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Earthquake List for Map of Europe Region

Update time = Wed Apr 8 03:00:05 UTC 2009

Here is a list of the earthquakes located by the USGS and contributing networks for the Map of Europe Region. Most recent events are at the top. (Some early events may be obscured by later ones on the map.) Click on the date portion of an earthquake record in the list below for more information.

MAG UTC DATE-TIME
y/m/d h:m:s
LAT
deg
LON
deg
DEPTH
km
Region
MAP 4.6 2009/04/07 21:34:32 42.487 13.397 5.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 5.6 2009/04/07 17:47:38 42.349 13.405 13.1 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.5 2009/04/07 17:32:56 32.961 47.815 42.4 IRAN-IRAQ BORDER REGION
MAP 5.0 2009/04/07 15:18:41 37.620 -17.441 8.3 AZORES-CAPE ST. VINCENT RIDGE
MAP 4.9 2009/04/07 09:26:30 42.336 13.360 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.9 2009/04/06 23:15:37 42.467 13.392 2.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.3 2009/04/06 07:17:13 42.448 13.363 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.4 2009/04/06 03:56:48 42.387 13.322 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.6 2009/04/06 02:37:04 42.366 13.340 10.1 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 6.3 2009/04/06 01:32:39 42.334 13.334 8.8 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.0 2009/04/05 20:48:57 42.400 13.409 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.6 2009/04/05 20:20:52 44.355 11.979 6.4 NORTHERN ITALY
MAP 4.5 2009/04/04 07:02:46 71.815 -1.272 10.0 JAN MAYEN ISLAND REGION

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/region/Europe_eqs.php

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/region/Europe.php

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Italy

Seismicity Map

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/italy/seismicity.php

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Terremoto in Abruzzo
oltre 150 morti, 70.000 sfollati
Il terremoto di magnitudo 6,3 Richter, ha colpito la zona intorno al capoluogo abruzzese poco prima delle 3.30. Almeno 26 i Comuni interessati. Castelnuovo descritto come un ammasso di macerie. Onna rasa al suolo. Tra le vittime parecchi bambini. Oltre mille e 500 i feriti. All’Aquila ha ceduto la Casa dello studente: sotto le macerie, 6 ragazzi estratti vivi 15 ore dopo il sisma. Polemica sull’ospedale dall’Aquila reso inagibile dal terremoto: trasferiti tutti i ricoverati. Bertolaso: “La peggiore tragedia dall’inzio del millennio”.Proclamato lo stato d’emergenza. Continuano le scosse di assestamento. Il presidente della Provincia dell’Aquila attacca il sottosegretario alla Protezione civile: “L’allarme dei giorni scorsi è stato sottovalutato”. Berlusconi in Abruzzo: “Non era possibile prevedere il terremoto”. Sedici-ventimila posti letto per gli sfollati. La scossa avvertita con forza nella Capitale. In arrivo uomini e mezzi da tutta Italia. Primi arresti per sciacallaggio. Aiuti dalle altre regioni e dall’estero. La preoccupazione di Napolitano (“Solidarietà mondiale ci conforta”), la preghiera del Papa per i bambini morti 06/04/2009

http://www.repubblica.it/indici/dirette/sezioni/cronaca/terremoto-nord/index.html

Il Pd: “Accettare gli aiuti internazionali”. No di Berlusconi

Diretta – CRONACA

Abruzzo, nuova forte scossa
Si scava ancora, 17 mila sfollati
Dopo il terremoto di domenica notte decine di movimenti di assestamento nella provincia dell’Aquila. L’ultimo bilancio riferisce di 179 vittime accertate ma è destinato a crescere. Si è scavato per tutta la notte alla ricerca di sopravvissuti, 100 finora salvati. Intorno alle 11.30 una scossa forte, avvertita anche a Roma, ha provocato nuovi crolli. Berlusconi è tornato nelle zone colpite. Il Cdm stanzia 30 milioni per la prima emergenza. Appello di Franceschini: “Il governo accetti gli aiuti offerti dagli altri Paesi”

14:17 Onna, forse ancora persone sotto le macerie

Sono due i cani delle unità cinofile che hanno segnalato a Onna, frazione dell’Aquila, la possibile presenza di persone sotto le macerie di una casa all’ingresso della zona abitata. La verifica era stata richiesta dalla Protezione civile: vi è infatti l’ipotesi della presenza di qualcuno in quell’edificio, che ai residenti risulta disabitato. “Tuttavia – ha spiegato uno degli operatori della Scuola provinciale cani da ricerca e catastrofe di Trento – bisogna tenere presente che i cani sono al lavoro ininterrottamente da oltre 24 ore, possono esserci anche motivi diversi, dalla stanchezza alla presenza di vestiti, o anche cibo, frigoriferi aperti”.
14:15 Finte telefonate e panico a Teramo

Uno sconosciuto questa mattina ha telefonato ai centralini dell’Ospedale, del Comune, dell’Istituto Zooprofilattico e di altri uffici di Teramo spacciandosi per un carabiniere e dicendo che i locali andavano evacuati perchè era in arrivo una forte scossa di terremoto. Sull’episodio sono in corso indagini delle forze dell’ordine mentre il capo della protezione civile, Guido Bertolaso, ha invitato a non tenere conto di queste voci che creano soltanto dannosi allarmismi.

