, , , ,

Chile is a strong proponent of pressing ahead on negotiations for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and is active in the WTO’s Doha round of negotiations, principally through its membership in the G-20 and Cairns Group.[6]

Chile is the first OECD member in South America.[61]


Skyline of Santiago’s Financial District

Chile’s financial sector has grown quickly in recent years, with a banking reform law approved in 1997 that broadened the scope of permissible foreign activity for Chilean banks. The Chilean Government implemented a further liberalization of capital markets in 2001, and there is further pending legislation proposing further liberalization. Over the last ten years, Chileans have enjoyed the introduction of new financial tools such as home equity loans, currency futures and options, factoring, leasing, and debit cards. The introduction of these new products has also been accompanied by an increased use of traditional instruments such as loans and credit cards. Chile’s private pension system, with assets worth roughly $70 billion at the end of 2006, has been an important source of investment capital for the capital market. However, by 2009, it has been reported that $21 billion had been lost from the pension system to the global financial crisis.[62]

Chile maintains one of the best credit ratings (S&P A+) in Latin America.[63] There are three main ways for Chilean firms to raise funds abroad: bank loans, issuance of bonds, and the selling of stocks on U.S. markets through American Depository Receipts (ADRs). Nearly all of the funds raised through these means go to finance domestic Chilean investment. The government is required by law to run a fiscal surplus of at least 1% of GDP. In 2006, the Government of Chile ran a surplus of $11.3 billion, equal to almost 8% of GDP. The Government of Chile continues to pay down its foreign debt, with public debt only 3.9% of GDP at the end of 2006.[6]


Main article: Demographics of Chile

Population of Chile from 1820, projected up to 2050

Chile’s 2002 census reported a population of 15,116,435. Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since 1990, because of a declining birth rate.[64] By 2050 the population is expected to reach approximately 20.2 million.[65] About 85% of the country’s population lives in urban areas, with 40% living in Greater Santiago. The largest agglomerations according to the 2002 census are Greater Santiago with 5.6 million people, Greater Concepción with 861,000 and Greater Valparaíso with 824,000.[66]



The VII Maule Region (Spanish: VII Región del Maule) is one of Chile‘s 15 first order administrative divisions. Its capital is Talca. The region takes its name from the Maule River, which running westward from the Andes, bisects the region and spans a basin of about 20,600 km². The Maule river is of considerable historic interest because, among other reasons, it marked the southern limits of the Inca Empire.

[  . . . ]

Geography and ecology

The region covers an area of 30,296 km² and is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean; on the east by the Argentine Republic; on the north by the O’Higgins Region, and on the south by the Bío-Bío Region. There are a number of flora and fauna species present in Maule. For example, the endangered Chilean Wine Palm, Jubaea chilensis is found in a very limited distribution that includes the Maule Region.[1] The limited distribution Nothofagus allesandri is also found in the Maule Region.[2]


According to the 2002 Census the population of the region was 908,097. With one third of its population living in rural areas, Maule has a greater proportion of rural inhabitants than any other region of Chile.


Forestry and agriculture, led by wine grape plantations, are the main economic activities. The Maule region is Chile’s leading winemaking region, producing 50% of all the country’s fine export wines, and a number of the largest vineyards are located here. Owing to its high concentration of vineyards, the Curicó valley – which means “black water” in Mapudungun – is considered the core of Chile’s wine industry. Winemaking is a traditional activity, some vineyards dating back to 1830. The increased wine-growing area is matched by the development of the industry’s infrastructure, technology, and equipment.

In addition to wine growing, two export-oriented agricultural items have emerged dynamically: fruit growing, vegetables and flowers.

Electricity, gas and water are the second most important economic activity. The Maule River feeds five hydroelectric power plants, including the Colbún-Machicura complex.


The Maule Region has produced a remarkable number of famous men and women, in particular writers and poets but also, statesmen and presidents, scientists and naturalists, churchmen, musicians and folklorists, journalists and historians. Thus, the Maule river – the long and wide artery that runs through the region – has been considered Chile’s literary river par excellence. Many novels and short stories have had the river as their main background or protagonist. Several antologies, author’s dictionaries and essays have given their account of the wealth of culture that the region has generated.

The region can boast many small towns and villages with well-preserved colonial rural architecture both in the religious as well as the civil fields. The Talca and Linares dioceses (the two Roman Catholic dioceses in the Maule region) have several parish churches of particular beauty and architectural and historic value.

