My Note –

A couple weeks ago, more or less, I had been looking at the earthquakes listed on the USGS site and the area of Qinghai China – one of the maps showed the earthquakes from the past week before the day I was seeing the information, as being one on top of each other and there were a lot of them from just one week – like 18 or something.

At first, I was tracking those with a Google map and then I got to wondering what else was in the area and whether any nuclear facilities, high energy physics labs, nuclear testing facilities, nuclear weapons or what other kinds of manufacturing / research / mining / volcanoes / fault lines and resources were in the same area.

It has been an interesting search – which today yielded this document that was very informative and a number of other interesting things which included that China does have nuclear stuff in the area of those earthquakes and that there was a huge rift opening earthquake in the same area in 2001. It also has a salt encrusted lake that is wild looking on the satellite maps with perfectly round deep holes under its surface easily visible on the maps.

There is also a brick works nearby, railroads and a major road. At one time, there had been the nuclear warhead armed missiles stationed in the area and possibly there are still facilities of that nature in the area. The earthquakes in the region, seem to all be in the 10km depth range, but that is calculated mathematically and not evident from specific depth measurement equipment. There are also some great panoramio photos online which show some very vibrant “post”-post-modern building projects on the way westward to that area very nearby.

While I was researching this out of personal curiosity, there were three shows that came on the National Geo cable channel about the Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda capacity for having nuclear materials and the very real threat that could exist in that, including the transport of spent radioactive fuel which was caught on the Afghanistan border coming from Uzbekistan in 2000. That sort of expanded my search a bit. And here are some of the things from that – starting with something found today.

– cricketdiane, 09-18-09

***

Annex A
CTBT Annex II states …………………………………………………………… 233

ANNEX A
CTBT ANNEX II STATES

Article XIV, paragraph 1, of the CTBT states that “This Treaty shall enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all States listed in Annex 2 to this Treaty, but in no case earlier than two years after its opening for signature”. Annex II reads as follows:
LIST OF STATES PURSUANT TO ARTICLE XIV
List of States members of the Conference on Disarmament as at 18 June
1996 which formally participated in the work of the 1996 session of the
Conference and which appear in Table 1 of the International Atomic
Energy Agency’s April 1996 edition of “Nuclear Power Reactors in the
World”, and of States members of the Conference on Disarmament as at
18 June 1996 which formally participated in the work of the 1996 session
of the Conference and which appear in Table 1 of the International Atomic
Energy Agency’s December 1995 edition of “Nuclear Research Reactors
in the World”:
Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Romania, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America,
Viet Nam, Zaire.
As of January 2009, nine of the states have yet to ratify the CTBT.

These are:


China
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Egypt
India
Indonesia
The Islamic Republic of Iran
Israel
Pakistan
The United States of America
Of these, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India and Pakistan have also yet to sign the treaty.

Pp. 233 – 234

[from]
http://www.unidir.org/pdf/ouvrages/pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf
(UNDIR – February 2009)

***

Pp. 235 – 237
Annex B
Membership of the working groups
of the Nuclear Test Ban Committee ………………………………….. 235

(from the same document)

***

http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=strike-slip+faults

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

Autonomous prefectures of China
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

***

***

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunlun

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN021592920090902
Pfizer whistleblowers’ get bunch of money eventually

***
http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSTRE58202P20090903
sweet dreams are made of geoengineering

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Blackwater+mercury&start=10&sa=N
Blackwater Mercury

***

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/quakes_big.php
Latest earthquakes 5.0+

http://www.panoramio.com/photo/23102963

http://www.panoramio.com/photo/23102965

http://www.panoramio.com/photo/23102841

http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Geo/quant/convert.html
conversions

***

Magnitude 5.1 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

Friday, September 18, 2009 at 07:02:12 UTC

Preliminary Earthquake Report

Magnitude 5.1
Date-Time
  • Friday, September 18, 2009 at 07:02:12 (UTC) – Coordinated Universal Time
  • Friday, September 18, 2009 at 03:02:12 PM local time at epicenter
  • Time of Earthquake in other Time Zones

    Location 37.63N 95.59E
    Depth 10.0 kilometers
    Region NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
    Distances 35 km (20 miles) SE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China
    155 km (95 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China
    1815 km (1130 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, China
    Location Uncertainty Error estimate: horizontal +/- 10.4 km; depth fixed by location program
    Parameters Nst=48, Nph=48, Dmin=1492.3 km, Rmss=0.34 sec, Erho=10.4 km, Erzz=0 km, Gp=100.0 degrees
    Source USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
    Event ID uslsat

    Earthquake Location

    Earthquake Location

    from – http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/last_event/world_china.html

    ***

    Institute of High Energy Physics – China

    Fourth International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders
    The 5-th International Conference on Quarks and Nuclear Physics
    Topical Seminar on Frontier of Particle and Astrophysics 2009 — Cosmic Rays
    2nd International Workshop on Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy
    A Seminar on Volunteer Computing in Beijing

    http://english.ihep.cas.cn/

    Facilities

    Double Storage Ring (BEPCII)
    Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII)
    Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory in Tibet
    Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment
    Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope
    China Spallation Neutron in Dongguan,Guangdong
    Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    http://english.ihep.cas.cn/rs/fs/

    ***

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009kzb8.php#maps
    Magnitude 5.0 – Qinghai, China

    http://maps.google.com/maps?oe=UTF-8&q=24.350%C2%B0N,+94.725%C2%B0E&ie=UTF-8&hl=en&mid=1252008810

    http://maps.google.com/maps?oe=UTF-8&q=24.350%C2%B0N,+94.725%C2%B0E&ie=UTF8&hl=en&z=9

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009kwaf.php#maps
    Magnitude 6.2 – Qinghai, China

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2009/eq_090828_kwaf/neic_kwaf_l.html
    earthquake location – Qinghai, China

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2009/eq_090828_kwaf/neic_kwaf_h.html
    seismic history map – Qinghai, China

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2009/eq_090828_kwaf/neic_kwaf_w.html
    seismic hazards map – Qinghai, China

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009kwak.php
    Magnitude 5.6 – Qinghai, China

    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/24131732
    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/14402404

    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/4362718

    http://www.google.com/search?q=NORTHERN+QINGHAI%2C+CHINA&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Buildings_and_structures_in_Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Western_Line

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Railway_stations_in_Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qinghai_Lake_railway_station

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_stations_on_Qingzang_railway

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_stations_on_Qingzang_railway&params=31_26_45_N_91_59_21_E_type:landmark
    GeoHack list of stations Qingzang Railway

    ***

    http://exploreourpla.net/explorer/?geoLink=1444&lon=91.989167&lat=31.445833&alt=262144

    http://exploreourpla.net/global-warming/blog/

    http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=chinese+volcanos

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&ei=cT2gStWIFI2Etgem9rybBQ&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=chinese+volcanoes&spell=1

    http://explorebybike.blogspot.com/2007/12/in-chinas-volcano-region.html

    http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=07&rpage=sources

    http://www.google.com/search?q=china+volcanoes&btnG=Search&hl=en&sa=2

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_volcanoes_in_China

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=41.98_N_128.08_E_type:mountain
    GeoHack – list of volcanoes in China

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=41.47_N_113.00_E_type:mountain

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=44.08_N_128.83_E_type:mountain

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=20.83_N_109.78_E_type:mountain

    http://www.google.com/search?q=holocene+portland&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&aq=t
    Holocene Portland

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=holocene+&aq=f&oq=&aqi=g10

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocene

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=35.85_N_91.70_E_type:mountain

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=49.37_N_125.92_E_type:mountain

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=35.52_N_80.20_E_type:mountain

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009kwaq.php

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunlun

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunlun_Mountains

    http://www.google.com/search?q=Autonomous+Prefecture+&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&aq=t

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

    http://www.volcanolive.com/kunlun.html

    http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=strike-slip+faults

    **

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

    Make a donation to Wikipedia and give the gift of knowledge
    Autonomous prefectures of China
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search

    Autonomous prefectures are one type of Autonomous areas of China, existing at the prefecture level.
    Province-level
    entry ? Name ? Chinese (S) ? Pinyin ? Designated minority ? Local name ? Capital ?
    Gansu Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Línxià Huízú Zìzhìzho-u Hui (The Hui speak Chinese) Linxia
    Gansu Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Ga-nnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan Tibetan – ????????????????????????????? /
    Kan-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Hezuo
    Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture ?????????? Qiándo-ngnán Miáozú Dòngzú Zìzhìzho-u Miao and Dong ? Kaili
    Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture ?????????? Qiánnán Bùyi-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u Buyei and Miao ? Duyun
    Guizhou Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture ??????????? Qiánxi-nán Bùyi-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u Buyei and Miao ? Xingyi
    Hubei Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture ?????????? E-nshi- Tu(jia-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u Tujia and Miao ? Enshi
    Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture ?????????? Xia-ngxi- Tu(jia-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u Tujia and Miao ? Jishou
    Jilin Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture ???????? Yánbia-n Cháoxia(nzú Zìzhìzho-u Korean Korean –
    ?? ??? ??? /
    Yeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju Yanji
    Qinghai Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Ha(ibe(i Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-byang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Haiyan County
    Qinghai Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Ha(inán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Gonghe County
    Qinghai Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Huángnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????/
    Rma-lho Bod-rigs rang skyong khul Tongren County
    Qinghai Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Guo(luò Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????

    /
    Mgo-log Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul
    Maqên County
    Qinghai Gyêgu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Yùshù Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????

    /
    Yul-shul Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul
    Gyêgu County
    Qinghai Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ?????????? Ha(ixi- Me(nggu(zú Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Mongol and Tibetan Tibetan – ????????????????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-nub Sog-rigs dang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Delingha
    Sichuan Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture ????????? A-bà Zàngzú Qia-ngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan and Qiang Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????????????? /
    Rnga-ba Bod-rigs dang Chavang-rigs rang skyong khul Barkam County
    Sichuan Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Ga-nzi- Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????? /
    Dkar-mdzes Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul Kangding County
    Sichuan Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Liángsha-n Yízú Zìzhìzho-u Yi Yi: ??/Niep Sha Xichang
    Xinjiang Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture ? ??????????? Kèzi-lèsu- Ke-‘e(rkèzi- Zìzhìzho-u Kyrgyz Kyrgyz – ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? (Cyrillic: ?????? ??????? a?????????? o??????) Artux
    Xinjiang Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture ????????? Bó’e(rta(la- Me(nggu( Zìzhìzho-u Mongol (Mongolian in Cyrillic script: ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????) Bortala
    Xinjiang Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Cha-ngjí Huízú Zìzhìzho-u Hui (The Hui speak Chinese) Changji
    Xinjiang Bayin’gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture ? ????????? Ba-yi-nguo-lèng Me(nggu( Zìzhìzho-u Mongol (Mongolian in Cyrillic script: ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????) Korla
    Xinjiang Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture ???????? Yi-lí Ha-sàkè Zìzhìzho-u Kazakh Kazakh: ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? (Cyrillic: ??? ????? ??????????? ??????); Uyghur: Ili K,azak, aptonom oblasti Yining
    Yunnan Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture ?????????? Déhóng Da(izú Ji(ngpo-zú Zìzhìzho-u Dai and Jingpo ? Luxi
    Yunnan Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture ???????? Nùjia-ng Lìsùzú Zìzhìzho-u Lisu ? Liuku Town, Lushui County
    Yunnan Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u Tibetan Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Bde-chen Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul Shangri-La County
    Yunnan Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Dàli( Báizú Zìzhìzho-u Bai Bai: Darl•lit Baif•cuf zirl•zirl•zox Dali
    Yunnan Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture ??????? Chu(xióng Yízú Zìzhìzho-u Yi ? Chuxiong
    Yunnan Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture ?????????? Hónghé Ha-nízú Yízú Zìzhìzho-u Hani and Yi ? Mengzi County
    Yunnan Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture ????????? Wensha-n Zhuàngzú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u Zhuang and Miao ? Wenshan County
    Yunnan Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture ????????? Xi-shua-ngba(nnà Da(izú Zìzhìzho-u Dai Tai Lue: ????????????????12???? Jinghong

    [edit] See also

    * List of prefecture-level divisions of China

    Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China
    Categories: Autonomous prefectures of the People’s Republic of China | Subdivisions of China | Administrative divisions
    * This page was last modified on 6 August 2009 at 18:06.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

    ***

    http://www.volcanolive.com/kunlun.html

    http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=strike-slip+faults

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fault_(geology)

    http://www.google.com/search?q=map+of+fault+lines&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258
    Map of Fault Lines

    http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_ypalM7eSBEQ/SdzT_ajylVI/AAAAAAAAAbM/XNB1-z6lvKg/s1600-h/tectonic_map.jpg
    Tectonic Map

    http://printable-maps.blogspot.com/2009/04/world-map-of-fault-lines.html
    Free printable maps – World Map of Faultlines

    http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.rain.org/homeschool/science/images/plates-of-the-world.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.rain.org/homeschool/science/geology.html&h=358&w=548&sz=51&tbnid=p6TLLJGQio12lM:&tbnh=87&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmap%2Bof%2Bfault%2Blines&usg=__xkMMTMfgWFzucZ5hbkoVhtrb7PY=&ei=NESgSpaLNsSutgfBp4nxDw&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=5&ct=image

    http://www.rain.org/homeschool/science/images/plates-of-the-world.gif

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=map+of+fault+lines&start=10&sa=N

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=china+fault+lines&aq=f&oq=&aqi=
    China Fault Lines

    ***

    http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24647213/
    How China’s Earthquake Struck – Science – msnbc.com

    http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1686/MR1686.ch2.pdf

    http://www.allroadsleadtochina.com/2008/05/12/earthquake-in-china-plaza-66-citic-and-others-evacuating/
    All Roads Lead to China

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=china+earthquake+fault+line&revid=285554717&ei=s0SgSomuLJCy8Qay8s30Dw&sa=X&oi=revisions_inline&resnum=0&ct=broad-revision&cd=1
    China Earthquake Fault Line – Google Search

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=Kunlun+Fault+&btnG=Search&aq=f&oq=&aqi=
    Kunlun Fault

    http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=871
    Kunlun Fault – Image of the Day

    http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=3414
    Visible Earth: Topography of the Kunlun Fault

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=Kunlun+Fault&start=10&sa=N
    Kunlun Fault – Google Search

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_Kunlun_earthquake
    2001 Kunlun Earthquake – wikipedia

    http://www.onlineconversion.com/
    Online Conversion – convert just about anything to anything else

    http://www.metric-conversions.org/length/kilometers-to-miles.htm
    Kilometers to Miles Conversion

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=2001_Kunlun_earthquake&params=36_12_N_90_54_E_
    GeoHack – 2001 Kunlun Earthquake

    http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=36.2,90.9&spn=0.3,0.3&t=h&q=36.2,90.9

    ***
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Macmillan

    ***

    The core 9/11 hijackers emerge

    Beginning in September 1999 the CTC picked up multiple signs that bin Laden had set in motion major terrorist attacks for the turn of the year. The CIA set in motion the largest collection and disruption activity in the history of mankind (as Cofer Black later put it). The CTC focused in particular on three groups of Qaeda personnel: those known to have been involved in terrorist attacks; and senior personnel both outside and inside Afghanistan—e.g. operational planner Abu Zubaydah and Bin Ladin deputy Muhammad Atef .[10]

    Amid this activity, in November–December 1999 Mohamed Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah and Nawaf al-Hazmi visited Afghanistan, where they were selected for the planes operation that was to become known as 9/11. Al-Hazmi undertook guerrilla training at Qaeda’s Mes Aynak camp (along with two Yemenis who were unable to get US entry visas). The camp was located in an abandoned Russian copper mine near Kabul, and was for a time in 1999 the only such training camp in operation. Atta, al-Shehhi and Jarrah met Muhammad Atef and bin Laden in Kandahar, and were instructed to go back to Germany to undertake pilot training.[11]

    In late 1999 the National Security Agency (NSA), following up information from the FBI’s investigation of the 1998 US embassy attacks, picked up traces of an operational cadre , consisting of Nawaf al-Hazmi, his companion Khalid al-Mihdhar and Nawaf’s younger brother Salem, who were planning to go to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in January 2000. Seeing a connection with the attacks, a CTC officer sought permission to surveil the men.[12]

    At about this time the SOCOM-DIA operation Able Danger also identified a potential Qaeda unit, consisting of the future leading 9/11 hijackers Atta, al-Shehhi, al-Mihdhar and Nawaf al-Hazmi. It termed them the Brooklyn cell , because of some associations with the New York district. Evidently at least some of the men were physically and legally present in the United States, since there was an ensuing legal tussle over the right of quasi-citizens not to be spied on.[13]

    As for the CIA. The Agency erratically tracked al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar as they traveled to and attended the al-Qaeda summit in Kuala Lumpur in early January 2000. The Counterterrorist Center had briefed the CIA leadership on the gathering in Kuala Lumpur … The head of the Bin Ladin unit [Richard] kept providing updates , unaware at first that the information was out-of-date. By March 2000 it was learned that al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar had departed for (or returned to[14]) Los Angeles. But no-one outside the CTC was informed. The men were not registered with the State Department’s TIPOFF list, nor was the FBI told.[15]

    There are also allegations that the CIA surveiled Mohamed Atta in Germany from the time he returned there in January/February 2000, until he left for the US in June 2000.[16]

    [edit] Predator drone, 2000–2001

    In spring 2000, officers from the Bin Laden Station joined others in pressing for Afghan Eyes , the Predator reconnaissance drone program for locating bin Laden in Afghanistan. In the summer, The bin Laden unit drew up maps and plans for fifteen Predator flights, each lasting just under twenty-four hours. The flights were scheduled to begin in September. In autumn 2000, officers from the Station were present at Predator flight control in the CIA’s Langley headquarters, alongside other officers from the CTC, and US Air Force drone pilots. Several possible sightings of bin Laden were obtained as drones flew over his Tarnak-Farms residence near Kandahar. Late in the year, the program was suspended because of bad weather.[17]

    Resumption of flights in 2001 was delayed by arguments over an armed Predator. A drone equipped with adapted Hellfire anti-tank missiles could be used to try to kill bin Laden and other Qaeda leaders. Cofer Black and the bin Laden unit were among the advocates. But there were both legal and technical issues. In the summer the CIA conducted classified war games at Langley … to see how its chain of command might responsibly oversee a flying robot that could shoot missiles at suspected terrorists . And a series of live-fire tests in the Nevada desert (involving a mockup of bin Laden’s Tarnak residence) produced mixed results.

    Tenet advised cautiously on the matter at a meeting of the Cabinet-level Principals Committee on September 4, 2001. If the Cabinet wanted to empower the CIA to field a lethal drone, Tenet said, they should do so with their eyes wide open, fully aware of the potential fallout if there were a controversial or mistaken strike . National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice concluded that the armed Predator was required, but evidently not ready. It was agreed to recommend to the CIA to resume reconnaissance flights. The previously reluctant Tenet then ordered the Agency to do so. The CIA was now authorized to deploy the system with weapons-capable aircraft, but for reconnaissance missions only , since the host nation (presumably Uzbekistan) had not agreed to allow flights by weapons-carrying aircraft .

    Subsequent to 9/11, approval was quickly granted to ship the missiles, and the Predator aircraft and missiles reached their overseas location on September 16, 2001. The first mission was flown over Kabul and [Kandahar] on September 18 without carrying weapons. Subsequent host nation approval was granted on October 7 and the first armed mission was flown on the same day.[18]

    [edit] Strategic branch, 2001

    Despite increases in staff, even into 2001 the Bin Ladin unit knew it needed more people—particularly experienced Headquarters desk officers and targeters—to meet the HUMINT [human-intelligence] challenge. In [an] early Spring 2001 briefing to the DCI (George Tenet), [the] CTC requested hiring a small group of contractors not involved in day-to-day crises to digest vast quantities of information and develop targeting strategies. The briefing emphasized that the unit needed people, not money. [19]

    The briefing was apparently in response to an initiative from Tenet, who in late 2000 had recognized the deficiency of strategic analysis against al Qaeda. To tackle this problem within the CTC he [had] appointed a senior manager, who briefed him in March 2001 on ‘creating a strategic assessment capability.’

    A strategic analyst on 9/11

    On the morning of September 11th, 2001, [John] Fulton and his team at the CIA were running a pre-planned simulation to explore the emergency response issues that would be created if a plane were to strike a building. So said an advance-publicity pamphlet for a security conference held in 2002.

    The Strategic Assessments Branch was created in July 2001. The decision to add about ten analysts to this effort was seen as a major bureaucratic victory, but the CTC labored to find them. The new chief of this branch reported for duty on September 10, 2001. [20]

    [edit] After 9/11

    Shortly after 9/11, Michael Scheuer came back to the Station as special adviser. He stayed until 2004.[21]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bin_Laden_Issue_Station

    ***

    Alleged Afghan Training Camps
    Kandahar
    Al Farouq (2000) | Tarnak Farms (2000-2001) | Kohtal | School for the Jihad | al-Matar complex (2000-2001) | Mansehra Jihad | Garmabak Ghar
    Kabul
    Mes Aynak (1999-?) | Al Ghuraba | Malek Military Center | Libyan camp | Omar Sa’if | Moasqr Kari Bilal | Khalid Bin Whalid (1993-1998) | Camp Nine | Kut Bakram| Kara Karga | Urban warfare training camp
    Konar
    JDQ training camp
    Nangarhar
    Derunta (1995-?) | Abu Obeida | Moroccan training camp | Camp Thabit | ETIM training camp | Torkhum| Kun Saiaf
    Khost
    Jihad Wahl (1996-?) | Al Sadeeq | Zhawar Kili al-Badr (1996-1998) | Khalden (198x-2000)
    Takhar
    Talukan
    Jalalabad
    Al Ghanad | Samar Khaila
    Pakistan
    Malakand camp | Jaish-E-Mohammad | Al Badr | Qari Imran
    Bosnia
    Mehrez training camp
    Tajikstan
    Lajerg
    Unsorted locations
    Shamsad | Toran | Lowgar | al Ahrar | Tabligi Jamaat | Tarik| Pakistani Center 5| | Lashkar E Tayyiba | Abu Nasir| Al Fand | Sheikh Sanif | Abu Obeida (2000) | Abu Jindal (1998) | Asil | Qulio Urdo | Al Aqua | Sada | Karabakh | Abdullah Abu Masood camp | LIFG | Mehrez | Pul Sayad | Javar | Al Khair | artillery and preps | Margun |
    Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarnak_Farms
    Categories: Afghan training camps | Al-Qaeda activities

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarnak_Farms

    ***

    In April 2002, U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld stated, We have heard neither hide nor hair of him since, oh, about December in terms of anything hard….We are pretty sure he is either alive or dead. [115] FBI Counterterrorism chief Dale Watson and President Karzai of Afghanistan also expressed the opinion that Bin Laden probably died at this time.[116][117]

    April 2005: The Sydney Morning Herald stated Dr Clive Williams, director of terrorism studies at the Australian National University, says documents provided by an Indian colleague suggested bin Laden died of massive organ failure in April last year … ‘It’s hard to prove or disprove these things because there hasn’t really been anything that allows you to make a judgment one way or the other,’ Dr. Williams said. [118]

    Late 2005 CIA disbands Alec Station , unit dedicated to Bin Laden.[119]

    August 2006: On 23 September 2006, the French newspaper L’Est Républicain quoted a report from the French secret service (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure, DGSE) stating that Osama bin Laden had died in Pakistan on 23 August 2006, after contracting a case of typhoid fever that paralyzed his lower limbs.[120] According to the newspaper, Saudi security services first heard of bin Laden’s alleged death on 4 September 2006.[121][122][123] The alleged death was reported by the Saudi Arabian secret service to its government, which reported it to the French secret service. The French defense minister Michèle Alliot-Marie expressed her regret that the report had been published while French President Jacques Chirac declared that bin Laden’s death had not been confirmed.[124] American authorities also cannot confirm reports of bin Laden’s death,[125] with Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice saying only, No comment, and no knowledge. [126] Later, CNN’s Nic Robertson said that he had received confirmation from an anonymous Saudi source that the Saudi intelligence community has known for a while that bin Laden has a water-borne illness, but that he had heard no reports that it was specifically typhoid or that he had died.[127]

    November 2007: In an interview with political interviewer David Frost taken on 2 November 2007, the Pakistani politician and Pakistan Peoples Party chairwoman Benazir Bhutto claimed that bin Laden had been murdered by Omar Sheikh. During her answer to a question pertaining to the identities of those who had previously attempted her own assassination, Bhutto named Sheikh as a possible suspect while referring to him as the man who murdered Osama bin Laden. Despite the weight of such a statement, neither Bhutto nor Frost attempted to clarify it during the remainder of the interview.[128] Omar Chatriwala, a journalist for Al Jazeera English, claims that he chose not to pursue the story at the time because he believes Bhutto misspoke, meaning to say Sheikh murdered Daniel Pearl and not Osama Bin Laden.[129] The BBC drew criticism when it rebroadcast the Frost/Bhutto interview on its website, but edited out Bhutto’s statement regarding Osama Bin Laden. Later the BBC apologized and replaced the edited version with the complete interview.[130] In October 2007, Bhutto stated in an interview that she would cooperate with the American military in targeting Osama bin Laden.[131]

    March 2009: In an essay published in The American Spectator in March 2009, international relations professor Angelo Codevilla of Boston University argued that Osama bin Laden had been dead for many years.[132]

    [ etc.]

    War on Terrorism
    Timeline A Casualties A Theaters A Criticism A ISAF
    Participants
    Operational

    ISAF A Operation Enduring Freedom participants A Multinational force in Iraq A Afghanistan A Northern Alliance A Iraq (Iraqi Army) A NATO A Pakistan A United Kingdom A United States A Philippines A Ethiopia
    Targets

    al-Qaeda A Osama bin Laden A Abu Sayyaf A Iraqi insurgency A Hamas A Islamic Courts Union A Jemaah Islamiyah A Taliban A Pattani Separatists A Jaish-e-Mohammed A Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami A Hizbul Mujahideen A Kurdistan Workers’ Party A Hezbollah A Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan A Lashkar-e-Taiba
    Conflicts
    Operation
    Enduring Freedom

    War in Afghanistan A OEF – Philippines A Georgia Train and Equip Program A Georgia Sustainment and Stability A OEF – Horn of Africa A OEF – Trans Sahara A Missile strikes in Pakistan
    Other

    Insurgency in the Maghreb A Iraq insurgency and operations A Insurgency in Saudi Arabia A War in North-West Pakistan A South Thailand insurgency A Lebanon War A War in Somalia A Lebanon-Fatah al-Islam conflict
    Islamist
    attacks
    2001–2002

    September 11 attacks A Bahawalpur church attack A Indian Parliament attack A Shoe bomb plot A Ghriba synagogue bombing A Karachi bus bomb A Jaunpur train crash A Karachi US Consulate bombing A Akshardham Temple attack A 1st Bali bombing A Zamboanga bombings A Kurnool train crash
    2003–2004

    Riyadh compound bombings A Casablanca bombings A 2003 Mumbai bombings A Jakarta Marriott Hotel bombing A Istanbul bombings A SuperFerry 14 bombing A Madrid train bombings A Khobar massacre A Beslan school hostage crisis A Jakarta Australian embassy bombing
    2005–2006

    1st London bombings A 2nd London bombings A Sharm el-Sheikh attacks A 2nd Bali bombing A 1st Delhi bombings A Amman bombings A 2006 Varanasi bombings A 2006 Mumbai train bombings A Transatlantic aircraft plot A Toronto terrorism plot
    2007–2008

    1st Algiers bombings A Fort Dix attack plot A Ankara bombing A London car bomb plot A Glasgow Airport attack A 2007 Yemen tourist attack A Hyderabad bombings A Qahtaniya bombings A Karachi bombing A Baghlan bombing A Philippine Congress bombing A 2nd Algiers bombings A Assassination of Benazir Bhutto A Jaipur bombings A Danish embassy A Indian embassy A United States consulate A Istanbul bombings A Bangalore bombings-Ahmedabad A 2nd Delhi bombings A American embassy A Islamabad bombing A 3rd Delhi bombing A 2008 Assam bombings A 2008 Mumbai attacks
    2009–current

    Attack on Sri Lankan cricket team A 2009 Yemen tourist attack A 2009 Lahore bombing A Pearl Continental hotel bombing A Jakarta bombings
    See also
    Abu Ghraib prison A Axis of evil A Bush Doctrine A CIA run Black sites A Combatant Status Review Tribunal A Enhanced interrogation techniques A Extrajudicial prisoners of the US A Extraordinary rendition A Guantanamo Bay detention camp A Military Commissions Act A NSA electronic surveillance program A President’s Surveillance Program A Protect America Act of 2007 A Unitary executive theory A Unlawful combatant A USA PATRIOT Act
    Terrorism A War

    Persondata
    NAME Osama bin Laden
    ALTERNATIVE NAMES Osama bin Muhammad bin ‘Awad bin Laden (full name); ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? (Arabic); Laden, Osama bin (alternate form); Bin Laden, Usama (alternate transliteration); UBL (common referent); Bin Ladin, Ussamah (alternate transliteration); Ben Laden, Oussama (alternate transliteration); Binladen, Osama (alternate transliteration); Binladin, Osama (alternate transliteration); Al-Amir (alias); Abu Abdallah (alias); Mujahid, Sheikh Al- (alias)
    SHORT DESCRIPTION Al-Qaeda leader
    DATE OF BIRTH 10 March 1957
    PLACE OF BIRTH Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    DATE OF DEATH
    PLACE OF DEATH

    Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osama_bin_Laden
    Categories: 1957 births | Afghan Civil War | Al-Qaeda founders | Civil engineers | FBI Top Ten Most Wanted Fugitives | Islamic terrorism | Osama bin Laden | People involved in the Soviet war in Afghanistan | Living people | September 11 attacks | Fugitives wanted on terrorism charges | Saudi anti-communists | Saudi Arabian Sunni Muslims | Saudi Arabian al-Qaeda members | Saudi poets | FBI Most Wanted Terrorists | People of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
    Hidden categories: Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected biographies of living people | Articles containing Arabic language text | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from August 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009

    * This page was last modified on 4 September 2009 at 01:17.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osama_Bin_Laden

    ***
    ***
    145px-Macmillan_cph.3b40592.jpg

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Macmillan

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    Harold Macmillan
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Right Honourable
    Harold Macmillan
    The Earl of Stockton, OM, PC

    Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
    In office
    10 January 1957 – 18 October 1963
    Monarch Elizabeth II
    Deputy Rab Butler
    Preceded by Sir Anthony Eden
    Succeeded by Sir Alec Douglas-Home
    Secretary of State for Air
    In office
    25 May – 26 July 1945
    Prime Minister Winston Churchill
    (Caretaker Government)
    Preceded by Sir Archibald Sinclair
    Succeeded by The Viscount Stansgate
    Minister of Housing & Local Government
    In office
    30 October 1951 – 19 October 1954
    Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill
    Preceded by New position
    Hugh Dalton had been Minister of Local Government & Planning
    Succeeded by Duncan Sandys
    Minister of Defence
    In office
    19 October 1954 – 7 April 1955
    Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill
    Preceded by The Earl Alexander of Tunis
    Succeeded by Selwyn Lloyd
    Foreign Secretary
    In office
    7 April – 20 December 1955
    Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden
    Preceded by Sir Anthony Eden
    Succeeded by Selwyn Lloyd
    Chancellor of the Exchequer
    In office
    20 December 1955 – 13 January 1957
    Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden
    Preceded by Rab Butler
    Succeeded by Peter Thorneycroft
    Born 10 February 1894(1894-02-10)
    Chelsea, London,
    United Kingdom
    Died 29 December 1986 (aged 92)
    Chelwood Gate, Sussex, United Kingdom
    Nationality British
    Political party Conservative
    Spouse(s) Lady Dorothy Macmillan
    Alma mater Balliol College, Oxford
    Profession Publisher
    Religion Anglican [1]

    Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 January 1957 to 18 October 1963.

    Nicknamed ‘Supermac’ and known for his pragmatism, wit and unflappability, Macmillan achieved notoriety before the Second World War as a Tory radical and critic of appeasement. Rising to high office as a protegé of wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill, he believed in the essential decency of the post-war settlement and the necessity of a mixed economy, and in his premiership pursued corporatist policies to develop the domestic market as the engine of growth.[2] As a One Nation Tory of the Disraelian tradition, haunted by memories of the Great Depression, he championed a Keynesian strategy of public investment to maintain demand, winning a second term in 1959 on an electioneering budget. Benefiting from favourable international conditions,[3] he presided over an age of affluence, marked by low unemployment and high if uneven growth. In his immortal Bedford speech of July 1957 he correctly[4] told the nation they had ‘never had it so good’, but warned of the dangers of inflation, summing up the fragile prosperity of the 1950s.[5]

    In international affairs Macmillan rebuilt the special relationship with the United States from the wreckage of Suez, and redrew the world map by decolonising sub-Saharan Africa. Reconfiguring the nation’s defences to meet the realities of the nuclear age, he ended National Service, strengthened the nuclear deterrent by acquiring Polaris, and pioneered the Nuclear Test Ban with the United States and the Soviet Union. Belatedly recognising the dangers of strategic dependence, he sought a new role for Britain in Europe, but his unwillingness to disclose United States nuclear secrets to France contributed to a French veto of the United Kingdom’s entry into the European Economic Community.[6]

    Macmillan’s government in its final year was rocked by the Vassall and Profumo scandals, which seemed to symbolise for the rebellious youth of the 1960s the moral decay of the British establishment.[7] Resigning prematurely after a medical misdiagnosis, Macmillan lived out a long retirement as an elder statesman of global stature. He was as trenchant a critic of his successors in his old age as he had been of his predecessors in his youth. When asked what represented the greatest challenge for a statesman, Macmillan replied: ‘Events, my dear boy, events’.[8]
    Contents
    [hide]

    * 1 Early life
    o 1.1 Family
    o 1.2 Education
    o 1.3 War service
    o 1.4 Canadian aide-de-campship
    o 1.5 Publishing
    * 2 Marriage
    o 2.1 Brother-in-law
    o 2.2 Eileen O’Casey
    * 3 Political career (1924-1957)
    o 3.1 Private Member (1924-1929, 1931-1940)
    o 3.2 Supply Parliamentary Secretary (1940-1942)
    o 3.3 Colonial Under-Secretary (1942)
    o 3.4 Minister Resident in the Mediterranean (1942-1945)
    o 3.5 Air Secretary (1945)
    o 3.6 Housing Minister (1951-1954)
    o 3.7 Defence Minister (1954-1955)
    o 3.8 Foreign Secretary (1955)
    o 3.9 Chancellor of the Exchequer (1955-1957)
    * 4 Prime Minister (1957-1963)
    o 4.1 First government (1957-1959)
    + 4.1.1 Economy
    + 4.1.2 Foreign policy
    + 4.1.3 Nuclear deterrent
    + 4.1.4 Election campaign (1959)
    o 4.2 Second government (1959-63)
    + 4.2.1 Economy
    + 4.2.2 Foreign policy
    + 4.2.3 Skybolt crisis
    + 4.2.4 Partial Test Ban Treaty (1962)
    + 4.2.5 Europe
    + 4.2.6 Profumo affair
    * 5 Retirement (1963-1986)
    o 5.1 Resignation
    o 5.2 Succession
    o 5.3 Oxford Chancellor (1960-1986)
    o 5.4 Return to publishing
    o 5.5 Political interventions
    o 5.6 Relations with Thatcher
    * 6 Death and funeral
    * 7 Titles from birth to death
    * 8 Cabinets
    o 8.1 January 1957 – October 1959
    o 8.2 October 1959 – July 1960
    o 8.3 July 1960 – October 1961
    o 8.4 October 1961 – July 1962
    o 8.5 July 1962 – October 1963
    * 9 Dramatic and comedic portrayals
    o 9.1 Beyond the Fringe (1960-1966)
    o 9.2 Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years (1981)
    o 9.3 A Letter of Resignation (1997-1998)
    o 9.4 Eden’s Empire (2006)
    o 9.5 Never So Good (2008)
    * 10 Additional reading
    * 11 References
    * 12 Cited texts
    * 13 External links

    [edit] Early life

    [edit] Family

    Harold Macmillan was born at 52 Cadogan Place in Chelsea, London, to Maurice Crawford Macmillan (1853-1936), publisher, and Helen (Nellie) Artie Tarleton Belles (1856-1937), artist and socialite, from Spencer, Indiana, USA.[9] He had two brothers, Daniel, eight years his senior, and Arthur, four years his senior.[10] His paternal grandfather, Daniel MacMillan (1813-1857), was the son of a Scottish crofter who founded Macmillan Publishers.

    [edit] Education

    Macmillan was first educated at Summer Fields School and then at Eton but left during his first half after a serious attack of pneumonia.[11][12] He also attended Balliol College, Oxford, although he only completed two years of the four-year course reading Greats before the outbreak of the First World War.

    [edit] War service

    Macmillan served with distinction as a captain in the Grenadier Guards during the war, and was wounded on three occasions. During the Battle of the Somme, he spent an entire day wounded and lying in a slit trench with a bullet in his pelvis, reading the classical Greek playwright Aeschylus in his original language.[13] Macmillan spent the final two years of the war under anaesthetic in hospital undergoing a long series of operations, seeing no further active service.[14] His hip wound took four years to heal completely, and left him with a slight shuffle to his walk (and a limp grip in his right hand from a separate hand wound) for the rest of his life. As was common for contemporary former officers, he continued to be known as ‘Captain Macmillan’ until the early 1930s.

    [edit] Canadian aide-de-campship

    Macmillan lost so many of his fellow students during the war that afterwards he refused to return to Oxford, saying the university would never be the same.[15] He served instead in Ottawa, Canada, in 1919 as ADC to Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire, then Governor General of Canada.[16]

    [edit] Publishing

    On his return to London in 1920 he joined the family firm Macmillan Publishers as a junior partner, remaining with the company until his appointment to ministerial office in 1940.

    [edit] Marriage

    Macmillan married Lady Dorothy Cavendish, daughter of the 9th Duke of Devonshire, on 21 April 1920. Her great-uncle was Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire, who was leader of the Liberal Party in the 1870s, and a close colleague of William Gladstone, Joseph Chamberlain and Lord Salisbury. Lady Dorothy was also descended from William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, who served as Prime Minister from 1756-1757 in communion with Newcastle and Pitt the Elder. Her nephew William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington married Kathleen, a sister of John F. Kennedy. Between 1929 and 1935 Lady Dorothy had a long affair with the Conservative politician Robert Boothby, in full public view of Westminster and established society. Boothby was widely rumoured to have been the father of Macmillan’s youngest daughter Sarah. The stress caused by this may have contributed to Macmillan’s nervous breakdown in 1931.[17] Lady Dorothy died on 21 May 1966, aged 65.

    The Macmillans had four children:

    * Maurice Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden (1921-1984)
    * Lady Caroline Faber (born 1923)
    * Lady Catherine Amery (1926-1991)
    * Sarah Macmillan (1930-1970)

    [edit] Brother-in-law

    On 26 November 1950, Lady Dorothy’s brother Edward Cavendish, the 10th Duke of Devonshire had a heart attack and died in the presence of John Bodkin Adams, the suspected serial killer. Thirteen days before, Edith Alice Morrell, another patient of Adams, had also died. Adams was tried in 1957 for her murder but controversially acquitted. Political interference has been suspected[18][19] and indeed, the case was prosecuted by a member of Macmillan’s cabinet, Sir Reginald Manningham-Buller. Home office pathologist Francis Camps linked Adams to a total of 163 suspicious deaths.[19]

    [edit] Eileen O’Casey

    Eileen Kathleen O’Casey (née Reynolds), the actress wife of Irish dramatist Seán O’Casey, had a close relationship with Macmillan, who had published her husband’s plays. There is disagreement over whether he proposed after she was widowed. According to her husband’s biographer: ‘Eileen and O’Casey’s marriage had become celibate by the time she was in her fifties, now a strikingly handsome woman, notable for her warm wit, who, on her own candid admission, fulfilled her sexual needs outside marriage … One ardent, lifelong admirer was Macmillan, who in later life gently broached to her the idea of marriage, which she declined.'[20]

    Eileen’s obituary notice in the Evening Standard states: ‘It was the death of Sean O’Casey in 1964, and of Dorothy Macmillan, two years later, that cemented Macmillan and Eileen’s intimacy. She became the light which illuminated his prime years, eventually even replacing Dorothy in his affections.'[21] O’Casey’s biographer notes that ‘Eileen was the first woman whom Macmillan asked to sit in Lady Dorothy’s place at table in Birch Grove; he also took her out frequently to dine at Buck’s Club.'[22]

    Eileen’s obituary in The Times records that ‘she became one of Harold Macmillan’s closest friends. The two grew even closer after the death of their respective spouses. That Macmillan never proposed marriage was a source of bewilderment to outsiders, although Eileen was understanding about his shyness….Her relationship with Macmillan, which only ended with his death in 1986, was a source of comfort to her in old age. For his part, he relied completely on her honest, outspoken Irish perspective. She recalled one lunch when Lord Home asked Macmillan to accept a peerage: Harold turned to me and said ‘What about that Eileen?’ I told him I thought it nicer to keep the name Harold Macmillan to the end of his days and said, ‘Titles are two-a-penny these days. Butchers and bakers and candlestick makers are all getting them.’ I got the impression that Alec Home was a bit annoyed with me. [23]

    [edit] Political career (1924-1957)

    [edit] Private Member (1924-1929, 1931-1940)

    Elected to the House of Commons in 1924 for the depressed northern industrial constituency of Stockton-on-Tees, Macmillan lost his seat in 1929 in the face of high regional unemployment, but returned in 1931. He spent the 1930s on the backbenches, with his championing of economic planning, anti-appeasement ideals and sharp criticism of Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain serving to isolate him from the party leadership. During this time (1938) he published the first edition of his book The Middle Way, which advocated a broadly centrist political philosophy both domestically and internationally.

    [edit] Supply Parliamentary Secretary (1940-1942)
    In the Second World War Macmillan at last attained office, serving in the wartime coalition government as the Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Supply from 1940 to 1942. The task of the department was to provide armaments and other equipment to the British Army and Royal Air Force. Macmillan travelled up and down the country to co-ordinate production, working with some success under Lord Beaverbrook to increase the supply and quality of armoured vehicles.[24]

    [edit] Colonial Under-Secretary (1942)

    Macmillan was appointed as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1942, in his own words, ‘leaving a madhouse in order to enter a mausoleum’.[25] Though a junior minister he was sworn of the Privy Council and spoke in the House of Commons for successive Colonial Secretaries Lord Moyne and Lord Cranborne. Macmillan was given responsibility for increasing colonial production and trade, and signalled the future direction of British policy when in June 1942 he declared:
    “ The governing principle of the Colonial Empire should be the principle of partnership between the various elements composing it. Out of partnership comes understanding and friendship. Within the fabric of the Commonwealth lies the future of the Colonial territories.[26] ”

    [edit] Minister Resident in the Mediterranean (1942-1945)

    Macmillan attained real power and Cabinet rank upon being sent to North Africa in 1942 as British government representative to the Allies in the Mediterranean, reporting directly to Prime Minister Winston Churchill over the head of the Foreign Secretary, Anthony Eden. During this assignment Macmillan served as liaison and mediator between Churchill and US General Dwight D. Eisenhower in North Africa, building a rapport with the latter that would prove helpful in his later career.[27]

    As minister resident with a roving commission, Macmillan also the minister advising General Keightley of V Corps, the senior Allied commander in Austria responsible for Operation Keelhaul, which included the forced repatriation of up to 70,000 prisoners of war to the Soviet Union and Tito’s Yugoslavia in 1945. The deportations and Macmillan’s involvement later became a source of controversy because of the harsh treatment meted out to Nazi collaborators and anti-partisans by the receiving countries, and because in the confusion V Corps went beyond the terms agreed at Yalta and AFHQ directives by repatriating 4000 White Russian troops and 11,000 civilian family members who could not properly be regarded as Soviet citizens.[28][29]

    [edit] Air Secretary (1945)

    Macmillan returned to England after the European war and was Secretary of State for Air for two months in Churchill’s caretaker government, ‘much of which was taken up in electioneering’, there being ‘nothing much to be done in the way of forward planning’.[30] He felt himself ‘almost a stranger at home’,[31] and lost his seat in the landslide Labour victory of 1945, but soon returned to Parliament in a November 1945 by-election in Bromley.
    [edit] Housing Minister (1951-1954)

    With the Conservative victory in 1951 Macmillan became Minister of Housing under Churchill, who entrusted Macmillan with fulfilling the latter’s conference promise to build 300,000 houses per year. ‘It is a gamble—it will make or mar your political career,’ Churchill said, ‘but every humble home will bless your name if you succeed.'[32] Macmillan achieved the target a year ahead of schedule.[33]

    [edit] Defence Minister (1954-1955)

    Macmillan served as Minister of Defence from October 1954, but found his authority restricted by Churchill’s personal involvement.[34] In the opinion of The Economist: ‘He gave the impression that his own undoubted capacity for imaginative running of his own show melted way when an august superior was breathing down his neck.'[35]

    A major theme of Macmillan’s tenure at Defence was the ministry’s growing reliance on the nuclear deterrent, in the view of some critics, to the detriment of conventional forces.[36] The Defence White Paper of February 1955, announcing the decision to produce the hydrogen bomb, received bipartisan support.[37]

    By this time Macmillan had lost the wire-rimmed glasses, toothy grin and brylcreemed hair of wartime photographs, and instead grew his hair thick and glossy, had his teeth capped and walked with the ramrod bearing of a former Guards officer—acquiring the distinguished appearance of his later career.

    [edit] Foreign Secretary (1955)

    Macmillan served as Foreign Secretary in April-December 1955 in the government of Anthony Eden. Returning from the Geneva Summit of that year he made headlines by declaring: ‘There ain’t gonna be no war.'[38] Of the role of Foreign Secretary Macmillan famously observed:
    “ Nothing he can say can do very much good and almost anything he may say may do a great deal of harm. Anything he says that is not obvious is dangerous; whatever is not trite is risky. He is forever poised between the cliché and the indiscretion.[39] ”

    [edit] Chancellor of the Exchequer (1955-1957)

    Macmillan served as Chancellor of the Exchequer 1955-1957. In this office he insisted that Eden’s de facto deputy Rab Butler not be treated as senior to him, and threatened resignation until he was allowed to cut bread and milk subsidies. One of Macmillan’s innovations at the Treasury was the introduction of premium bonds,[40] announced in his budget of 17 April 1956.[41] Although the Labour Opposition initially decried the sale as a ‘squalid raffle’, it proved an immediate hit with the public. During the Suez Crisis, according to Shadow Chancellor Harold Wilson, Macmillan was ‘first in, first out’: first very supportive of the invasion, then a prime mover in Britain’s withdrawal in the wake of the financial crisis.

    [edit] Prime Minister (1957-1963)

    [edit] First government (1957-1959)

    Harold Macmillan became Prime Minister and leader of the Conservative Party after Eden’s resignation in January 1957, surprising observers with his appointment over the favourite, Rab Butler. The political situation after Suez was so desperate that on taking office on 10 January he told Queen Elizabeth II he could not guarantee his government would last six weeks .[42]

    Macmillan populated his government with many who had studied at the same school as he: he filled government posts with 35 former Etonians, 7 of whom sat in Cabinet.[43] He was also devoted to family members: when Andrew Cavendish, 11th Duke of Devonshire was later appointed (Minister for Colonial Affairs from 1963 to 1964 amongst other positions) he described his uncle’s behaviour as the greatest act of nepotism ever .[19]

    He was nicknamed Supermac in 1958 by cartoonist Victor ‘Vicky’ Weisz. It was intended as mockery, but backfired, coming to be used in a neutral or friendly fashion. Weisz tried to label him with other names, including Mac the Knife at the time of widespread cabinet changes in 1962, but none of these caught on.[citation needed]

    [edit] Economy

    Macmillan brought the monetary concerns of the Exchequer into office; the economy was his prime concern. His One Nation approach to the economy was to seek high or full employment. This contrasted with his mainly monetarist Treasury ministers who argued that the support of sterling required strict controls on money and hence an unavoidable rise in unemployment. Their advice was rejected and in January 1958 the three Treasury ministers Peter Thorneycroft, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Nigel Birch, Economic Secretary to the Treasury, and Enoch Powell, the Financial Secretary to the Treasury, resigned. Macmillan, away on a tour of the Commonwealth, brushed aside this incident as ‘a little local difficulty’.

    [edit] Foreign policy

    Macmillan took close control of foreign policy. He worked to narrow the post-Suez rift with the United States, where his wartime friendship with Dwight D. Eisenhower was key; the two had a productive conference in Bermuda as early as March 1957.

    In February 1959 Macmillan became the first Western leader to visit the Soviet Union since the Second World War.[44] Talks with Nikita Khrushchev eased tensions in East-West relations over West Berlin and led to an agreement in principle to stop nuclear tests and to hold a further summit meeting of Allied and Soviet heads of government.[45]

    In the Middle East, faced by the 1958 collapse of the Baghdad Pact and the spread of Soviet influence, Macmillan acted decisively to restore the confidence of Gulf allies, using the RAF and special forces to defeat a revolt backed by Saudi Arabia and Egypt against the Sultan of Oman in July 1957,[46] deploying airborne battalions to defend Jordan against Syrian subversion in July 1958,[47] and deterring a threatened Iraqi invasion of Kuwait by landing a brigade group in July 1960.[48]

    Macmillan was also a major proponent and architect of decolonisation. The Gold Coast was granted independence as Ghana, and Malaya and North Borneo as Malaysia in 1957.

    [edit] Nuclear deterrent
    First successful British H-bomb test – Operation Grapple X Round C1, which took place over Kiritimati

    In April 1957 Macmillan reaffirmed his strong support for the British nuclear deterrent. A succession of prime ministers since the Second World War had been determined to persuade the United States to revive wartime co-operation in the area of nuclear weapons research. Macmillan believed that one way to encourage such co-operation would be for the United Kingdom to speed up the development of its own hydrogen bomb, which was successfully tested on 8 November 1957.

    Macmillan’s decision led to increased demands on the Windscale and (subsequently) Calder Hall nuclear plants to produce plutonium for military purposes.[49] As a result the safety margins of the radioactive materials inside the Windscale reactor were eroded. This contributed to the Windscale accident on the night of 10 October 1957, in which a fire broke out in the plutonium plant of Pile No. 1, and nuclear contaminants travelled up a chimney where the filters blocked some but not all of the contaminated material. The radioactive cloud spread to south-east England and fallout reached mainland Europe. Although scientists had warned of the dangers of such an accident for some time, the government blamed the workers who had put out the fire for ‘an error of judgement’, rather than the political pressure for fast-tracking the megaton bomb.[50][51]

    Macmillan, concerned that public confidence in the nuclear programme might be shaken and that technical information might be misused by opponents of defence co-operation in the US Congress, withheld all but the summary of a report into the Windscale fire prepared for the Atomic Energy Authority by Sir William Penney, director of the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment.[52] While subsequently released files show that ‘Macmillan’s cuts were few and covered up few technical details’,[53] and that even the full report at the time found no danger to public health, later official estimates acknowledged the release of polonium-210 may have led directly to 25 to 50 deaths, and anti-nuclear groups linked it to 1,000 fatal cancers.[54][55]

    On 25 March 1957 Macmillan also acceded to Eisenhower’s request to base 60 Thor IRBMs in England under joint control, to replace the nuclear bombers of the Strategic Air Command, which had been stationed under joint control in the country since 1948, and were approaching obsolescence. Partly as a consequence of this favour, in late October 1957, the US McMahon Act was eased to facilitate nuclear co-operation between the two governments, initially with a view to producing cleaner weapons and reducing the need for duplicate testing.[56] The Mutual Defence Agreement followed on 3 July 1958, speeding up British ballistic missile development,[57] notwithstanding unease expressed at the time about the impetus co-operation might give to atomic proliferation by arousing the jealousy of France and other allies.[58]

    [edit] Election campaign (1959)

    Macmillan led the Conservatives to victory in the October 1959 general election, increasing his party’s majority from 67 to 107 seats. The successful campaign was based on the economic improvements achieved; the slogan Life’s Better Under the Conservatives was matched by Macmillan’s own remark, indeed let us be frank about it – most of our people have never had it so good. [59], usually paraphrased as You’ve never had it so good . Such rhetoric reflected a new reality of working-class affluence; it has been argued: The key factor in the Conservative victory was that average real pay for industrial workers had risen since Churchill’s 1951 victory by over 20 per cent .[60]

    Critics contended that the actual economic growth rate was weak and distorted by increased defence spending.[citation needed]

    [edit] Second government (1959-63)

    [edit] Economy

    Britain’s balance of payments problems led to the imposition of a wage freeze in 1961 and, amongst other factors, this caused the government to lose popularity and a series of by-elections in March 1962.

    Fearing for his own position, Macmillan organised a major Cabinet change in July 1962 – also named ‘the night of long knives’ as a symbol of his alleged betrayal of the Conservative party. Eight junior Ministers were sacked at the same time. The Cabinet changes were widely seen as a sign of panic, and the young Liberal MP Jeremy Thorpe said of Macmillan’s dismissal of so many of his colleagues, ‘greater love hath no man than this, than to lay down his friends for his life’.

    Macmillan supported the creation of the National Incomes Commission as a means to institute controls on income as part of his growth-without-inflation policy. A further series of subtle indicators and controls were also introduced during his premiership.

    [edit] Foreign policy
    British decolonisation in Africa.

    The special relationship with the United States continued after the election of President John F. Kennedy, whose sister had married a nephew of Macmillan’s wife. The Prime Minister was supportive throughout the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and Kennedy consulted him by telephone every day. The British Ambassador David Ormsby-Gore was a close family friend of the President and actively involved in White House discussions on how to resolve the crisis.

    Macmillan’s first government had seen the first phase of the sub-Saharan African independence movement, which accelerated under his second government. His celebrated ‘wind of change’ speech in Cape Town on his African tour in February 1960 is considered a landmark in the process of decolonisation.

    Nigeria, the Southern Cameroons and British Somaliland were granted independence in 1960, Sierra Leone and Tanganyika in 1961, Uganda in 1962, and Kenya in 1963. Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika to form Tanzania in 1963. All remained within the Commonwealth but Somaliland, which merged with Italian Somaliland to form Somalia.

    Macmillan’s policy overrode the hostility of white minorities and the Conservative Monday Club. South Africa left the multiracial Commonwealth in 1961 and Macmillan acquiesced to the dissolution of the Central African Federation by the end of 1963.

    In East Asia, Singapore became independent in 1963.

    The speedy transfer of power maintained the goodwill of the new nations but critics contended it was premature. In justification Macmillan quoted Lord Macaulay in 1851:
    “ Many politicians of our time are in the habit of laying it down as a self-evident proposition that no people ought to be free until they are fit to use their freedom. The maxim is worthy of the fool in the old story, who resolved not to go into the water till he had learnt to swim. If men are to wait for liberty till they become wise and good in slavery, they may indeed wait for ever.[61] ”

    [edit] Skybolt crisis

    Macmillan cancelled the Blue Streak ballistic missile system in April 1960 over concerns about its vulnerability to a pre-emptive attack. Instead he opted to replace the existing Blue Steel stand-off bomb with the Skybolt missile system, to be developed jointly with the United States. From the same year Macmillan also permitted the US Navy to station Polaris submarines at Holy Loch, Scotland, as a replacement for Thor. When Skybolt was in turn unilaterally cancelled by US Defence Secretary Robert McNamara, Macmillan negotiated with US President John F. Kennedy the purchase of Polaris missiles from the United States under the Nassau agreement in December 1962.

    [edit] Partial Test Ban Treaty (1962)

    Macmillan was also a force in the successful negotiations leading to the signing of the 1962 Partial Test Ban Treaty by the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union. His previous attempt to create an agreement at the May 1960 summit in Paris had collapsed due to the U-2 Crisis of 1960.

    [edit] Europe

    Macmillan worked with states outside the European Economic Community (EEC) to form the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), which from 3 May 1960 established a free-trade area between the member countries. Macmillan also saw the value of rapprochement with the EEC, to which his government sought belated entry. In the event, Britain’s application to join was vetoed by French president Charles de Gaulle on 29 January 1963, in part due to de Gaulle’s fear that ‘the end would be a colossal Atlantic Community dependent on America’, and in part in anger at the Anglo-American nuclear deal, from which France, technologically lagging far behind, had been excluded.[62]

    [edit] Profumo affair

    The Profumo affair of spring and summer 1963 permanently damaged the credibility of Macmillan’s government. He survived a Parliamentary vote with a majority of 69, one less than had been thought necessary for his survival, and was afterwards joined in the smoking-room only by his son and son-in-law, not by any Cabinet minister. Nonetheless, Butler and Maudling (who was very popular with backbench MPs at that time) declined to push for his resignation, especially after a tide of support from Conservative activists around the country.

    [edit] Retirement (1963-1986)

    [edit] Resignation

    The Profumo affair may have exacerbated Macmillan’s ill-health. He was taken ill on the eve of the Conservative Party conference, diagnosed incorrectly with inoperable prostate cancer. Consequently, he resigned on 18 October 1963. He felt privately that he was being hounded from office by a backbench minority:
    “ Some few will be content with the success they have had in the assassination of their leader and will not care very much who the successor is … They are a band that in the end does not amount to more than 15 or 20 at the most.[63] ”

    [edit] Succession

    Macmillan was succeeded as Prime Minister by the Foreign Secretary Alec Douglas-Home in a controversial move; it was alleged that Macmillan had pulled strings and utilised the party’s grandees, nicknamed ‘The Magic Circle’, to ensure that Butler was not chosen as his successor.

    Macmillan initially refused a peerage and retired from politics in September 1964.

    [edit] Oxford Chancellor (1960-1986)

    Macmillan had been elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford in 1960, in a campaign masterminded by Hugh Trevor-Roper, and continued in this distinguished office for life, frequently presiding over college events, making speeches and tirelessly raising funds. According to Sir Patrick Neill QC, the vice-chancellor, Macmillan ‘would talk late into the night with eager groups of students who were often startled by the radical views he put forward, well into his last decade.'[64]

    [edit] Return to publishing
    In retirement Macmillan also took up the chairmanship of his family’s publishing house, Macmillan Publishers, from 1964 to 1974. He brought out a six-volume autobiography:

    1. Winds of Change, 1914–1939 (1966) ISBN 0333066391
    2. The Blast of War, 1939–1945 (1967) ISBN 0333003586
    3. Tides of Fortune, 1945–1955 (1969) ISBN 0333040775
    4. Riding the Storm, 1956–1959 (1971) ISBN 0333103106
    5. Pointing the Way, 1959–1961 (1972) ISBN 0333124111
    6. At the End of the Day, 1961–1963 (1973) ISBN 0333124138

    The read was described by Macmillan’s political enemy Enoch Powell as inducing ‘a sensation akin to that of chewing on cardboard’. His wartime diaries were better received.

    * War Diaries: Politics and War in the Mediterranean, January 1943—May 1945 (London: St. Martin’s Press, 1984) ISBN 0312855664

    [edit] Political interventions

    Macmillan made occasional political interventions in retirement. Responding to a remark made by Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson about not having boots in which to go to school, Macmillan retorted: ‘If Mr Wilson did not have boots to go to school that is because he was too big for them.'[65]

    Macmillan accepted the distinction of the Order of Merit from the Queen in 1976. In October of that year he called for ‘a Government of National Unity’, including all parties, that could command the public support to resolve the economic crisis. Asked who could lead such a coalition, he replied: ‘Mr Gladstone formed his last Government when he was eighty-three. I’m only eighty-two. You mustn’t put temptation in my way.'[66] His plea was interpreted by party leaders as a bid for power and rejected.

    Macmillan still travelled widely, visiting China in October 1979, where he held talks with its leader, senior Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping.[67]

    [edit] Relations with Thatcher

    Macmillan found himself drawn more actively into politics after Margaret Thatcher became Conservative leader and Prime Minister, and the record of his own premiership came under attack from the monetarists in the party, whose theories Thatcher supported. In a celebrated speech he wondered aloud where such theories had come from:
    “ Was it America? Or was it Tibet? It is quite true, many of Your Lordships will remember it operating in the nursery. How do you treat a cold? One nanny said, ‘Feed a cold’; she was a neo-Keynesian. The other said, ‘Starve a cold’; she was a monetarist.[68] ”

    On Macmillan’s advice in April 1982 Thatcher excluded the Treasury from her Falklands War Cabinet. She later said: ‘I never regretted following Harold Macmillan’s advice. We were never tempted to compromise the security of our forces for financial reasons. Everything we did was governed by military necessity.'[69]

    Macmillan finally accepted a peerage in 1984 and was created Earl of Stockton and Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden. He took the title from his former parliamentary seat on the border of the Durham coalfields, and in his maiden speech in the House of Lords he criticised Thatcher’s handling of the coal miners’ strike and her characterisation of Marxist militants as ‘the enemy within’.[70] He received an unprecedented standing ovation for his oration which included the words:
    “ It breaks my heart to see—and I cannot interfere—what is happening in our country today. This terrible strike, by the best men in the world, who beat the Kaiser’s and Hitler’s armies and never gave in. It is pointless and we cannot afford that kind of thing. Then there is the growing division of Conservative prosperity in the south and the ailing north and Midlands. We used to have battles and rows but they were quarrels. Now there is a new kind of wicked hatred that has been brought in by different types of people.[68] ”

    As Chancellor of Oxford Lord Stockton also condemned the university’s refusal in February 1985 to award Thatcher an honorary degree. He noted that the decision represented a break with tradition, and predicted that the snub would rebound on the university.[71]

    Stockton is widely supposed to have likened Thatcher’s policy of privatisation to ‘selling the family silver’. What he did say (at a dinner of the Tory Reform Group at the Royal Overseas League on 8 November 1985) was that the sale of assets was commonplace among individuals or states when they encountered financial difficulties: ‘First of all the Georgian silver goes. And then all that nice furniture that used to be in the salon. Then the Canalettos go.’ Profitable parts of the steel industry and the railways had been privatised, along with British Telecom: ‘They were like two Rembrandts still left.'[72]

    Stockton’s speech was much commented on and a few days later he made a speech in the House of Lords to clarify what he had meant:
    “ When I ventured the other day to criticise the system I was, I am afraid, misunderstood. As a Conservative, I am naturally in favour of returning into private ownership and private management all those means of production and distribution which are now controlled by state capitalism. I am sure they will be more efficient. What I ventured to question was the using of these huge sums as if they were income.[73] ”

    In the last month of his life, he mournfully observed:
    “ Sixty-three years ago … the unemployment figure (in Stockton-on-Tees) was then 29%. Last November … the unemployment (there) is 28%. A rather sad end to one’s life. ”

    [edit] Death and funeral
    The Macmillan family graves in 2000 at St.Giles Church, Horsted Keynes. Harold Macmillan’s grave is on the right.

    Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, died on 29 December 1986, at Birch Grove, the Macmillan family mansion at the foot of the Sussex Downs. He was aged 92 years and 322 days — the greatest age attained by a British Prime Minister until surpassed by James Callaghan on 14 February 2005. His grandson and heir Alexander, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden, said: ‘In the last 48 hours he was very weak but entirely reasonable and intelligent. His last words were, I think I will go to sleep now .'[74][75]

    Thatcher, on receiving the news, hailed him as ‘a very remarkable man and a very great patriot’, and said that his dislike of ‘selling the family silver’ had never come between them. He was ‘unique in the affection of the British people’.[64]

    Tributes came from around the world. US President Ronald Reagan said: ‘The American people share in the loss of a voice of wisdom and humanity who, with eloquence and gentle wit, brought to the problems of today the experience of a long life of public service.'[64] Outlawed ANC president Oliver Tambo sent his condolences: ‘As South Africans we shall always remember him for his efforts to encourage the apartheid regime to bow to the winds of change that continue to blow in South Africa.'[64] Commonwealth Secretary-General Sir Shridath Ramphal affirmed: ‘His own leadership in providing from Britain a worthy response to African national consciousness shaped the post-war era and made the modern Commonwealth possible.'[64]

    A private funeral was held on 5 January 1987 at St Giles Church, Horsted Keynes, West Sussex, where Lord Stockton had regularly worshipped and read the lesson.[76] Two hundred mourners attended,[75] including 64 members of the Macmillan family, Thatcher and former premiers Lord Home of the Hirsel and Edward Heath, Lord Hailsham of St Marylebone,[74] and ‘scores of country neighbours’.[76] The Prince of Wales sent a wreath ‘in admiring memory’.[74] Stockton was buried beside his wife, Lady Dorothy, and next to the graves of his parents and of his son, Maurice Macmillan.[76]

    The House of Commons paid its tribute on 12 January 1987, with much reference made to the dead statesman’s book, The Middle Way.[77] Thatcher said: ‘In his retirement Harold Macmillan occupied a unique place in the nation’s affections’, while Labour leader Neil Kinnock struck a more critical note:
    “ Death and distance cannot lend sufficient enchantment to alter the view that the period over which he presided in the 1950s, whilst certainly and thankfully a period of rising affluence and confidence, was also a time of opportunities missed, of changes avoided. Harold Macmillan was, of course, not solely or even pre-eminently responsible for that. But we cannot but record with frustration the fact that the vigorous and perceptive attacker of the status quo in the 1930s became its emblem for a time in the late 1950s before returning to be its critic in the 1980s.[77] ”

    A public memorial service, attended by the Queen and thousands of mourners, was held on 10 February 1987 in Westminster Abbey.[78]

    Stockton’s son Maurice had become heir to the earldom, but predeceased him suddenly a month after his father’s elevation. The 1st Earl was succeeded instead by his grandson, Maurice’s son, Alexander, Lord Macmillan, who become the 2nd Earl of Stockton.
    [edit] Titles from birth to death

    * Harold Macmillan, Esq (10 February 1894 – 29 October 1924)
    * Harold Macmillan, Esq, MP (29 October 1924 – 30 May 1929)
    * Harold Macmillan, Esq (30 May 1929 – 4 November 1931)
    * Harold Macmillan, Esq, MP (4 November 1931 – 1942)
    * The Right Honourable Harold Macmillan, MP (1942 – 26 July 1945)
    * The Right Honourable Harold Macmillan (26 July 1945 – November 1945)
    * The Right Honourable Harold Macmillan, MP (November 1945 – 15 September 1964)
    * The Right Honourable Harold Macmillan (15 September 1964 – 2 April 1976)
    * The Right Honourable Harold Macmillan, OM (2 April 1976 – 24 February 1984)
    * The Right Honourable The Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (24 February 1984 –29 December 1986)

    [edit] Cabinets

    For a full list of Ministerial office-holders, see Conservative Government 1957-1964.

    [edit] January 1957 – October 1959

    * Harold Macmillan: Prime Minister
    * Lord Kilmuir: Lord Chancellor
    * Lord Salisbury: Lord President of the Council
    * Rab Butler: Lord Privy Seal and Secretary of State for the Home Department
    * Peter Thorneycroft: Chancellor of the Exchequer
    * Selwyn Lloyd: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    * Alan Lennox-Boyd: Secretary of State for the Colonies
    * Lord Home: Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
    * Sir David Eccles: President of the Board of Trade
    * Charles Hill: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    * Lord Hailsham: Minister of Education
    * John Scott Maclay: Secretary of State for Scotland
    * Derick Heathcoat Amory: Minister of Agriculture
    * Iain Macleod: Minister of Labour and National Service
    * Harold Arthur Watkinson: Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation
    * Duncan Edwin Sandys: Minister of Defence
    * Lord Mills: Minister of Power
    * Henry Brooke: Minister of Housing and Local Government and Welsh Affairs

    Change

    * March 1957 – Lord Home succeeds Lord Salisbury as Lord President, remaining also Commonwealth Relations Secretary.
    * September 1957 – Lord Hailsham succeeds Lord Home as Lord President, Home remaining Commonwealth Relations Secretary. Geoffrey Lloyd succeeds Hailsham as Minister of Education. The Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Reginald Maudling, enters the Cabinet.
    * January 1958 – Derick Heathcoat Amory succeeds Peter Thorneycroft as Chancellor of the Exchequer. John Hare succeeds Amory as Minister of Agriculture.

    [edit] October 1959 – July 1960

    * Harold Macmillan: Prime Minister
    * Lord Kilmuir: Lord Chancellor
    * Lord Home: Lord President of the Council and Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
    * Lord Hailsham: Lord Privy Seal and Minister of Science
    * Derick Heathcoat Amory: Chancellor of the Exchequer
    * Rab Butler: Secretary of State for the Home Department
    * Selwyn Lloyd: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    * Iain Macleod: Secretary of State for the Colonies
    * Reginald Maudling: President of the Board of Trade
    * Charles Hill: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    * Sir David Eccles: Minister of Education
    * Lord Mills: Chief Secretary to the Treasury
    * Ernest Marples: Minister of Transport
    * Duncan Edwin Sandys: Minister of Aviation
    * Harold Arthur Watkinson: Minister of Defence
    * John Scott Maclay: Secretary of State for Scotland
    * Edward Heath: Minister of Labour and National Service
    * John Hare: Minister of Agriculture
    * Henry Brooke: Minister of Housing and Local Government and Welsh Affairs

    [edit] July 1960 – October 1961

    * Harold Macmillan: Prime Minister
    * Lord Kilmuir: Lord Chancellor
    * Lord Hailsham: Lord President of the Council and Minister of Science
    * Edward Heath: Lord Privy Seal
    * Selwyn Lloyd: Chancellor of the Exchequer
    * Rab Butler: Secretary of State for the Home Department
    * Lord Home: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    * Iain Macleod: Secretary of State for the Colonies
    * Duncan Edwin Sandys: Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
    * Reginald Maudling: President of the Board of Trade
    * Charles Hill: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    * Sir David Eccles: Minister of Education
    * Lord Hailsham: Minister of Science
    * Lord Mills: Chief Secretary to the Treasury
    * Ernest Marples: Minister of Transport
    * Peter Thorneycroft: Minister of Aviation
    * Harold Arthur Watkinson: Minister of Defence
    * John Scott Maclay: Secretary of State for Scotland
    * John Hare: Minister of Labour and National Service
    * Christopher Soames: Minister of Agriculture
    * Henry Brooke: Minister of Housing and Local Government and Welsh Affairs

    [edit] October 1961 – July 1962

    * Harold Macmillan: Prime Minister
    * Lord Kilmuir: Lord Chancellor
    * Lord Hailsham: Lord President of the Council and Minister of Science
    * Edward Heath: Lord Privy Seal
    * Selwyn Lloyd: Chancellor of the Exchequer
    * Rab Butler: Secretary of State for the Home Department
    * Lord Home: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    * Reginald Maudling: Secretary of State for the Colonies
    * Duncan Edwin Sandys: Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
    * Frederick Erroll: President of the Board of Trade
    * Iain Macleod: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    * Sir David Eccles: Minister of Education
    * Henry Brooke: Chief Secretary to the Treasury
    * Ernest Marples: Minister of Transport
    * Peter Thorneycroft: Minister of Aviation
    * Harold Arthur Watkinson: Minister of Defence
    * John Scott Maclay: Secretary of State for Scotland
    * John Hare: Minister of Labour and National Service
    * Christopher Soames: Minister of Agriculture
    * Charles Hill: Minister of Housing and Local Government and Welsh Affairs
    * Lord Mills: Minister without Portfolio

    [edit] July 1962 – October 1963

    In a radical reshuffle dubbed The Night of the Long Knives , Macmillan sacked a third of his Cabinet and instituted many other changes.

    * Harold Macmillan: Prime Minister
    * Rab Butler: Deputy Prime Minister and First Secretary of State
    * Lord Dilhorne: Lord Chancellor
    * Lord Hailsham: Lord President of the Council and Minister of Science
    * Edward Heath: Lord Privy Seal
    * Reginald Maudling: Chancellor of the Exchequer
    * Henry Brooke: Secretary of State for the Home Department
    * Lord Home: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
    * Duncan Edwin Sandys: Secretary of State for the Colonies and Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
    * Frederick Erroll: President of the Board of Trade
    * Iain Macleod: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
    * Sir Edward Boyle: Minister of Education
    * John Boyd-Carpenter: Chief Secretary to the Treasury
    * Ernest Marples: Minister of Transport
    * Julian Amery: Minister of Aviation
    * Peter Thorneycroft: Minister of Defence
    * Michael Noble: Secretary of State for Scotland
    * John Hare: Minister of Labour and National Service
    * Christopher Soames: Minister of Agriculture
    * Sir Keith Joseph: Minister of Housing and Local Government and Welsh Affairs
    * Enoch Powell: Minister of Health
    * Bill Deedes: Minister without Portfolio

    [edit] Dramatic and comedic portrayals

    [edit] Beyond the Fringe (1960-1966)

    During his premiership in the early 1960s Macmillan was savagely satirised for his alleged decrepitude by the comedian Peter Cook in the stage review Beyond the Fringe.[79] ‘Even when insulted to his face attending the show,’ a biographer notes, ‘Macmillan felt it was better to be mocked than ignored.'[80] One of the sketches was later revived by Cook for television.