14:13 Procura dell’Aquila apre inchiesta per disastro e omicidio colposo

La procura dell’Aquila ha aperto un’inchiesta per disastro e omicidio colposo nei confronti delle 207 vittime ipotizzando responsabilità nella costruzione degli edifici crollati. Si tratta, viene specificato, di un atto dovuto.
14:12 Rocca di Mezzo, arrivano tende ma mancano bagni

A Rocca di Mezzo (L’Aquila) sono arrivate stamani 127 tende della Protezione Civile del Veneto per circa 200 posti letto, mentre si segnala la mancanza di bagni chimici e il problema del riscaldamento, visto che stanotte la temperatura è scesa un grado sotto lo zero: il Comune, che ospita circa 1.300 abitanti, dei quali il 60% ultrasessantenne, si trova a 1.300 metri. A segnalarlo è il sindaco di Rocca di Mezzo, Emilio Nusca.
14:10 Berlusconi: “Ricostruzione in tempi rapidi e certi”

Tempi “rapidi e certi” per la ricostruzione delle case danneggiate dal terremoto in Abruzzo. E’ quanto ha garantito Silvio Berlusconi, intervenuto a L’Aquila in una conferenza presso la caserma della Guardia di finanza che ospita il centro di coordinamento della Protezione civile. L’obiettivo, ha spiegato, è “dare inizio alle ricostruzioni non appena possibile. Il governo ha probabilmente quattro anni di lavoro davanti a se, garantisco per le mie esperienze precedenti ricostruzioni in tempi rapidi e certi”.
14:09 Falso allarme a Rieti

Il prefetto di Rieti, Silvana Riccio, ha reso noto che alcune telefonate di persone che si sono spacciate per funzionari prefettizi o della protezione civile stanno creando un allarme ingiustificato tra la popolazione del capoluogo reatino annunciando l’imminenza di una forte scossa di terremoto. Molte persone, in preda al panico, sono uscite in strada da case, uffici pubblici, banche, negozi in seguito ad un passaparola che sta coinvolgendo tutta la città.
L’assessore comunale Daniele Fabbro, convocato presso la prefettura di Rieti, ha dichiarato che “queste notizie sono prive di fondamento e faremo tra poco un comunicato per tranquillizzare la cittadinanza”.
14:09 Tornati in patria i primi studenti israeliani

Lacrime di gioia e ricordi di paura, oggi, all’aeroporto Ben Gurion di Tel Aviv, per i primi 11 studenti israeliani rientrati in patria dopo essere sopravvissuti l’altra notte al crollo dell’ostello universitario dell’Aquila nel sisma che ha colpito l’Abruzzo. Accolti delle famiglie fra abbracci e pianti liberatori, sono arrivati con il primo volo utile da Roma dopo essere stati evacuati dal capoluogo abruzzese. Dietro di loro – raccontano – hanno lasciato distruzioni e 40 altri studenti israeliani, in parte della minoranza araba: iscritti come loro all’ateneo aquilano e al momento ancora ospiti di alloggi provvisori messi a disposizione della autorità italiane.
14:07 bertolaso ribadisce: “Impossibile prevedere sisma”

“Sento dire di un allarme diffuso in Abruzzo circa la possibilità che si verifichi un nuovo evento sismico. Ribadisco quanto detto ieri, ovvero l’attuale impossibilità di prevedere un nuovo evento sismico. Questa è scienza, il resto potete decidere voi”. Lo ha detto il capo della Protezione civile, Guido Bertolaso, a conclusione della conferenza stampa tenuta con il premier Silvio Berlusconi e il ministro del Lavoro Maurizio Sacconi.
14:07 Berlusconi: “1500 tecnici per esaminare le case”

“Da domani inizierà la fase più delicata perchè ci sarà l’intervento sulle abitazioni per visionare i danni. Sarà fatto un sopralluogo stanza per stanza e quindi ci saranno migliaia di case da esaminare. Di questo se ne occuperanno 1500 tecnici molto qualificati”. Lo afferma il premier Silvio Berlusconi nel corso di una conferenza stampa dopo il sopralluogo nelle zone colpite dal sisma.
14:06 Tornimparte, si attendono ancora le tende

Gli abitanti di Tornimparte (L’Aquila) attendono ancora l’approntamento da parte della Protezione civile di tende per circa 500 persone: stanotte si sono arrangiati con tende private montate in alcuni campi sportivi delle venti frazioni. Alcune persone, nonostante il timore di nuove scosse, hanno trascorso la notte dentro le loro abitazioni. Gli edifici lesionati nel Comune sarebbero alcune decine.
14:05 Incasso di Napoli-Atalanta alle famiglie delle vittime

L’incasso di Napoli-Atalanta verrà devoluto alle famiglie delle vittime del terremoto che ha colpito l’Abruzzo. Lo ha deciso, “come atto di solidarieretà”, il presidente del club azzurro, Aurelio De Laurentiis “profondamente colpito da questa immane tragedia”.
14:04 Messaggio di solidarietà del presidente cinese Hu Jintao

Il leader cinese Hu Jintao ha espresso le sue condoglianze per le vittime del terremoto dell’ Abruzzo al presidente Giorgio Napolitano. Lo afferma l’ agenzia Nuova Cina. L’agenzia aggiunge che messaggi di condoglianze e di solidarietà sono stati inviati anche dal presidente del Parlamento cinese Wu Banguo al presidente del Senato Renato Schifani e dal primo ministro Wen Jiabao al presidente del consiglio Silvio Berlusconi.
14:03 Berlusconi: “Nessun ripensamento al Ponte sullo stretto”

“Il Ponte sullo Stretto e’ un’opera prioritaria. Perche’ grazie al Ponte finalmente i siciliani saranno italiani al cento per cento. E’ stata interrotta dalle sinistre e noi la manderemo avanti nei tempi piu’ veloci possibile. Non ci sono problemi sui fondi, ho avuto una riunione ieri sera”. Lo ha detto il premier, Silvio Berlusconi.
14:01 Avezzano, panico per finti sms

Scene di panico sono avvenute all’interno di alcuni supermercati, negozi e abitazioni di Avezzano a causa di numerose false telefonate e sms di persone che si spacciano per funzionari della protezione civile, invitando la gente ad abbandonare le case per imminenti nuove scosse di terremoto. Il sindaco di Avezzano, Antonio Floris, invita la popolazione a non dare ascolto a queste voci totalmente destituite di fondamento in quanto nessuno, né dalla protezione civile, né dal Comune di Avezzano, ha diramato disposizioni a riguardo.
14:00 Berlusconi: “Sarò qui ogni giorno”

“Sarò qui ogni giorno e mi metterò a disposizione per quello che serve. Fa parte della mia attività ed è il mio dovere”. Lo afferma il premier Silvio Berlusconi nel corso di una conferenza stampa per spiegare la situazione in Abruzzo dopo il terremoto.
13:59 Berlusconi: “Ricostruzioni in tempi rapidi e certi”

“Io garantisco che le ricostruzioni saranno fatti in tempi rapidi e certi. E saranno annunciate pubblicamente all’inizio dei lavori per ogni opera di ricostruzione”. Lo ha detto il premier, Silvio Berlusconi, parlando in conferenza stampa nella sede della Guardia di Finanza a Coppito, frazione di L’Aquila, per fare il punto sull’emergenza terremoto.

