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First, there were a whole bunch of earthquakes in a very short period of time in the same location in China. On the maps, they looked like they had occurred right on top of each other. It got me curious. Then, I was listing them on a Google My Maps and started thinking about what else was in the area. Nearly all of the earthquakes were between 4.2 M and 5.1 M, as well as being very consistently 10.0 km in depth (which is calculated, rather than measured at the site.)

***

My note – (added 09-20-09) –

My conclusions from this information are that –

1. There are nuclear weapons stored in a seismically active area.

**

http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/Tracking_Ch03Chinamap.pdf

http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/facility/da_qaidam.htm

http://www.nti.org/db/china/sac.htm
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam

**

2. There are very likely nuclear testing facilities in the same area.

http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/Tracking_Ch03Chinamap.pdf

(see below)

3. The proximity of the salt marsh lakes suggest that sodium is being harvested in the area.

4. Some of the 10km depth, 4.2 – 5.4 earthquakes being recorded in the area could be from underground nuclear testing.

5. That China, among others did not sign the bans on testing and other nuclear non-proliferation treaties even while demanding that they be created and signed by all nuclear states.

6. That in 1963, when a thrust for participation in creating a nuclear arsenal and to enfold itself in nuclear research and surpass the levels of knowledge in that field occurring in other countries, China did so because of an internal realization of what their “known enemies” in the area were doing – particularly the Soviet Union and America, India and Japan, (although Japan is not considered the same kind of enemy).

**

1963        Jan 16, Nikita Khrushchev claimed the USSR had a 100-megaton nuclear bomb.
(MC, 1/16/02)

1963        Apr 6, The United States and Britain signed an agreement under which the Americans would sell Polaris A-3 missiles to the British.
(AP, 4/6/97)

http://timelines.ws/20thcent/1963.HTML

**

7. My other conclusions note that there are a number of questionable facilities in that same area. Sandstorms carry any contaminants from the area across population centers to the East, and that there is evidence of atomic testing that has occurred there over a period of time (from 1963 to the present day.)

8. I also noted that the testing equipment which defines where and when the atomic testing occurs around the world is not entirely in place (some 60% of it cut by arguments and only around 60% of that final agreement placed.)

**

Unfinished Business
The Negotiation of the CTBT
and the End of Nuclear Testing

http://www.unidir.org/pdf/ouvrages/pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf

UNDIR – February 2009

“In 2006, with only 60% of the system complete, a low-yield nuclear test conducted by North Korea was detected by 20 stations (both seismic and radionuclide) around the globe. Since then more than 60 monitoring stations have been added to the system, and the capacity to detect noble gases—the smoking gun of a nuclear explosion—has been doubled from 10 systems to 20.”

“criteria established by the CTBTO, filter it according to nationally requested criteria, and provide some additional technical assistance to states parties. Characterized as “enhanced option 2”, this was finally accepted by the United States and others in May 1996.

With conclusion of the provisions for the IDC, the IMS was able to be
agreed. It was to comprise 50 primary seismic stations and 120 auxiliary
seismic stations; 80 radionuclide stations, of which 40 would be equipped
to monitor noble gases; 11 hydroacoustic stations; and 60 infrasound
monitors.32”

**

9. The other thing I noticed is that placing nuclear facilities, atomic testing and nuclear research facilities and nuclear warhead tipped missiles on top of seismically active areas, both underground and above ground, is way too common around the world, including in the United States.

10. My analysis is that international cooperation is happening at the same time that some things are being held even more closely to the vest. Despite China and Italy working together on the YBJ International Cosmic Ray Observatory and its high energy physics research, and with other teams from the international community on high energy physics, they are almost totally closed off from international scrutiny in their consummate uses of that research.

11. In conclusion, where I had started to look specifically for those earthquakes from Northern Qinghai, China and then sought to locate what other resources, facilities and nuclear assets were in the area, it was not readily obvious that those nuclear weapons had been originally installed in that same area where the earthquakes were occurring.

**

“Da Qaidam, which literally means “a big salt lake” in Mongolian, is rich in mineral resources, with one of the largest lead-zinc mines in western China and several coal mines.”

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-08/28/content_11957440.htm

**

And, after noting railroads, inactive massive volcanic areas, the brickworks and access to an extensive highway through the area, there were still only more identically ranged earthquakes of note. But then, who puts a brickworks in the middle of nowhere, hundreds of miles from where any of those bricks will be used?

12. So, what it could mean is that a.) underground nuclear testing; b.) nuclear storage on top of earthquakes; c.) old nuclear weapons sitting on top of earthquakes and in underground facilities where earthquakes are occurring regularly; d.) atomic and high energy physics field research facilities may be located in the same area with the earthquakes; and e.) cities to the East of these facilities are downwind of them and there are densely populated areas within a radius of impact.
Coordinates: 37E51’21 N   95E21’24 E
http://wikimapia.org/12397009/Da-Qaidam

town in western Qinghai
Category: township Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Qinghai

– cricketdiane, 09 -20-09

***

Intensity.jpg
USGS ShakeMap – Monday, August 31, 2009

USGS ShakeMap - Monday, August 31, 2009 - Qinghai, China

USGS ShakeMap - Monday, August 31, 2009 - Qinghai, China

Nuclear missile sites / nuclear testing sites? - Da Qaidam in Qinghai, China

Nuclear missile sites / nuclear testing sites? - Da Qaidam in Qinghai, China

place where nuclear missiles are known to be kept in the same area – Da Qaidam Zhen
found in article about the 2nd Artillery Group, China – mentioned nuclear program started 1957 and the unit begun in 1963