Cathedral “San Ambrosio”, Linares

Bride’s Veil Waterfall (El velo de la novia), Molina, Maule Region,

Parish church of the village of Nirivilo

Talca‘s main comercial street




Chileans call their country país de poetas—country of poets.[135][136] Gabriela Mistral was the first Chilean to win a Nobel Prize for Literature (1945). Chile’s most famous poet, however, is Pablo Neruda, who also won the Nobel Prize for Literature (1971) and is world-renowned for his extensive library of works on romance, nature, and politics. His three highly individualistic homes, located in Isla Negra, Santiago and Valparaíso are popular tourist destinations.

Among the list of other Chilean poets are Carlos Pezoa Véliz, Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas, and Nicanor Parra. Novelist José Donoso’s novel The Obscene Bird of the Night is considered by critic Harold Bloom to be one of the cononical works of Twentieth Century Western literature. Another internationally recognized Chilean novelist is Roberto Bolaño whose translations into English have had an excellent reception from the critics.[137][138][139]

The Andean condor is the national bird of Chile



Update time = Sat Feb 27 21:41:05 UTC 2010

MAP 6.2 2010/02/27 06:52:35 -34.735 -72.638 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE
MAP 8.8 2010/02/27 06:34:15 -35.846 -72.719 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE




My Note –

I was noticing how strong the aftershocks in Chile and how close together – so, I started doing a bit of the math between the intervals – (its roughly “mathed out” – and not the entire list of aftershocks – but this is what people continue to experience and according to the CNN coverage – these aftershocks can continue for months to come . . . hopefully, people are away from the buildings and houses.)


2 million people have been affected by the Chilean earthquake this morning – according to the President of Chile 3.34 am local time – widespread damage in the Chile capital – aftershocks could be happening for months to come – 7.07 pmET – 214 deaths officially so far –


MAP 5.2 2010/02/27 19:06:18 -37.473 -73.502 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE

(6 minutes +/-)

MAP 6.3 2010/02/27 19:00:08 -33.425 -71.909 34.8 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE

(19 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.1 2010/02/27 18:41:51 -37.581 -73.501 34.9 BIO-BIO, CHILE

(18 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.3 2010/02/27 18:23:12 -37.618 -73.818 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(8 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.6 2010/02/27 18:15:23 -37.527 -73.696 20.8 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(3 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.1 2010/02/27 18:12:51 -33.847 -71.577 35.0 REGION METROPOLITANA, CHILE

(16 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.3 2010/02/27 17:56:53 -34.688 -71.571 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE

(13 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.5 2010/02/27 17:43:37 -36.453 -72.978 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(19 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.6 2010/02/27 17:24:34 -36.256 -72.927 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(2 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.0 2010/02/27 17:22:26 -38.043 -73.629 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(11 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.5 2010/02/27 17:11:49 -33.953 -71.796 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE

(21 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.2 2010/02/27 16:50:20 -34.162 -72.010 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE

(13 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.5 2010/02/27 16:37:34 -37.509 -73.605 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(5 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.2 2010/02/27 16:32:21 -34.986 -72.356 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE

(5 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.5 2010/02/27 16:27:58 -37.820 -73.404 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE

(6 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.5 2010/02/27 16:21:14 -38.266 -73.434 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE
MAP 6.3 2010/02/27 15:45:41 -24.588 -65.432 38.2 SALTA, ARGENTINA

(22 minutes +/- to Argentina earthquake and 58 minutes until the next aftershock in Chile)

MAP 5.1 2010/02/27 15:23:06 -34.528 -74.987 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE

(14 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.2 2010/02/27 15:09:08 -33.890 -71.268 35.0 REGION METROPOLITANA, CHILE

(28 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.0 2010/02/27 14:40:53 -31.321 -74.548 35.0 OFF THE COAST OF COQUIMBO, CHILE

(11 minutes +/-)

MAP 4.9 2010/02/27 14:29:10 -35.028 -71.714 35.0 MAULE, CHILE

(6 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.2 2010/02/27 14:23:28 -34.505 -72.596 35.0 OFFSHORE LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE

(3 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.0 2010/02/27 14:20:00 -37.274 -73.062 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE

(13 ½  minutes +/-)

MAP 5.0 2010/02/27 14:06:47 -37.288 -72.835 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE

(12 ½ minutes +/-)

MAP 5.2 2010/02/27 13:54:04 -33.269 -71.834 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE

(42 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.0 2010/02/27 13:12:52 -35.014 -71.660 35.0 MAULE, CHILE

(5 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.1 2010/02/27 13:07:42 -38.436 -73.254 35.0 ARAUCANIA, CHILE

(3 minutes +/-)

