My Note –
After the hurricane in New Orleans, there were studies conducted and applications made to create hurricane-resistant structures. After numerous earthquakes, there have been building methods and materials science specifically intended to prevent major building collapses caused by inflexible structures being forced to flex.
The earthquakes in Sichuan province, L’Aquila, Haiti and around the world, have resulted in concrete slab construction which collapsed costing lives and permanently maiming people. There have been a number of concrete slab construction method structures of four to five stories which have failed without an accompanying extreme natural event.
Building collapses involving this type of construction are among the most devastating to the human lives and communities using them for residences, workplaces, schools, hospitals, government services, childcare, shopping and as university dormitories.Not only do these buildings typically pancake their floors into a pile of rubble and large heavy slabs trapping people either to their deaths or subjecting their occupants to severe, life-altering, crushing injuries, they are also implanting the debris of concrete, mortar and aggregate used in the building materials into the skin and eyes of those unfortunate enough to be in the building or nearby when it collapses.
These buildings have failed as a result of poor construction methods caused by cutting the concrete mix ratios to save money, by cutting the number of, diameter of, quality of, and spacing of rebar used in the reinforcement substructures, by refusing to use the known appropriate construction methods where earthquakes, extreme weather events, landslides and flooding are reasonably expected, and by inadequately remediating disintegrating or compromised structures and foundations when they are known to be questionable.
Where there are people living, working, learning, healing, growing up, and going about their daily activities, they physical structures provided to them must provide a safe harbor, not be a waiting danger that will take their lives or permanently alter their lives in horrific ways. Homes and schools are to be a place of safety in a storm, or flood, or landslide or earthquake, not a place more dangerous and life-threatening than the actual event.
(below the examples of some recent collapsed buildings – there are some links and informational sites about building and re-building to establish safer places to live and work, even in earthquakes, storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, landslides, wildfires and other extreme events.)
– cricketdiane, 02-02-10
June 10, 2008
4 confirmed dead in building collapse in HK
Updated: 2010-01-30 10:46
Firemen rescue residents from a five-story building that collapsed in Hong Kong, killing at least three people, on Friday. The building was about 50 years old. [Edmond Tang]
HONG KONG: Rescuers found one more body Saturday morning from the rubble of an apartment building that tumbled in Hong Kong on Friday, bringing the death toll to four.
The building collapse in Hung Hom, Kowloon, also left two others injured and one missing, according to the government website.
As of late Friday night, the Social Welfare Department (SWD) has reached 98 people from 44 households affected by the building collapse, providing those in need with emergency support and welfare services.
The Emergency Relief Support Unit of SWD has distributed food and daily necessities to the affected residents to address their emergency needs. The department will hand 5,000 HK dollars as emergency relief fund to each of the affected and needy households registered with the Government.
Guj school building collapse toll rises to 11
Press Trust of India
Posted online: Friday, January 26, 2007 at 2031 hours IST
Updated: Saturday, January 27, 2007 at 1111 hours IST
Gujarat Accident Tichakpura, Gujarat, January 27: With the recovery of two more bodies from the rubble during a night-long search, the death toll in the residential school building collapse in Tichakpura has reached 11, an official said.
“Rescue workers removed two more bodies from the rubble during the night-long search operation. The operation is over as there does not seem to be anymore person trapped in the debris. Workers are sifting through the rubble,” Surat District Collector Vatsala Vasudev said.
At least 14 others, all tribal girls, were receiving treatment for various injuries at a hospital in neighbouring town of Vyara, the Collector said.
The roof and staircase of the four storeyed building, which houses the government-run Adarsh Nivasi Shala for tribal girls, had collapsed on Friday evening.
Collapse of schools during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake
- See also: Allegations of corruption in the construction of Chinese schools, Collapse of schools in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake
During the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a disproportionately high number of school structures collapsed, especially in rural areas of Sichuan, leading to allegations of corruption and promises by the government for an official inquiry. However, it remains unclear whether the allegedly shoddy construction was unique to Sichuan, as opposed to a nation-wide practice that only became visible in Sichuan due to the earthquake.