08-28-09 earthquake near Da Qaidam in Qinghai, China

08-28-09 earthquake near Da Qaidam in Qinghai, China

earthquake near Da Qaidam in Qinghai, China
08-28-09

08-28-09 Earthquakes over 7.0 Magnitude since 1900 - in that same area

08-28-09 Earthquakes over 7.0 Magnitude since 1900 - in that same area

neic_kwaf_7.jpg
08-28-09 Earthquakes over 7.0 since 1900 – in that same area

Seismicity from 1990 to 08-28-09 Northern Qinghai, China (near Da Qaidam)

Seismicity from 1990 to 08-28-09 Northern Qinghai, China (near Da Qaidam)

Seismicity from 1990 to 08-28-09 Northern Qinghai, China (near Da Qaidam)

09-18-09 Earthquake on the same spot - 5.1 M, depth 10km

09-18-09 Earthquake on the same spot - 5.1 M, depth 10km

neic_lsat.jpg
09-18-09 Earthquake on the same spot – 5.1 M, depth 10km – Today

Earthquakes in that area Qinghai, China - 1990 to present - as of 09-18-09

Earthquakes in that area Qinghai, China - 1990 to present - as of 09-18-09

Earthquakes in that area – 1990 to present – as of 09-18-09

Timing of P-wave from 09-18-09 earthquake 5.1 M in Northern Qinghai, China

Timing of P-wave from 09-18-09 earthquake 5.1 M in Northern Qinghai, China

P-wave from 09-18-09 earthquake 5.1 M in Northern Qinghai, China

Friday, August 28, 2009 - (5 earthquakes on this map from the same day) - Northern Qinghai, China near Da Qaidam

Friday, August 28, 2009 - (5 earthquakes on this map from the same day) - Northern Qinghai, China near Da Qaidam

Friday, August 28, 2009
(5 earthquakes on this map from the same day) – this was the one that started my curiosity because the map from the same week had looked about that way, too.

electromagnetic wave pulse photographed in space / from the sun

electromagnetic wave pulse photographed in space / from the sun

electromagnetic wave pulse photographed in space / from the sun

from USGS site today, 09-18-09 about the earthquake in Qinghai, China

from USGS site today, 09-18-09 about the earthquake in Qinghai, China

Overall, the population in this region resides in structures that are highly vulnerable to earthquake shaking, though some resistant structures exist. A magnitude 5.5 earthquake occurred in the China region 291 km northeast of the location of this earthquake on December 14, 2002 (UTC), with estimated population exposures of 102,000 at intensity VI and 272,000 at intensity V, resulting in an estimated 2 fatalities.

Magnitude 5.5
Max MMI VI
Date-Time Friday, August 28, 2009 at 02:16:06 UTC
Location 37.691̊N, 95.757̊E
Depth 9.2 km (5.7 miles)
Event ID US2009KWAN
Version 2

M 5.5 – NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
Friday, August 28, 2009 at 02:16:06 UTC
Location: 37.7̊N 95.8̊E Depth: 9km
Alert version 2

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/pager/master.php?event_id=2009kwan&network_id=us

***

MAP 5.1 2009/09/18 07:02:12 37.633 95.589 10.0 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
MAP 5.0 2009/09/18 06:53:50 37.715 95.593 10.0 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
MAP 4.8 2009/09/18 00:43:26 37.616 95.562 12.5 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
MAP 4.8 2009/09/17 23:14:53 41.602 96.787 15.1 GANSU, CHINA
MAP 5.0 2009/09/17 09:24:20 37.661 95.902 10.0 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/region/Asia_eqs.php
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/10/50_65.php

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/region/Asia.php

Magnitude 5.1 – NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
2009 September 18 07:02:12 UTC

Versión en Español

* Details
* Summary
* Maps
* Scientific & Technical

Earthquake Details
Magnitude 5.1
Date-Time

* Friday, September 18, 2009 at 07:02:12 UTC
* Friday, September 18, 2009 at 03:02:12 PM at epicenter
* Time of Earthquake in other Time Zones

Location 37.633̊N, 95.589̊E
Depth 10 km (6.2 miles) set by location program
Region NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
Distances 35 km (20 miles) SE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China
155 km (95 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China
1815 km (1130 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, China
Location Uncertainty horizontal +/- 10.4 km (6.5 miles); depth fixed by location program
Parameters NST= 48, Nph= 48, Dmin=>999 km, Rmss=0.34 sec, Gp=101̊,
M-type=body wave magnitude (Mb), Version=6
Source

* USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)

Event ID us2009lsat

* This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.