    [edit] Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years (1981)

    Macmillan appears as a supporting character, played by Ian Collier, in the 1981 miniseries Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years produced by Southern Television for ITV.

    [edit] A Letter of Resignation (1997-1998)

    Set in 1963 during the Profumo scandal, Hugh Whitemore’s play A Letter of Resignation, first staged at the Comedy Theatre in October 1997, dramatises the occasion when Harold Macmillan, staying with friends in Scotland, received a political bombshell, a letter of resignation from Profumo, his war minister.

    Edward Fox portrayed Macmillan with uncanny accuracy. But the play also explores the involvement of MI5 and the troubled relationship between Macmillan and his wife Dorothy (Clare Higgins) who had made no secret of her adultery with the wayward Tory MP, Robert Boothby. The play was directed by Christopher Morahan.

    [edit] Eden’s Empire (2006)

    Macmillan was played by Kevin Quarmby in Gemma Fairlie’s production of James Graham’s stage play Eden’s Empire, at the Finborough Theatre, London, in 2006.

    [edit] Never So Good (2008)

    Never So Good is a four-act play by Howard Brenton, a portrait of Harold Macmillan set against a back-drop of fading Empire, two world wars, the Suez crisis, adultery and Tory politics at the Ritz.

    Brenton paints the portrait of a brilliant, witty but complex man, tragically out of kilter with his times, an old Etonian who eventually loses his way in a world of shifting values.

    The play was premiered at the National Theatre in March 2008, directed by Howard Davies with Jeremy Irons as Macmillan.

    [edit] Additional reading

    * Macmillan A Publishing Tradition by Elizabeth James 2002 ISBN 0-333-73517-X
    * Britanica Online about Harold Macmillan
    * Riding the Storm, 1956-1959 by Harold Macmillan 1971 SBN (boards) 333 10310 6

    [edit] References

    * Theatre Record (1997 for Hugh Whitemore’s A Letter of Resignation; 2008 for Howard Brenton’s Never So Good)

    1. ^ When Fisher resigned in 1961
    2. ^ Roger Middleton, Government versus the Market: The growth of the public sector, economic management and British economic performance, c. 1890-1979 (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1996), pp. 422-3.
    3. ^ Middleton, Government versus the Market, pp. 422-3.
    4. ^ Middleton, Government versus the Market, p. 422.
    5. ^ Peter Hennessy, Having It So Good: Britain in the Fifties (London: Allen Lane, 2006), pp. 533-4.
    6. ^ Richard Lamb, The Macmillan Years 1957-1963: The Emerging Truth (London: John Murray, 1995), pp. 14-15.
    7. ^ Leitch, David (8 December 1996), The spy who rocked a world of privilege , The Independent
    8. ^ Never Had It So Good: A History of Britain from Suez to the Beatles.
    9. ^ Nigel Fisher, Harold Macmillan (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1982), p. 2.
    10. ^ Horne, Macmillan, Volume I, p. 9.
    11. ^ Alistair Horne, Macmillan, 1894-1956: Volume I of the Official Biography (London: Macmillan, 1988) p. 16.
    12. ^ Simon Ball, The Guardsmen, Harold Macmillan, Three Friends and the World They Made, (London, Harper Collins), 2004, p. 19.
    13. ^ Lawton, John (1992). 1963: Five Hundred Days. Sevenoaks: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-50846-9.
    14. ^ Ball Guardsmen, p. 64.
    15. ^ Horne, Macmillan, Volume I, p. 49.
    16. ^ Horne, Macmillan, Volume I, p. 52.
    17. ^ Parris, Matthew (1997). Great Parliamentary Scandals: Four Centuries of Calumny, Smear & Innuendo. London: Robson Books. pp. 98–104. ISBN 1-86105-152-2.
    18. ^ Rodney Hallworth, Mark Williams, Where there’s a will… The sensational life of Dr John Bodkin Adams , 1983, Capstan Press
    19. ^ a b c Cullen, Pamela V., A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files on Dr John Bodkin Adams , London, Elliott & Thompson, 2006, ISBN 1-904027-19-9
    20. ^ Garry O’Connor, ‘Obituary—Eileen O’Casey’, The Guardian (12 April 1995), p. 13.
    21. ^ Edward Marriott, ‘Obituary-Eileen O’Casey’, Evening Standard (London, 18 April 1995).
    22. ^ Garry O’Connor, Sean O’Casey: A Life, Hodder and Stoughton (1988) ISBN 0340385987
    23. ^ Eileen O’Casey; Obituary. The Times (11 April 1995), p. 19.
    24. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, pp. 78-9.
    25. ^ Harold Macmillan, The Blast of War, 1939-45 (London: Macmillan, 1967), p. 161.
    26. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 82.
    27. ^ Alistair Horne, Macmillan, 1894-1956: Volume I of the Official Biography (London: Macmillan, 1988) p. 158.
    28. ^ Horne, Macmillan, Volume I, pp. 251-286.
    29. ^ Sir Curtis Keeble, ‘Macmillan and the Soviet Union’, in Richard Aldous and Sabine Lee (eds), Harold Macmillan: Aspects of a Political Life (London: Macmillan, 1999), pp. 199-200.
    30. ^ Harold Macmillan, Tides of Fortune (London: Macmillan, 1969), pp. 28-9.
    31. ^ Macmillan, Tides of Fortune, p. 29.
    32. ^ Macmillan, Tides of Fortune, p. 364.
    33. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 139.
    34. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 143.
    35. ^ The Economist (16 April 1955).
    36. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, pp. 144, 145.
    37. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 145.
    38. ^ Nigel Fisher, Harold Macmillan (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1982), p. 150.
    39. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 150.
    40. ^ 18 April 1956: Macmillan unveils premium bond scheme, BBC News, ‘On This Day 1950-2005’.
    41. ^ Horne, Macmillan, Volume I, p. 383.
    42. ^ Harold Macmillan, The Macmillan Diaries, The Cabinet Years, 1950-1957;;, ed. Peter Catterall (London: Macmillan, 2003).
    43. ^ David Butler, Twentieth Century British Political Facts 1900-2000, Macmillan, 8th edition, 2000.
    44. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 213.
    45. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 214.
    46. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 193.
    47. ^ Horne, Macmillan, Volume II, pp. 94-5.
    48. ^ Horne, Macmillan, Volume II, pp. 419.
    49. ^ Nick Rufford, ‘A-bomb links kept secret from Queen’, Sunday Times (3 January 1988).
    50. ^ ‘Windscale: Britain’s Biggest Nuclear Disaster’, broadcast on Monday, 8 October 2007, at 2100 BST on BBC Two.
    51. ^ Paddy Shennan, ‘Britain’s Biggest Nuclear Disaster’, Liverpool Echo (13 October 2007), p. 26.
    52. ^ John Hunt. ‘Cabinet Papers For 1957: Windscale Fire Danger Disclosed’, Financial Times (2 January 1988).
    53. ^ David Walker, ‘Focus on 1957: Macmillan ordered Windscale censorship’, The Times (1 January 1988).
    54. ^ Jean McSorley, ‘Contaminated evidence: The secrecy and political cover-ups that followed the fire in a British nuclear reactor 50 years ago still resonate in public concerns’, The Guardian (10 October 2007), p. 8.
    55. ^ John Gray, ‘Accident disclosures bring calls for review of U.K. secrecy laws’, Globe and Mail (Toronto, 4 January 1988).
    56. ^ Richard Gott, ‘The Evolution of the Independent British Deterrent’, International Affairs, 39/2 (April 1963), p. 246.
    57. ^ Gott, ‘Independent British Deterrent’, p. 247.
    58. ^ The Times (4 July US Navy).
    59. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/20/newsid_3728000/3728225.stm Harold Macmillan, Speech in Bedford, 20 July 1957
    60. ^ Lamb, Macmillan Years, p. 62.
    61. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 230.
    62. ^ Lamb, Macmillan Years, pp. 164-5; Chapters 14 and 15.
    63. ^ Anthony Bevins, ‘How Supermac Was Hounded Out of Office by Band of 20 Opponents’, The Observer (1 January 1995), p. 1.
    64. ^ a b c d e Fletcher, Martin (31 December 1986.), ‘ World pays tribute to Stockton / Death of former Conservative premier , The Times
    65. ^ ‘The Wit and Wisdom Inside No 10’, Daily Express (27 March 2008), p. 13.
    66. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, pp. 359-60.
    67. ^ Fisher, Harold Macmillan, p. 355.
    68. ^ a b Apple, R. W. (November 14, 1984.), Macmillan, at 90, Rouses the Lords , New York Times
    69. ^ Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years (London: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 188.
    70. ^ Thatcher, Downing Street Years, p. 370.
    71. ^ Lord Stockton has condemned Oxford University’s decision not to give Mrs Thatcher an honorary degree , The Guardian: 28., 4 February 1985
    72. ^ Alan Watkins, A Conservative Coup (London: Duckworth, 1992), p. 105.
    73. ^ 468 H.L. Deb., cc.390-1, 14 November 1985. Quoted in Watkins, p. 106.
    74. ^ a b c Foster, Howard (6 January 1987), ‘I think I will go to sleep now.’ Funeral of former premier Harold Macmillan , The Times: 23.
    75. ^ a b British leaders mourn Harold Macmillan , Toronto Star: A10., 6 January 1987
    76. ^ a b c Macmillan Funeral Held – Thatcher Attends Services , San Francisco Chronicle: 23., 6 January 1987
    77. ^ a b Johnson, Frank (13 January 1987.), Tributes to the master of timing , The Times
    78. ^ Memorial service for Harold Macmillan, First Earl of Stockton, O.M., P.C.: Tuesday 10 February 1987 12, noon (London: Westminster Abbey, 1987).
    79. ^ Horne, Macmillan, vol. II, p. 454.
    80. ^ D R Thorpe, ‘A Psychologically Interesting Prime Minister’, Premiere of Never So Good (London: National Theatre, 2008).

    [edit] Cited texts

    * Horne, Alistair (1989). Macmillan 1894–1956, volume I. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0333276914.

    [edit] External links
    Search Wikisource Wikisource has original works written by or about: Harold Macmillan
    Search Wikiquote Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Harold Macmillan

    * Harold Macmillan’s contributions in Parliament
    * BBC Harold Macmillan obituary
    * Some Harold Macmillan quotes
    * President of the friends of Roquetaillade association [1]
    * 8 June 1958 speech on Interdependence at DePauw University
    * More about Harold Macmillan on the Downing Street website
    * RootsAndLeaves.com, Cavendish family genealogy
    * Bodleian Library Suez Crisis Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition

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    ***

    Holy War Inc. 2002 – National Geographic

    Blinding Horizon (no year listed) aired on cable – National Geographic – about the terrorist threat of smuggled nuclear weapons and nuclear materials – Al Qaeda, terrorist groups and by followers of Osama bin Laden

    Final Report – 2006 – National Geographic (about Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, set up as question and answer format with a bit of bias)

    aired 09-09-09 – on national cable

    ***

    Chancellors of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom, 1902-present
    Name Portrait Entered office Left office Political party
    Charles Ritchie 11 August 1902 9 October 1903 Conservative
    Austen Chamberlain 9 October 1903 4 December 1905 Liberal Unionist
    H. H. Asquith 10 December 1905 12 April 1908 Liberal
    David Lloyd George 12 April 1908 25 May 1915 Liberal
    Reginald McKenna 25 May 1915 10 December 1916 Liberal
    Andrew Bonar Law 10 December 1916 10 January 1919 Conservative
    Austen Chamberlain 10 January 1919 1 April 1921 Conservative
    Sir Robert Horne 1 April 1921 19 October 1922 Conservative
    Stanley Baldwin 27 October 1922 27 August 1923 Conservative
    Neville Chamberlain 27 August 1923 22 January 1924 Conservative
    Philip Snowden 22 January 1924 3 November 1924 Labour
    Winston Churchill 6 November 1924 4 June 1929 Conservative
    Philip Snowden 7 June 1929 5 November 1931 Labour (1929 – 1931)
    National Labour (1931)
    Neville Chamberlain 5 November 1931 28 May 1937 Conservative
    Sir John Simon 28 May 1937 12 May 1940 Liberal National
    Sir Kingsley Wood [4] 12 May 1940 21 September 1943 Conservative
    Sir John Anderson 24 September 1943 26 July 1945 National Independent
    Hugh Dalton 27 July 1945 13 November 1947 Labour
    Sir Stafford Cripps 13 November 1947 19 October 1950 Labour
    Hugh Gaitskell 19 October 1950 26 October 1951 Labour
    Rab Butler 26 October 1951 20 December 1955 Conservative
    Harold Macmillan 20 December 1955 13 January 1957 Conservative
    Peter Thorneycroft 13 January 1957 6 January 1958 Conservative
    Derick Heathcoat Amory 6 January 1958 27 July 1960 Conservative
    Selwyn Lloyd 27 July 1960 13 July 1962 Conservative
    Reginald Maudling 13 July 1962 16 October 1964 Conservative
    James Callaghan 16 October 1964 30 November 1967 Labour
    Roy Jenkins 30 November 1967 19 June 1970 Labour
    Iain Macleod[4] 20 June 1970 20 July 1970 Conservative
    Anthony Barber 25 July 1970 28 February 1974 Conservative
    Denis Healey 1 March 1974 4 May 1979 Labour
    Sir Geoffrey Howe 4 May 1979 11 June 1983 Conservative
    Nigel Lawson 11 June 1983 26 October 1989 Conservative
    John Major 26 October 1989 28 November 1990 Conservative
    Norman Lamont 28 November 1990 27 May 1993 Conservative
    Kenneth Clarke 27 May 1993 2 May 1997 Conservative
    Gordon Brown 2 May 1997 27 June 2007 Labour
    Alistair Darling 28 June 2007 present Labour

    See also

    * List of Lord High Treasurers
    * Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer

    Great Offices of State of the United Kingdom

    Prime Minister
    Gordon Brown

    Chancellor of the Exchequer
    Alistair Darling

    Foreign Secretary
    David Miliband

    Home Secretary
    Alan Johnson

    **********

    In late 1999 the National Security Agency (NSA), following up information from the FBI’s investigation of the 1998 US embassy attacks, picked up traces of an operational cadre , consisting of Nawaf al-Hazmi, his companion Khalid al-Mihdhar and Nawaf’s younger brother Salem, who were planning to go to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in January 2000. Seeing a connection with the attacks, a CTC officer sought permission to surveil the men.[12]

    At about this time the SOCOM-DIA operation Able Danger also identified a potential Qaeda unit, consisting of the future leading 9/11 hijackers Atta, al-Shehhi, al-Mihdhar and Nawaf al-Hazmi. It termed them the Brooklyn cell , because of some associations with the New York district. Evidently at least some of the men were physically and legally present in the United States, since there was an ensuing legal tussle over the right of quasi-citizens not to be spied on.[13]

    As for the CIA. The Agency erratically tracked al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar as they traveled to and attended the al-Qaeda summit in Kuala Lumpur in early January 2000. The Counterterrorist Center had briefed the CIA leadership on the gathering in Kuala Lumpur … The head of the Bin Ladin unit [Richard] kept providing updates , unaware at first that the information was out-of-date. By March 2000 it was learned that al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar had departed for (or returned to[14]) Los Angeles. But no-one outside the CTC was informed. The men were not registered with the State Department’s TIPOFF list, nor was the FBI told.[15]

    There are also allegations that the CIA surveiled Mohamed Atta in Germany from the time he returned there in January/February 2000, until he left for the US in June 2000.[16]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bin_Laden_Issue_Station

    ***

    Banco Ambrosiano scandal
    Further information: Banco Ambrosiano

    By 1980, Ernest Backes had become Cedel’s #3, in charge of relations with clients, but he was fired in May 1983, allegedly because he knew too much about the Ambrosiano scandal, one of Italy’s major political scandals. Two months after his dismissal, Gérard Soisson was found dead in Corsica. The Banco Ambrosiano, allegedly involved in money-laundering for the Mafia and owned in majority by the Vatican Bank, collapsed in 1982. The bank laundered drugs- and arms-trafficking money for the Italian and American Mafias, and in the 1980s it channeled Vatican money to the Contras in Nicaragua and to Solidarity in Poland , according to Komisar.

    In 2005 the Italian justice system reopened its investigation of the murder of Roberto Calvi, Ambrosiano’s chairman; it has requested the support of Ernest Backes, and will investigate Gerard Soisson’s death, according to Komisar. Licio Gelli, headmaster of Propaganda Due masonic lodge (aka P2, it was involved in Gladio’s strategy of tension starting from the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing), and mafiosi Giuseppe Calo, are being prosecuted for the assassination of Roberto Calvi. Ernest Backes explained: When Soisson died, the Ambrosiano affair wasn’t yet known as a scandal. (After it was revealed) I realized that Soisson and I had been at the crossroads. We moved all those transactions known later in the scandal to Lima and other branches. Nobody even knew there was a Banco Ambrosiano branch in Lima and other South American countries. [8]

    [edit] Secret accounts and the workings of 21st century economics

    Gérard Soisson was the person who authorized each non-published account, which would be known only by some insiders, including the auditors and members of the council of administration. With Soisson out of the way, there was nothing to stop the abuse of the system, wrote Lucy Komisar. Whereas Soisson had refused numerous requests to open non-published accounts (from such institutions as Chase Manhattan in New York, Chemical Bank of London and numerous subsidiaries of Citibank), Cedel opened hundreds of non-published accounts — all of them irregular — especially after the arrival of CEO André Lussi in 1990. No longer were they just sub-accounts of officially listed accounts, Backes charges. Some were for banks that were not subsidiaries or even official members of Cedel. At the start of 1995, Cedel had more than 2,200 published accounts. But in reality, according to documents obtained by Backes, Cedel that year managed more than 4,200 accounts, leading to an alleged total of 2,000 unpublished accounts in 1995.

    [ . . . ]

    The chaos of financial flux is only an appearance. Of course, offshore banks and tax havens perfectly hide the points of arrival and of transit of dirty capital. It is even their reason of existence (raison d’être). Trying to find the illegal money flux in those offshore centers is hopelessly doomed… However, since capital from criminal origin pass in the same financial ‘pipes’ as other ones [legal funds], i.e. clearing and financial routage companies, they become vulnerable precisely during their transfer [in those clearing companies]. [9]

    In other words, all financial money flows, legal or illegal, have to pass through the financial system;
    Nadhmi Auchi, largest private share-holder of BNP Paribas bank

    Iraqi-born Nadhmi Auchi, # 34 on the Sunday Times Rich List 2004 (# 22 on the same list in 2005) and 13th richest man in Britain according to The Guardian, estimated to be worth $1 billion according to Forbes, also appeared to be a key figure.[22]

    Auchi was convicted of profiteering by the Paris Criminal Court, and received a 15-month suspended sentence, for his involvement in Elf’s scandal, the biggest fraud inquiry in Europe since the Second World War. Elf became a private bank for its executives who spent £200 million on political favours, mistresses, jewellery, fine art, villas and apartments .[23] The Guardian noted that Nadhmi Auchi had helped Orascom (which owns Djezzy GSM), owned by Onsi Sawiris (worth $5.2 billion with his family according to Forbes[24]), gain a contract to set up mobile phone networks in post-Saddam’s Iraq. As owner of the General Mediterranean Holdings, Auchi is the largest private shareholder of BNP Paribas, which until 2001 managed the escrow account through which the money from the Oil-for-Food programme transited.

    [ . . . ]

    Searches in 2007

    French magistrates sought to search the Canard enchaîné’s offices in May 2007, after the election of Nicolas Sarkozy to the presidency. According to editing director Claude Angeli, the judges were looking for information on a Rondot document treating of alleged Japanese accounts of former President Jacques Chirac. The judges were not allowed access to the newspaper’s offices, and Reporters Without Borders (RSF) protested against the search[30]

    [edit] The October surprise conspiracy
    Main article: October surprise conspiracy

    Ernest Backes also indicated in Révélation$ that he was in charge of the transfer of $7 million from Chase Manhattan Bank and Citibank, on January 16, 1980, to pay for the liberation of the American hostages held in Tehran’s embassy (Iran). He gave copies of files that he asserted shed new light on the October surprise conspiracy to the French National Assembly.

    [edit] Bin Laden’s Bahrain International Bank

    Bahrain International Bank, which has been suspected of moving Osama bin Laden’s money, had an account number in Clearstream, according to records supplied by Ernest Backes.[31]

    [edit] Banks with accounts in Clearstream

    * Bank of Credit and Commerce International, which, although officially closed in July 1991, continued to operate via Clearstream through unpublished accounts — as did Bank Menatep, involved in the Kremlingate (diversion of IMF funds), and owned by Mikhail Khodorkovsky
    * Banque Générale du Luxembourg
    * Carlyle Group[32]
    * Crédit Lyonnais, one of France’s major financial crashes during the 1990s
    * Société Générale
    * Banco Ambrosiano, controlled by the Vatican Bank and involved in one of Italy’s major financial and political scandals
    * Bahrain International Bank, possible links to Osama Ben Laden
    * Siemens (Published Accounts by Lucy Komisar)
    * More than 38,000 others[33]; as Clearstream is an international clearing and settlement organization, most member companies and banks have published accounts. Dealing with Clearstream is entirely legal; accounts used for tax evasion or money laundering is not.

    * Cross-border trade needs smoothing, bankers say . International Herald Tribune. January 24, 2003. http://www.iht.com/articles/2003/01/24/fund_ed3_.php

    [from – ]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clearstream

    ***

    My Note –

    The problem with this entry above, is that some parts of it are true and some are highly suspect because of the politics involved in discrediting it and its origins, as well. However, some of it is accurate but Clearstream is basically an intermediary who could conceivably touch just about everybody’s money at some time or another as it passes through on its was to other places. Very interesting, though. Almost as good as the old Bank of Commerce and Criminals – which turned out to be true and absolutely more pervasive than anyone knows even yet.

    – cricketdiane

    ***

    Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment TEXT SIZE: A A A
    The Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment is a neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to measure the mixing angle q13  using anti-neutrinos produced by the reactors of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and the Ling Ao NPP.
    1. Motivation

    Recent discoveries have shown that neutrinos are massive. Mixing among the mass states has been observed in atmospheric and solar neutrinos in experiments such as Super-K and SNO as well as in experiments using man-made neutrino sources including KamLAND and K2K. In the neutrino mixing matrix, all but two parameters have been measured: the smallest mixing angle, q13, and the value of the CP violating phase, dCP, are not yet known. To date, the most sensitive limit on q13 is sin22q13<0.17 for Dm213 = 2.5r10-3 eV2 which was reported by the CHOOZ reactor anti-neutrino disappearance experiment with a baseline of 1.05 km.

    Reactor anti-neutrino experiments have played a critical role in the 50-year-long history of neutrinos, from the discovery of the anti-neutrino by Reines and Cowan to the first observation of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance at KamLAND. The importance of reactor neutrino experiments continues to grow and the value of a measurement of sin22q13 to better than 0.01 (“1%”) has been well documented. The magnitude of q13 has implications for CP symmetry breaking in the lepton sector since all physical effects of CP violation contain factors of sinq13, and the discovery of non-zero q13 will define the physics potential of future accelerator-based experiments. Observation of reactor neutrinos over a baseline of ~2 km allows the precise determination of the q13 mixing angle without ambiguities. The technical successes of both CHOOZ, and KamLAND provide the basis for a next-generation reactor neutrino experiment with significantly greater sensitivity to q13.

    The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is a measurement of sin22q13 to 0.01 or better, an order of magnitude better sensitivity than the CHOOZ limit quoted above. The experiment measures the flux of anti-neutrinos from the reactors via the inverse beta-decay reaction, and any deficit from the expected 1/L2 dependence is a signature for neutrino oscillations. Inverse beta-decay consists of the capture of an electron anti-neutrino on a proton (hydrogen) resulting in the production of a positron and a neutron. The number of inverse beta-decay reactions is determined by counting the coincidence of the energy deposited by the positron (1 MeV to 8 MeV) followed by the energy released (~8 MeV) from the neutron capture on gadolinium ~30 ms later. The most serious backgrounds are from cosmic rays. The reactor complex near Daya Bay, China, about 70 km northeast of the Hong Kong airport, is an excellent site for the experiment, and one of the few appropriate sites worldwide. Accomplishing the experiment requires powerful reactors in a geological setting that allows for large underground neutrino detectors with significant overburden. Daya Bay is a nuclear power plant adjacent to high hills. The precision on sin22q13 will be improved over previous experiments by:

    • Using larger detectors to increase statistics.
    • Locating the detectors deeper underground to suppress background.
    • Using “near” and “far” detectors suppress the systematic uncertainties related to the anti-neutrino flux from the reactor.
    • Choosing optimal detector sites within the tunnel complexes to maximize the sensitivity to sin22q13.
    • Carefully designed shielding around the detectors that reduces backgrounds emanating from muon interactions in the surrounding rock, including an active external muon tagging system around the detector
    • Reducing the systematic error in the relative acceptance between the near and far detectors by:
    • Cross calibration with the same set of passive and active radioactive sources and using characteristic energy of the signal from the capture of the neutron from the inverse beta decay reaction.
    • Surrounding the central anti-neutrino target volume with a “gamma catcher”, improving the energy resolution uniformity and better defining the target mass.
    • Using movable detectors that can be interchanged.
    • Constructing both near and far detectors from detector multiple modules of identical design.

    An international collaboration between scientists from the U.S. and China have begun developing the concept for this project. We are hopeful that the viability of this experiment can be established on a short time scale, perhaps starting as early as 2007, and providing the first new information on the value of sin22q13 within three years of running.

    2. Experimental Goal

    The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is a measurement of sin22q13 to 0.01 or better. Figure 1 shows the survival probability for electron anti-neutrinos emitted from a nuclear reactor as a function of distance from the power plant. The rapidly oscillating (red) curve is the survival probability for mono-energetic anti-neutrinos at the peak of detected anti-neutrino energy (4 MeV), and the smoother (blue) curve accounts for the reactor anti-neutrino spectrum. The amplitude of the small oscillations corresponds to sin22q13, taken from the current CHOOZ limit.

    Accounting for the 1/L2 falloff of the flux, the optimal distance for the far detector is the first maximum in the oscillation probability near 2 km. Measuring the amplitude of the oscillation, and thereby the quantity sin22q13 is the goal of the experiment. A 1% or better measurement will require high statistical precision and good measures to reduce systematic uncertainties. The presently developed experimental plan aims at both measuring the rate deficit and exploiting the spectral distortion to improve the determination of sin22q13.

    Figure 1: Survival probability of reactor electron anti-neutrinos measured as a function of distance from their creation. The rapidly oscillating (red) curve is for 4 MeV anti-neutrinos, and the smoother (blue) curve accounts for the reactor anti-neutrino energy spectrum. The amplitude of the small oscillations comes from the CHOOZ limit. The large oscillation amplitude comes from KamLAND’s measurement. The arrows refer to the locations of the far detector in the Daya Bay site. The value of Dm213 is taken as 2.5r10-3 eV2.
    3. The Daya Bay Site

    An ideal site for this experiment is at the reactor complex in Daya Bay, China. As shown in Figure 2, there are two operating power plants, Daya Bay and LingAo at this site. The plants are about 1.1 km apart. This site has the following very desirable attributes:

    Figure 2: Photos showing the two presently operating reactor sites at Daya Bay. The two LingAo cores are shown on the left, and one of the Daya Bay cores is shown on the right.

    • The reactor complex has a total power output of 11.6 GW (thermal), and a third power plant with an additional 5.8 GW (thermal) of power will be commissioned by 2010. With a total power of 17.4 GW (thermal), Daya Bay will very likely rank as one of the top five most powerful nuclear power plants in the world. As it operates today, it has ~50% more power than the CHOOZ experiment.
    • The complex directly abuts a mountain range that can afford protection from cosmic rays that are the main source of backgrounds in the experiment. Tunnels in the mountain can provide between 100 m (mean depth of 270 meters of water equivalent) and 400 m (mean depth of 1200 mwe) of granite overburden to shield the detectors from cosmic rays, for distances between 250 m to 2.5 km from the reactor cores, respectively. A possible configuration of tunnels and detectors is shown in Figure 3.

    Figure 3: Satellite photograph of the Daya Bay nuclear power plant complex showing the location of the reactors, a possible tunnel layout and possible locations for the near and far detectors. The location of the future LingAo II plant is indicated with the purple dots. Possible locations for the near and far detectors are show in light blue, connected by a tunnel in purple. In this instance the tunnel is approximately 3 km long; with other possible configurations the tunnels are between 2 km and 3 km long.

    //

    Copyright ©2002-2009 Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Questions and Comments to webmaster@ihep.ac.cn
    mailing address:19B YuquanLu, Shijingshan District
    Beijing, 100049 FAX: 86-10-88233374 TEL: 86-10-88233093

    http://english.ihep.cas.cn/rs/fs/200907/t20090708_22259.html

    ***

    This was just nifty – found it looking up the

    China Spallation Neutron in Dongguan,Guangdong

    Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    and I found this –

    http://gocn.southcn.com/english/localpic/200406100053.htm

    CITIC Plaza
    Latest Updated by2004-06-10 16:23:32

    Located in Tianhe Road North, the busy commercial and financial street, CITIC Plaza is composed of one 80-storeyed main tower, flanked by two subordinating buildings of 38 stories, together with a 5-storeyed apron building, covering a total land area of 23,000 sq. meters. It measures 391 meters high, crowning Guangzhou again with the highest building of the’ 90s in the country, just following the 63-storeyed GITIC Plaza in Guangzhou.

    The GITIC Plaza faces Tianhe Sports Center, with Linhe Road West on the left and Linhe Road East on the right, and Guangzhou East Station and Guangzhou Metro Terminus at the back, plus the splendid China Mayors Tower to the left. Nearby are many restaurants and commercial buildings, including Teem Plaza, Guangzhou Books Center, three large computer centers and several institutions of higher learning.

    The subordinating towers are used as offices and apartments, with unit area up to 100 to 200 sq. meters. And the CITIC shopping center is magnificent, with the gorgeous lobby up to 21.3 meters high, decorated with round glass ceiling, much to its grandeur and spaciousness. The 4-storeyed CITIC shopping mall covers a shop area of 34,000 sq. meters, divided by glass with skillful integration, where name brands, e.g. garments and hand ornaments, etc., from home and abroad are sold. Donghai Seafood Restaurant on the third floor is open from morning to midnight. The fifth floor is the club for the rich and powerful, covering an area of 4,500 sq. meters, with complete facilities including those for sports and entertainment, children’ s playground and swimming pool .

    Central Business District, Dongguan

    Dongguan (simplified Chinese: 东莞; traditional Chinese: 東莞; pinyin: Dōngguǎn, Cantonese: Dung1 gun2; old spelling Tung-kuan) is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, People’s Republic of China.

    An important industrial city located in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west.

    It is also home to the world’s largest shopping mall, South China Mall. City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. The three neighboring municipalities of Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen are home to over 25 million residents, accounting for a large proportion of the Pearl River Delta Region‘s population.[2]

    Dongguan ranks behind only Shenzhen, Shanghai and Suzhou in exports among Chinese cities, with $65.54bn in shipment.

    City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. In 2005, the city hosted the first-ever Sino-American Forum of Intellectual Property Rights, co-organized by the Patent Protection Association of ChinaPPAC and the International Association for Technology Trade (IATT) as well as what has been identified as the world’s largest educational technology conference and expo, co-organized by IATT and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), attracting nearly 40,000 attendees in its first year.

    The Dongguan Science & Technology Museum (opened in December 2005), the high tech commerce park in the SongShan Lake district (which debuted in 2003) and a partnership with the Global IT Academy of the Brea Olinda Unified School District in Southern California have demonstrated the city’s emphasis on attracting technology business. The city also announced in 2005 a planned investment of US$500-Million over five years for technology infrastructure improvements.

    ***
    Double Storage Ring (BEPCII) TEXT SIZE: A A A

    BEPC II is a two-ring e+e- collider running in the tau-charm energy region (Ecm = 2.0-4.2 GeV), which, with a design luminosity of 1 × 1033 cm-2s-1 at the beam energy of 1.89 GeV, is an improvement of a factor of 100 over its successful predecessor, BEPC. The upgrade will use the existing tunnel, some major infrastructure items, and some of the old magnets. The 202 m long linac of the new machine can accelerate electrons and positrons up to 1.89 GeV with a positron injection rate of 50 mA/min. Its installation was completed in the summer of 2005 and it has reached most of the design specifications.

    The collider consists of two 237.5 m long storage rings, one for electrons and one for positrons. They collide at the interaction point with a horizontal crossing angle of 11 mrad and a bunch spacing of 8 ns. Each ring holds 93 bunches with a beam current of 910 mA. The machine will also provide a high flux of synchrotron radiation at a beam energy of 2.5 GeV. The manufacture of major equipment such as magnets, superconducting RF cavities (with the co-operation of the Japanese high-energy physics laboratory, KEK, and the company MELCO) and quadrupole magnets (with the co-operation of the Brookhaven National Laboratory), as well as the cryogenics system, have been completed, and their installation is under way. The pre-alignment of magnets has made good progress. Figure 2 shows the mock-up of the installation of four pre-alignment units in the tunnel. Actual installation in the tunnel will begin soon and beam collisions are expected in the spring of 2007.

    ***
    http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=2293&from=rss_home
    Free Landsat pictures go public by the millions – 08-02-09

    Free Landsat Scenes Go Public by the Million
    Released: 8/20/2009 3:26:01 PM
    Contact Information:
    U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
    Office of Communication
    119 National Center
    Reston, VA 20192     Ron Beck 1-click interview
    Phone: 605-594-6550

    Joan Moody 1-click interview
    Phone: 202-208-3280

    On August 17, someone who wanted to see how the Earth looks from 440 miles away in space downloaded the one-millionth Landsat satellite image scene from a U.S. Geological Survey web site at its Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Since the USGS opened its full Landsat archive to user access at no charge last October, the response from across the nation and around the globe has grown exponentially.

    “USGS satellite operations and its data archives at EROS enable experts, or any interested member of the public, to see the land objectively with unbiased, consistently calibrated data,” said Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar. “The historical depth and reliability of these earth observations are vital to scientists and land managers across the country and across the Department of the Interior in projects that range from climate change studies and invasive species surveys to the monitoring of drought and assessment of wildfire damage.”

    One development of particular note is that the very oldest data in the archive, dating to over three decades ago, is being downloaded at unprecedented levels – with land-surface change detection emerging as a primary use of Landsat data.

    The opening of the Landsat archive to free, web-based access is like giving a library card for the world’s best library of Earth conditions to everyone in the world,  said Adam Gerrand, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Landsat 1 was launched on July 23, 1972, and subsequent Landsat missions have continually acquired land-image data across the globe. Scientists, educators, and the general public use these data for a wide array of activities ranging from supporting disaster relief efforts to making agricultural crop assessments to identifying sites for cell phone towers.

    Landsat scenes can be previewed and downloaded through the USGS Global Visualization Viewer or USGS EarthExplorer.

    Additional information on satellites, sensors, data, and the Landsat Program, which is managed by the USGS in partnership with NASA, can be found at the Landsat Missions Web site.

    USGS provides science for a changing world. For more information, visit http://www.usgs.gov.

    Subscribe to USGS News Releases via our electronic mailing list or RSS feed.

    **** http://www.usgs.gov ****

    Links and contacts within this release are valid at the time of publication.

    ***

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_Kunlun_earthquake

    2001 Kunlun earthquake
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    2001 Kunlun China
    Date     November 14, 2001 (2001-11-14)
    Magnitude     7.8 Mw
    Depth:     15 km
    Epicenter location:     36E12?N 90E54?E? / ?36.2EN 90.9EE? / 36.2; 90.9
    Countries/
    regions affected     China
    Casualties:     none recorded

    The 2001 Kunlun earthquake also known as the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake, occurred on 14 November 2001 at 09:26 UTC (17:26 local time), with an epicenter near Kokoxili, close to the border between Qinghai and Xinjiang in a remote mountainous region. With a magnitude of 7.8 Mw it was the most powerful earthquake in China for 5 decades [1]. No casualties were reported, presumably due to the very low population density and the lack of high-rise buildings. This earthquake was associated with the longest surface rupture ever recorded on land, ~450 km[2].

    Contents

    * 1 Earthquake damage
    * 2 Tectonic setting
    * 3 Earthquake characteristics
    * 4 References

    Earthquake damage

    Due to the remoteness of the region, most reports of damage came from areas hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter. The nearest population centre, the city of Golmud, reported severe shaking but no buildings collapsed. Some damage was reported at the construction site for the Qingzang railway (Qinghai-Tibet railway) and along the Qinghai-Tibet highway.

    Tectonic setting

    The Kunlun fault is one of the major sinistral strike-slip structures that accommodate the eastward motion of the Tibetan plateau relative to the Eurasian plate. This motion is caused by the lateral spreading of the zone of thickened crust associated with the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. [3]

    Earthquake characteristics

    The earthquake rupture began on a relatively small strike-slip fault segment at the western end of the Kunlun fault in the region of the mountain Buka Daban Feng. The rupture propagated to the east via an extensional stepover before following the main strand of the Kunlun fault. The region of co-seismic deformation (i.e. that occurred during the earthquake) is unusually large, with significant faulting being observed up to 60 km from the main rupture trace [4]. This deformation occurs in two swathes, ca. 20 and 60 km from the main fault trace. Pre-existing lineaments and geomorphological features suggest that this earthquake-triggered displacement occurred on existing faults.

    An analysis of the propagation speed indicates that the rupture propagated at a normal velocity along the original segment, but increased in velocity to above the S-wave velocity after the jump across the extensional stepover and continued at that speed until propagation stopped[5]. This makes the Kunlun earthquake the best documented example of a supershear earthquake. It has been suggested that the unusually wide zone of co-seismic deformation is a direct result of the supershear rupture propagation[6].

    References

    1. ^ Li Li & Chen Yong 2002. Preliminary report on the Ms 8.1 Kokoxili (Qinghai, China) earthquake of 14 November 2001.Episodes, Vol. 25, no. 2, 95-99.
    2. ^ Klinger,Y., Xu,X., Tapponnier,P., Van der Woerd,J., Lasserre,C. & Geoffrey King,G. 2005. High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Mapping of the Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution of the Mw _7.8, 14 November 2001 Kokoxili Earthquake, Kunlun Fault, Northern Tibet, China. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 95, No. 5, pp. 1970-1987.
    3. ^ Van Der Woerd J., Meriaux, A.S., Klinger, Y., Ryerson, F.J., Gaudemer, Y. & Tapponnier, P., 2002, The 14 November 2001, Mw 7.8 Kokoxili earthquake in northern Tibet (Qinghai Province, China). Seismic Research Letters, 73, pp. 125–135
    4. ^ J. G. Liu* & C. E. Haselwimmer.2006. Co-seismic ruptures found up to 60 km south of the Kunlun fault after 14 November 2001, Ms 8.1, Kokoxili earthquake using Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 27, No. 20, 4461-4470
    5. ^ Bouchon,M. & Vallee,M. 2003.Observation of Long Supershear Rupture During the Magnitude 8.1 Kunlunshan Earthquake, Science, 301, 824-826.
    6. ^ Bouchon,M. & Karabulut,H. 2008. The Aftershock Signature of Supershear Earthquakes, Science, Vol. 320. no. 5881, pp. 1323 – 1325

    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_Kunlun_earthquake
    Categories: Earthquakes in China | 2001 earthquakes | 2001 in China | History of Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_Kunlun_earthquake

    240px-2001_Kunlun_earthquake_location.png

    ***

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_stations_on_Qingzang_railway&params=31_26_45_N_91_59_21_E_type:landmark

    ***
    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/
    Latest Earthquakes – last seven days

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsus/
    Latest Earthquakes US – last seven days

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsus/Maps/US10/32.42.-90.-80.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsus/Maps/US10/32.42.-90.-80_eqs.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsus/Maps/US10/37.47.-130.-120.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsus/Maps/US10/37.47.-130.-120_eqs.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/43.45.-130.-128.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/43.45.-130.-128_eqs.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/43.45.-130.-128_eqs.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/
    Latest Earthquakes – World – last seven days

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009lda1.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009lda1.php#maps

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_lda1_l.html
    Earthquake Hazards Map – Northern Qinghai, China

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_lda1_h.html
    Historic Seismicity – Northern Qinghai, China
    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/dyfi/events/us/2009lda1/us/index.html
    Magnitude 4.3 – Northern Qinghai China

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/10/95_40.php

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/10/95_40_eqs.php

    ***

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/
    Earthquake Hazards program – portal

    http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=a2lUkzmYNGWI
    China’s Nuclear Expansion to Exceed Forecast – bloomberg news article – from Japan steel co.

    China to Build More Nuclear Plants, Japan Steel Says (Update2)

    By Masumi Suga and Shunichi Ozasa

    Sept. 7 (Bloomberg) — Japan Steel Works Ltd., a maker of atomic reactor parts for Areva SA and Toshiba Corp., more than doubled its forecast for China’s nuclear plant construction because of stimulus spending and environmental pressures.

    The country may build about 22 reactors in the five years ending 2010 and 132 units thereafter, compared with a company estimate last year for a total 60 reactors, President Ikuo Sato said in an interview. Japan Steel Works has the only plant that makes the central part of a large-size nuclear reactor’s containment vessel in a single piece, reducing radiation risk.

    China, the world’s largest energy consumer after the U.S., is increasing spending on atomic energy as part of a 4 trillion yuan ($586 billion) economic stimulus and as it curbs greenhouse gas emissions. Japan Steel Works is counting on the rising reactor demand as the global recession curbs sales to customers such as carmakers and electronics companies.

    “The potential for investment in nuclear power is huge,” said Shi Yan, an analyst at UOB-Kay Hian Ltd. in Shanghai. “Only a small number of companies in China have the right to develop nuclear power projects, but the country is open to foreign companies to help build reactors and to provide equipment.”

    Japan Steel Works, which has lost 4.6 percent of its value this year, climbed 8.2 percent to 1,174 yen on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. The Nikkei 225 Stock Average rose 1.3 percent.

    China became the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gasses from burning oil and coal in 2006, followed by the U.S., Russia, India and Japan, according to U.S. Department of Energy data compiled by Bloomberg News.

    Business Talks

    “China, which had increased construction of coal-fired power plants, is now trying to focus on nuclear power because of the environmental issue,” Sato, 60, who took office in June, said in the Aug. 31 interview in Tokyo. “China is accelerating nuclear spending, and additional business talks are coming up.”

    The country has 9,100 megawatts of nuclear capacity and has approved the construction of additional reactors able to generate 25,400 megawatts, Sun Qin, then-deputy head of the National Energy Administration, said last month. China will issue a plan by the end of the year to push development of clean energy sources such as nuclear, wind, solar and hydro power.

    The average time it took to build China’s first 10 nuclear reactors was 6.3 years, according to a report commissioned by the German environment ministry.

    Gross domestic product in China expanded 7.9 percent in the second quarter as the economy rebounded from the weakest growth in almost a decade, boosted by stimulus spending.

    “Similar to road and railway construction, nuclear energy is also part of China’s plans for a recovery after the economy slowed,” Sato said.

    Global Increase

    Globally, a total of 52 nuclear reactors were under construction as of Jan. 1, according to the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum Inc. Last year was the first time in the history of commercial nuclear power that no new reactors came into operation, according to International Atomic Energy Agency figures. Some 33 new plants came online in 1984 and that number has declined almost every year since.

    Japan Steel Works is spending 80 billion yen ($864 million) at its Muroran plant in the country’s northern island of Hokkaido by March 2012 to increase capacity to make parts for 12 nuclear reactors a year, compared with 5.5 units now, the president said.

    The investment will increase annual sales from Japan Steel Works’ cast and forged steel for electric and nuclear power to 70 billion yen from the year starting April 2012, up from 45.5 billion yen expected for the current year, Sato said.

    To contact the reporters on this story: Masumi Suga in Tokyo at msuga@bloomberg.net; Shunichi Ozasa in Tokyo at sozasa@bloomberg.net.
    Last Updated: September 7, 2009 08:39 EDT

    http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=a2lUkzmYNGWI
    data.jpg

    ***

    U.S. leads world in foreign weapons sales: report
    Sun Sep 6, 2009 7:38pm EDT

    By Jasmin Melvin

    WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The United States accounted for more than two-thirds of foreign weapons sales in 2008, a year in which global sales were at a three-year low, The New York Times reported on Sunday.

    Citing a congressional study released on Friday, the Times said the United States was involved in 68.4 percent of the global sales of arms.

    U.S. weapons sales jumped nearly 50 percent in 2008 despite the global economic recession to $37.8 billion from $25.4 billion the year before.

    The jump defied worldwide trends as global arms sales fell 7.6 percent to $55.2 billion in 2008, the report said. Global weapons agreements were at their lowest level since 2005.

    Italy, the second ranked country, amassed only $3.7 billion in arms sales, while Russia ranked third with sales falling to $3.5 billion in 2008, down from $10.8 billion in 2007.

    The report attributed the increase in U.S. sales to  major new orders from clients in the Near East and in Asia  as well as to continued contracts for equipment and support services with globally based U.S. clients, the Times said.

    The United States also led in arms sales to the developing world, signing 70.1 percent of these weapons agreements at a value of $29.6 billion in 2008, the report said.

    Such deals with the developing world included a $6.5 billion air defense system for the United Arab Emirates, a $2.1 billion jet fighter for Morocco and a $2 billion attack helicopter for Taiwan.

    India, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, South Korea and Brazil also reached weapons deals with the United States, the Times said.

    The report revealed the United Arab Emirates was the top buyer of arms in the developing world with $9.7 billion in arms purchases in 2008.

    Saudi Arabia ranked second with $8.7 billion in weapons agreements, and Morocco was third with $5.4 billion in deals.

    (Reporting by Jasmin Melvin; Editing by Chris Wilson)

    © Thomson Reuters 2009 All rights reserved

    http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSTRE5851XH20090906
    ***

    Abu Dhabi to buy Chartered; Hynix stake up for grabs
    Mon Sep 7, 2009 8:22am EDT

    Abu Dhabi offers $1.8 billion for Chartered Semi
    Sunday, 6 Sep 2009 10:26pm EDT
    UPDATE 2-Abu Dhabi offers $1.8 bln for Chartered Semi
    Sunday, 6 Sep 2009 10:25pm EDT
    Hynix shareholders to send M&A invitation this wk
    Sunday, 6 Sep 2009 09:34pm EDT
    UPDATE 1-Abu Dhabi state fund offers $1.8 bln for Chartered
    Sunday, 6 Sep 2009 07:56pm EDT
    Featured Broker sponsored link

    By Saeed Azhar and Baker Li

    SINGAPORE/TAIPEI (Reuters) – Abu Dhabi’s state-owned ATIC offered to buy Chartered Semiconductor (CSMF.SI) for $1.8 billion, while major shareholders in Hynix (000660.KS) began the sale of a $2.8 billion stake, kickstarting consolidation in a chip sector emerging from its worst ever downturn.

    Signs of recovery among semiconductor makers that have been hammered by chronic oversupply and weak demand have prompted expectations that stronger players will take out weaker rivals in an effort to boost market share and better control production.

    Loss-making Singapore contract chipmaker Chartered Semi, which makes the chips for Microsoft’s (MSFT.O) Xbox 360 game console, has struggled against bigger Taiwan competitors, and the deal with ATIC may help it tide over its financial woes.

    Consolidation in the foundry business has not progressed as much as it has in the memory or logic sectors,  Mizuho Investors Securities analyst Yuichi Ishida said.  I wouldn’t be surprised if consolidation should progress further among foundries as development costs on cutting-edge chips grow.

    Bigger foundries, which supply chips for fabless chip designers and chipmakers that own their own plants but are increasingly outsourcing production, could spend more to upgrade technology and win more orders for a new-generation of personal computers, cell phones and flat-screen TVs.

    Japan’s Toshiba Corp (6502.T) was in talks with Chartered Semi and Globalfoundries about outsourcing production of some of its next-generation system chips to help cut costs, two company sources said on Monday.

    Advanced Technology Investment Co (ATIC), fully owned by the Abu Dhabi government, is growing its investments in the semiconductor industry, currently consisting of a facility in Dresden, Germany and a state-of-the-art facility under construction in New York.

    ATIC CEO Ibrahim Ajami told Reuters in an interview that the firm was eyeing more acquisitions with the aim of becoming a global leader in semiconductor technology.

    Earlier this year, ATIC spent $2.1 billion on a 55.6 percent stake in Globalfoundries, a joint venture with Advanced Micro Devices Inc (AMD.N).

    Chartered Semi is 62 percent-owned by Singapore investment agency Temasek Holdings TEM.UL, which is backing the ATIC deal.

    For a related Graphic, click here

    SAMSUNG SPECULATION

    Abu Dhabi’s bid followed speculation that top memory chipmaker Samsung Electronics (005930.KS) of South Korea plans to buy U.S. memory chip designer Rambus (RMBS.O), sending Rambus shares sharply higher on Friday.

    State-supported Taiwan Memory Co is leading efforts to consolidate the island’s struggling smaller DRAM memory chip makers and has chosen Japan’s Elpida Memory (6665.T) as a technology partner to jointly develop new chips.

    ATIC did not rule out a possible merger of Chartered Semi and Globalfoundries, which could create a major rival to TSMC (2330.TW) and UMC (2303.TW), the two Taiwanese firms that control about two-thirds of the $20 billion chip foundry market.

    Analysts saw no imminent threat to TSMC (TSN.N) and UMC (UMC.N), but said pricing pressure could intensify if a combined Chartered/Globalfoundries aggressively boosts market share by selling chips at a relatively lower price.

    If they want to get a bigger market share, they might just use a low-price strategy, but that won’t be a good thing for the whole market in terms of pricing,  said Kenneth Lee, a vice president at Taiwan’s Fubon Securities Investment Services.

    In Taipei, TSMC shares closed up 3.3 percent and UMC gained 4.9 percent on optimism over rising sales in the fourth quarter. Both outpaced the main TAIEX’s 1 percent rise.

    Toshiba gained 3.4 percent in a Tokyo market .N225 up 1.3 percent.

    STRUGGLING SECTOR

    Korea Exchange Bank (004940.KS) said former creditors, and now shareholders, of Hynix Semiconductor Inc would this week invite bids for a stake in the world’s No.2 memory chipmaker, and planned to pick a preferred buyer by the year-end.

    The buyer of the stake will gain control over loss-making Hynix. Steelmaker POSCO (005490.KS) and consumer electronics giant LG Electronics (066570.KS) have been touted as potential acquirers.

    Although prospects are brighter for the memory chip sector, battered by a steep 2- year downturn and falling prices, analysts were not optimistic about a quick sale of Hynix.

    Hynix couldn’t find a suitable investor for many years, and the situation is unlikely to change all of a sudden,  said Peter Yu, an analyst at BNP Paribas in Seoul.

    ($1=1.438 Singapore Dollar)

    (Additional reporting by Mayumi Negishi in TOKYO, Marie-France Han and Kim Yeon-hee in SEOUL; editing by Ian Geoghegan and Karen Foster)

    © Thomson Reuters 2009 All rights reserved

    http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSTRE5860JV20090907

    ***

    2001 Kunlun earthquake
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    2001 Kunlun China
    Date     November 14, 2001 (2001-11-14)
    Magnitude     7.8 Mw
    Depth:     15 km
    Epicenter location:     36°12?N 90°54?E? / ?36.2°N 90.9°E? / 36.2; 90.9
    Countries/
    regions affected     China
    Casualties:     none recorded

    The 2001 Kunlun earthquake also known as the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake, occurred on 14 November 2001 at 09:26 UTC (17:26 local time), with an epicenter near Kokoxili, close to the border between Qinghai and Xinjiang in a remote mountainous region. With a magnitude of 7.8 Mw it was the most powerful earthquake in China for 5 decades [1]. No casualties were reported, presumably due to the very low population density and the lack of high-rise buildings. This earthquake was associated with the longest surface rupture ever recorded on land, ~450 km[2].
    Contents
    [hide]

    * 1 Earthquake damage
    * 2 Tectonic setting
    * 3 Earthquake characteristics
    * 4 References

    [edit] Earthquake damage

    Due to the remoteness of the region, most reports of damage came from areas hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter. The nearest population centre, the city of Golmud, reported severe shaking but no buildings collapsed. Some damage was reported at the construction site for the Qingzang railway(Qinghai-Tibet railway) and along the Qinghai-Tibet highway.

    [edit] Tectonic setting

    The Kunlun fault is one of the major sinistral strike-slip structures that accommodate the eastward motion of the Tibetan plateau relative to the Eurasian plate. This motion is caused by the lateral spreading of the zone of thickened crust associated with the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. [3]

    [edit] Earthquake characteristics

    The earthquake rupture began on a relatively small strike-slip fault segment at the western end of the Kunlun fault in the region of the mountain Buka Daban Feng. The rupture propagated to the east via an extensional stepover before following the main strand of the Kunlun fault. The region of co-seismic deformation (i.e. that occurred during the earthquake) is unusually large, with significant faulting being observed up to 60 km from the main rupture trace [4]. This deformation occurs in two swathes, ca. 20 and 60 km from the main fault trace. Pre-existing lineaments and geomorphological features suggest that this earthquake-triggered displacement occurred on existing faults.

    An analysis of the propagation speed indicates that the rupture propagated at a normal velocity along the original segment, but increased in velocity to above the S-wave velocity after the jump across the extensional stepover and continued at that speed until propagation stopped[5]. This makes the Kunlun earthquake the best documented example of a supershear earthquake. It has been suggested that the unusually wide zone of co-seismic deformation is a direct result of the supershear rupture propagation[6].

    [edit] References

    1. ^ Li Li & Chen Yong 2002. Preliminary report on the Ms 8.1 Kokoxili (Qinghai, China) earthquake of 14 November 2001.Episodes, Vol. 25, no. 2, 95-99.
    2. ^ Klinger,Y., Xu,X., Tapponnier,P., Van der Woerd,J., Lasserre,C. & Geoffrey King,G. 2005. High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Mapping of the Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution of the Mw _7.8, 14 November 2001 Kokoxili Earthquake, Kunlun Fault, Northern Tibet, China. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 95, No. 5, pp. 1970-1987.
    3. ^ Van Der Woerd J., Meriaux, A.S., Klinger, Y., Ryerson, F.J., Gaudemer, Y. & Tapponnier, P., 2002, The 14 November 2001, Mw 7.8 Kokoxili earthquake in northern Tibet (Qinghai Province, China). Seismic Research Letters, 73, pp. 125–135
    4. ^ J. G. Liu* & C. E. Haselwimmer.2006. Co-seismic ruptures found up to 60 km south of the Kunlun fault after 14 November 2001, Ms 8.1, Kokoxili earthquake using Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 27, No. 20, 4461-4470
    5. ^ Bouchon,M. & Vallee,M. 2003.Observation of Long Supershear Rupture During the Magnitude 8.1 Kunlunshan Earthquake, Science, 301, 824-826.
    6. ^ Bouchon,M. & Karabulut,H. 2008. The Aftershock Signature of Supershear Earthquakes, Science, Vol. 320. no. 5881, pp. 1323 – 1325

    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_Kunlun_earthquake
    Categories: Earthquakes in China | 2001 earthquakes | 2001 in China | History of Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_Kunlun_earthquake

    ***

    The short hop between the Fortune 500 and Washington

    By Laurie Bennett – September 7, 2009

    Richard B. Cheney
    Richard B. Cheney

    The path between American business and Capitol Hill is usually marked by political contributions and lobbying efforts.

    Yet personal connections are more direct. Sometimes, as it was for six-term congressman and former Vice President Dick Cheney, the path is a two-way street. Between Bush administrations, Cheney was chairman & CEO of the Halliburton Company.

    See the full post and relationship map ?

    http://www.muckety.com/4A17C6F90DE4A012A7CF80664B93ACB4.map

    A query of the Muckety database finds several modern-day examples of former members of Congress who have held top positions (chairman, CEO and/or president) of companies on the Fortune 1000 list. In addition to Cheney, these include:
    Richard B. Cheney
    Richard B. Cheney

    * George J. Mitchell, President Obama’s Mideast Envoy and former Senate majority leader, chaired the Walt Disney Company. He also served on the boards of Fortune 500 companies FedEx, Staples and Xerox.

    * Donald Rumsfeld, former defense secretary and congressman from Illinois, was chairman of the pharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences. Rumsfeld took the post in 1997, after serving as defense secretary under Gerald Ford and before he returned to the post under George W. Bush.

    * James A. Courter, former congressman from New Jersey and a campaign bundler for John McCain in 2008, is CEO of the telecommunications company, IDT Corporation.

    * New Jersey Gov. Jon S. Corzine was chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs before he was elected to the Senate in 2000.

    If we expand our query beyond top positions, to include officers, vice chairmen and directors, we find 68 current and former members of Congress with connections to Fortune 1000 companies.

    Former Vice President Al Gore is a director of Apple and senior adviser to Google.

    Former Rep. Dick Gephardt of Missouri is a director of three Fortune 1000 companies – Centene, Ford Motor and United States Steel.

    Tom Daschle, who plays an informal role in the White House push for health care reform, is a director of CB Richard Ellis Group. The global real estate company has strong connections to Washington. Chairman Richard Blum is the husband of Sen. Dianne Feinstein.

    Mickey Kantor, trade representative and commerce secretary in the Clinton administration, is also a director, as is Frederic V. Malek, campaign manager for George H.W. Bush in 1992.

    For current members of Congress, personal connections to the corporate world most frequently occur by marriage. In addition to Feinstein, those whose spouses hold positions with major corporations include:

    * Chris Dodd, whose wife Jackie Clegg Dodd is sits on several major boards, including Blockbuster, Brookdale Senior Living and CME Group.

    Evan Bayh
    Evan Bayh

    * Evan Bayh, whose wife Susan Bayh is a director of Wellpoint, as well as several other companies. Former Sen. Donald Riegle is also a director of Wellpoint.

    * Jane Lakes Harman, whose husband Sidney Harman is chairman of Harman International Industries.

    * Jay Rockefeller, whose wife Sharon Percy Rockefeller is a director of PepsiCo.
    * Tom Harkin, whose wife Ruth Harkin is a director of AbitibiBowater and ConocoPhillips.

    Debbie Dingell, wife of Rep. John Dingell, recently announced that she was leaving General Motors on Oct. 1. She has been GM’s executive director of global community and government relations.

    http://news.muckety.com/2009/09/07/the-short-hop-between-fortune-500-and-washington/19871

    ***
    **
    criteria established by the CTBTO, filter it according to nationally requested
    criteria, and provide some additional technical assistance to states parties.
    Characterized as “enhanced option 2”, this was finally accepted by the
    United States and others in May 1996.

    With conclusion of the provisions for the IDC, the IMS was able to be
    agreed. It was to comprise 50 primary seismic stations and 120 auxiliary
    seismic stations; 80 radionuclide stations, of which 40 would be equipped
    to monitor noble gases; 11 hydroacoustic stations; and 60 infrasound
    monitors.32

    **

    http://www.unidir.org/pdf/ouvrages/pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf

    ***
    http://timelines.ws/countries/PANAMA.HTML

    ***

    1963        Feb-Mar, The US military, while conducting biological weapons tests, sprayed Bacillus globigii from aircraft near Fort Sherman Military Reservation in the Canal Zone.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

    *****

    151
    emphasizing that the baseline was a practical measure for designing a costeffective
    system and must not be confused with a threshold.13 The baseline
    determination refl ected two kinds of assessment: the need to keep costs
    at feasible levels; and the scientists’ confi dence that the synergistic use of
    the IMS technologies would ensure that nuclear explosive testing at much
    lower levels would, in practice, be detected. The uncertainty factor was
    expected to provide a high deterrent value even for much smaller yields.14
    THE SEISMIC SIGNATURE
    The core of the IMS is the seismic network. An underground explosion
    generates seismic waves which can be analysed to locate and identify the
    origin of the waves. As nuclear explosions have a characteristic signature,
    seismic stations can also distinguish between earthquakes and explosions.
    Much work had already been done on seismic verifi cation, principally
    through the work of the GSE, including its three technical tests of potential
    seismic networks. As negotiations got underway in the verifi cation Working
    Group, there was much discussion of the number and location of primary
    and auxiliary seismic stations that would be needed to provide cost-effective
    verifi cation confi dence.
    Primary stations, as the name implies, were to form the essential network
    in strategically signifi cant locations for detection and identifi cation of any
    explosions carried out in violation of the treaty. Some were already in place
    under national auspices, but others would need to be upgraded or built. The
    auxiliary seismic stations were considered to be less vital, but could provide
    useful information. In most cases, these were already part of national or
    academic facilities, and most would be completely or partly funded from
    national resources. In both cases, arrangements would need to be agreed
    for how the data from these seismic stations would be transmitted to the
    IDC.
    Some states were concerned about the expense and inconvenience of
    having stations on national territory, and some were wary of stations being
    located close to sensitive facilities. Others were keen to host a station,
    perceiving it as an opportunity for closer participation in international
    projects and research. With Marshall’s careful management, the majority of
    such concerns were resolved. In January 1996, however, after the IMS was
    thought to be substantially fi nalized, Russia made a late proposal for four
    additional seismic and radionuclide stations close to the major P-5 test sites.
    Claiming that Novaya Zemlya was more closely monitored than Nevada,
    Berdennikov publicly argued for “identical transparency”.15 The assumption
    of many diplomats at the time was that this demand was in reaction to the
    zero-yield scope decision, which Russia had not participated in making.
    This was later confi rmed, with the explanation that the zero-yield decision
    altered Russia’s view of IMS requirements since it would be necessary to
    have confi dence that none of the nuclear-weapon states would be able
    to carry out clandestine nuclear testing at sub-kiloton yields using existing
    nuclear test facilities.16
    Though the demand was mainly directed at the United States, it was China
    that objected most vociferously. In an oblique reference to mutual support
    between the Chinese and Russian delegations over issues such as PNE and
    on-site inspections, China objected that Lop Nor was more closely monitored
    than the global average in any case and rejected any further enhancement
    of the detection level as excessive and unacceptable.17 Ignoring the fact
    that the P-5 were more capable of conducting (and concealing) nuclear
    tests than the global average, China based its objection on the principle that
    the verifi cation system must be equal and non-discriminatory. Concerned
    to avoid a late rupture in agreement, the United States took the lead in
    bridge-building to resolve the confl ict. After initiating hurried talks among
    the P-5, the United States then negotiated directly with Russia, to whom
    it offered bilateral confi dence-building measures, and then addressed
    Beijing’s concerns with the Chinese delegation. In the end it was agreed
    that the location of one seismic station would be changed from California to
    Nevada, closer to the US test site, and that the station located in Kazakhstan
    would be upgraded and moved nearer to the border with China, thereby
    bringing it closer to Lop Nor without requiring explicit Chinese agreement.18
    The incident took the CD by surprise because Russia had generally been
    very constructive in the verifi cation negotiations, and the way in which the
    demand was made seemed to echo the Cold War times when arguments
    about verifi cation masked other political, ideological or power struggles.
    DETECTING AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY
    The second network to be incorporated into the IMS was designed to detect
    and measure the radioactive products emitted from a nuclear explosion,
    which could take the form of particulates or gases. These emissions can
    be distinguished from similar fi ssion products released by nuclear power
    plant operations or accidents. Although there was general agreement that
    radionuclide sampling would be necessary to detect and identify atmospheric
    tests or venting from underground or underwater explosions, there were
    two areas of contention: whether it was necessary to monitor for the
    emission of noble gases, such as argon-37, xenon-133 and krypton-85; and
    whether specially equipped aircraft could play a useful role. Experts from
    two delegations were charged with the task of analysing how radionuclides
    would disperse according to geographical and meteorological conditions.
    Aiming for 90% detection probability of a 1kt explosion within 14 days, the
    experts recommended a radionuclide detection network comprising some
    70–80 stations and 5–10 radionuclide laboratories around the world.19
    On the grounds that radioactive noble gases produced by nuclear explosions
    are known to leak from underground explosions,20 eventually all but one
    delegation in the Radionuclide Expert Group (a subgroup of the verifi cation
    committee) agreed that noble gas monitoring should be included in the
    IMS. They reasoned that noble gases could play a unique and valuable role
    in early detection and identifi cation (within 10 days) of an explosion in
    several potential environments, contributing especially to early resolution
    of ambiguous events, which would be politically desirable. Noble gas
    monitoring would also assist in detecting a decoupled explosion (conducted
    in a deep cave or salt cavern, for example, with the intention of masking
    the signals) and increase the costs and risks to a potential violator, thereby
    maximizing the deterrent function of the verifi cation regime. China’s experts
    disagreed. They argued that the effectiveness of noble gas monitoring was
    diffi cult to judge but would signifi cantly increase the overall costs of the
    IMS. In Beijing’s view, noble gas monitoring would only contribute to the
    detection of underground or underwater testing if sensors were located
    very close to the event. China was willing to include testing for noble gas
    emissions as part of an on-site inspection, but pointed out that certain timecritical
    phenomena, such as the presence of xenon-133, would disappear
    after two weeks.21 Appearing to endorse Russia’s concept of evolutionary
    verifi cation, on which it had remained hitherto silent, China argued that the
    question of adding a noble gas monitoring capability should be deferred; if
    more technical study showed that inclusion was warranted, such monitoring
    could be added at a later stage.22 During the fi nal concession trading of the
    endgame, China accepted Ramaker’s draft incorporating noble gas sensors
    co-located with 40 of the 80 radionuclide stations.
    A second disagreement arose because Russia wanted fewer ground-based
    radionuclide sensors than was being considered in any of Marshall’s
    options. Russia proposed that it would be more cost-effective to equip three
    special aircraft instead, and that these could be quickly dispatched after a
    suspicious event was detected by other technologies. Russia’s reasoning
    was that a CTBT violation was likely to be rare, and that maintaining a full
    radionuclide monitoring network in perpetuity would be very expensive,
    whereas appropriately equipped airplanes could be quickly made ready
    to fl y over the suspected location of an event, with sensors to detect
    particulates and noble gases, enabling samples to be taken in various
    atmospheric layers.23 Others, however, worried about the timing and terms
    (ownership, responsibility for equipping, personnel training, piloting and
    so forth) that would govern the deployment of the aircraft. In the end, this
    issue was resolved through US-brokered concession trading in conjunction
    with the P-5 negotiations on Russia’s proposal for identical transparency at
    the test sites. In return for two seismic stations being moved closer to the
    US and Chinese test sites, Russia abandoned the proposal for aircraft and
    agreed to the network of monitors outlined in Ramaker’s draft treaty text.
    HEARING UNDERWATER EXPLOSIONS
    From the beginning there was agreement that there should be a hydroacoustic
    network for detecting explosions conducted underwater or underground
    in marine environments, such as the French test sites at Moruroa and
    Fangataufa. Such explosions generate soundwaves that can be detected
    by sensors thousands of kilometres away.24 Negotiations focused on the
    number and location of hydroacoustic stations deemed necessary and most
    cost effective. Initially there was enthusiasm for 16 stations: four each to
    cover the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacifi c Oceans, plus a station south of Africa
    to cover both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and three auxiliary stations to
    aid location identifi cation and to cover in the event of failure of one of the
    primary stations. Because of the high expense, this system was modifi ed by
    agreement to a total of 11 stations, comprising six fi xed cable hydrophone
    stations and fi ve T-phase stations near coasts or on islands.25
    PICKING UP SHOCKWAVES
    A further technology, infrasound, was advocated by the majority of
    delegations to provide enhanced detection and location capabilities for
    nuclear explosions conducted in the atmosphere. Infrasound technology
    detects the shockwaves produced by nuclear explosions once they have
    decayed into low-frequency sound waves. For maximum effectiveness, the
    network was designed with microphones and microbarographs, organized
    in arrays of three or more sensors. Apart from China and Pakistan, which
    argued that satellite and electromagnetic pulse detection would be more
    effective and would obviate the necessity for infrasound coverage, there was
    an early majority for including an infrasound network of around 60 sensors
    in the IMS. When Beijing fi nally accepted that satellite monitoring would
    not be included in the IMS, both China and Pakistan also withdrew their
    objections to incorporating an infrasound network into the treaty.
    SATELLITES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE MONITORING
    China’s proposal for the IMS to include a CTBT-specifi c network of
    internationally funded satellites and electromagnetic pulse monitors proved
    very controversial. Arguing that both these technologies were essential for
    detecting and identifying nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space,
    as well as being useful to monitor potential sites on the ground, China had
    proposed that a network of around 60 electromagnetic pulse sensors could
    be established at relatively low cost and would provide “high sensitivity,
    precise location and prompt response” for detecting nuclear explosions
    conducted in the upper atmosphere.26 Viewing a CTBT-specifi c satellite
    system as prohibitively expensive, most delegations considered that the
    Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) would be
    able to get such information as necessary from national and commercial
    satellites in any case.27 By contrast with its position on satellites, which was
    shared only by Pakistan, there was wider interest in China’s proposal for a
    ground-based system to enhance the location and identifi cation capability
    for atmospheric and high-altitude tests. Concerns were raised about a high
    false-alarm rate due to lightning, however. China proposed that analytical
    software could be designed to discriminate between the EMP produced
    by lightning and by nuclear explosions, but other experts were sceptical
    that this would be possible. In the end, it was decided to leave satellites
    and electromagnetic pulse monitoring out of the IMS, though use could be
    made of such data provided from national or civilian capabilities.28

    http://www.unidir.org/pdf/ouvrages/pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf

    ***
    **

    Gates: US intelligence caused change in plans
    2 hours ago

    news-politics-20090917-US.Missile.Defense.Gates

    Defense Robert Gates meets with reporters at the Pentagon, Thursday, Sept. 1…

    WASHINGTON — Defense Secretary Robert Gates says the decision to abandon the Bush administration’s plans for a land-based missile defense system in Eastern Europe came about because of a change in the U.S. perception of the threat posed by Iran.

    Reinforcing statements President Barack Obama made about anti-missile strategy, Gates told reporters Thursday that U.S. intelligence decided short- and medium-range missiles now pose a greater near-term threat than intercontinental ballistic missiles.

    He said intelligence experts concluded the short- and medium-range missiles were  developing more rapidly than previously projected  in Iran. Gates said the previous administration’s plans will be changed, moving away from the installation of a missile defense shield in the Czech Republic and Poland in the near future. He said a second phase to begin in 2015 could result in missiles being placed on land in Eastern Europe.

    Copyright 2009 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

    View Next Article: White House seeks ways to curb malpractice suits

    http://www.comcast.net/articles/news-politics/20090917/US.Missile.Defense.Gates/

    ***

    Where was Erin Brockovich?
    Posted by Laure on 2008.12.03 @ 10:20:19 am

    Bhopal

    Today marks the 24th anniversary of what has been called the worst industrial accident in history.

    Read the full Wired.com article »

    “An exact death toll has never been established. Union Carbide, not surprisingly, set the toll on the low end at 3,800, while municipal workers claimed to have cleared at least 15,000 bodies in the immediate aftermath of the accident. Thousands have died since and an estimated 50,000 people became invalids or developed chronic respiratory conditions as a result of being poisoned.” [from Wired.com]

    That is just nuts. Seriously, someone call Julia Roberts. We need Erin Brockovich on this one.

    Posted in Things That Make Me Go ‘Hmm’ | No Comments »

    http://www.laureandjoel.us/category/things-that-make-me-go-hmm/

    ***

    IFSEC India
    29 – 31 October 2009

    Welcome to IFSEC India, the unrivalled security show in India
    Register to attend IFSEC India 2009 for free

    G4S, Sony Electronics, Lookman Electroplast and HIK Vision are just some of the top companies on board to host our free technical seminars.

    Register to attend the show for free today and you’ll be on the right track to network with over 9000 key fire and security professionals, see the latest innovations in technology from 250 world leading companies, source business solutions and gather invaluable tailored support, all under one roof. Read how the show is shaping up here and save the dates to your diary today.

