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Da Qaidam Salt lake, Da Qaidam (Dachaidan) Co., Haixi Autonomous …
Da Qaidam Salt lake, Da Qaidam (Dachaidan) Co., Haixi Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai (Chinghai) Province, China : Ref.: – Qu Yihua (1981): A preliminary …
http://www.mindat.org/loc-157217.html – Cached – Similar

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Coordinates: 37°51’21 N 95°21’24 E
http://wikimapia.org/12397009/Da-Qaidam

town in western Qinghai
Category: township Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Qinghai

**

Da Qaidam – 412 Brigade
Ta-ch’ai-tan / Tsaidam
37°50’N 95°18’E

China established a nuclear missile deployment and launch site for DF-4 missiles (China’s first ICBM) in the early 1970s to the west of Dhashu (Haiyan) in the Da Qaidam [Tsaidam] basin. The Larger Tsaidam (Da Qaidam) site has two missiles stored horizontally in tunnels near the launch pad. Fuel and oxidiser is stored in separate tunnels with lines to the launch pad. According to the International Campaign for Tibet (ICT) in Washington DC, nuclear missiles are stationed in Small Tsaidam and are only moved to Large Tsaidam in times of emergency. Da Qaidam is one of five location at which a total of between 10 and 20 DF-4s were deployed as of early 1998.

The facility is probably headquarters for one of the three launch brigades, each with up to three launch battalions, subordinated to the Second Artillery Corps 80306 Unit, a Division headquartered in Xining, Qinghai province. The 80306 Unit is able to target sites in the former Soviet Union and India, and indications exist that the 80306 Unit may upgrade to the DF-21. Da Qaidam [Large Tsaidam] has been identified as the location of this Brigade headquarters. The reported relationship between Da Qaidam and Xiao Qaidam, notably the disposition of nuclear warheads, might suggest that the Xiao Qaidam facility is the primary location for this unit. However, the apparent Chinese practice of locating headquarters units separately from operational weapons locations, as seen with Second Artillery Corps Division headquarters locations, would appear to confirm Da Qaidam as the probable location for the Brigade headquarters.

Sources and Resources

* Nuclear Weapons on the Tibetan Plateau By Tsultrim Palden Dekhang The Office of Tibet 9-Oct-1998
* CHINA’S STRATEGIC MODERNIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES Mark A. Stokes [U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute] — September 1999
* Taking Stock – Worldwide Nuclear Deployments 1998 NRDC March 1998
http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/facility/da_qaidam.htm

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Green Earthquake Alert in China
Summary

On 9/2/2009 4:13:08 AM UTC an earthquake of magnitude 4.5 and depth 10km has struck an sparsely populated area in the Qinghai Province (population: 4.9 million) in China. GDACS estimates the likelihood for need of international humanitarian intervention to be low (Green alert).

This earthquake can have a low humanitarian impact since the affected region is sparsely populated and has medium resilience for natural disasters.

The earthquake 12km from the city of Da Qaidam Zhen. The nearest populated places are Datouyang (19km), Da Qaidam (17km). It is a mountainous region with a maximum altitude of 5579 m.
Humanitarian Impact impact
Population resilience vul
Tsunami probability tsunami
Landslide probability slope
Nuclear radiation probability radiation

Caution: this information is based on risk models. Whether international humanitarian aid is needed must be decided by an expert.

This report was automatically updated by a computer on: 9/2/2009 4:47:19 AM UTC (34 minutes after the event)

Explanation of alert calculation: Show

The impact model combines magnitude (M), population within 100km (P) and vulnerability/resilience ECHO average score (V) using the formula:
alertscore = max(M-4.5,0) * log10(max(P / 80000,0))^ 0.5 * max(V,0.5) ^ 1.5 / 3
The weighted product of magnitude (4.5), population (19064) and vulnerability (1.63) results in an alertscore of 0
Then alert is Red if alertscore>2, Orange if alertscore>1 and Green if alertscore999 km, Rmss=0.92 sec, Gp= 94°, M-type=teleseismic moment magnitude (Mw), Version=7
* Source: USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
* Event ID: us2009kwaf

Historic Seismicity (Magnitude 7+ since 1900)
qinghai seismic hist
Major Tectonic Boundaries: Subduction Zones -purple, Ridges -red and Transform Faults -green

In November 2008, a mainshock measuring 6.3 Mw struck Da Qaidam area, followed by a swarm of aftershocks with the three largest shocks measuring 5.4, 5.2 and 5Mw.

Related Links:

* Earthquakes [Links Page]
* China Quake 1st Anniversary
* Powerful Quake, Strong Aftershocks Hit China’s W. Xizang
* Another Deadly Earthquake Cluster Hits China
* China Quake Kills 9,000

This entry was posted on August 28, 2009 at 4:26 am and is filed under China earthquake, Earthquakes, Seismic Hazard, Seismic event, earthquake report, seismic activity report. Tagged: China quake, Da Qaidam earthquake, Earthquake Clusters, mining related earthquake, Northern Qinghai quake, Worldwide Earthquakes. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.
2 Responses to “Strong EQ Strikes Northern Qinghai, China”

1.
feww said
August 31, 2009 at 12:15 pm

10th strong aftershock shakes Northern Qinghai, China
Magnitude 5.8
Date-Time: Monday, August 31, 2009 at 10:15:30 UTC [Monday, August 31, 2009 at 06:15:30 PM at epicenter]
Location: 37.697°N, 95.899°E
Depth: 10 km (6.2 miles)
Region: NORTHERN QINGHAI, CHINA
Distances:
+55 km (35 miles) ESE of Da Qaidam, Qinghai, China
+170 km (105 miles) NNE of Golmud, Qinghai, China
+1800 km (1110 miles) W of BEIJING, Beijing, China
Location Uncertainty: horizontal +/- 5.4 km (3.4 miles);
Parameters NST= 99, Nph= 99, Dmin=>999 km, Rmss=0.93 sec, Gp= 40°, M-type=teleseismic moment magnitude (Mw), Version=7
Source: USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
Event ID: us2009kzaw

Note: Unless a great seismic event [magnitude of about 7.8 to 8.2] is about to occur close to this ‘aftershock,’ the reported details of this event seem to be inconsistent with the magnitude of Friday’s mainshock [6.2 Mw.]
See also FEWW comments in the main post.

see also FEWW comment in the main enrty:
Reply
*
feww said
September 1, 2009 at 2:39 am

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program has for a 2nd time downgraded the aftershock to a magnitude 5.6, presumably in an effort to make sense of their initial “error.”
Reply

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Mafia Solves Nuclear Waste Problem

Posted by feww on September 16, 2009
Nuclear Waste Disposal Doesn’t Have to Be So Expensive: Mafia

The enterprising corporate arm of Mafia has found an answer ( ) to the age old problem of energy growth: Go Nuclear

And don’t worry about the astronomical cost of “disposing” of the permanent waste. They will dump it in the ocean for you at premium prices.

Italian authorities have located the wreck of a vessel with 180 barrels of toxic waste on board, which they say was sunk by the mafia, off the south coast of Italy. The sunken ship is reported to be one of more than 30 scuttled by Cosa Nostra.

ansa photo
Photo: ANSA.it. Image may be subject to copyright.

Italian officials say the 110-meter long sunken vessel, which lay in 500 meters of water in the Tyrrhenian sea, may contain radioactive waste, a report said.

The ship’s location was revealed by Francesco Fonti, an ex-member of Calabria’s feared ‘Ndrangheta crime group, who confessed to using explosives to sink this vessel and two others.

The ship lay less than 28 km off the coast of Calabria in southwestern Italy, and was filmed by a remote-controlled submarine. A short video is available at: toxic dump.

Video images show an empty barrel lay on the seabed, which appears to have fallen out of a gaping hole in the sunken vessel’s damaged hull.

“There could be problems of toxins and heavy metals … this is an issue for the whole international community,” Silvestro Greco, head of Calabria’s environment agency, was reported as saying..

Greco said investigators believed there were 32 ships carrying toxic waste sunk by the mafia since the introduction of tighter environmental legislation in the 1980s made illegal waste disposal a lucrative business for crime groups.

“The Mediterranean is 0.7 percent of the world’s seas. If in this tiny portion there are more than 30 (toxic waste) shipwrecks, imagine what there could be elsewhere,” he said.

Related News Links:

* Toxic shipwreck calls for action
* Mafia ’sank nuclear waste ship’
* Italy finds wreck of toxic waste ship sunk by mafia

Related FEWW Links:

* STOP Killing Our Oceans
* Back from the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch”
* The Garbage Patch [You Tube Video]
* Algalita Photo Gallery
* Pt. 1 “Plastic in the Ocean” Interview with Capt. Charles Moore [You Tube Video]
* Pt. 2 “Plastic in the Ocean” Interview with Dr. Marcus Eriksen

* WILD FACTS SERIES: Our Oceans Are Dying

* Southern Ocean already losing ability to absorb CO2
* Oceans, Where Life Started, Are Dying – Part IV : Researchers found evidence of corrosive water about 20 miles off the west coast of North America from Canada to Mexico.
* Human carbon emissions make oceans corrosive : ‘Carbon dioxide spewed by human activities has made ocean water so acidic that it is eating away at the shells and skeletons of starfish, coral, clams and other sea creatures …’
* The Eight Steps that Help Kill More of Our Fish : How Your Car’s Exhaust Emissions Helps Create Dead Zones and Kill Our Fish.
* Global warming could starve oceans of oxygen: study : Areas of the eastern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with low amounts of dissolved oxygen have expanded in the past 50 years, apparently in line with rising temperatures.
* The Floating Toxic Garbage Island : A patch of garbage twice as large as the continental United States and dubbed the Great Pacific Garbage Patch floats in the middle of the Pacific Ocean in North Pacific Gyre.
* Oceans, Where Life Started, Are Dying – Part III : Tourism: The Most Destructive Human Activity After Warfare
* Oceans, Where Life Started, Are Dying – Part II : Major Problems: Fertilizer Runoff; Tourism; Coastal Developments [and Ocean Warming due to climate change]
* Oceans, Where Life Started, Are Dying – Part I : Our Oceans Are Now Dying

* “Climate Engineering” Best Option: Economists
* New Stars Are Born
* Seeking Toxic Asylum
* Naples Garbage Opera – Act II
* Naples Garbage: First Commercial Dividends
* Naples: The Triangle of Death

* Italy: Submerged in Floodwaters, Sinking in Garbage
* Collapsing Cities
* Nessun dorma (None Shall Sleep)
* The $500-a-barrel professors
* Out of the Italian Mafia Frying Pan, Into the Swiss Mafia Fire

This entry was posted on September 16, 2009 at 1:48 am and is filed under Calabria, Silvestro Greco, Tyrrhenian sea, coast of Italy, dumping at sea. Tagged: Cosa Nostra, dying oceans, italian mafia, killing our oceans, Nuclear Waste Disposal, Nuclear Waste Problem, Silvio Berlusconi. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

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ansa-photo.jpg

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note on the sidebar of this site above –
#
Caution
All technical information and scientific data released by US Government agencies (e.g., NASA, EPA…) are subject to sudden variation because of political expediency. This caution also extends to the fidelity of the information provided by UN organizations (e.g., FAO, WHO…).

***

Earthquake Jolts Northern China’s Qinghai Province
The city of Delingha and its neighboring areas in northern part of Qinghai province, northwest China, were hit by an earthquake measuring 6.6 on the Richter scale at 8:48 a.m. Thursday.


So far, there have been no immediate reports of damage or injury.


The epicenter was approximately 50 kilometers from Delingha at 37.5 degrees north 96.8 degrees east, according to a source with China’s Seismological Forecast Network Thursday.


The city of Delingha was shaken violently, and minor shocks were felt at Golmud and other adjacent areas. And cracks were visible on some houses in Dachaidan town in the vicinity.


An investigative team from the Qinghai Provincial Seismological Bureau has rushed to the quake affected areas to look into the situation.


The far western region of Xinjiang, which borders Qinghai to the northwest, was hit Feb. 24 by a powerful quake of magnitude 6.8 that killed 268 people.



http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200304/17/eng20030417_115341.shtml

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Qaidam
Un article de Wikipédia, l’encyclopédie libre. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Aller à : Navigation , rechercher Jump to: navigation, search
Situation du bassin du Qaidam Status of the Qaidam Basin

Le bassin du Qaidam , ou du Tsaidam , est une région désertique du nord du plateau tibétain , située dans la préfecture de Haixi de la province chinoise du Qinghai , et appartenant à l’ancienne province traditionnelle tibétaine de l’ Amdo . The Qaidam Basin, or Tsaidam is a desert region of northern plateau Tibet is situated in the Prefecture of Haixi province China’s Qinghai, and belonging to the ancient traditional Tibetan province of the Amdo. Son nom provient probablement de tsa’i dam , qui signifie en mongol et en tibétain , « marais salé ». Its name probably derives from Tsa’ir dam, which means in Mongolian and Tibetan, salt marsh .
Sommaire Summary
[masquer]

* 1 Géographie 1 Geography
* 2 Climat 2 Climate
* 3 Histoire 3 History
* 4 Population 4 Population
* 5 Économie 5 Economy
* 6 Installations militaires 6 Military installations
* 7 Notes et références 7 Notes and references
* 8 Voir aussi 8 See also
o 8.1 Articles connexes 8.1 Article Related
o 8.2 Liens externes 8.2 External Links

[ modifier ] Géographie [Edit] Geography
Paysage typique de steppe désertique sur la bordure nord du bassin du Qaidam Landscape typical steppe desert on the northern edge of Qaidam Basin

Le bassin du Qaidam se situe à une altitude comprise entre 2 600 et 3 300 m , sur le plateau du Qinghai-Tibet, et est entouré de chaînes montagneuses dont certaines atteignent 6 000 m d’altitude. The Qaidam Basin is located at altitudes between 2 600 and 3 300 m on the Qinghai-Tibet, and is surrounded by mountain ranges, some reaching 6 000 m altitude. Il est limité au sud par les monts Kunlun , au nord par l’ Altun Shan (ou Altyn-Tagh ) et le Nan Shan , et s’étend à l’est jusqu’aux voisinages du lac Kokonor . It is bounded on the south by the Kunlun Mountains to the north by the Altun Shan (or Altyn-Tagh) and Nan Shan, and extends eastward to the neighborhoods of Lake Kokonor. D’est en ouest, il mesure environ 850 km , et du nord au sud environ 300 km . From east to west it measures about 850 km and from north to south about 300 km.

Le plus grand lac du bassin de Qaidam est le Dabsan Hu , au nord de la ville de Golmud . The largest lake in the Qaidam Basin is Dabsan Hu, north of the city of Golmud. La teneur en sel des lacs du bassin du Qaidam est telle qu’il forme une croûte épaisse à surface, faisant en sorte que les lacs ne sont souvent pas perçus comme tels. The salt lakes of Qaidam Basin is such that it forms a thick crust to the surface, ensuring that the lakes are often not perceived as such. Le sel de ces lacs, en particulier au nord de la ville de Golmud, fait l’objet d’une exploitation industrielle à grande échelle. The salt in these lakes, especially north of the city of Golmud is the subject of an industrial scale.