* Historic Moment Tensor Solutions
* Phase Data
* Theoretical P-Wave Travel Times

* Preliminary Earthquake Report
* U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center:
World Data Center for Seismology, Denver

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009lsat.php

***

Da Qaidam – 412 Brigade
Ta-ch’ai-tan / Tsaidam
37°50’N 95°18’E

China established a nuclear missile deployment and launch site for DF-4 missiles (China’s first ICBM) in the early 1970s to the west of Dhashu (Haiyan) in the Da Qaidam [Tsaidam] basin. The Larger Tsaidam (Da Qaidam) site has two missiles stored horizontally in tunnels near the launch pad. Fuel and oxidiser is stored in separate tunnels with lines to the launch pad. According to the International Campaign for Tibet (ICT) in Washington DC, nuclear missiles are stationed in Small Tsaidam and are only moved to Large Tsaidam in times of emergency. Da Qaidam is one of five location at which a total of between 10 and 20 DF-4s were deployed as of early 1998. The facility is probably headquarters for one of the three launch brigades, each with up to three launch battalions, subordinated to the Second Artillery Corps 80306 Unit, a Division headquartered in Xining, Qinghai province. The 80306 Unit is able to target sites in the former Soviet Union and India, and indications exist that the 80306 Unit may upgrade to the DF-21. Da Qaidam [Large Tsaidam] has been identified as the location of this Brigade headquarters. The reported relationship between Da Qaidam and Xiao Qaidam, notably the disposition of nuclear warheads, might suggest that the Xiao Qaidam facility is the primary location for this unit. However, the apparent Chinese practice of locating headquarters units separately from operational weapons locations, as seen with Second Artillery Corps Division headquarters locations, would appear to confirm Da Qaidam as the probable location for the Brigade headquarters.

Sources and Resources

[from -]

http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/facility/da_qaidam.htm

***

A quickie search on Google using the search term – Qinghai, China on the USGS window in the listing window under the Google entry for USGS, yields these (and others) –

#
Magnitude 5.1 – NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
Sep 11, 2009 … USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, responsible for monitoring, reporting, and researching earthquakes and earthquake hazards.
earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/…/us2009ljac.php – Cached – Similar
#
Shakemap us2009kzaw
Mar 30, 2009 … USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, responsible for monitoring, reporting, and researching earthquakes and earthquake hazards.
earthquake.usgs.gov/shakemap/global/shake/2009kzaw/ – Cached – Similar
#
Shakemap us2009kwan
Mar 30, 2009 … USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, responsible for monitoring, reporting, and researching earthquakes and earthquake hazards.
earthquake.usgs.gov/shakemap/global/shake/2009kwan/ – Cached – Similar
#
M 5.5 – NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
Aug 28, 2009 … USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, responsible for monitoring, reporting, and researching earthquakes and earthquake hazards.
earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/pager/master.php?event… – Cached – Similar
#
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Preliminary Earthquake Report …
Distances, 55 km (35 miles) ESE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China 170 km (105 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China 1800 km (1110 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, …
neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_ljac.html – Cached – Similar
#
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Preliminary Earthquake Report …
Magnitude 4.3 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA. Friday, September 04, 2009 at 08:12:57 UTC. Preliminary Earthquake Report. Versión en Español …
neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_lda1.html – Cached – Similar
#
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Preliminary Earthquake Report …
Magnitude 4.2 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA. Saturday, September 05, 2009 at 08:59:22 UTC. Preliminary Earthquake Report. Versión en Español …
neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_lea1.html – Cached – Similar
#
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Preliminary Earthquake Report …
Distances, 45 km (30 miles) ESE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China 165 km (100 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China 1800 km (1120 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, …
neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_kwa6.html – Cached – Similar
#
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Preliminary Earthquake Report …
Distances, 40 km (25 miles) ESE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China 160 km (100 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China 1815 km (1130 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, …
neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_kwfy.html – Cached – Similar
#
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Preliminary Earthquake Report …
Magnitude 4.4 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA. Friday, August 28, 2009 at 02:42:29 UTC. Preliminary Earthquake Report. Versión en Español …
neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_kwaq.html – Cached – Similar

***

Qaidam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Jump to: navigation, search
Status of the Qaidam Basin

The Qaidam Basin, or Tsaidam is a desert region of northern plateau Tibet is situated in the Prefecture of Haixi province China’s Qinghai, and belonging to the ancient traditional Tibetan province of the Amdo. Its name probably derives from Tsa’ir dam, which means in Mongolian and Tibetan,  salt marsh .

Geography

Landscape typical steppe desert on the northern edge of Qaidam Basin. The Qaidam Basin is located at altitudes between 2 600 and 3 300 m on the Qinghai-Tibet, and is surrounded by mountain ranges, some reaching 6 000 m altitude. It is bounded on the south by the Kunlun Mountains to the north by the Altun Shan (or Altyn-Tagh) and Nan Shan, and extends eastward to the neighborhoods of Lake Kokonor. From east to west it measures about 850 km and from north to south about 300 km.

The largest lake in the Qaidam Basin is Dabsan Hu, north of the city of Golmud. The salt lakes of Qaidam Basin is such that it forms a thick crust to the surface, ensuring that the lakes are often not perceived as such. The salt in these lakes, especially north of the city of Golmud is the subject of an industrial scale. The main cities are Golmud, Delingha and Da Qaidam.

Climate

A rainbow in the sky after a rare rain in the Qaidam Basin on the Tibetan Plateau

Because of its high altitude and its distance to the sea, the Qaidam Basin has a continental climate. The winters are long and very cold and sandstorms are frequent in the spring. The mountain ranges that impede the arrival of rains, parts of the basin are among the driest regions of China.The average temperature in Golmud is 4.9 E C and annual precipitation of 40 mm.

History

An alternative section of the southern branch of the Silk Road through the Qaidam Basin [1], [2].Recent archaeological excavations suggest that this route would, it is 1 500 years, been more prosperous than through the Gansu corridor [3].

Population

The development activity, primarily related to mineral resources in the region, has resulted in a significant increase in the population: it increased from 10 000 to 270 000 inhabitants between 1946 and 1986.

