Reinhart, T.J. Editor, ASM International, Metal Park, OH, pp.519-528.and

“Braiding” in Vol.21.ASM Handbook, Composites,2001,pp69-77

18. Ko, F.K., Pastore, C.M. and Head, A.A., Atkins and Pearce Handbook of Industrial

Braiding, Drexel University, 1989

19. Somboosong, W., development of Ductile Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer

(DHFRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, 1977, PhD Thesis, Drexel

University

Seminar in Honor of Professor Robert Koerner

September 13,2004

19

20. Lam, H.L., Composite Manufacturing with the Braidtrusion Process, 2001, MS

Thesis, Drexel University

21.Hampton, F.P., Cyclic Behavior, Development, and Characteristics of a Ductile

Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (DHFRP) Reinforced Concrete Members, 2004,

PhD Thesis, Drexel University

22. Hampton, F. P. , Harry, H. G., and Ko, F. K., ., Low-Cycle Fatigue Strength Of A

Ductile Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bar For Earthquake Resistant Concrete

Structures, Proceedings, ICCM 14, San Diego, CA., Paper ID: 1295, July 14-18, 2004

23. Ko, F.K., Nanofiber Technology: Bridging the Gap between Nano and Macro

World”, in NATO ASI on Nanoengineeered Nanofibrous Materials, 2003, Anatalia,

Turkey, Kluwer Academic Publishers

24. Formhals, A., US Patent # 1,975,504, 1934.

25. Doshi, J., D. Reneker, H., J. Electrost. 1995, 35, 151

26. Gibson, P. W., Schreuder-Gibson, H. L., Riven, D., AIChE J. 1999, 45, 190

27. Ko, F.K., El-Aufy, A., Lam, H.L., and MacDiarmid, A.G., “Electrostatically

Generated Nanofibers for Wearable Electronics”, in Wearable Electronics, Edited by

X.M. Tao, Woodhead, 2004

28. Ko, F. K., Laurencin, C. T., Borden, M. D., Reneker, D. H., The Dynamics of cellfiber

architecture interaction, in: Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Biomaterials

Research Society, San Diego, April 1998.

29. Ko, F. K., Yang, H.J., Argawal, R., and Katz, H., Electrospinning of Improved CB

Protective Fibrous Materials , Proceedings, Techtextil Atlanta, March 30-31, 2004

30. Koerner, R.M., Emerging and Future Developments of Selected geosynthetic

Applications, J. of geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, April 2000,

pp291-306

http://geosynthetica.net/tech_docs/KoernerSympFrankKo.pdf

***

Kit_Miyamoto.pdf

Phi Kappa Phi

http://www.miyamotointernational.com/pdf_files/Kit_Miyamoto.pdf

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

A licensed structural engineer in ten states, Kit Miyamoto is CEO of Miyamoto International.

Under his leadership, over 3,000 structures have been successfully completed nationally and

internationally. He has performed numerous expert consultations and earthquake reconnaissance

analyses for countries and private sector organizations worldwide. He is a past Director of

the Structural Engineers Association of California. He serves on the Seismic Task Committee

of ASCE 7 which produces a source document for the International Building Code. He was a

member of the Technical Subcommittee in Base Isolation and Energy Dissipation for the National

Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. He is an adjunct professor at California State University,

Sacramento. He has published over 70 technical papers on advanced structural and earthquake

engineering topics, and he has lectured at numerous international conferences. Miyamoto is a

frequent industry commentator to the media.

PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS

Structural Engineers Association of California

(long, long incredible list)

Seismic Rehabilitations

*Forum Building, Sacramento, CA 115,500 SF

*East End Lofts, Sacramento, CA 40,000 SF

*21st & L Building, Sacramento, CA 153,000 SF

*The Stockton, Stockton, CA 150,000 SF

*1414 K Street, Sacramento, CA 60,000 SF

*Hotel Woodland, Woodland, CA 60,000 SF

*Professional Building, Eureka, CA 60,000 SF

*Traveler’s Hotel, Sacramento, CA 106,000 SF

Executive Building, Portland, OR 100,000 SF

Federal Building, 801 I Street, Sacramento, CA 100,000 SF

Savior Street Loft, Portland, OR 10,000 SF

St. Mary’s Church, Ukiah, CA 7,680 SF

9th Street Marketplace, Murray, UT 24,260 SF

Azure Park Apartments, Sacramento, CA 157,200 SF

Ping Yuen Sr. Housing Center, Sacramento, CA 78,900 SF

Griffi th Observatory, Los Angeles, CA 100,000 SF

SELECTIVE EARTHQUAKE RECONNAISSANCE

Sichuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China May 12, 2008

Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, Niigata, Japan July 16, 2007

West Sumatra Earthquake, Sumatra, Indonesia March 6, 2007

Northridge Earthquake, Los Angeles, CA January 7, 1994

(etc.)