13:58 Berlusconi: “Mi piacerebbe si costruisse qui la prima new town”

“Mi piacerebbe che si costruisse qui la prima new town”. Lo afferma il premier Silvio Berlusconi nel corso di una conferenza stampa. “Ci saranno investimenti dei privati – prosegue – e insieme con la disponibilità delle banche si potrà arrivare ad avere rapidi mutui inferiori o pari al canone di locazione”. Per quanto riguarda da ricostruzione Berlusconi ribadisce “la possibilità di utilizzare il fondo catastrofi dell’Europa e poi – aggiunge – saranno messi a disposizione tutti i soldi necessari”.
13:57 Cgil, Cisl, Uil: Donare 1 ora lavoro da busta paga

Le Segreterie Nazionali di Cgil, Cisl, Uil ”esprimono dolore e cordoglio per le vittime del catastrofico sisma che ha colpito la regione Abruzzo e hanno deciso di assumere una iniziativa congiunta di aiuto alle popolazioni delle zone terremotate che sia efficace e tempestiva”. I sindacati, in una nota congiunta, spiegano che prenderanno contatto con le Associazioni datoriali per favorire la raccolta della sottoscrizione volontaria di 1 ora di lavoro tramite apposita delega.
13:54 Meterologo: “In arrivo piogge su zone sisma”

Anche il maltempo ci si mette ad ostacolare l’opera dei soccorritori e a rendere più difficile la vita nelle zone colpite dal terremoto dell’aquilano. “Nelle prossime ore – afferma il meterologo del centro Epson Meteo, Andrea Giuliacci – il tempo rimarrà bello in gran parte della Penisola ma, un pò com’è successo già nella giornata di ieri, brevi e improvvisi temporali si formeranno sull’Appennino Centrale e quindi anche sull’interno dell’Abruzzo”.
13:52 Berlusconi: “In Cdm proroga dei termini per le scadenze fiscali”

“Nel Consiglio dei ministri di giovedì decideremo la proroga dei termini per le scadenze fiscali”. Lo afferma il premier Silvio Berlusconi, nel corso di una conferenza stampa per spiegare la situazione in Abruzzo.

13:50 Berlusconi: Per beni culturali inventario e poi interventi

Prima verrà effettuato un inventario dei beni culturali danneggiati dal terremoto che ha colpito L’Aquila e le zone limtrofe e poi verrà messo a punto un piano degli interventi. Lo ha annunciato il presidente del Consiglio, Silvio Berlusconi. ”Ho chiesto a Bondi (ministro dei beni culturali, ndr) di non venire subito per non congestionare gli interventi di soccorso – ha detto il premier -. Quando Bertolaso darà il via faremo un inventario e poi metteremo a punto il piano degli interventi” per il patrimonio artistico danneggiato dal sisma.

13:48 Berlusconi: aiuti per lavoratori autonomi

Il governo con il ministro Sacconi sta studiando misure di aiuto ovvero ammortizzatori sociali anche per i lavoratori autonomi delle zone colpite dal terremoto. Lo ha detto il premier Silvio Berlusconi ribadendo che l’azione del governo è guidata dalla filosofia: “People first” sia per quel che riguarda l’emergenza terremoto sia quella determinata dalla crisi economica. “Saremo vicini – ha detto Berlusconi – a tutti i cittadini in stato di bisogno”.
13:47 Ancora decine di scosse di assestamento

Ancora decine di scosse di assestamento si sono susseguite per tutta la mattinata nell’Aquilano. “Proseguono al ritmo di una ogni minuto, alcune sono state molto forti, ma complessivamente le repliche stanno seguendo il normale sviluppo di una sequenza sismica”, dicono gli esperti dalla sala sismica del’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (Ingv). La replica più forte, di magnitudo 4.5, è avvenuta alle 11,26. Due minuti prima era stata registrata una scossa di magnitudo 3,5 e poi, sulla coda della replica più violenta, un’altra scossa di magnitudo 3,5.
13:46 Ministero Esteri Francia, morta una giovane turista francese

Il Ministero degli Esteri francese ha reso noto che, tra le vittime del terremoto in Abruzzo, c’è anche una giovane turista francese. Lo ha detto uno dei portavoce del Ministero nell’abituale punto stampa del martedì.
13:44 Berlusconi: “Grazie ma non servono aiuti stranieri”

“Ringraziamo i paesi stranieri per la loro solidarietà ma invitiamo a non inviare qui i loro aiuti. Siamo in grado di rispondere da soli alle esigenze, siamo un popolo fiero e di benessere e li ringrazio ma bastiamo da soli”. Lo afferma il premier Silvio Berlusconi, nel corso di una conferenza stampa sulla situazione in Abruzzo.
13:43 Ucoii mette a disposizione moschea

La moschea della Fratellanza di Ancona è stata allestita da ieri per l’accoglienza degli sfollati della provincia dell’Aquila. Lo sottolinea una nota dell’Unione delle comunità e organizzazioni islamiche in Italia (Ucoii) che ricorda anche la disponibilità di uno staff di medici pronti a prestare i soccorsi in caso di necessità, coordinata dallo stesso presidente dell’Ucoii, Dachan Mohamed Nour, che è medico.
13:42 Berlusconi: “Alberghi in ottime condizioni”

Gli alberghi della costa abruzzese ”sono in ottime condizioni di effecienza”. Lo ha detto il premier Silvio Berlusconi in risposta ad alcuni articoli apparsi sulla stampa straniera, precisando che le autorita’ stanno trattando il prezzo delle camere di tali alberghi per potervi sistemare gli sfollati provocati dal terremoto.