    IFSEC India will take place alongside co-located events Firex India and the launch of Internal Security India and the Counter Terror India Conference. All events are supported by the Asian Professional Security Association (APSA), India Chapter and certified by the US Commercial Services.

    For further information on exhibiting at IFSEC India 2009, see the sales brochure, or contact a member of our sales team today.

    Read details on IFSEC & Firex India 2008 here.

    http://www.ifsecindia.com/

    ***

    Saudi prince injured in suicide bombing

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    Published: Aug. 28, 2009 at 7:48 AM
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    * Saudis round up 44 al-Qaida suspects
    * Documents show Saudi-extremists links
    * Saudi government targets terrorists

    RIYADH, Saudi Arabia, Aug. 28 (UPI) — Saudi Prince Muhammad bin Nayef was injured when a suicide bomber detonated explosives in a cell phone during an assassination attempt Friday, officials said.

    Nayef, the deputy interior minister credited for Saudi Arabia’s crackdown against al-Qaida militants, was treated at a Riyadh hospital for minor injuries, The New York Times reported.

    While no organization immediately claimed responsibility for the attack, officials said al-Qaida was under suspicion. The Interior Ministry announced last week 44 suspected al-Qaida terrorists were arrested so far during the year. Six weeks ago, more than 300 militants — many allegedly linked to al-Qaida — were tried and convicted in secret trials, the kingdom’s official news agency said.
    Nayef’s anti-terror effort has been brutal, said Amnesty International, which said in a recent report that Saudi security forces committed  massive human rights violations  and acts of torture, the Times said. The organization said about 3,000 people were being held because of the crackdown.

    Friday’s attack was the first known assassination attempt against a royal family member since 1975, when King Faisal was shot and killed at by a nephew, Prince Faisal bin Musaed, the Times said. The prince later was beheaded in public in Riyadh.

    http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2009/08/28/Saudi-prince-injured-in-suicide-bombing/UPI-62011251460116/

    ***

    Slim Jim plant lays off 300 after blast

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    Published: Sept. 17, 2009 at 8:56 PM
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    * Bodies of plant blast victims recovered
    * 2 dead, dozens hurt in N.C. plant collapse

    GARNER, N.C., Sept. 17 (UPI) — ConAgra Foods Inc. will lay off about 300 of 750 people at a North Carolina snack food plant where three workers were killed in an explosion, the company said.

    The layoffs at the Garner, N.C., plant, which makes Slim Jim brand meat snacks and was severely damaged in the June 9 blast, will begin in November, ConAgra said.

    The layoffs are a  necessary decision to ensure the long-term health of our Slim Jim business,  spokesman Dave Jackson said in a statement.

    Managers will tell employees privately in the next few weeks if they are to be let go, The Charlotte (N.C.) Observer reported.

    The company will also no longer pay employees not working at the plant. Since the explosion, the company has paid Garner employees, including dozens still recovering from their injuries, for 40 hours of work a week, the Observer said.

    The decisions are  like a slap in the face,  Calvin Sanders, who has worked at ConAgra for 15 years mixing meat, told the newspaper.

    Johnetta Reddick, who still wears a neck brace from the blast, said she was  in prayer for the families that lost their jobs.

    Jackson said the Slim Jim plant was still operating at about 50 percent of its previous production capacity as a result of the explosion, which federal investigators concluded was caused by workers venting a natural gas line into an interior pump room.

    Slim Jim meat snacks are popular in the United States, due in part to their unique texture, tangy taste and irreverent marketing. More than 500 million are produced annually in at least 20 varieties.

    http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2009/09/17/Slim-Jim-plant-lays-off-300-after-blast/UPI-52951253235411/

    ***

    Merchants and bankers in clash over fees

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    Published: Sept. 17, 2009 at 2:38 PM
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    * A new ‘revolutionary’ credit card?
    * Resort offers credit for making babies
    * Mega Millions winner ‘didn’t have a dime’
    * Consumer credit dropped sharply in July

    WASHINGTON, Sept. 17 (UPI) — U.S. retailers and banks are gearing up for a battle over interchange fees charged by banks when consumers pull out their credit cards to make a purchase.

    With three separate bills in Congress lined up to address the issue, retailers and banks are lobbying for support, The Washington Post reported Thursday.
    Retailers are looking for relief from the fee of 1 percent to 2 percent of purchase prices they say they take on themselves or pass on to customers. Banks are painting the picture that paying with plastic and the costs involved are a customary part of commerce in the modern world.

    A study conducted by the Merchants Payments Coalition showed that in the past four years $125 billion would have been saved had U.S. banks used the card fee system used in Australia.

    It’s the No. 2 cost, behind labor, in our industry,  said Lyle Beckwith, a senior vice president of the National Association of Convenience Stores.

    On Thursday, Visa Inc. released a survey that showed customers by a 2-to-1 margin indicated they believed retailers should pay the cost of accepting credit and debit cards.

    The response is loud and clear: consumers aren’t buying the message convenience store chains and big retailers are selling,  said Bill Sheedy, group president of the Americas for Visa Inc.

    http://www.upi.com/Business_News/2009/09/17/Merchants-and-bankers-in-clash-over-fees/UPI-47331253205842/

    ***

    Cuomo subpoenas bank directors

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    Published: Sept. 17, 2009 at 12:07 PM
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    * Bank of America legal dance continues
    * Judge orders Bank of America to trial
    * Judge: SEC must explain BofA deal
    * BofA defends its Merrill proxy filing
    * Bank of America settles SEC charges

    ALBANY, N.Y., Sept. 17 (UPI) — New York state’s investigation of Bank of America’s
    acquisition of Merrill Lynch now includes subpoenas to bank directors, a source close to the matter said.

    The source said Attorney General Andrew Cuomo had subpoenaed five bank directors who were at the center of the decisions concerning information the board released or did not release before the purchase of Merrill Lynch last year.

    The probe involves allegations the bank mislead shareholders about an pre-purchase agreement to allow Merrill Lynch to pay employees $3.6 billion in bonus pay amid mounting losses that were also kept a secret from shareholders, The Washington Post reported Thursday.

    In a statement, Bank of America said it would  continue cooperate with the attorney general’s office as we maintain that there is no basis for charges against either the company or individual members of the management team.

    The same issue is headed to trial in a federal court in New York City.

    Judge Jed Rakoff ordered the trial after refusing to sign off on a $33 million fine the Securities and Exchange Commission and Bank of America agreed to to settle the matter.

    http://www.upi.com/Business_News/2009/09/17/Cuomo-subpoenas-bank-directors/UPI-48991253203658/?pvn=1

    ***

    Thousand Oaks deaths were murder-suicide, police say
    Ventura County Star – Adam Foxman, Jean Cowden Moore – ?5 hours ago?
    The two children found dead with their father in a Thousand Oaks apartment last night were victims of a murder-suicide, a Sheriff’s spokesman said this …
    In Thousand Oaks, a father does the unthinkable Los Angeles Times
    Death of man, kids may be murder-suicide abc7.com
    Capt.: Dad kills 2 kids, kills himself with drugs The Associated Press
    Thousand Oaks Acorn – San Jose Mercury News
    all 306 news articles »

    Philanthropist’s suicide has IRS angle
    Published: Sept. 16, 2009 at 12:59 PM

    MORRISTOWN, N.J., Sept. 16 (UPI) — Friends said they were shocked at the suicide of Finn M.W. Caspersen, a New Jersey philanthropist who may have hidden millions of dollars in foreign banks.

    At the time of his death, Caspersen, the 67-year-old heir to the Beneficial Corp. fortune, had kidney cancer. He recently had also backed away from many of his obligations.

    He shot himself in the head on Labor Day at a Rhode Island country club he founded, The New York Times reported Wednesday.

    Caspersen, who ran Beneficial for 20 years before it was sold for $8.6 billion in 1998, may have also hidden money from the IRS in banks in Liechtenstein.

    Liechtenstein said in December it would provide the IRS with names of some wealthy clients. In the meantime, a source close to the investigation said federal authorities had placed liens on funds controlled by Caspersen’s four sons.

    He made everything right for so many people, and that is why this is such a tragedy,  Susan Wachter, a friend and former Beneficial board member told the Times.

    Philip Richter, a former managing director of Caspersen’s private investment firm, Knickerbocker, said he was  shocked  by Caspersen’s death.

    http://www.upi.com/Business_News/2009/09/16/Philanthropists-suicide-has-IRS-angle/UPI-97361253120397/

    ***
    Rockefeller Chief McDonald Dies in Apparent Suicide
    Bloomberg – Charles Stein – ?Sep 15, 2009?
    Sept. 15 (Bloomberg) –James McDonald, chief executive officer of New York investment firm Rockefeller & Co., …
    Rockefeller & Co CEO dies in apparent suicide Reuters
    Death of Rockefeller’s McDonald Is an Apparent Suicide Wall Street Journal
    Investment Manager Is Apparent Suicide Hedge Fund Net
    Reuters
    all 184 news articles »

    ***

    Sarah Wayson dies in Vegas murder-suicide
    Annapolis Capital – Heather Rawlyk – ?10 hours ago?
    Courtesy photo Sarah Elizabeth Wayson, 29, was found dead in her Las Vegas Valley home Monday afternoon in an apparent murder-suicide. Wayson, a graduate of …
    Victim Identified in Murder-Suicide KXNT
    Coroner identifies two dead in murder-suicide Las Vegas Sun
    Second murder-suicide victim identified Las Vegas Review – Journal
    San Jose Mercury News – Las Vegas Weekly
    all 45 news articles »
    Email this story

    ***

    French firm plans suicide hotline
    BBC News – ?Sep 15, 2009?
    France Telecom has promised to set up a free hotline for workers suffering from stress after the 23rd suicide by one of its employees in 18 months. …
    France Telecom CEO vows to end suicide  contagion  Reuters
    France Telecom Employee Suicides Prompt Action Bloomberg
    France Telecom addresses suicides Boston Globe
    New York Times
    all 354 news articles »
    FTE – PINK:FNCTF – BIT:FTE
    Email this story

    Couple found dead in far northeast Dallas after apparent murder …
    Dallas Morning News – ?8 hours ago?
    A man, 23, and woman, 20, were found dead this morning after an apparent murder-suicide at a home in the 11600 block of Audelia Road, Dallas police say. …
    Dallas police say death of husband, wife may be murder/suicide Fort Worth Star Telegram
    all 2 news articles »

    ***

    Woman Killed In Murder-Suicide Was Pregnant
    KIROtv.com – ?9 hours ago?
    A woman who was shot to death in what police said was a murder-suicide was pregnant, people close to the woman told KIRO 7 reporter Gary Horcher. …
    Murder-suicide in front of Lake Stevens day care Northwest Cable News
    Police: Deaths were murder-suicide KOMO News
    Two dead in Lake Stevens-area neighborhood Seattle Times
    KAPS
    all 32 news articles »

    ***

    Police release 911 tape in Roseville murder-suicide
    Granite Bay Press Tribune – ?2 hours ago?
    By Gold Country Media A 16-year-old boy wondered aloud how he would survive after his parents were shot dead in their Roseville home. …
    Roseville police identify double homocide/suicide of Jesuit parents Examiner.com
    Police Investigate Motive In Roseville Double Murder-Suicide Fox40
    Accused killer had lengthy criminal record Roseville Press Tribune
    all 23 news articles »

    ND reports 86 suicides last year
    Reiten Television KXMB Bismarck – ?8 hours ago?
    AP Bismarck, ND (AP) State officials say 86 North Dakotans died as a result of suicide last year and the state ranks 15th in its rate of suicide deaths. …
    North Dakota Proclaims Suicide Prevention Month eMaxHealth
    all 20 news articles »
    ***

    Christopher Kelly death: He tried suicide days before he died …
    Chicago Tribune – Lolly Bowean, Jeff Coen – ?Sep 15, 2009?
    Rod Blagojevich, Christopher Kelly first tried to commit suicide a week ago, just hours after pleading guilty to criminal charges and three days before …
    Police: Ex-Blagojevich aide committed suicide The Associated Press
    Blagojevich Blames Federal Prosecutor for Aide’s Suicide ABA Journal
    Chris Kelly Had Previously Attempted Suicide Chicago Public Radio
    WREX-TV – The Associated Press
    all 2,004 news articles »

    ***

    Home buying tax credit is on the line
    Published: Sept. 16, 2009 at 10:02 AM

    Related Stories

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    WASHINGTON, Sept. 16 (UPI) — Sen. Johnny Isakson, R-Ga., has proposed expanding federal tax credits for home buyers that economists say have stimulated home sales at a critical juncture.

    Isakson sponsored the first bill, an $8,000 tax credit for first time home buyers that the National Association of Realtors said was the catalyst for 350,000 sales this year.

    Moody’s Economy.com set the number of home sales at 400,000 that would not have occurred without the tax credit in place, The New York Times reported Wednesday.

    That $8,000 tax credit is set to end in November. Isakson, meanwhile, has prepared a bill to increase the credit to a maximum of $15,000 and have it apply to all home buyers who stay in the home they purchase for two years.

    The problem now is not first-time buyers, it’s the move-up market — the guy transferred from Chicago to Atlanta who can’t sell his house,  Isakson said.

    The sales incentive is expected to cost $15 billion this year, more than twice the original estimate, but  the risks of not doing something like this are too great,  Economy.com chief economist Mark Zandi said.

    Not all agree.  Is this the best way to spend money
    we don’t have,  Tax Policy Center senior fellow Roberon Williams asked.
    http://www.upi.com/Business_News/2009/09/16/Home-buying-tax-credit-is-on-the-line/UPI-73981253109772/

    ***
    ***

    I found a nifty thing or two last night that explained how to make money with the stuff we do

    On one of them – I happened on a single page website – very slick, very simple

    Anyway, I was astonished that this website had a slick looking little booklet that just contained all the messages and known actions of Al Qaida and Osama bin Laden in a visual timeline for 24.99 – with a way to order it and a wall chart available of it also

    It was out of the same public information that we have been using

    but they make money off of it

    they packaged it in a nice 8 x 10 printed booklet but and then made this slick little one page clean understandable website with just that on it and a button for ordering it

    anyway – that’s one way to make money off what we know and what we do

    sounds doable

    the other one – is when I was reading that a man built a little company up in Idaho with a proposal for solarized panels on roadways to generate electricity

    how’s that going for him?

    he did it in the last couple months with no more than a proposal to get a $100,000 grant from the DOT – which he got and he doesn’t even have it worked out how to do it – the grant is to help him figure out how to do it and what will work –

    he essentially told them what we had been saying about it and added some numbers about how much surface area could generate how many kilowatt hours if it were made of solar cells – and they gave him the money to explore doing it

    the story about it was dated September 9, 2009

    Department of Transportation seed money – plus he will probably get Department of Energy program money too without even having worked out what will work

    that sounds awesome

    is there a way to do that for you as well?

    so we could do it that way too

    yes – either of those models will work

    I do need to write them out as business models while I’m thinking about it so I can remember how they’ve done it and where to relocate those two particularly

    okay dokey smokey

    oh yeah – and MIT has a lab that is being funded for the same thing – the second skin military uniform – that’s why they’ve been producing all these funky nano fabrics – they’re coming from that lab, but I think we have information they need and can do it better because of our walking in the weather, etc.

    I mean – when is the last time any of those guys or gals from MIT – walked in the hot sun to get their groceries – a mile there and back?

    you mean they walk places?

    I found the skateboard / snowboarding coat made by an actual snowboarder that is fixed up for mp3 player, goggles, etc. – there are some other ones being designed that are obviously not designed by anybody who has ever tried to do that stuff

    I’m sure the folks at MIT walk places but they don’t have to and they will do umpteen funky tests without knowing the practical application parts that we know just from having been doing it

    A fabric can be stretched 8000 times on a machine without ever finding out that a hangnail will catch on it and cause it to run a snag in it

    *to cause a run in the fabric, suddenly let rain in and be bad for the person’s hand as well

    yeah..well they are suppose to do that type of test it just never occurs to them that way

    yeah – that’s what I was thinking and that maybe the second skin system we develop would still be worth doing

    maybe, if you can right the proposal up correctly

    oh – I was going to put together a lot of the things that are already being done first

    there are some new shoes with a gel insole being listed on the August police chief magazine – new tech page that are supposed to form to the foot inside – they look like army boots on the outside
    so I’m putting them on documents with second skin in the title – as I find them, then I’m going to configure them into several pkgs of military uniforms using the nanotech fabrics and add the existing tests to describe a range of probabilities for the equipment / clothing, etc.

    you know that thin thermal wear you were describing – I still need to find that

    well the chinese as a very thin thermal wear that is warm as shit

    you can only get it in china town

    I need to find what that is called

    with the name of it – I can look it up

    I will look for it when I get a chance to get over there

    thanks

    if I can get a product name, manufacturer or almost any of the patent numbers which are probably listed on the tag – I can find it

    09-17-09 – around 9 p.m. EDT (on AIM instant messenger between me and Kasha in NY)

    ***

    and mom and dad are annoying today because of squirrels and mom using our brains anytime its more intellectual than a soap opera

    amanda is a short-tempered little brat princess

    ***

    Female suicide bomber strikes Chechen capital
    AFP – ?Sep 16, 2009?
    GROZNY, Russia — Several people were injured on Wednesday when a female suicide bomber blew herself up on the busy central street of Chechnya’s capital, …
    Chechnya suicide bombing injures 6 police The Associated Press
    Suicide bomber strikes in Chechnya Aljazeera.net
    CHECHNYA: KAMIKAZE ATTACKS POLICE CAR, VICTIMS AGI – Agenzia Giornalistica Italia
    all 219 news articles »

    ***

    Indonesian troops kill Al Qaeda-linked militant
    Noordin Mohammad Top was a key fugitive in a string of suicide bombings in Indonesia.
    Indonesian National Police Chief Gen. Bambang Hendarso Danuri

    Indonesia’s national police chief, Gen. Bambang Hendarso Danuri, center, holds a news conference in Jakarta, the capital. (Adi Weda / European Pressphoto Agency / September 17, 2009)

    Associated Press

    September 18, 2009

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    Solo, Indonesia – Special forces raided a hide-out Thursday and killed militant leader Noordin Mohammad Top, striking at the heart of the terrorist network behind a deadly campaign of suicide attacks in Indonesia, including bombings of nightclubs in Bali.

    Besides knocking out one of Southeast Asia’s most-wanted men, the operation also killed a fugitive believed to have designed explosives for twin suicide bombings at hotels in Jakarta, the Indonesian capital, in July.

    Noordin, 41, had eluded capture for more than seven years. He was tracked down to a house in the city of Solo in central Java, a breeding ground for militant Islam, where an overnight siege and hours-long gunfight ended at dawn with an explosion.

    Four bodies were recovered from the burned-out house, including that of Noordin and an alleged explosives expert, Bagus Budi Pranato, who was believed to have made the bombs used in the July 17 attacks on the J.W. Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels that killed nine people and wounded more than 50.

    Neighbors said the property was rented five months ago by a young couple who were teaching at a nearby Islamic school. The husband was among those killed. His wife was wounded but was in stable condition.

    The target was Noordin, a Malaysian citizen and feared regional leader of Al Qaeda with links to Osama bin Laden, said national Police Chief Bambang Hendarso Danuri.

    Documents and laptop computers confiscated from the house confirmed that Noordin  is the leader of Al Qaeda in Southeast Asia,  Danuri said. Police also recovered hundreds of pounds of explosives, as well as assault rifles and grenades.

    Noordin’s fingerprints matched those of one of the bodies, Danuri said. DNA tests had not yet been conducted.

    Copyright © 2009, The Los Angeles Times
    Related stories
    From the L.A. Times

    * Terror leader Noordin Top dies in Indonesian raid, police say

    Around the Web

    * Militant leader Noordin’s body sought|hindustantimes.com
    * Noordin Top Dead: Indonesia’s Terrorism Mastermind Killed, Say Police|huffingtonpost.com
    * Indonesian Police: Noordin Killed|online.wsj.com

    http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-indonesia-top18-2009sep18,0,1440827.story

    ***

    49306273.jpg
    Gale A .Norton was hired by Royal Dutch Shell after a subsidiary obtained oil leases. (HARAZ N. GHANBARI, Associated Press)

    Former Interior Secretary Gale Norton is focus of corruption probe
    The Justice Department investigation centers on a 2006 decision to award oil shale leases in Colorado to a Royal Dutch Shell subsidiary. Months later, the oil giant hired Norton as a legal counsel.

    By Jim Tankersley and Josh Meyer

    September 17, 2009

    Reporting from Washington – The Justice Department is investigating whether former Interior Secretary Gale A. Norton illegally used her position to benefit Royal Dutch Shell PLC, the company that later hired her, according to officials in federal law enforcement and the Interior Department.

    The criminal investigation centers on the Interior Department’s 2006 decision to award three lucrative oil shale leases on federal land in Colorado to a Shell subsidiary. Over the years it would take to extract the oil, according to calculations from Shell and a Rand Corp. expert, the deal could net the company hundreds of billions of dollars.

    The investigation’s main focus is whether Norton violated a law that prohibits federal employees from discussing employment with a company if they are involved in dealings with the government that could benefit the firm, law enforcement and Interior officials said.

    They said investigators also were trying to determine if Norton broke a broader federal  denial of honest services  law, which says a government official can be prosecuted for violating the public trust by, for example, steering government business to favored firms or friends.

    The Interior Department’s Office of Inspector General began the investigation during the waning months of the George W. Bush administration and more recently made a formal criminal referral to the Justice Department. Norton is the first Bush official at the Cabinet secretary level to be the subject of a formal political corruption investigation.

    Shell spokeswoman Kelly C. op de Weegh declined to comment on behalf of both the company and Norton, who did not respond to numerous calls.  Shell has not received an official notification with regard to a government investigation. Consequently, we are not in a position to comment at this time,  she said.

    The Justice and Interior departments also would not comment.

    Interior Department investigators referred the case to the Justice Department after concluding that there was sufficient evidence of potential illegal conduct, according to federal law enforcement and Interior officials. The officials spoke on the condition of anonymity because of the sensitive and confidential nature of the case.

    Those officials said the referral was based on an already comprehensive Interior Department investigation that included interviews with numerous Interior employees. The Justice Department has assigned prosecutors from its public integrity section and the U.S. attorney’s office in Washington to the case.

    Norton, 55, was President Bush’s first Interior secretary. She had worked as an Interior Department attorney before being elected Colorado’s attorney general. Later, as a private lawyer, she represented mining, timber and oil companies.

    As Interior secretary, she embraced an industry-friendly approach to environmental regulation that she called  cooperative conservation  and pushed the department to open more public land for energy production.

    Norton also backed commercial development of the oil shale reserves buried in the rocks of the Mountain West. Known as  the rock that burns,  oil shale refers to rocks that release liquid petroleum when heated to extreme temperatures. The highly controversial process promises immense fuel production, but environmentalists argue that it contaminates rugged landscapes and drains precious water.

    In early 2006 — following the recommendations of a team representing several federal agencies and states — the department announced that it planned to award Shell three oil shale leases. Norton resigned two months later, saying that she had no job lined up. In December of that year, Shell announced it had hired Norton as in-house counsel to its unconventional fuels division, which includes oil shale.

    The Justice Department, working with Interior Department investigators, is looking into whether Shell received a competitive advantage or other preferential treatment from the Interior Department in the awarding of the leases.

    If [Norton] had feelers out, or was in discussions with Shell in any way, she is absolutely forbidden from participating in any way from doing anything with Shell,  a law enforcement official said.

    The federal government long has sought a cost-effective way to extract the abundant oil resources from Western shale rock.

    Then-Vice President Dick Cheney’s energy task force recommended aggressive steps to encourage private industry to develop such technology. In response, the Bureau of Land Management issued six oil shale  research, development and demonstration  leases. The leases, five in Colorado and one in Utah, granted access to up to 160 acres of federal land apiece to develop shale programs — with an option to increase that to 5,000 acres once a technique proved commercially viable.

    On average, each of those 5,000-acre lease tracts holds an estimated $700-billion worth of recoverable oil (at today’s $70-per-barrel price), said James T. Bartis, a shale expert at Rand. Shell has estimated the costs of recovering the oil at $30 per barrel, leaving a potential profit of about $1 trillion after royalties if all the oil is extracted.

    Shell was the only company to receive more than one tract.

    Shell got some of the best lands  that the government made available, Bartis said.

    At the time, critics accused the Interior Department of undermining a central goal of the leases by awarding three of them to Shell. The leases were meant to allow companies to test distinct methods for extracting shale from rock. But each of Shell’s tracts was granted for a variation of the same process.

    Critics also raised questions about the fairness of the process, given that Shell filed its first lease application just a day after the department issued its call for proposals in June 2005.

    That August, Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which included a provision that changed federal law to allow companies to hold multiple oil shale leases. Interior Department officials said they did not notify potential bidders that the law had changed. Shell, which had lobbied Congress to allow companies to hold more than one lease, quickly filed two more applications, BLM records show.

    No other company applied for more than one lease.

    The lease proposals were evaluated in the fall of 2005 by the interdisciplinary team that included representatives of several Western governors and from the Energy and Defense departments. The team’s recommendations included awarding three leases to Shell.

    The Interior Department investigation initially focused on whether agency officials had improperly assisted Shell and other private-sector companies. Three of the interviewed BLM employees — who all spoke on condition of anonymity because an investigation was ongoing — said the questions investigators posed focused on Norton and her role in the lease process.

    jtankersley@latimes.com

    josh.meyer@latimes.com

    Copyright © 2009, The Los Angeles Times
    Related stories
    Around the Web

    * Gale Norton, Former Interior Secretary, Is Focus Of Corruption Probe|huffingtonpost.com
    * Bush Interior secretary faces corruption probe|chicagotribune.com

    http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-norton17-2009sep17,0,6215749.story

    ***

    Golf balls in the national park: a subpar tribute?
    A Joshua Tree spokesman says a man confessed to throwing up to 3,000 balls into the desert park to honor dead golfers. Rangers, who first noticed quantities of the objects in ’07, see it as littering.
    By David Kelly

    September 17, 2009 | 5:56 p.m.

    A man claiming he was paying tribute to dead golfers tossed up to 3,000 golf balls into the biggest sand trap he could find: Joshua Tree National Park.

    But where 57-year-old Douglas Jones saw commemoration, park rangers saw wholesale littering, and he faces possible jail time and other sanctions.

    Sometime around 2007 our rangers began discovering large quantities of golf balls in some turnout areas of the park,  said park spokesman Joe Zarki.  We were wondering what was going on here. There were also some tennis balls involved.

    Rangers also found cans of fruit and vegetables left in the desert along with park literature tossed around.

    He would collect permits from backcountry permit boxes and throw them all over,  Zarki said.  There was no rhyme or reason to it.

    Rangers finally caught up with the La Quinta man Aug. 17, and he immediately confessed.

    He said he did it because he wanted to honor all the golfers who had died,  Zarki said.  He left the cans of fruit and vegetables supposedly for the assistance of stranded hikers.

    And the park permits and literature?

    He wanted to leave his mark,  Zarki said.

    Contrary to what rangers originally thought, Jones wasn’t chipping golf balls into the desert with a club. He was hurling them from his car.

    The balls, numbering between 2,000 and 3,000, were unlikely to pose a threat unless an animal mistook one for an egg and tried to swallow it, Zarki said. But the cleanup was a different story.

    We estimate we spent about 373 staff hours, or about $9,000, on this case,  he said.

    Jones was cited for littering, feeding wildlife and abandoning property. He will appear before a federal judge later this month. If found guilty, he could be fined, sent to jail or banished from the park.

    Jones was unavailable for comment Thursday. He lives with his 84-year-old father, Douglas, who didn’t know about the incident until a reporter called him.

    It certainly sounds strange,  said his father.  He hikes out in Joshua Tree every three months or so, and he golfs maybe once a week. But I don’t know where he would get that many golf balls.

    He did, however, say that his son works at a local golf course.

    david.kelly@latimes.com

    Copyright © 2009, The Los Angeles Times
    Related stories
    From other L.A. sources

    * Man Litters Joshua Tree Park With 3,000 Golf Balls|cbs2.com

    http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-golf-balls18-2009sep18,0,1155524.story

    ***

    49301840.jpg

    General Atomics of San Diego produces a large quantity of algae in a pool of circulating water. The goal for scientists is to separate the oil from the algae and create a clean biofuel. (Mark Boster / Los Angeles Times)

    ENERGY
    Interest in algae’s oil prospects is growing
    Firms and scientists are racing to figure out how best to separate the oil produced in the organisms for biofuel. The San Diego area has become a hotbed for these efforts that are drawing investors.

    By Tiffany Hsu

    September 17, 2009 | 8:16 a.m.

    To many, algae is little more than pond scum, a nuisance to swimmers and a frustration to boaters.

    But to a growing community of scientists and investors in Southern California, there is oil locked in all that slimy stuff, and several dozen companies are racing to try to figure how best to unleash it and produce an affordable biofuel.

    The companies and several research labs have set up shop in the San Diego area, many of them in an area nicknamed Biotech Beach. There, about 200 biotech companies of all kinds are clustered near La Jolla on the mesa above Torrey Pines State Beach.

    Together, the firms and organizations conducting algae research employ nearly 300 people with more than $16 million in payroll and bring $33 million annually into the local economy, according to the San Diego Assn. of Governments, and local officials see the potential for much more.

    It’s a critical industry, and it’s kind of exploded,  San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders said.  There’s a long pattern of huge companies being spawned out of [UC San Diego] and our other research centers, and it’s going to create a tremendous number of jobs.

    National energy companies are converging on the fledgling industry. Exxon Mobil Corp. announced a $600-million partnership with La Jolla biotech company Synthetic Genomics Inc. in July. San Diego companies General Atomics and Science Applications International Corp. have received nearly $50 million from the Defense Department for algae fuel research.

    Last year, $176 million was invested by venture capitalists to develop biofuel from algae, according to industry publication Biofuels Digest in Miami.

    With the region’s proximity to the ocean and its history with biotech businesses, San Diego is a familiar spot for clean-energy investors, Biofuels Digest editor Jim Lane said.

    It has all the magic conditions for the emergence of business life,  he said.  San Diego wants to be associated with algae, while other cities have other fish to fry and think of algae as just one of many things.

    Supplementing the research is experimental aquaculture, as farming in fresh- and saltwater is known. The arid Imperial Valley to the east is now home to several massive algae farms, one with nearly 400 acres of ponds in all shades of green being swirled by paddles to expose the organisms to more sunlight.

    All of this activity has drawn its share of doubters.

    Skeptics say that it’s a beachcomber’s fantasy, that it’s too costly to cultivate any significant amount of algae, that fuel inside — whether in the form of oil, ethanol, gas or hydrogen — is too expensive to extract or produce on a large scale.

    But in recent years, San Diego, along with Silicon Valley, St. Louis, Seattle and a few other cities, have disregarded the skeptics and emerged as hotbeds of algae biofuel research.

    One of the nascent industry’s major annual events, the 2009 Algae Biomass Summit, is headed to San Diego next month. It is put on by the Algal Biomass Organization, a Preston, Minn., group that seeks to promote commercial uses of algae products.

    Seeking to unite and enhance much of the algae work underway in San Diego County is a new research consortium. It aims to help clear barriers to commercializing algae biofuels by identifying new algae strains and harvesting methods.

    The San Diego Center for Algae Biotechnology was launched in 2008 with 16 founding partners from UC San Diego, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, biofuel companies and more.

    Until recently,  algae has been this complete backwater of scientific research,  said the center’s founding director, Steve A. Kay, who is also dean of biological sciences at UC San Diego.

    But we’ve all woken up with the realization that we are junking the planet.

    Known as  nature’s solar panels,  the  amazingly clever little chemical factories  soak up carbon dioxide and sunlight, which is converted into oil through photosynthesis, Kay said.
    Algae, he said, can be harvested more often and at greater yields than many other potential biofuel crops such as soybeans or grasses.

    Unlike food and several other biofuel sources, algae is being eyed because it can thrive in difficult environments such as salty or polluted water or in the desert, freeing up valuable agricultural space.

    Fuel from the microorganisms has already been tested in airplanes and is being groomed for use at NASA test facilities and in the Navy. Last month, San Diego-based biofuel gorilla Sapphire Energy unveiled its Algaeus plug-in hybrid vehicle, which will run on an algae-based renewable gasoline.

    Scientists also envision using algae for more than just fuel, tapping it instead for fish or livestock feed, antibacterial products, foams for windmill blades and, in one futuristic vision, in cancer therapies.

    In the 1990s, early research into algae biofuels stagnated as oil prices dropped and funding was siphoned off to cancer, AIDS and bioethanol studies, Kay said. Algae is now making a comeback, buoyed by the eco-friendly movement and concerns about dependence on traditional fuels. But the slimy stuff is no magic wand, experts say.

    Expecting algae to make a meaningful dent in fossil fuel usage is still a tall order, experts said. The algal biofuel production process is often lambasted as inefficient by other biofuel competitors.

    We can certainly come very close, but we’re not there yet and I’m not sure when we’ll ever get there,  said John R. Benemann, an algae biofuel consultant with Benemann Associates in Walnut Creek.  It’s a significant challenge to get down to the price point, or even just the ballpark of fossil fuels.

    The problem is translating successful lab experiments to an industrial scale. Mass algae biofuel production could require enormous pools or photobioreactors while growing a proportionally small amount of algae. Technology needs to be developed to systematically extract the oil from the organisms.

    Algae-generated oil currently costs $20 to nearly $33 a gallon to produce, with some estimates soaring to $60. Conventional gasoline costs less than $5 a gallon.

    There’s a valley of death between research and development and commercial development,  said Lisa L. Mortenson, chief executive of Community Fuels in Encinitas.

    Add California’s heavy regulations, and algae biofuel production becomes an even more difficult business proposition, some complained.

    Biofuel companies often have to wade through a tangle of permits, taxes and compliance measures in California. Aquaculture alone requires more than 15 permits, with more for waste disposal and water use.

    The intensity of the algae hype is making some investors wary.

    The majority [of the efforts] are a gigantic hassle of time and capital because they’re trying to make coal out of diamonds,  said David Andresen, a clean-tech investment banker at Oracle Capital Securities.  There’s such a high level of scientific illiteracy in the investment community that you can really wow investors.

    Still, even Andresen is an investor in the industry, working with Kai BioEnergy Corp., a San Diego company named after the Hawaiian word for  ocean.

    Although Kai can produce only about 20 gallons per minute while it needs 300 gallons a minute to be commercially viable on a large scale, Chairman Mario C. Larach is optimistic.

    It’s just a matter of scaling at this point,  he said.  If nature can do it, we can do it.

    tiffany.hsu@latimes.com

    Copyright © 2009, The Los Angeles Times

    http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-algae17-2009sep17,0,1867037.story

    ***

    Lloyds: ‘No Exit From Toxic Debt Scheme’

    6:15pm UK, Thursday September 17, 2009
    The City watchdog is to block Lloyds from exiting the Government’s Asset Protection Scheme, Sky News has learned.

    Lloyds TSB Bank sign in London, England.

    Lloyds has already suffered major writedowns and warned of more to come

    The Financial Services Authority has told Lloyds, whose disastrous takeover of HBOS has seen it write off billions of pounds in bad loans, that it is not prepared to let the bank do without the Government’s insurance scheme.

    Sky News City editor Mark Kleinman said:  This development isn’t entirely unexpected.

    Lloyds has a vast exposure to the UK property market and there is still huge uncertainty about the prospects of the real estate sector.
    Lloyds sought a rescue in the wake of Lehman Brothers collapse a year ago – and is now 43% owned by the taxpayer.

    Jeff Randall Live

    But the HBOS deal crippled Lloyds and the bank has been in lengthy talks over securing state guarantees for losses of some £260bn worth of toxic assets.

    The group has not been happy about the fees associated with the scheme and, after seeing its share price rise, may have been encouraged to go it alone.

    But the FSA’s private judgement that Lloyds should not escape the scheme completely will lead to more questions over the bank’s status.

    It also pushes the prospect of selling off the Government’s share in the bank further into the future.

    Earlier in the summer, rival bank Barclays opted against entering the Government scheme as a means of ring-fencing its toxic debts.

    It chose instead to protect itself from losses by selling a fund management arm to raise fresh capital – and was allowed to do so.

    http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Business/FSA-To-Block-Lloyds-Bank-From-Leaving-Asset-Protection-Scheme-For-Toxic-Debts/Article/200909315383603?lpos=Business_First_Home_Article_Teaser_Region_5&lid=ARTICLE_15383603_FSA_To_Block_Lloyds_Bank_From_Leaving_Asset_Protection_Scheme_For_Toxic_Debts

    ***

    but in a world full of unique combo of colored spots everyone wantes to be a zebra – Kasha
    09-18-09 1.10 amEDT

    **

    My Note –

    I was always wishing I could’ve gone to Harvard or one of those great schools that I read about and watched with admiration. But, I like everyone else assumed they knew more than the average bear without ever getting real tough about it and checking to see if they were making sense. Silly me. Even I wouldn’t have gotten it that wrong to propagate the lie that house prices could only go up and would never go down. ( – among other things.)

    They didn’t know we were in a recession for 18 months and kept saying that there was no indication that things were in any trouble whatsoever. I watched Bernanke sit right there and give his testimony last spring a year ago in Congress, saying that everything was going to be just wonderful with maybe the slightest little contraction in a couple areas.

    If I went to Congress and gave testimony that was that much of a lie, they’d have me arrested and no telling what all would happen to me on top of that as a result. But no, if someone is an alumni of Goldman Sachs or Harvard or Yale or a Republican, for that matter – they can lie and distort reality even right there giving testimony and facts under oath in Congress and it doesn’t cost them a thing. What kind of citizenship is that?

    To be honest, I still admire Harvard and many other University educated individuals along with their specialists in a variety of fields. But, I won’t ever have the same consummate admiration for them that I’ve held all of my life.

    And, I still believe in the Republican principles that are in the foundations of our country but not in the way the Republican conservative right-wing administrations of my lifetime have applied them. Those people were very, very wrong and caused far-reaching harms for everyone except themselves. Unfortunately, most of that will never be fixed either.

    – cricketdiane

    ***

    Faruq Hosni, Egyptian minister of culture

    Wednesday 16 September 2009
    Critics say past anti-Israeli comments make him unfit to lead UNESCO. But Egypt’s long-time culture minister, Faruq Hosni, explains to FRANCE 24 why he thinks he is the best man to head the world’s premier cultural organisation.

    Wednesday 16 September 2009

    By FRANCE 24  (video)

    http://www.france24.com/en/20090916-faruq-hosni-egyptian-minister-culture-interview-unesco-candidate-anti-israel-comments

    ***

    http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&ie=UTF8&hq=37%CC%8A’+51’+21%22+N+95%CC%8A’+21’+24%22+E+loc:&radius=15000.000000&split=1&t=h&msa=0&msid=116238247468961946537.000472b2f44c6802c2a40&ll=37.850035,95.258975&spn=0.006625,0.013626&z=16&lci=com.panoramio.all&iwloc=000473d6c77237cbce891

    Da Qaidam Salt lake, Da Qaidam (Dachaidan) Co., Haixi Autonomous …
    Da Qaidam Salt lake, Da Qaidam (Dachaidan) Co., Haixi Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai (Chinghai) Province, China : Ref.: – Qu Yihua (1981): A preliminary …
    http://www.mindat.org/loc-157217.html – Cached – Similar

    **

    Coordinates: 37°51’21 N   95°21’24 E
    http://wikimapia.org/12397009/Da-Qaidam

    town in western Qinghai
    Category: township Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Qinghai

    **

    Da Qaidam – 412 Brigade
    Ta-ch’ai-tan / Tsaidam
    37°50’N 95°18’E

    China established a nuclear missile deployment and launch site for DF-4 missiles (China’s first ICBM) in the early 1970s to the west of Dhashu (Haiyan) in the Da Qaidam [Tsaidam] basin. The Larger Tsaidam (Da Qaidam) site has two missiles stored horizontally in tunnels near the launch pad. Fuel and oxidiser is stored in separate tunnels with lines to the launch pad. According to the International Campaign for Tibet (ICT) in Washington DC, nuclear missiles are stationed in Small Tsaidam and are only moved to Large Tsaidam in times of emergency. Da Qaidam is one of five location at which a total of between 10 and 20 DF-4s were deployed as of early 1998.

    The facility is probably headquarters for one of the three launch brigades, each with up to three launch battalions, subordinated to the Second Artillery Corps 80306 Unit, a Division headquartered in Xining, Qinghai province. The 80306 Unit is able to target sites in the former Soviet Union and India, and indications exist that the 80306 Unit may upgrade to the DF-21. Da Qaidam [Large Tsaidam] has been identified as the location of this Brigade headquarters. The reported relationship between Da Qaidam and Xiao Qaidam, notably the disposition of nuclear warheads, might suggest that the Xiao Qaidam facility is the primary location for this unit. However, the apparent Chinese practice of locating headquarters units separately from operational weapons locations, as seen with Second Artillery Corps Division headquarters locations, would appear to confirm Da Qaidam as the probable location for the Brigade headquarters.

    Sources and Resources

    * Nuclear Weapons on the Tibetan Plateau By Tsultrim Palden Dekhang The Office of Tibet 9-Oct-1998
    * CHINA’S STRATEGIC MODERNIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES Mark A. Stokes [U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute] — September 1999
    * Taking Stock – Worldwide Nuclear Deployments 1998 NRDC March 1998
    http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/facility/da_qaidam.htm

    n38e95.gif

    ***

    Green Earthquake Alert in China
    Summary

    On 9/2/2009 4:13:08 AM UTC an earthquake of magnitude 4.5 and depth 10km has struck an sparsely populated area in the Qinghai Province (population: 4.9 million) in China. GDACS estimates the likelihood for need of international humanitarian intervention to be low (Green alert).

    This earthquake can have a low humanitarian impact since the affected region is sparsely populated and has medium resilience for natural disasters.

    The earthquake 12km from the city of Da Qaidam Zhen. The nearest populated places are Datouyang (19km), Da Qaidam (17km). It is a mountainous region with a maximum altitude of 5579 m.
    Humanitarian Impact     impact
    Population resilience     vul
    Tsunami probability     tsunami
    Landslide probability     slope
    Nuclear radiation probability     radiation

    Caution: this information is based on risk models. Whether international humanitarian aid is needed must be decided by an expert.

    This report was automatically updated by a computer on: 9/2/2009 4:47:19 AM UTC (34 minutes after the event)

    Explanation of alert calculation: Show

    The impact model combines magnitude (M), population within 100km (P) and vulnerability/resilience ECHO average score (V) using the formula:
    alertscore = max(M-4.5,0) * log10(max(P / 80000,0))^ 0.5 * max(V,0.5) ^ 1.5 / 3
    The weighted product of magnitude (4.5), population (19064) and vulnerability (1.63) results in an alertscore of 0
    Then alert is Red if alertscore>2, Orange if alertscore>1 and Green if alertscore<=1.

    Google map         Population map
    poplegendPopulation Density near epicenter (people/km2). Image area: 6×4 decimal degrees (approx. 650x450km2).
    population map
    Earthquake epicentre: best estimate eq_logo    previous estimates: eq_icon
    Map data ©2009 NFGIS, Europa Technologies – Terms of Use
    Map
    Satellite
    Hybrid
    Earthquake Event
    Geological map
    geological map
    Characteristics for this report
    Information source     World Data Centre for Seismology, Denver (NEIC)
    Link to source event report (us2009lbal)
    Magnitude     4.5 M
    Depth     10 km
    Location

    Geographic coordinates (latitude/longitude): 37.9422, 95.4362
    China , Qinghai Province (population: 4938862).
    Seismic region: Northern Qinghai.

    The earthquake happened in China , Qinghai Province (population: 4938862). , 12km from the city of Da Qaidam Zhen. The nearest populated places are Datouyang (19km), Da Qaidam (17km).

    It is a mountainous region with a maximum altitude of 5579 m.
    Time     time 9/2/2009 4:13:08 AM (UTC, Universal Standard Time)
    9/2/2009 10:34:53 AM (Estimated local solar time)
    Wed, 9/2/2009 05:13 CET (Brussels, Paris, Rome)
    Tue, 9/1/2009 23:13 EST (New York, Washington)
    Tue, 9/1/2009 20:13 PST (San Francisco, Los Angeles)
    Wed, 9/2/2009 12:13 AWST (Australian Western Standard Time)
    Previous reports for this earthquake.
    Earthquake report    Tsunami report    Event Date/Time    Lat/Lon    Magnitude    Depth (km)    Source    Publication Date/Time    Delay
    64822        9/2/2009 4:13:08 AM UTC    37.9422, 95.4362    4.5    10    NEIC (us2009lbal)    9/2/2009 4:47:19 AM UTC    34min
    64823        9/2/2009 4:13:07 AM UTC    37.8437, 95.4867    4.5    10    NEIC (us2009lbal)    9/2/2009 5:20:53 AM UTC    67min
    Earthquake Impact Details
    Potentially affected People

    The population in the area of this earthquake if 1 people/km². (Data source).

    The earthquake occurred at 10h local time. At this time a day, more people are at work and therefore more vulnerable to collapsing office buildings. During traffic hours, people can be affected by collapsing bridges and other road infrastructure.
    Population Data
    Radius (km)     Population     Density (people/km²)
    1     0      0
    2     0      0
    5     0      0
    10     30      0
    20     8016      6
    50     10784      1
    100     19064      0
    200     242729      1
    Damage

    The affected region has low level of urban area (0%) and a low level of cultivated area (0%). In urban areas more damage can be expected than in cultivated or natural areas. (Data source)
    Radius (km)    urban areas    cultivated areas    other
    200     0.01%     0.01%     99.97%
    100     0.01%     0%     99.98%
    50     0.06%     0%     99.93%
    10     0%     0%     1000%
    Resilience and Vulnerability

    Resilience is the capacity of the population to cope with a hazard. Since much of investments in earthquake preparedness and available funds for quick response is related to household income, the GDP per capita can be used as a rough indicator of resilience.

    China has a GDP per capita of 768 PPP$ (Parity Purchasing Power Dollar, about 1 Euro) and is therefore part of the medium level income countries. Therefore, the earthquake happened in an area of medium resilience.

    Based on the combination of 9 indicators, ECHO attributes China a medium vulnerability.
    ECHO Intervention Priority Ranking for China
    vulnerabilitylevel
    Overall situation
    Human Development     hdi
    Human Poverty     hpi
    Exposure to Major Disasters
    Natural Disasters     natdis
    Conflicts     conflicts
    Humanitarian effects of population movement
    Refugees     refugees
    Internally Displaced People     idps
    Health and Nutrition
    Undernourishment     food
    Mortality rates     under5
    Donor contributions
    Official Development assistance     ODA
    Source ECHO
    Key: bad Bad – medium Medium – good Good – nodata No data
    Exposure

    Both conditions for survival and conditions for delivering aid strongly depend on the current weather and temperature. The following graphs show the current and forecast weather.

    Current weather conditions and forecasts at earthquake location (lat: 37.9422 – long: 95.4362) (Data source).

    Temperature chart currently not available. Try to refresh page.
    Precipitation chart currently not available. Try to refresh page.
    Cloud cover chart currently not available. Try to refresh page.
    Probability of Secondary effects

    slopelevel Landslides: The maximum slope in the area of the earthquake is 42.941% and the maximum altitude is 5579 m. Since this is a medium slope, the risk of earthquake induced landslides is medium. Note, however, that the slope data is not reliable on a local scale, while landslides depend very much on local topography, soil and meteorological conditions. More…
    Critical infrastructure

    The following critical infrastructure is nearby and could be affected by the earthquake:

    * nuclevel Nuclear power plants: There are no nuclear facilities nearby the epicenter.
    * damlevel Hydrodams: There are no hydrodam facilities nearby the epicenter.

    The distance to nuclear installations is evaluated based on a 1999 UN dataset containing the location of nuclear plants in the world. If plants are near and the earthquake magnitude is above 6.5, the alert is set to orange. Note that the location of plants is approximate with errors of up to 100km.
    Getting there and away

    The nearest civilian airport (Golmud) is at 126km from the epicenter. Other airports are: Golmud West (181km), Golmud (126km)

    Ports nearby are: [None]
    Disclaimer

    While we try everything to ensure accuracy, this information is purely indicative and should not be used for any decision making without alternate sources of information. The JRC is not responsible for any damage or loss resulting from the use of the information presented on this website.

    http://www.gdacs.org/reports.asp?eventType=EQ&ID=64822&system=asgard&location=CHN&alertlevel=Green

    ***

    neic_lsat.jpg

    Magnitude 5.1 NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
    Friday, September 18, 2009 at 07:02:12 UTC

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_lsat_l.html

    neic_lsat_s.jpg

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_lsat_h.html

    neic_lsat_7.jpg

    MAP     5.1      2009/09/18 07:02:13       37.633       95.589      10.0      NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
    MAP     5.0      2009/09/18 06:53:50       37.715       95.593     10.0      NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    MAP     4.8      2009/09/18 00:43:27       37.616       95.562      12.5      NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    MAP     5.0      2009/09/17 09:24:20       37.661       95.902      10.0      NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    none on 09-16-09
    none on 09-15-09

    none on 09-14-09
    none on 09-13-09

    none on 09-12-09
    none on 09-11-09

    ***

    neic_lsat_tt.gif

    This map shows the predicted (theoretical) travel times, in minutes, of the compressional (P) wave from the earthquake location to points around the globe. The travel times are computed using the spherically-symmetric IASP91 reference earth velocity model. The heavy black lines shown are the approximate distances to the P-wave shadow zone (103 to 140 degrees).
    Theoretical P-Wave Travel Times City     Distance
    (degrees)     Travel Time
    (min:secs)     Arrival Time
    UTC     Phase
    Kathmandu, Nepal     13.14    3:06.6    7:05:18.6    Pn
    Beijing, China     16.41    3:50.4    7:06:02.4    Pn
    Tokyo, Japan     35.24    6:54.5    7:09:06.5    P
    Moscow, Russia     42.26    7:53.4    7:10:05.4    P
    Agana, Guam     49.77    8:52.6    7:11:04.6    P
    Bergen, Norway     58.28    9:54.7    7:12:06.7    P
    Rome, Italy     61.60    10:17.6    7:12:29.6    P
    London, England     64.87    10:39.3    7:12:51.3    P
    Nairobi, Kenya     66.53    10:50.1    7:13:02.1    P
    Anchorage, Alaska     68.13    11:00.2    7:13:12.2    P
    Brisbane, Australia     84.22    12:31.7    7:14:43.7    P
    Seattle, Washington     88.48    12:52.6    7:15:04.6    P
    Honolulu, Hawaii     89.52    12:57.4    7:15:09.4    P
    Duluth, Minnesota     95.72    13:26.0    7:15:38.0    P
    Bangor, Maine     96.75    13:30.6    7:15:42.6    P
    Ottawa, Canada     96.97    13:31.6    7:15:43.6    P
    San Francisco, California     97.18    13:32.5    7:15:44.5    P
    Boston, Massachusetts     99.50    13:42.9    7:15:54.9    Pdiff
    Golden, Colorado     100.67    13:48.1    7:16:00.1    Pdiff
    New York, New York     101.46    13:51.6    7:16:03.6    Pdiff
    Los Angeles, California     102.05    13:54.2    7:16:06.2    Pdiff
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania     102.34    13:55.5    7:16:07.5    Pdiff
    Washington, D.C.     103.56    14:00.9    7:16:12.9    Pdiff
    St. Louis, Missouri     103.90    14:02.4    7:16:14.4    Pdiff
    Wichita, Kansas     104.04    14:03.0    7:16:15.0    Pdiff
    Phoenix, Arizona     104.75    14:06.2    7:16:18.2    Pdiff
    Albuquerque, New Mexico     104.78    14:06.3    7:16:18.3    Pdiff
    Wellington, New Zealand     106.70    14:14.8    7:16:26.8    Pdiff
    Knoxville, Tennessee     106.80    14:15.3    7:16:27.3    Pdiff
    Brownsville, Texas     115.63    14:54.5    7:17:06.5    Pdiff
    Miami, Florida     116.82    14:59.8    7:17:11.8    Pdiff
    Mexico City, Mexico     121.59    15:20.9    7:17:32.9    Pdiff
    San Juan, Puerto Rico     121.60    15:21.0    7:17:33.0    Pdiff
    Palmer Station, Antarctica     147.72    19:42.6    7:21:54.6    PKPdf
    Lima, Peru     153.74    19:52.2    7:22:04.2    PKPdf

    Travel Time Information and Calculator

    Preliminary Earthquake Report
    U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center
    World Data Center for Seismology, Denver
    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_lsat_t.html

    ***

    Phase Data

    Explanation of Parameters

    18 SEP 2009  (261)

    ot  = 07:02:12.90   +/-   0.69              NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
    lat =      37.633   +/-    6.9
    lon =      95.589   +/-    6.4              MAGNITUDE 5.1 (GS)
    dep =        10.0  (geophysicist)

    35 km (20 miles) SE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China (pop 63,000)
    155 km (95 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China (pop 50,000)
    1815 km (1130 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, China

    nph =   48 of  48    se = 0.34    FE=325                            A

    error ellipse = ( 40.0,  0.0, 10.4;130.0,  0.0,  6.7;  0.0,  0.0,  0.0)

    mb = 5.1 ( 39)  ML = 0.0 (  0)  mblg = 3.6 (  7)  md = 0.0 (  0)  MS = 4.6 ( 10)

    sta  phase     arrival     res   dist azm    amp  per mag     amp  per mag  sta
    MKAR ePn     07:05:22.15  -1.4   13.4 317                                   MKAR
    TKM2 ePn     07:05:58.42  -1.5   16.1 295 g:1.0-2 1.0 3.5  b:3.7+1 .75 4.6  TKM2
    AAK  ePn     07:06:09.36   0.0   16.9 293 g:2.0-2 1.2 3.7  b:2.3+1 .80 4.4  AAK
    EKS2 ePn     07:06:15.91   0.0   17.4 293 g:2.0-2 1.2 3.6  b:9.2+1 2.0 4.6  EKS2
    CHTO ePn     07:06:35.11  -0.1   19.0 170 g:0.0+0 1.0 2.8  b:3.7+2 2.9 5.1  CHTO
    KKAR ePn     07:06:46.14   0.7   19.8 293                                   KKAR
    KBL  eP      07:07:04.34   0.6   21.6 269 b:5.0+1 1.1 4.8                   KBL
    VOSK eP      07:07:15.39  -0.5   22.8 319 b:1.5+2 1.8 5.2                   VOSK
    BRVK eP      07:07:20.11  -1.4   23.3 319 b:2.0+1 .90 4.7                   BRVK
    SSLB eP      07:07:43.51   0.1   25.7 115 b:3.0+1 1.0 4.9                   SSLB
    ABKAReP      07:08:05.32   0.5   28.1 305                                   ABKA
    ASAJ eP      07:09:11.03  -0.6   35.7  64 b:1.1+1 .90 4.7                   ASAJ
    KKM  eP      07:09:19.44  -0.2   36.6 144 b:5.5+1 1.0 5.3                   KKM
    SBUM eP      07:09:33.71   0.8   38.2 152 b:3.1+1 1.0 5.0                   SBUM
    KSM  eP      07:09:35.20   0.2   38.5 155 b:1.7+1 .70 4.9                   KSM
    KIEV eP      07:10:50.12  -0.2   47.8 308 b:9.6+0 1.0 4.8                   KIEV
    MORC eP      07:11:46.44   0.1   55.2 309 b:1.6+1 1.5 4.8                   MORC
    IDI  eP      07:11:49.04  -0.2   55.6 290 b:1.1+1 .90 4.9                   IDI
    DPC  eP      07:11:51.51   1.6   55.7 310 b:4.2+2 2.4 6.0                   DPC
    FITZ eP      07:12:34.07  -0.8   62.3 147 b:2.6+1 1.0 5.3                   FITZ
    MBWA eP      07:12:38.06  -0.2   62.8 154 b:4.5+1 1.0 5.6                   MBWA
    IMA2 eP      07:12:45.25  -0.1   63.8  25                                   IMA2
    COLD eP      07:12:48.48   0.3   64.2  23 b:1.6+1 .96 5.2                   COLD
    CAST eP      07:12:58.12  -0.8   65.9  27 b:7.5+0 .88 4.9                   CAST
    BPAW eP      07:12:58.99   0.1   65.9  26 b:1.8+1 1.0 5.2                   BPAW
    SVW2 eP      07:12:59.01   0.0   65.9  30 b:2.1+1 1.1 5.2                   SVW2
    PPLA eP      07:13:00.82  -0.1   66.2  27 b:7.2+1 1.4 5.7                   PPLA
    COLA eP      07:13:02.34  -0.2   66.4  24 b:1.6+1 1.0 5.2                   COLA
    RSO  eP      07:13:09.02   0.1   67.4  29                                   RSO
    PMR  eP      07:13:12.51  -0.4   68.1  27 b:1.9+1 1.0 5.2                   PMR
    BMRM eP      07:13:25.96   0.1   70.1  26 b:2.1+1 .96 5.2                   BMRM
    HYT  eP      07:13:41.50   0.3   72.7  24                                   HYT
    FORT eP      07:13:51.44  -0.2   74.6 151 b:9.5+1 1.1 5.7                   FORT
    SKAG eP      07:13:51.77   0.5   74.4  24 b:1.2+1 .96 4.9                   SKAG
    CTAO eP      07:13:51.89  -0.5   74.7 131 b:3.1+1 1.1 5.3                   CTAO
    STKA eP      07:14:29.09  -0.7   81.5 141 b:4.2+0 1.0 4.4                   STKA
    EIDS eP      07:14:30.37  -0.1   81.6 131 b:1.7+1 1.0 5.0                   EIDS
    EDM  eP      07:14:52.82  -1.0   86.0  16                                   EDM
    B08A eP      07:15:07.45  -0.1   88.8  22 b:3.9+1 2.0 5.3                   B08A
    NEW  eP      07:15:11.32   0.3   89.5  21 b:1.0+1 1.2 4.9                   NEW
    C09A eP      07:15:11.55   0.2   89.6  22 b:1.1+1 1.0 5.1                   C09A
    BLMT eP      07:15:16.48   0.6   90.5  19                                   BLMT
    JTMT eP      07:15:17.04   0.1   90.8  19                                   JTMT
    SWMT eP      07:15:18.36   0.0   91.1  19                                   SWMT
    F10A eP      07:15:21.02   0.4   91.6  22 b:8.5+1 2.7 5.6                   F10A
    MSO  eP      07:15:21.45   0.1   91.7  19 b:2.8+1 1.8 5.3                   MSO
    J08A eP      07:15:29.67   0.0   93.5  24 b:4.8+0 1.0 4.8                   J08A
    IMW  eP      07:15:37.55  -0.2   95.2  18 b:3.9+0 1.0 4.8                   IMW

    Generated 2009 SEP 18 at 07:23 UTC

    Preliminary Earthquake Report
    U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center
    World Data Center for Seismology, Denver

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_lsat_p.html

    ***

    intensity.jpg
    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/shakemap/global/shake/2009kzaw/

    ***

    24418330.jpg
    World Map China Qinghai Da Qaidam
    by kingfan

    This photo is selected for Google Earth [?] – ID: 24418330
    4 km from Da Qaidam, Qinghai (China)

    37° 52′ 18.80  N 95° 14′ 48.20  E
    Uploaded the 2009-07-13 03:59:13

    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/24418330

    ***

    24417034.jpg
    World Map China Qinghai Babao

    by kingfan

    This photo is selected for Google Earth [?] – ID: 24417034
    near Babao, Qinghai (China)

    38° 10′ 36.00  N 100° 14′ 59.91  E
    Uploaded the 2009-07-13 03:14:51
    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/24417034

    ***

    MAP     5.1      2009/09/18 07:02:13       37.633       95.589      10.0      NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
    MAP     5.0      2009/09/18 06:53:50       37.715       95.593     10.0      NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    MAP     4.8      2009/09/18 00:43:27       37.616       95.562      12.5      NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    MAP     5.0      2009/09/17 09:24:20       37.661       95.902      10.0      NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    none on 09-16-09
    none on 09-15-09

    none on 09-14-09
    none on 09-13-09

    none on 09-12-09
    none on 09-11-09

    ***

    2009/09/10  00:20:12     37.66N     95.90E     10     5.1     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **
    2009 – 09 – 09
    2009 – 09 – 08
    2009 – 09 – 07
    2009 – 09 – 06

    **

    2009/09/05  08:59:22     37.88N     95.72E     10     4.2     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **

    2009/09/04  08:12:57     37.63N     95.72E     10     4.3     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **

    2009 – 09 – 03   – none

    **

    2009/09/02  04:13:06     37.72N     95.57E     10     4.5     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **

    2009/09/01  10:06:53     37.71N     95.55E     10     4.8     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/09/01  00:16:05     37.68N     95.88E     10     4.8     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **

    2009/08/31  22:33:24     37.51N     95.91E     10     4.1     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/31  22:27:51     37.69N     95.93E     10     5.0     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/31  21:51:37     37.64N     95.91E     10     5.2     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/31  10:15:30     37.69N     95.89E     10     5.7     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **

    2009/08/30  17:15:50     37.66N     95.63E     10     5.2     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/30  16:41:36     37.69N     95.60E     17     4.5     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/30  04:11:24     37.67N     95.63E     10     4.3     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **

    2009/08/29  18:43:51     37.63N     95.68E     10     5.2     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **

    2009/08/28  16:28:41     37.62N     95.70E     10     5.3     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  10:13:59     37.70N     95.67E     10     4.9     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  05:58:30     37.75N     95.72E     15     4.0     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  04:46:07     37.67N     95.69E     10     4.4     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  04:41:46     37.70N     95.61E     10     4.6     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  04:28:41     37.66N     95.76E     12     4.9     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  04:12:41     37.68N     95.64E     10     4.5     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  03:15:15     37.60N     95.75E     10     4.2     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  02:42:29     37.63N     95.76E     10     4.4     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  02:32:19     37.67N     95.82E     10     4.0     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  02:30:18     37.66N     95.77E     10     4.5     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  02:16:08     37.68N     95.76E     17     5.5     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  02:14:56     37.64N     95.71E     3     5.6     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    2009/08/28  01:52:06     37.70N     95.70E     13     6.2     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **

    2009 – 08 – 27
    2009 – 08 – 26
    2009 – 08 – 25
    2009 – 08 – 24
    2009 – 08 – 23
    2009 – 08 – 22
    2009 – 08 – 21
    2009 – 08 – 20

    **

    2009/08/19  12:31:07     37.71N     94.42E     10     4.9     NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA

    **
    [from – ]
    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/qed/

    thirty.gif

    Recent Earthquakes – Last 8-30 Days

    ****

    Strong EQ Strikes Northern Qinghai, China

    Posted by feww on August 28, 2009
    Magnitude 6.2 earthquake shakes Northern Qinghai, China, followed by large aftershocks

    Strong Earthquake measuring 6.2 Mw struck Northern Qinghai, China, about 35 km ESE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China, at a depth of 10 km, on Friday, August 28, 2009 at 01:52 UTC, USGS EHP reported.

    The earthquake was followed by at least 4 large aftershocks at the time of writing, two of which measured 5.6 Mw.

    Based on FEWW analysis, the earthquake may have been as powerful as a magnitude 6.9 shock, possibly larger, and probably misreported by USGS EHP.

    China’s official news agency (Xinhua) reported the event as follows:

    6.4-magnitude earthquake jolts NW China

    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-08/28/content_11957440.htm

    XINING, Aug. 28 (Xinhua) — An earthquake measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale struck the remote Qinghai Province in northwest China at 9:52 a.m. Friday, the China Earthquake Administration said, but no casualties have been reported.

    A total of 128 aftershocks had been registered by 11 a.m. near the epicenter in the Da Qaidam (also known as Dachaidan) district in the Mongolian-Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Haixi, with the strongest measuring 5.3 magnitude that struck at 10:14, according to the Qinghai Provincial Seismological Network.

    “So far, we have not received reports of casualties or house collapses,” the provincial government said in a statement.

    “The governments of the province, the Haixi prefecture and Golmud City have sent staff to investigate,” it said.

    The epicenter, at 37.6 degrees north and 95.8 east, was about 140 km away from Delingha City, the capital of the Haixi prefecture, and about 160 km away from Golmud, another major city in Haixi, according to the China Earthquake Administration.

    The quake was strongly felt in both cities, the administration said.

    The China Earthquake Administration, the National Disaster Reduction Committee and the Ministry of Civil Affairs have all sent staff to the quake-hit region for relief work.

    Da Qaidam is a sparsely populated district with an average altitude of 4,000 meters and about 16,000 people, including Mongolians, Tibetans, Muslim Hui and Han. The district covers 34,000 square km and administers three townships.

    Da Qaidam, which literally means “a big salt lake” in Mongolian, is rich in mineral resources, with one of the largest lead-zinc mines in western China and several coal mines. [Emphasis added by Moderator.]

    On Nov. 10 last year, a 6.3-magnitude quake struck Da Qaidam but did not cause casualties. The quake only toppled several huts and caused cracks in the walls of some mud houses.

    In April 2003, a 6.6-magnitude quake hit the same region but did not cause casualties, either, and only damaged old buildings. Editor: Anne Tang – copyright the news agency.

    FEWW strongly believes that this earthquake was triggered by human activity, especially the extensive mining operations in the region.
    10-degree Map Centered at 40°N,95°E

    N QINGHAI, CHINA
    Earthquake Location Map. Original map: USGS EHP. Image upgraded by FEWW.

    * Magnitude: 6.2
    * Date-Time: Friday, August 28, 2009 at 01:52:06 UTC
    * Location: 37.721°N, 95.684°E
    * Depth: 10 km (6.2 miles)
    * Region: NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
    * Distances:
    o 35 km (20 miles) ESE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China
    o 165 km (100 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China
    o 1815 km (1120 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, China
    * Location Uncertainty: horizontal +/- 8.1 km (5.0 miles); depth fixed by location program
    * Parameters: NST= 79, Nph= 79, Dmin=>999 km, Rmss=0.92 sec, Gp= 94°, M-type=teleseismic moment magnitude (Mw), Version=7
    * Source: USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
    * Event ID: us2009kwaf

    Historic Seismicity (Magnitude 7+ since 1900)
    qinghai seismic hist
    Major Tectonic Boundaries: Subduction Zones -purple, Ridges -red and Transform Faults -green

    In November 2008, a mainshock measuring 6.3 Mw struck Da Qaidam area, followed by a swarm of aftershocks with the three largest shocks measuring 5.4, 5.2 and 5Mw.

    Related Links:

    * Earthquakes [Links Page]
    * China Quake 1st Anniversary
    * Powerful Quake, Strong Aftershocks Hit China’s W. Xizang
    * Another Deadly Earthquake Cluster Hits China
    * China Quake Kills 9,000

    This entry was posted on August 28, 2009 at 4:26 am and is filed under China earthquake, Earthquakes, Seismic Hazard, Seismic event, earthquake report, seismic activity report. Tagged: China quake, Da Qaidam earthquake, Earthquake Clusters, mining related earthquake, Northern Qinghai quake, Worldwide Earthquakes. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.
    2 Responses to “Strong EQ Strikes Northern Qinghai, China”

    1.
    feww said
    August 31, 2009 at 12:15 pm

    10th strong aftershock shakes Northern Qinghai, China
    Magnitude 5.8
    Date-Time: Monday, August 31, 2009 at 10:15:30 UTC [Monday, August 31, 2009 at 06:15:30 PM at epicenter]
    Location: 37.697°N, 95.899°E
    Depth: 10 km (6.2 miles)
    Region: NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
    Distances:
    +55 km (35 miles) ESE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China
    +170 km (105 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China
    +1800 km (1110 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, China
    Location Uncertainty: horizontal +/- 5.4 km (3.4 miles);
    Parameters NST= 99, Nph= 99, Dmin=>999 km, Rmss=0.93 sec, Gp= 40°, M-type=teleseismic moment magnitude (Mw), Version=7
    Source: USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
    Event ID: us2009kzaw

    Note: Unless a great seismic event [magnitude of about 7.8 to 8.2] is about to occur close to this ‘aftershock,’ the reported details of this event seem to be inconsistent with the magnitude of Friday’s mainshock [6.2 Mw.]
    See also FEWW comments in the main post.

    see also FEWW comment in the main enrty:
    Reply
    *
    feww said
    September 1, 2009 at 2:39 am

    USGS Earthquake Hazards Program has for a 2nd time downgraded the aftershock to a magnitude 5.6, presumably in an effort to make sense of their initial “error.”
    Reply

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    http://feww.wordpress.com/2009/08/28/strong-eq-strikes-northern-qinghai-china/

    n-qinghai-china.jpg

    ***

    Mafia Solves Nuclear Waste Problem

    Posted by feww on September 16, 2009
    Nuclear Waste Disposal Doesn’t Have to Be So Expensive: Mafia

    The enterprising corporate arm of Mafia has found an answer ( ) to the age old problem of energy growth: Go Nuclear

    And don’t worry about the astronomical cost of “disposing” of the permanent waste. They will dump it in the ocean for you at premium prices.

    Italian authorities have located the wreck of a vessel with 180 barrels of toxic waste on board, which they say was sunk by the mafia, off the south coast of Italy. The sunken ship  is reported to be one of more than 30 scuttled by Cosa Nostra.

    ansa photo
    Photo: ANSA.it. Image may be subject to copyright.

    Italian officials say the 110-meter long sunken vessel, which lay in 500 meters of water in the Tyrrhenian sea,  may contain radioactive waste, a report said.

    The ship’s location was revealed by Francesco Fonti, an ex-member of Calabria’s feared ‘Ndrangheta crime group, who confessed to using explosives to sink this vessel and two others.

    The ship lay less than 28  km off the coast of Calabria in southwestern Italy, and was filmed by a remote-controlled submarine. A short video is available at:  toxic dump.

    Video images show an empty barrel lay on the seabed, which appears to have fallen out of a gaping hole in the sunken vessel’s damaged hull.

    “There could be problems of toxins and heavy metals … this is an issue for the whole international community,” Silvestro Greco, head of Calabria’s environment agency, was reported as saying..

    Greco said investigators believed there were 32 ships carrying toxic waste sunk by the mafia since the introduction of tighter environmental legislation in the 1980s made illegal waste disposal a lucrative business for crime groups.

    “The Mediterranean is 0.7 percent of the world’s seas. If in this tiny portion there are more than 30 (toxic waste) shipwrecks, imagine what there could be elsewhere,” he said.

    Related News Links:

    * Toxic shipwreck calls for action
    * Mafia ’sank nuclear waste ship’
    * Italy finds wreck of toxic waste ship sunk by mafia

    Related FEWW Links:

    * STOP Killing Our Oceans
    * Back from the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch”
    * The Garbage Patch [You Tube Video]
    * Algalita Photo Gallery
    * Pt. 1 “Plastic in the Ocean” Interview with Capt. Charles Moore [You Tube Video]
    * Pt. 2 “Plastic in the Ocean” Interview with Dr. Marcus Eriksen

    * WILD FACTS SERIES: Our Oceans Are Dying

    * Southern Ocean already losing ability to absorb CO2
    * Oceans, Where Life Started, Are Dying – Part IV :  Researchers found evidence of corrosive water about 20 miles off the west coast of North America from Canada to Mexico.
    * Human carbon emissions make oceans corrosive : ‘Carbon dioxide spewed by human activities has made ocean water so acidic that it is eating away at the shells and skeletons of starfish, coral, clams and other sea creatures …’
    * The Eight Steps that Help Kill More of Our Fish : How Your Car’s Exhaust Emissions Helps Create Dead Zones and Kill Our Fish.
    * Global warming could starve oceans of oxygen: study : Areas of the eastern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with low amounts of dissolved oxygen have expanded in the past 50 years, apparently in line with rising temperatures.
    * The Floating Toxic Garbage Island : A patch of garbage twice as large as the continental United States and dubbed the Great Pacific Garbage Patch floats in the middle of the Pacific Ocean in North Pacific Gyre.
    * Oceans, Where Life Started, Are Dying – Part III : Tourism: The Most Destructive Human Activity After Warfare
    * Oceans, Where Life Started, Are Dying – Part II : Major Problems: Fertilizer Runoff; Tourism; Coastal Developments [and Ocean Warming due to climate change]
    * Oceans, Where Life Started, Are Dying – Part I : Our Oceans Are Now Dying

    * “Climate Engineering” Best Option: Economists
    * New Stars Are Born
    * Seeking Toxic Asylum
    * Naples Garbage Opera – Act II
    * Naples Garbage: First Commercial Dividends
    * Naples: The Triangle of Death

    * Italy: Submerged in Floodwaters, Sinking in Garbage
    * Collapsing Cities
    * Nessun dorma (None Shall Sleep)
    * The $500-a-barrel professors
    * Out of the Italian Mafia Frying Pan, Into the Swiss Mafia Fire

    This entry was posted on September 16, 2009 at 1:48 am and is filed under Calabria, Silvestro Greco, Tyrrhenian sea, coast of Italy, dumping at sea. Tagged: Cosa Nostra, dying oceans, italian mafia, killing our oceans, Nuclear Waste Disposal, Nuclear Waste Problem, Silvio Berlusconi. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

    http://feww.wordpress.com/2009/09/16/mafia-solves-nuclear-waste-problem/
    ansa-photo.jpg

    ***

    note on the sidebar of this site above –
    #
    Caution
    All technical information and scientific data released by US Government agencies (e.g., NASA, EPA…) are subject to sudden variation because of political expediency. This caution also extends to the fidelity of the information provided by UN organizations (e.g., FAO, WHO…).