Les principales villes sont Golmud , Delingha et Da Qaidam . The main cities are Golmud, Delingha and Da Qaidam.
[ modifier ] Climat [Edit] Climate
Un arc-en-ciel après une rare pluie dans le Bassin de Qaidam sur le Plateau tibétain A rainbow in the sky after a rare rain in the Qaidam Basin on the Tibetan Plateau

En raison de son altitude élevée et de sa grande distance à la mer, le bassin du Qaidam possède un climat continental. Because of its high altitude and its distance to the sea, the Qaidam Basin has a continental climate. Les hivers sont longs et très froids, et les vents de sable sont nombreux au printemps. The winters are long and very cold and sandstorms are frequent in the spring. Les chaînes de montagnes faisant obstacle à l’arrivée des pluies, certaines parties du bassin comptent parmi les régions les plus arides de la Chine. The mountain ranges that impede the arrival of rains, parts of the basin are among the driest regions of China. La température moyenne à Golmud est de 4,9 °C, et les précipitations annuelles de 40 mm. The average temperature in Golmud is 4.9 ° C and annual precipitation of 40 mm.
[ modifier ] Histoire [Edit] History

Une section alternative de la branche sud de la route de la soie traverse le bassin du Qaidam [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . An alternative section of the southern branch of the Silk Road through the Qaidam Basin [1], [2]. Des fouilles archéologiques récentes suggèrent que cette route aurait, il ya 1 500 ans, été plus prospère que celle passant par le corridor du Gansu [ 3 ] . Recent archaeological excavations suggest that this route would, it is 1 500 years, been more prosperous than through the Gansu corridor [3].
[ modifier ] Population [Edit] Population

Le développement de l’activité, principalement liée aux ressources minérales de la région, a entraîné un accroissement important de la population : elle est passée de 10 000 à 270 000 habitants entre 1946 et 1986 . The development activity, primarily related to mineral resources in the region, has resulted in a significant increase in the population: it increased from 10 000 to 270 000 inhabitants between 1946 and 1986.

Les populations nomades vivant dans le bassin sont constituées à la fois de tibétains et de mongols . The nomads living in the basin consist of both Tibetan and Mongolian. Dans les régions les plus désolées, au climat particulièrement aride, seuls les nomades mongols sont présents, car leurs animaux ( chameaux , chevaux , moutons à queue grasse ) supportent bien les conditions difficiles, contrairement aux yaks et aux moutons des nomades tibétains [ 4 ] . In the most desolate regions, particularly in the arid climate, only the Mongolian nomads are present, for their animals (camels, horses, sheep tail fat) bear out the harsh conditions, unlike the yaks and sheep Tibetan nomads [4] .

En 1999, la Banque mondiale avait proposé un projet visant à relocaliser près de 60 000 fermiers chinois autour de l’oasis de Xiangride (district de Dulan ), projet qui fut abandonné car il présentait « le risque de détruire la culture bouddhique propre à cette partie occidentale de la Chine » [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [ 7 ] . In 1999, the World Bank had proposed a project to relocate about 60 000 Chinese farmers around the oasis of Xiangride (District Dulan) project that was abandoned because it had the potential to destroy the Buddhist culture specific to western part of China [5], [6], [7]. Les Tibétains pensent que la Chine veut résoudre ses problèmes énergétiques aux dépens des ressources pétrolières et gazières du Tibet , tout en accélérant le transfert de colons chinois, au détriment du fragile écosystème et du patrimoine culturel du Tibet [ 8 ] . Tibetans believe that China wants to solve its energy problems at the expense of oil and gas resources of Tibet, while accelerating the transfer of Chinese settlers to the detriment of the fragile ecosystem and cultural heritage of Tibet [8].
[ modifier ] Économie [Edit] Economy
Grand lac salé dans le bassin du Qaidam Great Salt Lake in Qaidam Basin

En raison de sa richesse en ressources minières, le bassin du Qaidam est qualifié de « bassin aux trésors ». Because of its rich mineral resources, the Qaidam Basin is described as a treasure basin. Parmi ses nombreuses ressources minérales, les plus notables sont le pétrole , le gaz naturel , le charbon , le chlorure de sodium , le potassium , le magnésium , le plomb , le zinc et l’ or [ 9 ] , ainsi que d’importantes réserves d’ amiante , de borax et de gypse . Among its many mineral resources, most notably the oil, the natural gas, the coal, the sodium chloride, the potassium, the magnesium, the lead, the zinc and the gold [9] and large reserves of asbestos, of borax and gypsum.
Le Qaidam posséderait les plus grandes réserves de lithium , de magnésium , de potassium et de sodium de toute la Chine. The Qaidam possess the largest reserves of lithium, of magnesium, the potassium and sodium across China. Le lac de Qarhan contient soixante milliards de tonnes de sel. Lake Qarhan contains sixty billion tons of salt. 22 champs pétrolifères y ont été découverts, avec des réserves estimées de 225 millions de tonnes, ainsi que 6 champs gazéifères, contenant 150 milliards de mètres cubes de gaz. 22 oil fields have been discovered, with estimated reserves of 225 million tons, and 6 gas fields, containing 150 billion cubic meters of gas.
[ modifier ] Installations militaires [Edit] Military installations

Des bases de missiles nucléaires stratégiques DF-4 seraient installées depuis les années 1980 près de Delingha et de Da Qaidam [ 10 ] , [ 11 ] , [ 12 ] , [ 13 ] . Bases of strategic nuclear missiles DF-4 would be installed since the 1980s near Delingha and Da Qaidam [10], [11], [12], [13].
[ modifier ] Notes et références [Edit] Notes and references

1. ? The Peoples of the West [archive] , A Third Century Chinese Account, Draft English translation by John E. ? The Peoples of the West, [archive] A Third Century Chinese Account, Français Draft translation by John E. Hill, notes 5.3 Hill, Notes 5.3
2. ? Another Silk Road: Qinghai Route [archive] ; Silk Road in Rare Books, novembre 2007 ? Another Silk Road: Qinghai Road, [archive] Silk Road in Rare Books, November 2007
3. ? New discoveries in Qinghai [archive] , China Heritage Newsletter No 1, mars 2005 ? New Discoveries in Qinghai, [archive] China Heritage Newsletter No. 1, March 2005
4. ? The Cultural Monuments of Tibet’s Outer Provinces: Amdo , Andreas Gruschke ( extrait en ligne [archive] ) ? The Cultural Monuments of Tibet’s Outer Provinces: Amdo, Andreas Gruschke (online excerpt) [archive]
5. ? La Banque mondiale fait machine arrière sur son prêt en faveur de la province chinoise du Qinghai [archive] ? The World Bank backtracked on its loan to the Chinese province of Qinghai [archive]
6. ? Resettlement and Urban Reconstruction in Former World Bank Project County [archive] , Tibet Environmental Watch, février 2002 ? Resettlement and Urban Reconstruction in Former World Bank Project County, [archive] Tibet Environmental Watch, February 2002
7. ? Carte des zones de relocalisation [archive] , World Bank ? Area Map relocation, [archive] World Bank
8. ? Le Congrès mondial du pétrole ravive les inquiétudes liées au développement de l’industrie pétrolière au Tibet [archive] ? The World Petroleum Congress revives concerns related to the development of the oil industry in Tibet [archive]
9. ? Rich Resources to Open Qaidam Basin to Multiple Industries [archive] , China Internet Information Center, juillet 2002 ? Rich Resources to Open Qaidam Basin to multiple industries, [archive] China Internet Information Center, July 2002
10. ? The People’s Liberation Army as Organization , James C. ? The People’s Liberation Army as Organization, James C. Mulvenon, Andrew ND Yang, chap. Mulvenon, Andrew ND Yang, chap. 11 : The Chinese Second Artillery Corps: Transition to credible deterrence, pp. 11: The Chinese Second Artillery Corps: Transition to Credible Deterrence, pp. 542-543 ( voir en ligne [archive] ) 542-543 (see online) [archive]
11. ? Second Artillery Corps [archive] , Nuclear Threat Initiative ? Second Artillery Corps, [archive] Nuclear Threat Initiative
12. ? Chinese Nuclear Forces and US Nuclear War Planning [archive] , FAS & NRDC, novembre 2006, pp. ? Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning, [archive] FAS & NRDC, November 2006, pp. 67-70 67-70
13. ? DF-4 Intermediate-range ballistic missile [archive] , sinodefence.com, mai 2006 ? DF-4 Intermediate-range ballistic missile, [archive] sinodefence.com, May 2006

[ modifier ] Voir aussi [Edit] See also
[ modifier ] Articles connexes [Edit] Related Articles

* Préfecture autonome mongole et tibétaine de Haixi Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of Tibetan and Haixi
* (en) Second Artillery Corps (in) Second Artillery Corps
* (en) DF- 4 (in) DF-4

[ modifier ] Liens externes [Edit] External Links

* (de) Das Qinghai-Tibet-Plateau , Radio Chine internationale, juin 2003 (de) Das Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China Radio International, June 2003
* (en) Qaidam Basin semi-desert , World Wildlife Fund, 2001 (in) Qaidam Basin semi-desert, World Wildlife Fund, 2001
* (fr) Richesses minérales du Qaidam , Actions pour le développement et l’étude du Qinghai, août 1998 (en) Mineral Resources of the Qaidam, Stocks for the development and study of Qinghai, in August 1998

* Tibetan Portal Portail du Tibet Tibetan Portal
* Chinese portal in the world Portail du monde chinois Chinese portal in the world

Ce document provient de « http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam ». Retrieved from http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam.
Catégories : Géographie de la Chine | Tibet | Qinghai | Désert | Route de la soie Categories: Geography of China | Tibet | Qinghai | Desert | Silk Road | [+]

http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam&ei=NlizStGaM5SNtgflpfCuDQ&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DDa%2BQaidam%2BHu%2Bwikipedia%26hl%3Den

original untranslated page address
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qaidam

***

http://www.nti.org/db/china/sac.htm

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Second Artillery Corps (SAC)

COMMANDER: Yang Guoliang ORDER: Yang Guoliang

POLITICAL COMMISSAR: Sui Yongju POLITICAL COMMISSAR: Sui Yongju

OTHER NAMES: Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF); Strategic Missile Forces (SMF); Strategic Missile Corps (SMC); Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF) OTHER NAMES: Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF); Strategic Missile Forces (SMF); Strategic Missile Corps (MSC) Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF)

Established on 1 July 1966, the Second Artillery Corps maintains control over China’s nuclear and conventional strategic missile forces, consisting of short-, medium-, long-, and intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. It dates back to the formation of a ground-to-ground missile training group on 9 December 1957 which was later reorganized into strategic guided missile combat battalions on 18 March 1960. 1 One of these battalions launched the Second Artillery Corps’ first missile in October 1963. 2 The Second Artillery Corps made its first public appearance on 1 October 1984. 3 Established on 1 July 1966, the Second Artillery Corps maintains control over China’s nuclear and conventional strategic missile forces, consisting of short-, medium-, long-, and intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. It dates back to the formation of a ground-to training-ground missile group on 9 December 1957 Which was later reorganized into strategic guided missile combat battalions on 18 March 1960. 1 One of these battalions launched the Second Artillery Corps’ first missile in October 1963. 2 The Second Artillery Corps made its first public appearance on 1 October 1984. 3
The Second Artillery Corps is comprised of approximately 90,000 personnel and six ballistic missile bases 4 and maintains control of over 100 nuclear warheads. 5 Proportionally, the Second Artillery Corps is given priority funding. Although it only makes up about 4 percent of the PLA, it receives 12 to 15 percent of the defense budget and about 20 percent of the total procurement budget. When the PLA cut 1 million personnel in the 1980s, Second Artillery Corps ranks actually increased. 6 The Second Artillery Corps is Comprised of approximately 90.000 personnel and six ballistic missile bases 4 and maintains control of over 100 nuclear warheads. 5 Proportionally, the Second Artillery Corps is given priority funding. Although it only makes up about 4 percent of the PLA, it receives 12 to 15 percent of the defense budget and about 20 percent of the total procurement budget. When the cut 1 million PLA personnel in the 1980s, Second Artillery Corps ranks actually increased. 6

Current Force Structure Current Force Structure
China’s current nuclear weapon’s arsenal totals about 400 devices, with over 100 warheads deployed for use on China’s ballistic missiles. China maintains a number of different ballistic missiles in its inventory, including the medium-range DF-3A, DF-15 and DF-21, the intercontinental-range DF-4 and DF-5 and the submarine-launched JL-1. China’s newest missile, the road mobile DF-31, was tested on 2 August 1999 but probably has not entered into operation. Bates Gill and James Mulvenon write that Chinese nuclear force structure seems to defy simple categorization as either limited or minimal deterrence. 7 While China’s newer short-range and medium-range ballistic missiles use solid rocket motors, China’s estimated 20 some ICBMs capable of hitting the US use liquid fuel and require launch preparation times of up to two hours. China’s current nuclear weapon’s arsenal totals about 400 devices, with over 100 deployed warheads for use on China’s ballistic missiles. China maintains a number of different ballistic missiles in its inventory, including the medium-range DF-3A, DF-15 and DF-21 , the intercontinental-range DF-4 and DF-5 and the submarine-launched JL-1. China’s newest missile, the road mobile DF-31 was tested on 2 August 1999 but probably has not entered into operation. Bates Gill and James Mulvenon write that Chinese nuclear force structure seems to defy simple categorization as either limited or minimum deterrence. 7 While China’s newer short-range and medium-range ballistic missiles use solid rocket motors, China’s estimated some 20 ICBMs capable of hitting the U.S. use liquid fuel and require launch preparation times of up to two hours. This coupled with the fact that China’s missiles are deployed unfueled and without warheads indicate that China’s ICBMs are limited to a second strike role and cannot launch on warning. China’s other ballistic missiles could be used in a nuclear role against targets in East Asia, South Asia and Russia, but they may also be used conventionally. This coupled with the fact that China’s missiles are deployed warheads and without unfueled indicate that China’s ICBMs are limited to a second strike role and can not launch on warning. China’s other ballistic missiles could be used in a nuclear role against targets in East Asia, South Asia and Russia, but they may also be used conventionally.