The nomads living in the basin consist of both Tibetan and Mongolian. In the most desolate regions, particularly in the arid climate, only the Mongolian nomads are present, for their animals (camels, horses, sheep tail fat) bear out the harsh conditions, unlike the yaks and sheep Tibetan nomads [4] .

In 1999, the World Bank had proposed a project to relocate about 60 000 Chinese farmers around the oasis of Xiangride (District Dulan) project that was abandoned because it had  the potential to destroy the Buddhist culture specific to western part of China  [5], [6], [7]. Tibetans believe that China wants to solve its energy problems at the expense of oil and gas resources of Tibet, while accelerating the transfer of Chinese settlers to the detriment of the fragile ecosystem and cultural heritage of Tibet [8].

Economy
Great Salt Lake in Qaidam Basin

Because of its rich mineral resources, the Qaidam Basin is described as a  treasure basin.  Among its many mineral resources, most notably the oil, the natural gas, the coal, the sodium chloride, the potassium, the magnesium, the lead, the zinc and the gold [9] and large reserves of asbestos, of borax and gypsum.

The Qaidam possess the largest reserves of lithium, of magnesium, the potassium and sodium across China. Lake Qarhan contains sixty billion tons of salt. 22 oil fields have been discovered, with estimated reserves of 225 million tons, and 6 gas fields, containing 150 billion cubic meters of gas.

Military installations

Bases of strategic nuclear missiles DF-4 would be installed since the 1980s near Delingha and Da Qaidam [10], [11], [12], [13].

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam

***

“We are of the same blood.” – Medvedev about Putin on Zakaria CNN interview – yes, aren’t we all . . .

Unfinished Business
The Negotiation of the CTBT
and the End of Nuclear Testing

http://www.nti.org/db/china/sac.htm

http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam&ei=NlizStGaM5SNtgflpfCuDQ&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DDa%2BQaidam%2BHu%2Bwikipedia%26hl%3Den

NTI – working for a safer world
Center for Non-proliferation Studies – China

This material is produced by the Monterey Institute’s Center for Nonproliferation Studies

Established on 1 July 1966, the Second Artillery Corps maintains control over China’s nuclear and conventional strategic missile forces, consisting of short-, medium-, long-, and intercontinental-range ballistic missiles.  It dates back to the formation of a ground-to-ground missile training group on 9 December 1957 which was later reorganized into strategic guided missile combat battalions on 18 March 1960. 1 One of these battalions launched the Second Artillery Corps’ first missile in October 1963. 2 The Second Artillery Corps made its first public appearance on 1 October 1984. 3

OTHER NAMES: Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF); Strategic Missile Forces (SMF); Strategic Missile Corps (SMC); Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF)

The Second Artillery Corps is comprised of approximately 90,000 personnel and six ballistic missile bases 4 and maintains control of over 100 nuclear warheads. 5 Proportionally, the Second Artillery Corps is given priority funding.  Although it only makes up about 4 percent of the PLA, it receives 12 to 15 percent of the defense budget and about 20 percent of the total procurement budget.  When the PLA cut 1 million personnel in the 1980s, Second Artillery Corps ranks actually increased. 6

Current Force Structure

China’s current nuclear weapon’s arsenal totals about 400 devices, with over 100 warheads deployed for use on China’s ballistic missiles.  China maintains a number of different ballistic missiles in its inventory, including the medium-range DF-3A, DF-15 and DF-21, the intercontinental-range DF-4 and DF-5 and the submarine-launched JL-1.  China’s newest missile, the road mobile DF-31, was tested on 2 August 1999 but probably has not entered into operation.  Bates Gill and James Mulvenon write that  Chinese nuclear force structure seems to defy simple categorization as either limited or minimal deterrence.  7 While China’s newer short-range and medium-range ballistic missiles use solid rocket motors, China’s estimated 20 some ICBMs capable of hitting the US use liquid fuel and require launch preparation times of up to two hours.