13:41 A Sulmona centro di raccolta per animali dall’Enpa. Appello per gli aiuti

L’emergenza terremoto riguarda anche gli animali. Secondo l’Ente nazionale protezione animali, infatti, migliaia di animali da compagnia e da reddito hanno bisogno di aiuto: servono mangime, cibo per cani e gatti, fieno, trasportini, gabbiette. Per far fronte a questa emergenza, Enpa ha allestito un centro operativo di raccolta del materiale a Sulmona. Si invitano quindi gli italiani che vogliono aiutare gli animali a inviare mangime, cibo per cani e gatti, fieno, trasportini, gabbiette al seguente indirizzo: Ente nazionale protezione animali onlus – centro operativo raccolta aiuti per animali – c/o ambiente – viale dell’industria n. 30 – 67039 Sulmona (Aq).

13:39 Berlusconi: Allestite 20 tendopoli

In soccorso degli sfollati in Abruzzo sono state allestite, o sono in via di allestimento, 20 tendopoli. Lo ha detto il premier Silvio Berlusconi facendo il punto sul terremoto che ha colpito l’Abruzzo nella notte tra domenica e lunedi’. Le 20 tendopoli, ha precisato il premier, sono dotate di 16 cucine da campo “che potranno ospitare 14 mila e 500 persone”.

13:38 Berlusconi: Nessun albergo è stato confiscato

Nessun albergo della costa abruzzese è stato confiscato e le autorità della Protezione civile stanno definendo con i proprietari delle strutture i prezzi per l’ospitalità degli sfollati dalle zone del terremoto. Lo ha detto il presidente del Consiglio, Silvio Berlusconi.
13:37 Berlusconi: “Si lavora per 4 ragazzi nella Casa dello studente”

“Una delle operazioni che ci sta più a cuore è quella che riguarda 4 ragazzi, presso la casa dello studente dove ci sono moltissimi soccorritori al lavoro”. Lo afferma il premier Silvio Berlusconi nel corso della conferenza stampa per fare il punto sulla situazione in Abruzzo.
13:36 Berlusconi: “In totale abbiamo oltre 7 mila soccorritori”

“Ci sono al momento al lavoro circa 4 mila unità, a cui si aggiungono 2 mila volontari. Più 130 dipendenti della Regione Abruzzo e i volontari abruzzesi. In totale abbiamo oltre 7 mila soccorritori. C’è stata una gara tempestiva di solidarietà da tutte le Regioni”. Lo ha detto il premier, Silvio Berlusconi, parlando in conferenza stampa nella sede della Guardia di Finanza a Coppito, frazione di L’Aquila, per fare il punto sull’emergenza terremoto.

13:35 Rdb vigili del fuoco: “Lavoriamo con meno di 15mila unità”

I Vigili del Fuoco si trovano a lavorare con meno di 15.000 unità e il 30% di risorse in meno rispetto a due anni fa; il personale lavora nelle zone terremotate da 40 ore senza soste e non è stato sottoposto a visite mediche per l’idoneità al soccorso. Lo denunciano le Rdb-Cub dei vigili del fuoco sottolineando che un loro collega è morto durante le operazioni (Marco Cavagna, 49 anni, era di Bergamo ed ha perso la vita ieri per un infarto).
13:34 Berlusconi: “I feriti sono poco più di mille, 100 in condizioni difficili”

“I feriti sono poco più di mille. E sono stati ospedalizzati in 500. Cento purtroppo sono in condizioni difficili. Tutti sono stati mandati in ospedali abruzzesi per permettere di star loro vicino ai parenti”. Lo ha detto il premier, Silvio Berlusconi, parlando in conferenza stampa nella sede della Guardia di Finanza a Coppito, frazione di L’Aquila, per fare il punto sull’emergenza terremoto.

13:32 Berlusconi: “190 vittime identificate, 17 non ancora identificate e 15 dispersi”

Sono 207 al momento le vittime del terremoto di cui 17 non ancora identificate.”. Lo ha detto il premier Silvio Berlusconi, sottolineando che sono invece 150 le persone estratte vive dalle macerie.
13:31 Berlusconi: ”Complimenti ai soccorritori”

”C’è davvero da fare i complimenti ai soccorritori”. Lo ha detto il premier Silvio Berlusconi in conferenza stampa a L’Aquila, aggiungendo che le attivita’ di soccorso ”procede in modo assolutamente soddisfacente”.

13:29 Berlusconi: “150 persone estratte vive dalle macerie”

La ricerca dei supersiti continuerà per le prossime 48 ore. Lo ha detto Silvio Berlusconi, annunciando la notizia positiva del salvataggio di “150 persone estratte vive dalle macerie”.
13:29 Berlusconi: “Possibili altre scosse non rientrate a casa”

“Sono possibili altre scosse, il messaggio alla popolazione è quello di non rientrare nelle proprie case”. Lo dice il presidente del Consiglio, Silvio Berlusconi, durante una conferenza stampa a L’Aquila.
13:14 Onna, mancano servizi igenici

A Onna si stanno montando le tende ma non ci sono servizi igenici. Una situazione che provoca proteste e disagi tra le persone
13:12 Controlli anti-sciacalli nelle aree più colpite

Forze dell’ordine mobilitate in Abruzzo per prevenire eventuali episodi di sciacallaggio. La vigilanza, affidata a migliaia di operatori della Polizia di Stato, dell’Arma dei Carabinieri e della Guardia di Finanza – centinaia dei quali inviati appositamente – è concentrata nei luoghi più colpiti dal terremoto. In particolare, capillari controlli sono mirati a tutelare gli edifici del centro dell’Aquila, di otto frazioni del capoluogo, tra cui Onna, Paganica e San Gregorio e di alcuni comuni tra i quali Villa Sant’Angelo e Fossa.
12:53 A Roma evacuati alcuni uffici e un museo

Alcuni uffici pubblici di via Ostiense, a Roma e il museo Pigorini all’Eur sono stati evacuati a scopo precauzionale durante la scossa delle 11.27, avvertita in alcuni quartieri della capitale. Anche gli utenti in fila agli sportelli sono stati invitati ad andare via.