    ***

    Earthquake Jolts Northern China’s Qinghai Province
    The city of Delingha and its neighboring areas in northern part of <a href=http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/data/province/qinghai.html target=_blank>Qinghai</a> province, northwest China, were hit by an earthquake measuring 6.6 on the Richter scale at 8:48 a.m. Thursday.
    <BR><BR>So far, there have been no immediate reports of damage or injury.
    <BR><BR>The epicenter was approximately 50 kilometers from Delingha at 37.5 degrees north 96.8 degrees east, according to a source with China’s Seismological Forecast Network Thursday.
    <BR><BR>The city of Delingha was shaken violently, and minor shocks were felt at Golmud and other adjacent areas. And cracks were visible on some houses in Dachaidan town in the vicinity.
    <BR><BR>An investigative team from the Qinghai Provincial Seismological Bureau has rushed to the quake affected areas to look into the situation.
    <BR><BR>The far western region of <a href=http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/data/province/xinjiang.html target=_blank>Xinjiang</a>, which borders Qinghai to the northwest, was hit Feb. 24 by a powerful quake of magnitude 6.8 that killed 268 people.
    <BR><BR></SPAN><BR>

    http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200304/17/eng20030417_115341.shtml

    ***

    Qaidam
    Un article de Wikipédia, l’encyclopédie libre. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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    Situation du bassin du Qaidam Status of the Qaidam Basin

    Le bassin du Qaidam , ou du Tsaidam , est une région désertique du nord du plateau tibétain , située dans la préfecture de Haixi de la province chinoise du Qinghai , et appartenant à l’ancienne province traditionnelle tibétaine de l’ Amdo . The Qaidam Basin, or Tsaidam is a desert region of northern plateau Tibet is situated in the Prefecture of Haixi province China’s Qinghai, and belonging to the ancient traditional Tibetan province of the Amdo. Son nom provient probablement de tsa’i dam , qui signifie en mongol et en tibétain , « marais salé ». Its name probably derives from Tsa’ir dam, which means in Mongolian and Tibetan,  salt marsh .
    Sommaire Summary
    [masquer]

    * 1 Géographie 1 Geography
    * 2 Climat 2 Climate
    * 3 Histoire 3 History
    * 4 Population 4 Population
    * 5 Économie 5 Economy
    * 6 Installations militaires 6 Military installations
    * 7 Notes et références 7 Notes and references
    * 8 Voir aussi 8 See also
    o 8.1 Articles connexes 8.1 Article Related
    o 8.2 Liens externes 8.2 External Links

    [ modifier ] Géographie [Edit] Geography
    Paysage typique de steppe désertique sur la bordure nord du bassin du Qaidam Landscape typical steppe desert on the northern edge of Qaidam Basin

    Le bassin du Qaidam se situe à une altitude comprise entre 2 600 et 3 300 m , sur le plateau du Qinghai-Tibet, et est entouré de chaînes montagneuses dont certaines atteignent 6 000 m d’altitude. The Qaidam Basin is located at altitudes between 2 600 and 3 300 m on the Qinghai-Tibet, and is surrounded by mountain ranges, some reaching 6 000 m altitude. Il est limité au sud par les monts Kunlun , au nord par l’ Altun Shan (ou Altyn-Tagh ) et le Nan Shan , et s’étend à l’est jusqu’aux voisinages du lac Kokonor . It is bounded on the south by the Kunlun Mountains to the north by the Altun Shan (or Altyn-Tagh) and Nan Shan, and extends eastward to the neighborhoods of Lake Kokonor. D’est en ouest, il mesure environ 850 km , et du nord au sud environ 300 km . From east to west it measures about 850 km and from north to south about 300 km.

    Le plus grand lac du bassin de Qaidam est le Dabsan Hu , au nord de la ville de Golmud . The largest lake in the Qaidam Basin is Dabsan Hu, north of the city of Golmud. La teneur en sel des lacs du bassin du Qaidam est telle qu’il forme une croûte épaisse à surface, faisant en sorte que les lacs ne sont souvent pas perçus comme tels. The salt lakes of Qaidam Basin is such that it forms a thick crust to the surface, ensuring that the lakes are often not perceived as such. Le sel de ces lacs, en particulier au nord de la ville de Golmud, fait l’objet d’une exploitation industrielle à grande échelle. The salt in these lakes, especially north of the city of Golmud is the subject of an industrial scale.

    Les principales villes sont Golmud , Delingha et Da Qaidam . The main cities are Golmud, Delingha and Da Qaidam.
    [ modifier ] Climat [Edit] Climate
    Un arc-en-ciel après une rare pluie dans le Bassin de Qaidam sur le Plateau tibétain A rainbow in the sky after a rare rain in the Qaidam Basin on the Tibetan Plateau

    En raison de son altitude élevée et de sa grande distance à la mer, le bassin du Qaidam possède un climat continental. Because of its high altitude and its distance to the sea, the Qaidam Basin has a continental climate. Les hivers sont longs et très froids, et les vents de sable sont nombreux au printemps. The winters are long and very cold and sandstorms are frequent in the spring. Les chaînes de montagnes faisant obstacle à l’arrivée des pluies, certaines parties du bassin comptent parmi les régions les plus arides de la Chine. The mountain ranges that impede the arrival of rains, parts of the basin are among the driest regions of China. La température moyenne à Golmud est de 4,9 °C, et les précipitations annuelles de 40 mm. The average temperature in Golmud is 4.9 ° C and annual precipitation of 40 mm.
    [ modifier ] Histoire [Edit] History

    Une section alternative de la branche sud de la route de la soie traverse le bassin du Qaidam [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . An alternative section of the southern branch of the Silk Road through the Qaidam Basin [1], [2]. Des fouilles archéologiques récentes suggèrent que cette route aurait, il ya 1 500 ans, été plus prospère que celle passant par le corridor du Gansu [ 3 ] . Recent archaeological excavations suggest that this route would, it is 1 500 years, been more prosperous than through the Gansu corridor [3].
    [ modifier ] Population [Edit] Population

    Le développement de l’activité, principalement liée aux ressources minérales de la région, a entraîné un accroissement important de la population : elle est passée de 10 000 à 270 000 habitants entre 1946 et 1986 . The development activity, primarily related to mineral resources in the region, has resulted in a significant increase in the population: it increased from 10 000 to 270 000 inhabitants between 1946 and 1986.

    Les populations nomades vivant dans le bassin sont constituées à la fois de tibétains et de mongols . The nomads living in the basin consist of both Tibetan and Mongolian. Dans les régions les plus désolées, au climat particulièrement aride, seuls les nomades mongols sont présents, car leurs animaux ( chameaux , chevaux , moutons à queue grasse ) supportent bien les conditions difficiles, contrairement aux yaks et aux moutons des nomades tibétains [ 4 ] . In the most desolate regions, particularly in the arid climate, only the Mongolian nomads are present, for their animals (camels, horses, sheep tail fat) bear out the harsh conditions, unlike the yaks and sheep Tibetan nomads [4] .

    En 1999, la Banque mondiale avait proposé un projet visant à relocaliser près de 60 000 fermiers chinois autour de l’oasis de Xiangride (district de Dulan ), projet qui fut abandonné car il présentait « le risque de détruire la culture bouddhique propre à cette partie occidentale de la Chine » [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [ 7 ] . In 1999, the World Bank had proposed a project to relocate about 60 000 Chinese farmers around the oasis of Xiangride (District Dulan) project that was abandoned because it had  the potential to destroy the Buddhist culture specific to western part of China  [5], [6], [7]. Les Tibétains pensent que la Chine veut résoudre ses problèmes énergétiques aux dépens des ressources pétrolières et gazières du Tibet , tout en accélérant le transfert de colons chinois, au détriment du fragile écosystème et du patrimoine culturel du Tibet [ 8 ] . Tibetans believe that China wants to solve its energy problems at the expense of oil and gas resources of Tibet, while accelerating the transfer of Chinese settlers to the detriment of the fragile ecosystem and cultural heritage of Tibet [8].
    [ modifier ] Économie [Edit] Economy
    Grand lac salé dans le bassin du Qaidam Great Salt Lake in Qaidam Basin

    En raison de sa richesse en ressources minières, le bassin du Qaidam est qualifié de « bassin aux trésors ». Because of its rich mineral resources, the Qaidam Basin is described as a  treasure basin.  Parmi ses nombreuses ressources minérales, les plus notables sont le pétrole , le gaz naturel , le charbon , le chlorure de sodium , le potassium , le magnésium , le plomb , le zinc et l’ or [ 9 ] , ainsi que d’importantes réserves d’ amiante , de borax et de gypse . Among its many mineral resources, most notably the oil, the natural gas, the coal, the sodium chloride, the potassium, the magnesium, the lead, the zinc and the gold [9] and large reserves of asbestos, of borax and gypsum.
    Le Qaidam posséderait les plus grandes réserves de lithium , de magnésium , de potassium et de sodium de toute la Chine. The Qaidam possess the largest reserves of lithium, of magnesium, the potassium and sodium across China. Le lac de Qarhan contient soixante milliards de tonnes de sel. Lake Qarhan contains sixty billion tons of salt. 22 champs pétrolifères y ont été découverts, avec des réserves estimées de 225 millions de tonnes, ainsi que 6 champs gazéifères, contenant 150 milliards de mètres cubes de gaz. 22 oil fields have been discovered, with estimated reserves of 225 million tons, and 6 gas fields, containing 150 billion cubic meters of gas.
    [ modifier ] Installations militaires [Edit] Military installations

    Des bases de missiles nucléaires stratégiques DF-4 seraient installées depuis les années 1980 près de Delingha et de Da Qaidam [ 10 ] , [ 11 ] , [ 12 ] , [ 13 ] . Bases of strategic nuclear missiles DF-4 would be installed since the 1980s near Delingha and Da Qaidam [10], [11], [12], [13].
    [ modifier ] Notes et références [Edit] Notes and references

    1. ? The Peoples of the West [archive] , A Third Century Chinese Account, Draft English translation by John E. ? The Peoples of the West, [archive] A Third Century Chinese Account, Français Draft translation by John E. Hill, notes 5.3 Hill, Notes 5.3
    2. ? Another Silk Road: Qinghai Route [archive] ; Silk Road in Rare Books, novembre 2007 ? Another Silk Road: Qinghai Road, [archive] Silk Road in Rare Books, November 2007
    3. ? New discoveries in Qinghai [archive] , China Heritage Newsletter No 1, mars 2005 ? New Discoveries in Qinghai, [archive] China Heritage Newsletter No. 1, March 2005
    4. ? The Cultural Monuments of Tibet’s Outer Provinces: Amdo , Andreas Gruschke ( extrait en ligne [archive] ) ? The Cultural Monuments of Tibet’s Outer Provinces: Amdo, Andreas Gruschke (online excerpt) [archive]
    5. ? La Banque mondiale fait machine arrière sur son prêt en faveur de la province chinoise du Qinghai [archive] ? The World Bank backtracked on its loan to the Chinese province of Qinghai [archive]
    6. ? Resettlement and Urban Reconstruction in Former World Bank Project County [archive] , Tibet Environmental Watch, février 2002 ? Resettlement and Urban Reconstruction in Former World Bank Project County, [archive] Tibet Environmental Watch, February 2002
    7. ? Carte des zones de relocalisation [archive] , World Bank ? Area Map relocation, [archive] World Bank
    8. ? Le Congrès mondial du pétrole ravive les inquiétudes liées au développement de l’industrie pétrolière au Tibet [archive] ? The World Petroleum Congress revives concerns related to the development of the oil industry in Tibet [archive]
    9. ? Rich Resources to Open Qaidam Basin to Multiple Industries [archive] , China Internet Information Center, juillet 2002 ? Rich Resources to Open Qaidam Basin to multiple industries, [archive] China Internet Information Center, July 2002
    10. ? The People’s Liberation Army as Organization , James C. ? The People’s Liberation Army as Organization, James C. Mulvenon, Andrew ND Yang, chap. Mulvenon, Andrew ND Yang, chap. 11 : The Chinese Second Artillery Corps: Transition to credible deterrence, pp. 11: The Chinese Second Artillery Corps: Transition to Credible Deterrence, pp. 542-543 ( voir en ligne [archive] ) 542-543 (see online) [archive]
    11. ? Second Artillery Corps [archive] , Nuclear Threat Initiative ? Second Artillery Corps, [archive] Nuclear Threat Initiative
    12. ? Chinese Nuclear Forces and US Nuclear War Planning [archive] , FAS & NRDC, novembre 2006, pp. ? Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning, [archive] FAS & NRDC, November 2006, pp. 67-70 67-70
    13. ? DF-4 Intermediate-range ballistic missile [archive] , sinodefence.com, mai 2006 ? DF-4 Intermediate-range ballistic missile, [archive] sinodefence.com, May 2006

    [ modifier ] Voir aussi [Edit] See also
    [ modifier ] Articles connexes [Edit] Related Articles

    * Préfecture autonome mongole et tibétaine de Haixi Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of Tibetan and Haixi
    * (en) Second Artillery Corps (in) Second Artillery Corps
    * (en) DF- 4 (in) DF-4

    [ modifier ] Liens externes [Edit] External Links

    * (de) Das Qinghai-Tibet-Plateau , Radio Chine internationale, juin 2003 (de) Das Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China Radio International, June 2003
    * (en) Qaidam Basin semi-desert , World Wildlife Fund, 2001 (in) Qaidam Basin semi-desert, World Wildlife Fund, 2001
    * (fr) Richesses minérales du Qaidam , Actions pour le développement et l’étude du Qinghai, août 1998 (en) Mineral Resources of the Qaidam, Stocks for the development and study of Qinghai, in August 1998

    * Tibetan Portal Portail du Tibet Tibetan Portal
    * Chinese portal in the world Portail du monde chinois Chinese portal in the world

    Ce document provient de « http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam ». Retrieved from  http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam.
    Catégories : Géographie de la Chine | Tibet | Qinghai | Désert | Route de la soie Categories: Geography of China | Tibet | Qinghai | Desert | Silk Road | [+]

    http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam&ei=NlizStGaM5SNtgflpfCuDQ&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DDa%2BQaidam%2BHu%2Bwikipedia%26hl%3Den

    original untranslated page address
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    ***

    http://www.nti.org/db/china/sac.htm

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    Second Artillery Corps (SAC)

    COMMANDER: Yang Guoliang ORDER: Yang Guoliang

    POLITICAL COMMISSAR: Sui Yongju POLITICAL COMMISSAR: Sui Yongju

    OTHER NAMES: Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF); Strategic Missile Forces (SMF); Strategic Missile Corps (SMC); Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF) OTHER NAMES: Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF); Strategic Missile Forces (SMF); Strategic Missile Corps (MSC) Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF)

    Established on 1 July 1966, the Second Artillery Corps maintains control over China’s nuclear and conventional strategic missile forces, consisting of short-, medium-, long-, and intercontinental-range ballistic missiles.  It dates back to the formation of a ground-to-ground missile training group on 9 December 1957 which was later reorganized into strategic guided missile combat battalions on 18 March 1960. 1 One of these battalions launched the Second Artillery Corps’ first missile in October 1963. 2 The Second Artillery Corps made its first public appearance on 1 October 1984. 3 Established on 1 July 1966, the Second Artillery Corps maintains control over China’s nuclear and conventional strategic missile forces, consisting of short-, medium-, long-, and intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. It dates back to the formation of a ground-to training-ground missile group on 9 December 1957 Which was later reorganized into strategic guided missile combat battalions on 18 March 1960. 1 One of these battalions launched the Second Artillery Corps’ first missile in October 1963. 2 The Second Artillery Corps made its first public appearance on 1 October 1984. 3
    The Second Artillery Corps is comprised of approximately 90,000 personnel and six ballistic missile bases 4 and maintains control of over 100 nuclear warheads. 5 Proportionally, the Second Artillery Corps is given priority funding.  Although it only makes up about 4 percent of the PLA, it receives 12 to 15 percent of the defense budget and about 20 percent of the total procurement budget.  When the PLA cut 1 million personnel in the 1980s, Second Artillery Corps ranks actually increased. 6 The Second Artillery Corps is Comprised of approximately 90.000 personnel and six ballistic missile bases 4 and maintains control of over 100 nuclear warheads. 5 Proportionally, the Second Artillery Corps is given priority funding. Although it only makes up about 4 percent of the PLA, it receives 12 to 15 percent of the defense budget and about 20 percent of the total procurement budget. When the cut 1 million PLA personnel in the 1980s, Second Artillery Corps ranks actually increased. 6

    Current Force Structure Current Force Structure
    China’s current nuclear weapon’s arsenal totals about 400 devices, with over 100 warheads deployed for use on China’s ballistic missiles.  China maintains a number of different ballistic missiles in its inventory, including the medium-range DF-3A, DF-15 and DF-21, the intercontinental-range DF-4 and DF-5 and the submarine-launched JL-1.  China’s newest missile, the road mobile DF-31, was tested on 2 August 1999 but probably has not entered into operation.  Bates Gill and James Mulvenon write that  Chinese nuclear force structure seems to defy simple categorization as either limited or minimal deterrence.  7 While China’s newer short-range and medium-range ballistic missiles use solid rocket motors, China’s estimated 20 some ICBMs capable of hitting the US use liquid fuel and require launch preparation times of up to two hours. China’s current nuclear weapon’s arsenal totals about 400 devices, with over 100 deployed warheads for use on China’s ballistic missiles. China maintains a number of different ballistic missiles in its inventory, including the medium-range DF-3A, DF-15 and DF-21 , the intercontinental-range DF-4 and DF-5 and the submarine-launched JL-1. China’s newest missile, the road mobile DF-31 was tested on 2 August 1999 but probably has not entered into operation. Bates Gill and James Mulvenon write that  Chinese nuclear force structure seems to defy simple categorization as either limited or minimum deterrence.  7 While China’s newer short-range and medium-range ballistic missiles use solid rocket motors, China’s estimated some 20 ICBMs capable of hitting the U.S. use liquid fuel and require launch preparation times of up to two hours. This coupled with the fact that China’s missiles are deployed unfueled and without warheads indicate that China’s ICBMs are limited to a second strike role and cannot launch on warning.  China’s other ballistic missiles could be used in a nuclear role against targets in East Asia, South Asia and Russia, but they may also be used conventionally. This coupled with the fact that China’s missiles are deployed warheads and without unfueled indicate that China’s ICBMs are limited to a second strike role and can not launch on warning. China’s other ballistic missiles could be used in a nuclear role against targets in East Asia, South Asia and Russia, but they may also be used conventionally.

    Training Training
    After its formation in 1966, Second Artillery Corps exercises may have languished because of the effects of the Cultural Revolution as there is no mention of exercises being conducted until the mid-seventies, when  China’s strategic guided missile units organized a massive long-range firing practice with live warheads, involving moving operations, camouflaging, and launching.   In the early eighties the Second Artillery Corps conducted its first combined arms exercise. 8 In a 1982 exercise simulating a Soviet armored invasion, the PLA and the Second Artillery Corps jointly repelled the Soviet attack using a tactical nuclear explosive.  Due to a lack of campaign tactics using tactical nuclear weapons, then Second Artillery Corps commander Lieutenant General Li Xuge ordered extensive theater nuclear missile exercises. 9 During the mid 1990s the Second Artillery Corps trained in simulated post-nuclear strike 10 and chemical-biological warfare environments. 11 More recently, the Second Artillery Corps may also have held antimissile exercises. 12 The Second Artillery Corps also conducts training with a computerized simulator. 13 After its formation in 1966, Second Artillery Corps exercises may have languished Because of the effects of the Cultural Revolution as there is no mention of exercises being conducted until the mid-seventies, when  China’s strategic guided missile units organized a massive long-range firing practice with live warheads, involving moving operations, Camouflaging, and launching.  In the early eighties the Second Artillery Corps conducted its first combined arms exercise. 8 In a 1982 exercise simulating a Soviet armored invasion, the PLA and the Second Artillery Corps repelled Jointly The Soviet attack using a tactical nuclear explosion. Due to a lack of campaign tactics using tactical nuclear weapons, then Second Artillery Corps ordered Lieutenant General Li Xuge ordered extensive theater nuclear missile exercises. 9 During the mid 1990s the Second Artillery Corps trained in simulated post 10-strike nuclear and chemical-biological warfare environments. 11 More recently, the Second Artillery Corps may also have held missile exercises. 12 The Second Artillery Corps also conducts training with a computerized simulator. 13

    In 2001, the Second Artillary Corps Engineering College transferred 29 technical personnel from over 10 specialized disciplines.  The purpose was develop a new missile simulation training system.  The project was completed in a span of three months. 14 In 2001, the Second Corps Engineering College Artillary transferred 29 technical staff from over 10 specialized disciplines. The purpose was Develop a new missile simulation training system. The project was completed in a span of three months. 14

    Nuclear Doctrine Nuclear Doctrine
    China’s nuclear doctrine is thought to be minimal deterrence, which requires only a small number of warheads to inflict unacceptable damage on an enemy’s cities.  However, as China’s warheads become smaller and missile accuracies improve, China may change to a doctrine of limited deterrence.  Under limited deterrence a country is  able to inflict enough counterforce and countervalue damage on the enemy such that it backs down and is thus denied victory.  15 China would then have to have the ability to attack missile, naval and air bases, logistical centers, C4I nodes as well as cities.  However, to carry out a doctrine of limited deterrence, China would need to upgrade its entire nuclear force structure.    Some Chinese strategists argue that limited deterrence would require China to have a  greater number of smaller, more accurate, survivable, and penetrable ICBMs; SLBMs as countervalue retaliatory forces; tactical and theater nuclear weapons to hit battlefield and theater military targets and to suppress escalation; ballistic missile defense to improve the survivability of the limited deterrent; space-based early warning and command and control systems; and anti-satellite weapons to hit enemy satellites.  16 China’s nuclear doctrine is thought to be minimal deterrence, Which requires only a small number of warheads to inflict unacceptable damage on an enemy’s cities. However, as China’s become smaller warheads and missile accuracies improve, China may change to a doctrine of limited deterrence. Under limited deterrence is a country  able to inflict enough damage countervalue counterforce and the enemy is such that it backs down and is Thus denied victory.  15 China would then have to have the ability to attack missile, naval and air bases, logistical centers, C4I nodes as well as cities. However, to carry out a doctrine of limited deterrence, China would need to upgrade its entire nuclear force structure. Some Chinese strategists argue that limited deterrence would require China to have a  greater number of smaller, more accurate , survivable, and penetrable ICBMs, SLBMs have countervalue Retaliatory Forces, tactical and theater nuclear weapons to hit battlefield and theater military targets and to suppress escalation; ballistic missile defense to Improve the survivability of the limited deterrent; space-based early warning and command and control systems, and anti-satellite weapons to hit enemy satellites.  16

    Clearly, such an undertaking would require immense efforts and huge sums of money, which has led many scholars to believe that China’s nuclear doctrine is driven more by the limits of its technology and less by an analysis of its strategic options.  In fact, John Lewis and Hua Di argue that for many years missile designers did not concern themselves with nuclear strategy, though the targets they designed missiles to hit — Japan, the Philippines, Guam and the continental United States — did imply a strategic retaliatory doctrine.  In addition, the Second Artillery Corps also did not concern itself with nuclear strategy and assumed that  nuclear strategy was a matter to be debated and decided upon by leaders in the Central Military Commission.   No consideration was given to nuclear strategy by the Second Artillery Corps until the mid-1980s. 17 However, the Second Artillery Corps is thought to play a significant role in China’s current development of nuclear doctrine. 18 Clearly, such an undertaking would require enormous efforts and huge sums of money, Which has led many scholars to believe that China’s nuclear doctrine is driven more by the limits of its technology and less by an analysis of its strategic options. In fact, John Lewis Hua Di and argues that for many years missile designers did not concern themselves with nuclear strategy, though the targets they designed to hit missiles – Japan, the Philippines, Guam and the continental United States – did Retaliatory imply a strategic doctrine. In addition , the Second Artillery Corps also did not concern itself with nuclear strategy and assumed that  nuclear strategy was a matter to be Debated and DECIDED upon by leaders in the Central Military Commission.  No consideration was given to nuclear strategy by the Second Artillery Corps until the mid-1980s. 17 However, the Second Artillery Corps is thought to play a significant role in China’s current development of nuclear doctrine. 18

    Conventional Doctrine Conventional Doctrine
    Because China lacks an effective air force, missiles are its only means to conduct conventional long range strikes.  Mark Stokes writes in China’s Strategic Modernization that the Chinese leadership, believing that a quick strike is best, may order missile strikes on airfields, air defenses, ports and C4I nodes  as soon as they believe war is inevitable.   He also writes that  the PLA believes that the US is most vulnerable when it is deploying forces and logistics to the area of operations.  A preemptive strike during this phase, many PLA strategists believe, will significantly offset an enemy’s technological advantages.  19 Because China lacks an effective air force, missiles are its only means to conduct long-range conventional strikes. Mark Stokes writes in China’s Strategic Modernization that the Chinese leadership, believing that a quick strike is best, may order missile strikes on airfields, air defenses, ports and C4I nodes  as soon as they believe war is inevitable.  He also writes that  the PLA believes that the U.S. is most vulnerable when it is deploying forces and logistics to the area of operations. A preemptive strike during this phase, many PLA strategists believe, will Significantly offset an enemy’s technological advantages.  19

    The Second Artillery Corps is viewed as an essential element of the PLA’s warfighting plans and is thus involved extensively in joint operations.  Second Artillery Corps officers are now required to be part of joint commands. 20 Because of its intrinsic value in joint operations, the Second Artillery Corps may be required to increase its missile force to provide continuous support throughout a campaign. 21 In 2000, US intelligence assessments put the number of missiles opposite Taiwan at 200, with China adding 50 new missiles every year. 22 The Second Artillery Corps is viewed as an essential element of the PLA’s Warfighting Thus plans and is extensively involved in joint operations. Second Artillery Corps officers are now required to be part of joint commands. 20 Because of its intrinsic value in joint operations, the Second Artillery Corps may be required to increase its missile force to Provide continuous support throughout a campaign. 21 In 2000, U.S. intelligence assessments put the number of missiles opposite Taiwan at 200, with China adding 50 new missiles every year. 22

    Tactics Tactics
    The Second Artillery practices group launches (sequential missile launches from different bases) to test its rapid response and retaliatory capabilities.  This tactic was used in Sino-Soviet war scenarios and during the missile firings near Taiwan in 1995 and 1996.  Units frequently practice mobile launches and work to shorten pre-launch times. 23 The Second Artillery Practices group launches (sequential missile launches from different databases) to test its rapid response capabilities and Retaliatory. This tactic was used in Sino-Soviet war scenarios and during the missile firings near Taiwan in 1995 and 1996. Units frequently launches mobile practice and work to shorten pre-launch times. 23

    Command and Control Command and Control
    As a separate arm of China’s military, the Second Artillery maintains its own command and lines of communication with its bases and does not need to pass information through the regional military commands.  Ultimate authority to use nuclear weapons rests with the Chairman of the Central Military Commission (currently Jiang Zemin) after top leaders have reached a consensus.  A decision to use nuclear weapons may also require a consensus decision within the Central Military Commission and other senior military leaders. 24 As a separate arm of China’s military, the Second Artillery maintains its own command and lines of communication with its base and does not need to pass information through the regional military commands. Ultimate authority to use nuclear weapons rests with the Chairman of the Central Military Commission (currently Jiang Zemin) after top leaders have reached a consensus. A decision to use nuclear weapons may also require a consensus decision within the Central Military Commission and other senior military leaders. 24

    Since the end of 1997 the Second Artillery Corps has promoted a number of missile experts to command positions at and above the regimental level in order to promote professionalism. 25 Since the end of 1997 the Second Artillery Corps has promoted a number of missile experts to command positions at and above the regimental level in order to Promote professionalism. 25 It is reported that over 85 percent of the officers of the Second Artillery Corps are at least college educated. 26 A report in late 2000 stated that SAC currently  formed a 100-strong contingent of missile technology experts.  27 It is reported that over 85 percent of the officers of the Second Artillery Corps are at least college educated. 26 A report in late 2000 stated that SAC currently  formed a 100-strong contingent of missile technology experts.  27 To improve the Second Artillery Corps’ communication links, China has developed a  missile controlling system,   electronic command system,  and a  universal message processing system.  28 To improve the Second Artillery Corps’ communication links, China has developed a  missile system controlling,   electronic command system,  and a  universal message processing system.  28

    The Second Artillery Corps reportedly maintains strict discipline.  While other military units have become involved in business activities, the Second Artillery Corps has refrained from such practices.  All personnel are prohibited from using training days for other activities as well as from using military equipment and vehicles for business.  In addition, personell are prohibited from attending parties at local restaurants and dance halls.  The unit has provided its own entertainment facilities for its troops, though. 29 The Second Artillery Corps reportedly maintains strict discipline. While other military units have become involved in business activities, the Second Artillery Corps has refrained from such practices. All staff are prohibited from using training days for other activities as well as from using military equipment and vehicles for business. In addition, personnel are prohibited from attending parties at local restaurants and dance halls. The unit has provided its own entertainment facilities for its troops, though. 29

    China’s Missile Bases China’s Missile Bases
    The Second Artillery Corps is headquartered in Qinghe, a suburb of Beijing and maintains at least seven missile bases each with one to three missile brigades and regiment-level special departments responsible for chemical defense, communications, training, security and four launch battalions.  Each base also has training and nuclear warhead maintenance units and reports directly to the Second Artillery Corps commander. 30 Each missile brigade commands a number of permanent launch sites.  For ease of maintenance, each missile brigade is responsible for only one type of missile. 31 The Second Artillery Corps is headquartered in Qinghe, a suburb of Beijing and maintains at least seven missile bases each with one to three missile brigades and regiment-level special departments responsible for chemical defense, communications, training, security and four launch battalions. Each base also has training and nuclear warhead maintenance units and reports directly to the Second Artillery Corps command. 30 Each missile brigade commands a number of permanent launch sites. For ease of maintenance, each missile brigade is responsible for only one type of missile. 31

    Below the brigade are the battalions, each with its own strategic missile carrier or several tactical missile systems.  Each battalion also has support companies specializing in C3I, logistics, security and engineering.  Mobile missile crews spend most of their time traveling from site to site and are required to know the location of the launch sites in their own region as well as the launch sites of neighboring regions. 32 Below the brigade are the battalions, each with its own strategic missile carrier or several tactical missile systems. Each battalion also has support companies specializing in C3I, logistics, security and engineering. Mobile missile crews spend most of their time traveling from site to site and are required to know the location of the launch sites in their own region as well as the launch sites of neighboring regions. 32

    Many of China’s strategic missiles are based in silos or caves in order to survive a first strike.  Following American and Soviet practice, China originally planned to house their DF-4 and DF-5 in silos, but began to rethink this method in the 1970s as the survivability of silo-housed missiles was called into question.  The Chinese studied cave-basing and rail-mobile basing for the DF-4 and eventually decided on a procedure of  in-cave storage/preparation and out-cave erection/filling/firing.  33 China also studied alternative basing modes for the DF-5, but decided to keep these missiles in silos due to their large size.  However, to improve survivability fake silos were built to confuse opponents. 34 China’s most recent land based missiles, such as the DF-21 and DF-31, are solid fuel road mobile missiles that can be launched much more rapidly and hidden in a variety of locales. Many of China’s strategic missiles are based in silos or caves in order to survive a first strike. Following American and Soviet practice, China originally planned to house their DF-4 and DF-5 in silos, but Began to rethink this method in the 1970s have the survivability of silo-housed missiles was called into question. The Chinese studied cave-basing and rail-mobile basing for the DF-4 and was eventually DECIDED procedure of  in-cave storage / preparation and out-cellar erection / filling / firing.  33 China also studied alternative basing modes for the DF-5, but Decided to keep these missiles in silos due to their large size. However, to Improve survivability fake silos were built to confuse opponents. 34 China’s most recent land based missiles, such as the DF-21 and DF-31, are solid fuel road mobile missile that can be launched much more rapidly and hidden in a variety of local.

    In the 1990s the PLA began increasing the number of launch sites in eastern  and southern China in order to improve operational flexibility during a crisis.  As a result, a number of the best launching brigades were transferred from north China to east and south China.  35 In the 1990s the PLA Began Increasing the number of launch sites in eastern and southern China in order to Improve operational flexibility during a crisis. As a result, a number of the best launching brigades were transferred from north China to east and south China.   35

    Strategic Missile Bases Strategic Missile Bases

    Base # Base #

    Base MUCD Base MUCD

    Base and Selected Brigade locations Base and Selected Brigade rentals

    Reported Missile Types Reported Missile Types

    51 Base 51 Base

    80301 80301

    Headquarters: Shenyang, Liaoning Province Headquarters: Shenyang, Liaoning Province

    Brigades: Tonghua, Dengshahe Brigades: Tonghua, Dengshahe

    DF-3A/CSS-2 (Tonghua, Dengshahe) DF-3A/CSS-2 (Tonghua, Dengshahe)

    DF-21/CSS-5 (Tonghua) DF-21/CSS-5 (Tonghua)

    52 Base 52 Base

    80302 80302

    Headquarters: Huangshan, Anhui Province Headquarters: Huangshan, Anhui Province

    Brigades : Leping, Lianxiwang Brigades: Leping, Lianxiwang

    DF-15/CSS-6 (Leping) DF-15/CSS-6 (Leping)

    DF-3A (Lianxiwang) DF-3A (Lianxiwang)

    53 Base 53 Base

    80303 80303

    Headquarters: Kunming, Yunnan Province Headquarters: Kunming, Yunnan Province

    Brigades: Chuxiong, Jianshui Brigades: Chuxiong, Jianshui

    DF-21/CSS-5 (Chuxiong) DF-21/CSS-5 (Chuxiong)

    DF-3A/CSS-2 (Jianshui) DF-3A/CSS-2 (Jianshui)

    54 Base 54 Base

    80304 80304

    Headquarters: Luoyang, Henan Province Headquarters: Luoyang, Henan Province

    Brigades: Luoning, Sundian Brigades: Luoning, Sundian

    DF-5/CSS-4 (Luoning) DF-5/CSS-4 (Luoning)

    DF-4/CSS-3 (Sundian) DF-4/CSS-3 (Sundian)

    55 Base 55 Base

    80305 80305

    Headquarters: Huaihua, Hunan Province Headquarters: Huaihua, Hunan Province

    Brigades: Tongdao (2 brigades) Brigades: Tongdao (2 brigades)

    DF-4/CSS-3 (Tongdao) DF-4/CSS-3 (Tongdao)

    56 Base 56 Base

    80306 80306

    Headquarters: Xining, Qinghai Province Headquarters: Xining, Qinghai Province

    Brigades: Datong, Delingha Da Qaidam Brigades: Datong, Delingha Da Qaidam

    DF-3A/CSS-2 (Datong) DF-3A/CSS-2 (Datong)

    DF-4/CSS-3 (Delingha, Da Qaidam) DF-4/CSS-3 (Delingha, Da Qaidam)

    N/A N / A

    N/A N / A

    Headquarters: Yidu, Shandong Province Headquarters: Yidu, Shandong Province

    DF-3A/CSS-2 DF-3A/CSS-2

    80301 Unit. The 80301 Unit is headquartered in Shenyang, Liaoning Province.  Its complement of DF-3A and DF-21 cover the Korean peninsula and Japan, including Okinawa. 80,301 Unit. The 80301 Unit is headquartered in Shenyang, Liaoning Province. Its complement of DF-3A and DF-21 cover the Korean peninsula and Japan, including Okinawa.

    80302 Unit. The 80302 Unit is headquartered in Huangshan, Anhui Province and is the Second Artillery’s most important unit for conducting strikes against Taiwan.  The 815th brigade in Leping took part in the March 1996 missile exercises off the coast of Taiwan.  During a wartime situation the 815th brigade would disperse to prearranged sites in Fujian Province in to order to be able to strike the entire island of Taiwan.  Missiles are usually transported by rail for field deployments. 80,302 Unit. The 80302 Unit is headquartered in Huangshan, Anhui Province and is the Second Artillery’s most important unit for conducting strikes against Taiwan. The 815th brigade in Leping took part in the March 1996 missile exercises off the coast of Taiwan. During a wartime situation The 815th Brigade would disperse to prearranged sites in Fujian Province in order to to be able to strike the entire island of Taiwan. Missiles are usually transported by rail for field deployments.

    80303 Unit. The 80303 Unit is headquartered in Kunming, Yunnan province.  Its complement of DF-3A and DF-21 can strike targets in India and Southeast Asia. 80,303 Unit. The 80303 Unit is headquartered in Kunming, Yunnan Province. Its complement of DF-3A and DF-21 can strike targets in India and Southeast Asia.

    80304 Unit. The 80304 Unit is headquartered in Luoyang, Henan province.  Its DF-5 missiles can strike targets throughout the United States and Europe. 80,304 Unit. The 80304 Unit is headquartered in Luoyang, Henan province. Its DF-5 missiles can strike targets throughout the United States and Europe.

    80305 Unit. The 80305 Unit is headquartered in Huaihua, Hunan province.  Its DF-4 missiles can strike Guam. 80,305 Unit. The 80305 Unit is headquartered in Huaihua, Hunan Province. Its DF-4 missiles can strike Guam.

    80306 Unit. The 80306 Unit is headquartered in Xining, Qinghai province.  Its DF-4 missiles can strike targets in India and Russia.  This unit may also have an experimental unit assigned to it. 80,306 Unit. The 80306 Unit is headquartered in Xining, Qinghai Province. Its DF-4 missiles can strike targets in India and Russia. This unit may also have an experimental unit assigned to it.

    [Table and  base source: Bates Gill and James Mulvenon,  The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition to Credible Deterrence,  unpublished study presented at China and Weapons of Mass Destruction , a seminar sponsored by the National Intelligence Council, November 1999. [Table and basic source: Bates Gill and James Mulvenon,  The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition to Credible Deterrence,  unpublished study presented at China and Weapons of Mass Destruction, a seminar sponsored by the National Intelligence Council, November 1999. ] ]

    Institutes under SAC include: Under Institutes SAC include:

    * FIRST INSTITUTE. FIRST INSTITUTE. Conducts research on operations, transporter erector launchers and logistics. Conducts research on operations, transport erector launchers and logistics.
    * THIRD INSTITUTE.  Conducts research on command automation, targeting and mapping. THIRD INSTITUTE. Conducts research on command automation, targeting and mapping.
    * FOURTH INSTITUTE. FOURTH INSTITUTE. ( Function Unknown) (Unknown Function)
    * ENGINEERING COLLEGE.  Educates technicians involved in rocket research.  In the mid-1990s conducted research into solid rocket reliability.  During the late 1990’s conducted research on missile accuracy. ENGINEERING COLLEGE. Educates technicians involved in rocket research. In the mid-1990s conducted research into solid rocket reliability. During the late 1990’s conducted research on missile accuracy.
    * RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN.  Oversees overall design work. RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN. Oversees overall design work.
    * COMMAND COLLEGE.  Trains officers for leadership positions within the Second Artillery Corps. COMMAND COLLEGE. Trains officers for leadership positions within the Second Artillery Corps.

    Footnotes Footnotes

    1.  Zhang Jiajun and Zao Zhi,  The Strong Contingent of Secret Rockets – The Historical Course of Development of China’s Strategic Guided Missile Units,  Xinhua, 7 July 1996 in FBIS,  PRC: Article on Guided Missile Units’ Development,  FBIS-CHI-96-135, 7 July 1996. 1. Zhang Jiajun and Zao Zhi,  The Strong Contingent of Secret Rockets – The Historical Course of Development of China’s Strategic Missile Guided Units,  Xinhua, 7 July 1996 in FBIS,  PRC: Article on Guided Missile Units’ Development,  FBIS -CHI-96-135, 7 July 1996.
    2.  Xu Zuzhi,  China’s Strategic Missile Unit Now Possesses Figthing Capability under High-Tech Conditions,  Zhongguo Xinwen She , 1 October 1999 in FBIS,  Background of China’s Strategic Missile Unit,  FTS19991002000093, 1 October 1999. 2. Zuzhi Xu,  China’s Strategic Missile Unit Now Possesses Figthing Capability under High-Tech Conditions,  Zhongguo Xinwen She, 1 October 1999 in FBIS,  Background of China’s Strategic Missile Unit,  FTS19991002000093, 1 October 1999.
    3.  Xu. 3. Xu.
    4. 4. Mark Stokes, China’s Strategic Modernization: Implications for the United States , Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, 1999, p. Mark Stokes, China’s Strategic Modernization: Implications for the United States, Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, 1999, p. 93. 93.
    5.  Office of the Secretary of Defense, Proliferation: Threat and Response, 1996. 5. Office of the Secretary of Defense, Proliferation: Threat and Response, 1996.
    6.  You Ji, The Armed Forces of China , London: IB Taurus, 1999,  p. 6. You Ji, The Armed Forces of China, London: IB Taurus, 1999, p. 85. 85.
    7.  Bates Gill and James Mulvenon,  The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces:  Transition To Credible Deterrence,  unpublished study presented at China and Weapons of Mass Destruction , a seminar sponsored by the National Intelligence Council, November 1999. 7. Bates Gill and James Mulvenon,  The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition to Credible Deterrence,  unpublished study presented at China and Weapons of Mass Destruction, a seminar sponsored by the National Intelligence Council, November 1999.
    8.  Xu. 8. Xu.
    9.  You, p. 9. You, P. 95-96 95-96
    10.   The Casting of China’s Shield of Peace – A Record of Actual Events in the Development of the Second Artillery Corps,  Xinhua, 7 July 1996 in FBIS,  PRC: Development of Second Artillery Corps,  FBIS-CHI-96-137, 7 July 1996. 10.  The Casting of China’s Shield of Peace – A Record of Actual Events in the Development of the Second Artillery Corps,  Xinhua, 7 July 1996 in FBIS,  PRC: Development of Second Artillery Corps,  FBIS-CHI-96 – 137, 7 July 1996.
    11.   PRC: Strategic Missile Troops Enhance Combat Capabilities,  Xinhua, in FBIS, FBIS-TAC-96-007, 23 May 1996. 11.  PRC: Strategic Missile Troops Fight Enhance Capabilities,  Xinhua, in FBIS, FBIS-TAC-96-007, 23 May 1996.
    12.   Xu. 12. Xu.
    13. 13.  PRC: Strategic Guided Missile Training Simulator Passes Approval,  Zhongguo Tongxun She, in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-96-151, 2 August 1996.  PRC: Strategic Guided Missile Training Simulator Passes Approval,  Zhongguo Tongxun She, in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-96-151, 2 August 1996.
    14.  Feng Jia’an and Li Jun,  2d Artillery Corps Engineering College Develops Missile Simulation Training System,  Beijing Jiefangjun Bao , 15 February 2001, p. 14. Feng Jia’an and Li Jun,  2d Artillery Corps Engineering College Develops Missile Simulation Training System,  Beijing Jiefangjun Bao, 15 February 2001, p. 2 in FBIS CPP20010215000054. 2 in FBIS CPP20010215000054.
    15. 15. Alastair Iain Johnston,  China’s New ‘Old Thinking’: The Concept of Limited Deterrence , International Security, Vol. Alastair Iain Johnston,  China’s New ‘Old Thinking’: The Concept of Limited Deterrence,  International Security, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter 1995/96), 20, No. 3 (Winter 1995/96),
    p. p. 19 19
    16. 16. Ibid. Ibid. p. p. 20. 20.
    17. 17. John Wilson Lewis and Hua Di,  China’s Ballistic Missile Programs: Technologies, Strategies, Goals,  International Security, Vol. John Wilson Lewis and Hua Di,  China’s Ballistic Missile Programs: Technologies, Strategies, Goals,  International Security, Vol. 17, No. 2, (Fall 1992), p. 17 No. 2 (Fall 1992), p. 20. 20.
    18. 18. Michael D. Michael D. Swaine,  The PLA and Chinese National Security Policy: Leaderships, Structures, Processes,  The China Quarterly, June1996, p. 382. Swaine,  The PLA and Chinese National Security Policy: Leadership, Structure, Processes,  The China Quarterly, June1996, p. 382.
    19. 19. Stokes, p. Stokes, P. 97. 97.
    20. 20. You, p. You, P. 99. 99.
    21. 21. Ibid, p. Ibid, p. 100 100
    22. 22.  Address of Admiral Dennis Blair, Commander in Chief, US Pacific Command,  Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference, Carnegie Ednowment for International Peace website , 16 March 2000.  Address of Admiral Dennis Blair, Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command,  Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference, Carnegie Ednowment for International Peace website, 16 March 2000.
    23. 23. Ibid, p. Ibid, p. 93. 93.
    24.Gill and Mulvenon. 24.Gill and Mulvenon.
    25. 25. Zhang Jiajun,  Experts Enter Decisionmaking Bodies of Strategic Guided Missile Units at and Above the Regimental Level,  Xinhua, 22 June 1998 in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-98-176, 25 June 1998. Zhang Jiajun,  Experts Enter Strategic Decisionmaking Bodies of Guided Missile Units and Above at the Regimental Level,  Xinhua, 22 June 1998 in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-98-176, 25 June 1998.
    26. 26.  PLA Daily on Performance of Strategic Missile Force,  Liberation Daily, in FBIS, FTS19991123000762, 16 November 1999.  PLA Daily on Performance of Strategic Missile Force,  Liberation Daily, in FBIS, FTS19991123000762, 16 November 1999.
    27. 27.  China’s Second Artillery Corps Forms 100-Strong Contingent of Missile Experts  Xinhua , 27 Dec 2000 in FBIS, CPP20001227000128.  China’s Second Artillery Corps Forms 100-Strong Contingent of Missile Experts  Xinhua, December 27, 2000 in FBIS, CPP20001227000128.
    28. 28. Xu. Xu.
    29. 29. Zhang Jiajun and Li Chenghua,  Newsletter,  Xinhua, 9 April 1996 in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-96-080, 9 April 1996. Zhang Jiajun and Li Chenghua,  Newsletter,  Xinhua, 9 April 1996 in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-96-080, 9 April 1996.
    30. 30. Stokes, pp. Stokes, pp. 93-94. 93-94.
    31. 31. Ibid, p. Ibid, p. 94. 94.
    32. 32. You, p. You, P. 105. 105.
    33. 33. Lewis and Hua, p. Lewis and Hua, P. 24. 24.
    34. 34. Ibid. Ibid. p. p. 25. 25.
    35. 35. You, p. You, P. 53. 53.

    For more on China’s nuclear deployments, see: For more on China’s nuclear deployments, see:

    China’s nuclear modernization programs: China’s nuclear modernization programs:

    [CHINA’S NUCLEAR WARHEAD MODERNIZATION] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR WARHEAD MODERNIZATION]

    [CHINA’S NUCLEAR DELIVERY SYSTEM MODERNIZATION] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR DELIVERY SYSTEM MODERNIZATION]

    China’s nuclear testing program: China’s nuclear testing program:

    [CHINA’S NUCLEAR TESTING PROGRAM] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR TESTING PROGRAM]

    [CHINA’S 45 NUCLEAR TESTS] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR TESTS 45]

    China’s existing nuclear and nuclear-related capabilities: China’s existing nuclear and nuclear-related capabilities:

    [CHINA’S NUCLEAR STOCKPILE AND DEPLOYMENTS] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR Stockpile and Deployment]

    [CHINA’S BALLISTIC MISSILE DESIGNATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS] [CHINA’S BALLISTIC MISSILE DESIGNATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS]

    Related issues: Related issues:

    [CHINA’S NUCLEAR DOCTRINE] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR DOCTRINE]

    [CHINA’S ATTITUDE TOWARD MISSILE DEFENSE] [CHINA’S ATTITUDE TOWARD MISSILE DEFENSE]

    CNS This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, agents. This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, agents. Copyright © 2007 by MIIS. Copyright © 2007 by MIIS.

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    ***

    October 1963

    Tuesday 01:

    California State Board of Education created.

    » October 01 in History

    Monday 07:
    Hurricane Flora hits Haiti and Dominican Republic, kills 7,190.

    » October 07 in History

    Wednesday 09:

    In northeast Italy, over 2,000 people are killed when a large landslide behind the Vajont Dam causes a giant wave of water to overtop it.

    » October 09 in History

    Monday 14:

    The term  Beatlemania  is coined by the British press to describe the scene at the previous night’s performance by The Beatles on the TV show  Val Parnell’s Sunday Night at the London Palladium,  a top-rated program that was the British equivalent to  The Ed Sullivan Show.

    » October 14 in History

    http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/october-1963/

    ***

    #

    * A. O WOODFORD

    MEMORIAL TO WILLIAM SIDNEY TANGIER SMITH (1869-1962)
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. P141-P144, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[P141:MTWSTS]2.0.CO;2

    * Abstract
    * Full Text (PDF)

    #
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    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PERMAFROST
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. P145-P146, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[P145:ICOP]2.0.CO;2

    * Abstract
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    * A. LEE McALESTER

    Pelecypods as Stratigraphic Guides in the Appalachian Upper Devonian
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1209-1224, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1209:PASGIT]2.0.CO;2

    * Abstract
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    * WILLIAM G PIERCE

    Reef Creek Detachment Fault, Northwestern Wyoming
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1225-1236, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1225:RCDFNW]2.0.CO;2

    * Abstract
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    * JONATHAN BARRINGTON and
    * PAUL F KERR

    Collapse Features and Silica Plugs near Cameron, Arizona
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1237-1258, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1237:CFASPN]2.0.CO;2

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    * PETER W LIPMAN

    Gibson Peak Pluton: A Discordant Composite Intrusion in the Southeastern Trinity Alps, Northern California
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1259-1280, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1259:GPPADC]2.0.CO;2

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    * RICHARD L HAY

    ZEOLITIC WEATHERING IN OLDUVAI GORGE, TANGANYIKA
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1281-1286, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1281:ZWIOGT]2.0.CO;2

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    * J. E SANDERS and
    * JOHN IMBRIE

    CONTINUOUS CORES OF BAHAMIAN CALCAREOUS SANDS MADE BY VIBRODRILLING
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1287-1292, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1287:CCOBCS]2.0.CO;2

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    * HOWARD W OLIVER and
    * DON R MABEY

    ANOMALOUS GRAVITY FIELD IN EAST-CENTRAL CALIFORNIA
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1293-1298, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1293:AGFIEC]2.0.CO;2

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    * H. F GARNER
    FOUNTAIN FORMATION, COLORADO: A DISCUSSION
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1299-1302, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1299:FFCAD]2.0.CO;2

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    * JOHN F HUBERT

    FOUNTAIN FORMATION, COLORADO: A REPLY
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1303-1304, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1303:FFCAR]2.0.CO;2

    * Abstract
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    http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/74/10

    Table of Contents
    October 1963, v. 74, no. 10
    Table of Contents — October 1963, 74 (10) — Geological Society of …
    Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. P141-P144, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[P141:MTWSTS]2.0.CO;2. Abstract A Full Text (PDF) …
    gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/74/10 – Cached – Similar –
    by RCD Fault – 1963

    ***

    Cuban Missile Crisis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in October 1962, during the Cold War. …
    Background – U-2 flights – Planning an American Response
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis

    ***

    Timeline 1963

    1963        Jan 2, Viet Cong downed five U.S. helicopters in the Mekong Delta; 30 were reported to be dead.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

    1963        Jan 2, Dick Powell (b.1904), American film star, producer and director, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Powell)

    1963        Jan 3,  Jim Everett III, football player, was born: quarterback: Purdue Univ., LA Rams [Pro Bowl: 1990], New Orleans Saints, San Diego Chargers.
    (440 Int’l. 1/3/99)

    1963        Jan 3, Telstar by The Tornadoes
    Bobby’s Girl by Marcie Blane
    Go Away Little Girl by Steve Lawrence
    Don’t Let Me Cross Over by Carl Butler & Pearl (Dee Jones).
    (440 Int’l. 1/3/99)

    1963        Jan 5,  Camelot  closed at the Majestic Theater, NYC, after 873 performances.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

    1963        Jan 5,  Carnival   closes at Imperial Theater, NYC, after 719 performances.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

    1963        Jan 6,  Oliver   opened at Imperial Theater NYC for 774 performances.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

    1963        Jan 6, Mutual of Omaha’s  Wild Kingdom  with Marlin Perkins began on NBC.
    (AP, 1/6/03)(MC, 1/6/02)

    1963        Jan 8, President John F. Kennedy attended the unveiling of the Mona Lisa on loan at America’s National Gallery of Art.
    (HN, 1/8/99)(MC, 1/8/02)

    1963        Jan 11, The 1st discotheque opened, Whiskey-a-go-go in LA.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

    1963        Jan 13, Togo’s first president, Sylvanus Olympio, was killed by a military junta led by Gngassigbe Eyadema. Nicholas Grunitzky succeeded Olympio.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A12)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1172)

    1963        Jan 14, George C. Wallace was sworn in as governor of Alabama with a pledge of  segregation forever.
    (AP, 1/14/98)

    1963        Jan 16, Nikita Khrushchev claimed the USSR had a 100-megaton nuclear bomb.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

    1963        Jan 17, Soviet leader Khrushchev visited the Berlin Wall.
    (HN, 1/17/99)
    1963        Jan 25, Wilson Kettle (102) died, leaving 582 living descendents.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

    1963        Jan 28, Jean Felix Piccard, Swiss explorer, died on his 79th birthday.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

    1963        Jan 29, The first members of football’s Hall of Fame were named in Canton, Ohio.
    (AP, 1/29/98)(www.profootballhof.com/hof/years.jsp)

    1963        Jan 29, Poet Robert Frost (b.1874) died in Boston at age 88. In 1999 Jay Parini published  Robert Frost: A Life.  Lawrance Thompson authored a 3-volume biography (1966-1976).
    (AP, 1/29/98)(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.3)

    1963        Jan, Gen. Charles de Gaulle and German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer signed the Franco-German  reconciliation treaty.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)

    1963        Feb 6, The United States reported that all Soviet offensive arms are out of Cuba.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

    1963        Feb 7, The  Mona Lisa  was unveiled at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

    1963        Feb 8, In Iraq the Baath Party first took power. Right-wing Baathists succeeded in mounting a coup and executed PM Gen. Abdel Karim Qassim. Abdul Salam Arif came to power. This was followed by a massacre of thousands of peasants, communists and trade unionists. The Arab Baath Socialist Party pulled off the coup and ruled Iraq for 9 months.
    (HNQ, 6/20/99)(SFC, 8/6/99, p.D4)(AP, 5/26/03)(AP, 7/13/03)(NW, 9/8/03, p.32)

    1963        Feb 9, 1st flight of Boeing 727 jet.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

    ****

    1963        Feb 11, A CIA Domestic Operations Division was created.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

    ****

    1963        Feb 11, Sylvia Plath (30), American writer, committed suicide by gas in London after Ted Hughes left her for another woman. Her autobiographical novel  The Bell Jar  was published this year. She had been married to English poet Ted Hughes (d.1998), who in 1998 published a 198 page book of verse  Birthday Letters  based on their relationship. The woman for whom Hughes left Plath committed suicide 5 years later. Plath’s 1981  Collected Poems  won a Pulitzer Prize. The Plath book of poems  Ariel  was published after her death. In 2000 her uncensored diaries:  The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath,  were edited by Karen V. Kukil.
    (SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.C5)(SFEC, 3/26/00, p.A25)(SFEC, 11/12/00, BR p.1)

    1963        Feb 12, Argentina asked for the extradition of ex-president Peron.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

    1963        Feb 15, Ken Lynch recorded  Misery.  It was the 1st Lennon-McCartney song recorded by someone else.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

    1963        Feb 16, 1st round-trip swim of Straits of Messina, Italy, was made by Mary Revell of US.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

    1963        Feb 17, Michael Jordon, Chicago Bulls basketball player, was born. He led the Bulls to three consecutive NBA titles and was considered by some to be the greatest basketball player ever.
    (HN, 2/17/99)

    1963        Feb 19, The Soviet Union informed President Kennedy it would withdraw  several thousand  of an estimated 17,000 Soviet troops in Cuba.
    (AP, 2/19/98)

    1963        Feb 20, Moscow offered to allow on-site inspection of nuclear testing.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

    1963        Feb 22, Moscow warned the U.S. that an attack on Cuba would mean war.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

    1963        Feb 27, The USSR said that 10,000 troops would remain in Cuba.
    (HN, 2/27/98)

    ****

    1963        Feb-Mar, The US military, while conducting biological weapons tests, sprayed Bacillus globigii from aircraft near Fort Sherman Military Reservation in the Canal Zone.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

    ****

    1963        Mar 1, 200,000 French mine workers went on strike.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

    1963        Mar 3, Senegal adopted a constitution.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
    1963        Mar 4, William Carlos Williams (79), US physician, poet, died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

    1963        Mar 4, Six people got the death sentence in Paris plotting to kill de Gaulle.
    (HN, 3/4/98)

    1963        Mar 5, A private plane crash near Camden, Tenn., claimed the lives of  country music performers Patsy Cline (30),  Cowboy  Copas and  Hawkshaw  Hawkins, as well as pilot Randy Hughes, Cline’s manager.
    (AP, 3/5/08)

    1963        Mar 6, Jimmy Lee Smith and Gregory Powell abducted 2 Los Angeles police officers from a Hollywood street, drove them to an onion field in Bakersfield and shot officer Ian Campbell to death. Officer Karl Hettinger managed to escape. Smith served 19 years for his role in the case before he was paroled. In 1973 Joseph Wambaugh authored “The Onion Field,” a novel based on the murder. The novel was turned into a film in 1979.
    (SFC, 6/28/05, p.B8)

    1963        Mar 12, US House granted former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill honorary U.S. citizenship.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

    1963        Mar 13, China invited  Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to visit Peking.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

    1963        Mar 16, Phung Vuong, murderer (FBI Most Wanted List), was born in Saigon, Vietnam.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

    1963        Mar 17, Eruptions of Mount Agung volcano on Bali killed 1,900 Balinese. The Agung eruption killed 1,184 people.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(MC, 3/17/02)

    1963        Mar 18, Vanessa L. Williams, 1st black Miss America (1983), singer, was born in Millwood, NY.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

    1963        Mar 18, The US Supreme Court made its Gideon ruling which said poor defendants have a constitutional right to an attorney. Gideon had been forced to defend himself in Florida in Jan 1962, and petitioned the Supreme Court to hear his complaint.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.D4)(SSFC, 11/30/03, p.A31)

    1963        Mar 19, In Costa Rica, President John F. Kennedy and six Latin American presidents pledged to fight Communism.
    (HN, 3/19/98)
    ***********

    1963        Mar 19, Algeria demanded that France negotiate on ending nuclear testing in Algerian Sahara.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

    ********

    1963        Mar 20, The 1st  Pop Art  exhibition was held in NYC.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

    1963        Mar 21, The Alcatraz federal prison island in San Francisco Bay was emptied of its last inmates at the order of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy.
    (SFC, 6/29/96, p.E4)(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.7)(SFC, 8/11/97, p.A12)(AP, 3/21/97)(HN, 3/21/98)

    1963        Mar 21, Boxer Davey Moore was killed by Sugar Ramos in Dodger Stadium during a nationally televised boxing match. In 1964 Bob Dylan wrote his song “Who Killed Davey Moore?”
    (www.answers.com/topic/davey-moore)

    1963        Mar 22, British Minister of War John Profumo denied having sex with Christine Keeler. The Profumo call girl scandal almost toppled the government. Profumo, a leading British Conservative and minister for war, was discovered to have been involved with Keeler, a call girl who was also dealing with a Soviet attaché. Valerie Hobson (d.1998 at 81), his actress wife, stood by him after the scandal. A 1995 Masterpiece Theater TV play was based on these events.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1963)(WSJ, 12/28/95, p. A-5)(SFEC, 11/15/98, p.D5)(MC, 3/22/02)

    1963        Feb 20, Rolf Hochhuth’s  Der Stellvertreter  (The Representative) premiered in Berlin. The work indicted Pope Pius XII for Nazi complicity during WW II. The Catholic Church was outraged at the portrayal of Pius XII as a war criminal. An English translation by Richard and Clara Winston was published as “The Deputy: A Play,” by Grove Press in 1964. In 2002 The Deputy was made into the film “Amen.” by Costa Gavras.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Deputy)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.73)

    1963        Mar 27, John F. Kennedy met with King Hassan II of Morocco.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

    1963        Mar 28, Alec A. Templeton (52), composer, pianist (Alec Templeton Time), died.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

    1963        Mar 31, LA ended streetcar service after 90 years.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

    1963        Mar, Pakistan and China signed a historic border agreement. Three years later, the two countries agreed to construct a road that would provide a hitherto non-existent road-link for mutual benefit. In 1978 the Karakoram Highway from Kashgar, China, to the edge of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, was completed.
    (www.pakpost.gov.pk/philately/stamps2003/karakoram_highway.html)

    1963        Mar, Norman Borlaug, plant breeder, arrived in India and began testing new varieties of Mexican wheat, whose yields were shown to be 4-5 times better than Indian varieties. In 1970 he won the Nobel Prize for his development of high-yield wheat varieties for which he was dubbed father of the  Green Revolution.
    (SFC, 10/15/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 12/3/02, p.A1)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.30)

    1963        Mar, In Syria the pan-Arab Baath party staged a coup. Hafez Assad played an important role.
    (WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

    1963        Apr 1, The daytime television drama  General Hospital  and  Doctors  premiered on ABC.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(OTD)

    1963                 Apr 1, Most of New York City’s daily newspapers resumed publishing after settlement was reached in a 114-day strike.  Workers of the International Typographical Union ended their strike that had closed nine New York City newspapers. The strike ended 114 days after began on December 8, 1962.
    (AP, 4/1/08)(OTD)

    1963        Apr 2, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King began the first non-violent campaign in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (AP, 4/2/99)

    1963        Apr 6, The United States and Britain signed an agreement under which the Americans would sell Polaris A-3 missiles to the British.
    (AP, 4/6/97)

    1963        Apr 7,  Yugoslavia proclaimed itself a Socialist republic.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

    1963        Apr 8, Julian Lennon, John Lennon’s son, singer (Too Late for Goodbyes), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

    1963        Apr 8, In the 35th Academy Awards  Lawrence of Arabia,  Anne Bancroft and Gregory Peck won.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

    1963        Apr 9, British statesman Winston Churchill was made an honorary U.S. citizen.
    (AP, 4/9/97)(HN, 4/9/98)

    1963        Apr 10, The USS Thresher nuclear-powered submarine failed to surface 220 miles east of Boston, Mass., in a disaster that claimed 129 lives.
    (www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-t/ssn593.htm)

    1963        Apr 11, John XXIII put forth his encyclical  On peace in truth, justice, charity and liberty.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

    1963        Apr 12, Police used dogs and cattle prods on peaceful civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (HN, 4/12/98)

    1963        Apr 13, Gary Kimovich Kasparov, world chess champion (1985-2000), was born in the USSR.
    (MC, 4/13/02)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.D19)

    1963        Apr 18, Dr. James Campbell performed the 1st human nerve transplant.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

    1963        Apr 27, Cuban premier Fidel Castro arrived in Moscow.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

    1963        Apr 28, In the 17th Tony Awards: Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum won.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

    1863        Apr, In Venezuela the hostilities of the Federal War ended with negotiations for the Treaty of Coche, singed on May 22. This was the biggest civil war Venezuela had had since its independence.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_War)

    1963        May 1, James Whittaker became the 1st American to conquer Mount Everest as he and a Sherpa guide reached the summit.
    (AP, 5/1/03)

    1963        May 3, In Birmingham, Alabama, police Commissioner Bull Connor unleashed dogs and high-powered fire hoses on boycott-bound school children.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.1)

    1963        May 6, A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Barbara Tuchman (Guns of August).
    (MC, 5/6/02)

    1963        May 7, The United States launched the Telstar II communications satellite. It made the first public transatlantic broadcast.
    (HNQ, 5/3/99)(AP, 5/7/00)

    1963        May 8,  Dr. No  premiered in US.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

    1963        May 8, JFK offered Israel assistance against aggression.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

    1963        May 8, Problems with the Buddhists began in Hue, Vietnam. The Diem Government decided to demonstrate its strength by enforcing a law against the display of flags other than the national flag. In defiance, the Buddhists lined the streets flying their flags regardless of the new law; this defiance turned bloody when troops fired into the crowd, killing nine. Diem now claimed that the Buddhists were affiliates of the Communists and tightened security around the more active pagodas.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWvietnam.htm)

    1963        May 11,  Puff The Magic Dragon  by Peter, Paul and Mary hit #2.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

    1963        May 11, Racial bomb attacks took place in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

    1963        May 12, There was a race riot in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

    1963        May 15, Peter, Paul & Mary won their 1st Grammy (If I Had a Hammer).
    (MC, 5/15/02)

    1963        May 15, U.S. astronaut L. Gordon Cooper blasted off atop an Atlas rocket  aboard Faith 7 on the final mission of the Project Mercury space program. He orbited Earth 22 times and manually piloted his craft to a pinpoint splashdown.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(WSJ, 11/7/97, p.A1)(HN, 5/15/98)

    1963        May 16, After 22 Earth orbits Gordon Cooper returned to Earth in Friendship Seven, ending Project Mercury.
    (HN, 5/16/98)

    1963        May 18,  Beast in Me  closed at Plymouth Theater in NYC after 4 performances.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

    1963        May 18,  If You Wanna Be Happy  by Jimmy Soul hit #1.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

    1963        May 18, In the 89th Preakness: Bill Shoemaker aboard Candy Spots won in 1:56.2.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

    1963        May 20, Sukarno was appointed president of Indonesia.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

    1963        May 20-1963 May 23, In East Pakistan a cyclone killed about 22,000 along coast of the Bay of Bengal.
    (www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)

    1863        May 22, The Treaty of Coche was signed in Venezuela. Arms were laid down from the Federal War and a general assembly called at Victoria, which elected Juan Chrisostomo Falcon as president and Antonio Leocadio Guzman as vice president. The latter was at the same time secretary of the treasury, and went to London to negotiate a loan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Guzm%C3%A1n_Blanco)

    1963        May 25,  Hot Spot  closed at Majestic Theater in NYC after 43 performances.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

    1963        May 25, The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was founded, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by Chad, Mauritania & Zambia. In 2001 it was replaced the African Union.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(SFC, 7/12/01, p.A12)(SC, 5/25/02)

    1963        May 27, Jomo Kenyatta was elected 1st prime minister of Kenya.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

    1963        May 28, Down Jones went public. 110,000 shares of Dow Jones common stock were sold to the public.
    (WSJ, 8/1/07, p.B6)(www.scripophily.net/dowjocoinde.html)

    1963        May 28, Vissarion Yakovlevich Shebalin (60), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

    1963        May 29, Lisa Whelchel, actress (Blair-Facts of Life, Mickey Mouse Club), was born in Fort Worth, TX.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

    1963        May, Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert (32), psychology professors, were fired from Harvard for experimenting with psychedelic drugs. Alpert later traveled to India and returned as Ram Dass. In 1971 Alpert authored  Be Here Now  and in 2000 published  Still Here – Embracing Aging, Changing and Dying.
    (SFC, 12/21/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 5/2/00, p.A2)

    1963        Jun 1, R.C.,  El Watusi  by Ray Barreto peaked at #17 on the pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

    1963        Jun 1, R.C.,  I Love You Because  by Al Martino peaked at #3 on the pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

    1963        Jun 1, R.C.,  It’s My Party  by Lesley Gore peaked at #1 on the pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

    1963        Jun 1, R.C.,  Two Faces Have I  by Lou Christie peaked at #6 on the pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

    1963        Jun 1, Governor George Wallace vowed to defy an injunction ordering integration of the University of Alabama.
    (HN, 6/1/98)

    1963        Jun 3, Pope John XXIII died at the age of 81, ending a papacy marked by innovative reforms in the Roman Catholic Church. He was succeeded by Pope Paul VI.
    (AP, 6/3/97)

    1963        Jun 5, John Profumo (1915-2006), British Minister of War, resigned due his relations with Christine Keeler. [see mar 22]
    (AP, 3/10/06)

    1963        Jun 5, A state of siege was proclaimed in Iran and Ayatollah Khomeini was arrested.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

    1963        Jun 7, The Rolling Stones made their 1st TV appearance.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

    1963        Jun 7, Zasu Pitts (65), actress (Wedding March, Life With Father), died.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

    1963        Jun 9, JFK named Winston Churchill a US honorary citizen.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

    1963        Jun 9, A US Equal Pay Act was enacted.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

    1963        Jun 10, JFK signed an equal pay for equal work law for men & women.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

    1963        Jun 11, JFK said segregation is morally wrong & that it is  time to act.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

    1963        Jun 11, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Florida for trying to integrate restaurants.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

    1963        Jun 11, Federal troops were used to force Alabama Gov. George Wallace to accept black students, Vivian Malone Jones and James Wood, at the Univ. of Alabama. In 1996 George Wallace apologized in a formal ceremony. Gen’l. Henry V. Graham (d.1999 at 82) of the National Guard escorted Wallace from the doorway at Foster Auditorium.
    (WSJ, 5/13/96, p.A-16)(SFC, 10/11/96, p.A3)

    1963        Jun 11, Greek Premier Constantine Caramanlis resigned in protest of King Paul’s state visit to Britain.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

    1963        Jun 11, Buddhist monk Quang Duc immolated himself on a Saigon street to protest the government of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem.
    (AP, 6/11/97)(www.buddhistinformation.com/self_immolation.htm)

    1963        Jun 12, One of Hollywood’s costliest failures,  Cleopatra,  starring Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton and Rex Harrison, premiered in New York.
    (AP, 6/12/98)

    1963        Jun 12, Medgar Evers (37), leader (field director) of the NAACP in Mississippi, was fatally shot in front of his home in Jackson by the KKK. An informant in the KKK, Delmar Dennis (1940-1996), later served as a key prosecution witness in convicting Byron De La Beckwith for the slaying. Beckwith was convicted of murdering Evers and sentenced to life in prison; he died in 2001 at age 80. A book by Bill McIlhany titled “Klandestine” recounts the story. In 1996 Whoopi Goldberg starred in the film “Ghosts of Mississippi” as the widow of Medgar Evers. In 1998 Willie Morris wrote “The Ghosts of Medgar Evers: A Tale of Race, Murder, Mississippi, and Hollywood.”
    (SFC, 6/5/96, p.C5)(NYT, 6/7/96, p.B14)(AP, 6/12/97)(SFEC, 2/1/98, BR p.5)(SFC, 1/22/01, p.A22)

    1963        Jun 15,  Sound of Music  closed at Lunt Fontanne Theater in NYC after 1443 performances.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

    1963        Jun 15, Juan Marichal (25), pitcher for the SF Giants, dueled for 16 innings with Warren Spahn (42), of the Milwaukee Braves in a 5-hour game at Candlestick. Willie Mays hit the 428th pitch of the night over left field.
    (SFC, 4/4/03, p.D3)

    1963        Jun 15, Israeli premier David Ben-Gurion resigned.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

    1963        Jun 16, The world’s first female space traveler, Valentina Tereshkova, was launched into orbit by the Soviet Union aboard Vostok VI.
    (AP, 6/16/98)