http://www.nti.org/db/china/sac.htm

***

CHINA Chart 2: Nuclear Weapons–Related Sites of
Proliferation Concerna
NAME/LOCATION
OF FACILITY TYPE/STATUS
N U C L E A R W E A P O N S C O M P L E X b
Northwest Nuclear Technology Institute, in the Archive on nuclear explosions, warfare, and weapons research and design;
Scientific Research District outside Malan, associated with testing at Lop Nur.
Xinjiang
Jiuquan Atomic Energy Complex Fabrication of fissile materials into bomb cores, and final weapons assembly.
(Plant 404), Subei, Gansu
Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Diagnostic support for nuclear test program.
Xi’an, Shaanxi
Lop Nur Nuclear Weapons Test Base, Xinjiang Nuclear weapons test site and possible nuclear weapons stockpile.
Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics Nuclear weapons research, design, and technology complex; called the ‘‘Los
(CAEP), Mianyang, Sichuan Alamos of China,’’ 11 institutes, 8 located in Mianyang.c
Institute 905 of CAEP, outside Mianyang Ordnance engineering lab for non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons;
‘‘the Chinese Sandia.’’d
Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Conducts research on nuclear warhead design computations for CAEP.
Mathematics, Beijing
Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Engaged in tomography, tests solid missile propellants, explosives, and
Shanghai, Zhejiang detonation packages for nuclear weapons.
Fudan University, Shanghai, Zhejiang Engaged in tomography, tests solid missile propellants, explosives, and
detonation packages for nuclear weapons.
Harbin, Heilongjiang Possible warhead assembly and production site.
Plant 821, Guangyuan, Sichuan Nuclear weapon assembly facility.
P L U T O N I U M P R O D U C T I O N R E A C T O R S
Plant 821 LWGR, nat. U, 1,000 MW; operational.
Guangyuan, Sichuan Largest plutonium producing reactor in China.
Jiuquan Atomic Energy Complex LWGR, nat. U, 400-500 MW; operational.
(Plant 404), Subei, Gansu
R E S E A R C H R E A C T O R S
HFETR Tank, LW; HEU (90%), 125 MWt; operational.
Nuclear Power Institute of China,
Chengdu, Sichuan
HFETR critical Critical assembly, LW; HEU (90%), 0 MWt; operational.
Nuclear Power Institute of China,
Chengdu, Sichuan
MJTR Pool, LW; HEU (90%), 5 MWt; operational.
Nuclear Power Institute of China,
Chengdu, Sichuan
MNSR IAE Tank in pool, LW; HEU (90%), .027 MWt; operational.
China Institute for Atomic Energy,
Tuoli, near Beijing
MNSR-SD Tank in pool, LW; HEU (90%), .027 MWt; operational.
Shandong Geology Bureau, Jinan, Shandong
MNSR-SZ Tank in pool, LW; HEU (90%), .027 MWt; operational.
Shenzhen University, Guangdong
Zero Power Fast Critical Reactor Critical fast; HEU (90%), 0 MWt; operational.
Southwest Research Institute,
Chengdu, Sichuan
NUCLEAR-WEAPON STATES 65

CHINA Chart 2 (cont’d.)
NAME/LOCATION
OF FACILITY TYPE/STATUS
HWRR-II Heavy water; LEU (3%), 15 MWt; operational.
China Institute for Atomic Energy, Under IAEA safeguards.
Tuoli, near Beijing
SPR IAE Pool, LW; LEU (10%), 3.5 MWt; operational.
China Institute for Atomic Energy,
Tuoli, near Beijing
SPRR-300 Pool, LW; LEU (10%), 3.7 MWt; operational.
Southwest Research Institute,
Chengdu, Sichuan
Tsinghua Pool Pool, two cores, LW; LEU (10%), 2.8 MWt; operational.
Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology,
Tsinghua University, Beijing
PPR Pulsing Reactor Pool, HEU (20%), 1 MWt; operational.
Nuclear Power Institute of China,
Chengdu, Sichuan
U R A N I U M E N R I C H M E N T
Heping Uranium Enrichment Plant, Gaseous diffusion plant: estimated to produce 750-2950 kg HEU/yeare;
Heping, Sichuan operational.
Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex, Gaseous diffusion plant: estimated to produce at least 150-330 kg HEU/yearf;
Lanzhou, Gansu operational.g
Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex, Gaseous diffusion plant: new cascade under construction, for LEU export.h
Lanzhou, Gansu
China Institute of Atomic Energy, Laboratory-scale gaseous diffusion: developed enrichment process later
Tuoli, near Beijing installed at Lanzhou.
Russian-supplied centrifuge enrichment plant, Large-scale centrifuge enrichment facility; under construction;j capacity:
Chengdu, Sichuani 200,000 SWU/yr.
P L U T O N I U M R E P R O C E S S I N G k
Jiuquan Atomic Energy Complex Large-scale reprocessing plant, capacity: 300-400kg Pu/yr, and pilot
(Plant 404), reprocessing plant (both use PUREX method); and Nuclear Fuel Processing
Subei, Gansu Plant for refining plutonium into weapons-usable metals.
Plant 821, China’s largest plutonium separation facility, capacity: 300-400 kg Pu/yr.
Guangyuan, Sichuan
Nuclear Fuel Component Plant (Plant 812), Plutonium fuel rod fabrication, and plutonium production and processing for
Yibin, Sichuan nuclear weapons; operating.
Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex, Pilot spent fuel reprocessing plant, nominal capacity of 100 kg/heavy metal
Lanzhou, Gansu per day; under construction, completion in 2000.l
U R A N I U M P R O C E S S I N G
Nuclear Fuel Component Plant (202), Fuel rod fabrication; operating.
Baotou, Nei Mongolia province
Nuclear Fuel Component Plant (Plant 812), Fuel rod fabrication; operating.
Yibin, Sichuan
Jiuquan Atomic Energy Complex, Nuclear Fuel Processing Plant: Converts enriched UF6 to UF4 for shaping into
(Plant 404), Subei, Gansu metal; operational.
66 TRACKING NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION

NAME/LOCATION
OF FACILITY TYPE/STATUS
T R I T I U M , L I T H I U M D E U T E R I D E ,
A N D B E R Y L L I U M
Ningxia Non-Ferrous Metal Research Institute China’s main research and production site for beryllium.
(Plant 905),
Helan Shan, Ningxia
Nuclear Fuel Component Plant (Plant 202), Tritium, Li-6 deuterium production; operational.
Baotou, Nei Mongolia
Nuclear Fuel Element Plant (Plant 812), Probable production of tritium and Li-6 deuterium.
Yibin, Sichuan
Abbreviations:
HEU 4 highly enriched uranium
LEU 4 low-enriched uranium
nat. U 4 natural uranium
MWe 4 millions of watts of electrical output
MWt 4 millions of watts of thermal output
KWt 4 thousands of watts of thermal output
NOTES (China Chart)