ATC-17-2brWEB.pdf

http://www.atcouncil.org/pdfs/ATC-17-2brWEB.pdf

Sponsoring Organizations –

Applied Technology Council

Redwood City, Calif

Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research

State University New York

Buffalo, NY

Financial Sponsor –

National Science Foundation

2002

***

http://www.miyamotointernational.com/pdf_files/Kit_Miyamoto.pdf

***

Nathan Myrhvold

check his group for tech finance geeks who could convert the USAID econ development set to structural engineering rather than sleepwear

also include robotic manufacturing apps and nanotech if safe to do so

***

http://www.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/publications/nenji/2000/html/6happyou_24.htm

6happyou_24.htm

Nonlinear Finite Element for Plain Woven Fabrics: O. Kuwazuru and N. Yoshikawa?Abstract Book, 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, pp.87-88, 2000.8 D

Safety of Concrete Panels after Repeated Load Actions: Ladislav Fryba, J. Naprstek, M. Pirner and N. Yoshikawa・第4回構造物の安全性・信頼性に関する国内シンポジウム, JCOSSAR 2000論文集, Vol.4, pp.405-408, 2000.11 E

Development of Nano-Scale FIB SIMS Apparatus: M. Nojima, B. Tomiyasu, T. Shibata, M. Owari and Y. Nihei?Paper presented at 2nd Conf. Int. Union Microbeam Analysis Societies, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, pp.343-344, 2000.7 D

A Novel Apparatus for Three-dimensional Microanalysis using Ion and Electron Dual Focused Beams: T. Sakamoto, K. Takanashi, Zh.H. Cheng, N. Ono, H. Wu, M. Owari and Y. Nihei?Paper presented at 2nd Conf. Int. Union Microbeam Analysis Societies, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, pp.335-336, 2000.7 D

The Improvement of the Individual Particle Analysis of Suspended Particulate Matter(SPM)at Urban Site Atmosphere with EPMA: B. Kim, B. Tomiyasu, M. Owari and Y. Nihei?Paper presented at 2nd Conf. Int. Union Microbeam Analysis Societies, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, pp.301-302, 2000.7 D

国 際会議報告IUMAS2000(The Second Meeting of the International Union of Microbeam Analysis Societies): 尾張真則, 坂本哲夫・日本学術振興会マイクロビームアナリシス第141委員会第102回研究会資料, pp.13-18, 2000.11 F

国際 会議報告ICESS8(8th International Conference of Electronic Spectroscopy and Structures): 石井秀司, 二瓶好正・日本学術振興会マイクロビームアナリシス第141委員会第102回研究会資料, pp.19-23, 2000.11 F

A nonequilibrium fixed-parameter subgrid-scale model obeying the near-wall asymptotic constraint: A. Yoshizawa, K. Kobayashi, T. Kobayashi, N. Taniguchi?Physics of Fluids, Vol. 12, No. 9, pp.2338-2344, 2000.9 C

Possibility of Fixed Abrasive Tools Using UV Resin: Y. Tani?The 5th Joint Workshop on Production Technology, p.64, 2000.1 D

Development of a dicing blade applying light sensitive?resin: P. Wei, Y. Tani and K. Yanagihara?Proc. ASMSA 2000, pp.154-157, 2000.7 D

Development of Active Six-Degree-of-Freedom Microvibration Control System Using Giant Magnetostrictive Actuators: Y. Nakamura, M. Nakayama, K. Masuda, K. Tanaka, M. Yasuda and T. Fujita?Smart Materials and Structures, 9, 2, pp.175-185, 2000.4 C

(and lots of other really great nifty stuff)

http://www.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/publications/nenji/2000/html/6happyou_24.htm

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