Training Training
After its formation in 1966, Second Artillery Corps exercises may have languished because of the effects of the Cultural Revolution as there is no mention of exercises being conducted until the mid-seventies, when China’s strategic guided missile units organized a massive long-range firing practice with live warheads, involving moving operations, camouflaging, and launching. In the early eighties the Second Artillery Corps conducted its first combined arms exercise. 8 In a 1982 exercise simulating a Soviet armored invasion, the PLA and the Second Artillery Corps jointly repelled the Soviet attack using a tactical nuclear explosive. Due to a lack of campaign tactics using tactical nuclear weapons, then Second Artillery Corps commander Lieutenant General Li Xuge ordered extensive theater nuclear missile exercises. 9 During the mid 1990s the Second Artillery Corps trained in simulated post-nuclear strike 10 and chemical-biological warfare environments. 11 More recently, the Second Artillery Corps may also have held antimissile exercises. 12 The Second Artillery Corps also conducts training with a computerized simulator. 13 After its formation in 1966, Second Artillery Corps exercises may have languished Because of the effects of the Cultural Revolution as there is no mention of exercises being conducted until the mid-seventies, when China’s strategic guided missile units organized a massive long-range firing practice with live warheads, involving moving operations, Camouflaging, and launching. In the early eighties the Second Artillery Corps conducted its first combined arms exercise. 8 In a 1982 exercise simulating a Soviet armored invasion, the PLA and the Second Artillery Corps repelled Jointly The Soviet attack using a tactical nuclear explosion. Due to a lack of campaign tactics using tactical nuclear weapons, then Second Artillery Corps ordered Lieutenant General Li Xuge ordered extensive theater nuclear missile exercises. 9 During the mid 1990s the Second Artillery Corps trained in simulated post 10-strike nuclear and chemical-biological warfare environments. 11 More recently, the Second Artillery Corps may also have held missile exercises. 12 The Second Artillery Corps also conducts training with a computerized simulator. 13

In 2001, the Second Artillary Corps Engineering College transferred 29 technical personnel from over 10 specialized disciplines. The purpose was develop a new missile simulation training system. The project was completed in a span of three months. 14 In 2001, the Second Corps Engineering College Artillary transferred 29 technical staff from over 10 specialized disciplines. The purpose was Develop a new missile simulation training system. The project was completed in a span of three months. 14

Nuclear Doctrine Nuclear Doctrine
China’s nuclear doctrine is thought to be minimal deterrence, which requires only a small number of warheads to inflict unacceptable damage on an enemy’s cities. However, as China’s warheads become smaller and missile accuracies improve, China may change to a doctrine of limited deterrence. Under limited deterrence a country is able to inflict enough counterforce and countervalue damage on the enemy such that it backs down and is thus denied victory. 15 China would then have to have the ability to attack missile, naval and air bases, logistical centers, C4I nodes as well as cities. However, to carry out a doctrine of limited deterrence, China would need to upgrade its entire nuclear force structure. Some Chinese strategists argue that limited deterrence would require China to have a greater number of smaller, more accurate, survivable, and penetrable ICBMs; SLBMs as countervalue retaliatory forces; tactical and theater nuclear weapons to hit battlefield and theater military targets and to suppress escalation; ballistic missile defense to improve the survivability of the limited deterrent; space-based early warning and command and control systems; and anti-satellite weapons to hit enemy satellites. 16 China’s nuclear doctrine is thought to be minimal deterrence, Which requires only a small number of warheads to inflict unacceptable damage on an enemy’s cities. However, as China’s become smaller warheads and missile accuracies improve, China may change to a doctrine of limited deterrence. Under limited deterrence is a country able to inflict enough damage countervalue counterforce and the enemy is such that it backs down and is Thus denied victory. 15 China would then have to have the ability to attack missile, naval and air bases, logistical centers, C4I nodes as well as cities. However, to carry out a doctrine of limited deterrence, China would need to upgrade its entire nuclear force structure. Some Chinese strategists argue that limited deterrence would require China to have a greater number of smaller, more accurate , survivable, and penetrable ICBMs, SLBMs have countervalue Retaliatory Forces, tactical and theater nuclear weapons to hit battlefield and theater military targets and to suppress escalation; ballistic missile defense to Improve the survivability of the limited deterrent; space-based early warning and command and control systems, and anti-satellite weapons to hit enemy satellites. 16

Clearly, such an undertaking would require immense efforts and huge sums of money, which has led many scholars to believe that China’s nuclear doctrine is driven more by the limits of its technology and less by an analysis of its strategic options. In fact, John Lewis and Hua Di argue that for many years missile designers did not concern themselves with nuclear strategy, though the targets they designed missiles to hit — Japan, the Philippines, Guam and the continental United States — did imply a strategic retaliatory doctrine. In addition, the Second Artillery Corps also did not concern itself with nuclear strategy and assumed that nuclear strategy was a matter to be debated and decided upon by leaders in the Central Military Commission. No consideration was given to nuclear strategy by the Second Artillery Corps until the mid-1980s. 17 However, the Second Artillery Corps is thought to play a significant role in China’s current development of nuclear doctrine. 18 Clearly, such an undertaking would require enormous efforts and huge sums of money, Which has led many scholars to believe that China’s nuclear doctrine is driven more by the limits of its technology and less by an analysis of its strategic options. In fact, John Lewis Hua Di and argues that for many years missile designers did not concern themselves with nuclear strategy, though the targets they designed to hit missiles – Japan, the Philippines, Guam and the continental United States – did Retaliatory imply a strategic doctrine. In addition , the Second Artillery Corps also did not concern itself with nuclear strategy and assumed that nuclear strategy was a matter to be Debated and DECIDED upon by leaders in the Central Military Commission. No consideration was given to nuclear strategy by the Second Artillery Corps until the mid-1980s. 17 However, the Second Artillery Corps is thought to play a significant role in China’s current development of nuclear doctrine. 18

Conventional Doctrine Conventional Doctrine
Because China lacks an effective air force, missiles are its only means to conduct conventional long range strikes. Mark Stokes writes in China’s Strategic Modernization that the Chinese leadership, believing that a quick strike is best, may order missile strikes on airfields, air defenses, ports and C4I nodes as soon as they believe war is inevitable. He also writes that the PLA believes that the US is most vulnerable when it is deploying forces and logistics to the area of operations. A preemptive strike during this phase, many PLA strategists believe, will significantly offset an enemy’s technological advantages. 19 Because China lacks an effective air force, missiles are its only means to conduct long-range conventional strikes. Mark Stokes writes in China’s Strategic Modernization that the Chinese leadership, believing that a quick strike is best, may order missile strikes on airfields, air defenses, ports and C4I nodes as soon as they believe war is inevitable. He also writes that the PLA believes that the U.S. is most vulnerable when it is deploying forces and logistics to the area of operations. A preemptive strike during this phase, many PLA strategists believe, will Significantly offset an enemy’s technological advantages. 19

The Second Artillery Corps is viewed as an essential element of the PLA’s warfighting plans and is thus involved extensively in joint operations. Second Artillery Corps officers are now required to be part of joint commands. 20 Because of its intrinsic value in joint operations, the Second Artillery Corps may be required to increase its missile force to provide continuous support throughout a campaign. 21 In 2000, US intelligence assessments put the number of missiles opposite Taiwan at 200, with China adding 50 new missiles every year. 22 The Second Artillery Corps is viewed as an essential element of the PLA’s Warfighting Thus plans and is extensively involved in joint operations. Second Artillery Corps officers are now required to be part of joint commands. 20 Because of its intrinsic value in joint operations, the Second Artillery Corps may be required to increase its missile force to Provide continuous support throughout a campaign. 21 In 2000, U.S. intelligence assessments put the number of missiles opposite Taiwan at 200, with China adding 50 new missiles every year. 22

Tactics Tactics
The Second Artillery practices group launches (sequential missile launches from different bases) to test its rapid response and retaliatory capabilities. This tactic was used in Sino-Soviet war scenarios and during the missile firings near Taiwan in 1995 and 1996. Units frequently practice mobile launches and work to shorten pre-launch times. 23 The Second Artillery Practices group launches (sequential missile launches from different databases) to test its rapid response capabilities and Retaliatory. This tactic was used in Sino-Soviet war scenarios and during the missile firings near Taiwan in 1995 and 1996. Units frequently launches mobile practice and work to shorten pre-launch times. 23

Command and Control Command and Control
As a separate arm of China’s military, the Second Artillery maintains its own command and lines of communication with its bases and does not need to pass information through the regional military commands. Ultimate authority to use nuclear weapons rests with the Chairman of the Central Military Commission (currently Jiang Zemin) after top leaders have reached a consensus. A decision to use nuclear weapons may also require a consensus decision within the Central Military Commission and other senior military leaders. 24 As a separate arm of China’s military, the Second Artillery maintains its own command and lines of communication with its base and does not need to pass information through the regional military commands. Ultimate authority to use nuclear weapons rests with the Chairman of the Central Military Commission (currently Jiang Zemin) after top leaders have reached a consensus. A decision to use nuclear weapons may also require a consensus decision within the Central Military Commission and other senior military leaders. 24

Since the end of 1997 the Second Artillery Corps has promoted a number of missile experts to command positions at and above the regimental level in order to promote professionalism. 25 Since the end of 1997 the Second Artillery Corps has promoted a number of missile experts to command positions at and above the regimental level in order to Promote professionalism. 25 It is reported that over 85 percent of the officers of the Second Artillery Corps are at least college educated. 26 A report in late 2000 stated that SAC currently formed a 100-strong contingent of missile technology experts. 27 It is reported that over 85 percent of the officers of the Second Artillery Corps are at least college educated. 26 A report in late 2000 stated that SAC currently formed a 100-strong contingent of missile technology experts. 27 To improve the Second Artillery Corps’ communication links, China has developed a missile controlling system, electronic command system, and a universal message processing system. 28 To improve the Second Artillery Corps’ communication links, China has developed a missile system controlling, electronic command system, and a universal message processing system. 28

The Second Artillery Corps reportedly maintains strict discipline. While other military units have become involved in business activities, the Second Artillery Corps has refrained from such practices. All personnel are prohibited from using training days for other activities as well as from using military equipment and vehicles for business. In addition, personell are prohibited from attending parties at local restaurants and dance halls. The unit has provided its own entertainment facilities for its troops, though. 29 The Second Artillery Corps reportedly maintains strict discipline. While other military units have become involved in business activities, the Second Artillery Corps has refrained from such practices. All staff are prohibited from using training days for other activities as well as from using military equipment and vehicles for business. In addition, personnel are prohibited from attending parties at local restaurants and dance halls. The unit has provided its own entertainment facilities for its troops, though. 29

China’s Missile Bases China’s Missile Bases
The Second Artillery Corps is headquartered in Qinghe, a suburb of Beijing and maintains at least seven missile bases each with one to three missile brigades and regiment-level special departments responsible for chemical defense, communications, training, security and four launch battalions. Each base also has training and nuclear warhead maintenance units and reports directly to the Second Artillery Corps commander. 30 Each missile brigade commands a number of permanent launch sites. For ease of maintenance, each missile brigade is responsible for only one type of missile. 31 The Second Artillery Corps is headquartered in Qinghe, a suburb of Beijing and maintains at least seven missile bases each with one to three missile brigades and regiment-level special departments responsible for chemical defense, communications, training, security and four launch battalions. Each base also has training and nuclear warhead maintenance units and reports directly to the Second Artillery Corps command. 30 Each missile brigade commands a number of permanent launch sites. For ease of maintenance, each missile brigade is responsible for only one type of missile. 31

Below the brigade are the battalions, each with its own strategic missile carrier or several tactical missile systems. Each battalion also has support companies specializing in C3I, logistics, security and engineering. Mobile missile crews spend most of their time traveling from site to site and are required to know the location of the launch sites in their own region as well as the launch sites of neighboring regions. 32 Below the brigade are the battalions, each with its own strategic missile carrier or several tactical missile systems. Each battalion also has support companies specializing in C3I, logistics, security and engineering. Mobile missile crews spend most of their time traveling from site to site and are required to know the location of the launch sites in their own region as well as the launch sites of neighboring regions. 32

Many of China’s strategic missiles are based in silos or caves in order to survive a first strike. Following American and Soviet practice, China originally planned to house their DF-4 and DF-5 in silos, but began to rethink this method in the 1970s as the survivability of silo-housed missiles was called into question. The Chinese studied cave-basing and rail-mobile basing for the DF-4 and eventually decided on a procedure of in-cave storage/preparation and out-cave erection/filling/firing. 33 China also studied alternative basing modes for the DF-5, but decided to keep these missiles in silos due to their large size. However, to improve survivability fake silos were built to confuse opponents. 34 China’s most recent land based missiles, such as the DF-21 and DF-31, are solid fuel road mobile missiles that can be launched much more rapidly and hidden in a variety of locales. Many of China’s strategic missiles are based in silos or caves in order to survive a first strike. Following American and Soviet practice, China originally planned to house their DF-4 and DF-5 in silos, but Began to rethink this method in the 1970s have the survivability of silo-housed missiles was called into question. The Chinese studied cave-basing and rail-mobile basing for the DF-4 and was eventually DECIDED procedure of in-cave storage / preparation and out-cellar erection / filling / firing. 33 China also studied alternative basing modes for the DF-5, but Decided to keep these missiles in silos due to their large size. However, to Improve survivability fake silos were built to confuse opponents. 34 China’s most recent land based missiles, such as the DF-21 and DF-31, are solid fuel road mobile missile that can be launched much more rapidly and hidden in a variety of local.

In the 1990s the PLA began increasing the number of launch sites in eastern and southern China in order to improve operational flexibility during a crisis. As a result, a number of the best launching brigades were transferred from north China to east and south China. 35 In the 1990s the PLA Began Increasing the number of launch sites in eastern and southern China in order to Improve operational flexibility during a crisis. As a result, a number of the best launching brigades were transferred from north China to east and south China. 35

Strategic Missile Bases Strategic Missile Bases

Base # Base #

Base MUCD Base MUCD

Base and Selected Brigade locations Base and Selected Brigade rentals

Reported Missile Types Reported Missile Types

51 Base 51 Base

80301 80301

Headquarters: Shenyang, Liaoning Province Headquarters: Shenyang, Liaoning Province

Brigades: Tonghua, Dengshahe Brigades: Tonghua, Dengshahe

DF-3A/CSS-2 (Tonghua, Dengshahe) DF-3A/CSS-2 (Tonghua, Dengshahe)

DF-21/CSS-5 (Tonghua) DF-21/CSS-5 (Tonghua)

52 Base 52 Base

80302 80302

Headquarters: Huangshan, Anhui Province Headquarters: Huangshan, Anhui Province

Brigades : Leping, Lianxiwang Brigades: Leping, Lianxiwang

DF-15/CSS-6 (Leping) DF-15/CSS-6 (Leping)

DF-3A (Lianxiwang) DF-3A (Lianxiwang)

53 Base 53 Base

80303 80303

Headquarters: Kunming, Yunnan Province Headquarters: Kunming, Yunnan Province

Brigades: Chuxiong, Jianshui Brigades: Chuxiong, Jianshui

DF-21/CSS-5 (Chuxiong) DF-21/CSS-5 (Chuxiong)

DF-3A/CSS-2 (Jianshui) DF-3A/CSS-2 (Jianshui)

54 Base 54 Base

80304 80304

Headquarters: Luoyang, Henan Province Headquarters: Luoyang, Henan Province

Brigades: Luoning, Sundian Brigades: Luoning, Sundian

DF-5/CSS-4 (Luoning) DF-5/CSS-4 (Luoning)

DF-4/CSS-3 (Sundian) DF-4/CSS-3 (Sundian)

55 Base 55 Base

80305 80305

Headquarters: Huaihua, Hunan Province Headquarters: Huaihua, Hunan Province

Brigades: Tongdao (2 brigades) Brigades: Tongdao (2 brigades)

DF-4/CSS-3 (Tongdao) DF-4/CSS-3 (Tongdao)

56 Base 56 Base

80306 80306

Headquarters: Xining, Qinghai Province Headquarters: Xining, Qinghai Province

Brigades: Datong, Delingha Da Qaidam Brigades: Datong, Delingha Da Qaidam

DF-3A/CSS-2 (Datong) DF-3A/CSS-2 (Datong)

DF-4/CSS-3 (Delingha, Da Qaidam) DF-4/CSS-3 (Delingha, Da Qaidam)

N/A N / A

N/A N / A

Headquarters: Yidu, Shandong Province Headquarters: Yidu, Shandong Province

DF-3A/CSS-2 DF-3A/CSS-2

80301 Unit. The 80301 Unit is headquartered in Shenyang, Liaoning Province. Its complement of DF-3A and DF-21 cover the Korean peninsula and Japan, including Okinawa. 80,301 Unit. The 80301 Unit is headquartered in Shenyang, Liaoning Province. Its complement of DF-3A and DF-21 cover the Korean peninsula and Japan, including Okinawa.