MAP 4.9 2010/02/27 13:04:51 -37.115 -73.325 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(6 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.1 2010/02/27 12:58:33 -33.443 -70.944 35.0 REGION METROPOLITANA, CHILE

(12 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.1 2010/02/27 12:46:19 -37.699 -73.681 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(1 minute 30 seconds +/-)

MAP 5.1 2010/02/27 12:44:50 -36.999 -73.038 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE

(16 minutes +/-)

MAP 4.9 2010/02/27 12:28:48 -34.187 -70.439 35.0 LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE

(5 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.0 2010/02/27 12:23:06 -36.253 -72.266 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE

(20 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.5 2010/02/27 12:03:27 -34.399 -73.825 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE

(18 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.4 2010/02/27 11:45:03 -36.318 -73.216 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(18 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.3 2010/02/27 11:27:00 -38.103 -73.587 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(33 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.4 2010/02/27 10:54:24 -36.828 -73.336 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(16 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.9 2010/02/27 10:38:36 -38.019 -73.575 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(8 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.9 2010/02/27 10:30:35 -33.559 -72.636 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE

(20 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.6 2010/02/27 10:10:15 -33.701 -72.184 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE

(11 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.8 2010/02/27 09:59:21 -37.991 -73.467 35.0 BIO-BIO, CHILE

(38 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.1 2010/02/27 09:21:26 -36.609 -73.218 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(21 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.6 2010/02/27 09:00:18 -33.425 -71.625 35.0 VALPARAISO, CHILE

(6 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.3 2010/02/27 08:53:57 -34.447 -73.397 35.0 OFF COAST OF LIBERTADOR O’HIGGINS, CHILE

(30 seconds )

MAP 5.0 2010/02/27 08:53:27 -35.073 -71.760 35.0 MAULE, CHILE

(5 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.6 2010/02/27 08:48:05 -38.584 -75.257 35.0 OFF THE COAST OF ARAUCANIA, CHILE

(17 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.7 2010/02/27 08:31:05 -34.820 -72.443 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE

(6 minutes +/-)

MAP 6.1 2010/02/27 08:25:30 -34.750 -72.394 35.0 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE

(6 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.5 2010/02/27 08:19:24 -33.479 -71.574 35.0 VALPARAISO, CHILE

(6 minutes +/-)

MAP 5.6 2010/02/27 08:13:16 -33.062 -71.702 35.0 OFFSHORE VALPARAISO, CHILE

(12 minutes +/-)

MAP 6.9 2010/02/27 08:01:24 -37.654 -75.199 39.0 OFF THE COAST OF BIO-BIO, CHILE

(1 minute +/-)

MAP 5.4 2010/02/27 07:59:56 -36.050 -73.562 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE

(3 minutes +/-)



MAP 5.2 2010/02/27 07:56:37 -36.933 -73.240 35.0 OFFSHORE BIO-BIO, CHILE


these are pretty strong aftershocks and they are continuing right now –



My Note – after watching the way the tsunami warning was handled generally, several things came to light – one, is that many of the buoys need to be kept repaired and maintained across the whole system; two, that if the tsunami had been any faster and any more than a two – six foot surge, most of the communities surrounding the tsunami warning area would have been screwed; and three, that many people along the coast of California thought the tsunami warning was a hoot and did not appreciate the threat to their own safety that it could have been. Had the tsunami been any one bit bigger, stronger, faster, higher or more compressed as it came in, there would have been no safety to the people along the California coast, partly because they did not take it seriously. The efforts made in Hawaii were surely inconvenient but certainly worth it and if the danger had been any more eminent, faster or of greater magnitude – those efforts would not have been near enough to move that many people out of harm’s way.

– cricketdiane


Tsunami hits California, no injuries or damage

By ELLIOT SPAGAT Associated Press Writer

Posted: 02/27/2010 06:28:12 AM PST

Updated: 02/27/2010 03:33:40 PM PST

// <![CDATA[// // <![CDATA[// 0){
document.getElementById(‘articleViewerGroup’).style.width = requestedWidth + “px”;
document.getElementById(‘articleViewerGroup’).style.margin = “0px 0px 10px 10px”;
// ]]>SAN DIEGO—Tsunami waves from Chile’s deadly earthquake hit California shores Saturday, barely eliciting notice from surfers who ignored advice to stay away from beaches. No injuries or property damage were reported.

The West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center said water surged 2.2 feet in Santa Monica shortly before 12:30 p.m. PST and less in other areas, including 1.4 feet in San Diego and 1.5 feet in Santa Barbara. Authorities reported scattered unusual tidal surges in San Diego and Ventura north of Los Angeles.