    1963        Jun 17, The US Supreme Court ruled 8-1 to strike down rules requiring the recitation of the Lord’s Prayer or reading of Biblical verses in public schools. The case began in 1956 when Edward L. Schempp (d.2003), on behalf of his son, objected to a 1949 Pennsylvania law requiring 10 Bible verses each day followed by the Lord’s Prayer and the Pledge of Allegiance.
    (AP, 6/17/97)(HN, 6/17/98)(SFC, 11/24/03, p.A18)

    1963        Jun 17, British House of Commons debated the John Profumo-Christine Keeler affair, which involved the defense minister and the call-girl he shared with a Russian agent.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

    1963        Jun 17, John Cowper Powys (b.1872), English author, died. In 2007 Morine Krissdottir authored “Descent of Memory: The Life of John Cowper Powys.” His 10 novels included “Wolf Solent,” the story of a young man’s rebellion against the modern world.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cowper_Powys)(WSJ, 9/8/07, p.P9)

    1963        Jun 18, 3,000 blacks boycotted Boston public school.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

    1963        Jun 19, Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova returned to Earth after spending nearly three days as the first woman in space.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/98)

    1963        Jun 20, The United States and Soviet Union signed an agreement in Geneva to set up a hot line communications link between the two superpowers and a treaty was signed limiting nuclear testing. It came about because of the Cuban missile crises, which began on October 22, 1962. The Hot Line was not used until the Six-Day War of 1967.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1963)(AP, 6/20/97)(HN, 6/20/98)(HNPD, 10/18/99)

    1963        Jun 21, Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini was chosen to succeed the late Pope John XXIII as head of the Roman Catholic Church. The new pope took the name Paul VI.
    (AP, 6/21/97)
    1963        Jun 21, France announced it would withdraw from the NATO fleet in the North Atlantic.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

    1963        Jun 24, 1st demonstration of home video recorder was at the BBC Studios in London.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

    1963        Jun 24, Levi Eshkol formed an Israeli government.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

    1963        Jun 24, Zanzibar was granted internal self-government by Britain.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

    1963        Jun 26, President Kennedy visited West Berlin, where he made his famous declaration:  Ich bin ein Berliner  (I am a Berliner) at the Berlin Wall. Rumors later spread that the misplaced article  ein  made an exact translation to say  I am a jelly donut.
    (AP, 6/26/97)(HN, 6/26/98)(SFC, 2/3/00, p.A25)

    1963        Jun 27, Pres. Kennedy spent his 1st full day in Ireland.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

    1963        Jun 27, Henry Cabot Lodge was appointed U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

    1963        Jun 27, USAF Major Robert A. Rushworth in X-15 reached 86,900 m.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

    1963        Jun 28, Khrushchev visited East-Berlin.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

    1963        Jun 30, Cardinal Montini was crowned as Pope Paul VI, the 262nd head of the Roman Catholic Church.
    (AP, 6/30/97)(MC, 6/30/02)

    1963        Jul 1, The U.S. Post Office inaugurated its five-digit ZIP codes. The Zoning Improvement Plan was initially developed by Robert Aurand Moon (d.2001 at 83).
    (AP, 7/1/97)(HN, 7/1/98)(SFC, 4/16/01, p.A22)

    1963        Jul 2, President John F. Kennedy met Pope Paul the Sixth at the Vatican, the first meeting between a Roman Catholic US chief executive and the head of the Catholic Church.
    (AP, 7/2/00)

    1963        Jul 4, Naturalization ceremonies began to be held annually at Monticello, Virginia.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)

    1963        Jul 8, Reports were made of Charlie Finley’s intention to move KC A’s baseball team to Oakland.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

    1963        Jul 8, US banned all monetary transactions with Cuba.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

    1963        Jul 12, French Pres. Charles de Gaulle pronounced that  Treaties are like roses and young girls — they last while they last.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.A11)

    1963        Jul 25, The United States, the Soviet Union and Britain initialed a treaty in Moscow prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in space or underwater.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

    1963        Jul 25, Ugo Cerletti (b.1877), Italian neurosurgeon, died. In the 1930s he and Lucio Bini pioneered the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), electric shock, to cure patients of depression.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.78)(www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/511.html)
    1963        Jul 26, Skopje, Yugoslavia, was destroyed by earthquake and over 1,000 were killed.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

    1963        Jul 27, Garrett A. Morgan (86), inventor and founder of the Cleveland Call, died.
    (ON, 3/02, p.12)

    1963        Jul 30, British spy Kim Philby was discovered in Moscow. Philby, writer for The Economist, who spent six years filing dispatches from the Middle East, was discovered to be a spy and defected to the Soviet Union.
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)(MC, 7/30/02)

    1963         Jul, Serial killers Myra Hindley (d.2002) and her boyfriend, Ian Brady (the Moors Murderers), began abducting, molesting and killing children in Britain. The pair were caught in Oct, 1965.
    (AP, 11/16/02)

    1963        Aug 3, James Hetfield, heavy metal rocker (Metallica-Helpless), was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
    1963        Aug 3, Carlo Imperato, actor (Fame), was born in Bronx, NYC.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
    1963        Aug 3, Allan Sherman released  Hello Mudda, Hello Fadda.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
    1963        Aug 3, Beatles made a final performance the Cavern Club in Liverpool.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

    1963        Aug 5, The United States, Britain and the Soviet Union signed a Limited Test Ban Treaty in Moscow banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, space and underwater. Public pressure helped JFK signed the ban on atmospheric atom bomb tests.
    (AP, 8/5/97)(SFC, 11/26/01, p.A10)(SSFC, 7/15/07, p.D1)

    1963        Aug 8, Britain’s  Great Train Robbery  took place as thieves made off with 120 mailbags with 2.62 million pounds in banknotes. Sixteen (15) men under Bruce Reynolds held up the Glasgow to London Royal Mail (Glasgow-Euston train) and took off with $7.2 mil in sterling, or $50 mil in today’s US dollars. They badly beat up Jack Mills, the train driver. Ronald Biggs claimed to be one of the 16 men and later lived freely in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His share of the robbery was $2.8 mil but he was arrested just four weeks after the robbery. He escaped from Wandsworth Prison in 1965 and is still wanted in Britain. Only 1/8 of the money stolen has ever been recovered. Dinner at home with Mr. Biggs can be purchased for $50. In 1994 Biggs published an autobiography. In 1999 a video game was developed based on the event. Biggs (71) returned to Britain in 2001.
    (SFE, 10/1/95, p.T-8)(AP, 8/8/97)(WSJ, 11/4/99, p.A28)(WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A1)

    1963        Aug 13, A 17 year-old Buddhist monk burned himself to death in Saigon, South Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

    1963        Aug 18, James Meredith became the first black to graduate from the University of Mississippi.
    (AP, 8/18/97)

    1963        Aug 19, NAACP Youth Council began sit-ins at lunch counters in Oklahoma City.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

    1963        Aug 19, Newsweek quoted Madame Nhu, official hostess of the South Vietnamese government, offering to light the match of the next Buddhist monk suicide.
    (NW 8/19/63)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/93lc5)

    1963        Aug 21, Martial law was declared in South Vietnam as police and army troops began a crackdown on Buddhist anti-government protesters.
    (AP, 8/21/08)

    1963        Aug 23, Beatles released  She Loves You  in UK.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

    1963        Aug 24, Pres. Kennedy allowed a cable to be sent to Ambassador Lodge in Vietnam that backed a military coup against Pres. Diem. Kennedy gave tacit approval for a coup against Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam. Diem was killed Nov 2.
    (SFC, 11/25/98, p.A2)(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.41)

    1963        Aug 26, Orders came from Washington to destroy all cables sent to Saigon, South Vietnam, back to Aug 24.
    (SFEM, 4/11/99, p.42)

    1963        Aug 27, William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (b.1868), sociologist, influential leader of black Americans, founder of the National Negro Committee which eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, died in Accra, Ghana at the age of 95. He coined the phrase  double consciousness  to describe the black survival skill of moving between the black and white American culture.
    (WUD, 1994, p.439)(SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.5)(HNPD, 2/23/99)(HNQ, 5/11/99)

    1963        Aug 27, Cambodia severed ties with South Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

    1963        Aug 28, The civil rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom drew 200-250,000 demonstrators and was the occasion for King’s  I Have a Dream  speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial. It was organized by Bayard Rustin (1912-1987). In 1997 a biography of Rustin by Jervis Anderson was published:  Bayard Rustin: The Troubles I’ve Seen.  The 1997 play  Civil Sex  by Brian Freeman was based on Rustin’s life. Rev. Thomas Kilgore Jr. (d.1998 at 84) helped organize the march on Washington. Martin Luther King led marches on Washington and Selma, Alabama. His chief lieutenant was Andrew Young who in 1996 wrote:  An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and the Transformation of America.
    (WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.4)(WSJ, 1/30/97, p.A14)(AP, 8/28/97)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.21)(HN, 8/28/98)

    1963        Aug 28, Evergreen Point Floating Bridge connecting Seattle & Bellevue opened.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

    1963        Aug 30, The hot line, a rapid communications link between Washington, D.C., and Moscow went into operation to avoid miscalculations during an emergency.
    (AP, 8/30/97)(HNPD, 10/30/99)

    1963        Aug 30, Guy Burgess (b.1911), British spy for the USSR, died in Moscow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_Burgess)

    1963        Aug 31, Dick Gibson (d.1998), jazz lover, held his first Gibson Colorado Jazz Party at the Hotel Jerome in Aspen. He flew in some of the world’s top jazz musicians and began an annual Labor Day weekend tradition that lasted 30 years.
    (WSJ, 3/20/07, p.D6)

    1963        Aug 31, George F. Braque (81), cubist painter, died in Paris.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

    1963        Aug, Phil Graham, publisher of the Washington Post, committed suicide. His wife, Katherine Graham, took over as publisher. She published her autobiography in 1997:  Personal History.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, BR p.1)

    1963        Sep 1, Turkey moved politically closer to Europe with the Treaty of Ankara. It reduced duties and implicitly recognized Turkey’s right to join the European Economic Community.
    (http://tinyurl.com/tgab2)(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A10)(WSJ, 10/6/04, p.A17)

    1963        Sep 2,  The CBS Evening News  was lengthened from 15 to 30 minutes.
    (AP, 9/2/97)

    1963        Sep 2, Alabama Gov. George C. Wallace prevented the integration of Tuskegee High School by encircling the building with state troopers.
    (AP, 9/2/97)(HN, 9/2/98)

    1963        Sep 3, Louis MacNeice (b.1907), northern Irish poet, died. His name was often subsumed under the collective name of Macspaunday, which referred to the generation of politically-committed 1930s poets: MacNeice, Stephen Spender, W.H. Auden and C. Day-Lewis. MacNeice’s collected poems were published in 2007.
    (Econ, 9/29/07, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_MacNeice)

    1963        Sep 7, The Beatles made their 1st US TV appearance on ABC’s Big Night Out.
    (MC, 9/7/01)
    1963        Sep 7, American Bandstand moved to California and aired once a week on Saturday.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

    1963        Sep 7, The National Professional Football Hall of Fame was dedicated in Canton, Ohio.
    (AP, 9/7/97)

    1963        Sep 9, In Italy a landslide into Vaiont Dam emptied a lake and killed 3-4,000 people.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

    1963        Sep 9, Alabama Gov George Wallace served a federal injunction to stop orders of state police to bar black students from enrolling in white schools.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

    1963        Sep 10, 20 black students entered public schools in Birmingham, Tuskegee and Mobile, Ala., following a standoff between federal authorities and Gov. George C. Wallace. President John F. Kennedy federalized Alabama’s National Guard to prevent Governor George C. Wallace from using guardsmen to stop public-school desegregation.
    (AP, 9/10/97)(HN, 9/10/98)

    1963        Sep 13,  Outer Limits  premiered on ABC TV. It  was partly written, produced and directed by Leslie Stevens (d.1998) and ran to 1965.
    (SFC, 4/29/98, p.C2)(MC, 9/13/01)

    1963        Sep 13, The last bucket of concrete was poured on the Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River to form Lake Powell. It marked the beginning of a 290 mile stretch of the river from the dam through the Grand Canyon to Lake Mead. It was built to provide power to six Western states. The lake filled by 1980. [last source says the lake filled within 5 years]
    (SFC, 4/12/96, p.E-3)(SFC, 5/19/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.A1)(NH, 9/97, p.40)

    1963        Sep 14, Mary Ann Fischer of Aberdeen, S.D., gave birth to four girls and a boy, the first surviving quintuplets in the United States.
    (AP, 9/14/03)

    1963        Sep 15, The Alou brothers-Felipe, Matty, & Jesus-appeared in the San Francisco outfield for 1 inning.
    (http://www.baseball-fever.com/showthread.php?t=20238)

    1963        Sep 15, The Ku Klux Klan bombed the 16th St. Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. Four young black girls (Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Collins, and Cynthia Wesley) were killed in the bombing as they prepared their Sunday school lesson on  The love that forgives.  Later on the same day James Ware,16, and his brother Virgil, 14, were shot at while bicycling home. Virgil was killed. Another James Ware went on to become a US district judge and falsely used the James and Virgil Ware story for self promotion. Judge Ware withdrew from a new appointment to the SF 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in 1997 after he admitted that he was not the same James Ware. In Birmingham, Alabama, police dogs were set on peaceful, Black demonstrators. The 1997 film  Four Little Girls  by Spike Lee was a documentary of the church burning in Alabama. In 1977 Robert Chambliss (d.1985) was tried and convicted of murder. Suspect Herman Cash died in 1994. In 2000 Thomas E. Blanton Jr. and Bobby Frank Cherry (d.2004) turned themselves in after they were indicted by a state grand jury. In 2001 Thomas Blanton was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison. Cherry was convicted May 22, 2002, and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, p.Z1, p.1)(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D11)(SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 5/18/97, DB p.45)(SFC,11/6/97, p.A9)(AP, 9/15/97)(SFC, 5/18/00, p.A1)(SFC, 5/2/01, p.A1)(SFC, 5/23/02, p.A1)(NW, 5/27/02, p.43)

    1963        Sep 16, The science-fiction anthology series  The Outer Limits  premiered on ABC. It ran to 1965.
    (AP, 9/16/98)(SFEM, 2/28/99, p.4)

    1963        Sep 16, The Federation of Malaysia was formally established. Sabak and Sarawak, Britain’s colonies on Borneo, joined the Malayan peninsula to form Malaysia with Tunku Abdul Rahman (60) as prime minister. The federation formed under bitter opposition from Indonesia, which refused to recognize the country and waged a guerrilla war against it. Race riots erupted between ethnic Malays and the Chinese majority.
    (PC, 1992, p.988)(HNQ, 5/14/98)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.C10)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.60)

    1963        Sep 17,  The Fugitive,  starring David Janssen, premiered on ABC. It was written and produced by Roy Huggins (d.2002). Kimble was cleared on the Aug 29, 1967, and narrator William Conrad announced  the day the running stopped.  In 1993 Ed Robertson authored the companion book   The Fugitive Recaptured.  In 1993 a film was made based on the TV series with Harrison Ford as Kimble.
    (AP, 9/17/98)(WSJ, 10/16/00, p.A32)(SFC, 4/15/02, p.B5)

    1963        Sep 18,  The Patty Duke Show  premiered on ABC television.
    (AP, 9/18/03)

    1963        Sep 18, USSR orders 58.5 million barrels of cereal from Australia.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

    1963        Sep 20, In a speech to the U.N. General Assembly, President Kennedy proposed a joint U.S.-Soviet expedition to the moon. Pres. Kennedy stayed at New York’s Carlyle Hotel and received a  leggy babe  under Secret Service escort.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A17)

    1963        Sep 23, Annual report of 1996 reported that Becton Dickinson stock was first listed on NYSE.
    (AR, 1996, p.2)(Calendar 1/97)

    1963        Sep 24, The U.S. Senate ratified a treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union limiting nuclear testing.
    (AP, 9/24/99)

    1963        Sep 26, Lee Harvey Oswald traveled on a Continental Trailways bus to Mexico.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

    1963        Sep 27, Lee Harvey Oswald visited the Cuban consulate in Mexico.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

    1963        Sep 27, At 10:59 AM census clock, the US population was recorded at 190,000,000.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

    1963        Sep 28,  New Phil Silvers Show,  debuted on CBS-TV.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

    1963        Sep 28, Murray The K, a NY DJ played  She Loves You  on the radio.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

    1963        Sep 29,  The Judy Garland Show  premiered on CBS.
    (AP, 9/29/04)

    1963        Sep 29, The situation comedy  My Favorite Martian  premiered on CBS. It starred Bill Bixby and Ray Walston (d.2000 at 86). The show ran to 1966.
    (SFC, 1/3/01, p.A17)(AP, 9/29/03)

    1963        Sep 29, The second session of Second Vatican Council opened in Rome.
    (AP, 9/29/97)

    1963        Sep, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.25 an hour.
    (http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

    1963        Sep, The Treaty of Anakara on reducing duties implicitly recognized Turkey’s right to join the European Economic Community.
    (WSJ, 10/6/04, p.A17)

    1963        Oct 1, Mark McGwire was born. He later became a baseball 1st baseman, AL rookie of year 1988, Oakland A’s, Cards, 70 home run record.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

    1963        Oct 2, Defense Sec. Robert McNamara told Pres. Kennedy in a cabinet meeting that:  We need a way to get out of Vietnam.  McNamara proposed to replace the 16,000 US advisors with Canadian personnel.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A2)

    1963        Oct 2, W. German Chancellor Adenauer condemned western grain shipments to USSR.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

    1963        Oct 4-8, Hurricane Flora, killed 6,000 in Cuba and Haiti. Hurricane Flora killed an estimated 7-8,000 people.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A2)(MC, 10/4/01)

    1963        Oct 7, President Kennedy signed the documents of ratification for a limited nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union. Testing was outlawed in the atmosphere, underwater and in outer space.
    (AP, 10/7/97)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F4)

    1963        Oct 7, Bobby Baker resigned as Senate Democratic secretary after being charged in a 300-thousand-dollar civil suit with using his influence for personal monetary gains.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

    1963        Oct 8, Remedios Varo (b.1908), Spanish-born surrealist painter, died in Mexico. Walter Gruen, her 11-year lover and promoter, collected her work and in 1987 attempted to get copyright protection. A Mexican judge denied his request due to Varo’s failure to get a formal divorce from French poet Benjamin Peret. In 1999 the Mexican government tried to seize the paintings on behalf of Mexico but faced a claim by next of kin niece Beatriz Varo. By 2005 Mr. Gruen agreed to give his entire collection to the Mexican government if it gets named after his deceased daughter.
    (http://tinyurl.com/b87uu)(WSJ, 9/20/05, p.A1)

    1963        Oct 9, British premier Harold MacMillan resigned.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

    1963        Oct 9, A dam in Piave valley of Italy, broke and about 2,000 died. [see Sep 9]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

    1963        Oct 10, A dam burst in Italy, and over 3,000 died. [see Sep 9, Oct 9]
    (MC, 10/10/01)

    1963        Oct 11, A National Security Action memorandum that recommended plans to withdraw 1,000 US Military personnel by the end of the year was approved. The memo followed McNamara’s return from a trip to South Vietnam.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A2)

    1963        Oct 11, Jean Cocteau, French author (La Voie Humaine), surrealist poet, artist and film director, died at 73. His lover Lean Marais later published a biography of Cocteau called  L’Inconcevable Jean Cocteau.  In 2003 Claude Arnaud authored the biography  Jean Cocteau.
    (SFC, 11/10/98, p.A24)(SFC, 10/6/03, p.D8)

    1963        Oct 11, Edith Piaf (b.1915), French singer (No, I don’t regret anything), died of cancer. In 2007 the biopic film “La Vie en Rose,” with Marion Cotillard as Piaf, was produced.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89dith_Piaf)

    1963        Oct 12, Archaeological digs began at Masada, Israel.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

    1963        Oct 13,  Beatlemania  was coined after Beatles appeared at Palladium.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

    1963        Oct 19, Beatles recorded  I Want to Hold Your Hand.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

    1963        Oct 20, Cleveland’s Jim Brown surpassed the NFL single-season career rushing record of 8,378 yards set by Joe Perry in 1958. By game’s end Brown had 8,390 yards.
    (www.profootballhof.com/history/general/rushers/index.jsp)

    1963        Oct 20, Alec Douglas-Home formed a British government.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

    1963        Oct 22, Brian Boitano, figure skater (Olympic-gold-1988), was born in Mountain View, Calif.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

    1963        Oct 22, 225,000 students boycotted Chicago schools in a Freedom Day protest.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

    1963        Oct 23, Neil Simon’s  Barefoot in the Park,  premiered in NYC. [see Oct 24]
    (MC, 10/23/01)

    1963        Oct 24,  Barefoot in the Park  by Neil Simon opened on Broadway. [see Oct 23]
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, BR p.5)

    1963        Oct 25, Anti-Kennedy  WANTED FOR TREASON  pamphlets scattered in Dallas.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

    1963        Oct 28, In NYC the demolition of Penn Station, completed in 1910, began.
    (www.nyc-architecture.com/GON/GON004.htm)(WSJ, 1/12/07, p.W8)

    1963        Oct 31, J. Edgar Hoover’s last meeting with President John F Kennedy.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

    1963        Oct 31, Leaking propane gas exploded and killed 64 at  Holiday on Ice  in Indiana.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

    1963        Oct, Pres. Kennedy spoke with Mayor Daley of Chicago to get congressman Roland Libonati to vote the Party line. The conversation was recorded.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, p.43)
    1963        Nov 1-1963 Nov 2, South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother were assassinated in a military coup. Coup leader Duong Van Minh explained that  They had to be killed… Pres. Diem was too much respected among simple, gullible people in the countryside.  A 3rd brother was later tricked into surrendering to US forces and was turned over to coup leaders and killed by firing squad. Col. Nguyen Van Thieu helped organize the coup that killed Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem.
    (AP, 11/2/97)(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.42)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)

    1963        Nov 5, Tatum O’Neal, Mrs. John McEnroe, (Paper Moon, Little Darlings), was born in LA, Cal.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

    1963        Nov 7, The film  It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World  premiered at Hollywood’s new Cinerama Theatre in a lengthy 195 minute version.
    (WSJ, 2/13/02, p.A1)

    1963        Nov 9, Twin disasters struck Japan as some 450 miners were killed in a coal-dust explosion, and 160 people died in a train crash.
    (AP, 11/9/97)

    1963        Nov 12, James P. Hosty Jr., FBI agent, had been tracking Lee Harvey Oswald for counterintelligence purposes and had visited Oswald’s wife to establish Oswald’s location  On this day Hosty received a note from Oswald to leave Marina Oswald alone. In 1996 Hosty wrote: Assignment: Oswald, a memoir of his FBI role tracking Oswald.
    (SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.5)

    1963        Nov 14, Greece freed hundreds who were jailed in the Communist uprising of 1944- 1950.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

    1963        Nov 14, Iceland got a new island when a volcano pushed its way up out of the sea five miles off the southern coast.
    (HN, 11/14/00)

    1963        Nov 15, Fritz Reiner (74), Hungarian-US conductor (Chicago Symphony Orch), died.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

    1963        Nov 15, Argentina voided all foreign oil contracts.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

    1963        Nov 16, Touch-tone telephone was introduced.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

    1963        Nov 20, A Senate investigating committee held hearings on the growing TFX scandal where General Dynamics had received a $7 billion contract in 1962.
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.B7)

    1963        Nov 21, President Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline, began a two-day tour of Texas.
    (AP, 11/22/03)

    1963        Nov 21, Robert Stroud,  bird man of Alcatraz , died at the federal prison in Springfield, Mo. His canary studies were done at Leavenworth, Kansas, and included the book  Stroud’s Digest of Diseases pf Birds.  He also worked on a critical history of the US prison system (Looking Outward).

    (MC, 11/21/01)(AHHT, 10/02, p.22)(SSFC, 9/22/02, p.A8)

    1963        Nov 21, Roman Catholic Vatican Council authorized the use of vernacular instead of Latin in the Sacraments.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

    1963        Nov 21, India launched its first rocket from Thumba in Kerala state.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thumba_Equatorial_Rocket_Launching_Station)

    1963        Nov 22, A Senate committee heard testimony about an alleged $100,000 cash payoff to Vice-President Johnson in connection with the General Dynamics TFX contract. After the assassination of JFK there was no follow up.
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.B7)

    1963        Nov 22, John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, had been in office two years, 10 months and two days, when an assassin’s bullet ended his life in Dallas, Texas. Kennedy, on a pre-campaign trip to supposedly hostile Texas, had been greeted warmly by enthusiastic crowds at every stop. Upon their arrival in Dallas, President and Mrs. Kennedy, accompanied by Texas Governor John Connolly and his wife, were driven slowly through the downtown streets on their way to a scheduled speech at the Dallas Trade Mart. At 12:30 p.m., as the open limousine traveled through Dealey Plaza past the Texas School Book Depository, Kennedy was shot. Within the hour, Kennedy was pronounced dead at Parkland Hospital and by 2 p.m., Dallas police had arrested Lee Harvey Oswald as the suspected assassin. At 2:38 p.m. Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th President of the United States.
    (HNPD, 11/22/98)

    1963        Nov 22, John F. Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald while riding in a motorcade in Dallas. Texas Gov. John B. Connally was seriously wounded. Oswald was in turn shot in front of TV cameras by Jack Ruby. Rufus Youngblood (1924-1996), a Secret Service agent, shielded VP Johnson from possible gunshots with his body. Johnson rewarded him by promoting him over time to the No. 2 position in the Secret Service. Ruby used a .38 Colt Cobra purchased at Ray’s Hardware and Sporting Goods in Dallas run by Lawrence Brantley (1921-1996). From the address that President Kennedy never got to deliver in Dallas:  If we are strong, our strength will speak for itself. If we are weak, words will be no help.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1963)(AHD, p. 931)(SFC, 10/4/96, p.B2)(SFC, 10/17/96, C2) (AP, 11/22/97)

    1963        Nov 22, Two amateur films recorded the assassination of Pres. Kennedy. A 24 ½ sec. video by Orville Nix Sr. and Abraham Zapruder, a dress manufacturer, captured the assassination on video tape. In 1981 David Lifton published  Best Evidence,  on the medical evidence of the assassination. In 1993 Gerald Posner published  Case Closed,  a book on the Warren Commission report. In 1998 new testimony was released that a 2nd set of pictures was taken at the autopsy that were never made public. In 2007 David Talbot authored “Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years.” In 2007 Vincent Bugliosi authored “Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy.”
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A5)(SFC, 10/25/98, p.D5)(SFC, 11/23/00, p.A11)(SSFC, 5/13/07, p.M1)(WSJ, 5/19/07, p.P8)

    1963        Nov 22, Dr. Charles Andrew Crenshaw, a 3rd year surgical intern at Dallas’ Parkland Memorial, tended Kennedy and placed him into a coffin. In 1992 Crenshaw (d.2001) authored  JFK: Conspiracy of Silence  and insisted that Kennedy had 4 gunshot wounds, including one from the front and that the neck wound had been tampered to look like an exit wound.
    (SFC, 11/21/01, p.A25)

    1963        Nov 22, Dallas police officer J.D. Tippit was slain by Oswald 45 minutes after Kennedy was shot when he called Oswald over for questioning.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A5)(SFC, 10/25/98, p.D5)

    1963        Nov 22, New Orleans mob boss Carlos Marcello was acquitted. He was prosecuted by Bobby Kennedy and Bobby later said that Marcello was behind the murder of JFK.
    (SFEC, 6/7/98, Par. p.8)

    1963        Nov 22, Aldous L. Huxley (69), English author (Devils of Loudon, Brave New World), died in Los Angeles.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ahuxley.htm)

    1963        Nov 22, C.S. Lewis, English author the Narnia series and other books, died of osteoporosis. In 2005 Alan Jacobs authored “The Narnian,” a biography of Lewis.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/cslewis.htm)(WSJ, 10/15/05, p.P13)

    1963        Nov 23, President Johnson proclaimed Nov. 25 a day of national mourning as JFK’s body lay in repose in East Room of White House.
    (AP, 11/23/01)

    1963        Nov 23, Sixty-three elderly people, most of them sleeping, were killed by a fire destroying the one-story Golden Age Nursing Home near Fitchville, Ohio.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

    1963        Nov 23,  Doctor Who,  the long-running British sci-fi series, debuted in England.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

    1963        Nov 24, Jack Ruby shot and mortally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President Kennedy in front of TV cameras in the garage of the Dallas Police Department. Ruby used a .38 Colt Cobra purchased at Ray’s Hardware and Sporting Goods in Dallas run by Lawrence Brantley (1921-1996). Sometime earlier Oswald had made an attempt to murder right-wing Gen’l. Edwin A. Walker. In 2002 Thomas Mallon authored  Mrs. Paine’s Garage and the Murder of John F. Kennedy.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, C2)(AP, 11/24/97)(HN, 11/24/00)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)

    1963        Nov 25, Assassinated President John F. Kennedy was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. A bronze casket that was used to transport JFK to Washington was flown off the Maryland-Delaware coast and dropped into a 9,000 feet deep military dump site.
    (AP, 11/25/97)(HN, 11/25/98)(SFC, 5/31/99, p.A3)

    1963        Nov 28, In The Flintstones episode titled  KLEPTOMANIAC PEBBLES , Pebbles’ tendency to take anything that isn’t nailed down is exploited by jewel thief Baffles Gravel.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

    1963        Nov 28, R.C.,  She Loves You  by the Beatles returned to #1 on the U.K. pop singles chart.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

    1963        Nov 28, The first million copy record prior to release  I Want to Hold Your Hand .
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

    1963        Nov 28, Linda Darnell divorced Merle Robertson.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

    1963        Nov 28, The Crusher beat Verne Gagne in St Paul, to become NWA champ.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

    1963        Nov 28, Just six days after the assassination of President Kennedy, President Johnson announces that the Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida, will be renamed  The John F. Kennedy Space Center.  Residents voted in 1973 to change the name back to Cape Canaveral.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)(HN, 11/28/98)

    1963        Nov 29, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Chief Justice Earl Warren head of a commission to investigate the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
    (AP, 11/29/97)(HN, 11/29/98)

    1963        Nov, Pres. Kennedy approved a probe to see whether relations with Fidel Castro could be improved. In 1999 Mark J. White edited  The Kennedy’s and Cuba: The Declassified Documentary History.
    (WSJ, 11/15/99, p.A48)

    1963        Dec 2, Sabu Sabu (39), actor (Sabu Dastagir), died of a heart attack in Chatsworth, California. He was born in Karapur, Mysore, India, on January 27, 1924, beginning his movie career at the age of 13. His films included “Elephant Boy” (1937); “Drums” (1938); “The Thief of Baghdad” (1940);  “Jungle Book” (1942) and “Arabian Nights” (1942).
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0754942/)

    1963        Dec 7,    During the Army-Navy game, videotaped instant replay was used for the first time in a live sports telecast as CBS re-showed a one-yard touchdown run by Army quarterback Rollie Stichweh. Navy beat Army, 21-15.
    (AP, 12/7/03)

    1963        Dec 8, Three fuel tanks exploded when a jetliner, struck by lightning, crashed near Elkton, Maryland. 81 people died. This was the only case of a lightning caused crash.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

    1963        Dec 9, Frank Sinatra Jr. was kidnapped. Frank Sinatra Sr. ransomed his kidnapped son, Frank Sinatra Jr., for $240,000. Barry Keenan, who set up the kidnapping, was a classmate of Nancy Sinatra. He served 4 1/2 years in prison and went on to become a successful real estate developer.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.B6)(MC, 12/9/01)

    1963        Dec 10, Walter Cronkite re-aired a CBS News report from London on the Beatles. It had been 1st filed on Nov 22, the day JFK was assassinated.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, Par p.18)

    1963        Dec 12, Frank Sinatra Jr. returned after being kidnapped.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

    1963        Dec 12, Kenya gained independence from Britain and the Kenyan African National Union Party (KANU) began ruling. Jomo Kenyatta, a Kikuyu, was the first president and served until 1978.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A8)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(AP, 12/12/97)(SFC,12/23/97, p.D4)(SFC, 8/8/98, p.A12)

    1963        Dec 13, Capital records signed a right of 1st refusal agreement with Beatles.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

    1963        Dec 13, Kenya became a republic.
    (HFA, ’96, p.44)

    1963        Dec 14, The Baldwin Hills dam in Los Angeles, Ca., broke. The released water destroyed 65 homes and left 5 people dead.
    (http://damsafety.water.ca.gov/about.htm)

    1963        Dec 14, Dinah Washington (b.1924), known in the 50s as  Queen of the Harlem Blues,  died of barbiturate poisoning in Detroit. In 2004 Nadine Cohodas authored “Queen: The Life and Times of Dinah Washington.”
    (SSFC, 8/22/04, p.M1)

    1963        Dec 20, The Berlin Wall was opened for the first time to West Berliners, who were allowed one-day visits to relatives in the Eastern sector for the holidays. Four thousand crossed the great wall of Berlin to visit relatives under a 17 day Christmas accord.
    (AP, 12/20/98)(HN, 12/20/98)

    1963        Dec 20, The trial of 21 camp guards from Auschwitz began.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

    1963        Dec 21, The Turk minority rioted in Cyprus to protest anti-Turkish revisions in the constitution.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

    1963        Dec 22, The official 30 days of mourning ended following the assassination of President Kennedy.
    (AP, 12/22/99)

    1963        Dec 24, New York’s Idlewild Airport was renamed JFK Airport in honor of the murdered President Kennedy.
    (HN, 12/24/98)
    1963        Dec 24, Greeks and Turks rioted in Cyprus.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

    1963        Dec 26, Beatles released  I Want To Hold Your Hand  and  I Saw Her Standing There.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

    1963        Dec 26,  Gorgeous George  Wagner, perfumed and pampered wrestler, died.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

    1963        Dec 28, Abbott Joseph Liebling (b.1904), American journalist and writer, died. “Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who own one.” In 1980 Raymond Sokolov authored the biography “Wayward Reporter.”
    (www.jewishsports.net/BioPages/AbbottJoseph.htm)(SSFC, 11/21/04, p.E3)

    1963        Dec 28, Paul Hindemith (b.1895), German composer (Composer’s World) and violist, died. His work included  Cardillac.
    (WUD, 1994, p.672)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(MC, 12/28/01)

    1963        Dec 30, Alessandra Mussolini, actress (Ferragosto OK), was born in Naples, Italy.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

    1963        Dec 30, Congress authorized the Kennedy half dollar.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

    1963        Dec, US Cpl. Jerry W. Parrish (19) deserted to North Korea and later died there of natural causes.
    (SFC, 8/16/04, p.A5)

    1963        Konrad Fischer (1939-1996) founded the Capital Realism art movement in Germany. It was a figurative painting style that was a response to American Pop Art.
    (SFC, 11/27/96, p.B2)

    1963        Lucien Freud painted  Man’s Head (Self-Portrait III).
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.1)

    1963        Pan Tianshou, a traditional-style Chinese painter, created  Red Lotus.
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

    1963        Andy Warhol created his image  Large Triple Elvis.
    (NH, 6/01, p.48)

    1963        Hannah Arendt authored  Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil.
    (WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A22)

    1963        Harold Barnett and Chandler Morse wrote  Scarcity and Growth.  They documented price declines through history to indicate an increased availability of natural resources rather than a growing scarcity.
    (WSJ, 4/22/97, p.A22)

    1963        Nora Beloff (1919-1997), British political writer and foreign correspondent, wrote  The General Says No: Britain’s Exclusion from Europe.
    (SFC, 2/24/96, p.A17)

    1963        Alton L. Blakeslee (d.1997 at 83) wrote  Your Heart has Nine Lives  with Dr. Jeremiah B. Stamler. He was the chief science writer for the Associated Press (AP) for 3 decades.
    (SFC, 5/14/97, p.A22)

    1963        John Campbell Bruce (1906-1996) wrote  Escape From Alcatraz . It was based on a true 1962 escape. The book was turned into a film in 1979.
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.20)

    1963        Donald Davidson (d.2003 at 86), Prof. of Philosophy at UC Berkeley, authored  Actions, Reasons and Causes.
    (SFC, 9/4/03, p.A23)

    1963        John Fowles (1926-2005), English novelist, authored  The Collector.
    (Econ, 11/1/03, p.82)(SFC, 11/8/05, p.B5)

    1963        The  Feminine Mystique  by Betty Friedan (1921-2006) was published.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A21)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.A6)

    1963        Milton Friedman (1912-2006) and Anna Jacobson Schwartz authored “A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960.” They argued that the US depression of the 1930s was the result of an inept Federal Reserve.
    (WSJ, 12/7/05, p.A15)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.80)

    1963        Richard Jennings, Prof. at UC Boalt School of Law, co-authored with Harold Marsh Jr.  Securities Regulation – Cases & Materials,  the 1st casebook on securities regulation.
    (SFEM, 8/22/99, p.A22)

    1963        Prof. Peter Kennedy (1923-2006) co-wrote the textbook “Pathology of Domestic Animals.”
    (SFC, 8/10/06, p.B7)

    1963        Dr. Ivo John Lederer (d.1998 at 68) authored  Yugoslavia at the Peace Conference.  He was the founder and director of the Center for Russian and East European Studies at Stanford Univ.
    (SFC, 6/26/98, p.D4)

    1963        Abraham Maslow, a pioneer of humanistic psychology, wrote  Eupsychian Management, A Journal.  It described the management style he witnessed at Non-Linear Systems. He labeled it  enlightened management  to describe work conditions that incorporated synergy and led to individual  self-actualization.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.B1)(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.B1)

    1963        Ernst Mayr wrote  Animal Species and Evolution.
    (NH, 2/97, p.69)

    1963        Mary McCarthy authored her novel “The Group.” It followed a group of Vassar graduates from 1933 to the start of WWII.
    (WSJ, 4/19/08, p.W8)

    1963        James Michener (d.1997 at 90) wrote his novel  Caravans,  the fruit of wide-ranging trips to Afghanistan in the mid-1950s.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)(WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W8)

    1963         The American Way of Death  by Jessica Mitford (d.7/24/96) was published. It was an expose of the funeral industry in the US. A revised edition was published in 1998.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Zone 1 p.3)(SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.1)

    1963        Daniel Patrick Moynihan, later senator and ambassador, authored  Beyond the Melting Pot,  a description of the ethnic groups in NYC.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A2)

    1963        Sir Lawrence van der Post (1906-1996) wrote  The Seed and the Sower.  It was filmed in 1983 as Merry Christmas Mr. Lawrence with David Bowie.
    (SFC, 12/17/96, p.B4)

    1963        Dawn Powell published the novel  The Golden Spur.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.5)

    1963        Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr., former head of General Motors Corp., authored  My Life With General Motors.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.132)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.123)

    1963        Ezra Solomon (d.2002 at 82), Stanford economics professor, authored  The Theory of Financial Management.
    (SFC, 12/21/02, p.A22)

    1963        Jim Thompson authored his novel  The Grifters.  It was made into a film in 1990.
    (WSJ, 8/27/01, p.A13)

    1963        Charles Webb authored his novel  The Graduate.  It was turned into a movie in 1967.
    (WSJ, 5/8/01, p.B1)

    1963        The musical show  110 in the Shade  was based on the Richard Nash play  the Rainmaker.
    (USAT, 11/12/99, p.1E)

    1963        The George Balanchine choreographed the ballet  Bugaku.
    (WSJ, 10/21/99, p.A20)

    1963        Flemming Flindt created a dance work titled  The Lesson  based on a 1951 work by Eugene Ionesco.
    (SFC, 5/4/96, p.E-1)

    1963        William Prince (1913-1996) played the lead role in Edward Albee’s play:  The Ballad of the Sad Cafe.
    (SFC, 10/11/96, p.A24)

    1963        Keith Andes (1920-2005) played the role of an amazing sleuth on the TV sitcom “Glynis.” Glynis Johns played his wife.
    (SFC, 11/29/05, p.B7)

    1963        Julia Child made her TV debut as  The French Chef  on Boston’s WGBH-TV. PBS picked up the show a year later.
    (SFEM, 8/10/97, p.23)

    1963        Virginia Graham (d.1998) led the  Girl Talk  TV talk show until 1969.
    (SFC, 12/25/98, p.B6)

    1963        The TV costume game show  Let’s Make a Deal  premiered and ran for 16 years in daytime and 10 years in prime time. It was hosted by Monty Hall and co-created by Stefan Hatos (d.1999 at 78).
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.A22)

    1963        The TV show  My Favorite Martian  starred Bill Bixby and Ray Walston (d.2000 at 86). The show ran to 1966.
    (SFC, 1/3/01, p.A17)

    1963        George Fenneman (1919-1997) began to host the TV show  Your Funny, Funny Films  on ABC. It was a forerunner to  America’s Funniest Videos.
    (SFC, 6/5/97, p.A26)

    1963        The first edition album  Introducing the Beatles  was produced and sold for $9,600 in 1997.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.D5)

    1963        Sandy Bull (d.2001 at 60) released his 1st album  Fantasias for Guitar and Banjo.  It became an underground classic.
    (SFC, 4/13/01, p.D6)

    1963        Johnny Cash recorded his hit tune:  Ring of Fire.
    (SFC, 9/13/03, p.A12)

    1963        Keith Colley made a hit with  Enamorado.
    (SFC, 11/30/02, p.D1)

    1963        Koerner, Ray & Glover released their landmark album:  Blues, Rags and Hollers.  Dave  Snaker  Ray, guitarist, died in 2002.
    (SFC, 11/30/02, p.A23)

    1963        Bob Merrill wrote the hit song  People.
    (WSJ, 2/2/00, p.W8)

    1963         Deep Purple  by Nino Temple & April Stevens won the Grammy best rock-n-roll recording.
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, DB p.38)

    1963        The Kingston Trio made a hit with  Greenback Dollar  written by Hoyt Axton (d.1999 at age 61).
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.C4)

    1963        John Corigliano composed his 4-movement Violin Sonata.
    (SFC, 11/18/98, p.E3)

    1963        Bob Dylan’s 2nd album,  The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan,  was released. Four songs were removed for the officially released version. Nat Hentoff wrote the liner notes.
    (SFC, 7/16/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 12/29/04, p.D8)

    1963        The Herbie Hancock song  Watermelon Man  became a hit with a version by Mongo Santamaria (d.2003).
    (SFC, 2/5/03, p.A22)
    1963        Bob Gibson (1932-1996) co-wrote  Abilene  with J.D. Laudermilk, Lester Brown and Albert Stanton.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A21)

    1963        The Kingsmen recorded their hit song  Louie, Louie.  It became a major hit in 1964. It was written in 1955 by Richard Berry and recorded by Berry with the Pharaohs in 1957. The Kingsmen sold their rights in 1968 for a percentage of future licensing fees. The fees were not paid and the band filed suit in 1993. They won a 1995 judgement and a 1998 appeal.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A19)(SFC, 4/11/98, p.C5)

    1963        Sonny Bono, songwriter, met Cherilyn (Cher) Sarkasian La Piere, singer, at a Hollywood coffee shop. The pair went on to record  I Got You Babe,  The Beat Goes On,  and  All I Ever Need Is You.  Bono wrote the Jackie DeShannon hit of this year  Needles and Pins.
    (SFC, 1/6/98, p.A11)

    1963        Marvin Gaye sang  Hitch Hike.
    (SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

    1963        Al Hirt (1922-1999), New Orleans trumpet player, made a hit with his instrumental  Java.  He won a 1964 Grammy best nonjazz instrumental for the tune.
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.C4)

    1963        Clement Dodd opened his record studio at 13 Brentford Road, Kingston, Jamaica, and soon began recording Bob Marley and the Wailers.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.80)

    1963        Martha and the Vandellas sang  Heat Wave.
    (SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

    1963        Curtis Mayfield (b.1942) and the Impressions had a hit with the song  It’s All Right.
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.C1)

    1963        Roy Nichols (d.2001 at 68) joined Merle Haggard’s band the Strangers. He helped create the Bakersfield sound.
    (SFC, 7/5/01, p.D2)

    1963        Jack Nitzsche (d.2000) made his solo recording  The Lonely Surfer.  He went on to compose over 30 film scores.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.49)

    1963        Ruby and the Romantics had a hit with “Our Day Will Come,” co-written by Mort Garson (1924-2008) and Bob Hilliard.
    (SFC, 1/16/08, p.B9)

    1963        The Singing Nun made a hit with  Dominique.  The song praised the 13th century crusade against the Cathars. It was written by Noel Regney. His 1962 poem  Do You Hear What I Hear  was recorded by Bing Crosby.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)(SFC, 11/28/02, p.A30)

    1963        Dusty Springfield recorded  I Only Want to Be With You.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.C6)

    1963        Stevie Wonder sang  Fingertips (Part 2).
    (SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

    1963        Jazz saxophonist Joe Henderson began recording for Blue Note.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, DB p.32)

    1963        Miles Davis heard Tony Williams playing drums with saxophonist Jackie McLean and hired him. Williams stayed with Davis until 1969. Their recording included  E.S.P.,   Nefertiti and  Filles de Kilamanjaro.
    (SFC, 2/25/97, p.B2)

    1963        Frank Zappa wrote his rock opera  I Was a Teenage Maltshop.
    (SSFC, 3/17/02, p.M3)

    1963        David M. Solinger (1906-1996), the first non-Whitney president of the Whitney Museum, led a drive as a trustee to construct the granite building on the Upper East Side of NY by Marcel Breuer. In 1966 he succeeded Flora Whitney Miller as president.
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.C2)

    1963        L.M. Boyd began a column of odds and ends for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. It was picked up by the SF Chronicle in 1968 and called  The Grab Bag.  Boyd retired at the end of 2000 after 40 years of writing.
    (SFC, 12/30/00, p.D3)

    1963        The 59-story Pan Am building on Park Ave. was completed. Walter Gropius was the principal designer. In 2004 Meredith D. Clausen authored “The Pan Am Building.”
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A26)(WSJ, 12/9/04, p.D10)

    1963        In NYC Frank Lloyd (d.1998 at 86) opened the Marlborough Gallery. He was involved in the 1970s Rothko art scandal.
    (SFC, 4/8/98, p.B2)

    1963        Mildred and Ray Connett (d.1997) opened the 90-acre Glen Eden Sun Club, a California nudist resort.
    (SFC, 4/21/97, p.A20)

    1963        The Chinese Historical Society of America opened in SF. It was the first of its kind in the country.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)

    1963        Harvey R. Ball (d.2001 at 79), advertising executive, created the yellow smiley face (happy face) for the Massachusetts based State Mutual Life Assurance Company of America. He was paid $45 for the artwork and never applied for a trademark or copyright. In 2006 Darrin M. McMahon authored “Happiness: A History.”
    (SFC, 4/17/01, p.A20)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.82)

    1963         San Francisco featured topless waitresses.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1963)

    1963        Barbara Epstein (1928-2006), Jason Epstein, Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Hardwick founded the NY Review of Books.
    (Econ, 7/1/06, p.79)

    1963        Albert Lippert (d.1998 at 72), a garment executive, first took a successful Weight Watchers diet class with Jean Nidetch on Long Island. They expanded the program into a company and sold public stock in 1968. In 1978 the operation was sold to H.J. Heinz for $72 million. The program remained unchanged until 1997 when a point system replaced selections from food groups.
    (WSJ, 6/12/97, p.B4)(SFC, 3/4/98, p.C4)

    1963        Ikko Tanaka founded his Ikko Tanaka Design Studio and began establishing himself as one of the most successful graphic designers in the field.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.8)

    1963        Harriet Schaffer (d.1998 at 65), a pioneer in early childhood education, began her career at the Tic Toc Nursery School in Richmond, Ca. Under her leadership Tic Toc became a pilot school for the newly created federal Head Start program.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.C2)

    1963        Al Davis (33) took over as head coach of the Oakland Raiders.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W39)(SFC, 1/22/03, p.A10)

    1963        The North course for golf at Kaanapali on Maui was designed by Robert Trent Jones.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.42)

    1963        Eugene Paul Wigner (1902-1995), Hungarian-born mathematician and physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
    (HN, 11/17/00)(MC, 11/17/01)(MC, 1/1/02)

    1963        Mobutu, chief of staff of the army of Congo-Kinshasa [later Zaire], visited the US White House as a guest of Pres. Kennedy.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)

    1963        Federal troops were used to force Alabama Gov. George Wallace to accept black students at the state’s university. [see 1962]
    (WSJ, 5/13/96, p.A-16)

    1963        Richard Nixon selected Leonard Garment, New York lawyer, as a special consultant. Garment published his personal memoir in 1997  Crazy Rhythm.
    (WSJ, 2/28/97, p.A12)

    1963        The US Congress passed the Equal Pay Act that banned gender-based wage discrimination.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

    1963        The US Board of Geographic Names banned the word  Nigger  from appearing on any federal map.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A20)

    1963        The American CIA developed a manual for counterintelligence interrogation for use in Vietnam.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A3)

    1963        George Joannides, a CIA agent, was in charge of the Revolutionary Students Directorate (DRE), one of the most powerful Cuban anti-Castro organizations in Miami. A few months before the assassination of JFK the DRE had significant contacts with Lee Harvey Oswald and Oswald tried to infiltrate the New Orleans branch of the DRE.
    (SSFC, 5/13/07, p.M5)

    1963        Winston Scott served as American CIA station chief in Mexico during the time that Lee Harvey Oswald visited the Cuban Embassy there. In 2008 Jefferson Morley authored “Our Man in Mexico: Winston Scott and the Hidden History of the CIA.” Morley proposed that Scott later covered up CIA operations that involved Oswald.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKscottW.htm)(WSJ, 3/20/08, p.D7)

    1963        In Florida two white gas station attendants were murdered in Port St. Joe. Two black men were convicted twice by all-white juries in the murders and spent nine years on death row. Curtis  Boo  Adams, a white man, later admitted to the murders. In 1998 Freddie Pitts (54) and Wilbert Lee (62) received $500,000 each from the state for wrongful conviction.
    (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A2)

    1963        Madalyn Murray O’Hair, leader of United Secularists of America (American Atheists), took credit for a suit filed against the government that ultimately led to the removal of the Bible and sponsored prayer from public schools. She and her family disappeared in Aug, 1995 with more than $600,000 in funds from her various organizations. Her diaries, some 2,000 pages, were scheduled to be auctioned in 1999.
    (SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A4)(SFC, 1/12/99, p.A4)(SFC, 5/27/99, p.A3)

    1963        Stanley H. Durwood, founder of AMC Entertainment, first split a Kansas City theater in half and invented the multiplex cinema theater.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.52)

    1963        Chrysler became the majority holder of Simca. By 1970 it changed the name to Chrysler France.
    (www.allpar.com/model/simca.html)

    1963        Ralph Roberts, former marketer of Muzak and owner of a belts and suspenders company, acquired a 1,200-subscriber, community antenna, television system (American Cable Systems) in Tupelo, Miss. In 1969 it was incorporated in Pennsylvania and renamed Comcast. The company went public in 1972
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, p.I6)

    1963        Edward Walker (d.2000) began marketing his invention called the  Astro lamp.  It later became known as the lava lamp.
    (SFEC, 8/20/00, p.B9)

    1963        The Proctor & Gamble Company purchased the SF based Folger Coffee. In 1994 P&G closed the Folgers plant in South San Francisco, the brands last presence in the Bay Area.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.D2)(SFC, 6/5/08, p.C2)

    1963        Herb Sandler, a NY lawyer, and Marion Sandler, a Wall Street analyst, bought the 2-branch World Savings and Loan Association (later Golden West Financial corp.) of Oakland, Ca., for $3.8 million. They sold the company in 2006 to Wachovia for $24.2 billion.
    (SFC, 5/9/06, p.C1)

    1963        Studebaker halted production of cars in the US. 4,000 employees lost their company pensions. This led to the passage of the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) in 1974.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 2/14/02, p.B1)

    1963        American Sugar Refining Company changed its name to American Sugar Company.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

    1963        The Lestoil Co. of Holyoke, Mass., began selling its liquid cleaner in special-edition reproduction glass flasks, which resembled 19th century whiskey flasks. The special edition ended in 1964.
    (SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

    1963        McDonald’s logo  Speedee  was dropped in favor of Ronald McDonald. The company hit the 1 billion mark in this year.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, z-1 p.7)(WSJ, 11/13/98, p.B1)

    1963        Alan Maxwell Pottasch (1927-2007), adman for Pepsi-Cola Co., launched the “Pepsi Generation” ad campaign.
    (WSJ, 8/4/07, p.A4)

    1963        Richard Trentlage, Indiana songwriter, wrote the TV jingle “I wish I were an Oscar Mayer wiener,” and had it sung by his kids.
    (WSJ, 8/11/07, p.A6)

    1963        J.L. Wade (1913-2007) built his first purple martin bird houses in Griggsville, Illinois. In 1965 he authored “What You Should Know About the Purple Martin,” which became a bestseller among ornithologists. Wade claimed that each bird ate some 2,000 mosquitoes per day.
    (WSJ, 6/23/07, p.A8)

    1963        Quasars, Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources, powerful astrophysical sources of light, were first discovered. Maarten Schmidt first observed the object called 3C273 and found that it was racing away from Earth at 30,000 miles per second. Prof. Jesse Greenstein (d.2002 at 93) and Maarten Schmidt led quasar research and began to realize that quasars were the most distant objects in the universe.
    (SFC, 11/20/96, p.A9)(NH, 5/97, p.66)(PacDis, Summer ’97, p.32)(SFC, 10/26/02, p.A24)

    1963        Hyron Spinrad of UC Berkeley and others found only a trace of water vapor in the thin atmosphere of Mars and confirmed that liquid water on its cold surface was almost impossible.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A17)

    1963        The Humboldt Bay nuclear power plant began generating power for consumers in Northern California. It was shut down in 1976.
    (SFC, 10/28/99, p.C4)(SFC, 7/17/04, p.B2)

    1963        Protons and neutrons were given structure; quark theory was proposed. Murray Gell-Mann at Caltech and George Zweig at CERN proposed small building blocks for particles and call them quarks and aces. Gell-Mann took the quark name from a James Joyce phrase in Finnegan’s Wake:  three quarks for muster Mark.
    (NG, May 1985, p. 645)(SFC, 4/11/02, p.A2)

    1963        George Grover (1915-1996), nuclear physicist, solved a heat-transfer problem by developing the first working heat pipe.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, p.C12)

    1963        Ray Dolby, while working in India, conceived of separating recorded sound into 2 channels as a means to strip away unwanted tape recording noise. His 1st prototype was completed in London in 1966.
    (SFC, 3/29/04, p.D1)

    1963        A vaccine for measles became available. In the previous decade some 450,000 cases were reported in the US with about 450 deaths per year.
    (SFC, 12/22/06, p.A18)

    1963        At the Mayo Clinic the kidney transplant program began and the artificial kidney center opened.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)

    1963        Dr. Michael DeBakey came out with his interthoracic pump, a device to pump blood in lieu of the heart. De Bakey made history this year by installing an artificial pump to assist a patient’s damaged heart.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, Z1 p.2)(www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/coo0pro-1)

    1963        The Fogarty Embolectomy Catheter, invented by Dr. Tom Fogarty to remove clots in arteries, was first used successfully.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.A17)

    1963        Drs. Vincent J. Freda (d.2003 at 75) and John G. Gorman of Columbia Univ. discovered that if an Rh-negative woman was given an injection of a vaccine called Rhogam, her body would not attack her fetus’ blood cells. Up to this time the 15% of women in birth with Rh-negative blood and a Rh-positive father faced the potentially fatal hemolytic disease.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.A29)

    1963        The first liver transplant was performed by a surgical team led by Dr. Thomas Starzl of Denver, Colorado.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_transplantation)

    1963        Profs. Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks, engineers at the Univ. of Michigan, created the 1st working hologram. Pieter van Heerden of Polaroid Research Labs pioneered the holographic principle.
    (MT, Summer/04, p.8)(Econ, 6/9/07, TQ p.28)

    1963        W.D. Hamilton (d.2000 at 63) published his theory of  inclusive fitness  in the Journal of Theoretical Biology. A 2nd paper followed in 1964. He set out to explain the evolutionary basis of altruism and the apparent contradiction between survival of the fittest and behavior that benefits kin.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D8)

    1963        Laetrile, a purported anti-cancer drug, was temporarily banned. It was invented by Ernst T. Krebs (1877-1970) from a derivative of amygdalin, an extract of apricot pits.
    (SFC, 9/12/96, p.A26)

    1963        US Country music singer Patsy Cline (Kline) died in a plane crash.
    (WSJ, 8/29/96, p.B1)(Hem., 4/97, p.69)

    1963        Charles T. Fisher (1880-1963) died. He and his brother Frederic J. Fisher (1878-1941) established the Fisher Body Co. in 1908. They sold their operations to GM in 1926.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

    1963        Robert Lee Frost (b.1874), poet, died at age 88.
    (MT, Win. ‘96, p.5)(WUD, 1994, p.571)

    1963         Aldous Huxley (b.1894), English author, died. His books included  Brave New World.  In 2001 Ivan R. Dee published  Aldous Huxley: Complete Essays: Volume IV, 1936-1938.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(AP, 7/26/98)

    1963        David Low (72), British political cartoonist, died.
    (WSJ, 5/29/02, p.D7)

    1963        Pu Ru, master Chinese calligraphy artist, died in the US.
    (WSJ, 12/7/00, p.A24)

    1963        Martin Ramirez (b.1895), institutionalized Mexican-born artist, died in DeWitt State Hospital in Auburn, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/14/07, p.E10)

    1963        Theodore Roethke, poet, died at age 55. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1954 for  The Waking,  a collection of 3 earlier books.
    (MT, Summer 01, p.2)

    1963        Alfred Sessler (b.1909), WPA artist, died.
    (WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A20)

    1963        In Austria a Vienna Convention produced a treaty that protected the right of individuals jailed in a foreign land to contact their national consulate.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.A3)

    1963        In Czechoslovakia Vaclav Havel, future president, had his first play staged:  The Garden Party.
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.B1)

    1963        The British sci-fi TV series Dr. Who began. It reach the US in 1978. It featured a space traveling Doctor who was hundreds of years old from the planet Gellifrey. He used a London police call box as the external form of his space vessel. The interior was spacious with comfortable Edwardian touches.
    (SFC, 5/14/96, E-1)

    1963        Britain relaxed laws on betting. Gambling as a result moved off tracks to betting shops. By 2006 attendance at dog races fell to some 3.6 million from a high of 38 million in 1936.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.74)

    1963        Juan Bosch (1909-2001) was toppled in the Dominican Republic by the army shortly after being elected. His plans for land reform would have split up sugar plantations owned by generals.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(SFC, 11/2/01, p.D6)

    1963        Carlos Julio Arosemena, president of Ecuador, was deposed in a military coup.
    (AP, 3/5/04)

    1963        Eritrea began a war for independence against Ethiopia.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)

    1963        The EU signed a trade deal in Yaounde, Cameroon, to keep markets open to former European colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific Islands (ACP).
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)

    1963        France erected giant concrete buildings to house a growing working class and North African immigrants. These included the “Cite des 4,000” in the Paris suburb of La Courneuve.
    (WSJ, 11/14/05, p.A1)

    1963        A glorified food blender was a product of the French restaurant supply giant Robot-Coupe. In 1973 Carl Sontheimer (d.1998 at 83) introduced his redesigned Cuisinart at a show in Chicago.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B4)

    1963        French retailer Carrefour SA invented hypermarkets, huge emporiums that combined the wares of supermarkets and department stores.
    (WSJ, 11/30/06, p.A1)

    1963        French residents of Monaco became liable for French taxes.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.85)

    1963        The paleolithic site of Lascaux, by the village of Montignac, France, was closed to the public by Andre Malraux, minister of cultural affairs, due to environmental damage caused by large numbers of tourists.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p.489)

    1963        Ludwig Erhard, head of the Christian Democratic Union, replaced Konrad Adenauer as Chancellor and served to 1966.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

    1963        In Greece Andreas Papandreou became a government minister under his father George, a centrist premier.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.B6)

    1963        India’s space program began in Trivandrum, Kerala, in this year. The Vikram Sarabhai Space Center in Trivandrum was named for the father of Indian rocketry.
    (NG, 5/88, p.598)

    1963        In Indonesia a new anti-subversion law was instituted with penalties of death or 20 years in prison.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A14)

    1963        Sovereignty over West Papua was transferred from the Netherlands to Indonesia. A UN approved referendum, involving some 1,000 handpicked pro-Jakarta Papuans, ratified the annexation in 1969.
    (WSJ, 6/6/00, p.A23)

    1963        The western part of the island of New Guinea, Irian Jaya, became a province of Indonesia. It was formerly a Dutch territory called West New Guinea, Dutch New Guinea or Netherlands New Guinea. A West Papua pro-independence movement began and by 2004 an estimated 100,000 civilians had died in the struggle.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1623)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

    1963        Left leaning students sympathetic to Iran’s former PM Mohammed Mossadeq, deposed in 1953, founded Mujahedin e-Kalq (People’s Mujahedin of Iran).
    (WSJ, 5/8/08, p.A10)

    1963        Iraq renounced its claim laid to Kuwait.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)

    1963        Japan’s Shimano Corp. introduced a cold forging plant to press precision parts for bicycles using dies and high pressure to form metal at room temp.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.34)

    1963        Kenya gained independence from Britain and the Kenyan African National Union Party began ruling.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A8)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)

    1963        Kuwait began a democratic process with the founding of a legislature, but only a select few were eligible to vote. Power rested with the royal family.
    (SFC, 5/17/99, p.A12)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.40)

    1963        In Lesotho Moshoeshoe II was crowned king.
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.14A)

    1963        In Guadalajara, Mexico, Madre Lupita (b.1878) died in the Santa Margarita Hospital she helped found. She was beatified in 2004 by Pope John Paul II.
    (AP, 4/24/04)

    1963        In Mexico during the administration of Lopez Mateos soldiers took part in the mutilation killing of a leader of coffee farmers in the community of El Ticui. The event was documented in a 2006 government report on Mexico’s “dirty war.”
    (AP, 2/27/06)

    1963        In Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Roland Rowland ( Tiny ) became chief executive of the London and Rhodesia Mining and Land Co. (Lonrho). Over the next 30 years he turned it into a conglomerate with more than 1000 subsidiaries in over 60 countries.
    (SFC, 7/28/98, p.A20)

    1963        Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia) ended a federation with Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.63)

    1963        In South Africa Albie Sachs was jailed without charges for 168 days. He described his experience in the book:  The Jail Diary of Albie Sachs.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.7)

    1963        The Rivonia trial began and resulted in the jailing of Nelson Mandela and Govan Mbeki. In 1999 Glenn Frankel authored  Rivonia’s Children.  White activists (Joe Slovo and his wife Ruth First, Rusty and Hilda Bernstein, and Anna Marie and Harold Wolpe) of the South African Communist Party, involved in the trial, fled into exile. The trial was named after the area where the ANC members were arrested.
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)(SFC, 7/18/02, p.A26)

    1963        South Africa conducted a joint nuclear test with Israel, but the Israelis did not confirm the report.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A2)

    1963        Josef Brodsky was tried by a Soviet judge on a charge of parasitism. The judge asked Brodsky:  Who gave you the authority to call yourself a poet?  Mr. Brodsky replied:  No one. Who gave me the authority to enter the human race?
    (G&M, 2/2/96, p.A-22)

    1963        The Soviet Union planned to harness hydroelectric power and feed a huge aluminum smelter in Tajikistan.
    (WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1)

    1963        In Switzerland Werner Thomas, accordionist, began performing a tune he’d written in the late 1950s at his restaurant in Davos. The tune later became known worldwide as the chicken dance.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A1)

    1963        In Vietnam the Battle of Ap Bac was fought.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)

    1963        Aden (South Yemen) was amalgamated with the British protectorate to form the Federation of South Arabia which resulted in rioting.
    (www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/yemen.htm)

    1963-1964     The Johnson White House Tapes, 1963-1964  by historian Michael R. Beschloss was published in 1997.
    (SFC, 10/6/97, p.A2)

    1963-1965    This period is covered by Taylor Branch in his 2nd volume of 3 on the civil rights era:  Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years.  The 1st volume  Parting the Water  was published in 1988.
    (WSJ, 1/16/98, p.A12)(SFEC, 1/25/98, BR p.1)

    1963-1968    Lester B. Pearson, Liberal Party, served as the 14th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ’96, p.81)
    1963-1968    Jozef Lenart (d.2004) served as prime minister of Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 2/12/04)

    1963-1969    Lyndon Baines Johnson served as the 36th President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96h, photo)

    1963-1969    Denys Rackley (d.1998 at 76), Carthusian monk, helped build the only American monastery of the Carthusian order, the Charterhouse of the Transfiguration in Arlington, Vt. He trained at the Carthusian order’s mother house in La Grand Chartreuse, France, where the order is supported by the sale of its Chartreuse liqueur.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A22)

    1963-1973    The 1975 US Church committee report on CIA activity in Chile included a chronology that covered this period.
    (http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/johnson/churchreport.htm)

    1963-1974    Dr. Charles Weldon served in Laos as the chief medical officer for USAID. In 1999 Weldon authored  Tragedy in Paradise: A Country doctor at War in Laos.
    (SFC, 11/30/02, p.A23)

    1963-1994    King Hussein of Jordan (1935-1999) held at least 55 secret meetings with leading Israelis including at least seven prime and foreign ministers.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.88)

    Go to 1964

    http://timelines.ws/20thcent/1963.HTML

    ***

    ********

    How is the density of an object determined in the lab?

    Prologue: As you remember from 8th grade physical science, the difference between mass and weight is that mass is the amount of matter in an object and weight is the force the object has due to the gravitational pull on the objects’ mass. If you were to travel to the Moon, your weight will change but your mass would remain the same. In Earth Science, to help us identify an unknown mineral, we use its density and specific gravity in the identification process, so it is important for us to know how to arrive at these numbers.
    Density: This is the comparison of an objects’ mass to its volume. Simply put, it is: Density = Mass/ Volume. Mass is stated in grams (g), and volume, the amount of space the object takes up, is stated in cubic centimeters (cm3). We use a balance to determine the object’s’ mass and either a ruler or a graduated cylinder to determine the object’s volume. It is important to remember that density is a ratio and as such the size of the object does not change its density. By this we mean if we determine an object to have a density of 5 g/cm3, and we break the object into several pieces, each piece will have the exact same density. This is because even though each piece is smaller, so too is its mass, thus the ratio stays the same. Think of it this way: Let’s say a chocolate bar, which according to Dr. Felix von Stetten, of Biochip Technologies, in Freiburg, Germany, has through experimentation determined the density to be between 1.1 to 1.4 g/cm³. If you broke that chocolate bar in half to share, would it taste differently? Would it be a different candy bar?
    Math Practice:
    Solve the following density problems: (Show math)
    A rock is found to have a mass of 16 grams and a volume of 4 cm3, what is its density?     A mineral with a density of 2.8 g/cm3, and has a mass of 2 grams, what is its volume?     What is the mass of a mineral with a volume of 40 cm3, and a density of 5 g/ cm3?     What is the density of an ice cube if it has a mass of 10 grams and a volume of 12 cm3?

    Specific Gravity
    The specific gravity of a material is the ratio (remember, when we are talking about ratios, we are dividing) of the weight of a material to the weight of an equal volume of water. We use a Newton scale to determine the materials weight and record it in “N”. Since most materials we want to determine the specific gravity of are denser than water, we can use Archimedes principle, which states that the loss of weight a material experiences in water is equal to the volume of water the material displaces. (As the object enters the water, the water rises up the sides of the graduated cylinder.) Or:
    Specific gravity = weight of sample in air____________
    Weight of sample in air – weight of sample in water
    Using the electronic scale and a beaker of water, find the specific gravity of the 2 minerals you just determined the density of. Remember you must submerse the minerals completely, and it can not touch the sides or bottom of the beaker.
    Metallic mineral     Non metallic mineral

    Density/ Specific Gravity Lab Peru Earth Science Program Percent deviation:
    Using the accepted density figures below for your samples, calculate the percent deviation of the 2 minerals you just determined the density of. (see your ESRT for the formula)
    Sample Name: ____________________
    Accepted density: _________________
    Formula:     Sample Name: ____________________
    Accepted density: _________________
    Formula:

    http://www.perucsd.org/hsearthscience/sajor/Current%20Lab/Density-Specific%20Grav.pdf

    ***

    Robert B. Smith
    Emeritus Research Professor of Geology & Geophysics

    Contact:
    Office: 243 FASB
    Phone: (801) 581-7129
    robert.b.smith@utah.edu

    * Teaching and Research online information

    FIELD OF STUDY
    Earthquake Seismology, Tectonophysics

    BACKGROUND

    * B.S., 1960, Utah State University
    * M.S., 1965, Utah State University
    * Ph.D., 1967, University of Utah

    RESEARCH INTERESTS & PROJECTS
    Geodynamics of the Yellowstone Hotspot from Seismic and GPS Imaging; Yellowstone Volcano Observatory ; Seismicity and Crustal Deformation of the Yellowstone Caldera; GPS Measurements of Active Faults and Integrated Earthquake Hazard Assessment Applied to the Wasatch Front, Utah; Seismicity, Stress Fields and Dynamics of  Intraplate Extensional Regimes; Evolution Of The Teton Fault And Teton Range.

    RECENT PUBLICATIONS
    REFEREED PAPERS IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS

    Puskas, C. and R. B. Smith, 2008, Intraplate deformation and microplate tectonics of the of the Yellowstone hotspot and surrounding western U.S. Interior, J. Geophy. Res., (in press).

    Smith, R.B. M. Jordan, B. Steinberger, C. Puskas, J. Farrell, G. P. Waite, S. Husen, W. Chang, and R. O’Connell, 2008, Geodynamics of the Yellowstone Hotspot and Mantle Plume: Seismic and GPS Imaging, Kinematics, Mantle Flow, J. Vol. Geotherm. Res, (in revision).

    Denasquo, K.R., R.B. Smith and A. R. Lowry, 2008, Density and lithospheric strength models of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic system from gravity and heat flow data, J. Vol. Geotherm. Res, (in revision).

    White, B.J.P., R.B. Smith, S. Husen, J. Farrell and I. Wong, 2008, Seismicity and earthquake hazard analysis of the Teton-Yellowstone region, Wyoming, , J. Vol. Geotherm. Res, (in revision).

    Farrell, J. M., R.B. Smith and S. Husen, 2008, Earthquake swarm identification and b-value mapping of the Yellowstone volcanic-tectonic system, J. Vol. Geotherm. Res, (submitted).

    Taira, T., R. B. Smith and W. L. Chang, 2008, Seismic evidence for dilatational deformation accompanying the 2004-2008 Yellowstone accelerated uplift episode, J. Geophys. Res., (submitted).

    Chang, W.L., and R. B. Smith, 2008, Rheological properties of extensional lithosphere from postseismic relaxation of the 1959 M=7.5 Hebgen Lake Montana earthquake, (in revision).

    Puskas, C., R. B. Smith, C. M. Meertens and W. L. Chang, 2007, Crustal deformation of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain Volcanic System: campaign and continuous GPS observations, 1987-2004, J. Geophys. Res, v. 112, B03401, doi:10.1029/2006JB004325.

    Vasco, D.W., C. W. Wicks, C. M. Puskas, R. B. Smith, W. Thatcher, and C.M. Meertens, 2007, Crustal deformation and source models of the Yellowstone volcanic field from geodetic data, J. Geophys. Res., v. 112, B03401, doi:10.1029/2006JB004325, 2007.

    Chang, W., R.B. Smith, C. Wicks, C. Puskas, and J. Farrell, 2007, Accelerated uplift and source models of the Yellowstone caldera, 2004-2006, From GPS and InSAR observations, Science 9, November 2007: Vol. 318. no. 5852, pp. 952 – 956DOI: 10.1126/science.1146842

    Christiansen, R. L., Lowenstern, J. B., Smith, R. B., Heasler, H, Morgan, L. A., Nathenson, M., Mastin, L. G., Muffler, L. J. P., and Robinson, J. E., 2007, Preliminary Assessment of Volcanic and Hydrothermal Hazards in Yellowstone National Park and Vicinity, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1071.

    Puskas, C., R. B. Smith, and R. McCaffrey, 2007, Intraplate Deformation and block rotations of the western U.S. Interior, J. Geophy. Res., (in press).

    Taira T. and R. B. Smith, 2007, Seismic Source Evaluation of Possible Magmatic Related Earthquakes in the Yellowstone Volcanic System, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V51F-07.