12:50 Franceschini: “Governo accetti aiuti dall’estero”

Dario Franceschini sollecita l’esecutivo ad accettare gli aiuti internazionali. “La linea scelta dal Pd di fronte al dramma dell’Abruzzo è doverosa – dichiara – di fronte all’emergenza non ci deve essere nessuna polemica”. Poi aggiunge: “Il governo però valuti con attenzione se non sia urgente accettare le offerte di aiuto che provengono da altri Paesi, che si sono detti pronti a mettere a disposizione le loro strutture di Protezione civile. Non ci sarebbe niente di male: anche l’Italia, in passato, ha mandato i propri uomini a fronteggiare l’emergenza per il terremoto in Turchia, per gli incendi in Spagna, per le alluvioni in Germania”.
12:47 Tre palazzine crollate a Pettino

Con la forte scossa di questa mattina, a Pettino, frazione dell’Aquila, sono crollate altre tre palazzine. Nessun danno alle persone, visto che erano state già sgombrate dopo i danni del terremoto dell’altra notte.
12:42 Ascolti alti per i tg e gli speciali televisivi di ieri

Grande attenzione da parte del pubblico televisivo per l’informazione sul terremoto in Abruzzo. Ieri lo speciale Porta a Porta-Tg1 in prima serata è stato seguito da 6 milioni 777 mila spettatori con il 26,93% di share, mentre su Canale 5 lo speciale Matrix-Tg5 ne ha avuti 2 milioni 908 mila pari al 17,38. Da segnalare anche i risultati del Tg1 e Tg5 delle 20, quasi interamente dedicati alla tragedia: il primo ha avuto 8 milioni 695 mila spettatori, con il 33,88 di share; il secondo 6 milioni 676 mila, pari al 26,57.
12:41 L’Aquila, dopo l’ultima scossa chiusa la farmacia

L’unica farmacia aperta in centro storico lungo Corso Federico II è stata chiusa subito dopo la nuova scossa. Il medico, che da questa mattina forniva medicine, non se l’è sentita di rimanere all’interno dello stabile tra l’altro tutto lesionato, anche perchè gli stessi tecnici del centro crisi che stanno effettuando il sopralluogo nel centro storico dell’Aquila hanno invitato il medico a lasciare la farmacia.
12:39 Novantottenne sopravvissuta a tre crolli

Ha 98 anni e, nella sua lunga vita, è sopravvissuta a due terremoti e a un crollo. Ines D’Alessandro l’altra notte, nel suo appartamento all’Aquila ,ha rivissuto le stesse emozioni che provò nel 1915 quando il terremoto della Marsica devastò il suo paese, Castel di Ieri. Scampata al sisma del 1915, vide tre anni dopo morire due sorelline nel crollo improvviso della sua casa che era stata frettolosamente dichiarata agibile dai tecnici all’epoca del sisma.
12:37 Iniziativa di solidarietà di Poste Mobile

Il gestore telefonico Poste Mobile ha attivato il numero di solidarietà 377.2048580 per consentire ai propri clienti di contribuire all’azione di soccorso a favore delle comunità terremotate, donando 1 euro con un Sms. Inoltre, fa sapere Poste italiane, i clienti che hanno associato alla propria Sim Poste Mobile un conto corrente Bancoposta o una carta prepagata Postepay possono donare qualunque importo accedendo ai servizi
Semplifica tramite il menù della propria scheda Sim.
12:21 Falsi sfollati cercano di dormire in hotel

Alcune persone, per lo più nomadi, hanno cercato nelle ultime ore di mescolarsi agli sfollati per poter usufruire dell’accoglienza gratuita negli alberghi
12:18 Tanta paura anche a Roma

La scossa sismica delle 11.26 è stata sentita anche a Roma, prevalentemente nelle zone periferiche di Cinecittà e dell’Ostiense, ma anche nell’hinterland della capitale, in particolare a Monterotondo e Colleferro. Molte le telefonate ai centralini delle forze dell’ordine e dei vigili del fuoco. Nessun danno ma tanta paura tra la popolazione
11:58 Fini andrà all’Aquila il giorno di Pasqua

Il presidente della Camera Gianfranco Fini, si recherà la domenica di Pasqua nelle zone terremotate

11:41 Berlusconi all’Aquila

Il premier Silvio Berlusconi è atterrato all’aeroporto dell’Aquila pochi muiniti dopo le nuove forti scosse di assestamento
11:40 Le nuove scosse di magnitudo 4.5

Le nuove scosse delle 11.26 erano di magnitudo 4.5
11:38 Protezione civile: “Ancora speranza per le persone sotto le macerie”

“C’è ancora speranza per le persone che sono rimaste intrappolate sotto le macerie”. Lo ha detto Natale Mazzei, dell’ufficio Emergenze del dipartimento della Protezione Civile
11:34 Seconda scossa

Alla prima scossa, ne è seguita una ancora più forte dopo circa un minuto che ha fatto vibrare per alcuni secondi gli edifici
11:33 Terrore: caduti altri calcinacci

Dagli edifici già lesionati si sono staccati calcinacci provocando ulteriore panico nella popolazione
11:28 Altra forte scossa avvertita anche a Roma

Altra forte scossa di assestamento avvertita anche a Roma
11:22 Città senz’acqua

A causa del terremoto, l’aquedotto che rifornisce acqua alla periferia e al centro storico dell’Aquila, a Castelnuovo e a Paganica è ancora fuori uso. I tecnici hanno garantito che entro le prossime 24 ore il problema dovrebbe essere risolto
11:17 Calcio, domenica minuto di silenzio e lutto al braccio

Un minuto di silenzio e giocatori in campo con il lutto al braccio nel prossimo turno dei campionati di serie A e B e nel torneo Primavera. Lo ha disposto la Lega Calcio “in segno di lutto per le vittime del terremoto che ha colpito l’Abruzzo”
11:06 Alle 10 nuova scossa all’Aquila

Una nuova scossa sismica di magnitudo 3.2 è stata registrata alle ore 10 con epicentro a L’Aquila, Collimento e Villa Grande. Lo riferisce la Protezione civile.

