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**Poetry Live for Haiti

Poetry Live for Haiti by Downing Street.

Gordon Brown speaks during the Poetry Live for Haiti fundraising event in London on 31 January 2010; PA copyright

http://www.flickr.com/photos/downingstreet/4317009866/

***

In nature

Approximate fractals are easily found in nature. These objects display self-similar structure over an extended, but finite, scale range. Examples include clouds, snow flakes, crystals, mountain ranges, lightning, river networks, cauliflower or broccoli, and systems of blood vessels and pulmonary vessels. Coastlines may be loosely considered fractal in nature.

Trees and ferns are fractal in nature and can be modeled on a computer by using a recursive algorithm. This recursive nature is obvious in these examples—a branch from a tree or a frond from a fern is a miniature replica of the whole: not identical, but similar in nature. The connection between fractals and leaves are currently being used to determine how much carbon is contained in trees.[5]

In 1999, certain self similar fractal shapes were shown to have a property of “frequency invariance”—the same electromagnetic properties no matter what the frequency—from Maxwell’s equations (see fractal antenna).[6]

A fractal that models the surface of a mountain (animation)

Photograph of a romanesco broccoli, showing a naturally occurring fractal

Fractal pentagram drawn with a vector iteration program

In creative works

Further information: Fractal art

Fractal patterns have been found in the paintings of American artist Jackson Pollock. While Pollock’s paintings appear to be composed of chaotic dripping and splattering, computer analysis has found fractal patterns in his work.[7]

Decalcomania, a technique used by artists such as Max Ernst, can produce fractal-like patterns.[8] It involves pressing paint between two surfaces and pulling them apart.

Fractals are also prevalent in African art and architecture. Circular houses appear in circles of circles, rectangular houses in rectangles of rectangles, and so on. Such scaling patterns can also be found in African textiles, sculpture, and even cornrow hairstyles.[9]

In a 1996 interview David Foster Wallace admitted that the structure of his novel Infinite Jest was inspired by fractals, specifically the Sierpinski triangle.[10]

A fractal is formed when pulling apart two glue-covered acrylic sheets.

High voltage breakdown within a 4″ block of acrylic creates a fractal Lichtenberg figure.

Fractal branching occurs in a fractured surface such as a microwave-irradiated DVD.[11]

A DLA cluster grown from a copper(II) sulfate solution in an electrodeposition cell

A fractal flame created with the program Apophysis

Fractal made by the program Sterling

A fractal created using the program Apophysis and a julian transform

Applications

Main article: Fractal analysis

As described above, random fractals can be used to describe many highly irregular real-world objects. Other applications of fractals include:[12]

See also

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractal

***

DEC – Disasters Emergency Committee – found on number10.gov.uk

Who we are

Children at Otash Camp - Darfur and ChadThe Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) was formed in 1963. We are an umbrella organisation for 13 humanitarian aid agencies.

At times of overseas emergency, the DEC brings together a unique alliance of the UK’s aid, corporate, public and broadcasting sectors to rally the nation’s compassion, and ensure that funds raised go to DEC agencies best placed to deliver effective and timely relief to people most in need.

The DEC’s remit is to unite agency efforts in times of disaster – such as flood, earthquake or famine – wherever it happens in the world. The way we at DEC approach our work is to maximise funds raised and ensure they are spent in an effective and fully accountable way.

DEC Members

The DEC is made up of 13 aid agencies, who are UK registered humanitarian charities that fulfil certain criteria. The DEC members have the expertise in the delivery and provision of aid. Members’ performance and any new applicants are reviewed every two years.

Rapid Response Network

The DEC is also supported by a network of television and radio broadcasters, the banks, the Post Office, BT, regional and national press and a range of organisations in the corporate sector. These organisations help the DEC at the time of an appeal, to publicise the situation and raise funds.

National Appeals
Refugee Camp - SudanCrises and emergencies occur regularly throughout the world and the DEC cannot respond to them all. DEC appeals are reserved for major disasters and emergencies which cannot be dealt with by the usual in-country coping mechanisms, and where DEC agencies are in a position to respond quickly and effectively. Our DEC Decision-making guidelines are used to ensure that a national joint appeal is the appropriate response to a particular emergency.