80302 Unit. The 80302 Unit is headquartered in Huangshan, Anhui Province and is the Second Artillery’s most important unit for conducting strikes against Taiwan. The 815th brigade in Leping took part in the March 1996 missile exercises off the coast of Taiwan. During a wartime situation the 815th brigade would disperse to prearranged sites in Fujian Province in to order to be able to strike the entire island of Taiwan. Missiles are usually transported by rail for field deployments. 80,302 Unit. The 80302 Unit is headquartered in Huangshan, Anhui Province and is the Second Artillery’s most important unit for conducting strikes against Taiwan. The 815th brigade in Leping took part in the March 1996 missile exercises off the coast of Taiwan. During a wartime situation The 815th Brigade would disperse to prearranged sites in Fujian Province in order to to be able to strike the entire island of Taiwan. Missiles are usually transported by rail for field deployments.

80303 Unit. The 80303 Unit is headquartered in Kunming, Yunnan province. Its complement of DF-3A and DF-21 can strike targets in India and Southeast Asia. 80,303 Unit. The 80303 Unit is headquartered in Kunming, Yunnan Province. Its complement of DF-3A and DF-21 can strike targets in India and Southeast Asia.

80304 Unit. The 80304 Unit is headquartered in Luoyang, Henan province. Its DF-5 missiles can strike targets throughout the United States and Europe. 80,304 Unit. The 80304 Unit is headquartered in Luoyang, Henan province. Its DF-5 missiles can strike targets throughout the United States and Europe.

80305 Unit. The 80305 Unit is headquartered in Huaihua, Hunan province. Its DF-4 missiles can strike Guam. 80,305 Unit. The 80305 Unit is headquartered in Huaihua, Hunan Province. Its DF-4 missiles can strike Guam.

80306 Unit. The 80306 Unit is headquartered in Xining, Qinghai province. Its DF-4 missiles can strike targets in India and Russia. This unit may also have an experimental unit assigned to it. 80,306 Unit. The 80306 Unit is headquartered in Xining, Qinghai Province. Its DF-4 missiles can strike targets in India and Russia. This unit may also have an experimental unit assigned to it.

[Table and base source: Bates Gill and James Mulvenon, The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition to Credible Deterrence, unpublished study presented at China and Weapons of Mass Destruction , a seminar sponsored by the National Intelligence Council, November 1999. [Table and basic source: Bates Gill and James Mulvenon, The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition to Credible Deterrence, unpublished study presented at China and Weapons of Mass Destruction, a seminar sponsored by the National Intelligence Council, November 1999. ] ]

Institutes under SAC include: Under Institutes SAC include:

* FIRST INSTITUTE. FIRST INSTITUTE. Conducts research on operations, transporter erector launchers and logistics. Conducts research on operations, transport erector launchers and logistics.
* THIRD INSTITUTE. Conducts research on command automation, targeting and mapping. THIRD INSTITUTE. Conducts research on command automation, targeting and mapping.
* FOURTH INSTITUTE. FOURTH INSTITUTE. ( Function Unknown) (Unknown Function)
* ENGINEERING COLLEGE. Educates technicians involved in rocket research. In the mid-1990s conducted research into solid rocket reliability. During the late 1990’s conducted research on missile accuracy. ENGINEERING COLLEGE. Educates technicians involved in rocket research. In the mid-1990s conducted research into solid rocket reliability. During the late 1990’s conducted research on missile accuracy.
* RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN. Oversees overall design work. RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN. Oversees overall design work.
* COMMAND COLLEGE. Trains officers for leadership positions within the Second Artillery Corps. COMMAND COLLEGE. Trains officers for leadership positions within the Second Artillery Corps.

Footnotes Footnotes

1. Zhang Jiajun and Zao Zhi, The Strong Contingent of Secret Rockets – The Historical Course of Development of China’s Strategic Guided Missile Units, Xinhua, 7 July 1996 in FBIS, PRC: Article on Guided Missile Units’ Development, FBIS-CHI-96-135, 7 July 1996. 1. Zhang Jiajun and Zao Zhi, The Strong Contingent of Secret Rockets – The Historical Course of Development of China’s Strategic Missile Guided Units, Xinhua, 7 July 1996 in FBIS, PRC: Article on Guided Missile Units’ Development, FBIS -CHI-96-135, 7 July 1996.
2. Xu Zuzhi, China’s Strategic Missile Unit Now Possesses Figthing Capability under High-Tech Conditions, Zhongguo Xinwen She , 1 October 1999 in FBIS, Background of China’s Strategic Missile Unit, FTS19991002000093, 1 October 1999. 2. Zuzhi Xu, China’s Strategic Missile Unit Now Possesses Figthing Capability under High-Tech Conditions, Zhongguo Xinwen She, 1 October 1999 in FBIS, Background of China’s Strategic Missile Unit, FTS19991002000093, 1 October 1999.
3. Xu. 3. Xu.
4. 4. Mark Stokes, China’s Strategic Modernization: Implications for the United States , Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, 1999, p. Mark Stokes, China’s Strategic Modernization: Implications for the United States, Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, 1999, p. 93. 93.
5. Office of the Secretary of Defense, Proliferation: Threat and Response, 1996. 5. Office of the Secretary of Defense, Proliferation: Threat and Response, 1996.
6. You Ji, The Armed Forces of China , London: IB Taurus, 1999, p. 6. You Ji, The Armed Forces of China, London: IB Taurus, 1999, p. 85. 85.
7. Bates Gill and James Mulvenon, The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition To Credible Deterrence, unpublished study presented at China and Weapons of Mass Destruction , a seminar sponsored by the National Intelligence Council, November 1999. 7. Bates Gill and James Mulvenon, The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition to Credible Deterrence, unpublished study presented at China and Weapons of Mass Destruction, a seminar sponsored by the National Intelligence Council, November 1999.
8. Xu. 8. Xu.
9. You, p. 9. You, P. 95-96 95-96
10. The Casting of China’s Shield of Peace – A Record of Actual Events in the Development of the Second Artillery Corps, Xinhua, 7 July 1996 in FBIS, PRC: Development of Second Artillery Corps, FBIS-CHI-96-137, 7 July 1996. 10. The Casting of China’s Shield of Peace – A Record of Actual Events in the Development of the Second Artillery Corps, Xinhua, 7 July 1996 in FBIS, PRC: Development of Second Artillery Corps, FBIS-CHI-96 – 137, 7 July 1996.
11. PRC: Strategic Missile Troops Enhance Combat Capabilities, Xinhua, in FBIS, FBIS-TAC-96-007, 23 May 1996. 11. PRC: Strategic Missile Troops Fight Enhance Capabilities, Xinhua, in FBIS, FBIS-TAC-96-007, 23 May 1996.
12. Xu. 12. Xu.
13. 13. PRC: Strategic Guided Missile Training Simulator Passes Approval, Zhongguo Tongxun She, in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-96-151, 2 August 1996. PRC: Strategic Guided Missile Training Simulator Passes Approval, Zhongguo Tongxun She, in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-96-151, 2 August 1996.
14. Feng Jia’an and Li Jun, 2d Artillery Corps Engineering College Develops Missile Simulation Training System, Beijing Jiefangjun Bao , 15 February 2001, p. 14. Feng Jia’an and Li Jun, 2d Artillery Corps Engineering College Develops Missile Simulation Training System, Beijing Jiefangjun Bao, 15 February 2001, p. 2 in FBIS CPP20010215000054. 2 in FBIS CPP20010215000054.
15. 15. Alastair Iain Johnston, China’s New ‘Old Thinking’: The Concept of Limited Deterrence , International Security, Vol. Alastair Iain Johnston, China’s New ‘Old Thinking’: The Concept of Limited Deterrence, International Security, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter 1995/96), 20, No. 3 (Winter 1995/96),
p. p. 19 19
16. 16. Ibid. Ibid. p. p. 20. 20.
17. 17. John Wilson Lewis and Hua Di, China’s Ballistic Missile Programs: Technologies, Strategies, Goals, International Security, Vol. John Wilson Lewis and Hua Di, China’s Ballistic Missile Programs: Technologies, Strategies, Goals, International Security, Vol. 17, No. 2, (Fall 1992), p. 17 No. 2 (Fall 1992), p. 20. 20.
18. 18. Michael D. Michael D. Swaine, The PLA and Chinese National Security Policy: Leaderships, Structures, Processes, The China Quarterly, June1996, p. 382. Swaine, The PLA and Chinese National Security Policy: Leadership, Structure, Processes, The China Quarterly, June1996, p. 382.
19. 19. Stokes, p. Stokes, P. 97. 97.
20. 20. You, p. You, P. 99. 99.
21. 21. Ibid, p. Ibid, p. 100 100
22. 22. Address of Admiral Dennis Blair, Commander in Chief, US Pacific Command, Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference, Carnegie Ednowment for International Peace website , 16 March 2000. Address of Admiral Dennis Blair, Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command, Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference, Carnegie Ednowment for International Peace website, 16 March 2000.
23. 23. Ibid, p. Ibid, p. 93. 93.
24.Gill and Mulvenon. 24.Gill and Mulvenon.
25. 25. Zhang Jiajun, Experts Enter Decisionmaking Bodies of Strategic Guided Missile Units at and Above the Regimental Level, Xinhua, 22 June 1998 in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-98-176, 25 June 1998. Zhang Jiajun, Experts Enter Strategic Decisionmaking Bodies of Guided Missile Units and Above at the Regimental Level, Xinhua, 22 June 1998 in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-98-176, 25 June 1998.
26. 26. PLA Daily on Performance of Strategic Missile Force, Liberation Daily, in FBIS, FTS19991123000762, 16 November 1999. PLA Daily on Performance of Strategic Missile Force, Liberation Daily, in FBIS, FTS19991123000762, 16 November 1999.
27. 27. China’s Second Artillery Corps Forms 100-Strong Contingent of Missile Experts Xinhua , 27 Dec 2000 in FBIS, CPP20001227000128. China’s Second Artillery Corps Forms 100-Strong Contingent of Missile Experts Xinhua, December 27, 2000 in FBIS, CPP20001227000128.
28. 28. Xu. Xu.
29. 29. Zhang Jiajun and Li Chenghua, Newsletter, Xinhua, 9 April 1996 in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-96-080, 9 April 1996. Zhang Jiajun and Li Chenghua, Newsletter, Xinhua, 9 April 1996 in FBIS, FBIS-CHI-96-080, 9 April 1996.
30. 30. Stokes, pp. Stokes, pp. 93-94. 93-94.
31. 31. Ibid, p. Ibid, p. 94. 94.
32. 32. You, p. You, P. 105. 105.
33. 33. Lewis and Hua, p. Lewis and Hua, P. 24. 24.
34. 34. Ibid. Ibid. p. p. 25. 25.
35. 35. You, p. You, P. 53. 53.

For more on China’s nuclear deployments, see: For more on China’s nuclear deployments, see:

China’s nuclear modernization programs: China’s nuclear modernization programs:

[CHINA’S NUCLEAR WARHEAD MODERNIZATION] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR WARHEAD MODERNIZATION]

[CHINA’S NUCLEAR DELIVERY SYSTEM MODERNIZATION] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR DELIVERY SYSTEM MODERNIZATION]

China’s nuclear testing program: China’s nuclear testing program:

[CHINA’S NUCLEAR TESTING PROGRAM] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR TESTING PROGRAM]

[CHINA’S 45 NUCLEAR TESTS] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR TESTS 45]

China’s existing nuclear and nuclear-related capabilities: China’s existing nuclear and nuclear-related capabilities:

[CHINA’S NUCLEAR STOCKPILE AND DEPLOYMENTS] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR Stockpile and Deployment]

[CHINA’S BALLISTIC MISSILE DESIGNATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS] [CHINA’S BALLISTIC MISSILE DESIGNATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS]

Related issues: Related issues:

[CHINA’S NUCLEAR DOCTRINE] [CHINA’S NUCLEAR DOCTRINE]

[CHINA’S ATTITUDE TOWARD MISSILE DEFENSE] [CHINA’S ATTITUDE TOWARD MISSILE DEFENSE]

CNS This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, agents. This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, agents. Copyright © 2007 by MIIS. Copyright © 2007 by MIIS.

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***

October 1963
Wednesday 09:

In northeast Italy, over 2,000 people are killed when a large landslide behind the Vajont Dam causes a giant wave of water to overtop it.Monday 14:

The term Beatlemania is coined by the British press to describe the scene at the previous night’s performance by The Beatles on the TV show Val Parnell’s Sunday Night at the London Palladium, a top-rated program that was the British equivalent to The Ed Sullivan Show.