11:04 Acqua e ferrovie a singhiozzo

Per i centri colpiti dal sisma c’è anche un problema acqua. I tecnici del comune dell’Aquila hanno verificato che l’acquedotto comunale ha subito dei danni: perdite importanti che non hanno permesso e non stanno permettendo al momento di riempire le cisterne che forniscono acqua in particolar modo alla periferia e al centro storico dell’Aquila, a Castelnuovo e a Paganica. Sul fronte ferroviario, ancora interrotta la linea L’Aquila-Sulmona.
10:59 Il governatore Chiodi: “La perfezione è impossibile”

Si lavora in condizioni di grandissima difficoltà, stiamo cercando di organizzare tutto al meglio ma la perfezione è impossibile. L’aspetto piu’ importante è che si siano estratte 100 persone vive dalle macerie”. Cosi’ il presidente della regione Abruzzo, Gianni Chiodi, ai microfoni di Rai News 24.
10:53 Berlusconi, conferenza stampa alle 13

Il presidente del Consiglio Silvio Berlusconi terrà intorno alle 13, nella sede della Scuola degli ispettori della Guardia di Finanza di Coppito, una frazione dell’Aquila, una conferenza stampa. Lo si apprende da ambienti governativi.

10:31 Casa dello studente, trovato un cadavere

Il cadavere di un giovane è stato estratto stamani dalle macerie della casa dello studente all’Aquila ed i soccorritori hanno individuato il cadavere di un altro ragazzo. Il lavoro di recupero procede con cautela anche perchè si temono nuovi crolli della parte della struttura rimasta ancora in piedi.
10:26 In Abruzzo c’è il sole

E’ sotto il sole che stamani l’Abruzzo – e le zone terremotate in particolare – si è svegliato. Tutto esattamente come ieri, compresa la previsione di un peggioramento pomeridiano nell’aquilano, con piogge localizzate, che si spera non interessino direttamente il capoluogo di regione e le zone limitrofe, e temperature tra i 5 ed i 19 gradi.
10:20 Emanuele Filiberto a L’Aquila

Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia, accompagnato dalla moglie Clotilde, è arrivato alle 8 di questa mattina a L’Aquila per solidarietà con i terremotati.
10:16 In azione 850 militari

Sono 850 i militari dell’Esercito schierati in Abruzzo per far fronte all’emergenza terremoto, secondo un punto di situazione aggiornato a stamani.

10:08 Scossa nella notte, paura ad Ascoli

Ha svegliato anche gli ascolani, nel pieno della notte, la scossa di magnitudo 4.8 registrata alle 1.15 in Abruzzo, con epicentro nei comuni di Pizzoli, Parete, Catipignano, e Cagnano Amiterno (L’Aquila).

10:01 Berlusconi torna all’Aquila

Silvio Berlusconi tornerà all’Aquila nella tarda mattinata (12.30) per compiere un sopralluogo assieme al capo della Protezione civile, Bertolaso. Il premier dovrebbe arrivare nel capoluogo abruzzese intorno a mezzogiorno e, dopo aver incontrato i tecnici per una verifica delle condizioni, potrebbe tenere una conferenza stampa presso la scuola allievi della guardia di finanza a Coppito.
09:56 A24 chiusa ai mezzi pesanti

L’autostrada A24 Roma-L’Aquila resta chiusa ai mezzi pesanti tranne che alle colonne mobili e ai mezzi leggeri. Lo riferisce la Protezione civile.
09:53 L’Aquila, una casa di cura per i ricoverati dell’ospedale

Al posto dell’ospedale dell’Aquila, evacuato ieri a causa dei danni, “chiederemo al ministro del Welfare di poter utilizzare una casa di cura in città, che non ha riportato danni”, ha detto il manager dell’Asl dell’Aquila Roberto Marzetti.
09:51 Oltre 40 mila posti letto garantiti nei prossimi giorni

La Protezione civile conta sul posto 7 mila unità, comprese anche le forze armate e le forze dell’ordine. “Entro oggi – ha affermato il vice capo dipartimento Marta Di Gennaro – saranno piantate 7 mila tende e nei prossimi giorni saranno garantiti 40 mila posti letto. I soccorsi nella notte sono proseguiti come nelle previsioni. La Protezione civile sconsiglia l’invio di materiale solidale dal momento che le squadre di assistenza usano del materiale collaudato e consiglia invece di far riferimento ad altri canali di aiuto, già avviati, previsti da associazioni di volontariato o da altri enti.
09:38 Maroni: “Cerchiamo i superstiti sotto le macerie”

Domani ci sarà un’altra riunione del Consiglio dei Ministri per stanziare fondi adeguati” ma “adesso l’emergenza è una sola: cercare di recuperare da sotto le macerie coloro che sono ancora vivi”, ha detto il ministro dell’Interno, Roberto Maroni.
09:37 Aquila, in 30 all’ospedale da campo

“Nell’ospedale da campo attrezzato e gestito dalla Protezione Civile qui all’Aquila sono ricoverati circa 30 pazienti”. A fare il punto della situazione è il manager dell’Asl dell’Aquila Roberto Marzetti, che spiega come al momento e per le prossime ore l’attività nell’ospedale da campo sarà gestita dalla Protezione Civile.

09:29 Rafforzato sistema anti-sciacalli

Il Ministero dell’Interno si sta organizzando, con nuovi uomini, per evitare nei prossimi giorni ogni possibile episodio di sciacallaggio. A dirlo e’ il Ministro dell’Interno, Roberto Maroni.
09:24 Sfollato un aquilano su sette

Quasi un aquilano su sette è sfollato. Tuttavia si tratta di un numero sensibilmente inferiore a quanto previsto nelle prime ore: 10.000 su un totale di circa 70.000 abitanti, mentre poche ore dopo la scossa di terremoto lo stesso sindaco dell’Aquila, Massimo Cialente aveva ipotizzato che i senza tetto potevano essere almeno 50.000.
09:18 Casa dello studente, estratto il corpo di un giovane

Il corpo senza vita di un giovane è stato estratto verso le 08,30 dalle rovine della Casa dello studente all’Aquila. Le squadre di soccorso dei Vigili del Fuoco, con l’aiuto di una potente gru, stanno lavorando per recuperare altri corpi che si teme siano rimasti sotto le macerie.
09:16 Dall’Unicef Italia 100 mila per i bambini abruzzesi