At the time of appeal, we coordinate a strategic response with our members and Rapid Response Network partners, organising a national fundraising appeal to finance urgently needed humanitarian relief.

Our Mission Statement
The DEC is always striving to raise the standards of humanitarian aid. We work to ensure that the funds raised by the public are spent in the most effective way to finance humanitarian relief. Our DEC Mission Statement outlines this.

Our Achievements
We simply could not carry on working to help people affected by major disasters without the support of the public. Thanks to the generosity of donors we have raised amazing amounts of money which has helped save lives and rebuild communities devastated by disasters.

http://www.dec.org.uk/who_we_are/

DEC members

The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) Member Agencies
The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) is made up of 13 member agencies who provide humanitarian aid in times of disaster.

The 13 member agencies are:

The agencies are the leading UK registered humanitarian charities that fulfil certain criteria. DEC agencies have the profile to ensure successful national appeals and expertise in the delivery and provision of aid.

In March 2008 the DEC Board agreed that Membership of the DEC will be reviewed in 2008 and then every three years. Prospective Members will be reviewed against the criteria (see the DEC membership criteria page) and any organisation that wishes to join the DEC should submit their proposal by the end of July 2008. Additional guidance on the criteria is available from membership@dec.org.uk

DEC agencies are signatories to the Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disaster Relief. They have a demonstrable commitment to the principles enshrined in the humanitarian charter to achieve Sphere and People in Aid standards, plus a willingness to be evaluated against them. .

Governance
The DEC is governed by a board of trustees.

Membership Criteria
In March 2008 the DEC Board agreed that Membership of the DEC will be reviewed in 2008 and then every three years. Prospective Members will be reviewed against the criteria (see the DEC membership criteria page) and any organisation that wishes to join the DEC should submit their proposal by the end of July 2008. Additional guidance on the criteria is available from membership@dec.org.uk

http://www.dec.org.uk/who_we_are/dec_members.html

***

Sphere Project Board Organisations

Agencies Piloting Sphere

Quality and Accountability Initiatives

Government Aid Agencies

UN Agencies

Other Resources

(from )

http://www.sphereproject.org/content/view/96/218/lang,english/

2010 Sphere, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response

Sphere Project
Sphere has developed a handbook of standards for four sectors (water/sanitation and hygiene promotion; food security; nutrition and food aid; settlement and non-food items and health services).
www.sphereproject.org

***

Output from a shallow water equation model of water in a bathtub. The water experiences five splashes which generate surface gravity waves that propagate away from the splash locations and reflect off the bathtub walls.

The shallow water equations (also called Saint Venant

equations after Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant) are a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations that describe the flow below a pressure surface in a fluid (sometimes, but not necessarily, a free surface).

The equations are derived[1] from depth-integrating the Navier-Stokes equations, in the case where the horizontal length scale is much greater than the vertical length scale. Under this condition, conservation of mass implies that the vertical velocity of the fluid is small. It can be shown from the momentum equation that vertical pressure gradients are nearly hydrostatic, and that horizontal pressure gradients are due to the displacement of the pressure surface, implying that the horizontal velocity field is constant throughout the depth of the fluid. Vertically integrating allows the vertical velocity to be removed from the equations. The shallow water equations are thus derived.

While a vertical velocity term is not present in the shallow water equations, note that this velocity is not necessarily zero. This is an important distinction because, for example, the vertical velocity cannot be zero when the floor changes depth, and thus if it were zero only flat floors would be usable with the shallow water equations. Once a solution (i.e. the horizontal velocities and free surface displacement) has been found, the vertical velocity can be recovered via the continuity equation.

Situations in fluid dynamics where the horizontal length scale is much greater than the vertical length scale are common, so the shallow water equations are widely applicable. They are used with Coriolis forces in atmospheric and oceanic modeling, as a simplification of the primitive equations of atmospheric flow.

Shallow water equation models have only one vertical level, so they cannot directly encompass any factor that varies with height. However, in cases where the mean state is sufficiently simple, the vertical variations can be separated from the horizontal and several sets of shallow water equations can describe the state.