» October 14 in History

http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/october-1963/

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#

* A. O WOODFORD

MEMORIAL TO WILLIAM SIDNEY TANGIER SMITH (1869-1962)
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. P141-P144, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[P141:MTWSTS]2.0.CO;2

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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PERMAFROST
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. P145-P146, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[P145:ICOP]2.0.CO;2

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* A. LEE McALESTER

Pelecypods as Stratigraphic Guides in the Appalachian Upper Devonian
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1209-1224, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1209:PASGIT]2.0.CO;2

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* WILLIAM G PIERCE

Reef Creek Detachment Fault, Northwestern Wyoming
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1225-1236, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1225:RCDFNW]2.0.CO;2

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* JONATHAN BARRINGTON and
* PAUL F KERR

Collapse Features and Silica Plugs near Cameron, Arizona
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1237-1258, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1237:CFASPN]2.0.CO;2

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* PETER W LIPMAN

Gibson Peak Pluton: A Discordant Composite Intrusion in the Southeastern Trinity Alps, Northern California
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1259-1280, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1259:GPPADC]2.0.CO;2

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* RICHARD L HAY

ZEOLITIC WEATHERING IN OLDUVAI GORGE, TANGANYIKA
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1281-1286, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1281:ZWIOGT]2.0.CO;2

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* J. E SANDERS and
* JOHN IMBRIE

CONTINUOUS CORES OF BAHAMIAN CALCAREOUS SANDS MADE BY VIBRODRILLING
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1287-1292, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1287:CCOBCS]2.0.CO;2

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* HOWARD W OLIVER and
* DON R MABEY

ANOMALOUS GRAVITY FIELD IN EAST-CENTRAL CALIFORNIA
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1293-1298, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1293:AGFIEC]2.0.CO;2

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* H. F GARNER
FOUNTAIN FORMATION, COLORADO: A DISCUSSION
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1299-1302, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1299:FFCAD]2.0.CO;2

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* JOHN F HUBERT

FOUNTAIN FORMATION, COLORADO: A REPLY
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. 1303-1304, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[1303:FFCAR]2.0.CO;2

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http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/74/10

Table of Contents
October 1963, v. 74, no. 10
Table of Contents — October 1963, 74 (10) — Geological Society of …
Geological Society of America Bulletin October 1963, v. 74, p. P141-P144, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1963)74[P141:MTWSTS]2.0.CO;2. Abstract A Full Text (PDF) …
gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/74/10 – Cached – Similar –
by RCD Fault – 1963

***

Cuban Missile Crisis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in October 1962, during the Cold War. …
Background – U-2 flights – Planning an American Response
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis

***

Timeline 1963

1963 Jan 2, Viet Cong downed five U.S. helicopters in the Mekong Delta; 30 were reported to be dead.
(HN, 1/2/99)
1963 Jan 6, Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom with Marlin Perkins began on NBC.
(AP, 1/6/03)(MC, 1/6/02)

1963 Jan 8, President John F. Kennedy attended the unveiling of the Mona Lisa on loan at America’s National Gallery of Art.
(HN, 1/8/99)(MC, 1/8/02)
1963 Jan 13, Togo’s first president, Sylvanus Olympio, was killed by a military junta led by Gngassigbe Eyadema. Nicholas Grunitzky succeeded Olympio.
(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A12)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1172)1963 Jan 16, Nikita Khrushchev claimed the USSR had a 100-megaton nuclear bomb.
(MC, 1/16/02)

1963 Jan 17, Soviet leader Khrushchev visited the Berlin Wall.
(HN, 1/17/99)
1963 Jan 25, Wilson Kettle (102) died, leaving 582 living descendents.
(MC, 1/25/02)
1963 Jan, Gen. Charles de Gaulle and German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer signed the Franco-German reconciliation treaty.
(SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)

1963 Feb 6, The United States reported that all Soviet offensive arms are out of Cuba.
(HN, 2/6/99)

1963 Feb 7, The Mona Lisa was unveiled at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
(HN, 2/7/99)

1963 Feb 8, In Iraq the Baath Party first took power. Right-wing Baathists succeeded in mounting a coup and executed PM Gen. Abdel Karim Qassim. Abdul Salam Arif came to power. This was followed by a massacre of thousands of peasants, communists and trade unionists. The Arab Baath Socialist Party pulled off the coup and ruled Iraq for 9 months.
(HNQ, 6/20/99)(SFC, 8/6/99, p.D4)(AP, 5/26/03)(AP, 7/13/03)(NW, 9/8/03, p.32)

1963 Feb 9, 1st flight of Boeing 727 jet.
(MC, 2/9/02)

****

1963 Feb 11, A CIA Domestic Operations Division was created.
(MC, 2/11/02)

****

1963 Feb 12, Argentina asked for the extradition of ex-president Peron.
(MC, 2/12/02)
1963 Feb 19, The Soviet Union informed President Kennedy it would withdraw several thousand of an estimated 17,000 Soviet troops in Cuba.
(AP, 2/19/98)

1963 Feb 20, Moscow offered to allow on-site inspection of nuclear testing.
(HN, 2/20/98)

1963 Feb 22, Moscow warned the U.S. that an attack on Cuba would mean war.
(HN, 2/22/98)

1963 Feb 27, The USSR said that 10,000 troops would remain in Cuba.
(HN, 2/27/98)

****

1963 Feb-Mar, The US military, while conducting biological weapons tests, sprayed Bacillus globigii from aircraft near Fort Sherman Military Reservation in the Canal Zone.
(SFC, 11/1/02, p.A3)

****

1963 Mar 1, 200,000 French mine workers went on strike.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1963 Mar 3, Senegal adopted a constitution.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1963 Mar 4, Six people got the death sentence in Paris plotting to kill de Gaulle.
(HN, 3/4/98)

1963 Mar 5, A private plane crash near Camden, Tenn., claimed the lives of country music performers Patsy Cline (30), Cowboy Copas and Hawkshaw Hawkins, as well as pilot Randy Hughes, Cline’s manager.
(AP, 3/5/08)

1963 Mar 6, Jimmy Lee Smith and Gregory Powell abducted 2 Los Angeles police officers from a Hollywood street, drove them to an onion field in Bakersfield and shot officer Ian Campbell to death. Officer Karl Hettinger managed to escape. Smith served 19 years for his role in the case before he was paroled. In 1973 Joseph Wambaugh authored “The Onion Field,” a novel based on the murder. The novel was turned into a film in 1979.
(SFC, 6/28/05, p.B8)

1963 Mar 12, US House granted former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill honorary U.S. citizenship.
(MC, 3/12/02)

1963 Mar 13, China invited Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to visit Peking.
(HN, 3/13/98)

1963 Mar 18, The US Supreme Court made its Gideon ruling which said poor defendants have a constitutional right to an attorney. Gideon had been forced to defend himself in Florida in Jan 1962, and petitioned the Supreme Court to hear his complaint.
(SFC, 11/21/03, p.D4)(SSFC, 11/30/03, p.A31)

1963 Mar 19, In Costa Rica, President John F. Kennedy and six Latin American presidents pledged to fight Communism.
(HN, 3/19/98)
***********

1963 Mar 19, Algeria demanded that France negotiate on ending nuclear testing in Algerian Sahara.
(AP, 3/19/03)

********

1963 Mar 20, The 1st Pop Art exhibition was held in NYC.
(MC, 3/20/02)

1963 Mar 21, The Alcatraz federal prison island in San Francisco Bay was emptied of its last inmates at the order of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy.
(SFC, 6/29/96, p.E4)(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.7)(SFC, 8/11/97, p.A12)(AP, 3/21/97)(HN, 3/21/98)

1963 Mar 21, Boxer Davey Moore was killed by Sugar Ramos in Dodger Stadium during a nationally televised boxing match. In 1964 Bob Dylan wrote his song “Who Killed Davey Moore?”
(www.answers.com/topic/davey-moore)

1963 Mar 22, British Minister of War John Profumo denied having sex with Christine Keeler. The Profumo call girl scandal almost toppled the government. Profumo, a leading British Conservative and minister for war, was discovered to have been involved with Keeler, a call girl who was also dealing with a Soviet attaché. Valerie Hobson (d.1998 at 81), his actress wife, stood by him after the scandal. A 1995 Masterpiece Theater TV play was based on these events.
(TMC, 1994, p.1963)(WSJ, 12/28/95, p. A-5)(SFEC, 11/15/98, p.D5)(MC, 3/22/02)

1963 Mar, Pakistan and China signed a historic border agreement. Three years later, the two countries agreed to construct a road that would provide a hitherto non-existent road-link for mutual benefit. In 1978 the Karakoram Highway from Kashgar, China, to the edge of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, was completed.
(www.pakpost.gov.pk/philately/stamps2003/karakoram_highway.html)

1963 Mar, In Syria the pan-Arab Baath party staged a coup. Hafez Assad played an important role.
(WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A30)(SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

1963 Apr 1, Most of New York City’s daily newspapers resumed publishing after settlement was reached in a 114-day strike. Workers of the International Typographical Union ended their strike that had closed nine New York City newspapers. The strike ended 114 days after began on December 8, 1962.
(AP, 4/1/08)(OTD)

1963 Apr 2, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King began the first non-violent campaign in Birmingham, Alabama.
(AP, 4/2/99)

1963 Apr 6, The United States and Britain signed an agreement under which the Americans would sell Polaris A-3 missiles to the British.
(AP, 4/6/97)

1963 Apr 7, Yugoslavia proclaimed itself a Socialist republic.
(HN, 4/7/97)
1963 Apr 9, British statesman Winston Churchill was made an honorary U.S. citizen.
(AP, 4/9/97)(HN, 4/9/98)

1963 Apr 10, The USS Thresher nuclear-powered submarine failed to surface 220 miles east of Boston, Mass., in a disaster that claimed 129 lives.
(www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-t/ssn593.htm)

1963 Apr 11, John XXIII put forth his encyclical On peace in truth, justice, charity and liberty.
(MC, 4/11/02)
1963 Apr 13, Gary Kimovich Kasparov, world chess champion (1985-2000), was born in the USSR.
(MC, 4/13/02)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.D19)

1963 Apr 18, Dr. James Campbell performed the 1st human nerve transplant.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1963 Apr 27, Cuban premier Fidel Castro arrived in Moscow.
(MC, 4/27/02)
1863 Apr, In Venezuela the hostilities of the Federal War ended with negotiations for the Treaty of Coche, singed on May 22. This was the biggest civil war Venezuela had had since its independence.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_War)

1963 May 1, James Whittaker became the 1st American to conquer Mount Everest as he and a Sherpa guide reached the summit.
(AP, 5/1/03)

1963 May 7, The United States launched the Telstar II communications satellite. It made the first public transatlantic broadcast.
(HNQ, 5/3/99)(AP, 5/7/00)

1963 May 8, Dr. No premiered in US.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1963 May 8, JFK offered Israel assistance against aggression.
(MC, 5/8/02)

1963 May 8, Problems with the Buddhists began in Hue, Vietnam. The Diem Government decided to demonstrate its strength by enforcing a law against the display of flags other than the national flag. In defiance, the Buddhists lined the streets flying their flags regardless of the new law; this defiance turned bloody when troops fired into the crowd, killing nine. Diem now claimed that the Buddhists were affiliates of the Communists and tightened security around the more active pagodas.
(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWvietnam.htm)

1963 May 11, Puff The Magic Dragon by Peter, Paul and Mary hit #2.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1963 May 15, Peter, Paul & Mary won their 1st Grammy (If I Had a Hammer).
(MC, 5/15/02)

1963 May 15, U.S. astronaut L. Gordon Cooper blasted off atop an Atlas rocket aboard Faith 7 on the final mission of the Project Mercury space program. He orbited Earth 22 times and manually piloted his craft to a pinpoint splashdown.
(AP, 5/15/97)(WSJ, 11/7/97, p.A1)(HN, 5/15/98)

1963 May 16, After 22 Earth orbits Gordon Cooper returned to Earth in Friendship Seven, ending Project Mercury.
(HN, 5/16/98)
1863 May 22, The Treaty of Coche was signed in Venezuela. Arms were laid down from the Federal War and a general assembly called at Victoria, which elected Juan Chrisostomo Falcon as president and Antonio Leocadio Guzman as vice president. The latter was at the same time secretary of the treasury, and went to London to negotiate a loan.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Guzm%C3%A1n_Blanco)
1963 May 28, Down Jones went public. 110,000 shares of Dow Jones common stock were sold to the public.
(WSJ, 8/1/07, p.B6)(www.scripophily.net/dowjocoinde.html)
1963 May, Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert (32), psychology professors, were fired from Harvard for experimenting with psychedelic drugs. Alpert later traveled to India and returned as Ram Dass. In 1971 Alpert authored Be Here Now and in 2000 published Still Here – Embracing Aging, Changing and Dying.
(SFC, 12/21/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 5/2/00, p.A2)

1963 Jun 3, Pope John XXIII died at the age of 81, ending a papacy marked by innovative reforms in the Roman Catholic Church. He was succeeded by Pope Paul VI.
(AP, 6/3/97)

1963 Jun 5, John Profumo (1915-2006), British Minister of War, resigned due his relations with Christine Keeler. [see mar 22]
(AP, 3/10/06)

1963 Jun 5, A state of siege was proclaimed in Iran and Ayatollah Khomeini was arrested.
(MC, 6/5/02)

1963 Jun 7, The Rolling Stones made their 1st TV appearance.
(SC, 6/7/02)

1963 Jun 9, JFK named Winston Churchill a US honorary citizen.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1963 Jun 9, A US Equal Pay Act was enacted.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1963 Jun 10, JFK signed an equal pay for equal work law for men & women.
(MC, 6/10/02)

1963 Jun 11, JFK said segregation is morally wrong & that it is time to act.
(SC, 6/11/02)

1963 Jun 11, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Florida for trying to integrate restaurants.
(HN, 6/11/98)

1963 Jun 11, Greek Premier Constantine Caramanlis resigned in protest of King Paul’s state visit to Britain.
(AP, 6/11/03)

1963 Jun 11, Buddhist monk Quang Duc immolated himself on a Saigon street to protest the government of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem.
(AP, 6/11/97)(www.buddhistinformation.com/self_immolation.htm)

1963 Jun 12, One of Hollywood’s costliest failures, Cleopatra, starring Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton and Rex Harrison, premiered in New York.
(AP, 6/12/98)

1963 Jun 15, Israeli premier David Ben-Gurion resigned.
(MC, 6/15/02)

1963 Jun 16, The world’s first female space traveler, Valentina Tereshkova, was launched into orbit by the Soviet Union aboard Vostok VI.
(AP, 6/16/98)

1963 Jun 17, The US Supreme Court ruled 8-1 to strike down rules requiring the recitation of the Lord’s Prayer or reading of Biblical verses in public schools. The case began in 1956 when Edward L. Schempp (d.2003), on behalf of his son, objected to a 1949 Pennsylvania law requiring 10 Bible verses each day followed by the Lord’s Prayer and the Pledge of Allegiance.
(AP, 6/17/97)(HN, 6/17/98)(SFC, 11/24/03, p.A18)

1963 Jun 17, British House of Commons debated the John Profumo-Christine Keeler affair, which involved the defense minister and the call-girl he shared with a Russian agent.
(MC, 6/17/02)

1963 Jun 19, Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova returned to Earth after spending nearly three days as the first woman in space.
(DTnet, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/98)

1963 Jun 20, The United States and Soviet Union signed an agreement in Geneva to set up a hot line communications link between the two superpowers and a treaty was signed limiting nuclear testing. It came about because of the Cuban missile crises, which began on October 22, 1962. The Hot Line was not used until the Six-Day War of 1967.
(TMC, 1994, p.1963)(AP, 6/20/97)(HN, 6/20/98)(HNPD, 10/18/99)

1963 Jun 21, Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini was chosen to succeed the late Pope John XXIII as head of the Roman Catholic Church. The new pope took the name Paul VI.
(AP, 6/21/97)
1963 Jun 21, France announced it would withdraw from the NATO fleet in the North Atlantic.
(HN, 6/21/98)

1963 Jun 24, 1st demonstration of home video recorder was at the BBC Studios in London.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1963 Jun 24, Levi Eshkol formed an Israeli government.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1963 Jun 24, Zanzibar was granted internal self-government by Britain.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1963 Jun 26, President Kennedy visited West Berlin, where he made his famous declaration: Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) at the Berlin Wall. Rumors later spread that the misplaced article ein made an exact translation to say I am a jelly donut.
(AP, 6/26/97)(HN, 6/26/98)(SFC, 2/3/00, p.A25)