Unicef Italia stanzia un contributo di 100 mila euro per le esigenze primarie dei bambini abruzzesi. Lo ha annunciato il presidente della sezione italiana dell’organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite, Vincenzo Spadafora, sottolineando che ”i bambini abruzzesi hanno da subito bisogno dei soccorsi e degli aiuti necessari per sopravvivere in queste prime ore, ma anche di tornare alla loro vita normale, alle loro scuole, al quotidiano”.
09:15 Maroni: stanziati 130 milioni di euro

“Per il sistema del ministero dell’Interno, cioè carabinieri, polizia e vigili del fuoco impegnati per i prossimi sei mesi in Abruzzo metteremo a disposizione 130 milioni di euro”. Lo ha detto il ministro dell’Interno, Roberto Maroni. Domani, ha spiegato il ministro, “ci sarà un’altra riunione del Consiglio dei ministri per stanziare altri fondi. Per questa emergenza nazionale saranno trovate tutte le risorse che serviranno”.
09:03 Ripristinati gas e luce

Continua lo sforzo per assicurare a tutti gli sfollati un posto per dormire, ha spiegato il vice capo dipartimento della Protezione civile Marta Di Gennaro: “Nella giornata di oggi verranno montate in tutto 7000 tende per mettere a dimora 40mila persone. Sono state ripristinate le linee di gas ed energia ed entro domani sarà tutto avviato ed utilizzabile comprese le tende sociali. Ieri sera inoltre sono stati distribuiti 18mila pasti”.
09:02 “Nessuna emergenza sanitaria”

“Non c’è nessuna emergenza sanitaria”. Lo ha detto questa mattina Marta Di Gennaro, vice capo dipartimento della protezione civile dalla sede della sala operativa di Roma. “Sono una ventina i dispersi al momento, grandine e pioggia non hanno facilitato le operazioni”.
08:35 Diecimila posti letto negli alberghi

La Regione Abruzzo ricorda che sono a disposizione degli sfollati del sisma delle scorsa notte oltre 10 mila posti letto in Abruzzo in strutture alberghiere della costa adriatica. Si sottolinea che il pernottamento gratuito presso una delle strutture alberghiere è in favore dei cittadini dell’Aquila e dei comuni del circondario colpiti dal sisma di ieri.

08:34 In fila per la colazione

Questa mattina, dopo una notte di freddo (il termometro all’Aquila non ha superato i 4 gradi) gli sfollati delle tendopoli di piazza d’Armi si sono messi in fila per fare colazione e ricevere una copia gratuita dei quotidiani.

08:32 Nessun episodio di sciacallaggio nella notte

Nessun episodio di sciacallaggio è stato registrato la notte scorsa a L’Aquila. Lo ha riferito la centrale operativa della Guardia di Finanza, cui il coordinamento delle forze dell’ordine ha affidato l’incarico di controllare il centro della città nel corso della notte.
08:12 Muore uno dei capi dei vigili del fuoco

E’ morto ieri per un malore il capo squadra esperto Marco Cavagna, 50 anni, di Bergamo. Era giunto ieri all’Aquila dal Comando Provinciale dei Vigili del Fuoco di Bergamo, alla guida di un mezzo per aggiungersi ai soccorritori che stanno lavorando sulla zona del sisma ed è stato colto da un improvviso malore.
Aveva partecipato a numerose operazioni di soccorso, tra l’altro negli eventi sismici della provincia di Brescia del 2004 e negli eventi meteorologici verificatisi in Liguria nel 2002.
08:09 Autostrade, chiusa parte della A24

Per facilitare le operazioni di soccorso, comunica la compagnia Autostrade per l’Italia, è chiuso per tutti i veicoli, sulla A24 Roma-l’Aquila-Teramo il tratto tra Assergi e L’Aquila ovest in entrambe le direzioni. Inoltre, per i soli mezzi pesanti di massa complessiva superiore alle 7 tonnellate e mezza, la A24 è chiusa completamente verso Teramo e da Teramo fino al bivio per l’Autosole verso Roma mentre la A25 è completamente chiusa nei due sensi; in particolare, nel tratto compreso tra Bussi Popoli e Pratola Sulmona, è presente uno scambio di carreggiata, e c’è il limite di velocità di 40 km orari. Su questo tratto è vietato il transito ai veicoli con peso superiore alle 3 tonnellate e mezza. Autostrade sconsiglia di mettersi in viaggio per raggiungere l’Abruzzo. Sono in corso anche controlli alle strutture nei tratti interessati dal sisma.
07:57 L’impegno di vigili del fuoco ed esercito

Sono 1.950 i vigili del fuoco che si trovano in Abruzzo, con una novantina di mezzi a disposizione. Attualmente sono impegnati anche 72 ingegneri e architetti che si stanno occupando di effettuare le prime verifiche di stabilità degli edifici. Sul territorio anche 13 squadre speleo alpine, 40 unità cinofile, 6 squadre speleo alpino fluviale e 6 squadre specialistiche per la ricerca sotto le macerie attrezzate con geofoni e termocamere. Quanto ai mezzi il Dipartimento ha messo in campo 51 mezzi per il movimento terra, 6 autogru, 22 autoscale, 4 elicotteri, 2 mezzi mobili per le trasmissioni via satellite e 3 ponti radio.