Principle sources for this chart: Robert S. Norris, Andrew S. Burrows, and Richard W. Fieldhouse. Nuclear Weapons Databook V ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1994); Nuclear Engineering International: World Nuclear Industry Handbook 1997; “Datafile: China,” Nuclear Engineering International, October 1993, pp. 16-22; John Wilson and Xue Litai, China Builds the Bomb (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988); David Albright, Frans Berkhout and William Walker, Plutonium and Highly enriched Uranium 1996: World Inventories, Capabilities and Policies (New York: Oxford University Press for Stockholm Peach Research Institute International, 1997); International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Research Reactors in the World, December 1995; Wisconsin Project, “Nuclear profile: China,” Risk Report, November 1995, pp. 3-9.

http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/Tracking_Ch03Chinamap.pdf

***

State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics & Technology
Peking University

History & Today of the Laboratory

The research of nuclear physics and technology has long history at Peking University. In 1955 the first education unit for nuclear science in China was founded at Peking University, which is well known as the Department of Technical Physics, Peking University later. There are total 13 academicians in more than 5000 graduates of that department. In 1990 the Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, Ministry of Education (MOE) was established at Peking University, which is the predecessor of our State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology. Great progress has been made on the scientific research and graduate student training since then.

The laboratory has made great efforts to introduce and foster the qualified scientists, so the research team has been optimized continuously. The laboratory also readjusted the research directions dynamically, strived for undertaking the major and key national projects actively, and did our best to form ourselves distinguishing feature and to promote the research level. In recent years the research activities of the laboratory have been organized into four directions, i.e. the radioactive nuclear beam physics, the hardon physics, the advanced particle accelerator techniques and the applications of nuclear technology. During the past ten years the permanent staff of the laboratory won the National S&T Advancement Award, the MOE S&T Advancement Award, and the Beijing City S&T Award many times. They published quite a lot of papers with high quality, including 5 papers on Physical Review Letters. Professor Chen Jiaer was elected as the President of Executive Council, Chinese Physical Society in 1999-2003 and the Vice-President of Executive Council, International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) since 2005. Professor Ye Yanlin was elected as the Vice-President of Executive Council, Chinese Nuclear Physics Society since 2004. Professor Guo Zhiyu was elected as the Vice-President of Executive Council, Chinese Particle Accelerator Society since 2004. Professor Ye Yanlin and Professor Zhao Kui are principle investigators of two projects of National Basic Research Program (973).

The laboratory passed four national evaluations in 1991, 1995, 2000 and 2005, and obtained the grade “good” for all the evaluations, which is the best result among the laboratories belonging to the field of nuclear science. The laboratory was also evaluated by the Ministry of Education in 2004 and obtained the grade “excellent”. The main subjects of our laboratory, both Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Technology and applications, were appraised as the State Key Disciplines in 2001 and again in 2006.

In the past two years the laboratory has experienced some important changes and is now on the way to become a State Key Laboratory based on the previous Key laboratory of the Ministry of Education. In addition the laboratory is closely related (overlapped) to the unique national education bases for basic science research with major in nuclear science. This is achieved due to the overall improvement of the situation for the nuclear science and technology in China, to the substantial progress of our research and education work and to the great effort and help from our colleagues around country.

Nuclear science in China seems experiencing a new “spring” in our society, due to the new public view and national need for nuclear power, nuclear security and nuclear technology applications. This overall situation has of course big impact to the upstream basic science research and especially the training of high level experts in the field. Establishment of the State Key Laboratory in this field will certainly help to satisfy the national and society need.

In Peking University the nuclear science research and education has more than 50 years history and has made substantial contribution to the nation’s nuclear cause. At the end of last century when the institutions related to nuclear science in the Chinese universities encountered difficulties to survive, Peking University had managed to keep the working teams and facilities at a moderate level. This turned out to be a wise choice and when the new phase of development comes in the new century we have been able to catch up in a rapid way. The laboratory has now developed into four divisions (directions) with good facilities. The research work of these divisions and their teams has largely been developed over past few years and are briefly demonstrated in this report.

Since 1990 this laboratory, as a MOE key laboratory, had been led by former director Prof. Chen Jiaer and then Prof. Guo Zhiyu, and has experienced several times the rigorous review by the Ministry of Science and Technology. The success in these reviews is essential to the step up to the state key laboratory. Over the years we have got so much helps from our colleagues in the related fields, especially those functioned in the previous and current scientific committee of the laboratory. We are so grateful to all of them and will in turn do our best to contribute to the long range development of nuclear science and technology in China.

Management

Honorary Director: CHEN, Jia’er, Academicain of CAS
Director: YE, Yanlin
Deputy Director: WAMG, Yugang; XU, Furong; LIU, Kexin

Scientific Committee

Honorary Chairman: FANG, Shouxian, Academician of CAS
Chairman: SHEN, Wenqing, Academician of CAS
Vice Chairman: CHAO, K.T, Academician of CAS CHAI, Zhifang; GUO, Zhiyu
Members:
DU, Xiangwan, Academician of CAE, CAEP
GUAN, Xialing, Professor, China Inst. of Atomic Energy
GU, Hongya, Professor, Peking Univ
LIU, Jiaqi, Academician of CAS, Inst. of Geology & Geophys
LIU, Weiping, Professor, China Inst. of Atomic Energy
MA, Boqiang, Professor, Peking Univ
MENG, Jie, Professor, Peking Univ
WANG, Keming, Professor, Shandong Univ
WANG, Yifang, Professor, Inst.of High Energy Phys
ZHANG, Chuang, Professor, Inst.of High Energy Phys
ZHAN, Wenlong, Academician of CAS, Inst. of Modern Phys