Executive vice governor, Wei Hong, on 20 November 2008 confirmed that 19,065 identified schoolchildren died, and more than 90,000 were dead or missing after the earthquake. He stated that 200,000 homes had been rebuilt, and 685,000 were under reconstruction, but 1.94 million households were still without permanent shelter. 1,900 schools had been reconstructed, with initial relocation of 25 townships, including Beichuan and Wenchuan, two of the most devastated areas. The government spent $441(amount most likely incorrect due to size of the amount) billion dollars on relief and reconstruction efforts.
My Note –
Building Techniques, Materials Science, Studies and Methods for making structures hurricane-resistant, earthquake-resistant, safer, survivable in floods and less prone to destruction by nearby wildfires –
There are amazing innovations and very practical working knowledge that have been made available for use especially where extreme events are most likely to occur. From the “root cellars’ built below ground level in the tornado alleys of the American Midwest to the “adjustable, flexible” building design innovations of Japan to survive the frequent earthquakes and aftershocks, there are solutions from varied and far-reaching sources available for use.
These are some of the places where the applications are described –
This page features multi-media demonstrations of innovative hurricane resistant construction techniques and products featured at the LaHouse Resource Center on the LSU campus in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
These are short videos that describe –
Flood Proof Foundations
Weather Resistive Barriers
Holding Down the House
Moisture and Building Design
Minimizing Moisture and Mold
Jeff Burton of IBHS and Kurt McCarty, executive director of the Louisiana State Unified Construction Council explain the “why” of code changes designed to make structures resistant to hurricanes and other natural disasters. 18 minutes.
(and more found on this page – )
see also –
Visit LaHouse at www.louisianahouse.org
BluePrint for Safety® is the product of a collaboration of private and public interests working under the direction of the Federal Alliance for Safe Homes – FLASH, Inc., a non-profit, 501(c)3 charitable education organization dedicated to promoting home safety.
(included on their site – )
* A Tale of Two Houses
* DIY Wind Inspection
* Hurricane Myths
* Journey to Storm-Resistant Building
* Preparing for Disaster
* Taming Wildfire
* What to do about windstorms
* Washing Away Flood Misconceptions
* Contractors must be Blueprint For Safety trained in order to participate in programs such as My Safe Florida Home, Florida Division of Emergency Management’s Low to Moderate Income Retrofit Projects and South Carolina Safe Home
* BFS training satisfies the need for continuous, updated, accredited professional training for building contractors, design professionals and related trades in code-plus wind mitigation techniques.
* BFS training provides builders with a host of options that can furnish homes with that extra measure of fortification — and that could be critical if the dwelling is exposed to severe weather.
FLASH, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting disaster safety and property loss mitigation. Its mission is to promote life safety, property protection and economic well-being by strengthening homes and safeguarding families from natural and manmade disasters. The FLASH website is loaded with tools, tips, and guidelines for hurricane and mold-resistant construction techniques, homeowner information, and more.
there are some great new reinforcement fabrics for concrete structures, foundation / soil studies that prevent building collapses due to liquefaction of soils and surfaces under the foundation during earthquakes, tsunamis and floods, – I have to go remember where I saw it.
(Be right back)
A New Application of CFRP Fabrics In Earthquake Resistant RC Bridge Piers
A new construction concept for structural frames consisting of concrete, steel and carbon fiber composite fabrics was developed and implemented in a two-column bridge pier. Two new ideas are incorporated. [ . . . ] The other innovative concept incorporated in the frame is that where plastic hinging and ductility is required, steel reinforcement is used as the longitudinal reinforcement and where elastic behavior is required carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheets are used as the longitudinal reinforcement. FRP fabrics provide for confinement and shear capacity at all locations.
A quarter-scale, two-column drop-cap pier with square columns was designed and constructed based on the aforementioned concepts. Normal strength concrete and Grade 60 mild steel were used in the frame. Unidirectional Replark carbon composite fabrics manufactured by the Mitsubishi Corporation were placed on the frame.
See diagram ( on this document at the above link).
International Institute for FRP in Construction –
COMPOSITES 2010: THE Composites Exhibition and Convention, will be held February 9-11, 2010, at the Mandalay Bay, Las Vegas. Thousands of professionals in the composites industry and in other industries that use composite materials will find information on everything from basic materials to cutting-edge technology.