(from)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shallow_water_equations

***

Hyperbolic system and conservation laws

There is a connection between a hyperbolic system and a conservation law. Consider a hyperbolic system of one partial differential equation for one unknown function u = u(\vec x, t). Then the system ( * ) has the form

(**) \quad \frac{\partial u}{\partial t}  + \sum_{j=1}^d \frac{\partial}{\partial x_j}  {f^j} (u) = 0,

Now u can be some quantity with a flux \vec f = (f^1, \ldots, f^d). To show that this quantity is conserved, integrate ( * * ) over a domain Ω

\int_{\Omega} \frac{\partial u}{\partial t} d\Omega + \int_{\Omega} \nabla \cdot \vec f(u) d\Omega = 0.

If u and \vec f are sufficiently smooth functions, we can use the divergence theorem and change the order of the integration and \partial / \partial t to get a conservation law for the quantity u in the general form

\frac{d}{dt} \int_{\Omega} u d\Omega  + \int_{\Gamma} \vec f(u) \cdot \vec n d\Gamma = 0,

which means that the time rate of change of u in the domain Ω is equal to the net flux of u through its boundary Γ. Since this is an equality, it can be concluded that u is conserved within Ω.

See also

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbolic_partial_differential_equation

***

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EUVE6&photoID=euve6_002_ahp.jpg

Images:
Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp.

Click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Eucladium thumbnails at the PLANTS Gallery

View a larger version of this image and Profile page for Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. View a larger version of this image and Profile page for Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. View a larger version of this image and Profile page for Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. View a larger version of this image and Profile page for Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. View a larger version of this image and Profile page for Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. View a larger version of this image and Profile page for Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp.
Related Taxa:
Eucladium verticillatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp.

View 41 genera in Pottiaceae, 1 species in Eucladium

***

The PM recording a podcast at Downing Street; Crown copyright

Investment in Britain’s future to continue – PM

The Prime Minister has said the Government will continue to invest “willingly and whole-heartedly” in Britain’s future, as the country moves out of recession.

In his latest podcast, Gordon Brown said that despite emerging from “the toughest recession since the 1930s” the return to strong, sustainable global growth would still take time.

He said the Government would continue with measures put in place to support families and businesses.

Listen to the podcast

Read more:Investment in Britain’s future to continue – PM

Transcript of the PM’s podcast

(from)

http://www.number10.gov.uk/

***

Anatase

Formula:
TiO
2
System: Tetragonal Colour: Brown, yellowish or …
Lustre: Adamantine, Metallic Hardness: 5½ – 6
Name: From the Greek for “extension,” in allusion to the length of the pyramidal faces being longer in relation to their bases than in many tetragonal minerals.
Polymorph of: Brookite, IMA2007-058, Rutile, TiO2 II

Anatase is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide found in nature.

(from)

http://www.mindat.org/min-213.html

***

Lichens Home Page
nature logo graphic

Nature Photos

This page links to 17 index pages: 16 of them provide links to photos of identified lichens, including those that are identified to genus but not to species. It also links to an index page providing access to about 300 “mystery” lichens that are completely unidentified, and a page that links to topics in lichen natural history. There are about 6,300 photos on the site, illustrating approximately 1,250 species. Most of the photos were taken for the book, Lichens of North America, with text by Dr. Irwin Brodo, published in 2001 by Yale University Press. There are two photos by others. Almost all are from the continental U.S. and Canada, but there are some from Baja California, Mexico, and a few from southern France.

Most of the identifications for the photos were made by Dr. Brodo from voucher specimens that Sylvia and I collected between 1973 and 1998. A smaller number of images were taken by me between 1999 and 2007 and were identified by a number of other lichenologists, including Mariette Cole, Theodore Esslinger, Thomas H. Nash III, Trevor Goward, Roger Rosentreter, Bruce McCune, Stephen Clayden and others. Enormous thanks are due to all who helped! I have attempted to keep the names current with the North American Checklist by Esslinger and Egan, and with other recent sources such as the Sonoran Desert Flora. For the sake of simplicity I have not italicized the scientific names. In particular, we owe more than I can express to Ernie Brodo, without whose generosity, energy, and steadfastness our project with lichens would have never developed beyond a passing fancy.

I am making corrections to the names and information on the site on an ongoing basis, and adding additional photos from my archives. Most recent revision, with 150 photos added: June 27, 2009.