Scientific Consultants

CHEN, Jia’er, Academician of CAS, Peking Univ
FANG, Shouxian, Academician of CAS, Inst.of High Energy Phys
HU, Renyu, Academician of CAS, CAEP
QIAN, Shaojun, Academician of CAE, General Armament Department
WANG, Naiyan, Academician of CAS, China Inst. of Atomic Energy
ZHANG, Huanqiao, Academician of CAS, China Inst. of Atomic Energy
ZHUANG, Jiejia, Professor, Inst.of High Energy Phys

http://sklnpt.pku.edu.cn/english%20version/englishlast.htm

***

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Yangbajing tunnel? – more info »
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3251 Hanover St, Palo Alto, CA? – (650) 424-2000?
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University of Utah: Energy & Geoscience Institute (EGI)? – more info »
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http://maps.google.com/maps?oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=yangbajing&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wl

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(the above info was a result of looking up the place on the map where the facilities below are located, which is listed on the high energy physics labs for China, which I noted isn’t comprehensive understandably -)

Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory in Tibet TEXT SIZE: A A A

Introduction

YBJ International Cosmic Ray Observatory is located at 90°26’E and 30°13’N in Yangbajing (YBJ) valley of Tibetan highland, near the cross point of Qinghai – Tibet and China – Nepal highways, and the Qinghai – Tibet railway (to be completed in 5 years), about 90 km away from the city of Lhasa. YBJ’s wide and flat topography, convenient traffic, scarce heavy snow, rich geothermal power source, about 4,000 residents and many neighboring institutions & services, make it the best site of high altitude observatory in the world.

YBJ Observatory was founded in 1990. It has hosted the Tibet ASγ Experiment (Sino-Japanese Cooperation) ever since. After 6 years’ preparation, the ARGO -YBJ Project (Sino-Italian Cooperation) started its detector installation in 2000. Both of them aim at the research of the origin of high energy cosmic rays, the GRB physics in high energy, the correlation between the movement of the Cosmic ray sun shadow and the solar/interplanetary magnetic field and solar activity, etc. Through the observation of air showers (AS) by AS array – a semi-full sky and continuous observation technique. Taking advantage of the YBJ high altitude, by increasing the density of scintillation detector, the ASγ Array has successfully observed γ rays from Crab Nebula and Mrk 501 (during its flaring period in 1997); by developing the traditional sampling AS array as a “carpet”, the ARGO-YBJ full coverage array is intended for exploring the approximately 100 GeV uncultivated land and measuring the antiproton/proton ratio by cosmic ray moon shadow.
Beside the AS array, neutron monitor and neutron telescope have been available for solar and hiliosphere study. Along with the further development of the observatory, the existing detectors will be upgraded and more new type detectors adopted.

Sino – Japanese Cooperation on AS and Solar Neutron Experiment

The purpose of this cooperative experiment is as follows:

1) to search and monitor the Gamma ray sources with the energy threshold of 3TeV.

2) to study the configuration and variation of the solar and interplanetary magnetic fields under the influence of the solar activity by monitoring on time variation of the Sun shadows of cosmic rays.

3) energy spectrum around the composition study and the “knee” of primary cosmic rays.

4) to monitor the time variation of cosmic rays with the energy larger than 14 GeV detect the solar proton and neutron events and study the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays and the production process of high energy particles in solar flares or CMEs.

Taking part in this international cooperation on the Chinese side are the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research, CAS; Shandong University; Southwest Jiaotong University; Tibet University and Yunnan University with Professor Youheng Tan being the spokesman, on the Japanese side are Hirosaki University; Utsunomiya University; Saitama University; Shibaura Institute of Technology; University of Tokyo; Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering; National Institute of Information; Waseda University; Kanagawa University; Yokohama National University; Shonan Institute of Technology; Nagoya University and Konan University with Professor Toshinori Yuda being the spokesman.

Sino–Italian International Cooperation on ARGO-YBJ Experiment

ARGO-YBJ (Astroparticle – physics Research at Ground-based Observatory Yangbajing) Experiment is to be carried out at high altitude YBJ Observatory which boasts a 5000 m2 full coverage carpet-like RPC array to realize the low threshold energy high sensitivity detection of the primary γ-ray and cosmic ray particles. The RPC array covers a vast range of sky (-10°<δ<70°) and energy region (10GeV-100TeV) with the ground based full time duty AS array technique. Such characters can be vividly depicted with the mythological monster of ARGO, who has many eyes and never sleeps.
The ARGO -YBJ project was launched by Chinese and Italian scientists in 1994. Their common efforts led to the successful testing of 50m2 RPC carpet at YBJ in the winter season of 1997/1998 and the conclusion of the official agreement between the two governments of China and Italy on this cooperation in 1998. A 10,000 m2 ARGO hall was accomplished in YBJ Observatory in 2000, thus making possible for the installation of RPC and electric network to start. According to schedule, the whole carpet will be completed and put into operation in 2003.