1963 Jun 27, Pres. Kennedy spent his 1st full day in Ireland.
(SC, 6/27/02)

1963 Jun 27, Henry Cabot Lodge was appointed U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam.
(HN, 6/27/98)

1963 Jun 27, USAF Major Robert A. Rushworth in X-15 reached 86,900 m.
(SC, 6/27/02)

1963 Jun 28, Khrushchev visited East-Berlin.
(MC, 6/28/02)

1963 Jun 30, Cardinal Montini was crowned as Pope Paul VI, the 262nd head of the Roman Catholic Church.
(AP, 6/30/97)(MC, 6/30/02)
1963 Jul 2, President John F. Kennedy met Pope Paul the Sixth at the Vatican, the first meeting between a Roman Catholic US chief executive and the head of the Catholic Church.
(AP, 7/2/00)

1963 Jul 4, Naturalization ceremonies began to be held annually at Monticello, Virginia.
(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A3)

1963 Jul 8, US banned all monetary transactions with Cuba.
(MC, 7/8/02)

1963 Jul 12, French Pres. Charles de Gaulle pronounced that Treaties are like roses and young girls — they last while they last.
(SFC, 7/12/97, p.A11)

1963 Jul 25, The United States, the Soviet Union and Britain initialed a treaty in Moscow prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in space or underwater.
(AP, 7/25/97)

1963 Jul 25, Ugo Cerletti (b.1877), Italian neurosurgeon, died. In the 1930s he and Lucio Bini pioneered the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), electric shock, to cure patients of depression.
(Econ, 6/3/06, p.78)(www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/511.html)

1963 Jul 30, British spy Kim Philby was discovered in Moscow. Philby, writer for The Economist, who spent six years filing dispatches from the Middle East, was discovered to be a spy and defected to the Soviet Union.
(WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)(MC, 7/30/02)

1963 Aug 5, The United States, Britain and the Soviet Union signed a Limited Test Ban Treaty in Moscow banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, space and underwater. Public pressure helped JFK signed the ban on atmospheric atom bomb tests.
(AP, 8/5/97)(SFC, 11/26/01, p.A10)(SSFC, 7/15/07, p.D1)

1963 Aug 8, Britain’s Great Train Robbery took place as thieves made off with 120 mailbags with 2.62 million pounds in banknotes. Sixteen (15) men under Bruce Reynolds held up the Glasgow to London Royal Mail (Glasgow-Euston train) and took off with $7.2 mil in sterling, or $50 mil in today’s US dollars. They badly beat up Jack Mills, the train driver. Ronald Biggs claimed to be one of the 16 men and later lived freely in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His share of the robbery was $2.8 mil but he was arrested just four weeks after the robbery. He escaped from Wandsworth Prison in 1965 and is still wanted in Britain. Only 1/8 of the money stolen has ever been recovered. Dinner at home with Mr. Biggs can be purchased for $50. In 1994 Biggs published an autobiography. In 1999 a video game was developed based on the event. Biggs (71) returned to Britain in 2001.
(SFE, 10/1/95, p.T-8)(AP, 8/8/97)(WSJ, 11/4/99, p.A28)(WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A1)

1963 Aug 13, A 17 year-old Buddhist monk burned himself to death in Saigon, South Vietnam.
(HN, 8/13/98)

1963 Aug 18, James Meredith became the first black to graduate from the University of Mississippi.
(AP, 8/18/97)

1963 Aug 19, Newsweek quoted Madame Nhu, official hostess of the South Vietnamese government, offering to light the match of the next Buddhist monk suicide.
(NW 8/19/63)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/93lc5)

1963 Aug 21, Martial law was declared in South Vietnam as police and army troops began a crackdown on Buddhist anti-government protesters.
(AP, 8/21/08)

1963 Aug 24, Pres. Kennedy allowed a cable to be sent to Ambassador Lodge in Vietnam that backed a military coup against Pres. Diem. Kennedy gave tacit approval for a coup against Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam. Diem was killed Nov 2.
(SFC, 11/25/98, p.A2)(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.41)

1963 Aug 26, Orders came from Washington to destroy all cables sent to Saigon, South Vietnam, back to Aug 24.
(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.42)
1963 Aug 27, Cambodia severed ties with South Vietnam.
(HN, 8/27/98)

1963 Aug 30, The hot line, a rapid communications link between Washington, D.C., and Moscow went into operation to avoid miscalculations during an emergency.
(AP, 8/30/97)(HNPD, 10/30/99)

1963 Aug 30, Guy Burgess (b.1911), British spy for the USSR, died in Moscow.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_Burgess)

1963 Aug 31, George F. Braque (81), cubist painter, died in Paris.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1963 Aug, Phil Graham, publisher of the Washington Post, committed suicide. His wife, Katherine Graham, took over as publisher. She published her autobiography in 1997: Personal History.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, BR p.1)

1963 Sep 1, Turkey moved politically closer to Europe with the Treaty of Ankara. It reduced duties and implicitly recognized Turkey’s right to join the European Economic Community.
(http://tinyurl.com/tgab2)(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A10)(WSJ, 10/6/04, p.A17)

1963 Sep 2, The CBS Evening News was lengthened from 15 to 30 minutes.
(AP, 9/2/97)

1963 Sep 7, The Beatles made their 1st US TV appearance on ABC’s Big Night Out.
(MC, 9/7/01)
1963 Sep 7, American Bandstand moved to California and aired once a week on Saturday.
(MC, 9/7/01)

1963 Sep 7, The National Professional Football Hall of Fame was dedicated in Canton, Ohio.
(AP, 9/7/97)

1963 Sep 9, In Italy a landslide into Vaiont Dam emptied a lake and killed 3-4,000 people.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1963 Sep 13, Outer Limits premiered on ABC TV. It was partly written, produced and directed by Leslie Stevens (d.1998) and ran to 1965.
(SFC, 4/29/98, p.C2)(MC, 9/13/01)

1963 Sep 13, The last bucket of concrete was poured on the Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River to form Lake Powell. It marked the beginning of a 290 mile stretch of the river from the dam through the Grand Canyon to Lake Mead. It was built to provide power to six Western states. The lake filled by 1980. [last source says the lake filled within 5 years]
(SFC, 4/12/96, p.E-3)(SFC, 5/19/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.A1)(NH, 9/97, p.40)

1963 Sep 14, Mary Ann Fischer of Aberdeen, S.D., gave birth to four girls and a boy, the first surviving quintuplets in the United States.
(AP, 9/14/03)

1963 Sep 16, The science-fiction anthology series The Outer Limits premiered on ABC. It ran to 1965.
(AP, 9/16/98)(SFEM, 2/28/99, p.4)

1963 Sep 16, The Federation of Malaysia was formally established. Sabak and Sarawak, Britain’s colonies on Borneo, joined the Malayan peninsula to form Malaysia with Tunku Abdul Rahman (60) as prime minister. The federation formed under bitter opposition from Indonesia, which refused to recognize the country and waged a guerrilla war against it. Race riots erupted between ethnic Malays and the Chinese majority.
(PC, 1992, p.988)(HNQ, 5/14/98)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.C10)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.60)

1963 Sep 18, USSR orders 58.5 million barrels of cereal from Australia.
(MC, 9/18/01)

1963 Sep 20, In a speech to the U.N. General Assembly, President Kennedy proposed a joint U.S.-Soviet expedition to the moon. Pres. Kennedy stayed at New York’s Carlyle Hotel and received a leggy babe under Secret Service escort.
(AP, 9/20/97)(WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A17)

1963 Sep 23, Annual report of 1996 reported that Becton Dickinson stock was first listed on NYSE.
(AR, 1996, p.2)(Calendar 1/97)

1963 Sep 24, The U.S. Senate ratified a treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union limiting nuclear testing.
(AP, 9/24/99)

1963 Sep 26, Lee Harvey Oswald traveled on a Continental Trailways bus to Mexico.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1963 Sep 27, Lee Harvey Oswald visited the Cuban consulate in Mexico.
(MC, 9/27/01)
1963 Sep 27, At 10:59 AM census clock, the US population was recorded at 190,000,000.
(MC, 9/27/01)
1963 Sep 29, The situation comedy My Favorite Martian premiered on CBS. It starred Bill Bixby and Ray Walston (d.2000 at 86). The show ran to 1966.
(SFC, 1/3/01, p.A17)(AP, 9/29/03)

1963 Sep 29, The second session of Second Vatican Council opened in Rome.
(AP, 9/29/97)

1963 Sep, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.25 an hour.
(http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/blminwage.htm)

1963 Sep, The Treaty of Anakara on reducing duties implicitly recognized Turkey’s right to join the European Economic Community.
(WSJ, 10/6/04, p.A17)

1963 Oct 2, Defense Sec. Robert McNamara told Pres. Kennedy in a cabinet meeting that: We need a way to get out of Vietnam. McNamara proposed to replace the 16,000 US advisors with Canadian personnel.
(SFC, 7/25/97, p.A2)

1963 Oct 2, W. German Chancellor Adenauer condemned western grain shipments to USSR.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1963 Oct 4-8, Hurricane Flora, killed 6,000 in Cuba and Haiti. Hurricane Flora killed an estimated 7-8,000 people.
(SFC, 11/30/98, p.A2)(MC, 10/4/01)

1963 Oct 7, President Kennedy signed the documents of ratification for a limited nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union. Testing was outlawed in the atmosphere, underwater and in outer space.
(AP, 10/7/97)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F4)

1963 Oct 7, Bobby Baker resigned as Senate Democratic secretary after being charged in a 300-thousand-dollar civil suit with using his influence for personal monetary gains.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1963 Oct 9, British premier Harold MacMillan resigned.
(MC, 10/9/01)

1963 Oct 9, A dam in Piave valley of Italy, broke and about 2,000 died. [see Sep 9]
(MC, 10/9/01)

1963 Oct 10, A dam burst in Italy, and over 3,000 died. [see Sep 9, Oct 9]
(MC, 10/10/01)

1963 Oct 11, A National Security Action memorandum that recommended plans to withdraw 1,000 US Military personnel by the end of the year was approved. The memo followed McNamara’s return from a trip to South Vietnam.
(SFC, 7/25/97, p.A2)
1963 Oct 20, Alec Douglas-Home formed a British government.
(MC, 10/20/01)

1963 Oct 25, Anti-Kennedy WANTED FOR TREASON pamphlets scattered in Dallas.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1963 Oct 28, In NYC the demolition of Penn Station, completed in 1910, began.
(www.nyc-architecture.com/GON/GON004.htm)(WSJ, 1/12/07, p.W8)

1963 Oct 31, J. Edgar Hoover’s last meeting with President John F Kennedy.
(MC, 10/31/01)

1963 Oct 31, Leaking propane gas exploded and killed 64 at Holiday on Ice in Indiana.
(MC, 10/31/01)

1963 Oct, Pres. Kennedy spoke with Mayor Daley of Chicago to get congressman Roland Libonati to vote the Party line. The conversation was recorded.
(SFEC, 4/11/99, p.43)
1963 Nov 1-1963 Nov 2, South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother were assassinated in a military coup. Coup leader Duong Van Minh explained that They had to be killed… Pres. Diem was too much respected among simple, gullible people in the countryside. A 3rd brother was later tricked into surrendering to US forces and was turned over to coup leaders and killed by firing squad. Col. Nguyen Van Thieu helped organize the coup that killed Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem.
(AP, 11/2/97)(SFEM, 4/11/99, p.42)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)
1963 Nov 7, The film It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World premiered at Hollywood’s new Cinerama Theatre in a lengthy 195 minute version.
(WSJ, 2/13/02, p.A1)

1963 Nov 9, Twin disasters struck Japan as some 450 miners were killed in a coal-dust explosion, and 160 people died in a train crash.
(AP, 11/9/97)

1963 Nov 12, James P. Hosty Jr., FBI agent, had been tracking Lee Harvey Oswald for counterintelligence purposes and had visited Oswald’s wife to establish Oswald’s location On this day Hosty received a note from Oswald to leave Marina Oswald alone. In 1996 Hosty wrote: Assignment: Oswald, a memoir of his FBI role tracking Oswald.
(SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.5)

1963 Nov 14, Greece freed hundreds who were jailed in the Communist uprising of 1944- 1950.
(HN, 11/14/98)

1963 Nov 14, Iceland got a new island when a volcano pushed its way up out of the sea five miles off the southern coast.
(HN, 11/14/00)
1963 Nov 15, Argentina voided all foreign oil contracts.
(HN, 11/15/98)

1963 Nov 16, Touch-tone telephone was introduced.
(MC, 11/16/01)

1963 Nov 20, A Senate investigating committee held hearings on the growing TFX scandal where General Dynamics had received a $7 billion contract in 1962.
(SFC, 11/18/96, p.B7)

1963 Nov 21, President Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline, began a two-day tour of Texas.
(AP, 11/22/03)

1963 Nov 21, Roman Catholic Vatican Council authorized the use of vernacular instead of Latin in the Sacraments.
(AP, 11/21/02)

1963 Nov 21, India launched its first rocket from Thumba in Kerala state.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thumba_Equatorial_Rocket_Launching_Station)

1963 Nov 22, A Senate committee heard testimony about an alleged $100,000 cash payoff to Vice-President Johnson in connection with the General Dynamics TFX contract. After the assassination of JFK there was no follow up.
(SFC, 11/18/96, p.B7)

1963 Nov 22, John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, had been in office two years, 10 months and two days, when an assassin’s bullet ended his life in Dallas, Texas. Kennedy, on a pre-campaign trip to supposedly hostile Texas, had been greeted warmly by enthusiastic crowds at every stop. Upon their arrival in Dallas, President and Mrs. Kennedy, accompanied by Texas Governor John Connolly and his wife, were driven slowly through the downtown streets on their way to a scheduled speech at the Dallas Trade Mart. At 12:30 p.m., as the open limousine traveled through Dealey Plaza past the Texas School Book Depository, Kennedy was shot. Within the hour, Kennedy was pronounced dead at Parkland Hospital and by 2 p.m., Dallas police had arrested Lee Harvey Oswald as the suspected assassin. At 2:38 p.m. Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th President of the United States.
(HNPD, 11/22/98)

1963 Nov 22, John F. Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald while riding in a motorcade in Dallas. Texas Gov. John B. Connally was seriously wounded. Oswald was in turn shot in front of TV cameras by Jack Ruby. Rufus Youngblood (1924-1996), a Secret Service agent, shielded VP Johnson from possible gunshots with his body. Johnson rewarded him by promoting him over time to the No. 2 position in the Secret Service. Ruby used a .38 Colt Cobra purchased at Ray’s Hardware and Sporting Goods in Dallas run by Lawrence Brantley (1921-1996). From the address that President Kennedy never got to deliver in Dallas: If we are strong, our strength will speak for itself. If we are weak, words will be no help.
(TMC, 1994, p.1963)(AHD, p. 931)(SFC, 10/4/96, p.B2)(SFC, 10/17/96, C2) (AP, 11/22/97)

1963 Nov 22, Two amateur films recorded the assassination of Pres. Kennedy. A 24 ½ sec. video by Orville Nix Sr. and Abraham Zapruder, a dress manufacturer, captured the assassination on video tape. In 1981 David Lifton published Best Evidence, on the medical evidence of the assassination. In 1993 Gerald Posner published Case Closed, a book on the Warren Commission report. In 1998 new testimony was released that a 2nd set of pictures was taken at the autopsy that were never made public. In 2007 David Talbot authored “Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years.” In 2007 Vincent Bugliosi authored “Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy.”
(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A5)(SFC, 10/25/98, p.D5)(SFC, 11/23/00, p.A11)(SSFC, 5/13/07, p.M1)(WSJ, 5/19/07, p.P8)