    Chang, W. L., and R. B. Smith, 2007, Rheological properties of extensional lithosphere from postseismic relaxation of the 1959 M=7.5 Hebgen Lake Montana earthquake, J. Geophys. Rees, (in revision)

    Waite, G. P., D. L., R. B. Smith, and R. L. Allen, 2006, Waite, G. P., D. L., R. B. Smith, and R. L. Allen, 2006, VP and VS structure of the Yellowstone hot spot from teleseismic tomography: Evidence for an upper mantle plume, J. Geophys. Res. vol. 111, B04303, doi:10.1029/2005JB003867.

    Lowenstern, J., R. B. Smith, and D. P. Hill, 2006, Volcano hazards of the Yellowstone and Long Valley, Philosophical Transactions, Royal Society of London, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1813

    Chang W.-L., R. B. Smith, C. M. Meertens, R. A. Harris, 2006, Contemporary deformation of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, from GPS measurements with implications for interseismic fault behavior and earthquake hazard: Observations and kinematic analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B11405, doi:10.1029/2006JB004326.
    Lowenstern, J. B, R. L. Christiansen, R. B. Smith, L. Morgan and H. Heasler, 2005, Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions—What’s in Yellowstone, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, 2005-3024?2005.

    Waite G. P., D. L. Schutt, R. B. Smith, 2005, Models of lithosphere and asthenosphere anisotropic structure of the Yellowstone hot spot from shear wave splitting, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B11304, doi:10.1029/2004JB003501.

    Husen, S., R. Taylor, R. B. Smith, and H. Heasler, 2004, Impact of the M7.9 Denali fault earthquake on hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park, Geology, v. 32; no. 6; p. 537–540; doi: 10.1130/G20381.1;

    Husen, S., and Smith, R.B., 2004, Evidence for gas and magmatic sources beneath the Yellowstone Volcanic Field from seismic tomographic imaging, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 131, 3-4, 397-410.

    Waite, G. P., and R. B. Smith, 2004, Seismotectonics and stress field of the Yellowstone volcanic plateau from earthquake first-motions and other indicators, J. Geoph. Res, v. 109, B02301, doi:10.1029/2003JB00267.

    Youngs, R, W. Arabasz, W., W. Anderson, A. Ramelli, J. Ake, D. Slemmons, J.P. McCalpin, D. I. Doser, C. J. Fridrich, F. Swan III, A. Rogers, J. Yount, L. Anderson, K. Smith, R. Smith and Ronald L. Bruhn, 2003, A methodology for probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis (PFDHA): Earthquake Spectra, v. 19, Issue 1, pp. 191-219.

    Brantley, S. R., J. B. Lowenstern, R. L. Christiansen, R. B. Smith, H. Heasler, G. Waite and C. Wicks, 2004, Waite, G. R. and R. B. Smith, 2002, Seismic evidence for fluid migration accompanying subsidence of the Yellowstone Caldera, J. Geophysical Res., v. 107, n/. B9, 2177, 10.1029/2001JB000586.

    Chang, W. L. and R. B. Smith, 2002, Integrated earthquake hazard analysis of the Wasatch Front, Utah, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer., v. 92, n. 2, 1904 – 1922.

    Earthscope Working Group including R. B. Smith, 2001, Earth Scope: A New View Into Earth, Project Plan, , Washington, D.C.

    Ward, P., R. Smith, L. Cahn, C. Dahl, and K. Watts. 2001, Natural Hazards That Could Affect the Schools of Teton County, Wyoming, online document, http://www.tetonsafety.com/natural_disaster_risks_in_teton_county_schools.htm

    Lowry, A. R., N. M. Ribe, and R. B. Smith, 2000, Dynamic elevation of the Cordillera, western United States, J. Geophys. Res., 23,371-23,390.

    Humphreys, G., D. Schutz, K. Dueker and R. B. Smith, 2000, Plume or no plume at Yellowstone, GSA Today, vol. 10, no. 12, 1-7.

    Smith, R. B. 2000, Windows Into Yellowstone: An interview with geologist and geophysicist Robert. B. Smith, Yellowstone Science, v. 8, no. 4, 1-13.

    ABSTRACTS OF PRESENTATIONS GIVEN AT NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS

    Smith, R.B., Puskas, C., Farrell, J., Steinberger, B., Chang, W.L., O’Connell, R., 2008, Effects of the Yellowstone Hotspot and Mantle Plume on the Western U.S., Geol. Soc. America, Abs., 2008 Annual Meeting, 263.5.

    Chang, W., and R.B. Smith, 2007, Accelerated uplift of the Yellowstone caldera, National EarthScope Science Meeting, Monterey, Calif.

    Smith, R. B., 2007, The Yellowstone Hotspot, GeoSwath 2007 EarthScope Science Meeting, Boise, Id., Keynote Address.

    Smith, R. B., C. Puskas, and K. Settles, 2007, Effects of the Yellowstone hotspot and its mantle plume on the western U.S. interior, Geol Soc. Amer. Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 6, p. 292. Paper 107-9.

    Puskas, C. RB Smith, K. Settles, and F. Pollitz, 2007, Geodynamics of the western U.S. interior, Geol Soc. Amer. Abstracts with Programs, v. 39, n. 6, p. 202, Paper 74-9.

    Smith R.B., J. Farrell, M. Jordan, C. Puskas and G.P. Waite, 2007, Crustal structure and tectono-magmatic processes of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain system from gravity-density measurements and strength models employing seismic constraint, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V51F-02 INVITED.

    Chang, W., R B. Smith, C. Wicks, J. Farrell, and C. Puskas, 2007 Source Modeling and Seismic-Volcano Implications of the 2004-2007 Accelerated Deformation at Yellowstone Caldera?, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V51F-01 INVITED.

    Settles, K.R., Smith R.B., Puskas C., Lowry, and D. Blackwell, 2007 Seismic and GPS constraints on the dynamics and kinematics of the Yellowstone volcanic field, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V51F-05.

    Farrell, J M, G. P. Waite, C. M. Puskas, W. Chang, R. B. Smith, H. Heasler and J. Lowenstern, 2007, A Prototype Hydrothermal Monitoring System, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V53B-1326?.

    Puskas, C.M. R. B. Smith, L M. Flesch and K. Settles, 2007, Effects of the Yellowstone Hotspot on Western U.S. Stress and Deformation, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V51F-04?.

    Hill, D. and R. B. Smith, 2007, Effects of the Yellowstone Hotspot on Western U.S. Stress and Deformation, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V51F-08 INVITED.

    Taira T. and R. B. Smith, 2007, Seismic Source Evaluation of Possible Magmatic Related Earthquakes in the Yellowstone Volcanic System, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V51F-07.

    Chang, W. L., R. B. Smith, C. M. Puskas, and J. M. Farrell, 2006, Source modeling and tectono-volcanic implications of the 2004-2006 rapid deformation at Yellowstone caldera, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract G43C-08.

    Lowry, A R, R B Smith, and M E Tamisiea, 2006, Gleaning Rheology from Lithospheric Flexural Strength, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract T545B-05.

    Smith, R. B., M. Jordan, C. M. Puskas, J. Farrell, and G.P. Waite, 2006, Origin and Evolution of the Yellowstone Hotspot from Seismic-GPS Imaging and Geodynamic Modeling?, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract T545B-05.

    Klemperer, S.L, R. L. Bruhn, E.L. Miller, A. R. Lowry, R. B. Smith, D. Lerch, E. Gashawbeza, J. Colgan, and K. Keranen, 2006, The Basin-and-Range Province (BRP): a key GeoFrame transect in progress, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract T43C-1650.

    Waite G. P., D. L. Schutt, R. B. Smith, 2005, Models of lithosphere and asthenosphere anisotropic structure of the Yellowstone hot spot from shear wave splitting, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B11304, doi:10.1029/2004JB003501.

    Lowenstern, J. B, R. L. Christiansen, R. B. Smith, L. Morgan and H. Heasler, 2005, Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions—What’s in Yellowstone, U.S. Geological Survey ?Fact Sheet 2005-3024?2005.

    Smith, R. B., 2005, Geodynamics of the Yellowstone Hotspot: Integrative Research and Complimentary Goals of EarthScope, Keynote Address, EarthScope National Science Meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Mar. 2005.

    Smith, R. B., M. Jordan, C. Puskas, G. Waite and J. Farrell, 2005, Geodynamic models of the Yellowstone Hotspot constrained by seismic and GPS imaging and volcano-tectonic data, 2005 Salt Lake City Annual Meeting, Geol. Soc. Amer., Abs., paper 54-2.

    Puskas, C., R. B. Smith, L. Flesch and W. L. Chang, 2005, Role of the Yellowstone hotspot in western U.S. deformation and lithospheric stress, 2005 Salt Lake City Annual Meeting, Geol. Soc. Amer., Abs., paper 54-6.

    White, B. P., R.B. Smith, C. M. Puskas, I. G. Wong, and A.G. Sylvester, 2005, Seismotectonics and stress field of the Teton fault and interactions with the Yellowstone volcanic plateau from earthquake and fault-slip data, 2005 Salt Lake City Annual Meeting, Geol. Soc. Amer., Abs., paper 24-13.

    Chang, W.L. and R. B. Smith, 2005, Lithospheric rheology from postseismic deformation of a M=7.5 normal-faulting earthquake with implications for continental kinematics, 2005 Salt Lake City Annual Meeting, Geol. Soc. Amer., Abs., paper 225-4.

    Farrell, J. and R. B. Smith, 2005, A geologic-GIS database for the Yellowstone-Teton volcanic and tectonic region, 2005 Salt Lake City Annual Meeting, Geol. Soc. Amer., Abs., paper 87-1.

    Andrade, J., and R. B. Smith, 2005, Geoscience, revelation engineering, and the Utah Science Center, 2005 Salt Lake City Annual Meeting, Geol. Soc. Amer., Abs., paper 18-8.

    Jordan, M., R.B. Smith, C. Puskas, J. Farrell, and G. Waite, 2005, The Yellowstone hotspot and related plume: volcano-tectonics, tomography, kinematics, dynamics and mantle flow, Eos, Trans. Amer. Geoph. Un., 86(52), Fall Suppl. Abstract T51D-1388.

    Smith, R. B, W. L. Chang, C. Puskas, J. Farrell, and G. Waite, 2005, Tectonic and magmatic stress interaction of the Yellowstone volcanic system, Eos, Trans. Amer. Geoph. Un., 86(52), Fall Suppl. Abstract T51D-13 V14B-07

    White, B.P., R. B. Smith, S. Husen, C.M. Husen, I.G. Wong, and A.G. Sylvester, 2005, Seismotectonics of the Teton Fault From a Revised Earthquake Catalog and Stress-Field Inversion, Eos, Trans. Amer. Geoph. Un., 86(52), Fall Suppl. Abstract T51D-1376.

    Chang, W. L., R. B. Smith, and R. Harris, 2005, Elastic and viscoelastic strain loading models of the Wasatch fault, Utah, from GPS measurements and comparisons with geological observations, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract G53A-0875.

    Smith, R. B., 2005, Kinematic and Dynamic Models of Western U.S. Plate Boundary Deformation, Hamilton Visiting Scholar Lecture, Southern Methodist University, Printed Scholar Schedule, Feb. 22. 2005.

    Smith, R. B., 2005, Yellowstone-Why is it Hot and Will it Explode, Hamilton Visiting Scholar Lecture, Southern Methodist University, Printed Scholar Schedule, Feb. 23. 2005

    Smith, R. B., 2005, Integrated Earthquake Hazard Assessment Including Rheologic Models from Holocene Post-Seismic Deformation Hamilton Visiting Scholar Lecture, Southern Methodist University, Printed Scholar Schedule, Feb. 24. 2005.
    Chang, W., and R.B. Smith, 2004, Postseismic and Interseismic Deformation of Large Normal-Faulting Earthquakes in the Basin-Range, in 2004, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2003 Fall Meeting, Suppl. Abst. G13A-0797.

    Waite, G.P., R.B. Smith, C. Puskas, and D.L. Schutt, 2004, Interpreting Crust and Mantle Stress and Strain Indicators at Yellowstone, in 2004, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2004 Fall Meeting, Suppl. Abst. T33E-07.

    Puskas, C.M., R.B. Smith, G. Waite and L. Flesch, 2004, Kinematic Deformation of the Interior Western U.S. Extensional Regime with Mantle Flow, in 2004, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2004 Fall Meeting, Suppl. Abst. T31A-1274.

    Jordan, M., R.B. Smith and G.P. Waite, 2004, Tomographic images of the Yellowstone hotspot structure, in 2004, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2004 Fall Meeting, Suppl. Abst. V51B-0556.

    Bawden, G. W., B.J. Stolp, W. Chang, R. B. Smith and JT Brandt, 2004, Subsidence induced by ground-water withdrawals across the Wasatch Front, Salt Lake Valley, Utah, in 2004, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2004 Fall Meeting, Suppl. Abst. G51B-0083.

    Blume, F., G. Anderson, JT Freymueller, TA Herring, T.I. Melbourne, W. H. Prescott, R. B. Smith and B. Wernicke, 2004, The PBO Nucleus: Integration of the existing continuous GPS networks in the western U.S., in 2004, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2004 Fall Meeting, Suppl. Abst. G21A-0133.

    Smith, R. B., 2004, Basin-Range earthquakes and hazard analysis, USGS, Scientific Earthquake Studies Advisory Committee Meetings, Sept. 2004.

    Waite, G., R. B. Smith, C. Puskas, D. L. Shutt and R. M. Allen, 2003, Kinematics of the Yellowstone hotspot derived from seismic anisotropy, tomography and GPS, European Geophysical Soc., Geophysical Res. Abstracts, vol. 5, 00670.

    Husen, S. and R. B. Smith, 2003, High-precision earthquakes locations of the Yellowstone volcanic field, European Geophysical Soc., Geophysical Res. Abstracts, vol. 5, 12527.

    Waite, G., R. B. Smith, C. Puskas, D. L. Shutt and R. M. Allen, 2003, Kinematics of the Yellowstone hotspot derived from seismic anisotropy, tomography and GPS, European Geophysical Soc., Geophysical Res. Abstracts, vol. 5, 00670.

    Husen, S. and R. B. Smith, 2003, High-precision earthquakes locations of the Yellowstone volcanic field, European Geophysical Soc., Geophysical Res. Abstracts, vol. 5, 12527.

    Farrell, J., G. Waite, R. B. Smith, C. Puskas, H. Heasler, B. Bartel, and C. Dietel, 2003, Seismic and GPS Monitoring of the 2003 Norris Geyser Basin hydrothermal Disturbance, Yellowstone National Park Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2003 Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abst. S22A-0412.

    Chang, W. P., and R. B. Smith, 2003, Rheology of an extending lithosphere from postseismic deformation of large Basin-Range normal-faulting earthquakes, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2003 Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abst. S22A-0412.

    Jordan, M. and R.B. Smith 2003, Yellowstone: A 3D regional delay time inversion using multiple constraints, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2003 Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, S31E-0804.

    Husen, S., R. Taylor, R.B. Smith, and H. Healser, 2003, Changes in hydrothermal activity and remotely triggered seismicity in Yellowstone National Park following the M7.9 Denali fault earthquake, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2004 Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, S12A-0374

    Smith, R. B., G. P. Waite, C. M. Puskas, D.L. Shutt and E.D. Humphreys, 2003, Dynamic and kinematic models of the Yellowstone Hotspot constrained by seismic anisotropy, GPS measurements and fault slip rates, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2003 Fall Meeting, Invited, Suppl. Abst. , T51G-05

    Lowenstern, J., H. Heasler, and R. B. Smith, 2003, Hydrothermal disturbances at the Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park (USA) in 2003, Eos, Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., 2003 Fall Meeting, Invited, Suppl. Abst. , T51G-05
    Smith, R.B., 2002, Shake and Bake: The Yellowstone Hotspot, Keynote Address, 44th Idaho Academy of Science Meeting, BYU-Idaho Symposium, p. 18.

    Smith, R. B., C. Meertens, W. Chang, G. Waite, C. Puskas and A. Lowry, 2002, What’s moving the Basin-Range, Annual Meeting of the European Geophysical Society Meetings, Nice France.

    Smith, R. B., E. Humphreys, K. Dueker, P. Tackley, G. Waite, D. Schutt and J. Hernland, 2002, The Yellowstone Hotspot, Annual Meeting of the European Geophysical Society Meetings, Nice France (invited).

    Smith, R. B., 2002, Active Tectonics and Hotspot Framework of Yellowstone, 1st Annual Science Workshop, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Salt Lake City, Utah, Abs. Program, April 4, 2002.

    Puskas, C. M. R. B. Smith and C. M. Meertens, 2002, GPS-Measured Deformation of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic system, 1st Annual Science Workshop, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Salt Lake City, Utah, Abs. Program, April 4, 2002.

    Waite, G. and R.B. Smith, 2002, Yellowstone earthquakes: swarms, stresses, and evidence for fluid migration, 1st Annual Science Workshop, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Salt Lake City, Utah, Abs. Program, April 4, 2002.

    Waite, G.P., R.B. Smith, and D.L. Schutt, 2002, Yellowstone strain from the crust to the upper mantle, Abst.14th Annual IRIS Workshop, Waikoloa, Hawaii, June 12-16, 2002

    Husen, S., and R.B. Smith, 2002, Three-dimensional Imaging of P-wave and P- to S-wave ratio beneath Yellowstone, 1st Annual Science Workshop, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Salt Lake City, Utah, Abs. Program, April 4, 2002.

    Husen, S., G.P. Waite, and R.B. Smith, 2002, Seismicity and tomographic imaging of the Yellowstone caldera as a function of time, Abst. 14th Annual IRIS Workshop, Waikoloa, Hawaii, June 12-16, 2002.

    Meertens, C.M., R.B. Smith, C. Puskas, and W. Chang, 2002, Contemporary deformation of the Yellowstone caldera from GPS, 1st Annual Science Workshop, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Salt Lake City, Utah, Abs. Program, April 4, 2002.

    Smith, R. B., E. Humphreys, P. Tackley, C. M. Meertens, K. Dueker, G. Waite, J. Crosswaite, D. Shutt, C. Puskas, and J. Hernlund, 2002, Geodynamics of the Yellowstone Hotspot: Plume or Not?, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un. Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, S72C-04

    Waite, G.P., D. Shutt, and R. B. Smith, 2002, Shear-Wave Anisotropy at the Yellowstone Hotspot, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un. Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, S11A-1100.

    Puskas, C.M., R. B. Smith, and C. M. Meertens, 2002, GPS-Derived Models of Intraplate Deformation of the Yellowstone Hotspot, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un. Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, S11A-1104.

    Husen, S., R. B. Smith and G. P. Waite, 2002, Shallow Structure of the Yellowstone Volcanic System from Tomographic Imaging: Evidence for Gas and Magmatic Sources, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un. Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, T21D-10.

    Chang, W., R. B. Smith and C. M. Meertens, 2002, Rheologic properties of an extending lithosphere from inversion of postseismic deformation (EDM and GPS) from the 1959 M 7.5 Hebgen Lake, Yellowstone earthquake, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un. Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, NG62A-0934.

    Farrell, J, R. B. Smith, H. M. Benz, K. L. Pankow, and S. Husen, 2002, Amplified ground response across the western U.S. Interior from the M7.9 Denali Earthquake, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un. Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, S72F-1358.

    Smith, R.B., W. Chang, C. Meertens, C. Puskas and R. Harris, R., 2001, Earthquake hazards of the Intermountain Seismic Belt using GPS, paleoseismology and modeling with emphasis on the Wasatch Fault, USGS National Earthquake Hazard Program Workshop on the Intermountain region, March 28-30, 2001.

    Smith, R.B., W. Chang, and C. M. Meertens, 2001, Comments Relevant to Earthquake Hazard Analysis in the Intermountain Seismic Belt (other than GPS), USGS National Earthquake Hazard Program Workshop on the Intermountain region, March 28-30, 2001.

    Smith, R. B., W. Chang, J. Braun, and C. Meertens and R. Harris, 2001, Integrated ground shaking and fault displacement hazards of the Wasatch Front, Utah, from paleoearthquakes, GPS observations, and historic seismicity, Program With Abstracts, Geologic Hazards in Utah: Practical Information for Geologists and Engineers, Amer. Soc. Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah, April 12-13. p. 7-8., Invited talk.

    Smith, R. B. and G. Humphreys, 2001, The Yellowstone Hotspot, 13th Annual Workshop, IRIS Consortium,

    Smith, R.B., W.L. Chang, C. Puskas, C.M. Meertens and A. Sylvester, 2001, Crustal deformation and seismic cycle of the of the northern Basin-Range based on geodetic, historic seismicity and Quaternary fault data, Seismol. Res. Letters., v. 72, n. 2, p. 281.

    Chang, W.L., R.B. Smith, R. B., C. M Meertens and R. Harris, 2001, Crustal deformation of the Wasatch Front, Utah from GPS measurements, paleoseismicity and elastic-viscoelastic modeling, Seismol. Res. Letters., v. 72, n. 2, p. 281.

    Smith, R. B., Shake and Bake: The Leopold Lecture, 2001, The Yellowstone hotspot, its GeoEcyosystem, and the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Yellowstone Lake, Hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience, Agenda and Abstracts, National Park Service, p. 31.

    Smith, R. B. and D. D. Blackwell, 2001, Heatflow and energetics of Yellowstone Lake hydrothermal systems, 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Yellowstone Lake, Hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience, Agenda and Abstracts, National Park Service, p. 42.

    Chang, W., Puskas, C M, Waite, G P, R. B. Smith and C.M. Meertens, 2001, Rheological properties of lithospheric extension from postseismic GPS observations of the 1959 M=7.5 Hebgen Lake, Montana, earthquake, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., v. 82 (47), Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, F 267.

    Puskas, C. M, R. B. and C. M. Meertens, 2001, Crustal Deformation of the Yellowstone Hotspot: Unifying GPS and Geologic Data and Intraplate Modeling, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., v. 82 (47), Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, F864.

    Sylvester, A G, R.B. Smith, W. Chang, C. S. Hitchcock, and J.O.D. Byrd, 2001, First-order leveling and campaign GPS reveal anomalous, interseismic, contractile, transient Strain across Teton normal fault, 1988-2001, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, Eos Transactions Amer. Geoph. Un., v. 82 (47), Fall Meeting. Suppl. Abstract, F263.

    Smith, R. B., C. M. Meertens, W. Chang, G. Waite, C. Puskas, and A. Lowry, 2001, What’s Moving the Basin-Range? Hotspots, Earthquakes and Lithosphere, Program for “The Lithosphere of Western North America, and Its Geophysical Characterization”, The George Thompson Symposium, Sponsored by the School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University, Dec. 8-9, 2001, p. 12, (invited paper).

    Chang, W.L., C. M. Meertens, R.B. Smith, and R. A Harris, 2000, Crustal deformation along the Wasatch fault zone, Utah, from continous and campaign GPS observations, Abs. 95th Ann. Meeting, Seismol. Soc. America, Seismol. Res. Letters, v. 71, p. 254

    Smith, R. B. and W.L., Chang, C. M. Meertens, and P. Cervelli, 2000, Deformation and fault-modeling on the Wasatch Front, Utah, from continuous and campaign GPS measurements, 1992-1999, Abs. 95th Ann. Meeting, Seismol. Soc. America, Seismol. Res. Letters, v. 71, p. 256.

    Smith, R.B., D. Miller, and D. P. Lynch, 2000, Tomographic imaging of crustal structure from the Yellowstone volcanic field and the Intermountain Seismic Belt using earthquake and controlled source data, , Abs. 95th Ann. Meeting, Seismol. Soc. America, Seismol. Res. Letters, v. 71, p. 254.

    Smith, R. B. 2000, An Integrative Approach To Monitoring and Risk Assessment Of Volcanoes And Earthquakes In Yellowstone, Volcano Hazards Workshop, Lassen National Park, Sept. 27.

    Smith R. B., C. M. Meertens, and G. Humphreys, 2000, Yellowstone hotspot: Geodynamics and Effect on Plate Boundary Processes, Plate Boundary II Workshop, Palm Springs, Abst. p. 50, 31 Oct. ’00.

    Smith, R. B., W. Thatcher,and C. Meertens Kinematics and Earthquake Physics of the Wasatch Fault: An Eastern Plate Boundary Fault, Plate Boundary II Workshop, Palm Springs, Abst. p. 50, 30 Oct. ’00.

    Smith, R. B., W. Chang, and C. M. Meertens, 2000, Neotectonics of the Wasatch fault from rheology, paleoseismicity and GPS measurements, (invited talk), abs., Geol. Soc. America Annual Meeting Program, Summit 2000, A507.

    Smith, R. B., 2000, Hotspots, earthquakes and dynamics of Yellowstone, , (invited talk), abs., Geol. Soc. America Annual Meeting Program, Summit 2000, A263.

    Janecke, S. U., M. E. Perkins, and R B. Smith, 2000, Normal fault patterns around the Yellowstone hotspot: A new model, abs., Geol. Soc. America Annual Meeting Program, Summit 2000, A45.

    Chang, W., C. M. Meertens, R B Smith, R A Harris, and P Cervelli, 2000, Crustal deformation and fault modeling on the Wasatch Front, Utah, from continuous and campaign GPS measurements, 2000 Fall Meeting, Amer. Geophys. Un. 80, 46, F1230.

    Harris, R. A., R B Smith, W Chang, C M Meertens, and A Friedrich, 2000, Temporal distribution of extensional strain across the southern Wasatch fault zone: geological constraints for the GPS velocity field, 2000 Fall Meeting, Amer. Geophys. Un. 80, 46, F1230.

    Smith, R. B., and D. D. Blackwell, 2000, Heat flow and energetics of Yellowstone Lake hydrothermal systems, invited paper, 2000 Fall Meeting, Amer. Geophys. Un. 80, 46, F1387.

    Waite, G. and R. B. Smith, 2000, Seismicity of the Yellowstone Volcanic Field: Regional Stress Inversion and Analysis of the Autumn 1985 Earthquake Swarm, 2000 Fall Meeting, Geophys. Un. 80, 46, F1388.

    Meertens, C. M., R. B. Smith and C. M. Puskas, 2000, Crustal Deformation of the Yellowstone caldera from campaign and continous GPS surveys, 1987 – 2000, 2000 Fall Meeting, Amer. Geophys. Un. 80, 46, F1388.

    Puskas, C. M., R. B. Smith, and C. M. Meertens, 2000, Deformation of the eastern Snake River Plain volcanic field and surrounding faults from GPS measurements, 2000 Fall Meeting, Amer. Geophys. Un. 80, 46, F1388.

    * Walter J. Arabasz

    * John M. Bartley

    * John R. Bowman

    * Francis H. Brown

    * Ronald L. Bruhn

    * Thure E. Cerling

    * Marjorie A. Chan

    * David S. Chapman

    * David A. Dinter

    * Allan A. (“Tony”) Ekdale

    * Diego P. Fernandez

    * Susan L. Halgedahl

    * Randall B. Irmis

    * Richard D. Jarrard

    * Paul W. Jewell

    * Cari L. Johnson

    * William P. Johnson

    * Barbara Nash

    * Kris L. Pankow

    * James C. Pechmann

    * Erich U. Petersen

    * Peter H. Roth

    * Gerard T. Schuster

    * Robert B. Smith

    * D. Kip Solomon

    * Michael S. Thorne

    * Aurelian C. Trandafir

    * Michael Zhdanov

    Department of Geology and Geophysics
    115 S. 1460 E, Room 383 • Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0102 • Phone: (801) 581-7062
    University of Utah | College of Mines and Earth Sciences | Disclaimer

    http://www.earth.utah.edu/people/faculty/rsmith

    **

    The use of geophysics in the exploration for coal basins and in the delineation of coal seams and geological structures, in particular coal deposits, is now well established.

    Since the oil crisis in 1973, there has been an enormous increase in the use of geophysical methods to identify coal deposits, and to further determine their economic potential. Several of the techniques have been used initially in the exploration for oil and gas and adapted where applicable to coal exploration.

    Large scale studies make use of regional gravity, deep seismic and aeromagnetic surveys to determine the sedimentary and structural framework of the area under consideration. Smaller scale, more detailed examination of the coal deposits utilises shallow seismic, ground magnetic, electrical resistivity and microgravity coupled with the geophysical logging of all boreholes, which in turn involves the use of density, electrical, electromagnetic and radiometric techniques.

    In established coal mining areas, the combination of geophysical logging with high resolution seismic and ground magnetic surveys contributes significantly in the delineation of economic mining areas, both for opencast and underground operations. In underground operations, the use of in-seam seismic is now used as a tactical tool in planning the orientation of mining areas, in particular the siting of longwall panels.

    This combination is used on both large and small scale investigations; the drawback is that it can be expensive to carry out such investigation. When planning an exploration programme, any use of geophysics, whether as a field survey or in borehole logging, will be a high cost item on the exploration budget. The benefits of using such techniques,m such as whether the amount of drilling required will be reduced, will be set against such costs.

    The background principles of physics governing the various geophysical techniques employed in coal exploration and development are not covered in this book as they are available in standard geophysical texts (Milsom 1989, Reynolds 1997). Rather, a simple outline is given of the basic physical properties of coal-bearing sequences together with an outline of the field methods used to locate and quantify coal deposits.

    8.2  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COAL-BEARING SEQUENCES

    Coal as a lithology responds well to most geophysical methods in that its physical properties contrast with those of other lithologies commonly found in coal-bearing sequences. Coal has in general a lower density, a lower seismic velocity, a lower magnetic susceptibility, a higher electrical resistivity and low radioactivity compared with surrounding rocks in typical coal-bearing sequences.

    8.2.1    Density

    Density measurements of rocks are not usually measured in situ, but in laboratory on some small outcrop or drill core samples. Such results rarely give the true bulk density because samples may be weathered or dehydrated; consequently density is not often well known in specific field situations. Table 8.1 gives saturated density ranges and averages for coals, sediments in coal-bearing sequences, and igneous and metamorphic rocks which may be associated with coal basins either as underlying basement or as intrusives into the coal-bearing strata.

    Low and high rank coals (1.1 – 1.8 gm/cm3) are less dense than the surrounding sediments (1.6 – 2.9 gm/cm3), which in turn are less dense than igneous and metamorphic rocks (2.1 – 3.1 gm/cm3). In sedimentary rocks, the wide range of density is due to variations in porosity, nature of pore fluids, age and depth of burial as well as mineralogical composition. Some igneous rocks, such as volcanics, have high porosities and therefore lower density; for example, pumice can have a density less than 1.0 gm/cm3. Density also increases with the degree of metamorphism, as recrystallisation reduces pore space to form a denser rock as well as converting some minerals to more dense forms.

    Table 8.1 Table of Physical Properties of Coals and Associated Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks. (Based on Telford et al 1990); Applied Geophysics; with permission of Cambridge University Press.

    Lithology     Density (wet)(g/cm3)     Seismic (km/s)     Magnetic                 Electrical Resistivity                       Range          Average          Velocity           Susceptibility                 (Ωm)
    Sandstone   1.61 – 2.76   AVG 2.35            3.6               0-20        AVG 0.4        1 ~ 6.4 x 108

    Shale           1.77 – 3.20   AVG 2.40           2.8             0.01 – 15    AVG 0.6       20 ~ 2 x 103

    Limestone   1.93 – 2.90   AVG 2.55           5.5                 0 – 3       AVG 0.3        50 ~ 1 x 107

    Lignite        1.10 – 1.25   AVG 1.19                                                                           9 ~ 200

    Bituminous 1.20 – 1.80   AVG 1.32       1.8 – 2.8                –          AVG 0.02       0.6 ~ 1 x 105
    Coal

    Athracite      1.34 – 1.80   AVG 1.50      1.8 – 2.8                –          AVG 0.02       0.6 ~ 1 x 105

    Acid              2.30 – 3.11   AVG 2.61       4.0 – 5.5          0 – 80      AVG 8.0          4.5 x 103 (wet)
    Igneous Rock                                                                    (Wet or dry granite)  1.3 x 106 (dry)

    Basic             2.09 – 3.17   AVG 2.79     4.0 – 7.0        0.05 – 100   AVG 25.0       20 ~ 5 x 107
    Igneous Rock                                                                                                           ( dolerite)

    Metamorphic 2.40 – 3.10   AVG 2.74     5.0 – 7.0           0 – 70      AVG 4.2          20 ~ 1 x 104
    Rock                                                                                                                           (schist)

    ****

    8.2.2 Seismic Velocity

    The seismic velocity of a rock is the velocity at which a wave motion propagates through the rock media. As shown in Table 8.1, the seismic velocity of coal is in the range 1.8 – 2.8 km/s; mudrocks such as shales have similar values. Sandstones have a higher value which increases with increased quartz content, while dense limestones, igneous and metamorphic rocks have much higher velocities of 4.0 – 7.0 km/s.

    8.2.3 Seismic Reflection Coefficients

    The seismic reflection coefficient determines whether an interface gives a reflection and depends upon the density as well as the seismic velocity. Coal seams with a low density and low seismic velocity often have high reflection coefficients and can be picked up well on seismic sections.

    8.2.4 Magnetic Susceptibility

    The magnetic susceptibility of a rock depends primarily on its magnetite content. Weathering generally reduces susceptibility because of the oxidation of magnetite to hematite. As in the case of rock density, measurements of magnetic susceptibility in the field do not necessarily give a bulk susceptibility of the formation; however, outcrop magnetic susceptibility measurement by portable instruments has led to improved bulk susceptibility measurements. Although there is great variation in magnetic susceptibility, even for a particular lithology, and wide overlap between different types, sedimentary rocks generally have the lowest average susceptibilities, with coals having among the lowest susceptibility within the sedimentary suite (see Table 8.1).
    Basic igneous rocks have high susceptibility values. In every case, the susceptibility depends on the amount of ferromagnetic minerals present, mainly magnetite, titano-magnetite or pyrrhotite. It is worth noting that the sulphide minerals such as pyrite, which is a common mineral in coals and associated sediments, have a low susceptibility value; like many of the sulphide minerals, pyrite is almost nonmagnetic. Table 8.1 gives the range and average values in rationalised SI units for those rocks associated with coal.

    8.2.5 Electrical Conductivity

    Electrical prospecting involves the detection of surface effects produced by electric current flow in the ground. It is the enormous variation in electrical conductivity found in different rocks and minerals that requires a greater variety of techniques to be used than in the other prospecting methods.

    Several electrical properties of rocks and minerals are significant in electrical prospecting, of these, by far the most important in coal prospecting is electrical conductivity or the inverse electrical resistivity, which is expressed in ohm-metres (Ωm), the others being of less significance. This has been shown by Verma and Bandyopadhyay (1983), who employed the resistivity method for the geological mapping of coal in India.

    As most rocks are poor conductors, their resistivities would be extremely large were it not for the fact that they are usually porous, and the pores are filled with fluids, mainly water. Water conductivity varies considerably depending on the amount and conductivity of dissolved chlorides, sulphates and other minerals present, but the principal influence is usually the sodium chloride or salt content.

    8.2.6 Radiometric Properties

    Trace quantities of radioactive material are found in all rocks. Small amounts of cosmic radiation passing through the atmosphere produce a continuous background reading which may vary from place to place. IN GENERAL, THE RADIOACTIVITY IN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS AND METAMORPHOSED SEDIMENTS IS HIGHER THAN THAT IN IGNEOUS AND OTHER METAMORPHIC TYPES, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF POTASSIUM-RICH GRANITES.

    In coal-bearing sequences, the contrasts in natural radioactivity in coals and surrounding sediments have led to the development of the use of nuclear well logging instruments for measuring radioactivity of formations encountered in boreholes.

    Coals have very low radioactivity, as do clean sandstones, sandstones with high contents of rock fragments and clay matrices; siltstones and nonmarine shales have low to intermediate values, whereas marine shale and bentonite (tonstein?) have high radioactivity due to the presence of uranium / thorium minerals in the shale and potassium in the bentonite.

    8.3 SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

    The petroleum industry has used various seismic geophyscial methods for a number of years as an aid in the exploration for geological structures suitable for hydrocarbon entrapment. In order to locate sedimentary basins, electrical, electromagnetic, gravity and magnetic surveys, together with reflection and refraction seismic surveys are used; these are usually large scale operations involving a great deal of equipment, manpower and finance. Although of use in broad regional investigations, they are little used in the examination of coal-bearing sequences for small selected areas.

    In the investigation of mine lease areas high resolution seismic reflection surveys are the most effectively employed. Other methods used are cross borehole seismic techniques and seismic refraction, which are particularly useful in opencast mine development.

    magnotometer being used in search for bones – underground radar – and cadaver dogs – on Garrido property – discussed on CNNI 4.04pmEDT – 09-18-09 – lookup

    ***

    nplab.html
    http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/rarf/np/nplab.html

    Virtual Library Physics
    Nuclear Physics

    See also:
    Nuclear Astrophysics Datasets, Nuclear-Physics conferences , HEP(High-Energy Physics), Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology , NNDC, Table of the Nuclides , Particle Data Group, Physics servers and services, Yahoo Physics index, general physics and

    Information sources for Nuclear Physics research institutes and accelerator facilities are as follows. This list is originally based on the HEP list, modified by adding nuclear physics research institutes and universities. Please mail to add your institute or university (please notify the abbreviation for the institute or university).
    Journals

    APS Journals
    Phys. Rev. C, Phys. Rev. Lett, Rev. Mod. Phys.
    Nuclear Physics electronic
    Nucl. Phys.A,B, Phys. Lett. A B, Nucl. Inst. Meth., Phsycs Reports

    Research Institutes

    ANL
    Argonne National Laboratory, USA. APS (Advanced Photon Source), IPNS (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source), PHYS (Physics Division)
    Arizona
    University of Arizona Heavy-Ion Theory Group
    ANU
    Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    BLTP
    Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Russia
    BNL
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, NNDC, RHIC, NSLS
    CEBAF
    Continuous Electron Beam Acceleratory Facility, Virginia, USA
    CENPA
    Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics
    CERN
    European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Switzerland, LHC
    ISOLDE
    CNS
    Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo
    College of William and Mary
    The physics department at The College of William and Mary, USA
    Colorado
    Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics at the University of Colorado at Boulder
    CSNSM-Orsay
    CENTRE DE SPECTROMETRIE NUCLEAIRE ET DE SPECTROMETRIE DE MASSE
    CYCERON
    Cyceron PET Research Center, Caen, France
    Daresbury Lab.
    Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD, UK
    DESY
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron lab in Hamburg, Germany
    Drexel
    Drexel University Physics Department, USA
    ECT*
    research, ECT*, Trento-Italy
    ELETTRA
    Elettra in Triestra, Italy
    ESRF
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France
    Fermilab
    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA
    Frankfurt EF=” the University of Frankfurt in Germany, UFTP the Institute for Theoretical Physics, IKF Institute for Nuclear Physics
    Freiburg
    Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Fakultaet fuer Physik (department of physics)
    Gaziantep
    Nuclear Physics at the University of Gaziantep
    GANIL
    Grand Acceleratour National D’lons Lourds, Caen, France
    SPIRAL2
    Giessen
    University of Giessen,Germany, Institute for Theoretische Physik
    GSI
    The German national laboratory for heavy ion research, Germany, Z=110, 111, 112
    Harvard
    Harvard Physics Department, USA
    Helsinki
    Accelerator Laboratory University of Helsinki, Finland,
    Hirosima Univ.
    Photon Physics Lab, Hiroshima University, Japan
    IEP
    Institute of Electron Physics, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Uzhhorod, Ukraine
    IHEP
    China Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China
    IHEP
    Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Universitaet Heidelberg
    IHEP
    Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region, Russia
    ILL
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France,
    IN2P3
    Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, France
    INFN
    Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy
    INP MSU
    Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Russia
    Institute for Radiation Physics
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    IPNL
    Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, France
    IPNO
    Institut de Physique Nucleaire d’Orsay, France
    IRB
    Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Institute Rudjer Boskovic
    IRK
    Institut for Radiumforschung und Kernphysik, University of Vienna,
    ISN
    Institut des Sciences Nucleaires de Grenoble, France
    ISIS
    ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK
    IUCF
    Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, USA
    J-PARC
    Japan Proton Acceletator Research Complex
    JAERI
    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Japan
    Jagellonian University
    Nuclear Physics Division of the Jagellonian University, Cracow, Poland
    JINR
    Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia
    FLNP Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics.
    FLNR Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions.
    LNP Laboratory of Nuclear Problems.
    BLTH
    Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics
    Jeffeson Lab (CEBAF)
    Jeffeson Lab (CEBAF)
    JYFL
    Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla,Finland
    The Jyvaskyla Centre of excellence in nuclear and condensed matter physic
    The Jyvaskyla Accelerator Laboratory
    KAERI
    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Korea, Table of the Nuclides
    KEK
    KEK, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Japan
    KUTL
    Kyushu University Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Fukuoka, Japan
    KVI
    Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (nuclear physics accelerator institute) in Groningen, Netherlands.
    Kyoto Univ.
    Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
    LAL
    Laboratoire de l’Accelerateur Lineaire, France
    LANL
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, LANL P2, LANSCE, T2 Nuclear Theory
    LBNL (LBL)
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, Nuclear Science Division , PDG(Particle Data Group), ALS (Advanced Light Source)
    LLNL
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, Physics and Space Technology, Atomic, Nuclear, and Particle Physics
    MAMI
    Mainz Microtron, Institute for Nuclear Physics, Gutenberg University, Germany
    Manitoba
    Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Canada
    MAX-lab
    National Electron Accelerator Laboratory for Nuclear Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Research at Lund University, Sweden
    McGill University
    Department of Physics, McGill University, Canada, Foster Radiation Laboratory
    McMaster University
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Canada
    Mississippi State University
    Nuclear Physics group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, USA
    MIT Bates
    MIT Bates Linear Accelerator Center
    MIT-LNS
    The MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science, USA
    MPI
    MPI fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg Institut, Munich, Germany
    MPI-K
    Max-Planck-Institute for nuclear physics in Heidelberg, Germany
    NBI
    Niels Bohr Institutet, Koebenhavn, Denmark
    NCM
    Nucleon Cluster Model (NCM), R.A. Brightsen and Clustron Sciences Corporation
    NEA
    The Nuclear Energy Agency
    NIKHEF
    The National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics in Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    NIST
    National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Reactor , USA, CNRF (Cold Neutron Research Facility), SURF II (Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility)
    NPI
    Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez, Czech Republic.
    NPL
    Nuclear Physics Laboratory (NPL), University of Washington,USA
    NSAC
    Nuclear Science Advisory Committe(NSAC) Home Page
    NSC
    Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India
    NSCL
    National Superconduction Cyclotoron Labratory, Michigan State University, USA
    NSL
    Notre Dame Nuclear Structure Laboratory
    Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, USA
    NuPECC
    the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee
    ODU
    Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, USA
    ORNL
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, USA, HFIRF (High Flux Isotope Reactor Facility), HRIBF (Hollifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility), ORNL Review
    OSU
    Department of Physics, Oregon State University, USA
    Oxford
    Univ. of Oxford, Particle and Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, UK
    PAN
    Atomic and Nuclear Physics group at university of Fribourg, Switzerland
    Penn
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, USA
    Pitt
    The Physics & Astronomy Department, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    PNPI
    Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg region, Russia
    PSI
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland, SLS (Synchrotron Light Source)
    RACAH
    Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    RAL
    The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK
    RCNP
    Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
    REGIE
    Subatomic Physics Research Group (REGIE), University of Regina, Regina, Canada
    RIKEN
    Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Hirosawa, Wako, Japan, RARF/RIBF(RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility, RI Beam Factory RHIC/SPIN, RIKEN BNL Research Center)
    RWTH
    Physics department of the University of Technology, Aachen
    SACLAY CEA
    SACLAY, France
    SCNP
    Southern Centre for Nuclear Physics, UK
    SDALINAC
    Superconducting Darmstadt Linear Accelerator, Institute for Nuclear Physics, Technical University Darmstadt, Germany.
    Sevilla
    Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.
    SLAC
    Stanford Linear Accelerator, California, USA, SSRL (Synchrotron Raditaion Lab.)
    SNO (Sudbury)
    Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Data Acquisition, Queen’s University Physics Dept.
    Spring-8
    Super Photon Ring 8-GeV, Nishiharima, Japan
    SRC
    Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin, USA
    SSCL
    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, in Texas.
    SSF
    Subatomic and Radiation Physics Lab.,GENT, Belgie
    SUNY-SB
    Department of Physics, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA
    TASCC
    The Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron,Chalk River Laboratories, Canada
    TANDAR
    Tandar Laboratory, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica,Buenos Aires, Argentina
    TAMU
    THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Home Page
    TAU
    Department of Nuclear Physics at Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Tokyo
    Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Japan, Komaba Nuclear Theory Group
    Toronto
    Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Canada
    TRIUMF
    Canada’s National Meson Research Facility, Canada
    ISAC(isotope Separator and ACcelerator)
    TSL
    The Svedberg Laboratory, Swedish national institute for accelerator-based research, Uppsala University
    TUNL
    Triangle Universities University Lab (3 Mev acc + tandem)
    TUNL, Box 0308, Duke University, Durham
    UCL-FYNU
    Institut de Physique Nucleaire Louvain-la-Neuve (LLN), Belgium
    Louvain-la-Neuve — Radioactive Ions in CYCLONE
    UNH
    Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, USA
    Uni-Siegen
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany
    Victoria
    Department of Physics, University of Victoria, Canada
    UOY
    Nuclear Structure Group, University of York, U.K.
    UTTAC
    Tandem Accelerator Center, Univ. of Tsukuba, Japan
    UW
    Nuclear Theory Group of the University of Wisconsin, USA
    Weizmann
    The Weizmann Institute Accelerator Laboratory, Rehovot, Israel
    W.K. Kellogg Rad. Lab.
    W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory at the California Institute of Technologg, USA
    Wilson Lab/CLEO
    Wilson Synchrotron Laboratory, Cornell University, USA
    WSU
    Department of Physics at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA High Energy Nuclear Science Group
    X-LPNHE
    Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire des Hautes Energies, France
    YITP
    Yukawa Instutute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto Japan

    Radioactive Beam Facilities: Operating,Under Construction,or Proposed
    ANL – Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA)
    CERN – ISOLDE
    GANIL – SPIRAL2
    GSI
    Louvain-la-Neuve – Radioactive Ions in CYCLONE
    NSCL – K1200 Cyclotron/A1200 Beam Analysis System
    NuPECC Working Group on Radioactive Beam Facilities
    ORNL – Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility
    RIKEN – RIKEN RI BEAM FACTORY
    TRIUMF – ISAC

    misc.

    AIP
    American Institute of Physics
    APS
    The American Physical Society
    EPS
    The European Physical Society
    JPS
    The Physical Society of Japan

    NSAC
    Nuclear Science Advisory Committe(NSAC) Home Page
    NuPECC
    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee

    DOE
    U.S. Department of Energy, National Laboratories & Programs
    Division of Nuclear Physics
    NSF
    National Sicence Foundation, USA
    Nuclear Physics Program

    Software Resources for Data Aquisition and Data Analysis in Nuclear Physics
    HEPIC High Enery Physics Information Center

    Software

    NEA a
    The Nuclear Energy Agency Catalog of Programs in Category A

    2 October 2005,

    http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/rarf/np/nplab.html

    ***

    <HTML>
    <HEAD>
    <Title>The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Nuclear Physics</title>
    </HEAD>
    <BODY>
    <A HREF=”http://www.w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Overview.html”><IMG ALT=”Virtual Library” SRC=”cern/Virtual_Library.gif”></A>
    <A HREF=”http://www.w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Physics/Overview.html”><IMG ALT=”Physics” SRC=”cern/Physics_medium.gif”></A>
    <h1>Nuclear Physics  </h1>
    <p>
    <DT> See also:
    <DD><A HREF=”http://www.nucastrodata.org/”&gt;
    Nuclear Astrophysics Datasets</a>,

    <A HREF=”conf.html”> Nuclear-Physics conferences </a>,
    <A HREF=”http://www.cern.ch/Physics/HEP.html”&gt;
    HEP</a>(High-Energy Physics),
    <A HREF=”http://home.earthlink.net/~whittum/vl/”&gt;
    Beam Physics and Accelerator Technology </a>,
    <A  HREF=”http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nndc/nudat/”&gt;
    NNDC</a>,
    <A HREF=”http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/”&gt;
    Table of the Nuclides</A> ,
    <A HREF=”http://pdg.web.cern.ch/pdg/”&gt;

    Particle Data Group</A>,
    <A  HREF=”http://physicsweb.org/”&gt;
    Physics servers and services</a>,
    <A HREF=”http://www.yahoo.com/yahoo/Science/Physics/”&gt;
    Yahoo Physics index</a>, general
    <A  HREF=”http://www.w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Physics/Overview.html”>physics</a&gt; and
    <p>
    </DL>
    Information sources for Nuclear Physics research institutes and
    accelerator facilities are as follows.
    This list is originally based on the <A HREF=”http://www.cern.ch/Physics/HEP.html”&gt;
    HEP </a> list, modified by adding  nuclear physics research institutes and
    universities.
    Please mail

    <img src=”ic14.png”> to add your institute or university
    (please notify the abbreviation for the institute or university).
    <H2> Journals</h2>
    <DL>
    <DT> <A HREF=”http://publish.aps.org/”&gt; APS Journals</a>
    <DD> <A HREF=”http://prc.aps.org/”&gt; Phys. Rev. C</a>, <A HREF=”http://prl.aps.org/”>Phys. Rev. Lett</a>, <A HREF=”http://rmp.aps.org/”>Rev. Mod. Phys.</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/npe”>Nuclear Physics electronic</a>
    <DD> Nucl. Phys.<a href=”http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505715/description#description”>A</a&gt;,B,
    Phys. Lett. A <a href=”http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505706/description”>B</a&gt;,
    <a href=”http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505701/description#description”&gt;
    Nucl. Inst. Meth.</a>, Phsycs Reports
    </DL>
    <p>
    <H2> Research Institutes</H2>

    <DL>
    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.anl.gov/”&gt; ANL </A>
    <DD> Argonne National Laboratory, USA.
    <A  HREF=”http://epics.aps.anl.gov/welcome.html”&gt; APS</A>
    (Advanced Photon Source),
    <A  HREF=”http://pnsjph.pns.anl.gov/ipns.htm”>IPNS</A&gt;
    (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source),
    <A  HREF=”http://www.phy.anl.gov”&gt; PHYS</a>

    (Physics Division)

    <DT><A  HREF=”http://www.physics.arizona.edu/~ina/rhic/rhic.html”>Arizona</a&gt;
    <DD> University of Arizona Heavy-Ion Theory Group

    <DT>  <A  HREF=”http://wwwrsphysse.anu.edu.au/nuclear/”&gt; ANU </a>
    <DD> Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://thsun1.jinr.dubna.su”>BLTP</a&gt;
    <DD> Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Russia

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.bnl.gov/”&gt; BNL </a>

    <DD>  Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA,
    <A  HREF=”http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/”&gt; NNDC</a>,
    <A  HREF=”http://www.rhic.bnl.gov”>RHIC</a&gt;,
    <A  HREF=”http://suntid.bnl.gov/nsls/nsls.html”>NSLS</a&gt;

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.cebaf.gov/”>CEBAF </a>
    <DD> Continuous Electron Beam Acceleratory Facility, Virginia, USA

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://mist.npl.washington.edu/home.html”>CENPA</a&gt;

    <DD>Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.cern.ch/”&gt; CERN </a>
    <DD>  European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Switzerland,
    <A HREF=”http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/”>LHC</a&gt;
    <DD> <A HREF=”http://isolde.web.cern.ch/ISOLDE/”>ISOLDE</a&gt;

    <DT> <a href=”http://www.cns.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/”>CNS</a&gt;
    <DD>Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.wm.edu/physics/”>College of William and Mary</a>
    <DD>  The physics department at The College of William and Mary, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://spot.colorado.edu/~npl/Home.html”>Colorado</a&gt;
    <DD> Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics at the University of Colorado at Boulder

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www-csnsm.in2p3.fr/”&gt; CSNSM-Orsay</a>
    <DD> CENTRE DE SPECTROMETRIE NUCLEAIRE ET DE SPECTROMETRIE DE MASSE

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.cyceron.fr/”>CYCERON </a>

    <DD>  Cyceron PET Research Center, Caen, France

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.dl.ac.uk/home.html”>Daresbury Lab. </a>
    <DD> Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD, UK

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.desy.de/”&gt; DESY </A>
    <DD> Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron lab in Hamburg, Germany

    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://einstein.drexel.edu”>Drexel</a&gt;
    <DD> Drexel University Physics Department, USA

    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.ect.it/”>ECT*</a&gt;
    <DD> research, ECT*, Trento-Italy

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.elettra.trieste.it/index.php”>ELETTRA</a&gt;
    <DD> Elettra in Triestra, Italy

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.esrf.fr/”>ESRF</a&gt;
    <DD> European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://WWW.fnal.gov/”&gt; Fermilab</a>

    <DD> Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.uni-frankfurt.de/”>Frankfurt</a&gt;
    EF=” the University of Frankfurt in Germany,
    <A HREF=”http://www.th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de/”>UFTP</a&gt;
    the Institute for Theoretical Physics,
    <A HREF=”http://www.uni-frankfurt.de/fb/fb13/ikf/index.html”>IKF</a&gt;
    Institute for Nuclear Physics

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://hpfrs6.physik.uni-freiburg.de/”>Freiburg</a&gt;
    <DD> Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Fakultaet fuer Physik (department of
    physics)

    <DT><A  HREF=”http://www1.gantep.edu.tr/~ayilmaz/Nuclear_Physics_Group/”&gt; Gaziantep </a>
    <DD> Nuclear Physics at the University of Gaziantep

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://ganinfo.in2p3.fr/”>GANIL</a&gt;
    <DD> Grand Acceleratour National D’lons Lourds, Caen, France
    <DD> <A  HREF=”http://ganinfo.in2p3.fr/research/developments/spiral2/index.html”&gt;
    SPIRAL2</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.uni-giessen.de/”&gt; Giessen</a>

    <DD>  University of Giessen,Germany,
    <A HREF=”http://theorie.physik.uni-giessen.de/”&gt;
    Institute for Theoretische Physik</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.gsi.de/”&gt; GSI</a>
    <DD>  The German national laboratory for heavy ion research, Germany,
    Z=<A HREF=”http://www.gsi.de/element.html”>110</a&gt;,
    <A HREF=”http://www-gsi-vms.gsi.de/ship/el111.html”>111</a&gt;,
    <A HREF=”http://www.gsi.de/z112e.html”>112</a&gt;

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.physics.harvard.edu/”>Harvard</a&gt;
    <DD>  Harvard Physics Department, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://beam.helsinki.fi/”&gt; Helsinki</a>
    <DD> Accelerator Laboratory
    University of Helsinki, Finland,

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://photon.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/”>Hirosima Univ.</a>
    <DD> Photon Physics Lab, Hiroshima University, Japan

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.iep.uzhgorod.ua”>IEP</a&gt;
    <DD>Institute of Electron Physics, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences,
    Uzhhorod, Ukraine

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.ihep.ac.cn/english/index.htm”>IHEP</A&gt;
    <DD>  China Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.physi.uni-heidelberg.de/physi/he/hegroup.php”>IHEP</A&gt;
    <DD>Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Universitaet Heidelberg

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.ihep.su/”&gt; IHEP </A>

    <DD> Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region, Russia

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.ill.fr/”>ILL</a&gt;
    <DD>  Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France,

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://info.in2p3.fr/”&gt; IN2P3 </A>
    <DD> Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules,
    France

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.infn.it/”&gt; INFN </a>

    <DD> Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.npi.msu.su/”&gt; INP MSU </a>
    <DD> Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Russia

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.ifs.physik.uni-stuttgart.de/”&gt; Institute for Radiation Physics</a>
    <DD> University of Stuttgart, Germany.

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://lyoinfo.in2p3.fr/”&gt; IPNL </a>

    <DD> Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, France

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://ipnweb.in2p3.fr/”&gt; IPNO </A>
    <DD> Institut de Physique Nucleaire d’Orsay, France

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.irb.hr/en/str/zef/z3labs/liis/”&gt; IRB </A>
    <DD> Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions,  <A HREF=”http://www.irb.hr/”>Institute Rudjer Boskovic</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.univie.ac.at/Kernphysik/”&gt; IRK </a>
    <DD> Institut for Radiumforschung und Kernphysik, University of Vienna,

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://isnwww.in2p3.fr/”&gt; ISN </A>
    <DD> Institut des Sciences Nucleaires de Grenoble, France

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.nd.rl.ac.uk/”>ISIS</a&gt;
    <DD>  ISIS Facility,  Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.iucf.indiana.edu/”&gt; IUCF </a>
    <DD>  Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, USA

    <DT><A HREF=”http://j-parc.jp/index-e.html”>J-PARC</a&gt;
    <DD>Japan Proton Acceletator Research Complex

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.jaeri.go.jp/english/outline.html”&gt;
    JAERI </a>
    <DD>Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Japan

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://zfj-www.if.uj.edu.pl”>Jagellonian University</a>

    <DD> Nuclear Physics Division of the Jagellonian University, Cracow, Poland

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.jinr.dubna.su/”>JINR </a>
    <DD> Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia

    <DD>  <A HREF=”http://nfdfn.jinr.dubna.su/”>FLNP</a&gt;
    Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics.
    <DD> <A HREF=”http://sungraph.jinr.dubna.su/flnr/”>FLNR</a&gt;
    Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions.
    <DD>  <A HREF=”http://nusun2.jinr.dubna.su/”>LNP</a&gt;

    Laboratory of Nuclear Problems.
    <DD><A HREF=”http://thsun1.jinr.dubna.su”>BLTH</a&gt;
    <DD> Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics

    <DT><A HREF=”http://www.jlab.org/”>Jeffeson Lab (CEBAF)</a>
    <DD> Jeffeson Lab (CEBAF)

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.phys.jyu.fi”>JYFL</a&gt;
    <DD> Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla,Finland
    <DD>  <A HREF=”http://www.aka.fi/users/E-huippuyksikot/632.cfm”>The Jyvaskyla Centre of excellence in nuclear and condensed matter physic</a>

    <DD>   <A HREF=”http://www.phys.jyu.fi/research/accelerator”>The Jyvaskyla Accelerator Laboratory</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://hpngp01.kaeri.re.kr/”&gt; KAERI </A>
    <DD>  Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Korea,
    <A HREF=”http://hpngp01.kaeri.re.kr/CoN/index.html”&gt;
    Table of the Nuclides</A>

    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.kek.jp/”&gt; KEK </a>

    <DD>  KEK, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Japan

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://kutls1.kutl.kyushu-u.ac.jp/”>KUTL</a&gt;
    <DD> Kyushu University Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Fukuoka, Japan

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://kviexp.kvi.nl/”&gt; KVI </a>
    <DD> Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (nuclear physics accelerator institute)
    in Groningen, Netherlands.

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/index-e.html”&gt; Kyoto Univ. </a>

    <DD> Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://lalinfo.in2p3.fr/LALHomePage.html”&gt; LAL </A>
    <DD> Laboratoire de l’Accelerateur Lineaire, France

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.lanl.gov/”&gt; LANL</a>
    <DD>  Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA,
    <A  HREF=”http://p2hp2.lanl.gov/welcome.html”&gt; LANL P2</a>,

    <A  HREF=”http://www.lansce.lanl.gov/”>LANSCE</a&gt;,
    <A  HREF=”file://t2.lanl.gov/homepage.html”>T2 Nuclear Theory</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.lbl.gov/”&gt; LBNL (LBL) </A>
    <DD>  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA,
    <A HREF=”http://user88.lbl.gov/nsd_home.html”>Nuclear Science Division </a> ,
    <A HREF=”http://pdg.lbl.gov/”&gt; PDG</a>(Particle Data Group),

    <A  HREF=”http://beanie.lbl.gov:8001/als/als_homepage.html”>ALS</a&gt;
    (Advanced Light Source)

    <DT>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.llnl.gov/”&gt; LLNL </A>
    <DD> Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA,
    <A HREF=”http://www-phys.llnl.gov”>Physics and Space Technology</A>,
    <A HREF=”http://www-phys.llnl.gov/N_Div”>Atomic, Nuclear, and Particle Physics</A>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.kph.uni-mainz.de/”&gt; MAMI</a>

    <DD> Mainz Microtron, Institute for Nuclear Physics, Gutenberg University,
    Germany

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.umanitoba.ca/physics/”>Manitoba</a&gt;
    <DD> Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Canada

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.maxlab.lu.se/”>MAX-lab</a&gt;
    <DD> National Electron Accelerator Laboratory for Nuclear Physics and
    Synchrotron Radiation Research at
    <A HREF=”http://www.lu.se/”>Lund University</a>, Sweden

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.physics.mcgill.ca/”&gt; McGill University</a>

    <DD> Department of Physics,  McGill University, Canada,
    <A HREF=”http://www.physics.mcgill.ca/nucdocs/nuc.html”&gt;
    Foster Radiation Laboratory </a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.physics.mcmaster.ca/”&gt; McMaster University</a>
    <DD> Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Canada

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://nucphy.ph.msstate.edu/”>Mississippi State University</a>
    <DD>   Nuclear Physics group, Department of Physics and Astronomy,
    Mississippi State University, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://mitbates.mit.edu/”>MIT Bates</a>
    <DD> MIT Bates Linear Accelerator Center</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://pierre.mit.edu/”&gt; MIT-LNS </a>
    <DD> The MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.mppmu.mpg.de/welcome.html/”>MPI</a&gt;
    <DD> MPI fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg Institut, Munich, Germany

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/”>MPI-K</a&gt;
    <DD> Max-Planck-Institute for nuclear physics in Heidelberg, Germany

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.nbi.dk/”>NBI</a&gt;
    <DD> Niels Bohr Institutet, Koebenhavn, Denmark

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.gslink.com/~ncmcn/Clustron/”>NCM</a&gt;
    <DD> Nucleon Cluster Model (NCM), R.A. Brightsen and Clustron Sciences Corporation

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.oecdnea.org/”>NEA</a&gt;

    <DD> The Nuclear Energy Agency

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.nikhefk.nikhef.nl/Welcome.html”>NIKHEF </a>
    <DD> The National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy
    Physics in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.nist.gov/item/About_NIST_Materials_Science_and_Engineering_Laboratory.html”>NIST</a&gt;
    <DD> National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Reactor
    , USA,
    <A HREF=”http://rrdjazz.nist.gov/”&gt; CNRF</A> (Cold Neutron Research Facility),
    <A HREF=”http://physics.nist.gov/MajResFac/SURF/SURF.html”>SURF II</a>

    (Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility)

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://lorien.site.cas.cz/NPI_Rez/NPI_1.html”>NPI</a&gt;
    <DD> Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez, Czech Republic.

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://mist.npl.washington.edu/home_npl.html”&gt; NPL </A>
    <DD> Nuclear Physics Laboratory (NPL), University of Washington,USA

    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.er.doe.gov/production/henp/nsac/nsac.html”>NSAC</a&gt;
    <DD>  Nuclear Science Advisory Committe(NSAC) Home Page

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.nsc.ernet.in”&gt; NSC </a>
    <DD> Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India

    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.nscl.msu.edu”>NSCL</a&gt;
    <DD> National Superconduction Cyclotoron Labratory,
    Michigan State University, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.nd.edu/~nsl”>NSL</a&gt;
    <DD> Notre Dame Nuclear Structure Laboratory
    <DD> Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.nupecc.org/”>NuPECC</a&gt;
    <DD> the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.physics.odu.edu/”>ODU</a&gt;
    <DD> Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.phy.ornl.gov/”&gt; ORNL </a>
    <DD>  Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, USA,
    <A HREF=”http://www.ornl.gov/hfir/hfirhome.html”>HFIRF</a&gt;

    (High Flux Isotope Reactor Facility),
    <A HREF=”http://www.phy.ornl.gov/hribf/hribf.html”>HRIBF</a&gt;
    (Hollifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility),
    <A HREF=”http://www.ornl.gov/ORNLReview/rev26-2/text/home.html”&gt;
    ORNL Review</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.physics.orst.edu/”>OSU</a&gt;
    <DD> Department of Physics, Oregon State University, USA

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/”>Oxford</a&gt;
    <DD> Univ. of Oxford,  Particle and Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford,
    UK

    <dt> <a href=”http://www.unifr.ch/physics/pan/pan.html”&gt; PAN </a>
    <dd> Atomic and Nuclear Physics group at university of Fribourg, Switzerland

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://dept.physics.upenn.edu/”&gt; Penn</a>
    <DD> Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.phyast.pitt.edu/”>Pitt</a&gt;
    <DD> The Physics & Astronomy Department, University of Pittsburgh, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”file://rec03.pnpi.spb.ru/web/home.html”>PNPI</a>
    <DD>  Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg region, Russia

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.psi.ch/”&gt; PSI </A>
    <DD> Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland,
    <A HREF=”http://psiclu.psi.ch/www_sls_hn/sls_homepage.html”>SLS</a&gt;
    (Synchrotron Light Source)

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.fiz.huji.ac.il/”>RACAH</a&gt;

    <DD> Racah Institute of Physics,
    The Hebrew University,
    Jerusalem, Israel

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.clrc.ac.uk/Activity/RAL;”&gt; RAL </a>
    <DD>  The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp/”&gt;
    RCNP </a>
    <DD> Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://sisyphus.phys.uregina.ca/sap/”&gt; REGIE </a>

    <DD> Subatomic Physics Research Group (REGIE), University of Regina, Regina, Canada

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.riken.jp”>RIKEN</a&gt;
    <DD> Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Hirosawa, Wako, Japan,
    <A HREF=”http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/”>RARF/RIBF</A>(RIKEN Accelerator
    Research Facility, RI Beam Factory
    <A HREF=”http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/rarf/rhic/”>RHIC/SPIN</a&gt;,
    <A HREF=”http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/rarf/rhic/bnl/index.html”&gt;
    RIKEN BNL Research Center</a>)

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.physik.rwth-aachen.de/”>RWTH</a&gt;

    <DD> Physics department of the University of Technology, Aachen

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www-dapnia.cea.fr/”>SACLAY</a&gt;
    <A href=”http://www.cea.fr/fr/thema/centres/saclay.htm”>CEA</a&gt;
    <DD> SACLAY, France

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.ph.surrey.ac.uk/scnp/scnp.html”>SCNP</a&gt;
    <DD> Southern Centre for Nuclear Physics, UK

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://linac.ikp.physik.th-darmstadt.de”&gt; SDALINAC</a>

    <DD> Superconducting Darmstadt Linear Accelerator, Institute for Nuclear Physics, Technical University Darmstadt, Germany.

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.cica.es/aliens/dfamnus/famn”&gt; Sevilla</a>
    <DD> Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de
    Sevilla, Spain.

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.slac.stanford.edu/detailed.html”&gt; SLAC </A>
    <DD> Stanford Linear Accelerator, California, USA,
    <A HREF=”http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/welcome.html”>SSRL</a&gt;
    (Synchrotron Raditaion Lab.)

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://snodaq.phy.queensu.ca/”>SNO (Sudbury) </a>
    <DD> Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Data Acquisition, Queen’s University Physics Dept.

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.spring8.or.jp/”>Spring-8</a&gt;
    <DD>  Super Photon Ring 8-GeV, Nishiharima, Japan

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.src.wisc.edu/”>SRC</A&gt;
    <DD> Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin, USA

    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.ssc.gov/SSC.html”>SSCL</a&gt;

    <DD>  The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, in Texas.

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://inwfmux1.rug.ac.be/”>SSF</a&gt;
    <DD> Subatomic and Radiation Physics Lab.,GENT, Belgie

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://insti.physics.sunysb.edu/Physics/”>SUNY-SB</a&gt;
    <DD>  Department of Physics, the State University of New York at Stony Brook,
    USA

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.physics.mcmaster.ca/TASCC/tascc_home.html”>TASCC</a&gt;
    <DD> The Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron,Chalk River Laboratories,
    Canada

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.tandar.cnea.edu.ar”>TANDAR</a&gt;
    <DD>Tandar Laboratory, Comisi&oacute;n Nacional de Energ&iacute;a At&oacute;mica,Buenos Aires, Argentina

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://cycnt.tamu.edu/”>TAMU</a&gt;
    <DD> THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Home Page

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://giulio.tau.ac.il/”>TAU</a&gt;

    <DD>  Department of Nuclear Physics at Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index-e.html”&gt;
    Tokyo</a>
    <DD> Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Japan,
    <A HREF=”http://hep1.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~staka/”&gt;
    Komaba Nuclear Theory </a> Group

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.physics.utoronto.ca/”&gt; Toronto</a>
    <DD> Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Canada

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.triumf.ca/”&gt; TRIUMF </A>
    <DD> Canada’s National Meson Research Facility, Canada
    <DD>  <A  HREF=”http://www.triumf.ca/isac/lothar/isac.html”&gt;
    ISAC(isotope Separator and ACcelerator)</a>

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.tsl.uu.se/”>TSL</a&gt;
    <DD> The Svedberg Laboratory, Swedish national institute for
    accelerator-based research, Uppsala University

    <DT>  <A  HREF=”http://www.tunl.duke.edu”>TUNL</a&gt;
    <DD> Triangle Universities University Lab (3 Mev acc + tandem)
    <DD> TUNL, Box 0308, Duke University, Durham

    <DT>  <A  HREF=”http://www.fynu.ucl.ac.be/fynu.html”>UCL-FYNU</a&gt;
    <DD>  Institut de Physique Nucleaire Louvain-la-Neuve (LLN), Belgium
    <DD>  <A  HREF=”http://www.cyc.ucl.ac.be/CYC/cyc.html&gt;
    Centre de recherches du cyclotron</a>
    <DD><A  HREF=”http://www.cyc.ucl.ac.be/CYC/sa_paper.html”&gt;
    Louvain-la-Neuve — Radioactive Ions in CYCLONE</a>

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://einstein.unh.edu:1905/unh_physics.html”>UNH</a&gt;
    <DD> Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=” http://www.physik.uni-siegen.de/arbeitsgruppen.html”>Uni-Siegen</a&gt;
    <DD> University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://info.phys.uvic.ca/dbr/uvphys_index.html”&gt;
    Victoria</a>
    <DD>Department of Physics, University of Victoria, Canada

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://yksc.york.ac.uk/”>UOY</a&gt;

    <DD> Nuclear Structure Group, University of York, U.K.