The California Emergency Management Agency has received reports of varying turbulence up and down the coast, but nothing significant yet, said spokesman Jordan Scott.

“It’s a nonevent,” said Maurice Luque, spokesman for the San Diego Fire-Rescue Department.

At San Diego’s La Jolla Shores, the tide receded sharply after a small increase in wave heights, disappointing curious surfers and strollers who expected more. Lifeguards had warned swimmers about the tsunami but didn’t order them to leave. All city beaches stayed open.

David Klein, a San Diego chiropractor, set up a tripod on a bench and filmed himself riding the paltry waves amid intermittent rain. When five or six small waves rolled in, he was convinced he had ridden a tsunami.

“They actually got big enough to surf on,” he said, laughing. “If you blinked, you missed it.”

Angelo Scolari, 49, went at the behest of his 17-year-old son.

“I’m more concerned about the rain than the surge,” he said.

The Coast Guard recommended that people in San Diego avoid going near beaches or other low-lying coastal areas, especially jetties and rocky areas. It said large waves can quickly and unexpectedly sweep a person from those areas, easily overtaking even the strongest swimmers.

Boaters and swimmers largely stayed away, but crowds were probably sparse because it rained after several days of sunny weather, said Jetta Disco, a Coast Guard spokeswoman in San Diego.

Coastal communities continued to remain on alert since dangerous waves are still possible hours after the initial waves.

Lt. John Eberhart of San Diego Lifeguard Services said there were unusual tidal surges in Mission Bay and La Jolla Cove, two popular tourist spots, but no reports of injuries or damage.

Ventura Fire Battalion Chief Matt Brock said there was a 3-foot tidal surge in the harbor that receded, causing a dock to become unmoored. There was a 15-foot boat on the dock, but it has been recovered with no damage, he said.

In Santa Monica, police Sgt. Jay Trisler said the surge didn’t cause any problems.

In Northern California, the San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office closed beaches in Pacifica and Half Moon Bay.

California was under a tsunami advisory issued for the entire West Coast, but that didn’t deter surfers competing in a qualifying match of a Professional Longboards Association contest at San Diego’s Ocean Beach.

“We’re just trying to stay on schedule, that’s the biggest thing,” said Jeff Stoner, the association’s executive director, as organizers monitored the tsunami’s progress.

All but five of 72 contestants showed up Saturday, Stoner said. One from Hawaii dropped out to catch a flight home, hoping to join family before the first waves hit the islands.

The tsunami was a hot topic of conversation at coastal coffee shops, though some surfers hadn’t heard about the quake. Their big complaint was choppy waves that measured little more than two feet.

“You could definitely ask for better day,” said Josh Rapozo, 27, of Laguna Niguel, after competing in a qualifying round.

Devastating tsunamis are rare in California. Since 1812, 14 tsunamis with waves higher than 3 feet have been observed along the California coast, but only six caused destruction.

The deadliest occurred in 1964 when a magnitude-9.2 quake in Alaska spawned tsunami waves that killed 12 people in Northern California.



California Tsunami Inundation Map

California Tsunami Inundation Map - click on county to see specific areas



CGS Geologic Hazards alt=”/”> Tsunami Inundation Maps Tsunami Inundation Map

Tsunami Inundation Map

Click on the county to view/download the Tsunami Inundation Maps or click on the alphabetized list of counties to the right of the image.    

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Additional inundation map compilations:

When citing the tsunami inundation maps, please use the following format (entering the specific map name, county name, and date on the map):

State of California, 2009, Tsunami Inundation Map for Emergency Planning, (map name) Quadrangle, (county name) County; produced by California Emergency Management Agency, California Geological Survey, and University of Southern California – Tsunami Research Center; dated (date on the map), mapped at 1:24,000 scale.

Map Disclaimer: These maps were prepared to assist cities and counties in identifying their tsunami hazard. They are intended for local jurisdictional, coastal evacuation planning uses only. These maps are not a legal documents and do not meet disclosure requirements for real estate transactions nor for any other regulatory purpose. The California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), the University of Southern California (USC), and the California Geological Survey (CGS) make no representation or warranties regarding the accuracy of this inundation map nor the data from which the map was derived. Neither the State of California nor USC shall be liable under any circumstances for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages with respect to any claim by any user or any third party on account of or arising from the use of this map.

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***All southern Antarctic ice shelves melting

Published: Feb. 24, 2010 at 2:00 PM

RESTON, Va., Feb. 24 (UPI) — The U.S. Geological Survey says every ice shelf in the southern section of the Antarctic Peninsula is retreating because of climate change.