1963 Nov 22, Dr. Charles Andrew Crenshaw, a 3rd year surgical intern at Dallas’ Parkland Memorial, tended Kennedy and placed him into a coffin. In 1992 Crenshaw (d.2001) authored JFK: Conspiracy of Silence and insisted that Kennedy had 4 gunshot wounds, including one from the front and that the neck wound had been tampered to look like an exit wound.
(SFC, 11/21/01, p.A25)

1963 Nov 22, Dallas police officer J.D. Tippit was slain by Oswald 45 minutes after Kennedy was shot when he called Oswald over for questioning.
(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A5)(SFC, 10/25/98, p.D5)

1963 Nov 22, New Orleans mob boss Carlos Marcello was acquitted. He was prosecuted by Bobby Kennedy and Bobby later said that Marcello was behind the murder of JFK.
(SFEC, 6/7/98, Par. p.8)

1963 Nov 22, Aldous L. Huxley (69), English author (Devils of Loudon, Brave New World), died in Los Angeles.
(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ahuxley.htm)

1963 Nov 22, C.S. Lewis, English author the Narnia series and other books, died of osteoporosis. In 2005 Alan Jacobs authored “The Narnian,” a biography of Lewis.
(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/cslewis.htm)(WSJ, 10/15/05, p.P13)

1963 Nov 23, President Johnson proclaimed Nov. 25 a day of national mourning as JFK’s body lay in repose in East Room of White House.
(AP, 11/23/01)

1963 Nov 23, Sixty-three elderly people, most of them sleeping, were killed by a fire destroying the one-story Golden Age Nursing Home near Fitchville, Ohio.
(AP, 11/23/02)

1963 Nov 23, Doctor Who, the long-running British sci-fi series, debuted in England.
(MC, 11/23/01)

1963 Nov 24, Jack Ruby shot and mortally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President Kennedy in front of TV cameras in the garage of the Dallas Police Department. Ruby used a .38 Colt Cobra purchased at Ray’s Hardware and Sporting Goods in Dallas run by Lawrence Brantley (1921-1996). Sometime earlier Oswald had made an attempt to murder right-wing Gen’l. Edwin A. Walker. In 2002 Thomas Mallon authored Mrs. Paine’s Garage and the Murder of John F. Kennedy.
(SFC, 10/17/96, C2)(AP, 11/24/97)(HN, 11/24/00)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)

1963 Nov 25, Assassinated President John F. Kennedy was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. A bronze casket that was used to transport JFK to Washington was flown off the Maryland-Delaware coast and dropped into a 9,000 feet deep military dump site.
(AP, 11/25/97)(HN, 11/25/98)(SFC, 5/31/99, p.A3)

1963 Nov 28, Just six days after the assassination of President Kennedy, President Johnson announces that the Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida, will be renamed The John F. Kennedy Space Center. Residents voted in 1973 to change the name back to Cape Canaveral.
(DTnet, 11/28/97)(HN, 11/28/98)

1963 Nov 29, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Chief Justice Earl Warren head of a commission to investigate the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
(AP, 11/29/97)(HN, 11/29/98)

1963 Nov, Pres. Kennedy approved a probe to see whether relations with Fidel Castro could be improved. In 1999 Mark J. White edited The Kennedy’s and Cuba: The Declassified Documentary History.
(WSJ, 11/15/99, p.A48)
1963 Dec 7, During the Army-Navy game, videotaped instant replay was used for the first time in a live sports telecast as CBS re-showed a one-yard touchdown run by Army quarterback Rollie Stichweh. Navy beat Army, 21-15.
(AP, 12/7/03)

1963 Dec 8, Three fuel tanks exploded when a jetliner, struck by lightning, crashed near Elkton, Maryland. 81 people died. This was the only case of a lightning caused crash.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1963 Dec 9, Frank Sinatra Jr. was kidnapped. Frank Sinatra Sr. ransomed his kidnapped son, Frank Sinatra Jr., for $240,000. Barry Keenan, who set up the kidnapping, was a classmate of Nancy Sinatra. He served 4 1/2 years in prison and went on to become a successful real estate developer.
(SFC, 9/7/98, p.B6)(MC, 12/9/01)

1963 Dec 10, Walter Cronkite re-aired a CBS News report from London on the Beatles. It had been 1st filed on Nov 22, the day JFK was assassinated.
(SSFC, 2/8/04, Par p.18)

1963 Dec 12, Frank Sinatra Jr. returned after being kidnapped.
(MC, 12/12/01)

1963 Dec 12, Kenya gained independence from Britain and the Kenyan African National Union Party (KANU) began ruling. Jomo Kenyatta, a Kikuyu, was the first president and served until 1978.
(SFC, 10/17/96, A8)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(AP, 12/12/97)(SFC,12/23/97, p.D4)(SFC, 8/8/98, p.A12)

1963 Dec 13, Capital records signed a right of 1st refusal agreement with Beatles.
(MC, 12/13/01)

1963 Dec 13, Kenya became a republic.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)

1963 Dec 14, The Baldwin Hills dam in Los Angeles, Ca., broke. The released water destroyed 65 homes and left 5 people dead.
(http://damsafety.water.ca.gov/about.htm)

1963 Dec 14, Dinah Washington (b.1924), known in the 50s as Queen of the Harlem Blues, died of barbiturate poisoning in Detroit. In 2004 Nadine Cohodas authored “Queen: The Life and Times of Dinah Washington.”
(SSFC, 8/22/04, p.M1)

1963 Dec 20, The Berlin Wall was opened for the first time to West Berliners, who were allowed one-day visits to relatives in the Eastern sector for the holidays. Four thousand crossed the great wall of Berlin to visit relatives under a 17 day Christmas accord.
(AP, 12/20/98)(HN, 12/20/98)

1963 Dec 20, The trial of 21 camp guards from Auschwitz began.
(MC, 12/20/01)

1963 Dec 21, The Turk minority rioted in Cyprus to protest anti-Turkish revisions in the constitution.
(HN, 12/21/98)

1963 Dec 22, The official 30 days of mourning ended following the assassination of President Kennedy.
(AP, 12/22/99)

1963 Dec 24, New York’s Idlewild Airport was renamed JFK Airport in honor of the murdered President Kennedy.
(HN, 12/24/98)
1963 Dec 24, Greeks and Turks rioted in Cyprus.
(MC, 12/24/01)
1963 Dec 26, Gorgeous George Wagner, perfumed and pampered wrestler, died.
(MC, 12/26/01)
1963 Dec 30, Congress authorized the Kennedy half dollar.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1963 Dec, US Cpl. Jerry W. Parrish (19) deserted to North Korea and later died there of natural causes.
(SFC, 8/16/04, p.A5)

1963 Konrad Fischer (1939-1996) founded the Capital Realism art movement in Germany. It was a figurative painting style that was a response to American Pop Art.
(SFC, 11/27/96, p.B2)

1963 Lucien Freud painted Man’s Head (Self-Portrait III).
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.1)

1963 Pan Tianshou, a traditional-style Chinese painter, created Red Lotus.
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1963 Andy Warhol created his image Large Triple Elvis.
(NH, 6/01, p.48)

1963 Harold Barnett and Chandler Morse wrote Scarcity and Growth. They documented price declines through history to indicate an increased availability of natural resources rather than a growing scarcity.
(WSJ, 4/22/97, p.A22)

1963 Nora Beloff (1919-1997), British political writer and foreign correspondent, wrote The General Says No: Britain’s Exclusion from Europe.
(SFC, 2/24/96, p.A17)

1963 Alton L. Blakeslee (d.1997 at 83) wrote Your Heart has Nine Lives with Dr. Jeremiah B. Stamler. He was the chief science writer for the Associated Press (AP) for 3 decades.
(SFC, 5/14/97, p.A22)

1963 John Campbell Bruce (1906-1996) wrote Escape From Alcatraz . It was based on a true 1962 escape. The book was turned into a film in 1979.
(SFC, 7/9/96, p.20)

1963 Donald Davidson (d.2003 at 86), Prof. of Philosophy at UC Berkeley, authored Actions, Reasons and Causes.
(SFC, 9/4/03, p.A23)

1963 The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan (1921-2006) was published.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A21)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.A6)

1963 Milton Friedman (1912-2006) and Anna Jacobson Schwartz authored “A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960.” They argued that the US depression of the 1930s was the result of an inept Federal Reserve.
(WSJ, 12/7/05, p.A15)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.80)

1963 Richard Jennings, Prof. at UC Boalt School of Law, co-authored with Harold Marsh Jr. Securities Regulation – Cases & Materials, the 1st casebook on securities regulation.
(SFEM, 8/22/99, p.A22)

1963 Dr. Ivo John Lederer (d.1998 at 68) authored Yugoslavia at the Peace Conference. He was the founder and director of the Center for Russian and East European Studies at Stanford Univ.
(SFC, 6/26/98, p.D4)

1963 Abraham Maslow, a pioneer of humanistic psychology, wrote Eupsychian Management, A Journal. It described the management style he witnessed at Non-Linear Systems. He labeled it enlightened management to describe work conditions that incorporated synergy and led to individual self-actualization.
(WSJ, 4/25/97, p.B1)(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.B1)

1963 The American Way of Death by Jessica Mitford (d.7/24/96) was published. It was an expose of the funeral industry in the US. A revised edition was published in 1998.
(SFC, 6/30/96, Zone 1 p.3)(SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.1)

1963 Daniel Patrick Moynihan, later senator and ambassador, authored Beyond the Melting Pot, a description of the ethnic groups in NYC.
(SFC, 11/7/98, p.A2)

1963 Sir Lawrence van der Post (1906-1996) wrote The Seed and the Sower. It was filmed in 1983 as Merry Christmas Mr. Lawrence with David Bowie.
1963 Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr., former head of General Motors Corp., authored My Life With General Motors.
(F, 10/7/96, p.132)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.123)

1963 Ezra Solomon (d.2002 at 82), Stanford economics professor, authored The Theory of Financial Management.
(SFC, 12/21/02, p.A22)

1963 Jim Thompson authored his novel The Grifters. It was made into a film in 1990.
(WSJ, 8/27/01, p.A13)

1963 Charles Webb authored his novel The Graduate. It was turned into a movie in 1967.
(WSJ, 5/8/01, p.B1)
1963 Julia Child made her TV debut as The French Chef on Boston’s WGBH-TV. PBS picked up the show a year later.
(SFEM, 8/10/97, p.23)

1963 The TV costume game show Let’s Make a Deal premiered and ran for 16 years in daytime and 10 years in prime time. It was hosted by Monty Hall and co-created by Stefan Hatos (d.1999 at 78).
(SFC, 3/9/99, p.A22)
1963 Johnny Cash recorded his hit tune: Ring of Fire.
(SFC, 9/13/03, p.A12)
1963 Deep Purple by Nino Temple & April Stevens won the Grammy best rock-n-roll recording.
(SFEC, 2/21/99, DB p.38)
1963 The Kingsmen recorded their hit song Louie, Louie. It became a major hit in 1964. It was written in 1955 by Richard Berry and recorded by Berry with the Pharaohs in 1957. The Kingsmen sold their rights in 1968 for a percentage of future licensing fees. The fees were not paid and the band filed suit in 1993. They won a 1995 judgement and a 1998 appeal.
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.A19)(SFC, 4/11/98, p.C5)

1963 Sonny Bono, songwriter, met Cherilyn (Cher) Sarkasian La Piere, singer, at a Hollywood coffee shop. The pair went on to record I Got You Babe, The Beat Goes On, and All I Ever Need Is You. Bono wrote the Jackie DeShannon hit of this year Needles and Pins.
(SFC, 1/6/98, p.A11)

1963 Ruby and the Romantics had a hit with “Our Day Will Come,” co-written by Mort Garson (1924-2008) and Bob Hilliard.
(SFC, 1/16/08, p.B9)

1963 The Singing Nun made a hit with Dominique. The song praised the 13th century crusade against the Cathars. It was written by Noel Regney. His 1962 poem Do You Hear What I Hear was recorded by Bing Crosby.
(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)(SFC, 11/28/02, p.A30)

1963 In NYC Frank Lloyd (d.1998 at 86) opened the Marlborough Gallery. He was involved in the 1970s Rothko art scandal.
(SFC, 4/8/98, p.B2)

1963 Mildred and Ray Connett (d.1997) opened the 90-acre Glen Eden Sun Club, a California nudist resort.
(SFC, 4/21/97, p.A20)

1963 The Chinese Historical Society of America opened in SF. It was the first of its kind in the country.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)

1963 Harvey R. Ball (d.2001 at 79), advertising executive, created the yellow smiley face (happy face) for the Massachusetts based State Mutual Life Assurance Company of America. He was paid $45 for the artwork and never applied for a trademark or copyright. In 2006 Darrin M. McMahon authored “Happiness: A History.”
(SFC, 4/17/01, p.A20)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.82)

1963 San Francisco featured topless waitresses.
(TMC, 1994, p.1963)

1963 Barbara Epstein (1928-2006), Jason Epstein, Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Hardwick founded the NY Review of Books.
(Econ, 7/1/06, p.79)

1963 Albert Lippert (d.1998 at 72), a garment executive, first took a successful Weight Watchers diet class with Jean Nidetch on Long Island. They expanded the program into a company and sold public stock in 1968. In 1978 the operation was sold to H.J. Heinz for $72 million. The program remained unchanged until 1997 when a point system replaced selections from food groups.
(WSJ, 6/12/97, p.B4)(SFC, 3/4/98, p.C4)

1963 Ikko Tanaka founded his Ikko Tanaka Design Studio and began establishing himself as one of the most successful graphic designers in the field.
(Hem, 4/96, p.8)
1963 Harriet Schaffer (d.1998 at 65), a pioneer in early childhood education, began her career at the Tic Toc Nursery School in Richmond, Ca. Under her leadership Tic Toc became a pilot school for the newly created federal Head Start program.
(SFC, 7/4/98, p.C2)

1963 Eugene Paul Wigner (1902-1995), Hungarian-born mathematician and physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics.
(HN, 11/17/00)(MC, 11/17/01)(MC, 1/1/02)

1963 Mobutu, chief of staff of the army of Congo-Kinshasa [later Zaire], visited the US White House as a guest of Pres. Kennedy.
(SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)

1963 Federal troops were used to force Alabama Gov. George Wallace to accept black students at the state’s university. [see 1962]
(WSJ, 5/13/96, p.A-16)

1963 Richard Nixon selected Leonard Garment, New York lawyer, as a special consultant. Garment published his personal memoir in 1997 Crazy Rhythm.
(WSJ, 2/28/97, p.A12)

1963 The US Congress passed the Equal Pay Act that banned gender-based wage discrimination.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1963 The American CIA developed a manual for counterintelligence interrogation for use in Vietnam.
(SFC, 1/28/97, p.A3)