For an informational site about lichens, go to Lichens of North America

Lichens Index 1: Acarospora to Byssoloma alectoria thumbnail graphic
Lichens Index 2: Calicium to Chrysothrix caloplaca thumbnail graphic
Lichens Index 3: Cladonia cladonia_cristatella_2thmb.jpg
Lichens Index 4: Cliostomum to Dypolabia dactylina thumbnail graphic
Lichens Index 5: Echinoplaca to Hypocenomyce evernia thumbnail graphic
Lichens Index 6: Hypogymnia to Lecanora lecanora thumbnail graphic
Lichens Index 7: Lecidea to Megaspora leptogium thumbnail graphic
Lichens Index 8: Melanelia to Orphniospora niebla thumbnail graphic
Lichens Index 9: Pannaria to Peltigera peltigera thumbnail graphic

http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/lichens/lichens_home_index.html

***

Memé Mine, Terre Neuve district, L’Artibonite Department, Haiti

Skarn and porphyry copper deposit.
References:
– Econ. Geol. (1986) 81:1801-1807.
– Evans, A.M. (1997): An Introduction to Economic Geology and its Environmental Impact. Blackwell Science Ltd (Oxford), 370 pp.
– Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): Porphyry copper deposits of the world: Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.

// <![CDATA[// // <![CDATA[//

Map data ©2009 Google, INEGI, Europa Technologies – Terms of Use
Map Reference: 19°31’N , 72°42’W

This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

Mineral List:

Bornite
Chalcocite
Chalcopyrite
Digenite
Epidote
‘Garnet Group’
Hematite
Magnetite
Molybdenite
Pyrite

10 entries listed. 9 valid minerals.

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database!

http://www.mindat.org/loc-205537.html

***

Bornite

Formula:
Cu
5
FeS
4
System: Orthorhombic Colour: Copper-red tarnishing to …
Lustre: Metallic Hardness: 3
Name:

Known since 1725, but not given its current name until 1845 when it was named for Ignaz von Born (1742-1791), Austrian mineralogist.

Important copper ore.
Typically found as massive metallic material, it has a copper-red color on fresh exposures which quickly tarnishes to an iridescent purple after exposure to air and moisture.
May be confused with tarnished chalcopyrite.

// <![CDATA[//

Classification of Bornite

IMA status: Approved 1962
Strunz 8th edition ID: 2/B.02-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID: 2.BA.15

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au

Dana 7th edition ID: 2.5.2.1
Dana 8th edition ID: 2.5.2.1

2 : SULFIDES
5 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2

Hey’s CIM Ref.: 3.1.23

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

mindat.org URL: http://www.mindat.org/min-727.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Bornite

Type Locality: Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal) District, Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Karlovy Vary Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic
Year of Discovery: 1725

Occurrences of Bornite

Geological Setting: Common and widespread in copper ore deposits. It also occurs in basic intrusives, in dikes, in contact metamorphic deposits, in quartz veins and in pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Bornite

Lustre: Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency): Opaque
Colour: Copper-red tarnishing to an iridescent purplish surface.
Streak: Grey-Black
Hardness (Mohs): 3
Hardness (Vickers): VHN100=92 kg/mm2
Hardness Data: Measured
Tenacity: Brittle
Cleavage: Poor/Indistinct
In traces on {111}.
Parting: None.
Fracture: Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured): 5.06 – 5.09 g/cm3
Density (calculated): 5.09 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bornite

Crystal System: Orthorhombic
Class (H-M): mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) – Dipyramidal
Space Group: Pbca {P21/b 21/c 21/a}
Cell Parameters: a = 10.95Å, b = 21.862Å, c = 10.95Å
Ratio: a:b:c = 0.501 : 1 : 0.501
Unit Cell Volume: V 2621.31 ų
Z: 16
Morphology: Crystals rare, usually blocky with rough curved faces, pseudo-cubic, pseudo-dodecohedral and rarely pseudo-octahedral. Forms noted: {001}, {011}, {111}, {112}, {223} and {335}.
Twinning: On {111}, often as penetration twins.
Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading

Click on an icon to view

Bornite no.1 – Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.5 – Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.7 – Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Bornite no.10 – Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
{100}
Lévy, 1837 (‘Cuivre pyriteux hépatique’), and others. In: V.M. Goldschmidt, Atlas der Krystallformen, 1913-1923 (‘Buntkupfererz’).