The 5th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2010) will be held in Beijing, China, on 27-29 September 2010. The aim of this conference is to provide an international forum for all concerned with the application of FRP composites in civil engineering to exchange and share recent advances in both research and practice. Download call for papers
The proceedings of the US-Japan Workshop on Life Cycle Assessment of Sustainable Infrastructure Materials are now available.
for Composites 2010 Show – Feb. 9-11-2010
American Composites Manufacturers Association, ACMA Headlines:
Commerce Department Official to Speak at COMPOSITES 2010
Rick Wade, Senior Advisor and Deputy Chief of Staff to Commerce Secretary Gary Locke will address the composites industry during COMPOSITES 2010. During the 8:00 a.m. General Session on Wednesday, February 10th, he will speak about issues such as exporting, access to capital, and manufacturing. More information.
AEWC Advanced Structures & Composites Center
University of Maine
Orono, ME 04469
207 581 2138
207 581 2074
Product Categories Armor/Ballistic Materials
Composites Structural Elements
Design/Product Development Services
The AEWC Advanced Structures & Composites Center at UMaine houses 10 integrated laboratories under one roof and is a state-of-the-art “one stop shop” for integrated composite materials research, development and testing. Current AEWC research is focused on composites for wind energy generation, public infrastructure, defense and homeland security and boatbuilding.
Ball Consulting, Ltd.
2301 Duss Ave. Building #1
Ambridge, PA 15003-1865
Product Categories –
Fast setting GFRC materials and equipment for architectural, cast polymer and solid surface applications.
Architectural facades, decorative architectural ornamentation, restoration and replication of natural facade materials, GFRC countertops, fountains, flower pots, rocks and lower cost housing systems.
Architectural ornamentation, restoration and replication of natural materials, decorative arts casting and cold cast metal.
Other companies that match category Reinforcements:
| COMPOSITES 2010 Exhibitors
As of 02/03/2010
|542||Ahlstrom Glass Nonwovens, LLC|
|207||Ball Consulting, Ltd.|
|546||China National Building Materials Corp.|
|923||CHOMARAT North America|
|1006||CNBM International Corporation|
|322||Crane Composites, Inc.|
|839||CTG International (North America), Inc.|
|1217||De-Comp Composites, Inc.|
|321||Fiber Glass Industries|
|539||High Impact Technology, LLC|
|553||Litek Composites Corporation|
|746||SAERTEX USA, LLC|
|767||Technical Fibre Products, Inc.|
|1023||Teijin Aramid USA, Inc.|
|1133||Toho Tenax America, Inc.|
|1053||University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)|
|Total Found 27|
Exhibiting Company Address
Department of Polymer & Fiber Engineering, Textile Building
Auburn, AL 36849
334 844 5460
Product Categories Braiding, Knitting/Stitching
Design/Product Development Services
The Department of Polymer and Fiber Engineering conducts research in protective materials, composite materials, fiber and materials science, biomedical materials, enzyme technology for fibers, geotextiles, membranes for fuel cells, nanofibers, nanotubes, nonwovens, polymers, polymer and colorant-related chemistry, and waste re-utilization. Research is sponsored by goverment and industry.
Provider of Research, Development, Testing and Education in polymers, fibers, fabrics and composite materials. Procedures include physical testing of fibers, fabrics and composites(including impact), vacuum impregnation, chop/spray, autoclave, braiding, and nonwoven pilot lines. Polymer testing includes thermal analysis (DSC, TGA, DMA), GPC/light scattering, FTIR, Microscopy etc.
Exhibiting Company Address
CHOMARAT North America
2901 New Pond Rd
Anderson, SC 29624
864 328 1700
864 260 3364
Product Categories Armor/Ballistic Materials
Chomarat North America, Chomarat Group member is a leading manufacturer of reinforcements: glass, aramid, carbon,multiaxials. Producer of Rovicore(R)for RTM and closed mold processes. Combination products and sandwich complex’s for FRP Industry. Producer of nonwoven scrims and grids including C-GRID carbon fiber epoxy reinforcement.
World of Concrete 2010
Las Vegas, Nevada
February 02-05, 2010