1963 George Joannides, a CIA agent, was in charge of the Revolutionary Students Directorate (DRE), one of the most powerful Cuban anti-Castro organizations in Miami. A few months before the assassination of JFK the DRE had significant contacts with Lee Harvey Oswald and Oswald tried to infiltrate the New Orleans branch of the DRE.
(SSFC, 5/13/07, p.M5)

1963 Winston Scott served as American CIA station chief in Mexico during the time that Lee Harvey Oswald visited the Cuban Embassy there. In 2008 Jefferson Morley authored “Our Man in Mexico: Winston Scott and the Hidden History of the CIA.” Morley proposed that Scott later covered up CIA operations that involved Oswald.
(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKscottW.htm)(WSJ, 3/20/08, p.D7)

1963 Madalyn Murray O’Hair, leader of United Secularists of America (American Atheists), took credit for a suit filed against the government that ultimately led to the removal of the Bible and sponsored prayer from public schools. She and her family disappeared in Aug, 1995 with more than $600,000 in funds from her various organizations. Her diaries, some 2,000 pages, were scheduled to be auctioned in 1999.
(SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A4)(SFC, 1/12/99, p.A4)(SFC, 5/27/99, p.A3)

1963 Stanley H. Durwood, founder of AMC Entertainment, first split a Kansas City theater in half and invented the multiplex cinema theater.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.52)

1963 Chrysler became the majority holder of Simca. By 1970 it changed the name to Chrysler France.
(www.allpar.com/model/simca.html)

1963 Ralph Roberts, former marketer of Muzak and owner of a belts and suspenders company, acquired a 1,200-subscriber, community antenna, television system (American Cable Systems) in Tupelo, Miss. In 1969 it was incorporated in Pennsylvania and renamed Comcast. The company went public in 1972
(SSFC, 2/15/04, p.I6)

1963 Edward Walker (d.2000) began marketing his invention called the Astro lamp. It later became known as the lava lamp.
(SFEC, 8/20/00, p.B9)

1963 The Proctor & Gamble Company purchased the SF based Folger Coffee. In 1994 P&G closed the Folgers plant in South San Francisco, the brands last presence in the Bay Area.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.D2)(SFC, 6/5/08, p.C2)

1963 Herb Sandler, a NY lawyer, and Marion Sandler, a Wall Street analyst, bought the 2-branch World Savings and Loan Association (later Golden West Financial corp.) of Oakland, Ca., for $3.8 million. They sold the company in 2006 to Wachovia for $24.2 billion.
(SFC, 5/9/06, p.C1)

1963 Studebaker halted production of cars in the US. 4,000 employees lost their company pensions. This led to the passage of the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) in 1974.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 2/14/02, p.B1)

1963 American Sugar Refining Company changed its name to American Sugar Company.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1963 The Lestoil Co. of Holyoke, Mass., began selling its liquid cleaner in special-edition reproduction glass flasks, which resembled 19th century whiskey flasks. The special edition ended in 1964.
(SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1963 McDonald’s logo Speedee was dropped in favor of Ronald McDonald. The company hit the 1 billion mark in this year.
(SFC, 7/3/96, z-1 p.7)(WSJ, 11/13/98, p.B1)

1963 Alan Maxwell Pottasch (1927-2007), adman for Pepsi-Cola Co., launched the “Pepsi Generation” ad campaign.
(WSJ, 8/4/07, p.A4)

1963 Richard Trentlage, Indiana songwriter, wrote the TV jingle “I wish I were an Oscar Mayer wiener,” and had it sung by his kids.
(WSJ, 8/11/07, p.A6)

1963 J.L. Wade (1913-2007) built his first purple martin bird houses in Griggsville, Illinois. In 1965 he authored “What You Should Know About the Purple Martin,” which became a bestseller among ornithologists. Wade claimed that each bird ate some 2,000 mosquitoes per day.
(WSJ, 6/23/07, p.A8)

1963 Quasars, Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources, powerful astrophysical sources of light, were first discovered. Maarten Schmidt first observed the object called 3C273 and found that it was racing away from Earth at 30,000 miles per second. Prof. Jesse Greenstein (d.2002 at 93) and Maarten Schmidt led quasar research and began to realize that quasars were the most distant objects in the universe.
(SFC, 11/20/96, p.A9)(NH, 5/97, p.66)(PacDis, Summer ’97, p.32)(SFC, 10/26/02, p.A24)

1963 Hyron Spinrad of UC Berkeley and others found only a trace of water vapor in the thin atmosphere of Mars and confirmed that liquid water on its cold surface was almost impossible.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A17)

1963 The Humboldt Bay nuclear power plant began generating power for consumers in Northern California. It was shut down in 1976.
(SFC, 10/28/99, p.C4)(SFC, 7/17/04, p.B2)

1963 Protons and neutrons were given structure; quark theory was proposed. Murray Gell-Mann at Caltech and George Zweig at CERN proposed small building blocks for particles and call them quarks and aces. Gell-Mann took the quark name from a James Joyce phrase in Finnegan’s Wake: three quarks for muster Mark.
(NG, May 1985, p. 645)(SFC, 4/11/02, p.A2)

1963 George Grover (1915-1996), nuclear physicist, solved a heat-transfer problem by developing the first working heat pipe.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, p.C12)

1963 Ray Dolby, while working in India, conceived of separating recorded sound into 2 channels as a means to strip away unwanted tape recording noise. His 1st prototype was completed in London in 1966.
(SFC, 3/29/04, p.D1)

1963 A vaccine for measles became available. In the previous decade some 450,000 cases were reported in the US with about 450 deaths per year.
(SFC, 12/22/06, p.A18)

1963 At the Mayo Clinic the kidney transplant program began and the artificial kidney center opened.
(SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)

1963 Dr. Michael DeBakey came out with his interthoracic pump, a device to pump blood in lieu of the heart. De Bakey made history this year by installing an artificial pump to assist a patient’s damaged heart.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, Z1 p.2)(www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/coo0pro-1)

1963 The Fogarty Embolectomy Catheter, invented by Dr. Tom Fogarty to remove clots in arteries, was first used successfully.
(SFC, 7/21/00, p.A17)

1963 The first liver transplant was performed by a surgical team led by Dr. Thomas Starzl of Denver, Colorado.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver_transplantation)

1963 Profs. Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks, engineers at the Univ. of Michigan, created the 1st working hologram. Pieter van Heerden of Polaroid Research Labs pioneered the holographic principle.
(MT, Summer/04, p.8)(Econ, 6/9/07, TQ p.28)

1963 W.D. Hamilton (d.2000 at 63) published his theory of inclusive fitness in the Journal of Theoretical Biology. A 2nd paper followed in 1964. He set out to explain the evolutionary basis of altruism and the apparent contradiction between survival of the fittest and behavior that benefits kin.
(SFC, 3/10/00, p.D8)

1963 Laetrile, a purported anti-cancer drug, was temporarily banned. It was invented by Ernst T. Krebs (1877-1970) from a derivative of amygdalin, an extract of apricot pits.
(SFC, 9/12/96, p.A26)

1963 US Country music singer Patsy Cline (Kline) died in a plane crash.
(WSJ, 8/29/96, p.B1)(Hem., 4/97, p.69)

1963 Charles T. Fisher (1880-1963) died. He and his brother Frederic J. Fisher (1878-1941) established the Fisher Body Co. in 1908. They sold their operations to GM in 1926.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1963 Robert Lee Frost (b.1874), poet, died at age 88.
(MT, Win. ‘96, p.5)(WUD, 1994, p.571)

1963 Aldous Huxley (b.1894), English author, died. His books included Brave New World. In 2001 Ivan R. Dee published Aldous Huxley: Complete Essays: Volume IV, 1936-1938.
(AP, 7/13/97)(AP, 7/26/98)

1963 In Austria a Vienna Convention produced a treaty that protected the right of individuals jailed in a foreign land to contact their national consulate.
(SFC, 4/14/98, p.A3)

1963 In Czechoslovakia Vaclav Havel, future president, had his first play staged: The Garden Party.
(SFC, 1/6/97, p.B1)

1963 The British sci-fi TV series Dr. Who began. It reach the US in 1978. It featured a space traveling Doctor who was hundreds of years old from the planet Gellifrey. He used a London police call box as the external form of his space vessel. The interior was spacious with comfortable Edwardian touches.
(SFC, 5/14/96, E-1)

1963 Britain relaxed laws on betting. Gambling as a result moved off tracks to betting shops. By 2006 attendance at dog races fell to some 3.6 million from a high of 38 million in 1936.
(Econ, 3/29/08, p.74)

1963 Juan Bosch (1909-2001) was toppled in the Dominican Republic by the army shortly after being elected. His plans for land reform would have split up sugar plantations owned by generals.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(SFC, 11/2/01, p.D6)

1963 Carlos Julio Arosemena, president of Ecuador, was deposed in a military coup.
(AP, 3/5/04)

1963 Eritrea began a war for independence against Ethiopia.
(WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)

1963 The EU signed a trade deal in Yaounde, Cameroon, to keep markets open to former European colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific Islands (ACP).
(Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)

1963 France erected giant concrete buildings to house a growing working class and North African immigrants. These included the “Cite des 4,000” in the Paris suburb of La Courneuve.
(WSJ, 11/14/05, p.A1)

1963 A glorified food blender was a product of the French restaurant supply giant Robot-Coupe. In 1973 Carl Sontheimer (d.1998 at 83) introduced his redesigned Cuisinart at a show in Chicago.
(SFC, 3/26/98, p.B4)

1963 French retailer Carrefour SA invented hypermarkets, huge emporiums that combined the wares of supermarkets and department stores.
(WSJ, 11/30/06, p.A1)

1963 French residents of Monaco became liable for French taxes.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.85)

1963 The paleolithic site of Lascaux, by the village of Montignac, France, was closed to the public by Andre Malraux, minister of cultural affairs, due to environmental damage caused by large numbers of tourists.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p.489)

1963 Ludwig Erhard, head of the Christian Democratic Union, replaced Konrad Adenauer as Chancellor and served to 1966.
(AP, 11/21/05)

1963 In Greece Andreas Papandreou became a government minister under his father George, a centrist premier.
(SFC, 6/23/96, p.B6)

1963 India’s space program began in Trivandrum, Kerala, in this year. The Vikram Sarabhai Space Center in Trivandrum was named for the father of Indian rocketry.
(NG, 5/88, p.598)

1963 In Indonesia a new anti-subversion law was instituted with penalties of death or 20 years in prison.
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A14)

1963 Sovereignty over West Papua was transferred from the Netherlands to Indonesia. A UN approved referendum, involving some 1,000 handpicked pro-Jakarta Papuans, ratified the annexation in 1969.
(WSJ, 6/6/00, p.A23)

1963 The western part of the island of New Guinea, Irian Jaya, became a province of Indonesia. It was formerly a Dutch territory called West New Guinea, Dutch New Guinea or Netherlands New Guinea. A West Papua pro-independence movement began and by 2004 an estimated 100,000 civilians had died in the struggle.
(WUD, 1994, p.1623)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1963 Left leaning students sympathetic to Iran’s former PM Mohammed Mossadeq, deposed in 1953, founded Mujahedin e-Kalq (People’s Mujahedin of Iran).
(WSJ, 5/8/08, p.A10)

1963 Iraq renounced its claim laid to Kuwait.
(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)

1963 Japan’s Shimano Corp. introduced a cold forging plant to press precision parts for bicycles using dies and high pressure to form metal at room temp.
(Hem, 8/96, p.34)

1963 Kenya gained independence from Britain and the Kenyan African National Union Party began ruling.
(SFC, 10/17/96, A8)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)

1963 Kuwait began a democratic process with the founding of a legislature, but only a select few were eligible to vote. Power rested with the royal family.
(SFC, 5/17/99, p.A12)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.40)

1963 In Lesotho Moshoeshoe II was crowned king.
(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.14A)

1963 In Guadalajara, Mexico, Madre Lupita (b.1878) died in the Santa Margarita Hospital she helped found. She was beatified in 2004 by Pope John Paul II.
(AP, 4/24/04)

1963 In Mexico during the administration of Lopez Mateos soldiers took part in the mutilation killing of a leader of coffee farmers in the community of El Ticui. The event was documented in a 2006 government report on Mexico’s “dirty war.”
(AP, 2/27/06)

1963 In Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Roland Rowland ( Tiny ) became chief executive of the London and Rhodesia Mining and Land Co. (Lonrho). Over the next 30 years he turned it into a conglomerate with more than 1000 subsidiaries in over 60 countries.
(SFC, 7/28/98, p.A20)
**
[and]

1963 Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia) ended a federation with Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.63)

1963 In South Africa Albie Sachs was jailed without charges for 168 days. He described his experience in the book: The Jail Diary of Albie Sachs.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.7)

1963 The Rivonia trial began and resulted in the jailing of Nelson Mandela and Govan Mbeki. In 1999 Glenn Frankel authored Rivonia’s Children. White activists (Joe Slovo and his wife Ruth First, Rusty and Hilda Bernstein, and Anna Marie and Harold Wolpe) of the South African Communist Party, involved in the trial, fled into exile. The trial was named after the area where the ANC members were arrested.
(WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)(SFC, 7/18/02, p.A26)

1963 South Africa conducted a joint nuclear test with Israel, but the Israelis did not confirm the report.
(SFC, 5/18/02, p.A2)

1963 The Soviet Union planned to harness hydroelectric power and feed a huge aluminum smelter in Tajikistan.
(WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1)

1963 In Switzerland Werner Thomas, accordionist, began performing a tune he’d written in the late 1950s at his restaurant in Davos. The tune later became known worldwide as the chicken dance.
(WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A1)

1963 In Vietnam the Battle of Ap Bac was fought.
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)

1963 Aden (South Yemen) was amalgamated with the British protectorate to form the Federation of South Arabia which resulted in rioting.
(www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/yemen.htm)

1963-1964 The Johnson White House Tapes, 1963-1964 by historian Michael R. Beschloss was published in 1997.
(SFC, 10/6/97, p.A2)

1963-1968 Lester B. Pearson, Liberal Party, served as the 14th Prime Minister of Canada.
(CFA, ’96, p.81)
1963-1968 Jozef Lenart (d.2004) served as prime minister of Czechoslovakia.
(AP, 2/12/04)

1963-1969 Lyndon Baines Johnson served as the 36th President of the US.
(A&IP, ESM, p.96h, photo)

1963-1969 Denys Rackley (d.1998 at 76), Carthusian monk, helped build the only American monastery of the Carthusian order, the Charterhouse of the Transfiguration in Arlington, Vt. He trained at the Carthusian order’s mother house in La Grand Chartreuse, France, where the order is supported by the sale of its Chartreuse liqueur.
(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A22)

1963-1973 The 1975 US Church committee report on CIA activity in Chile included a chronology that covered this period.
(http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/johnson/churchreport.htm)

1963-1974 Dr. Charles Weldon served in Laos as the chief medical officer for USAID. In 1999 Weldon authored Tragedy in Paradise: A Country doctor at War in Laos.
(SFC, 11/30/02, p.A23)

1963-1994 King Hussein of Jordan (1935-1999) held at least 55 secret meetings with leading Israelis including at least seven prime and foreign ministers.
(Econ, 11/24/07, p.88)

Go to 1964

http://timelines.ws/20thcent/1963.HTML

***

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