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://tac.tsukuba.ac.jp/”&gt; UTTAC</a>
    <DD> Tandem Accelerator Center, Univ. of Tsukuba, Japan

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://nucth.physics.wisc.edu/”&gt; UW</a>
    <DD>  Nuclear Theory Group of the University of Wisconsin, USA

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.weizmann.ac.il/physics/accel1.html”>Weizmann</a&gt;

    <DD> The Weizmann Institute Accelerator Laboratory, Rehovot, Israel

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://www.krl.caltech.edu/”&gt; W.K. Kellogg Rad. Lab.</a>
    <DD> W.K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory at the
    <A  HREF=”http://www.caltech.edu/”>California Institute of Technologg</a>,
    USA

    <DT> <A  HREF=”http://w4.lns.cornell.edu/”&gt; Wilson Lab/CLEO </a>
    <DD>  Wilson Synchrotron Laboratory, Cornell University, USA

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.physics.wayne.edu/”&gt; WSU </A>

    <DD> Department of Physics at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    <A HREF=”http://rhic2.physics.wayne.edu/”&gt;
    High Energy Nuclear Science Group</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://polhp5.in2p3.fr:8000/”&gt; X-LPNHE </a>
    <DD> Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire des Hautes Energies, France

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp/english/index.php”&gt; YITP </a>
    <DD> Yukawa Instutute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto Japan

    </DL>

    <hr>
    <DL>
    <a name = “ISOL”>
    <h3>Radioactive Beam Facilities: Operating,Under
    Construction,or
    Proposed</h3>
    <Dt> <a href=”
    http://www.phy.anl.gov/div/rib/index.html
    “>ANL – Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA)</a>

    <Dt> <a href=”
    http://isolde.web.cern.ch/ISOLDE/
    “>CERN – ISOLDE</a>

    <Dt> <a href=”
    http://ganinfo.in2p3.fr/research/developments/spiral2/
    “>GANIL – SPIRAL2</a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.gsi.de/”&gt;
    GSI </a>

    <Dt> <a href=”
    http://www.cyc.ucl.ac.be/CYC/sa_paper.html
    “>Louvain-la-Neuve – Radioactive Ions in CYCLONE</a>

    <Dt> <a href=”
    http://www.nscl.msu.edu/
    “>NSCL – K1200 Cyclotron/A1200 Beam Analysis System</a>

    <Dt> <a href=”http://www.nupecc.org/nupecc/working_groups/rbf/”&gt;

    NuPECC Working Group on Radioactive Beam Facilities </a>

    <Dt> <a href=”
    http://www.phy.ornl.gov/hribf/hribf.html
    “>ORNL – Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility</a>

    <Dt> <a href=”
    http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/
    “> RIKEN  –  RIKEN RI BEAM FACTORY</a>

    <Dt> <a href=”
    http://www.triumf.ca/isac/lothar/isac.html
    “>TRIUMF – ISAC</a>

    </DL>

    <DL>

    <hr>
    <H2> misc.</h2>
    <DL>
    <DT><A HREF=”http://www.aip.org/”>AIP</a&gt;
    <DD>  American Institute of Physics
    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.aps.org/”>APS</a&gt;

    <DD> The American Physical Society
    <DT> <A HREF=”http://epswww.epfl.ch/”>EPS</a&gt;
    <DD> The European Physical Society
    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.jps.or.jp/”>JPS</a&gt;
    <DD>The Physical Society of Japan
    <p>
    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.er.doe.gov/production/henp/nsac/nsac.html”>NSAC</a&gt;
    <DD>  Nuclear Science Advisory Committe(NSAC) Home Page

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.nupecc.org/”>NuPECC</a&gt;
    <DD> The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee

    <p>
    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.energy.gov/engine/content.do”>DOE</a&gt;
    <DD> U.S. Department of Energy, National Laboratories & Programs
    <DD> <A HREF=”http://www.er.doe.gov/production/henp/nucphys.html”&gt;
    Division of Nuclear Physics </a>

    <DT> <A HREF=”http://www.nsf.gov/”>NSF</a&gt;
    <DD> National Sicence Foundation, USA
    <DD> <A HREF=”http://www.nsf.gov/mps/phy/nuclear.htm”&gt;
    Nuclear Physics Program</a>
    <p>
    <DD> Software Resources for Data Aquisition and
    Data Analysis in Nuclear Physics

    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.hep.net/”>HEPIC</a&gt;
    High Enery Physics Information Center
    <p>

    <H2> Software</h2>
    <DL>
    <DT>  <A HREF=”http://www.nea.fr/html/dbprog/cpsabs_a.html”&gt; NEA a</a>
    <DD>The Nuclear Energy Agency Catalog of Programs in Category A
    </DL>

    <hr>
    <address>
    2 October 2005, <img src=”ic14.png”>
    </address>
    </BODY>

    </HTML>

    http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/rarf/np/nplab.html

    ***

    State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics & Technology
    Peking University

    History & Today of the Laboratory

    The research of nuclear physics and technology has long history at Peking University. In 1955 the first education unit for nuclear science in China was founded at Peking University, which is well known as the Department of Technical Physics, Peking University later. There are total 13 academicians in more than 5000 graduates of that department. In 1990 the Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, Ministry of Education (MOE) was established at Peking University, which is the predecessor of our State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology. Great progress has been made on the scientific research and graduate student training since then.

    The laboratory has made great efforts to introduce and foster the qualified scientists, so the research team has been optimized continuously. The laboratory also readjusted the research directions dynamically, strived for undertaking the major and key national projects actively, and did our best to form ourselves distinguishing feature and to promote the research level. In recent years the research activities of the laboratory have been organized into four directions, i.e. the radioactive nuclear beam physics, the hardon physics, the advanced particle accelerator techniques and the applications of nuclear technology. During the past ten years the permanent staff of the laboratory won the National S&T Advancement Award, the MOE S&T Advancement Award, and the Beijing City S&T Award many times. They published quite a lot of papers with high quality, including 5 papers on Physical Review Letters. Professor Chen Jiaer was elected as the President of Executive Council, Chinese Physical Society in 1999-2003 and the Vice-President of Executive Council, International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) since 2005. Professor Ye Yanlin was elected as the Vice-President of Executive Council, Chinese Nuclear Physics Society since 2004. Professor Guo Zhiyu was elected as the Vice-President of Executive Council, Chinese Particle Accelerator Society since 2004. Professor Ye Yanlin and Professor Zhao Kui are principle investigators of two projects of National Basic Research Program (973).

    The laboratory passed four national evaluations in 1991, 1995, 2000 and 2005, and obtained the grade “good” for all the evaluations, which is the best result among the laboratories belonging to the field of nuclear science. The laboratory was also evaluated by the Ministry of Education in 2004 and obtained the grade “excellent”. The main subjects of our laboratory, both Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Technology and applications, were appraised as the State Key Disciplines in 2001 and again in 2006.

    In the past two years the laboratory has experienced some important changes and is now on the way to become a State Key Laboratory based on the previous Key laboratory of the Ministry of Education. In addition the laboratory is closely related (overlapped) to the unique national education bases for basic science research with major in nuclear science. This is achieved due to the overall improvement of the situation for the nuclear science and technology in China, to the substantial progress of our research and education work and to the great effort and help from our colleagues around country.

    Nuclear science in China seems experiencing a new “spring” in our society, due to the new public view and national need for nuclear power, nuclear security and nuclear technology applications. This overall situation has of course big impact to the upstream basic science research and especially the training of high level experts in the field. Establishment of the State Key Laboratory in this field will certainly help to satisfy the national and society need.

    In Peking University the nuclear science research and education has more than 50 years history and has made substantial contribution to the nation’s nuclear cause. At the end of last century when the institutions related to nuclear science in the Chinese universities encountered difficulties to survive, Peking University had managed to keep the working teams and facilities at a moderate level. This turned out to be a wise choice and when the new phase of development comes in the new century we have been able to catch up in a rapid way. The laboratory has now developed into four divisions (directions) with good facilities. The research work of these divisions and their teams has largely been developed over past few years and are briefly demonstrated in this report.

    Since 1990 this laboratory, as a MOE key laboratory, had been led by former director Prof. Chen Jiaer and then Prof. Guo Zhiyu, and has experienced several times the rigorous review by the Ministry of Science and Technology. The success in these reviews is essential to the step up to the state key laboratory. Over the years we have got so much helps from our colleagues in the related fields, especially those functioned in the previous and current scientific committee of the laboratory. We are so grateful to all of them and will in turn do our best to contribute to the long range development of nuclear science and technology in China.

    Management

    Honorary Director: CHEN, Jia’er, Academicain of CAS
    Director: YE, Yanlin
    Deputy Director: WAMG, Yugang; XU, Furong; LIU, Kexin

    Scientific Committee

    Honorary Chairman: FANG, Shouxian, Academician of CAS
    Chairman: SHEN, Wenqing, Academician of CAS
    Vice Chairman: CHAO, K.T, Academician of CAS CHAI, Zhifang; GUO, Zhiyu
    Members:
    DU, Xiangwan, Academician of CAE, CAEP
    GUAN, Xialing, Professor, China Inst. of Atomic Energy
    GU, Hongya, Professor, Peking Univ
    LIU, Jiaqi, Academician of CAS, Inst. of Geology & Geophys
    LIU, Weiping, Professor, China Inst. of Atomic Energy
    MA, Boqiang, Professor, Peking Univ
    MENG, Jie, Professor, Peking Univ
    WANG, Keming, Professor, Shandong Univ
    WANG, Yifang, Professor, Inst.of High Energy Phys
    ZHANG, Chuang, Professor, Inst.of High Energy Phys
    ZHAN, Wenlong, Academician of CAS, Inst. of Modern Phys

    Scientific Consultants

    CHEN, Jia’er, Academician of CAS, Peking Univ
    FANG, Shouxian, Academician of CAS, Inst.of High Energy Phys
    HU, Renyu, Academician of CAS, CAEP
    QIAN, Shaojun, Academician of CAE, General Armament Department
    WANG, Naiyan, Academician of CAS, China Inst. of Atomic Energy
    ZHANG, Huanqiao, Academician of CAS, China Inst. of Atomic Energy
    ZHUANG, Jiejia, Professor, Inst.of High Energy Phys

    http://sklnpt.pku.edu.cn/english%20version/englishlast.htm

    ***
    #
    State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics & Technology Peking University
    QIAN, Shaojun, Academician of CAE, General Armament Department WANG, Naiyan, Academician of CAS, China Inst. of Atomic Energy ZHANG, Huanqiao, Academician …
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    ***
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    ***

    UNDIR – February 2009

    http://www.unidir.org/pdf/ouvrages/pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf

    pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf

    Unfi nished Business
    The Negotiation of the CTBT
    and the End of Nuclear Testing

    Rebecca Johnson

    UNIDIR
    United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
    Geneva, Switzerland

    New York and Geneva, 2009

    About the cover
    The cover shows the control room of the International Data
    Centre, part of the International Monitoring System of the
    Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-
    Ban Treaty Organization.
    Photograph courtesy of the Preparatory Commission for the
    Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

    UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATIONS
    Sales No. GV.E.09.0.4
    ISBN 978-92-9045-194-5
    UNIDIR/2009/2

    The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)—an
    autonomous institute within the United Nations—conducts research on
    disarmament and security. UNIDIR is based in Geneva, Switzerland, the
    centre for bilateral and multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation
    negotiations, and home of the Conference on Disarmament. The Institute
    explores current issues pertaining to the variety of existing and future
    armaments, as well as global diplomacy and local tensions and confl icts.
    Working with researchers, diplomats, government offi cials, NGOs and
    other institutions since 1980, UNIDIR acts as a bridge between the
    research community and governments. UNIDIR’s activities are funded by
    contributions from governments and donor foundations. The Institute’s
    web site can be found at:
    http://www.unidir.org

    **
    CONTENTS
    Acknowledgements ……………………………………………………………… ix
    About the author ………………………………………………………………… xi
    Foreword ………………………………………………………………………….. xiii
    Special comment ………………………………………………………………… xvii
    Chapter 1
    Introduction ………………………………………………………………………. 1
    Chapter 2
    Cold War attempts to ban nuclear explosions ………………………….. 9
    1954–1963: Settling for the Partial Test Ban Treaty ………………. 10
    1964–1980: Non-proliferation and arms control,
    while testing continues ………………………………………………… 17
    Détente, arms control and testing limits ………………………. 20
    Tripartite talks, 1977–1980 ……………………………………….. 21
    1981–1989: Public mobilizing against nuclear weapons ……….. 23
    Chapter 3
    Putting the test ban back on the table ……………………………………. 31
    Raising awareness of the need for a test ban ………………………. 33
    Public mobilization halts testing in Kazakhstan ……………… 35
    Direct action to make the test sites publicly visible ………… 36
    The PTBT Amendment Conference ……………………………. 38
    Russia, France and the United States suspend nuclear testing … 40
    The CD adopts a negotiating mandate ………………………………. 46
    Negotiating tactics …………………………………………………… 50
    Chapter 4
    The struggle for a zero-yield test ban ……………………………………… 57
    1994: Starting positions and stalling tactics …………………………. 58
    The politics of timing ……………………………………………….. 63
    1995: Breakthrough on zero yield ……………………………………. 68
    Winning the argument for a permanently
    established CTBT ………………………………………………….. 70
    vi
    France and the United Kingdom withdraw
    the safety test proposal ………………………………………….. 72
    CTBT issues in the 1995 NPT Conference ……………………. 73
    NPT aftermath: more nuclear tests from
    China and France …………………………………………………. 76
    The United States and France commit
    to a zero-yield scope …………………………………………….. 82
    Chapter 5
    Making the treaty ban civilian as well as
    military nuclear explosions …………………………………………………… 93
    1996: end of an era ……………………………………………………….. 95
    Finding a PNE compromise ……………………………………….. 97
    Competing draft treaties from Iran and Australia …………… 103
    Chair’s fi rst draft text ……………………………………………….. 104
    Chapter 6
    Entry into force and the endgame …………………………………………. 109
    Numbers, lists and waivers ………………………………………………. 112
    The die is cast ……………………………………………………………….. 126
    Chair’s revised treaty accepted with reservations ………………… 133
    Bypassing India to bring the treaty
    to the UN General Assembly ……………………………………….. 137
    The United Nations overwhelmingly adopts the treaty text …… 141
    The CTBT is opened for signature ……………………………………. 142
    Chapter 7
    Designing a robust verifi cation regime ……………………………………. 145
    The International Monitoring System ………………………………… 148
    The seismic signature ……………………………………………….. 151
    Detecting airborne radioactivity …………………………………. 152
    Hearing underwater explosions …………………………………. 154
    Picking up shockwaves …………………………………………….. 154
    Satellites and electromagnetic pulse monitoring ……………. 155
    Interpreting IMS data ……………………………………………….. 155
    On-site inspections ………………………………………………………… 157
    Intrusion versus protection ………………………………………… 160
    Transparency ………………………………………………………….. 162
    Phased inspections, decision-making and access …………… 163
    National technical means …………………………………………. 166
    vii
    Make-or-break dilemmas ………………………………………….. 169
    Establishing the CTBTO …………………………………………………. 172
    Chapter 8
    Lessons for future multilateral security negotiations ………………….. 175
    Nuclear weapons, programmes and perceptions
    of national interest ………………………………………………………. 177
    Expanding the possibilities for reaching agreement ………………. 184
    Prenegotiations ……………………………………………………….. 189
    Scope ……………………………………………………………………. 193
    Entry into force ……………………………………………………….. 200
    Verifi cation …………………………………………………………….. 202
    Lessons for future multilateral negotiations ………………………… 204
    Chapter 9
    Securing the CTBT ……………………………………………………………… 209
    Field exercises in on-site inspections …………………………………. 212
    Civilian benefi ts of the CTBT …………………………………………… 215
    Unfi nished business ………………………………………………………. 216
    Provisional application of the CTBT:
    only as a last resort ……………………………………………….. 227
    Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….. 231
    Annex A
    CTBT Annex II states …………………………………………………………… 233
    Annex B
    Membership of the working groups
    of the Nuclear Test Ban Committee ………………………………….. 235
    Annex C
    Core text of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty …………… 239
    Notes ……………………………………………………………………………….. 279
    Acronyms …………………………………………………………………………. 363

    pp. xi

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR
    Dr Rebecca Johnson is Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament
    Diplomacy, which she co-founded in 1995, and has edited its journal,
    Disarmament Diplomacy, since 2003. Parts of this book are based on
    contemporaneous notes and research conducted for her PhD, which she
    received from the London School of Economics and Political Science in
    2004. Johnson began reporting from Geneva on the CTBT negotiations
    in January 1994 on behalf of The Acronym Consortium of four UKbased
    NGOs, which disseminated her “Acronym Email” reports to a wide
    international audience. As a long-time campaigner and organizer on peace
    and women’s issues and then as Greenpeace International’s Coordinator
    on a Nuclear Test Ban from 1988 to 1992, Johnson participated directly in
    some of the events that are recorded in this book. With a background in
    physics as well as international relations, she also holds degrees from the
    University of London School of Oriental and African Studies (MA) and the
    University of Bristol (B.Sc Hons). She is a prolifi c author and policy analyst on
    security and non-proliferation issues and has served as an adviser or board
    member for several organizations, including the International Weapons of
    Mass Destruction Commission (2004–2006), the Bulletin of the Atomic
    Scientists (2001–2007), the Middle Powers Initiative (2007–present), and
    the Women’s Network of the International Action Network on Small Arms
    (IANSA). She has twice been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, most
    recently in 2004, as one of a thousand peace-women from all over the
    world who were put forward collectively.

    FOREWORD
    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was a child born
    following a long gestation. From the test of a nuclear weapon in 1945
    to the fi rst call for a “standstill agreement” on nuclear testing in 1954 by
    Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India, to the 1963 Partial Test Ban
    Treaty, there have been repeated and intense efforts to halt the qualitative
    and quantitative nuclear arms race by preventing nuclear weapons testing.
    Following the end of the Cold War, having prepared the ground for several
    years through the establishment of a Group of Scientifi c Experts (GSE), the
    Geneva-based Conference on Disarmament formally began negotiations on
    the CTBT in 1993. The negotiations ran from January 1994 to September
    1996, culminating in a treaty that was opened for signature in New York on
    24 September 1996.
    In 1993, a group of British non-governmental organizations, The British
    American Security Information Council (BASIC), Defence Fax (DFAX),
    International Security Information Service (ISIS) and the Verifi cation
    Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC) formed a collaborative
    project called the Acronym Consortium (a witticism refl ecting the acronyms
    used to name the organizations and the myriad of acronyms used in the
    linguistically obtuse world of arms control) and engaged Rebecca Johnson
    to report on the proceedings of the Conference on Disarmament from
    Geneva.
    There were many grandfathers, grandmothers, mothers, fathers, aunts
    and uncles of the CTBT. There were surrogate parents, godparents and a
    number of would-be siblings. However, there was one outstanding doula—a
    professional birthing assistant—and that was Rebecca Johnson.
    Dr Johnson saw the negotiations through from beginning to end, and like all
    professional birth assistants, is still there with the Treaty, helping ensure its
    viability as it eventually comes into force and onto the statute books.
    Her reports were sent out, via the internet and paper copy, all over the
    world. Other organizations were able to follow the goings on in Geneva.
    Weekly (sometimes daily) blow-by-blow accounts of detail and nuance
    were transmitted to expert researchers, government offi cials and journalists.
    Everyone involved in the effort relied on Rebecca Johnson’s reports,
    summaries and analysis. She did not report just what people wanted to
    hear; she reported fact and opinion, carefully delineating both. She thus
    alerted national experts and activists to the actions of their countries’
    representatives so that governments were held to account in a timely manner.
    The media relied equally heavily on her reports and their quality. That the
    Treaty was delivered to the UN General Assembly after a diffi cult labour
    and traumatic birth in Geneva was, in large part, as a result of Rebecca’s
    efforts in supporting the whole process and helping keep the focus.
    It has now been over 12 years since the CTBT was opened for signature.
    As of 31 December 2008, 180 states have signed the Treaty and 148 have
    ratifi ed. But entry into force depends on more than just numbers. There
    are 44 named states in Annex 2 of the Treaty and each of those has to ratify
    before the CTBT can enter into force. Of those 44, all but three have so far
    signed and all but nine have ratifi ed. And thus the Treaty is kept in limbo.
    In the belief that the CTBT would only thus be successfully agreed, states
    burdened the Treaty with provisions that still hinder its entry into force.
    To move forward, to obtain and keep this Treaty so necessary to nuclear
    security and prosperity, it would be wise of us to study how it is that we
    have arrived in these circumstances—and perhaps learn the lessons of the
    CTBT negotiation. The history presented here provides an uncommon
    opportunity to do just that.
    Political transition in some of the 44 named states has either just occurred
    or is possible in the future. This potential for change allows us to hope
    that the entry into force of the CTBT is on the horizon. The importance of
    such an event should not be underestimated. If the terms of the Nuclear
    Non-Proliferation Treaty are ever to be met, if further progress toward
    nuclear disarmament is to be made and if the prevention of nuclear war
    could ever become a reality, the CTBT will be there at the heart of such
    transformation.
    It is my hope that this project, generously funded by the Governments
    of Finland, Japan and Norway and written by Dr Rebecca Johnson, with
    all the authority she bestows on the historical account, will provide the
    international community with insights and signposts as to how to bring this
    important Treaty into force and give it the teeth, through the International
    Monitoring System embodied in the Treaty, that the world needs and
    demands.
    Patricia Lewis
    Director, UNIDIR (1997–2008)

    ******

    Chapter 7
    Designing a robust verifi cation regime ……………………………………. 145
    The International Monitoring System ………………………………… 148
    The seismic signature ……………………………………………….. 151
    Detecting airborne radioactivity …………………………………. 152
    Hearing underwater explosions …………………………………. 154
    Picking up shockwaves …………………………………………….. 154
    Satellites and electromagnetic pulse monitoring ……………. 155
    Interpreting IMS data ……………………………………………….. 155
    On-site inspections ………………………………………………………… 157
    Intrusion versus protection ………………………………………… 160
    Transparency ………………………………………………………….. 162
    Phased inspections, decision-making and access …………… 163
    National technical means …………………………………………. 166

    Chapter 9
    Securing the CTBT ……………………………………………………………… 209
    Field exercises in on-site inspections …………………………………. 212
    Civilian benefi ts of the CTBT …………………………………………… 215
    Unfi nished business ………………………………………………………. 216
    Provisional application of the CTBT:
    only as a last resort ……………………………………………….. 227
    Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….. 231

    ***

    SPECIAL COMMENT
    The publication of this book is indeed very timely.
    As the threat posed by the existence of nuclear weapons once again comes
    to the fore of the international agenda, a new political momentum gathers
    behind the comprehensive test.
    For too long now this Treaty has been a hostage of fortune: left on the
    sidelines because circumstances in the international arms control regime
    were not conducive to agreement of any kind, let alone those measures
    already widely supported and enacted around the globe, such as the
    Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.
    It is time to write a new chapter in the fi ght against nuclear weapons. A
    chapter that will see no more countries entering the nuclear weapons club
    and no new nuclear weapons entering the arsenals of existing members. A
    chapter that will erase once and for all the scar of nuclear weapons testing
    from the Earth. The time has come for this Treaty, and the global alarm
    system that supports it, to enter into force.
    We are ready to begin.
    One hundred and eighty nations have signed up to the Treaty’s principles,
    150 of whom have ratifi ed their commitment. A de facto norm against
    testing waits to be inscribed in the international rule book proper.
    The global alarm system supporting the Treaty—the verifi cation regime
    being built around the world to ensure compliance with the ban—moves
    toward completion. It has already proven itself admirably. In 2006, with
    only 60% of the system complete, a low-yield nuclear test conducted by
    North Korea was detected by 20 stations (both seismic and radionuclide)
    around the globe. Since then more than 60 monitoring stations have been
    added to the system, and the capacity to detect noble gases—the smoking
    gun of a nuclear explosion—has been doubled from 10 systems to 20.

    In short, the Treaty is standing at the door, waiting to enter. This opportunity
    is knocking and we must answer. It is a call for determined leadership, a call
    to action. The time of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty is now.
    Tibor Tóth
    Executive Secretary
    Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive
    Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    ***&&&&*****

    CHAPTER 1
    INTRODUCTION
    They were not told what had happened, why it had happened,
    what was wrong with them. Their hair was falling out, fi nger nails
    were falling off—but they were never told why.
    Darlene Keju-Johnson, Marshall Islands,
    speaking about the impact of fi rst thermonuclear bomb test,
    codenamed Bravo, on Bikini Atoll, 1 March 1954.1
    From the fi rst atomic explosion above New Mexico in July 1945 to the
    underground nuclear test conducted by North Korea in October 2006,
    nuclear testing has defi ned the nuclear age.
    The fi rst nuclear explosion was codenamed Trinity and carried out in
    Alamogordo, New Mexico. It was followed by the detonation of a uranium
    bomb over Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. Three days later, a plutonium
    bomb exploded directly above Japan’s largest Catholic cathedral, in the
    port city of Nagasaki. These explosions carried materials from the surface—
    soil, vegetation and the remains of people and buildings—miles into the
    sky in pillars of radioactive dust that folded and billowed, dripping streams
    to the ground in what onlookers likened to huge suppurating mushrooms.
    These explosions heralded the nuclear age, in which tens of thousands of
    weapons were made, deployed and nearly unleashed.
    During the 1950s and 1960s, conducting nuclear test explosions became
    the public proof that a states’ scientists had mastered the technology to
    make nuclear weapons. When even more powerful thermonuclear bombs
    were developed in the 1950s, some explosions yielded a force equivalent
    to several millions of tons of TNT. The radioactive mushroom clouds rising
    high above the Pacifi c, the United States, Kazakhstan and Siberia prompted
    calls for a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Launched
    in the mid-1950s, as fallout from nuclear explosions spread around the
    world, the campaigns to end nuclear testing engaged nuclear and non
    2
    nuclear governments and a wide cross-section of civil society, starting with
    doctors and scientists, women’s groups and grassroots activists. When
    dentists found radioactive strontium from these tests in children’s teeth and
    doctors and scientists raised concerns about long-lasting damage to human
    health and the Earth’s environment, public opposition to nuclear weapons
    accelerated.
    In 1954, India and Japan separately called for a total ban on nuclear
    testing, a demand taken up by civil society as a fi rst step toward nuclear
    disarmament. Despite widespread calls for a CTBT, efforts to negotiate
    were derailed time and again. In 1963, in the wake of the Cuban Missile
    Crisis, the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom fi nally
    managed to agree the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), which banned nuclear
    testing in the atmosphere, under water and in outer space, and so halted
    the most visible and environmentally dangerous explosions.2
    The 1970 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
    prohibited the development of nuclear devices—and therefore any
    testing—by its non-nuclear-weapon states parties, who comprised the
    majority of members of the United Nations. But nuclear testing by the fi ve
    nuclear-weapon states defi ned in the NPT (China, France, Russia, the United
    Kingdom and the United States, which are also the P-5 permanent members
    of the UN Security Council) continued, mostly underground. China and
    France, which were further behind in their nuclear weapon programmes,
    refused to join the PTBT and continued testing in the atmosphere over the
    next decade.
    Twenty years and more than 2,000 nuclear tests later, a CTBT was fi nally
    put back on the negotiating table. The main purpose by this time was to cap
    nuclear weapon development by the P-5 and apply additional constraints
    on three states outside the NPT with de facto nuclear weapons programmes
    (the D-3: India, Israel and Pakistan). Yet little serious consideration was
    given to holding plurilateral negotiations solely among the P-5 and D-3.
    The negotiations were undertaken multilaterally as a process of intentional
    regime-building not only to impose legal restraints on these eight, but
    because of the higher normative value and collective “ownership” associated
    with multilateral regimes.
    By the time negotiations on a CTBT opened in the Conference on
    Disarmament (CD) on 25 January 1994, the dynamics among the key
    3
    negotiating states illustrated not only different views on the value of a test
    ban, but competing motivations for and against nuclear disarmament.
    Only six states had conducted a nuclear explosion prior to 1994 when
    the negotiations opened. Those in favour of a test ban argued that it
    would contribute to preventing the development of new and destabilizing
    weapons, protect against further environmental damage, curb proliferation
    and contribute to the process of disarmament. Those that sought to prevent
    a test ban, by contrast, regarded nuclear weapons as conferring deterrence
    or stability and opposed a CTBT on grounds that it would close off options
    to develop or modernize nuclear arsenals and might impair the ability of
    the laboratories to maintain the safety and reliability of existing weapons.
    Three years later, after intense and sometimes dramatic negotiations, the
    CTBT was overwhelmingly adopted by the UN General Assembly. On
    24 September 1996, it was opened for signature. The President of the
    United States signed fi rst, using John F. Kennedy’s pen. The foreign ministers
    from China, France, Russia and the United Kingdom followed, as others
    queued up. By 7 March 1997, when the treaty was handed over to Vienna,
    the host city for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization
    (CTBTO), 142 states, including Iran and Israel, had signed.
    In accordance with the treaty, the CTBTO’s Provisional Technical Secretariat
    established an international monitoring system with seismic, radionuclide,
    hydroacoustic and infrasound sensors located around the world, feeding
    information into the International Data Centre in Vienna. Scientists and
    technicians from many of the signatory states have been trained to work
    with these technologies, while diplomats and experts have negotiated
    sensitive issues such as what procedures, rights and responsibilities should
    go into the operations manual for the conduct of on-site inspections.
    As of 31 December 2008, 180 states have signed the CTBT. Of these, 148
    have ratifi ed. The CTBTO looks ready to implement the treaty, but is stuck
    in legal limbo. Incompatible political objectives between some of the key
    states during the fi nal months of the negotiations resulted in treaty text
    that made entry into force contingent on the signature and ratifi cation
    of 44 states with nuclear programmes or capabilities, which were listed
    in an annex to the treaty. Though the CTBT is one of the best-supported
    treaties in history, nine of the necessary 44 have not ratifi ed, so the treaty is
    prevented from entering into force.

    4
    Nuclear-weapon states France and the United Kingdom ratifi ed together
    in 1998, and Russia ratifi ed before the NPT Review Conference in 2000.
    In the United States, by contrast, ratifi cation by the Senate failed in 1999
    after being turned into a partisan referendum that had little to do with the
    real security interests of the United States and the world. China continues
    to express support for the treaty, but has not yet ratifi ed it. India, North
    Korea and Pakistan have to date not signed, and each has conducted one
    or more nuclear tests—India and Pakistan in May 19983 and North Korea
    in October 2006.4 Among the remaining nine who must ratify for the CTBT
    to come into full effect are Egypt, Indonesia, Iran and Israel, which signed
    early on but have yet to ratify. After their nuclear testing in 1998, India
    and Pakistan joined the P-5 in announcing moratoria on further tests. But
    moratoria can be unilaterally revoked and do not carry the force of treaty
    obligations.
    The US role in international security is such that the Senate’s failure to
    ratify and the subsequent repudiation of the CTBT in speeches and votes
    by members of the administration of George W. Bush from 2001 to 2008
    did more than the actions of any other state to weaken the test ban and
    non-proliferation regime. Despite Bush’s opposition to the treaty, opinion
    polls continued to show not only enduring global support for bringing the
    CTBT into force, but that more than 70% of Americans back US ratifi cation
    of this treaty. While the CTBT’s future remains in question, the credibility
    of the non-proliferation regime as a whole is weakened, as has been
    acknowledged by successive UN Secretaries-General, the Weapons of
    Mass Destruction Commission, and a number of former generals and senior
    offi cials from the United States and other countries. The importance of
    the CTBT is underscored time and again in statements from world leaders
    and from the 188 states parties to the NPT, the cornerstone of the nonproliferation
    regime. Recognizing the importance of increasing the CTBT’s
    legal and political authority, especially in the wake of North Korea’s nuclear
    test, an eminent and bipartisan group that included former US Secretaries
    of State and Defense, led by George Shultz, Henry Kissinger, William Perry
    and Sam Nunn, published an essay in the Wall Street Journal entitled “A
    World Free of Nuclear Weapons”.5 After receiving a positive response from
    around the world, they published a second essay a year later, in which they
    called for the adoption of a “process for bringing the Comprehensive Test
    Ban Treaty (CTBT) into effect, which would strengthen the NPT and aid
    international monitoring of nuclear activities”.6

    5
    This book tells the story of how the CTBT was fought for, achieved, and
    also undermined. At the centre are the dynamics, objectives and tactics of
    the main nuclear and non-nuclear players as the treaty was multilaterally
    negotiated in the CD from January 1994 to September 1996. Particular
    emphasis is given to four key elements: the campaigning that impelled the
    nuclear-weapon states to the table; the zero-yield scope7 that means that
    this treaty bans all nuclear explosions in all environments; the multilateral
    verifi cation regime and the CTBTO; and the entry-into-force provision that
    many consider the treaty’s greatest weakness. This history charts several
    earlier attempts to ban testing and looks at the prenegotiation phase that
    framed disarmament objectives for the 1990s and put the CTBT back onto
    the negotiating table. It does not gloss over the problems encountered
    and created in the process of negotiation, but seeks to understand how
    they came about in order to suggest ways to overcome the obstacles now
    faced by the treaty and non-proliferation regime. Bringing the story up to
    date, the last two chapters consider what lessons can be learned for future
    multilateral negotiations and what now needs to be done to bring the CTBT
    into force.
    Although efforts to get a total test ban were an enduring feature of the Cold
    War, the 1994–1996 negotiations were infl uenced by broader multilateral
    dynamics and concerns, making the CTBT an unmistakable product of
    post-Cold War security considerations. Some things went right, and some
    went wrong. The negotiations simultaneously refl ected Cold War attitudes
    and the transition to a “new world order”, though not, perhaps, what
    President George H.W. Bush had envisaged in 1991.8 As attitudes toward
    nuclear weapons began to change with the end of the Cold War, the testban
    negotiations posed new or different challenges for the P-5, the D-3 and
    the international community as the restraints and expectations of Cold War
    relations were transformed.
    Reading the standard textbooks on arms control and international relations,
    it often appears as if politicians and governments wake up one morning and
    decide to change their policies—to have a moratorium, for example, or start
    negotiating a treaty. Accounts of treaty formation usually dwell on a handful
    of leaders and the formal processes among diplomats and governments.
    When dealing with nuclear arms control, they tend to focus most on the
    interests of the nuclear weapon states. Few go beyond the offi cial sources
    to look at the movements, pressures and processes that bring leaders to the

    6
    negotiating table and shape the way governments think about what kind of
    agreements are desirable and possible.
    While paying due attention to powerful and dominant states with nuclear
    arsenals and signifi cant military and political resources, this history tells
    a story that is often missed, showing how the interests and strategies of
    national and transnational civil society infl uenced the timing and created the
    conditions for negotiations to commence, and how civil society specialists
    and organizations worked with middle powers and less well-resourced
    states committed to building a stronger non-proliferation regime, with the
    aim of achieving a CTBT that would genuinely contribute to international
    security, disarmament and non-proliferation. That these alliances and
    strategies were not always successful is also part of the story.
    The CTBT was formally negotiated from 1994 to 1996. The full negotiating
    history, as described here, was longer and more complex, with many
    more players than could fi t into the CD. Among the false starts and
    disappointments, political posturing, exaggerated technical demands and
    diplomatic showdowns, there were also passionate advocates, scientists,
    analysts and diplomats offering proposals to overcome every obstacle. In
    telling the story of the CTBT negotiations, this history also brings to light
    ideas that can contribute not only to bringing the CTBT into effect but also
    to an improved understanding of the dynamics of multilateral arms control
    and how outcomes can be more effectively shaped and implemented.
    The chapters that follow reveal that the CTBT negotiations were essentially
    a process of confl ict resolution between the objectives, postures and politics
    of fewer than 25 of the negotiating parties, informed and infl uenced by a
    number of civil society actors in a range of expert and advocacy capacities.
    The outcomes on scope, verifi cation and entry into force were wrought
    by three levels of simultaneous policy-shaping interactions: domestic,
    international and transnational. Agendas, options and interests were
    contested and determined not only by government representatives, but also
    among national and transnational civil society actors, between government
    and non-governmental actors within a particular state, and also across these
    levels, with information exchange and links occurring between governments
    and domestic actors on different sides.
    The fi nal chapters deal with two kinds of conclusions and recommendations:
    lessons to enable future multilateral negotiations to be conducted more

    7
    effectively, and mechanisms to strengthen the test ban and promote
    the CTBT’s entry into force. In addressing the challenges of multilateral
    disarmament and arms control in the post-Cold War for practitioners and
    theorists, this history demonstrates that though a state’s attributive (military,
    economic and political) power and the linkage between nuclear interests
    and expectations were important, they did not determine outcomes to the
    extent that analysts trained in the realist or neoliberal traditions would have
    predicted. While nuclear interests were a major feature in determining a
    state’s expectations and negotiating posture, other factors were important
    in determining many of the outcomes, especially those with high political
    salience, such as the scope of the treaty.
    In addition to considering states’ expectations and perceived interests, it
    becomes clear that the conduct and outcomes of multilateral negotiations
    are heavily infl uenced by civil society engagement, norms and regime
    values, knowledge and ideas, partnerships and alliances, internal policy
    cohesion or division, and the level of domestic and international political
    attention and support in key states. By choosing to incorporate transnational
    civil society as a principal unit of analysis, along with states, this history
    develops a fuller understanding of how government calculations of national
    interest and security can be infl uenced, expanded and shaped, opening
    up alternative solutions for agreement than those initially envisaged. This
    history starts with consideration of early efforts to persuade the major
    powers to agree on a test ban, from the fi rst nuclear test and subsequent
    use nuclear weapons in 1945 to the end of the 1980s.

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    ***

    COLD WAR ATTEMPTS TO BAN NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS
    The longest sought, hardest fought prize in arms control history.
    US President Bill Clinton describing the CTBT,
    24 September 19961
    Nuclear weapons developed a public visibility not generally accorded
    other weapons,2 largely as a consequence of the dramatic devastation of
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The terrible events of the Second World
    War prompted a renewal of interest in multilateralism as a mechanism for
    building collective security, resulting in the establishment of the United
    Nations and its various associated institutions, as well as regional alliances
    and arrangements. Arms control developed, as the Baruch Plan succinctly
    stated, “to make a choice between the quick and the dead”.3 The earliest
    calls for a test ban came in 1954, when India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal
    Nehru and the Japanese Parliament made separate appeals for nuclear
    testing to be stopped. From then until the end of the Cold War, there
    were three phases4 in nuclear arms control, during which test-ban efforts
    fl uctuated between hope and frustration:
    Settling for the Partial Test Ban Treaty (1954 to 1963)—during which
    the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and United States abandoned the
    search for a comprehensive test-ban treaty, but agreed to ban testing in
    the atmosphere, underwater and in outer space, leaving underground
    testing unregulated. During this period the fi rst anti-nuclear movements
    were born, involving professionals (notably scientists and physicians) and
    citizens, including women’s groups.
    Non-proliferation and arms control, while testing continues (1964 to
    1980)—during which concepts of strategic deterrence and arms control
    dominated policy thinking in Washington and Moscow. Test-ban advocates
    were marginalized as proliferation and the arms race were addressed
    by governments through the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
    10
    Weapons, détente, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the Anti-Ballistic
    Missile Treaty. This period was one of Cold War superpower diplomacy,
    with diminished public interest in nuclear issues. Two interim agreements
    set testing thresholds at 150kt, but talks on banning underground testing
    failed.
    Public mobilizing against nuclear weapons (1981 to 1989)—during
    which deteriorating strategic relations between the Soviet Union and
    the United States led to nuclear weapons becoming highly salient public
    and political issues. Civil society engagement was transformed during this
    period: traditional single-issue politics was challenged, stimulating the rise
    of democratic (anti-communist and anti-capitalist), environmental, feminist
    and anti-nuclear actors, linking Western movements with dissident civil
    society actors in the Soviet bloc demanding greater democracy and human
    rights. Nuclear testing was at best a marginal issue of broader anti-nuclear
    campaigns. However, the goal of a CTBT was kept on the international
    diplomatic agenda by civil society actions against the French, US and Soviet
    test sites, a 19-month Soviet moratorium, and political strategies in which
    non-governmental organizations (NGOs) worked with non-nuclear-weapon
    states to highlight the issue in international fora. To recognize the role played
    by civil society in keeping test-ban hopes alive and understand how and
    why some positions—on thresholds and on-site inspections for example—
    assumed so much importance during the 1994–1996 negotiations, it is
    useful to have an overview of the main events on the long road to the
    CTBT.
    1954–1963: SETTLING FOR THE PARTIAL TEST BAN TREATY
    After 1945, the United States turned down international proposals that
    would have prohibited nuclear arsenals, and intensifi ed the development
    and testing of new types of these weapons. Rather sooner than Washington
    had anticipated, the Soviet Union conducted its fi rst atomic explosion in
    1949. The nuclear arms race was launched. The United States accelerated
    its programme with one underground test in 1950 and 15 above-ground
    explosions in 1951. In 1952, when the United States carried out 10 nuclear
    tests, the United Kingdom joined the club with an atmospheric explosion
    on the Australian island of Monte Bello on 3 October. In 1953, in the midst
    of the Korean War, US planners were shocked when the Soviet Union
    demonstrated its mastery of nuclear weapon technology by detonating
    a thermonuclear device just one year later than the United States had
    managed.
    In March 1954 the rest of the world woke up to the dangers when a US
    thermonuclear test, codenamed Castle Bravo, produced a much greater
    yield than anticipated.5 The huge blast vaporized part of the Bikini Atoll
    and contaminated nearby islanders. It also caused severe radiation sickness
    and at least one death among Japanese fi shermen on a nearby trawler, the
    misnamed Lucky Dragon, provoking protests in the Japanese parliament,
    which demanded a suspension of nuclear testing. On 2 April 1954, Prime
    Minister Nehru of India called for an immediate “standstill agreement”
    on nuclear testing. Nehru’s proposal for a test ban was submitted for
    consideration to the UN Disarmament Commission on 29 July 1954, and
    from then on a CTBT became a consistent demand from the growing
    number of developing states that formed the Movement of Non-Aligned
    States, of which Nehru became a leading light.6
    Meanwhile, the Cold War rivals carried out more nuclear tests—by 1958,
    the United States had conducted 197, the Soviet Union 103 and the United
    Kingdom 21. Not all policymakers in these states supported the race to
    acquire nuclear weapons, however, and the mid-1950s witnessed a fl urry
    of disarmament initiatives. The United Kingdom, together with France,
    put forward a three-stage plan for nuclear disarmament in June 1954. The
    Soviet Union submitted similar proposals in May 1955, which it followed
    by declaring a moratorium on nuclear testing in June 1957, later extended
    by General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, on condition that no other state
    tested.7 By 1957, as the United Kingdom conducted its fi rst thermonuclear
    test, nuclear testing had become “a burning public issue”,8 with women’s
    groups, scientists and doctors at the forefront of raising public awareness of
    the dangers of radioactive fallout.
    Peace-oriented organizations, such as the Nobel-prize-winning Women’s
    International League for Peace and Freedom, the Fellowship of Reconciliation,
    and the Religious Society of Friends (the Quakers), had begun protesting
    against nuclear weapons soon after the fi rst bombs were detonated, but
    they received little attention initially. Scientists involved in the Manhattan
    Project raised ethical, political and technical questions about controlling
    and using nuclear weapons and materials, and in 1945 some of them
    founded The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.9 These scientists were among
    the earliest non-governmental actors to integrate and publish information
    on the risks of nuclear proliferation and the health and environmental
    dangers of nuclear testing.10

    ************

    During the 1950s, additional groups were formed specifi cally to address
    nuclear weapons and testing. Of these, the most important in the West
    were the US Women’s Strike for Peace, the US National Committee for
    a Sane Nuclear Policy (commonly known as SANE), the international
    Pugwash Conferences of scientists,11 and the British Campaign for Nuclear
    Disarmament (CND). Together with doctors and dentists, who became
    concerned when studies showed signifi cant levels of strontium-90 and other
    radioactive isotopes in children’s teeth in the United States and Europe,
    scientists were prominent in efforts to lobby against nuclear testing, using
    their professional expertise and standing to raise awareness.12 At the same
    time, grass-roots initiatives such as the Women’s Strike for Peace, SANE
    and CND organized rallies, petitions and public demonstrations in major
    cities. In 1958, CND held its fi rst protest march from London to the United
    Kingdom’s main nuclear research and production facility at Aldermaston,
    arriving with over 10,000 people. Subsequent rallies and marches between
    Aldermaston and London attracted even more supporters and were given
    signifi cant media coverage. Through demonstrations and local organizing,
    these campaigns sought to infl uence government policy by raising public
    concern and fostering direct contact with legislative representatives. Sections
    of the Women’s Strike for Peace and CND also formed direct action wings,
    prepared to block roads or trespass at nuclear test sites and facilities.
    Famous academics such as the Cambridge philosopher Bertrand Russell
    joined the growing number of activists that risked arrest and imprisonment
    to bring governments to their senses and halt nuclear weapons testing and
    development.13

    The Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik I on 4 October 1957, together with its
    tests of intercontinental ballistic missiles, shook US confi dence.14 Soon after,
    President Eisenhower announced that he too favoured a nuclear test ban.
    Acknowledging growing public concern about testing, he cited radioactive
    fallout and the need to curb the nuclear arms race.15 Eisenhower offered
    the Soviet Union a two-year moratorium on nuclear testing, combined with
    a halt in the production of fi ssile materials for weapons purposes. Then, in a
    diplomatic game of distrustful two-step that became all too familiar during
    the Cold War, Moscow pulled back from its earlier offers and accused
    Washington of seeking to freeze a status quo in which the United States
    retained superior nuclear weapon capabilities.16

    *****

    Eisenhower persisted, and proposed a joint study on verifi cation.
    Broadened to involve scientists from Canada, Czechoslovakia, France,
    Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union and the United States, the Conference
    of Experts to Study the Possibility of Detecting Violations of a Possible
    Agreement on Suspension of Nuclear Tests was subsequently convened
    from 1 July to 21 August 1958 in Geneva, Switzerland. The conference
    report proposed a verifi cation system based on four technologies—seismic,
    radio, acoustic and sensors to detect “radioactive debris”—along with onsite
    inspection of unidentifi ed and suspicious events. According to the
    report, this combination of verifi cation approaches would be able to “detect
    and identify nuclear explosions, including low yield explosions (1–5kt)”.17
    In order to get this far, Eisenhower had found it necessary to go beyond the
    advice he was receiving from the US nuclear weapon laboratories, where
    a majority of scientists opposed a test ban.18 In addition to the conference
    report, he needed convincing support from US-based scientists to present
    to the Congress and the military. In 1957, therefore, he established the
    President’s Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), comprising scientists who
    were considered to be more independent of the nuclear bureaucracy.
    The committee, chaired by James Killian,19 advised Eisenhower that a test
    ban could be adequately verifi ed and would be in the best interest of the
    United States.20
    With the support of Khrushchev and British Prime Minister Harold
    Macmillan, Eisenhower then initiated tripartite talks—the Conference
    on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon Tests—which opened on
    31 October 1958, with the objective of a total ban on nuclear tests.21 To
    build confi dence in the talks, the three nuclear powers suspended their test
    programmes. Led by Edward Teller, a brilliant and determined advocate of
    US nuclear dominance, a vociferous group of US nuclear weapon scientists
    based at the Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos laboratories published
    data intended to show how the detection of underground tests could be
    evaded. These studies on evasion scenarios were deliberately constructed
    to undermine Eisenhower’s test-ban initiative and the experts’ report by
    highlighting ingenious ways in which the signals from underground nuclear
    tests could be concealed or minimized.22 Unable to counteract arguments
    that a comprehensive ban would be diffi cult to verify, the Eisenhower
    administration decided in 1960 to offer a partial ban based on what they
    considered to be verifi able by remote sensing or other national technical
    means (NTM).23

    By the end of the year, however, the trilateral test-ban talks had been put
    on hold as US–Soviet relations deteriorated after a US reconnaissance fl ight
    was shot down over Soviet territory, leading to accusations and feeding
    into the agendas of military hawks on both sides.24 Meanwhile, three
    atmospheric tests in 1960 had signalled France’s entry into the nuclear
    club. In an increasingly toxic atmosphere of distrust and recrimination, the
    Ten-Nation Disarmament Committee convened in Geneva.25 It considered
    a joint US–Soviet initiative that set general and complete disarmament as
    an ultimate goal, but did not get far.26 In August 1961, the Berlin Wall went
    up.
    President John F. Kennedy had decided to revive Eisenhower’s test-ban
    initiative when he took offi ce in January 1961, but was unable to take
    the issue forward in his fi rst couple of years. Using the French tests as
    an excuse, fi rst the United States and then the Soviet Union broke their
    moratoria and resumed testing, both with greatly accelerated programmes.
    After September 1961 and throughout 1962, the Soviet Union conducted
    an estimated 93 atmospheric tests, and the United States 39. During that
    time the United States also experimented with 67 underground tests, while
    the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom each conducted two.27
    As nuclear tests continued across the world, the Soviet Union issued
    another test-ban proposal in November 1961, which fell on deaf ears.
    Protests against the resumed nuclear tests were now spreading almost as
    fast as the fallout. In March 1962, the issue was taken up multilaterally in
    Geneva, where the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee (ENDC) had
    been established under United Nations auspices, replacing the Ten-Nation
    Disarmament Committee.28 With President Kennedy taking a more active
    role in response to public concern, the United Kingdom and the United
    States initiated a joint draft test ban on 18 April.29 Moscow then reiterated
    its earlier proposal, after which the United Kingdom and the United States
    tabled draft partial-test-ban treaties intended to ban explosions that would
    spread radioactive contamination beyond the territorial limits of the
    state.30 The main issues of contention concerned verification, particularly
    inspections.

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    These talks might have continued with little progress for years, despite
    mounting public anger about the frenzy of testing sending tonnes of
    radioactive dust into the atmosphere. It was the “shared danger”31 of the
    Cuban Missile Crisis, which nearly resulted in the use of nuclear weapons
    in October 1962, that shocked the governments back to the negotiating
    table and reinvigorated pressure for a test-ban treaty as a fi rst step toward
    complete nuclear disarmament. During the UN General Assembly in late
    1962, a high-profi le debate was held on nuclear testing in which 37 nonnuclear
    states, including the eight non-aligned members of the ENDC,
    demanded an end to atmospheric testing by 1 January 1963, and called for
    a comprehensive treaty or limited agreement accompanied by an interim
    moratorium on underground testing. The United Kingdom and the United
    States sponsored a second resolution, calling for a CTBT with international
    verifi cation or, alternatively, a limited, partial ban covering testing in the
    atmosphere, underwater and in outer space.32
    When the ENDC met again in Geneva in early 1963, the test-ban talks got
    quickly bogged down, as both Soviet and US representatives lobbied the
    non-aligned delegates to support their opposing positions on inspections.
    Moreover, as the demand for a CTBT began to look more realistic and
    serious, opposition intensifi ed in the United States, spearheaded by the
    Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Senate’s Joint Committee on Atomic Energy.
    The United States appeared divided: as test-ban opponents in the military
    and the nuclear laboratories called for an even more vigorous programme
    of nuclear testing and declared a CTBT to be unverifi able, US Senators
    were being “showered with letters, phone-calls and petitions” calling for
    an end to testing.33
    With talks in the ENDC going nowhere, tripartite negotiations were
    suggested in April 1963, following which Kennedy cancelled three nuclear
    tests and made positive overtures to the Soviet Union in what became
    known as his “peace speech” at American University in June.34 The Soviet
    Union and the United Kingdom responded positively, and so tripartite
    negotiations commenced in Moscow on 15 July. Although Kennedy,
    Khrushchev and Macmillan had at different times all said that they wanted
    a comprehensive test ban, the verifi cation problems emphasized by the US
    nuclear laboratories and their backers in the Pentagon resulted in Kennedy’s
    team submitting three separate proposals for partial bans. With US concerns
    about verifi cation presented as insurmountable, it was decided by the Soviet
    Union to put the verifi cation issues aside and settle for prohibiting test
    explosions in only three environments. On 5 August 1963, after more than
    fi ve years of intermittent negotiations, the three governments signed the
    Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space
    and Under Water, widely known as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT).35

    The political mood facilitated prompt ratifi cation by all three negotiating
    partners, which enabled the PTBT to enter into force on 10 October 1963.
    International verifi cation was not part of the agreement, which would rely
    on NTM and intelligence for monitoring compliance. No mention was
    made of a verifi able threshold for underground testing, which had been so
    much a part of discussions in the late 1950s. Nor was there any mention of
    a moratorium on underground testing pending agreement on verifi cation.
    Although negotiated by only three states, others were invited to accede to
    the PTBT, and over a hundred did. France declined to join and carried on
    testing in the atmosphere over the Pacifi c until 1974, when Australia and
    New Zealand initiated a case in the International Court of Justice, citing
    the PTBT as applicable law in their bid to halt French testing. China, which
    conducted its fi rst nuclear test in 1964, also chose not to join. Although
    Chinese and French atmospheric tests challenged the PTBT regime and
    caused abiding concern to the other nuclear and non-nuclear states and
    international civil society, they were not permitted to derail the treaty.
    The PTBT was hailed as a victory, but it contained an important element
    of defeat and some bitter lessons for disarmament advocates. Weakly
    echoed in Article I, only the preamble referred directly to a comprehensive
    test ban: “Seeking to achieve the discontinuance of all test explosions of
    nuclear weapons for all time, determined to continue negotiations to this
    end, and desiring to put an end to the contamination of man’s environment
    by radioactive substances …”. Although they favoured a total test ban,
    NGOs had focused most of their public and political mobilizing on the
    harm to public health from radioactive fallout. By banning testing in the
    atmosphere, outer space and underwater, the PTBT reduced the risks to
    public health and the environment. This was undoubtedly worthwhile, but
    technological advances in the nuclear programmes of the major powers
    meant that it did not contribute much to disarmament. On the contrary,
    the PTBT made disarmament efforts harder to pursue because it removed
    an important visible reminder of the nuclear arms race. After 1963, nuclear
    testing continued out of sight. The PTBT left the nuclear scientists free to
    experiment with underground testing technologies, which were then refi ned
    to fuel the next three decades of the arms race with new and advanced
    weapons systems. The treaty might have enshrined in its preamble the
    objective of the “discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons
    for all time”, but in practical terms, much of the driving force to achieve a
    comprehensive ban was dissipated once testing had gone underground.

    1964–1980: NON-PROLIFERATION AND
    ARMS CONTROL, WHILE TESTING CONTINUES
    The bitter rivalry and brinkmanship that characterized strategic relations
    between the US and Soviet blocs from 1945 until the 1962 Cuban Missile
    Crisis were succeeded by a period of relative accommodation, with mutual
    efforts to reduce nuclear dangers, including proliferation. The US–Soviet
    détente continued through most of the 1970s, during which time US
    security policy was dominated by theories of balance of power, deterrence
    and arms control. Although there were vigorous peace movements in the
    United States and elsewhere, they focused mainly on the Vietnam War,
    not nuclear weapons. The period witnessed some crucial developments in
    multilateral non-proliferation and bilateral arms control, of which the most
    important was the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
    (NPT).
    With its origins in slightly different resolutions from Ireland and Sweden to
    the UN General Assembly in 1961,36 the NPT was concluded in 1968 and
    entered into force in 1970. The need to prevent proliferation began to be
    taken more seriously after the Cuban Missile Crisis, as President Kennedy
    famously raised the spectre of a vulnerable world with twenty or more
    nuclear-armed states locked in regional and international rivalries. While
    popular culture in the form of songs, fi lms and books echoed ordinary
    people’s fears of nuclear annihilation, policymakers in the Soviet Union
    and the United States were as much if not more concerned that a world
    with many nuclear-armed states would undermine nuclear deterrence
    and erode the marginal utility of their own nuclear forces. Once these two
    superpowers decided that a non-proliferation treaty would accord with
    their interests and began pushing in 1965, negotiations moved forward in
    earnest.37
    Progress was initially slow, according to Swedish ambassador Alva Myrdal,
    who noted, “Confi dent of their power, [the Soviet Union and the United
    States] attempted to hold unrestricted rights to possess, deploy, and develop
    nuclear arms quantitatively and qualitatively, while showing overbearing
    disregard for the three minor nuclear weapon powers, and resolutely closing
    the options for all other nations to go nuclear”.38 India, which by that time
    had a signifi cant nuclear programme of its own under way, in 1964 put
    forward a proposal for a UN agenda item on non-proliferation, and then
    joined forces with Sweden to demand an integrated approach, including
    “some other measures affecting directly the nuclear weapons capability
    of the nuclear powers”.39 This was supported by the eight non-aligned
    members on the ENDC. After China joined the nuclear club, and “to retain
    the initiative”, according to Myrdal,40 the Soviet Union and the United
    States coordinated submission of their own draft treaties to the General
    Assembly in 1965, based on the Irish approach, which drew distinctions
    between the obligations on states possessing nuclear weapons and those
    without.41 In the following debates in the ENDC and the General Assembly,
    some states pushed hard for the treaty to contain disarmament-related
    commitments, such as a CTBT, a cut-off of fi ssile material production for
    weapons purposes, as well as support for regional nuclear-weapon-free
    zones.
    In August 1967, the Soviet Union and the United States again submitted
    identical draft treaties to the ENDC, superseding the previous drafts of
    1965.42 The new drafts were hardly more welcome to the non-nuclear
    state negotiators, who made further proposals linking non-proliferation to
    nuclear disarmament. In January 1968, the superpowers introduced revised
    (and still identical) draft treaties at the ENDC, incorporating a number of
    the non-nuclear-weapon states’ concerns. A special session of the General
    Assembly was held in April 1968, at which the Soviet Union and the United
    States jointly tabled their draft treaty.43 The draft contained a preambular
    reference recalling the PTBT pledge to seek the discontinuance of nuclear
    tests. Refl ecting some of the other states’ concerns not to lose out on cuttingedge
    technological developments, the superpowers had also revised the
    Article IV provision on “peaceful uses of nuclear energy”, included a new
    Article V on “peaceful nuclear explosions” (PNE) and a new Article VII on
    nuclear-weapon-free zones. A rather vague commitment to pursue nuclear
    disarmament appeared in a new Article VI. This bilateral draft was debated
    and slightly amended by the ENDC members and then fi nalized. Adopted
    by the General Assembly just three months later, on 12 June, the NPT
    was opened for signature on 1 July 1968. Although marginalized from the
    bilateral negotiations on the draft treaty, the United Kingdom was invited to
    become the third depositary state, joining the Soviet Union and the United
    States. China and France, the other two countries defi ned in the treaty
    as nuclear-weapon states—having “manufactured and exploded a nuclear
    weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1 January, 1967”—did
    not join the NPT until 1992.

    Though the NPT now has wide multilateral membership, with 188 states
    parties at the time of writing, history shows that the treaty did not really
    emerge from a multilateral negotiating process, but pre-eminently refl ected
    the strategic interests of the Soviet Union and the United States. With the
    right to nuclear energy emphasized as the primary incentive for non-nuclearweapon
    states, the NPT’s refl ection of a prevalent belief that this technology
    could provide cheap, safe and clean energy for all has become increasingly
    problematic in the twenty-fi rst century security environment. The NPT’s
    recognition of the status quo with regard to the fi ve defi ned nuclear powers
    led to more stringent and heavily policed obligations being imposed on
    the rest, whose only option in joining the NPT would be as non-nuclearweapon
    states. Although the ENDC played a signifi cant role in ensuring
    that the NPT would link disarmament with non-proliferation, the Cold War
    powers maintained overall control by tabling identical treaty drafts and,
    fi nally, their joint draft treaty. One immediate consequence of the treaty’s
    “inequalities” was that a number of states with nuclear programmes or
    aspirations (for example, Argentina, Brazil, France, India, as well as several
    African states) abstained on the UN resolution recommending adoption of
    the NPT in June 1968, and—in a move that was to be echoed 28 years later
    with the CTBT—India publicly declared its refusal to join the NPT, on the
    grounds that it was discriminatory.44
    The NPT’s connection with the CTBT went beyond the exhortation in the
    preamble to discontinue nuclear testing. A number of negotiators, unsure
    of the future effectiveness of the non-proliferation regime, insisted on
    review conferences every fi ve years, with the NPT’s duration limited to
    25 years, requiring a decision to be made in 1995 on any future extension.
    The review conferences and the fi nite duration of the treaty provided
    mechanisms for the non-nuclear-weapon states and civil society to use
    in raising concerns about the nuclear arms race and the lack of progress
    on nuclear disarmament, with particular emphasis on nuclear testing.
    Confined largely to diplomatic declarations, concerns raised at review
    conferences had little effect on the policies of the major nuclear-weapon
    states for the fi rst two decades. This changed in the 1990s, as the date for
    the decision on extending the NPT drew near, presenting an opportunity to
    exert unprecedented leverage on the nuclear-weapon states.

    ***

    1963        Feb-Mar, The US military, while conducting biological weapons tests, sprayed Bacillus globigii from aircraft near Fort Sherman Military Reservation in the Canal Zone.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

    ****

    #
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    ***

    cd9d3bc2-13c4-499e-8145-9af2c5f43865.jpg

    Fort Sherman – Coeur d’Alene, ID
    in Military Installations
    Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member Martin 5
    N 47̊ 40.566 W 116̊ 47.476
    11T E 515667 N 5280322
    Quick Description: While on an inspection tour in 1877, General William Tecumseh Sherman camped by Coeur d’Alene Lake at the mouth of the Spokane River and was so impressed by the scenery of the area that he recommended it as a site for a fort.
    Location: Idaho, United States
    Date Posted: 2/7/2009 6:53:16 PM
    Waymark Code: WM5RMM
    Reviewed By: Groundspeak Premium Member tiki-4
    Views: 4
    Download this waymark:
    .GPX File
    .LOC File
    .KML File (Google Earth)

    Long Description:
    ?Camp Coeur d’Alene had three reasons for its existence: (1) keeping the peace in northern Idaho, (2) protecting railroad and telegraph crews, and (3) guarding the border with Canada. The first two objectives occupied the troops most of the time, as there were few problems on the northern border.

    Troops stationed at the post must have found it in some ways an ideal duty station, because they were seldom called upon to take the field against threatening forces. In fact, only twice were they summoned to protect the interests of North Idaho citizens. On July 12, 1878, the troops took the field to participate in the Bannock Indian War. However, the extent of their involvement turned out to be only a hurried march to Fort Lapwai as they were back at their duty stations on August 1. (The Bannock campaign never got even close to North Idaho.) During the Coeur d’Alene mining troubles of 1892, the troops received a call to restore order. The soldiers, under the command of Colonel William P. Carlin, left the fort on July 12, 1892. They were equipped in heavy marching gear which consisted of eight rations and 100 rounds of ammunition per man. They were transported on the Northern Pacific Railroad Company’s steamer to Harrison and thence by rail to Wardner. At this point a command post was established. Upon arrival the troops aided the civil authorities in making arrests and preserving martial law. In September of 1892, sub-posts were created at Wallace, Burke, Gem, and Wardner, under the command of Lt. Colonel H. C. Cook, Fourth Infantry. The sub-posts were disbanded in November, 1892.

    Many considered Fort Sherman to be one of the most scenic posts in the United States, but the soldiers stationed there sometimes took a dimmer view of the situation. The site was only five feet above the level of the lake, which periodically flooded the parade grounds. The floods caused numerous problems for the troops, as noted in the following remarks entered in the May 1894 monthly report:

    “The water of the lake and river Coeur d’Alene continued rising during the month and on the 25th instant the dike protecting the post from the overflow of the river broke, and a great part of the reservation became submerged. The water continued to rise and on the same day the lake overflowed its banks and further inundated the post, only a narrow strip of ground on the parade and along the lake showing above the flood. Officers quarters except No’s 5, 6, 7, and 18 being flooded from one to five feet deep, the guard house, hospital, storehouses and other public buildings being uninhabitable. Water surrounds all the company barracks. Obtaining good water for the fort also caused a problem from the beginning, and $7,000 had to be spent on a pump and pipe system.”

    The departure of the command on April 21, 1898, for participation in the Spanish-American War signaled the demise of the fort. A small detachment remained; but in April 1901, when the reservation was turned over to the Interior Department, they relocated at Fort George Wright, Washington. In the summer of 1905, the reservation was sold at public auction. Before selling the land, the government set aside twenty acres for a park and twenty acres for a cemetery as the property of the city of Coeur d’Alene. The Stack and Gibbs Lumber Company purchased a large share of the land. Much of the site today is occupied by the North Idaho College. Only a handful of the original 52 structures now remain.
    Era: Other

    General Comments:
    Three of the main buildings which remain are an officers’ quarters, the powder magazine and the post chapel. They are listed on the National Registery of Historic Places, as is a residental neighborhood which was once part of the original fort.

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    ***

    Jotb0078.jpg
    Special Operations.Com

    HISTORY OF FORT SHERMAN AND THE

    U.S. ARMY JUNGLE OPERATIONS TRAINING BATTALION

    Fort Sherman was named by the War Department on 24 November 1911, in honor of General William Tecumseh Sherman.

    The mission of Fort Sherman through World War II was to provide a defense for the Atlantic port of Cristobal and the Gatun Locks. This defense, provided by Coastal Artillery, consisted of Batteries Mower, Stanley, Kilpatrick, Howard, Baird, Pratt and McKenzie, each of which housed either coastal guns or mortars. From 1946 to 1948, Fort Sherman served primarily to billet troops assigned to the Caribbean side of the isthmus.

    In April 1951, the Department of the Army assigned the U.S. Army Caribbean the mission of “keeping the art of jungle warfare alive in the Army.” In compliance with this directive a provisional headquarters was established to conduct “Exercise Brush Bay” on the Fort Sherman Military Reservation. From this small beginning grew the groundwork for the U.S. Army’s Jungle Training School.

    The growth of the jungle school was not a rapid one. After operation “Brush Bay,” the headquarters was disbanded, but the 7437th Army Unit was activated to care for the maneuver area and was attached to the 33rd Infantry Regiment.

    The facilities at Fort Sherman were improved in 1954, as units from the 33rd Infantry Regiment were being trained. The objective of this training was to make the entire regiment completely proficient in jungle operations.

    In May 1956, the 33rd Infantry was deactivated and replaced by the 20th Infantry Regiment, which inherited the mission of conducting jungle warfare training. Under this regiment, reorganized in December 1957 as the 1st Battle Group, 20th Infantry, cycle training was conducted for military personnel outside the Panama area. Normally, ten training cycles, each three weeks in duration, were programmed annually.

    On 1 July 1963, the jungle school’s mission and functions were assumed by the Jungle Operations Committee (JOC) of the newly redesignated U.S. Army School of the Americas, Fort Gulick, Canal Zone. Later, on 1 July 1968, the United States Army Jungle Operations Training Center (USAJOTC) was established to carry on the mission of training soldiers to conduct operations in a jungle environment.

    On 1 July 1970, the JOTC was placed under the operational control of the 8th Special Forces Group (Abn).

    In July 1975, the USAJOTC was designated an independent major subordinate command under the 193rd Infantry Brigade. In 1976, JOTC began the transition from an individual training center to a unit training center. Finally in January 1989, the unit which operates the JOTC became designated as the Jungle Operations Training Battalion (JOTB).

    The JOTB participated in “Operation JUST CAUSE” (December 1989 – January 1990) as part of Task Force SHERMAN, operationally controlled by Task Force ATLANTIC, 3rd Brigade, 7th Infantry Division (Light). The JOTB conducted successful security and defense missions of Fort Sherman and the Gatun Locks Complex; cleared and secured 27 towns and villages and 140 kilometers of coastline; conducted 19 separate air assault operations; conducted civil-military operations in 4 towns and villages; eliminated the threat from the “Hunter Platoons” south of the Rio Chagres and captured numerous enemy prisoners, weapons and large amounts of munitions and military equipment. For its contributions during “Operation JUST CAUSE”, JOTB was awarded a battle streamer, the only TDA unit in the U.S. Army to receive this distinction.

    In December 1991, FORSCOM approved a rotation cycle reduction from 15 to 12 light infantry jungle warfare courses, 4 engineer warfare courses and 4 aircrew survival courses annually. Continued modifications to the TDA have allowed the JOTB to evolve over the past four years into the premier training center for keeping the “art of jungle warfare alive in the Army”. This includes: increasing efforts to train Latin American allied armed forces as part of an overall regional military to military contact program; enhancing the realism of training by incorporating civilians into the battlefield; adding new live fire exercises; improving the instructor certification program and revalidating the flexible programs of instruction for units attending the training.