About Crystal Atlas

You may need to scroll this box using your mouse to view the full instructions.

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. You need Java to see these. You can download Java for free – click here to download Java

The 3d models and java code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl. You can control the movement of the models by holding down the left mouse-button over the 3d model and moving your mouse. Keyboard controls are:

: default positions

t/T : decrease/increase transparency x/X : next/previous texture
b/B : next/previous background w : toggle wireframe
s : toggle sticks m : toggle miller indices
k : toggle crystallographic axes =/- : zoom in/out
r : stop/start rotation 1/2/3

// <![CDATA[//

X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading


Radiation – Copper Kα
Data Set: Bethlehem Copper mine, Highland Valley, Logan Lake, British Columbia, Canada 1111
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data: Peaks: Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacing Intensity
3.31 (40)
3.18 (60)
2.74 (50)
2.50 (40)
1.94 (100)
1.65 (30)
1.26 (50)
1.12 (5)

Optical Data of Bornite

Type: Anisotropic
Anisotropism: Weak
Colour in reflected light: Copper-red.
Internal Reflections: Purpulish iridescence.
Pleochroism: Weak

Chemical Properties of Bornite

Formula:
Cu
5
FeS
4
Essential elements: Cu, Fe, S
All elements listed in formula: Cu, Fe, S
Analytical Data: Wet chemical analysis of material from Messina, Transvaal given first. Ideal given second.

Cu (63.24)
Fe (11.12)
S (25.54)
Total (90.90)
.
Cu (63.32}
Fe (11.13)
S (25.55)
Total (100.00)
Empirical Formula:
Cu
5.00
Fe
1.00
S
4.00
Common Impurities: Ag,Ge,Bi,In,Pb

Relationship of Bornite to other Species

Related Minerals – Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

+

2.BA.05 Chalcocite
Cu
2
S
2.BA.05 Djurleite
Cu
31
S
16
2.BA.05 Geerite
Cu
8
S
5
2.BA.05 Roxbyite
Cu
9
S
5
2.BA.10 Anilite
Cu
7
S
4
2.BA.10 Digenite
Cu
9
S
5
2.BA.20 Bellidoite
Cu
2
Se
2.BA.20 Berzelianite
Cu
2
Se
2.BA.25 Athabascaite
Cu
5
Se
4
2.BA.25 Umangite
Cu
3
Se
2
2.BA.30 Rickardite
Cu
7
Te
5
2.BA.30 Weissite
Cu
2-x
Te
2.BA.35 Acanthite
Ag
2
S
2.BA.35 Argentite
2.BA.40 Mckinstryite
Ag
5
Cu
3
S
4
2.BA.40 Stromeyerite
AgCuS
2.BA.40d UM2003-13
Ag
6
AuCu
2
S
5
2.BA.45 Jalpaite
Ag
3
CuS
2
2.BA.45 Selenojalpaite
Ag
3
CuSe
2
2.BA.50 Eucairite
AgCuSe
2.BA.55 Aguilarite
Ag
4
SeS
2.BA.55 Naumannite
Ag
2
Se
2.BA.60 Cervelleite
Ag
4
TeS
2.BA.60 Hessite
Ag
2
Te
2.BA.60 Chenguodaite
Ag
9
Fe
3+
Te
2
S
4
2.BA.65 Henryite
Ag
3
Cu
4
Te
4
2.BA.65 Stützite
Ag
5-x
Te
3
, x = 0.24-0.36
2.BA.70 Argyrodite
Ag
8
GeS
6
2.BA.70 Canfieldite
Ag
8
(Sn,Ge)(S,Te)
6
2.BA.70 Putzite
(Cu
4.7
Ag
3.3
)GeS
6
2.BA.75 Fischesserite
Ag
3
AuSe
2
2.BA.75 Penzhinite
(Ag,Cu)
4
Au(S,Se)
4
2.BA.75 Petrovskaite
AuAg(S,Se)
2.BA.75 Petzite
Ag
3
AuTe
2
2.BA.75 Uytenbogaardtite
Ag
3
AuS
2
2.BA.80 Bezsmertnovite
(Au,Ag)
4
Cu(Te,Pb)
2.BA.80 Bilibinskite
PbCuAu
3
Te
2
2.BA.80 Bogdanovite
(Au,Te,Pb)
3
(Cu,Fe)
Related Minerals – Hey’s Index Grouping:

+

3.1.1 Chalcocite
Cu
2
S
3.1.2 Djurleite
Cu
31
S
16
3.1.3 Digenite
Cu
9
S
5
3.1.4 Anilite
Cu
7
S
4
3.1.5 Roxbyite
Cu
9
S
5
3.1.6 Spionkopite
Cu
39
S
28
3.1.7 Geerite
Cu
8
S
5
3.1.8 Covellite
CuS
3.1.9 Berzelianite
Cu
2
Se
3.1.10 Bellidoite
Cu
2
Se
3.1.11 Umangite
Cu
3
Se
2
3.1.12 Yarrowite
Cu
9
S
8
3.1.13 Athabascaite
Cu
5
Se
4
3.1.14 Klockmannite
CuSe
3.1.15 Krut’aite
CuSe
2
3.1.16 Weissite
Cu
2-x
Te
3.1.17 Rickardite
Cu
7
Te
5
3.1.18 Vulcanite
CuTe
3.1.19 Bambollaite
Cu(Se,Te)
2
3.1.20 Lautite
CuAsS
3.1.21 Mgriite
Cu
3
AsSe
3
3.1.22 Cubanite
CuFe
2
S
3
3.1.24 Fukuchilite
Cu
3
FeS
8
3.1.25 Chalcopyrite
CuFeS
2
3.1.26 Mooihoekite
Cu
9
Fe
9
S
16
3.1.27 Haycockite
Cu
4
Fe
5
S
8
3.1.28 Isocubanite
CuFe
2
S
3
3.1.29 Idaite
Cu
5
FeS
6
3.1.30 Nukundamite
(Cu,Fe)
4
S
4
3.1.31 Putoranite
Cu
9
(Fe,Ni)
9
S
16
3.1.32 Orickite
2CuFeS
2
·H
2
O
3.1.33 Eskebornite
CuFeSe
2
3.1.34 Chaméanite
(Cu,Fe)
4
As(Se,S)
4
3.1.35 Talnakhite
Cu
9
(Fe,Ni)
8
S
16

Other Names for Bornite

Synonyms:
Bornite (of Haidinger) Chalcomiklite Erubescite IMA1962-s.p. Lefverslag
Peacock Ore Phillipsine Phillipsite (of Beudant) Poikilite Purple Copper
Purple Copper Ore Variegated Copper Variegated Copper Ore
Other Languages:
Basque: Bornita
Catalan: Bornita
Czech: Bornit
Dutch: Borniet
French: Cuivre Panaché
German: Bornit
Buntkupferkies
Chalcomiklit
Erubescit
Kupferlasurerz
Kupferlazuerz
Kupfer-Lazul
Kupferlazurerz
Poikilit
Italian: Bornite
Japanese: 斑銅鉱
Lithuanian: Bornitas
Low Saxon: Bornit
Polish: Bornit
Portuguese: Bornita
Russian: Борнит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script): Борнит
Simplified Chinese: 斑銅礦
Slovak: Bornit
Spanish: Bornita
Chalcomiklita
Cobre Panaceo
Erubescita
Pecho de Palorma
Poikilita
Swedish: Brokig kopparmalm
Ukrainian: Борніт
Varieties:
Argentiferous Bornite

Other Information

Health Warning: No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses: A major ore of copper.

References for Bornite

Reference List: Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 195-197.

Acta Crystallographica: 17: 351-360.

Cuthbert, M.E. (1962) Formation of bornite at atmospheric temperature and pressure. Economic Geology: 57: 38-41.

Koto, K. and Morimoto, N. (1975) Superstructure investigation of bornite, Cu5FeS4, by the modified partial Patterson function. Acta Crystallographica: B31: 2268-2273.

American Mineralogist (1978): 63: 1-16.

Jagadeesh, M.S., Nagarathna, H.M., Montano, P.A., and Seehra, M.S. (1981) Magnetic and Mössbauer studies of phase transitions and mixed valences in bornite (Cu4.5Fe1.2S4.7). Phys. Rev.: B23: 2350-2356.