The USGS says its report is the first to document that every ice front in that area has been retreating overall from 1947 to 2009, with the most dramatic changes occurring since 1990.

The retreat, scientists said, could result in sea-level rise if warming continues, threatening coastal communities and low-lying islands worldwide.

The USGS previously documented the majority of ice fronts on the entire peninsula have also retreated during the late 20th century and into the early 21st century.

Officials said the ice shelves are attached to the continent, holding in place the Antarctic ice sheets that covers about 98 percent of the Antarctic continent. As the ice shelves break off, it becomes easier for outlet glaciers and ice streams from the ice sheet to flow into the sea. That transition of ice from land to the ocean is what raises the sea level.

“This research is part of a larger ongoing USGS project that is for the first time studying the entire Antarctic coastline in detail, and this is important because the Antarctic ice sheet contains 91 percent of Earth’s glacier ice,” USGS scientist Jane Ferrigno said.

“The loss of ice shelves is evidence of the effects of global warming,” she added. “We need to be alert and continually understand and observe how our climate system is changing.”



My Note – According to the article above, there is melting of the great ice sheets and global climate change that I’ve kept wondering whether would increase the amount of weight bearing down on the sea floors as our sea levels are rising.  These are massive systems and way past the tipping point already. Oh well, that’s what comes of spending the last forty years telling people that everything is fine the way it is without fixing any of it that’s broken. – cricketdiane


U.S. scientists study Haitian earthquake

Published: Feb. 24, 2010 at 1:34 PM

SEATTLE, Feb. 24 (UPI) — A five-person U.S. team evaluating the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti Jan. 12 says much of the massive loss of life might have been prevented.

The team, led by University of Washington structural engineering.

Professor Marc Eberhard, said its main conclusion was that much of the loss of life could have been prevented by using earthquake-resistant designs and construction, as well as improved quality control in concrete and masonry work. The researchers recommended simple and cost-effective earthquake engineering be emphasized in Haiti’s rebuilding effort.

“A lot of the damaged structures will have to be destroyed,” Eberhard said. “It’s not just 100 buildings or 1,000 buildings. It’s a huge number of buildings, which I can’t even estimate.

“Usually when I go to earthquakes I find that the amount of damage is less than what appears on the television,” Eberhard said. “In this case it was much more.”

The report from the team that included Steven Baldridge of Baldridge & Associates Structural Engineering Inc., Auburn University Assistant Professor Justin Marshall, Walter Mooney of the U.S. Geological Survey and Georgia Institute of Technology Professor Glenn Rix is available at http://www.eqclearinghouse.org/20100112-haiti/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/USGS_EERI_HAITI_V1.1.pdf.

Related Stories



And there was a magnitude 4.4 earthquake in Oklahoma today – busy day . . .

MAP 4.4 2010/02/27 22:22:28 35.623 -96.762 3.8 OKLAHOMA


My Note –

One of the worst things about the caste system that was established in the United States over the years since Nixon and Reagan, is that when there were emergency management planning and drills whether in small towns or large cities, often the ones who would not be the decision-makers during a crisis or disaster were sent to the meetings and emergency preparedness drills since “bigwigs” can’t be bothered with such things. Once a crisis occurs, the secretary, assistant, office manager, dispatcher, vice president, vice chairman, assistants and staff to the top people generally are not available and the one left to make decisions for all of us affected by the disaster would end up being the asshole who didn’t go to any of the planning meetings, nor to any of the drills because they couldn’t be bothered with it being too important for such things. Anyway, once that costs lives doing it that way, I would think the people who have the top positions of authority in the US locally and regionally, would consider learning more about acting in an organized and coordinated manner along with how to accomplish that during high stress, dangerous and life-threatening extreme events. It would be nice to see that happen in America. But, if today had been the day when this disaster in Chile had happened in the United States, the outcome would have been an absolute nightmare that defies description and anybody who doesn’t recognize that at this point isn’t paying attention. The best idea would be to fix it before we get there.

– cricketdiane


And I would love to know why the entire slabs in the concrete slab construction buildings (at least in some of them) did not crack into a million pieces despite the underneath columns being torn from the slab above. However they built those buildings – it is worth building some more like them. The comparison between these and the many recent concrete slab buildings which have been nothing but a pile of pancaked floors in rubble is phenomenally impressive. It looks like a lot of things in earthquake resistant building techniques worked and some used on roads and bridges didn’t. And, although there were buildings of multi-stories that were damaged, the majority of compartments where people would be – were intact despite the violence of the earthquake and damage to the building. – my note, (cd)