    In August 1994, JOTB was designated a dependent restricted tour area due to the implementation of the 1977 Treaty Implementation Plan. By October 1994, families were no longer allowed to be assigned on Fort Sherman. Beginning in the summer of 1995, transitioning efforts commenced on the Atlantic side of Panama which resulted in the closure of Fort Davis and Fort Espinar on 1 September 1995. This left Fort Sherman and the JOTB as the only significant U.S. presence on the Atlantic side of Panama. Steady efforts to improve the quality of life on Fort Sherman since the closure of Fort Davis and Espinar continued through FYs 96 and 97.

    http://www.specialoperations.com/Schools/Army/JOTB/history.htm

    ***

    Timeline Panama

    Return to home
    Atlapedia: http://www.geopedia.com/online/countries/panama.htm
    CIA Factbook: http://www.emulateme.com/panama.htm
    Emulate: http://www.emulateme.com/panama.htm
    Links: http://directory.google.com/Top/Society/History/Central_America/Panama/
    Links:
    http://www.webcrawler.com/education/arts_and_humanities/history/north_america/central_america/panama/general_history/
    TravelDocs: http://www.traveldocs.com/pa/index.htm
    USLC: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/patoc.html
    The indigenous Teribe Indians live near the border of Costa Rica and number about 2,500. They are led by King Santana, the only monarch in the western Hemisphere.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.A12)

    http://timelines.ws/countries/PANAMA.HTML

    1913        Oct 10, Panama Canal was completed when President Woodrow Wilson triggered a blast which exploded the Gamboa Dike by pressing an electric button at the White House in Washington, D.C.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

    1913        Nov 17, The first ship sailed through the Panama Canal. In 1940 Helen Nicolay authored “The Bridge of Water: The Story of the Panama and the Canal.”
    (HN, 11/17/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)

    1914        Jun 7, The first vessel passed through the Panama Canal. [see Aug]
    (HN, 6/7/98)

    1914        Aug 15, The Panama Canal opened to traffic. The Panama Canal, a 52-mile waterway, was completed. In 1977 David McCullough authored “The Path Between the Seas,” a definitive account of the building of the Panama Canal.
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A11)(SFEC, 11/3/96, p.A16)(HN, 8/15/98)(WSJ, 10/17/02, p.A18)

    1914        Nov 17, US declared Panama Canal Zone neutral.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

    1914-1916    George Washington Goethals served as the governor of the Canal Zone.
    (WUD, 1994, p.606)

    1928        Howard Air Force Base was constructed by the US.
    (SFC, 11/2/99, p.A14)

    1934        Jul 11, President Roosevelt became the first chief executive to travel through the Panama Canal while in office.
    (AP, 7/11/97)

    1936        The 16,000-mile Pan-American Highway project began. It left a 54-mile gap in the jungle of the Panamanian province of Darien.
    (Econ, 10/2/04, p.38)

    1940s        The US military tested weapons in Panama.
    (SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)

    1946        Mar 1, Panama accepted its new constitution.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

    1946-1983    The US Army School of the Americas trained Latin American military officials. The school was converted for eco-tourism in 2001.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T4)

    1955        Jan 2, Jose Antonio Remon, president of Panama  (1952-55), was assassinated.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

    1959        Apr 26, The Panamanian gov’t reported ‘suppression’ of attempted guerilla invasion from Cuba.
    (DBD, p.824)

    1959        Apr 27, US State Dept. announced small arms stored in Canal Zone will be provided to Panamanian forces to repel Cuban invaders.
    (DBD, p.824)

    1959        Apr 28, Organization of American States voted unanimously to send a commission to Panama.
    (DBD, p.824)

    1959        Apr 29, Premier Castro denied any Cuban role, direct or indirect, in a Panamanian invasion.
    (DBD, p.824)

    1959        May 1, Some 87 guerillas, mostly Cubans, surrendered without resistance to Panamanian troops at the village of Nombre de Dios in response to appeals by Castro.
    (DBD, p.824)

    1963        Feb-Mar, The US military, while conducting biological weapons tests, sprayed Bacillus globigii from aircraft near Fort Sherman Military Reservation in the Canal Zone.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

    1964        Jan 9, Anti-U.S. rioting broke out in the Panama Canal Zone, resulting in the deaths of 21 Panamanians and three U.S. soldiers. U.S. forces killed six Panamanian students protesting in the canal zone. Violent clashes between Panamanians and American soldiers, which resulted in the deaths of 21 Panamanians and four American soldiers, began when U.S. students’ attempted to raise the American flag at the Canal Zone high school.  An order banning the flying of any flags in front of Canal Zone schools had been issued on December 30, 1963, because of Panamanian sensitivity to U.S. control of the Zone. These events led to attempts to renegotiate the Canal Zone’s status.
    (HN, 1/9/98)(AP, 1/9/99)(HNQ, 6/10/99)

    1964        Jan 10, Panama broke ties with the U.S. and demanded a revision of the canal treaty.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

    1968        Oct 11, Pres. Arnulfo Arias was ousted in a coup by Gen’l. Omar Torrijos. Arias was the founder of Panama’s special security system and opened the vote to women before he was ousted. Arias went into exile.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(SFC, 1/2/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.D5)(SFC, 9/1/99, p.A14)

    1969        Arnulfo Arias (67) married his secretary Mireya Moscoso (23) in Miami.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A14)

    1977        Aug 10, US and Panama negotiations for a Panama Canal Zone treaty, begun on February 15, were completed [see Sep 7].
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torrijos-Carter_Treaties)

    1977        Sep 7, Pres. Carter and Gen’l. Torrijos signed the Panama Canal treaties (the Torrijos-Carter Treaties) in Washington, DC. The 2 treaties abrogated the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty of 1903 and called for the US to eventually turn over control of the waterway to Panama. The US Southern Command was scheduled to withdraw to new Miami headquarters by the end of 1999. The US agreed to clean up its bases before turning them over. The deal was negotiated by Sol Linowitz (d.2005).
    (AP, 9/7/97)(WSJ, 3/21/05, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torrijos-Carter_Treaties)

    1977        Gabriel Lewis Galindo (1928-1996) was appointed ambassador to the US with the hope of negotiating the transfer of the Panama Canal to Panama.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.A20)

    1978        Apr 18, The U.S. Senate voted 68-32 to turn the Panama Canal over to Panamanian control on Dec. 31, 1999.
    (AP, 4/18/98) (HN, 4/18/98)

    1978        Jun 16, President Carter and Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos exchanged instruments of ratification for the Panama Canal treaties.
    (AP, 6/16/98)

    1979        Oct 1, The 1977 Panama Canal Treaties entered into force. The US returned the Canal Zone, but not the canal, to Panama after 75 years.
    (http://mexico.usembassy.gov/bbf/bfdossier_PanamaCanal.htm)

    1979        Panama gave refuge to the ousted Shah of Iran.
    (WSJ, 3/5/99, p.A1)

    1979-2002    Munitions explosions from the 44,000-acre former US firing range left 24 fatalities over this period. 100,000 pieces of unexploded ordnance were estimated to remain in the ranges named Empire, Piña and Balboa West.
    (SFC, 5/27/02, p.A3)

    1981        Jul 31, The leader of Panama, General Omar Torrijos, died in a plane crash.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.A20)(AP, 7/31/99)

    1982        Apr 1, The U.S. transferred the Canal Zone to Panama.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

    1983        Aug 12, General Manuel A. Noriega (b.1938) assumed command of Panama’s National Guard.
    (www.cidh.oas.org/countryrep/Panama89eng/intro.htm)

    1984        Nicolas Ardito Barletta was elected President.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.3)

    1984        The US Army School of the Americas (b.1946), a training center for Latin American military officers, was moved from Panama to Fort Benning, Ga.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A3)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T4)

    1985        The film “The Return of Ruben Blades” was made by Robert Mugge.
    (SFEM, 9/26/99, p.12)

    1985        Manuel Antonio Noriega overthrew Pres. Barletta.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.3)

    1985        In Panama Hugo Spadafora, a dissident leader, was decapitated. Manuel Noriega was later sentenced to 20 years for the murder.
    (SFC, 1/25/07, p.A14)

    1987        Jan 22, France named Manuel Noriega, head of Panama, a Commander of the Legion of Honor (Legion d’Honneur).
    (http://watchingamerica.com/europe1000001.shtml)

    1988        Feb 5, A pair of indictments were unsealed in Florida, accusing Panama’s military leader, Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega, of bribery and drug trafficking.
    (AP, 2/5/97)

    1988        Feb 25, Panama’s civilian president, Eric Arturo Delvalle announced the dismissal of Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega as commander of the country’s Defense Forces. The next day, Panama’s National Assembly voted to oust Delvalle.
    (AP, 2/25/98)

    1988        Feb 26, Eric Arturo Delvalle, ousted as president of Panama by the country’s National Assembly, called for a national strike to repudiate Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega.
    (AP, 2/26/98)

    1988        Mar 11, Pres. Reagan directed that actions be taken to suspend trade preferences available to Panama under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) and the Caribbean Basin Initiative.
    (www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1988/031188a.htm)

    1988        Mar 18, The government of Panama, controlled by Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega, declared a “state of urgency” in a move apparently aimed at forcing the reopening of banks and other businesses that closed during Panama’s economic and political crisis.
    (AP, 3/18/98)

    1988        Apr 8, Pres. Reagan issued Executive Order 12365 ordering the immediate blocking of all property and interests in property of the Government of Panama.
    (www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1988/101488e.htm)

    1988        Apr 30, Gen. Manuel Noriega, waving a machete, vowed at a rally to keep fighting U.S. efforts to oust him as Panama’s military ruler.
    (AP, 4/30/98)

    1988        Arnulfo Arias (86), former 3 time president, died.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A14)

    1989        May 7, Both sides claimed victory in Panama’s national elections, with the opposition also charging a pattern of fraud. Panamanian voters rejected dictator Manuel Noriega’s bid for reelection.
    (AP, 5/7/99)(MC, 5/7/02)

    1989        May 8, Former President Carter, a leader of an international team observing Panama’s elections, declared that the armed forces were defrauding the opposition of victory.
    (AP, 5/8/99)

    1989        May 9, President Bush complained that Panama’s elections were marred by “massive irregularities,” and he called for worldwide pressure on General Manuel Antonio Noriega to step down as military leader.
    (AP, 5/9/99)

    1989        May 10, In Panama, the government of Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega announced it had nullified the country’s elections, which independent observers said the opposition had won by a 3-1 margin.
    (AP, 5/10/99)

    1989        May 11, President Bush recalled the US ambassador and planned to dispatch about 1,700 soldiers and 165 marines in phases to reinforce troops already in Panama.
    (www.hrw.org/reports/1989/WR89/Panama.htm)

    1989        Oct 3, Troops loyal to Panamanian leader General Manuel Noriega crushed a coup attempt by rebel mid-level officers. The officers, including Maj. Moises Giroldi, who led the failed coup against Noriega were later executed. Noriega was convicted in absentia in 1995 and in 1999 Panama sought his extradition to face trial.
    (AP, 10/3/99)(WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/25/07, p.A14)

    1989        Dec 20, The United States launched Operation Just Cause, sending troops into Panama to topple the government of Gen. Manuel Noriega. Guillermo Endara replaced Noriega. The US ended on Feb 13, 1990. It cost $182 million and left 23 US casualties with 320 wounded. A 1997 book: “The Memoirs of Manuel Noriega” by Noriega and Peter Eisner told his version.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, BR p.3)(AP, 12/20/99)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)(HN, 12/20/99)

    1989        Dec 24, Ousted Panamanian ruler Manuel Noriega, who had succeeded in eluding US forces, took refuge at the Vatican’s diplomatic mission in Panama City. It took weeks of negotiation and loud rock music played incessantly outside the embassy by American forces before Noriega agreed to give himself up.
    (AP, 12/24/99)

    1990        Jan 3, Ousted Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega surrendered to U.S. forces, 10 days after taking refuge in the Vatican’s diplomatic mission.
    (AP, 1/3/98)

    1990        Jan 4, Deposed Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega was arraigned in federal district court in Miami on drug-trafficking charges.
    (AP, 1/4/00)

    1990        Jan 6, Defense Secretary Dick Cheney told CNN the U.S. invasion of Panama should not be viewed as a new “Bush doctrine” inclined toward military intervention in countries where democratic elections had been subverted.
    (AP, 1/6/00)

    1990        Jan 17, A federal judge in Miami set March 1990 for the trial of ex-Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega on drug trafficking charges. After initial delays, Noriega was tried and convicted of racketeering and conspiracy to distribute cocaine, and was sentenced to 40 years in prison, later cut to 30 years.
    (AP, 1/17/00)

    1990         Mar 2, A grenade attack in downtown Panama killed a U.S. soldier and injured 28 other people at the My Place discotheque on Via Espania and Calle 50.
    (AP, 3/2/00)

    1991        Jan 18, The US acknowledged that the CIA and US Army paid Panama’s military leader Manuel Noriega $322,226 from 1955-1986. Noriega began receiving money from the CIA in 1976.
    (www.orlingrabbe.com/part10.htm)(www.bushwatch.com/family.htm)

    1991        Apr 22, Sixty people were killed when a strong earthquake shook Costa Rica and neighboring Panama, causing millions of dollars’ worth of damage.
    (AP, 4/22/01)

    1991        May 15, Defense lawyers released docs claiming Noriega is “CIA’s man in Panama.”
    (http://whateveritwasiwasagainstit.blogspot.com/2005/04/may-1991.html)

    1992        Apr 4, Jury deliberations began in the Noriega case in Florida.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

    1992        Apr 9, Former Panamanian ruler Manuel Noriega was convicted in Miami of eight drug and racketeering charges; he is serving a 40-year prison sentence.
    (AP, 4/9/97)

    1992        Jun 10, In Panama US Sgt. Zak Hernandez (22) was killed by gunfire from a passing car that sprayed the military vehicle in which he was riding. Pedro Miguel Gonzalez, son of a Gerardo Gonzalez who is the President of Congress and leader of the PRD, was arrested and charged along with two others for the killing. They were found not guilty in 1997.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A19)(www.forusa.org/programs/panama/archives/1297-1.htm)

    1992        Jun 11, President Bush’s stopover in Panama en route to the Earth Summit in Brazil was disrupted when riot police fired tear gas at protesters, preventing Bush from speaking at a rally praising the revival of democracy in Panama.
    (AP, 6/11/97)

    1992        Jul 10, A federal judge in Miami sentenced former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega, convicted of drug and racketeering charges, to 40 years in prison. However, a judge  in March, 1998, cut Noriega’s sentence by ten years, meaning he could be eligible for parole in 2000.
    (WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-1)(AP, 7/10/99)

    1993        Nov 21, Three former Panamanian soldiers were found guilty of involvement in the previously unsolved 1971 murder of Hector Gallego, a Colombian Roman Catholic priest.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

    1994        Jul 7, President Clinton, visiting Poland, assured the parliament that the U.S. would “not let the Iron Curtain be replaced by a veil of indifference.”
    (AP, 7/7/99)

    1994        Jul 7, Panama withdrew its offer to the United States to accept thousands of Haitian refugees.
    (AP, 7/7/99)

    1994        Jul 19, A bomb ripped apart a Panama commuter plane, killing 21, including 12 Jews.
    (AP, 7/19/99)

    1994        Ruben Blades recorded “Buscando America.”
    (WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)

    1994        Ernesto Perez Balladares campaigned for the presidency at the head of the Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) and was elected. He was later accused of accepting $51,000 in drug money in the campaign.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A14)

    1994        Ruben Blades, singer and actor, ran for the presidency and came in 3rd.
    (WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)

    1995        Manuel Noriega was convicted in absentia for the 1989 murder of officers involved in a failed coup.
    (WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A1)

    1996        Jun 24, A coalition of human rights groups called for early elections saying that the president and his party have lost authority to rule. Attorney General Jose Antonio Sossa said that the law for punishing individuals who accept drug money in political campaigns was not yet in effect when drug money went to Pres. Balladares.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)

    1996        Jul 4, In Panama police arrested Jaime Revello, a top Columbian drug lord, and seized 4.5 tons of cocaine.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A13)

    1996        Oct 1, The 207-acre Fort Amodor was transferred to Panama.
    (SFC, 10/2/96, p.A8)

    1997        Jan 16, Panama’s Law No. 5 was passed and confirmed a deal in which Hutchison Whampoa, a Chinese Hong Kong corporation, agreed to pay $22.5 million a year plus what one Panamanian called “bucket loads of money” under the table.
    (www.eagleforum.org/psr/1999/nov99/psrnov99.html)

    1997        Aug 13, Pres. Balladares gave journalist Gustavo Gorriti until the end of the month to leave Panama. Mr. Gorriti had published investigative articles detailing the financial dealings of the president’s election campaign, his allies and gentlemen of questionable character.
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A1)

    1998        Mar 6, It was reported that Panama hired a Canadian Indian tribe, the Tsuu T’ina, to clean out unexploded bombs and shells from an area of Empire Range, which US military forces abandoned.
    (SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)

    1998        Oct 22-1998 Nov 9, Hurricane Mitch was one of the Caribbean’s deadliest storms ever causing at least at least 9,000 deaths in Central America. The storm hit Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Jamaica, and Costa Rica. Later reports put the death toll in Honduras to 6,076. In Nicaragua the deaths reached 4,000, in Guatemala it was157, and in El Salvador it was 222. The storm parked over Honduras and rain poured for 6 days straight.  Aid of $66 mil was ordered from the US, $8 mil from the EU, $11.6 mil from Spain along with pledges from other countries and private organizations.
    (SFC, 11/4/98, p.A9)(SFC, 11/6/98, p.A14)(AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

    1998        Mark Falcoff authored “Panama Canal: What Happens When the United States Gives a Small Country What It Wants,” a study of the implications of the canal turnover.
    (WSJ, 12/30/98, p.A9)(SFEC, 6/6/99, Z1 p.7)

    1999        Mar 11, The US Rodman naval base was transferred to Panama.
    (WSJ, 3/12/99, p.A1)

    1999        May 2, In Panama presidential elections were scheduled. Martin Torrijos, son of Gen’l. Omar Torrijos, was favored over Mireya Moscoso (52), wife of the late Arnulfo Arias. Moscoso led the vote in early returns.
    (SFC, 4/29/99, p.D5)(SFC, 5/3/99, p.A12)

    1999        Sep 1, Mireya Moscoso began serving as the 1st female president.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A14)

    1999        Nov 1, In Panama the US handed over Howard Air Force Base, Fort Kobbe and the Farfan residential zone.
    (SFC, 11/2/99, p.A14)

    1999        Nov 2, In Panama suspected Colombian rebels hijacked 2 helicopters.
    (SFC, 11/3/99, p.C2)

    1999        Dec 14, In Panama former US Pres. Jimmy Carter symbolically turned over the Panama Canal. The official ownership transfer date was Dec 31.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.A16)

    1999        Dec 31, The US was by a 1977 treaty required to give up control of the Panama Canal and withdraw its forces by this date. The treaty also required the US to pay for environmental cleanup.
    (SFC, 10/2/96, p.A8)(SFC, 10/15/98, p.C5)

    1999        France tried Manuel Noriega, former dictator of Panama, in absentia on money laundering charges. He was convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=39077)

    2000        Nov 17, In Panama Luis Posada, an anti-Castro terrorist, was arrested along with 3 others Cuban-Americans for an assassination plot against Fidel Castro at a regional summit. They were convicted of endangering public security.
    (SFC, 11/22/00, p.A19)(SFC, 5/18/05, p.A9)

    2000        Nov, Panama planned $5.9 billion project to enlarge the Panama Canal to meet demand.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)

    2001        May 14, Panama agreed to suspend a 66% increase in bus fares for 7 months following protests and riots in which over 100 people were injured.
    (WSJ, 5/15/01, p.A1)

    2001        Jun 14, In Panama it was reported that 5 patients died from radiation therapy when incorrect data was punched into a computer program.
    (WSJ, 6/14/01, p.A1)

    2001        Feb, The Panama Canal Railway began coast to coast passenger train service. A container service followed in Nov.
    (SSFC, 10/20/02, p.C5)

    2003        Jan 8, Manuel Ciervides Lacayo, the Panamanian consul to Guayaquil, Ecuador, was shot and killed while vacationing in Panama.
    (AP, 1/9/03)

    2003        Oct 30, In Panama more than 20,000 teachers and construction workers stayed off the job, staging a daylong strike to demand that the government retain control over the country’s social security system.
    (AP, 10/31/03)

    2003        Dec 25, A strong earthquake shook the border of Costa Rica and Panama, killing an infant and leaving dozens of others with mainly minor injuries.
    (AP, 12/26/03)

    2004        Jan 7, Panama plans for a canal upgrade in order to accommodate new and larger container ships was estimated at $8 billion.
    (WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

    2004        Jan 10, Panamanian officials arrested Arcangel de Jesus Henao Montoya, a top leader of the Colombian Norte de Valle drug cartel, in the southern city of Torti and took him to Panama City. He was soon handed over to US officials.
    (AP, 1/11/04)(SFC, 1/15/04, p.A1)

    2004        May 2, Martin Torrijos (40), son of former military dictator Gen’l. Omar Torrijos, was easily elected as Panama’s next leader in its first presidential vote since the handover of the Panama Canal and withdrawal of US troops in December 1999. Torrijos promised to tackle vested interests.
    (AP, 5/3/04)(Econ, 1/19/08, p.39)

    2004        Jul 2, In Panama a US-registered small jet crashed into an airport hangar during takeoff and burst into flames, killing seven people.
    (AP, 7/3/04)

    2004        Aug 26, Cuba broke diplomatic ties with Panama after the outgoing Panamanian president Mireya Moscoso pardoned four Cuban exiles, including Luis Posada Carriles, the communist government accuses of trying to assassinate President Fidel Castro.
    (AP, 8/27/04)(SFC, 5/18/05, p.A9)

    2004        Sep 1, Martin Torrijos, the son of a former dictator, took office as Panama’s president promising jobs, better relations with Cuba and a referendum on a proposed $8 billion expansion of the Panama Canal.
    (AP, 9/1/04)

    2004        Nov 19, Cuba and Panama agreed to restore consular relations, taking a step toward renewal of full diplomatic ties at a meeting on the sidelines of an Ibero-American summit.
    (AP, 11/19/04)

    2005        Mar 3, The seven Central American nations (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama) agreed to create a rapid-response force to combat drug trafficking, terrorism and other regional threats.
    (AP, 3/3/05)

    2005        Apr 4, Evergreen Int’l., a Panamanian shipping line, pleaded guilty to over 2 dozen counts of illegal dumping around the US. It was ordered to pay a fine of $25 million, one of the largest ever imposed for polluting the ocean.
    (SFC, 4/5/05, p.B8)

    2005        May 25, Riot police in Panama City fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse people throwing bottles and rocks during a protest by an estimated 10,000 workers and students against proposed changes in the country’s pension system.
    (AP, 5/26/05)(WSJ, 5/26/05, p.A1)

    2005        Jun 30, In Honduras Central American leaders agreed to create a regional special forces unit to fight drug trafficking, gang violence and terrorism within their borders. The 2-day regional meeting included the presidents of Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

    2005        Jul 28, In Panama a 2-day summit started for 25 members of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Venezuela said it will continue offering crude on favorable terms, and even in barter trades, to countries in the region. Thirteen of the 15 members of the narrower Caribbean Community group, or Caricom, mainly island nations, have already signed onto Venezuela’s oil initiative.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

    2005        Aug 20, Cuba and Panama restored diplomatic ties, one year after they were broken off in a dispute sparked by the decision by Panama’s previous president to pardon four Cuban exiles accused of trying to assassinate Cuban President Fidel Castro.
    (AP, 8/20/05)

    2005        Nov 7, President Bush met with Panamanian President Martin Torrijos in Panama City, Panama, where they discussed a free trade agreement. President Bush, in Panama, defended US interrogation practices and called the treatment of terrorism suspects lawful, saying, “We do not torture.”
    (AP, 11/7/05)(AP, 11/7/06)

    2005        Nov 30, In Cuba Panama’s President Martin Torrijos greeted dozens of his compatriots as they arrived in Havana for free eye operations, the latest sign of warming relations between the two countries.
    (AP, 12/01/05)

    2006        Jan 10, Panama’s agricultural minister resigned, accusing the US of pressuring the Central American country to accept lower agricultural inspection standards.
    (AP, 1/10/06)

    2006        Jan 27, A Panamanian ship collided with two other vessels near the Peruvian port of Callao, splitting in two and leaving one sailor missing.
    (AP, 1/27/06)

    2006        Jul 11, Central American presidents agreed on a plan to ease border controls and install a common customs system on the way to negotiating an eventual free-trade agreement with the EU. The agreement signed by Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Belize would allow residents to cross borders without passports or visas.
    (AP, 7/11/06)

    2006        Oct 9, Panamanian authorities said they suspect a medicine taken to treat high blood pressure may be among the factors leading to the deaths of 21 people since July who have succumbed to a mysterious illness that triggers kidney failure. Panama’s health minister stopped sales of the medication, Lisinopril Normon, on Oct 6 and began removing it from pharmacy shelves. About 9,000 Panamanians take the medicine.
    (AP, 10/9/06)

    2006        Oct 18, Panamanian authorities said that 26 people had died after drinking tainted cough medicine, and five people had been detained on suspicion of selling contaminated material to a factory that produced the medication. Panama set up 34 round-the-clock clinics across the nation to identify the sick and perform blood tests for kidney damage. The contaminated medicines contained a chemical cousin of antifreeze, diethylene glycol, which is used to keep glue and cosmetics moist. Officials believe it turned up in 100,000 bottles of cough syrup, 20,000 of which have not been recovered. In 2007 it was reported that a Chinese factory was the source of a counterfeit chemical that killed dozens of people in Panama after it was used in human medications.
    (AP, 10/19/06)(AP, 10/27/06)(AP, 5/6/07)

    2006        Oct 22, Voters in Panama approved a $5.25 billion referendum, pushed by Pres, Torrijos, to expand the Panama Canal. The project was expected to take 8 years and provide some 7,000 jobs.
    (AP, 10/23/06)(Econ, 7/21/07, p.39)

    2006        Oct 23, In Panama mechanical problems triggered a fire that raced through a bus in Panama City, killing at least 18 people, injuring 25.
    (AP, 10/23/06)

    2006        Nov 1, Venezuela and US-backed Guatemala agreed to withdraw from the race and support Panama, a compromise reached after voting in the UN General Assembly dragged through 47 rounds of balloting.
    (AP, 11/2/06)

    2006        Nov 3, Latin American and Caribbean nations unanimously endorsed Panama for a seat on the UN Security Council after Guatemala and Venezuela agreed to withdraw to break a deadlock that dragged on through 47 votes in the General Assembly.
    (AP, 11/3/06)

    2006        Nov 7, Panama won a seat on the UN Security Council on the 48th ballot after US-backed Guatemala and Venezuela, led by leftist anti-American President Hugo Chavez, dropped out to end a deadlock.
    (AP, 11/7/06)

    2006        Nov 24, Panama’s government said heavy rains and flooding have left at least eight people dead and damaged hundreds of homes.
    (AP, 11/24/06)

    2007        Mar 18, Panamanian police working with agents from the US Drug Enforcement Agency  seized a boat off the nation’s Pacific coast carrying 21.4 tons of cocaine in one of the biggest maritime cocaine busts anywhere on record.
    (AP, 3/19/07)

    2007        Apr 10, In Panama the charred and mutilated body of Staten Island businesswoman Toni Grossi Abrams (57) was found on the outskirts of Panama City. Debra Ann Ridgley (56) of Pennsylvania, was later arrested as a suspect in the killing but had not been formally charged. Police searched for two other suspects identified as Colombian men, one of whom has previous drug charges against him.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

    2007        Jul 4, A top Panamanian prosecutor said tests show at least 94 people have died from taking medicine contaminated with diethylene glycol since July 2006 and that 293 more deaths are under investigation.
    (AP, 7/4/07)

    2007        Aug 27, Panama’s cabinet resigned after a tainted medicine scandal and the government’s failure to implement construction safety standards.
    (WSJ, 8/28/07, p.A1)

    2007        Sep 1, In Panama Pedro Miguel Gonzalez Pinzon, a man wanted in the US on charges of involvement in the killing of an American soldier 15 years ago in Panama, was elected president of that country’s congress.
    (AP, 9/1/07)

    2007        Sep 3, Panamanian President Martin Torrijos celebrated the start of construction on two wider sets of locks being added to both sides of the Panama canal.
    (AP, 9/3/07)

    2007        Dec 25, In Panama the bodies of Michael Klein (37), a California hedge fund manager, his daughter Talia Klein (13) and pilot Edwin Lasso (23) were found in an uninhabited region known as Las Ovejas on the slope of the Baru volcano. Francesca Lewis (12) survived the Dec 23 crash, but cold, wet weather prevented authorities from evacuating her immediately.
    (AP, 12/26/07)(SFC, 12/26/07, p.A4)

    Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
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    Return to home

    http://timelines.ws/countries/PANAMA.HTML

    ***

    1963        Feb-Mar, The US military, while conducting biological weapons tests, sprayed Bacillus globigii from aircraft near Fort Sherman Military Reservation in the Canal Zone.
    (SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

    *****

    151
    emphasizing that the baseline was a practical measure for designing a costeffective
    system and must not be confused with a threshold.13 The baseline
    determination refl ected two kinds of assessment: the need to keep costs
    at feasible levels; and the scientists’ confi dence that the synergistic use of
    the IMS technologies would ensure that nuclear explosive testing at much
    lower levels would, in practice, be detected. The uncertainty factor was
    expected to provide a high deterrent value even for much smaller yields.14
    THE SEISMIC SIGNATURE
    The core of the IMS is the seismic network. An underground explosion
    generates seismic waves which can be analysed to locate and identify the
    origin of the waves. As nuclear explosions have a characteristic signature,
    seismic stations can also distinguish between earthquakes and explosions.
    Much work had already been done on seismic verifi cation, principally
    through the work of the GSE, including its three technical tests of potential
    seismic networks. As negotiations got underway in the verifi cation Working
    Group, there was much discussion of the number and location of primary
    and auxiliary seismic stations that would be needed to provide cost-effective
    verifi cation confi dence.
    Primary stations, as the name implies, were to form the essential network
    in strategically signifi cant locations for detection and identifi cation of any
    explosions carried out in violation of the treaty. Some were already in place
    under national auspices, but others would need to be upgraded or built. The
    auxiliary seismic stations were considered to be less vital, but could provide
    useful information. In most cases, these were already part of national or
    academic facilities, and most would be completely or partly funded from
    national resources. In both cases, arrangements would need to be agreed
    for how the data from these seismic stations would be transmitted to the
    IDC.
    Some states were concerned about the expense and inconvenience of
    having stations on national territory, and some were wary of stations being
    located close to sensitive facilities. Others were keen to host a station,
    perceiving it as an opportunity for closer participation in international
    projects and research. With Marshall’s careful management, the majority of
    such concerns were resolved. In January 1996, however, after the IMS was
    thought to be substantially fi nalized, Russia made a late proposal for four
    additional seismic and radionuclide stations close to the major P-5 test sites.
    Claiming that Novaya Zemlya was more closely monitored than Nevada,
    Berdennikov publicly argued for “identical transparency”.15 The assumption
    of many diplomats at the time was that this demand was in reaction to the
    zero-yield scope decision, which Russia had not participated in making.
    This was later confi rmed, with the explanation that the zero-yield decision
    altered Russia’s view of IMS requirements since it would be necessary to
    have confi dence that none of the nuclear-weapon states would be able
    to carry out clandestine nuclear testing at sub-kiloton yields using existing
    nuclear test facilities.16
    Though the demand was mainly directed at the United States, it was China
    that objected most vociferously. In an oblique reference to mutual support
    between the Chinese and Russian delegations over issues such as PNE and
    on-site inspections, China objected that Lop Nor was more closely monitored
    than the global average in any case and rejected any further enhancement
    of the detection level as excessive and unacceptable.17 Ignoring the fact
    that the P-5 were more capable of conducting (and concealing) nuclear
    tests than the global average, China based its objection on the principle that
    the verifi cation system must be equal and non-discriminatory. Concerned
    to avoid a late rupture in agreement, the United States took the lead in
    bridge-building to resolve the confl ict. After initiating hurried talks among
    the P-5, the United States then negotiated directly with Russia, to whom
    it offered bilateral confi dence-building measures, and then addressed
    Beijing’s concerns with the Chinese delegation. In the end it was agreed
    that the location of one seismic station would be changed from California to
    Nevada, closer to the US test site, and that the station located in Kazakhstan
    would be upgraded and moved nearer to the border with China, thereby
    bringing it closer to Lop Nor without requiring explicit Chinese agreement.18
    The incident took the CD by surprise because Russia had generally been
    very constructive in the verifi cation negotiations, and the way in which the
    demand was made seemed to echo the Cold War times when arguments
    about verifi cation masked other political, ideological or power struggles.
    DETECTING AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY
    The second network to be incorporated into the IMS was designed to detect
    and measure the radioactive products emitted from a nuclear explosion,
    which could take the form of particulates or gases. These emissions can
    be distinguished from similar fi ssion products released by nuclear power
    plant operations or accidents. Although there was general agreement that
    radionuclide sampling would be necessary to detect and identify atmospheric
    tests or venting from underground or underwater explosions, there were
    two areas of contention: whether it was necessary to monitor for the
    emission of noble gases, such as argon-37, xenon-133 and krypton-85; and
    whether specially equipped aircraft could play a useful role. Experts from
    two delegations were charged with the task of analysing how radionuclides
    would disperse according to geographical and meteorological conditions.
    Aiming for 90% detection probability of a 1kt explosion within 14 days, the
    experts recommended a radionuclide detection network comprising some
    70–80 stations and 5–10 radionuclide laboratories around the world.19
    On the grounds that radioactive noble gases produced by nuclear explosions
    are known to leak from underground explosions,20 eventually all but one
    delegation in the Radionuclide Expert Group (a subgroup of the verifi cation
    committee) agreed that noble gas monitoring should be included in the
    IMS. They reasoned that noble gases could play a unique and valuable role
    in early detection and identifi cation (within 10 days) of an explosion in
    several potential environments, contributing especially to early resolution
    of ambiguous events, which would be politically desirable. Noble gas
    monitoring would also assist in detecting a decoupled explosion (conducted
    in a deep cave or salt cavern, for example, with the intention of masking
    the signals) and increase the costs and risks to a potential violator, thereby
    maximizing the deterrent function of the verifi cation regime. China’s experts
    disagreed. They argued that the effectiveness of noble gas monitoring was
    diffi cult to judge but would signifi cantly increase the overall costs of the
    IMS. In Beijing’s view, noble gas monitoring would only contribute to the
    detection of underground or underwater testing if sensors were located
    very close to the event. China was willing to include testing for noble gas
    emissions as part of an on-site inspection, but pointed out that certain timecritical
    phenomena, such as the presence of xenon-133, would disappear
    after two weeks.21 Appearing to endorse Russia’s concept of evolutionary
    verifi cation, on which it had remained hitherto silent, China argued that the
    question of adding a noble gas monitoring capability should be deferred; if
    more technical study showed that inclusion was warranted, such monitoring
    could be added at a later stage.22 During the fi nal concession trading of the
    endgame, China accepted Ramaker’s draft incorporating noble gas sensors
    co-located with 40 of the 80 radionuclide stations.
    A second disagreement arose because Russia wanted fewer ground-based
    radionuclide sensors than was being considered in any of Marshall’s
    options. Russia proposed that it would be more cost-effective to equip three
    special aircraft instead, and that these could be quickly dispatched after a
    suspicious event was detected by other technologies. Russia’s reasoning
    was that a CTBT violation was likely to be rare, and that maintaining a full
    radionuclide monitoring network in perpetuity would be very expensive,
    whereas appropriately equipped airplanes could be quickly made ready
    to fl y over the suspected location of an event, with sensors to detect
    particulates and noble gases, enabling samples to be taken in various
    atmospheric layers.23 Others, however, worried about the timing and terms
    (ownership, responsibility for equipping, personnel training, piloting and
    so forth) that would govern the deployment of the aircraft. In the end, this
    issue was resolved through US-brokered concession trading in conjunction
    with the P-5 negotiations on Russia’s proposal for identical transparency at
    the test sites. In return for two seismic stations being moved closer to the
    US and Chinese test sites, Russia abandoned the proposal for aircraft and
    agreed to the network of monitors outlined in Ramaker’s draft treaty text.
    HEARING UNDERWATER EXPLOSIONS
    From the beginning there was agreement that there should be a hydroacoustic
    network for detecting explosions conducted underwater or underground
    in marine environments, such as the French test sites at Moruroa and
    Fangataufa. Such explosions generate soundwaves that can be detected
    by sensors thousands of kilometres away.24 Negotiations focused on the
    number and location of hydroacoustic stations deemed necessary and most
    cost effective. Initially there was enthusiasm for 16 stations: four each to
    cover the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacifi c Oceans, plus a station south of Africa
    to cover both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and three auxiliary stations to
    aid location identifi cation and to cover in the event of failure of one of the
    primary stations. Because of the high expense, this system was modifi ed by
    agreement to a total of 11 stations, comprising six fi xed cable hydrophone
    stations and fi ve T-phase stations near coasts or on islands.25
    PICKING UP SHOCKWAVES
    A further technology, infrasound, was advocated by the majority of
    delegations to provide enhanced detection and location capabilities for
    nuclear explosions conducted in the atmosphere. Infrasound technology
    detects the shockwaves produced by nuclear explosions once they have
    decayed into low-frequency sound waves. For maximum effectiveness, the
    network was designed with microphones and microbarographs, organized
    in arrays of three or more sensors. Apart from China and Pakistan, which
    argued that satellite and electromagnetic pulse detection would be more
    effective and would obviate the necessity for infrasound coverage, there was
    an early majority for including an infrasound network of around 60 sensors
    in the IMS. When Beijing fi nally accepted that satellite monitoring would
    not be included in the IMS, both China and Pakistan also withdrew their
    objections to incorporating an infrasound network into the treaty.
    SATELLITES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE MONITORING
    China’s proposal for the IMS to include a CTBT-specifi c network of
    internationally funded satellites and electromagnetic pulse monitors proved
    very controversial. Arguing that both these technologies were essential for
    detecting and identifying nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space,
    as well as being useful to monitor potential sites on the ground, China had
    proposed that a network of around 60 electromagnetic pulse sensors could
    be established at relatively low cost and would provide “high sensitivity,
    precise location and prompt response” for detecting nuclear explosions
    conducted in the upper atmosphere.26 Viewing a CTBT-specifi c satellite
    system as prohibitively expensive, most delegations considered that the
    Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) would be
    able to get such information as necessary from national and commercial
    satellites in any case.27 By contrast with its position on satellites, which was
    shared only by Pakistan, there was wider interest in China’s proposal for a
    ground-based system to enhance the location and identifi cation capability
    for atmospheric and high-altitude tests. Concerns were raised about a high
    false-alarm rate due to lightning, however. China proposed that analytical
    software could be designed to discriminate between the EMP produced
    by lightning and by nuclear explosions, but other experts were sceptical
    that this would be possible. In the end, it was decided to leave satellites
    and electromagnetic pulse monitoring out of the IMS, though use could be
    made of such data provided from national or civilian capabilities.28

    http://www.unidir.org/pdf/ouvrages/pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf

    INTERPRETING IMS DATA
    The IDC, modelled on the US experimental centre in Virginia, was intended
    to process huge amounts of data from the IMS stations. Among the many
    details that needed to be resolved, the question of IDC “products”—in
    effect, how often and in what form the IDC should transmit IMS data to
    states parties—became a focus for sharp disagreement in late 1995 and
    early 1996. Although discussed in the language of technical parameters
    for fi ltering and analysing data, the underlying issues were actually about
    participation, fi nance and cost effectiveness. Although some G-21 states
    would have preferred the IDC to be explicit if there were a violation, there
    was no serious or lasting dispute over the majority view that it was the
    responsibility of states parties to assess compliance, as this required the
    exercise of political judgement. In contention was what form of information,
    reports or bulletins the IDC should send out to enable states parties to
    exercise this role according to the treaty’s purpose and requirements.
    Though it was indisputable that the raw data would be unmanageable for
    most states parties, the United States took the view that the IDC should only
    process, compact and disseminate the data, arguing that anything more
    would usurp the responsibility of states parties to assess compliance. The US
    position ignored the fact that only a very few states had the technology to
    analyse the data in a timely, regular and effective manner. The US position
    was opposed by most of the delegations, who raised concerns that if the
    standard were based at the high level of US technological capability this
    would effectively exclude the majority from decision-making.29
    The Friend of the Chair on the IDC for most of 1995 and 1996 was a
    member of the US delegation, Ralph Alewine. An expert on the technology,
    Alewine’s attempts to resolve the issue failed to pay suffi cient attention
    to the concerns of less technologically resourced countries. In February
    1996, for example, Alewine put out a working paper with three options,
    presenting the one closest to the US position as the cheapest for the CTBTO
    to provide. Other negotiators, however, pointed out that for states wishing
    to participate fully in decision-making, this option would actually be the
    most expensive on a national basis.30 Weighing in on the side of the lessdeveloped
    states, whose concerns were being ignored, Germany was the
    fi rst Western ally to take a public stand against the US position. Commenting
    that all the options put forward by Alewine were simply different degrees of
    technical evaluation and screening of data, Germany advocated making use
    of IDC expertise to provide substantial fi ltering for the data. This would be
    more cost effective in the long run and would ensure greater participation
    by states with limited technical capabilities of their own.31 Germany’s
    intervention and technical expertise enabled Ramaker to propose an
    alternative based on Alewine’s second option, in accordance with which
    the IDC would screen data in accordance with internationally standardized
    criteria established by the CTBTO, fi lter it according to nationally requested
    criteria, and provide some additional technical assistance to states parties.
    Characterized as “enhanced option 2”, this was fi nally accepted by the
    United States and others in May 1996.
    With conclusion of the provisions for the IDC, the IMS was able to be
    agreed. It was to comprise 50 primary seismic stations and 120 auxiliary
    seismic stations; 80 radionuclide stations, of which 40 would be equipped
    to monitor noble gases; 11 hydroacoustic stations; and 60 infrasound
    monitors.32

    **
    criteria established by the CTBTO, filter it according to nationally requested
    criteria, and provide some additional technical assistance to states parties.
    Characterized as “enhanced option 2”, this was finally accepted by the
    United States and others in May 1996.

    With conclusion of the provisions for the IDC, the IMS was able to be
    agreed. It was to comprise 50 primary seismic stations and 120 auxiliary
    seismic stations; 80 radionuclide stations, of which 40 would be equipped
    to monitor noble gases; 11 hydroacoustic stations; and 60 infrasound
    monitors.32

    **

    http://www.unidir.org/pdf/ouvrages/pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf
    pp. 151 – 157

    ***

    ANNEX B
    MEMBERSHIP OF THE WORKING GROUPS OF THE
    NUCLEAR TEST BAN COMMITTEE
    January to September 1994
    Chair: Miguel Marín Bosch (Mexico, G-21)
    Working Group 1 on Verifi cation
    Chair: Wolfgang Hoffmann (Germany, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Seismic Verifi cation: Ajit Kumar (India, G-21)
    Friend of the Chair on Non-Seismic Verifi cation: Peter Marshall (United
    Kingdom, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on On-Site Inspections: Victor Slipchenko (Russia,
    Eastern European Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Transparency: Bertil Roth (Sweden, in transition from
    G-21 to Western Group)
    Working Group 2 on Legal and Institutional Issues
    Chair: Ludwik Dembinski (Poland, Eastern European Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Entry into Force: Alessandro Vattani (Italy, Western
    Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Organization: Roberto Jaguaribe (Brazil, G-21)
    January to September 1995
    Chair: Ludwik Dembinski (Poland, Eastern European Group)
    Working Group 1 on Verifi cation
    Chair: Lars Norberg (Sweden, ex-G-21, not yet accepted into Western
    Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Technical Verifi cation: Peter Marshall (United
    Kingdom, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on International Monitoring System: Patrick Cole
    (Australia, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on International Data Centre: Ralph Alewine (United
    States, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on On-Site Inspections—consultation, clarifi cation and
    trigger: Klaus Arnhold (Germany, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on On-Site Inspections—access provisions, timelines:
    Victor Slipchenko (Russia, Eastern European Group)
    Friend of the Chair on On-Site Inspections—reports, follow-up, sanctions:
    Hamid Baidi-Nejad (Iran, G-21)
    Friend of the Chair on Transparency and Confi dence-building: Richard
    Ekwall (Sweden, in transition from G-21 to Western Group)
    Working Group 2 on Legal and Institutional Issues
    Chair: Jaap Ramaker (Netherlands, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Entry into Force: Stephan Keller (Germany, Western
    Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Implementing Organization: Ajit Kumar (India,
    G-21)
    Organization team:1 Magda Bauta Solés (Cuba, G-21), Donald Sinclair
    (Canada, Western Group) and Navtej Singh Sarna (India, G-21)
    January to May 1996
    Chair: Jaap Ramaker (Netherlands, Western Group)
    Working Group 1 on Verifi cation
    Chair: Grigori Berdennikov (Russia, Eastern European Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Technical Verifi cation: Peter Marshall (United
    Kingdom, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on On-Site Inspections: Mark Moher (Canada, Western
    Group)
    Friend of the Chair on International Monitoring System: Patrick Cole
    (Australia, Western Group)
    1 Because the issues relating to the implementing organization were considered
    rather broad and complex, Kumar coordinated an “organization team” of three
    other diplomats to assist in gathering and sifting information and practical
    requirements.
    Friend of the Chair on International Data Centre: Ralph Alewine (United
    States, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Associated Measures, Transparency and Confi dencebuilding:
    Richard Ekwall (Sweden—recently admitted to Western Group)
    Working Group 2 on Legal and Institutional Issues
    Chair: Mounir Zahran (Egypt, G-21)
    Friend of the Chair on the Executive Council: Nacer Benjelloun-Touimi
    (Morocco, G-21)
    Friend of the Chair on Entry into Force: Antonio de Icaza (Mexico, G-21)
    Friend of the Chair on Funding: Yukiya Amano (Japan, Western Group)
    Friend of the Chair on Preamble: Marshall Brown (United States, Western
    Group)
    May–July 1996
    After May 1996, the working groups were suspended, but the following
    people were retained to coordinate continuing negotiations on specifi c
    issues:
    Preamble and Review: Mounir Zahran (Egypt, G-21)
    Host Country Agreement: Stephen Ledogar (United States, Western
    Group)
    Preparatory Commission: Wolfgang Hoffmann (Germany, Western Group),
    subsequently Don Sinclair (Canada, Western Group)2
    Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization: Nacer Benjelloun-
    Touimi (Morocco, G-21)
    International Monitoring System: Richard Starr (Australia, Western Group)
    2 Near the end of the negotiations, Wolfgang Hoffmann was replaced by Don
    Sinclair of Canada because Ambassador Hoffmann was put forward as a
    candidate for the fi rst Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for
    the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Hoffmann was
    subsequently confi rmed as Executive Secretary when the Organization began to
    be established in Vienna.

    Pp. 235 – 237
    Annex B
    Membership of the working groups
    of the Nuclear Test Ban Committee ………………………………….. 235

    Annex A
    CTBT Annex II states …………………………………………………………… 233

    ANNEX A
    CTBT ANNEX II STATES
    Article XIV, paragraph 1, of the CTBT states that “This Treaty shall enter into
    force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratifi cation
    by all States listed in Annex 2 to this Treaty, but in no case earlier than two
    years after its opening for signature”. Annex II reads as follows:
    LIST OF STATES PURSUANT TO ARTICLE XIV
    List of States members of the Conference on Disarmament as at 18 June
    1996 which formally participated in the work of the 1996 session of the
    Conference and which appear in Table 1 of the International Atomic
    Energy Agency’s April 1996 edition of “Nuclear Power Reactors in the
    World”, and of States members of the Conference on Disarmament as at
    18 June 1996 which formally participated in the work of the 1996 session
    of the Conference and which appear in Table 1 of the International Atomic
    Energy Agency’s December 1995 edition of “Nuclear Research Reactors
    in the World”:
    Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria,
    Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,
    Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic
    Republic of), Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan,
    Peru, Poland, Romania, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Slovakia,
    South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United
    Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America,
    Viet Nam, Zaire.
    As of January 2009, nine of the states have yet to ratify the CTBT. These
    are:
    China
    The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
    Egypt
    India
    Indonesia
    The Islamic Republic of Iran
    Israel
    Pakistan
    The United States of America
    Of these, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India and Pakistan
    have also yet to sign the treaty.

    Pp. 233 – 234

    [from]
    http://www.unidir.org/pdf/ouvrages/pdf-1-978-92-9045-194-5-en.pdf
    (UNDIR – February 2009)

    ***

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Macmillan

    ***

    The core 9/11 hijackers emerge

    Beginning in September 1999 the CTC picked up multiple signs that bin Laden had set in motion major terrorist attacks for the turn of the year. The CIA set in motion the  largest collection and disruption activity in the history of mankind  (as Cofer Black later put it). The CTC focused in particular on three groups of Qaeda personnel: those known to have been involved in terrorist attacks; and senior personnel both outside and inside Afghanistan—e.g.  operational planner Abu Zubaydah  and  Bin Ladin deputy Muhammad Atef .[10]

    Amid this activity, in November–December 1999 Mohamed Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah and Nawaf al-Hazmi visited Afghanistan, where they were selected for the  planes operation  that was to become known as 9/11. Al-Hazmi undertook guerrilla training at Qaeda’s Mes Aynak camp (along with two Yemenis who were unable to get US entry visas). The camp was located in an abandoned Russian copper mine near Kabul, and was for a time in 1999 the only such training camp in operation. Atta, al-Shehhi and Jarrah met Muhammad Atef and bin Laden in Kandahar, and were instructed to go back to Germany to undertake pilot training.[11]

    In late 1999 the National Security Agency (NSA), following up information from the FBI’s investigation of the 1998 US embassy attacks, picked up traces of  an operational cadre , consisting of Nawaf al-Hazmi, his companion Khalid al-Mihdhar and Nawaf’s younger brother Salem, who were planning to go to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in January 2000. Seeing a connection with the attacks, a CTC officer sought permission to surveil the men.[12]

    At about this time the SOCOM-DIA operation Able Danger also identified a potential Qaeda unit, consisting of the future leading 9/11 hijackers Atta, al-Shehhi, al-Mihdhar and Nawaf al-Hazmi. It termed them the  Brooklyn cell , because of some associations with the New York district. Evidently at least some of the men were physically and legally present in the United States, since there was an ensuing legal tussle over the  right  of  quasi-citizens  not to be spied on.[13]

    As for the CIA. The Agency erratically tracked al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar as they traveled to and attended the al-Qaeda summit in Kuala Lumpur in early January 2000.  The Counterterrorist Center had briefed the CIA leadership on the gathering in Kuala Lumpur … The head of the Bin Ladin unit [Richard] kept providing updates , unaware at first that the information was out-of-date. By March 2000 it was learned that al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar had departed for (or returned to[14]) Los Angeles. But no-one outside the CTC was informed. The men were not registered with the State Department’s TIPOFF list, nor was the FBI told.[15]

    There are also allegations that the CIA surveiled Mohamed Atta in Germany from the time he returned there in January/February 2000, until he left for the US in June 2000.[16]

    [edit] Predator drone, 2000–2001

    In spring 2000, officers from the Bin Laden Station joined others in pressing for  Afghan Eyes , the Predator reconnaissance drone program for locating bin Laden in Afghanistan. In the summer,  The bin Laden unit drew up maps and plans for fifteen Predator flights, each lasting just under twenty-four hours.  The flights were scheduled to begin in September. In autumn 2000, officers from the Station were present at Predator flight control in the CIA’s Langley headquarters, alongside other officers from the CTC, and US Air Force drone pilots. Several possible sightings of bin Laden were obtained as drones flew over his Tarnak-Farms residence near Kandahar. Late in the year, the program was suspended because of bad weather.[17]

    Resumption of flights in 2001 was delayed by arguments over an armed Predator. A drone equipped with adapted  Hellfire  anti-tank missiles could be used to try to kill bin Laden and other Qaeda leaders. Cofer Black and the bin Laden unit were among the advocates. But there were both legal and technical issues. In the summer the CIA  conducted classified war games at Langley … to see how its chain of command might responsibly oversee a flying robot that could shoot missiles at suspected terrorists . And a series of live-fire tests in the Nevada desert (involving a mockup of bin Laden’s Tarnak residence) produced mixed results.

    Tenet advised cautiously on the matter at a meeting of the Cabinet-level Principals Committee on September 4, 2001. If the Cabinet wanted to empower the CIA to field a lethal drone, Tenet said,  they should do so with their eyes wide open, fully aware of the potential fallout if there were a controversial or mistaken strike . National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice concluded that the armed Predator was required, but evidently not ready. It was agreed to recommend to the CIA to resume reconnaissance flights. The  previously reluctant  Tenet then ordered the Agency to do so. The CIA was now  authorized to deploy the system with weapons-capable aircraft, but for reconnaissance missions only , since the host nation (presumably Uzbekistan)  had not agreed to allow flights by weapons-carrying aircraft .

    Subsequent to 9/11, approval was quickly granted to ship the missiles, and the Predator aircraft and missiles reached their overseas location on September 16, 2001. The first mission was flown over Kabul and [Kandahar] on September 18 without carrying weapons. Subsequent host nation approval was granted on October 7 and the first armed mission was flown on the same day.[18]

    [edit] Strategic branch, 2001

    Despite increases in staff,  even into 2001 the Bin Ladin unit knew it needed more people—particularly experienced Headquarters desk officers and targeters—to meet the HUMINT [human-intelligence] challenge. In [an] early Spring 2001 briefing to the DCI (George Tenet), [the] CTC requested hiring a small group of contractors not involved in day-to-day crises to digest vast quantities of information and develop targeting strategies. The briefing emphasized that the unit needed people, not money. [19]

    The briefing was apparently in response to an initiative from Tenet, who in late 2000 had  recognized the deficiency of strategic analysis against al Qaeda. To tackle this problem within the CTC he [had] appointed a senior manager, who briefed him in March 2001 on ‘creating a strategic assessment capability.’

    [edit] A strategic analyst on 9/11

    On the morning of September 11th, 2001, [John] Fulton and his team at the CIA were running a pre-planned simulation to explore the emergency response issues that would be created if a plane were to strike a building.  So said an advance-publicity pamphlet for a security conference held in 2002.

    The Strategic Assessments Branch was  created  in July 2001.  The decision to add about ten analysts to this effort was seen as a major bureaucratic victory, but the CTC labored to find them. The new chief of this branch reported for duty on September 10, 2001. [20]

    [edit] After 9/11

    Shortly after 9/11, Michael Scheuer came back to the Station as special adviser. He stayed until 2004.[21]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bin_Laden_Issue_Station

    ***

    Wives succeeding husbands in the Senate is a long tradition
    September 1, 2009
    http://news.muckety.com/2009/09/01/wives-succeeding-husbands-in-the-senate-is-a-long-tradition/19631

    One in 10 members of Congress has relatives who also served
    August 31, 2009
    http://news.muckety.com/2009/08/31/one-in-10-members-of-congress-have-relatives-who-also-served/19601

    Congressional legacies: Current members of Congress
    August 31, 2009
    http://news.muckety.com/2009/08/31/congressional-legacies-current-members-of-congress/19531

    ***

    http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=strike-slip+faults

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

    Autonomous prefectures of China
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Autonomous prefectures are one type of Autonomous areas of China, existing at the prefecture level.
    Province-level
    entry  ?     Name  ?     Chinese (S)  ?     Pinyin  ?     Designated minority  ?     Local name  ?     Capital  ?
    Gansu     Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Línxià Huízú Zìzhìzho-u     Hui     (The Hui speak Chinese)     Linxia
    Gansu     Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Ga-nnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ????????????????????????????? /
    Kan-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul     Hezuo
    Guizhou     Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Qiándo-ngnán Miáozú Dòngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Miao and Dong      ?     Kaili
    Guizhou     Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Qiánnán Bùyi-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Buyei and Miao      ?     Duyun
    Guizhou     Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ???????????     Qiánxi-nán Bùyi-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Buyei and Miao      ?     Xingyi
    Hubei     Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     E-nshi- Tu(jia-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Tujia and Miao      ?     Enshi
    Hunan     Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Xia-ngxi- Tu(jia-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Tujia and Miao      ?     Jishou
    Jilin     Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture     ????????     Yánbia-n Cháoxia(nzú Zìzhìzho-u     Korean     Korean –
    ?? ??? ??? /
    Yeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju     Yanji
    Qinghai     Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Ha(ibe(i Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-byang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul     Haiyan County
    Qinghai     Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Ha(inán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul     Gonghe County
    Qinghai     Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Huángnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????/
    Rma-lho Bod-rigs rang skyong khul     Tongren County
    Qinghai     Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Guo(luò Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????

    /
    Mgo-log Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul
    Maqên County
    Qinghai     Gyêgu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Yùshù Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????

    /
    Yul-shul Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul
    Gyêgu County
    Qinghai     Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Ha(ixi- Me(nggu(zú Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Mongol and Tibetan     Tibetan – ????????????????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-nub Sog-rigs dang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul     Delingha
    Sichuan     Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture     ?????????     A-bà Zàngzú Qia-ngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan and Qiang     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????????????? /
    Rnga-ba Bod-rigs dang Chavang-rigs rang skyong khul     Barkam County
    Sichuan     Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Ga-nzi- Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????? /
    Dkar-mdzes Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul     Kangding County
    Sichuan     Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Liángsha-n Yízú Zìzhìzho-u     Yi     Yi: ??/Niep Sha     Xichang
    Xinjiang     Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture ?     ???????????     Kèzi-lèsu- Ke-‘e(rkèzi- Zìzhìzho-u     Kyrgyz     Kyrgyz – ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? (Cyrillic: ?????? ??????? a?????????? o??????)     Artux
    Xinjiang     Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture     ?????????     Bó’e(rta(la- Me(nggu( Zìzhìzho-u     Mongol     (Mongolian in Cyrillic script: ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????)     Bortala
    Xinjiang     Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Cha-ngjí Huízú Zìzhìzho-u     Hui     (The Hui speak Chinese)     Changji
    Xinjiang     Bayin’gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture ?     ?????????     Ba-yi-nguo-lèng Me(nggu( Zìzhìzho-u     Mongol     (Mongolian in Cyrillic script: ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????)     Korla
    Xinjiang     Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture     ????????     Yi-lí Ha-sàkè Zìzhìzho-u     Kazakh     Kazakh: ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? (Cyrillic: ??? ????? ??????????? ??????); Uyghur: Ili K,azak, aptonom oblasti     Yining
    Yunnan     Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Déhóng Da(izú Ji(ngpo-zú Zìzhìzho-u     Dai and Jingpo      ?     Luxi
    Yunnan     Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture     ????????     Nùjia-ng Lìsùzú Zìzhìzho-u     Lisu      ?     Liuku Town, Lushui County
    Yunnan     Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Bde-chen Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul     Shangri-La County
    Yunnan     Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Dàli( Báizú Zìzhìzho-u     Bai     Bai: Darl•lit Baif•cuf zirl•zirl•zox     Dali
    Yunnan     Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Chu(xióng Yízú Zìzhìzho-u     Yi      ?     Chuxiong
    Yunnan     Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Hónghé Ha-nízú Yízú Zìzhìzho-u     Hani and Yi      ?     Mengzi County
    Yunnan     Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ?????????     Wensha-n Zhuàngzú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Zhuang and Miao      ?     Wenshan County
    Yunnan     Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture     ?????????     Xi-shua-ngba(nnà Da(izú Zìzhìzho-u     Dai     Tai Lue: ????????????????12????     Jinghong

    [edit] See also

    * List of prefecture-level divisions of China

    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China
    Categories: Autonomous prefectures of the People’s Republic of China | Subdivisions of China | Administrative divisions

    * This page was last modified on 6 August 2009 at 18:06.
    * Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

    ***

    ***

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunlun

    http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN021592920090902
    Pfizer whistleblowers’ get bunch of money eventually

    ***
    http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSTRE58202P20090903
    sweet dreams are made of geoengineering

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Blackwater+mercury&start=10&sa=N
    Blackwater Mercury

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/quakes_big.php
    Latest earthquakes 5.0+

    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/23102963

    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/23102965

    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/23102841

    http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Geo/quant/convert.html
    conversions

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009kzb8.php#maps
    Magnitude 5.0 – Qinghai, China

    http://maps.google.com/maps?oe=UTF-8&q=24.350%C2%B0N,+94.725%C2%B0E&ie=UTF-8&hl=en&mid=1252008810

    http://maps.google.com/maps?oe=UTF-8&q=24.350%C2%B0N,+94.725%C2%B0E&ie=UTF8&hl=en&z=9

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009kwaf.php#maps
    Magnitude 6.2 – Qinghai, China

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2009/eq_090828_kwaf/neic_kwaf_l.html
    earthquake location – Qinghai, China

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2009/eq_090828_kwaf/neic_kwaf_h.html
    seismic history map – Qinghai, China

    http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2009/eq_090828_kwaf/neic_kwaf_w.html
    seismic hazards map – Qinghai, China

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009kwak.php
    Magnitude 5.6 – Qinghai, China

    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/24131732
    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/14402404

    http://www.panoramio.com/photo/4362718

    http://www.google.com/search?q=NORTHERN+QINGHAI%2C+CHINA&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Buildings_and_structures_in_Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Western_Line

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Railway_stations_in_Qinghai

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qinghai_Lake_railway_station

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_stations_on_Qingzang_railway

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_stations_on_Qingzang_railway&params=31_26_45_N_91_59_21_E_type:landmark
    GeoHack list of stations Qingzang Railway

    ***

    http://exploreourpla.net/explorer/?geoLink=1444&lon=91.989167&lat=31.445833&alt=262144

    http://exploreourpla.net/global-warming/blog/

    http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=chinese+volcanos

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&ei=cT2gStWIFI2Etgem9rybBQ&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=chinese+volcanoes&spell=1

    http://explorebybike.blogspot.com/2007/12/in-chinas-volcano-region.html

    http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=07&rpage=sources

    http://www.google.com/search?q=china+volcanoes&btnG=Search&hl=en&sa=2

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_volcanoes_in_China

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=41.98_N_128.08_E_type:mountain
    GeoHack – list of volcanoes in China

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=41.47_N_113.00_E_type:mountain

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=44.08_N_128.83_E_type:mountain

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=20.83_N_109.78_E_type:mountain

    http://www.google.com/search?q=holocene+portland&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&aq=t
    Holocene Portland

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=holocene+&aq=f&oq=&aqi=g10

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocene

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=35.85_N_91.70_E_type:mountain

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=49.37_N_125.92_E_type:mountain

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=List_of_volcanoes_in_China&params=35.52_N_80.20_E_type:mountain

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009kwaq.php

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunlun

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunlun_Mountains

    http://www.google.com/search?q=Autonomous+Prefecture+&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&aq=t

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

    http://www.volcanolive.com/kunlun.html

    http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=strike-slip+faults

    **

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

    Make a donation to Wikipedia and give the gift of knowledge
    Autonomous prefectures of China
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search

    Autonomous prefectures are one type of Autonomous areas of China, existing at the prefecture level.
    Province-level
    entry  ?     Name  ?     Chinese (S)  ?     Pinyin  ?     Designated minority  ?     Local name  ?     Capital  ?
    Gansu     Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Línxià Huízú Zìzhìzho-u     Hui     (The Hui speak Chinese)     Linxia
    Gansu     Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Ga-nnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ????????????????????????????? /
    Kan-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul     Hezuo
    Guizhou     Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Qiándo-ngnán Miáozú Dòngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Miao and Dong      ?     Kaili
    Guizhou     Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Qiánnán Bùyi-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Buyei and Miao      ?     Duyun
    Guizhou     Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ???????????     Qiánxi-nán Bùyi-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Buyei and Miao      ?     Xingyi
    Hubei     Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     E-nshi- Tu(jia-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Tujia and Miao      ?     Enshi
    Hunan     Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Xia-ngxi- Tu(jia-zú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Tujia and Miao      ?     Jishou
    Jilin     Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture     ????????     Yánbia-n Cháoxia(nzú Zìzhìzho-u     Korean     Korean –
    ?? ??? ??? /
    Yeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju     Yanji
    Qinghai     Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Ha(ibe(i Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-byang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul     Haiyan County
    Qinghai     Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Ha(inán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul     Gonghe County
    Qinghai     Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Huángnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????/
    Rma-lho Bod-rigs rang skyong khul     Tongren County
    Qinghai     Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Guo(luò Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????

    /
    Mgo-log Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul
    Maqên County
    Qinghai     Gyêgu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Yùshù Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????

    /
    Yul-shul Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul
    Gyêgu County
    Qinghai     Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Ha(ixi- Me(nggu(zú Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Mongol and Tibetan     Tibetan – ????????????????????????????????????????? /
    Mtsho-nub Sog-rigs dang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul     Delingha
    Sichuan     Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture     ?????????     A-bà Zàngzú Qia-ngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan and Qiang     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????????????? /
    Rnga-ba Bod-rigs dang Chavang-rigs rang skyong khul     Barkam County
    Sichuan     Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Ga-nzi- Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ??????????????????????????????? /
    Dkar-mdzes Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul     Kangding County
    Sichuan     Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Liángsha-n Yízú Zìzhìzho-u     Yi     Yi: ??/Niep Sha     Xichang
    Xinjiang     Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture ?     ???????????     Kèzi-lèsu- Ke-‘e(rkèzi- Zìzhìzho-u     Kyrgyz     Kyrgyz – ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? (Cyrillic: ?????? ??????? a?????????? o??????)     Artux
    Xinjiang     Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture     ?????????     Bó’e(rta(la- Me(nggu( Zìzhìzho-u     Mongol     (Mongolian in Cyrillic script: ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????)     Bortala
    Xinjiang     Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Cha-ngjí Huízú Zìzhìzho-u     Hui     (The Hui speak Chinese)     Changji
    Xinjiang     Bayin’gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture ?     ?????????     Ba-yi-nguo-lèng Me(nggu( Zìzhìzho-u     Mongol     (Mongolian in Cyrillic script: ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????)     Korla
    Xinjiang     Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture     ????????     Yi-lí Ha-sàkè Zìzhìzho-u     Kazakh     Kazakh: ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? (Cyrillic: ??? ????? ??????????? ??????); Uyghur: Ili K,azak, aptonom oblasti     Yining
    Yunnan     Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Déhóng Da(izú Ji(ngpo-zú Zìzhìzho-u     Dai and Jingpo      ?     Luxi
    Yunnan     Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture     ????????     Nùjia-ng Lìsùzú Zìzhìzho-u     Lisu      ?     Liuku Town, Lushui County
    Yunnan     Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzho-u     Tibetan     Tibetan – ?????????????????????????????? /
    Bde-chen Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul     Shangri-La County
    Yunnan     Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Dàli( Báizú Zìzhìzho-u     Bai     Bai: Darl•lit Baif•cuf zirl•zirl•zox     Dali
    Yunnan     Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture     ???????     Chu(xióng Yízú Zìzhìzho-u     Yi      ?     Chuxiong
    Yunnan     Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture     ??????????     Hónghé Ha-nízú Yízú Zìzhìzho-u     Hani and Yi      ?     Mengzi County
    Yunnan     Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture     ?????????     Wensha-n Zhuàngzú Miáozú Zìzhìzho-u     Zhuang and Miao      ?     Wenshan County
    Yunnan     Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture     ?????????     Xi-shua-ngba(nnà Da(izú Zìzhìzho-u     Dai     Tai Lue: ????????????????12????     Jinghong

    [edit] See also

    * List of prefecture-level divisions of China

    Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China
    Categories: Autonomous prefectures of the People’s Republic of China | Subdivisions of China | Administrative divisions
    * This page was last modified on 6 August 2009 at 18:06.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_prefectures_of_China

    ***

    http://www.volcanolive.com/kunlun.html

    http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=strike-slip+faults

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fault_(geology)

    http://www.google.com/search?q=map+of+fault+lines&sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258
    Map of Fault Lines

    http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_ypalM7eSBEQ/SdzT_ajylVI/AAAAAAAAAbM/XNB1-z6lvKg/s1600-h/tectonic_map.jpg
    Tectonic Map

    http://printable-maps.blogspot.com/2009/04/world-map-of-fault-lines.html
    Free printable maps – World Map of Faultlines

    http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.rain.org/homeschool/science/images/plates-of-the-world.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.rain.org/homeschool/science/geology.html&h=358&w=548&sz=51&tbnid=p6TLLJGQio12lM:&tbnh=87&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmap%2Bof%2Bfault%2Blines&usg=__xkMMTMfgWFzucZ5hbkoVhtrb7PY=&ei=NESgSpaLNsSutgfBp4nxDw&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=5&ct=image

    http://www.rain.org/homeschool/science/images/plates-of-the-world.gif

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=map+of+fault+lines&start=10&sa=N

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=china+fault+lines&aq=f&oq=&aqi=
    China Fault Lines

    ***

    http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24647213/
    How China’s Earthquake Struck – Science – msnbc.com

    http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1686/MR1686.ch2.pdf

    http://www.allroadsleadtochina.com/2008/05/12/earthquake-in-china-plaza-66-citic-and-others-evacuating/
    All Roads Lead to China

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=china+earthquake+fault+line&revid=285554717&ei=s0SgSomuLJCy8Qay8s30Dw&sa=X&oi=revisions_inline&resnum=0&ct=broad-revision&cd=1
    China Earthquake Fault Line – Google Search

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=Kunlun+Fault+&btnG=Search&aq=f&oq=&aqi=
    Kunlun Fault

    http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=871
    Kunlun Fault – Image of the Day

    http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=3414
    Visible Earth: Topography of the Kunlun Fault

    http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=Kunlun+Fault&start=10&sa=N
    Kunlun Fault – Google Search

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_Kunlun_earthquake
    2001 Kunlun Earthquake – wikipedia

    http://www.onlineconversion.com/
    Online Conversion – convert just about anything to anything else

    http://www.metric-conversions.org/length/kilometers-to-miles.htm
    Kilometers to Miles Conversion

    http://stable.toolserver.org/geohack/geohack.php?pagename=2001_Kunlun_earthquake&params=36_12_N_90_54_E_
    GeoHack – 2001 Kunlun Earthquake

    http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=36.2,90.9&spn=0.3,0.3&t=h&q=36.2,90.9

    ***

    Institute of High Energy Physics – China

    Fourth International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders
    The 5-th International Conference on Quarks and Nuclear Physics
    Topical Seminar on Frontier of Particle and Astrophysics 2009 — Cosmic Rays
    2nd International Workshop on Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy
    A Seminar on Volunteer Computing in Beijing

    http://english.ihep.cas.cn/

    Facilities

    Double Storage Ring (BEPCII)

    Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII)

    Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory in Tibet

    Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    China Spallation Neutron in Dongguan,Guangdong

    Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    http://english.ihep.cas.cn/rs/fs/

    &&****&&&

    http://english.ihep.cas.cn/rs/fs/200907/t20090708_22259.html
    Daya Bay reactor complex (and anti-neutrinos_)

    ***

    China Spallation Neutron in Dongguan,Guangdong

    A brief introduction of Dongguan,Guangdong

    Latest Updated by2004-06-07 14:30:45

    Dongguan is located 23 North Latitude, 114 East Longitude and just south of Guangzhou, Guangdong. It is situated to the east bank of Pearl River, to Hong Kong and Shenzhen in the south. It has a population of over 6 millions and area of 2,465 square kilometers (907 square miles), most of which is mountainous area and plain, and a coastlne of 61.9 kilometers (38.5 miles). With a moderate sub-tropic ocean climate, its average temperature is 22 degree(72 F), and its annual rainfall is about 1800 mm(71 inches).

    Dongguan is a city with a long history and culture. It has resident 5,000 years ago, its origin can trace back to 1,200 years ago. The famous event Humen Opium Burning on the eve of Opium War took place in Humen of Dongguan, in which makes it the beginning of the modern history of China. Dongguan is also famous for its particular culture of dragon boat, dragon lion and folk arts.

    ***
    My Note – But the one I was interested in finding is this one –
    Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory in Tibet TEXT SIZE: A A A

    Introduction

    YBJ International Cosmic Ray Observatory is located at 90°26’E and 30°13’N in Yangbajing (YBJ) valley of Tibetan highland, near the cross point of Qinghai – Tibet and China – Nepal highways, and the Qinghai – Tibet railway (to be completed in 5 years), about 90 km away from the city of Lhasa. YBJ’s wide and flat topography, convenient traffic, scarce heavy snow, rich geothermal power source, about 4,000 residents and many neighboring institutions & services, make it the best site of high altitude observatory in the world.

    YBJ Observatory was founded in 1990. It has hosted the Tibet ASγ Experiment (Sino-Japanese Cooperation) ever since. After 6 years’ preparation, the ARGO -YBJ Project (Sino-Italian Cooperation) started its detector installation in 2000. Both of them aim at the research of the origin of high energy cosmic rays, the GRB physics in high energy, the correlation between the movement of the Cosmic ray sun shadow and the solar/interplanetary magnetic field and solar activity, etc.  Through the observation of air showers (AS) by AS array – a semi-full sky and continuous observation technique. Taking advantage of the YBJ high altitude, by increasing the density of scintillation detector, the ASγ Array has successfully observed γ rays from Crab Nebula and Mrk 501 (during its flaring period in 1997); by developing the traditional sampling AS array as a “carpet”, the ARGO-YBJ full coverage array is intended for exploring the approximately 100 GeV uncultivated land and measuring the antiproton/proton ratio by cosmic ray moon shadow.
    Beside the AS array, neutron monitor and neutron telescope have been available for solar and hiliosphere study. Along with the further development of the observatory, the existing detectors will be upgraded and more new type detectors adopted.

    Sino – Japanese Cooperation on AS and Solar Neutron Experiment

    The purpose of this cooperative experiment is as follows:

    1) to search and monitor the Gamma ray sources with the energy threshold of 3TeV.

    2) to study the configuration and variation of the solar and interplanetary magnetic fields under the influence of the solar activity by monitoring on time variation of the Sun shadows of cosmic rays.

    3) energy spectrum around the composition study and the “knee” of primary cosmic rays.

    4) to monitor the time variation of cosmic rays with the energy larger than 14 GeV detect the solar proton and neutron events and study the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays and the production process of high energy particles in solar flares or CMEs.

    Taking part in this international cooperation on the Chinese side are the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research, CAS; Shandong University; Southwest Jiaotong University; Tibet University and Yunnan University with Professor Youheng Tan being the spokesman, on the Japanese side are Hirosaki University; Utsunomiya University; Saitama University; Shibaura Institute of Technology; University of Tokyo; Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering; National Institute of Information; Waseda University; Kanagawa University; Yokohama National University; Shonan Institute of Technology; Nagoya University and Konan University with Professor Toshinori Yuda being the spokesman.

    Sino–Italian International Cooperation on ARGO-YBJ Experiment

    ARGO-YBJ (Astroparticle – physics Research at Ground-based Observatory Yangbajing) Experiment is to be carried out at high altitude YBJ Observatory which boasts a 5000 m2 full coverage carpet-like RPC array to realize the low threshold energy high sensitivity detection of the primary γ-ray and cosmic ray particles. The RPC array covers a vast range of sky (-10°<δ<70°) and energy region (10GeV-100TeV) with the ground based full time duty AS array technique. Such characters can be vividly depicted with the mythological monster of ARGO, who has many eyes and never sleeps.
    The ARGO -YBJ project was launched by Chinese and Italian scientists in 1994. Their common efforts led to the successful testing of 50m2 RPC carpet at YBJ in the winter season of 1997/1998 and the conclusion of the official agreement between the two governments of China and Italy on this cooperation in 1998. A 10,000 m2 ARGO hall was accomplished in YBJ Observatory in 2000, thus making possible for the installation of RPC and electric network to start. According to schedule, the whole carpet will be completed and put into operation in 2003.

    Research Goals

    Based on the low energy threshold (~100GeV), high sensitivity (~0.1 of Crab flux) and a fine granularity space-time picture of shower front provided by the YBJ high altitude and the full coverage detector array, the following scientific goals will be achieved:

    1) Gamma-ray astronomy: Continuous monitoring of the γ-ray sources in the northern sky at a 100 GeV threshold energy to bridge the “satellite regime” to the multi-TeV region by a full time and wide FOV detector, with a sensitivity ~1/10 Crab flux. More attention will be paid to about 100 GeV and several 10 TeV region, where either it is the region which has never been explored before or the region where a γ-ray source corresponding to a UHE hardron acceleration site can be found out;

    2) Diffuse –γ rays: From the Galactic plane, molecular clouds and Supernova Remnants at 3100 GeV have never been observed so far;

    3) Gamma ray burst physics: Extending the satellite measurements over the full GeV/TeV range;

    4) Antiproton/proton ratio measurement: At about 1 TeV (inaccessible to satellites), with a sensitivity adequate to distinguish between models of local (galactic) proton production and model accounting for an extragalactic origin;

    5) Sun and heliosphere physics, including cosmic ray modulation at about 14 GeV threshold energy, continuous monitoring of the interplanetary magnetic field on monthly scale, detection of high energy Gamma and neutron flares;

    6) Detailed study of air shower in the energy range of 1012-1015 eV, including the fine structures of air shower and some peculiar features in the extreme forward region of UHE interaction, based on the unprecedented details of individual air showers recorded by ARGO-YBJ carpet;

    7) Measurement of the primary proton spectrum: In the 10 – 200 TeV region, the traditional balloon experiment regime, with much smaller error bars and a sensitivity sufficient to detect a possible change of the proton energy spectrum.

    Taking part in this collaboration on the Chinese side are the Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS; Center for Space Science and Applied Research, CAS; Shandong University; Southwest Jiaotong University; Tibet University and Yunnan University, with Professor Tan Youheng being the spokesman of the Chinese side. Taking part in this collaboration on the Italian side are INFN and Lecce University; INFN and Napoli University; INFN Section of Napoli and University of Salerno; INFN Section of Napoli and University of Sonnio, Benevento; INFN and University Roma “Tor Vergata”; INFN and University “Roma Tre” Roma; INFN and Institute of Cosmogeo Physics of CNR, Torino; INFN Section of Catania and Institute of Physics of Cosmic and IFCA/CNR,Palerno and INFN Section of Pavia, with Professor Benedetto D’Ettorre Piazzoli being the spokesman of the Italian side

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