Buckley, A.N. and Woods, R. (1983) An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of the tarnishing of bornite. Australian Journal of Chemistry: 36: 1793-1804.

Robie, R.A., Wiggins, L.B., Barton, P.B., Jr., and Hemingway, B.S. (1985) Low-temperature heat capacity and entropy of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): estimates of the standard molar enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation of chalcopyrite and bornite (Cu5FeS4). Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics: 17: 481-488.

Vaughan, D.J., Tossell, J.A., and Stanley, C.J. (1987) The surface properties of bornite. Mineralogical Magazine: 51: 285-293.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana’s New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 52.

Harmer, S.L., Pratt, A.R., Nesbitt, H.W., and Fleet, M.E. (2005) Reconstruction of fracture surfaces on bornite. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1619-1630.

Internet Links for Bornite

Search Engines:

  • Look for Bornite on Google
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Bornite on Webmineral
  • Look for Bornite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Bornite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Bornite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Search for Bornite in the Natural History Museum (London) online catalogue
  • Bornite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Edwards Minerals – Fine Specimens
  • Find Bornite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Buy minerals from Mineralium.com
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Buy Minerals and Crystals from Crystalarium.com
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • Search for – Bornite – on e-Rocks Mineral Sales & Auctions
  • Fabre Minerals – search for Bornite specimens
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    Chalcocite

    Formula:
    Cu
    2
    S
    System: Monoclinic Colour: Blue black, gray, black, …
    Lustre: Metallic Hardness: 2½ – 3
    Name: From Greek, “chalkos”, copper.

    Chalcocite-Digenite Group. Chalcocite-Yarrowite Series.

    A secondary mineral in or near the oxidized zone of copper sulfide deposits. Hexagonal above 105 °C.
    Easily confused with djurleite.

    // <![CDATA[//

    Classification of Chalcocite

    (etc.)

    http://www.mindat.org/min-962.html

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    Bauxite

    Colour: Shades of brown, …
    Name: After the locality at Baux (or Beaux), near St. Reny, Bouches-du-Rhône, France.
    A Mixture Of: Böhmite, Diaspore, Gibbsite

    A mixture, and rock, comprised of iron and aluminium Hydroxides/Oxides. The primary ore of aluminium.
    Originally described from Mas Rouge, Les Baux-de-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France.

    //

    Classification of Bauxite

    mindat.org URL: http://www.mindat.org/min-575.html
    Please feel free to link to this page.

    Physical Properties of Bauxite

    Colour: Shades of brown, red-brown, and yellow-brown

    Other Names for Bauxite

    Synonyms:
    Beauxite Cliachite Kliachite Kljakite Wocheinite
    Other Languages:
    Arabic: بوكسيت
    Bosnian (Latin Script): Boksit
    Bulgarian: Боксит
    Catalan: Bauxita
    Croatian: Boksit
    Czech: Bauxit
    Danish: Bauxit
    Dutch: Bauxiet
    Esperanto: Baŭksito
    Estonian: Boksiit
    Finnish: Bauksiitti
    French: Bauxite
    Alumine hydratée des Baux
    Galician: Bauxita
    German: Bauxit
    Beauxit
    Greek: Βωξίτης
    Hebrew: בוקסיט
    Hungarian: Bauxit
    Italian: Bauxite
    Japanese: ボーキサイト
    Korean: 보크사이트
    Lithuanian: Boksitas
    Malayalam: ബോക്സൈറ്റ്
    Norwegian (Bokmål): Bauksitt
    Norwegian (Nynorsk): Bauksitt
    Polish: Boksyt
    Portuguese: Bauxita
    Romanian: Bauxită
    Russian: Боксит
    Serbian (Cyrillic Script): Боксит
    Simplified Chinese: 铝土矿
    Slovak: Bauxit
    Spanish: Bauxita
    Beauxita
    Swahili: Boksiti
    Swedish: Bauxit
    Turkish: Boksit
    Ukrainian: Боксити
    Vietnamese: Bauxit

    Other Information

    Health Warning: No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

    http://www.mindat.org/min-575.html

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