Research Goals

Based on the low energy threshold (~100GeV), high sensitivity (~0.1 of Crab flux) and a fine granularity space-time picture of shower front provided by the YBJ high altitude and the full coverage detector array, the following scientific goals will be achieved:

1) Gamma-ray astronomy: Continuous monitoring of the γ-ray sources in the northern sky at a 100 GeV threshold energy to bridge the “satellite regime” to the multi-TeV region by a full time and wide FOV detector, with a sensitivity ~1/10 Crab flux. More attention will be paid to about 100 GeV and several 10 TeV region, where either it is the region which has never been explored before or the region where a γ-ray source corresponding to a UHE hardron acceleration site can be found out;

2) Diffuse –γ rays: From the Galactic plane, molecular clouds and Supernova Remnants at 3100 GeV have never been observed so far;

3) Gamma ray burst physics: Extending the satellite measurements over the full GeV/TeV range;

4) Antiproton/proton ratio measurement: At about 1 TeV (inaccessible to satellites), with a sensitivity adequate to distinguish between models of local (galactic) proton production and model accounting for an extragalactic origin;

5) Sun and heliosphere physics, including cosmic ray modulation at about 14 GeV threshold energy, continuous monitoring of the interplanetary magnetic field on monthly scale, detection of high energy Gamma and neutron flares;

6) Detailed study of air shower in the energy range of 1012-1015 eV, including the fine structures of air shower and some peculiar features in the extreme forward region of UHE interaction, based on the unprecedented details of individual air showers recorded by ARGO-YBJ carpet;

7) Measurement of the primary proton spectrum: In the 10 – 200 TeV region, the traditional balloon experiment regime, with much smaller error bars and a sensitivity sufficient to detect a possible change of the proton energy spectrum.

Taking part in this collaboration on the Chinese side are the Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS; Center for Space Science and Applied Research, CAS; Shandong University; Southwest Jiaotong University; Tibet University and Yunnan University, with Professor Tan Youheng being the spokesman of the Chinese side. Taking part in this collaboration on the Italian side are INFN and Lecce University; INFN and Napoli University; INFN Section of Napoli and University of Salerno; INFN Section of Napoli and University of Sonnio, Benevento; INFN and University Roma “Tor Vergata”; INFN and University “Roma Tre” Roma; INFN and Institute of Cosmogeo Physics of CNR, Torino; INFN Section of Catania and Institute of Physics of Cosmic and IFCA/CNR,Palerno and INFN Section of Pavia, with Professor Benedetto D’Ettorre Piazzoli being the spokesman of the Italian side

http://english.ihep.cas.cn/rs/fs/200907/t20090708_22258.html

***

Introduction

YBJ International Cosmic Ray Observatory is located at 90̊26’E and 30̊13’N in Yangbajing (YBJ) valley of Tibetan highland, near the cross point of Qinghai – Tibet and China – Nepal highways, and the Qinghai – Tibet railway (to be completed in 5 years), about 90 km away from the city of Lhasa. YBJ’s wide and flat topography, convenient traffic, scarce heavy snow, rich geothermal power source, about 4,000 residents and many neighboring institutions & services, make it the best site of high altitude observatory in the world.

YBJ Observatory was founded in 1990. It has hosted the Tibet AS? Experiment (Sino-Japanese Cooperation) ever since. After 6 years’ preparation, the ARGO -YBJ Project (Sino-Italian Cooperation) started its detector installation in 2000. Both of them aim at the research of the origin of high energy cosmic rays, the GRB physics in high energy, the correlation between the movement of the Cosmic ray sun shadow and the solar/interplanetary magnetic field and solar activity, etc.  through the observation of air showers (AS) by AS array – a semi-full sky and continuous observation technique. Taking advantage of the YBJ high altitude, by increasing the density of scintillation detector, the AS? Array has successfully observed ? rays from Crab Nebula and Mrk 501 (during its flaring period in 1997); by developing the traditional sampling AS array as a “carpet”, the ARGO-YBJ full coverage array is intended for exploring the approximately 100 GeV uncultivated land and measuring the antiproton/proton ratio by cosmic ray moon shadow.
Beside the AS array, neutron monitor and neutron telescope have been available for solar and hiliosphere study. Along with the further development of the observatory, the existing detectors will be upgraded and more new type detectors adopted.

Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences  30/08/02

http://www.ihep.ac.cn/english/YBJ-E/index.htm

***

http://www.ihep.ac.cn/english/YBJ-E/as%20experiment.htm

Sino – Japanese Cooperation on AS and Solar Neutron Experiment
The purpose of this cooperative experiment is as follows:

1) to search and monitor the Gamma ray sources with the energy threshold of 3TeV.

2) to study the configuration and variation of the solar and interplanetary magnetic fields under the influence of the solar activity by monitoring on time variation of the Sun shadows of cosmic rays.

3) energy spectrum around the composition study and the “knee” of primary cosmic rays.

4) to monitor the time variation of cosmic rays with the energy larger than 14 GeV detect the solar proton and neutron events and study the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays and the production process of high energy particles in solar flares or CMEs.

Taking part in this international cooperation on the Chinese side are the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), CAS; Center for Space Science and Applied Research, CAS; Shandong University; Southwest Jiaotong University; Tibet University and Yunnan University with Professor Youheng Tan being the spokesman, on the Japanese side are Hirosaki University; Utsunomiya University; Saitama University; Shibaura Institute of Technology; University of Tokyo; Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering; National Institute of Information; Waseda University; Kanagawa University; Yokohama National University; Shonan Institute of Technology; Nagoya University and Konan University with Professor Toshinori Yuda being the spokesman.

Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences   30/08/02

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