07:53 Case presidiate contro gli “sciacalli”

Pattuglie delle forze dell’ordine hanno presidiato le strade dell’Aquila durante la notte per evitare che entrassero in azione ladri negli appartamenti abbandonati.
07:51 In arrivo altre 3.000 tende

Per oggi “sono in arrivo altre 3.000 tende” per gli sfollati dell’Aquila e “c’è sempre la possibilità di trasferirsi lungo la costa, dove sono stati requisiti 5.000 posti letto” in alcuni hotel del luogo. Lo ha confermato il sindaco del capoluogo abruzzese, Massimo Cialente, al Tg1, manifestando la speranza che si possa “assicurare ai cittadini una notte migliore di quella appena trascorsa”.
07:47 Non piove più

Dopo la grandine di ieri, nella notte non è piovuto e per adesso c’è solo un po’ di foschia. Le previsioni per oggi indicano “cielo nuvoloso” e “possibili piogge” nel pomeriggio, ma la speranza dei soccorritori è che il tempo conceda una tregua.
07:46 I soccorritori sono oltre cinquemila

Attualmente, fanno sapere dal quartier generale della Protezione civile, sono 5.100 le persone impegnate nell’ambito del sistema nazionale di soccorso e assistenza alla popolazione nazionale (oltre al personale del dipartimento e ai volontari arrivati da numerose regioni, vigili del fuoco, Croce rossa, soccorso alpino e forze dell’ordine). Si aggiungono oltre 1.300 militari (300 dei quali di supporto non sul campo, come a esempio quelli addetti alle rilevazioni meteo).
07:41 Cinque studenti ancora intrappolati nel dormitorio

Dopo un sopralluogo questa mattina tra le rovine della Casa dello Studente dell’Aquila, in via XX Settembre, il sindaco Cialente ha detto che sotto le macerie potrebbero ancora esserci cinque persone.
07:39 Anche il sindaco dell’Aquila trascorre la notte in auto

Anche il sindaco di L’Aquila, Massimo Cialente, come la maggior parte dei 70mila cittadini de L’Aquila, ha trascorso la notte in macchina. “Ho dormito soltanto un’ora”, ha raccontato, “Per il resto della notte ho fatto visita ai centri di raccolta per portare solidarietà ai concittadini. Tutte le strutture comunali sono inagibili e momentaneamente la macchina operativa del Comune è ospitata nella scuola della Guardia di finanza”.
07:27 Notte nelle auto

Nelle frazioni dell’Aquila colpite dal terremoto, come Onna, Paganica, Castelnuovo, Tempera, in pochi hanno raccolto l’offerta di spostarsi a dormire nelle strutture ricettive della costa messe a disposizione. Quasi tutti hanno preferito rimanere vicino alle proprie cose, chi dormendo in auto, che nei vari campi allestiti in poche ore dalla Protezione civile.

07:25 Onna, mistero sul numero delle vittime tra gli extracomunitari

I coordinatori del soccorso nel piccolo comune abruzzese vicino all’epicentro non escludono che ci possano essere anche altre persone, oltre i quattro dispersi. Ad Onna, infatti, abita una consistente comunità di lavoratori extracomunitari, che non è semplicissimo identificare.

07:24 Berlusconi torna in Abruzzo

Il presidente del Consiglio Silvio Berlusconi sarà oggi di nuovo sui luoghi colpiti dal terremoto, dopo aver rinviato il previsto viaggio in Russia.
07:22 Onna, 37 morti

Si continua a scavare ad Onna (L’Aquila), uno dei paesi più colpiti dal terremoto. Poco dopo le 23 i soccorritori hanno estratto da sotto le macerie un’altra vittima, si tratta di un giovane. Il bilancio dei morti è così di 37. Sono ancora quattro invece, i dispersi
07:18 Dopo 23 ore salvata una donna all’Aquila

All’Aquila, alle 2, dopo 23 ore dal sisma, è stata tirata fuori viva dalle macerie Marta, una studentessa di 24 anni della provincia di Teramo. La giovane, estratta dagli speleologi del soccorso alpino deve la propria vita a un colpo di fortuna: era a letto quando il palazzo di quattro piani dove viveva si è sbriciolato e le travi di cemento armato che sono cadute le si sono fermate a pochi centimetri dal corpo.

07:16 Decine di scosse nella notte

Ancora una notte di paura in Abruzzo, dove si è continuato a scavare tra le macerie nonostante le decine di scosse che si sono succedute, la più violenta della quali all’1,15 del mattino con una magnitudo di 4.8. L’epicentro è stato localizzato nei comuni di Pizzoli, Parete, Catipignano e Cagnano Amiterno. Meno di mezz’ora prima alle 00:47 gli strumenti avevano registrato un’altra scossa di magnitudo 3.6 con epicentro i comuni dell’Aquila, Collimenti, Villagrande e Scoppitto.

07:11 Protezione civile: 179 morti

Secondo i dati diffusi dalla Protezione civile, sono 179 i morti accertati nel terremoto che ha devastato l’Abruzzo la notte tra domenica e lunedì. Quaranta delle vittime non sono state ancora identificate. I dispersi sono 34 e 1.500 i feriti. Gli sfollati sono complessivamente 17.000, di cui 10.000 a L’Aquila e 7.120
nella provincia
Scopri come ricevere sul tuo cellulare Repubblica Gold

http://www.repubblica.it/2009/04/dirette/sezioni/cronaca/terremoto-nord/terremoto-2giorno/index.html

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» 2009-04-07 12:34
Quake: Aftershocks cause panic
Plaster falls from buildings as smaller quakes continue

(ANSA) – L’Aquila, April 7 – Aftershocks on Tuesday continued to cause panic in the Abruzzo capital L’Aquila and neighbouring towns more than 32 hours after an earthquake that has left at least 179 dead.

Two strong quakes, one registering 4.7 on the MMS scale and lasting for around a minute, shook buildings at 11:27 Tuesday (09:27 GMT) and resulted in shaky plaster and cornices collapsing in L’Aquila.

The aftershocks caused panic among survivors who had spent the night in their cars outside their homes, many of whom fled away from the buildings fearing further collapse.

Seismologist Francesco Mele of the National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV) said there had been around 280 aftershocks since the main quake struck at 03:33 local time (01:33 GMT) on Monday, registering 6.2 on the scale.

The most violent aftershock, of 4.8 magnitude, occurred at 01:15 Tuesday (23:15 GMT Monday).

Mele said the INGV was setting up six new monitoring stations a few kilometres from the fault line in the area, while four more would be installed later on Tuesday.

http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/news/2009-04-07_107343667.html

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You are here: BBC > Science & Nature > TV & Radio Follow-up > Horizon

BBC Two, Thursday 1 April, 9pm
Earthquake Storms

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Earthquake Storms – programme summary

Earthquakes are among the most devastating natural disasters on the planet. In the last hundred years they have claimed the lives of over one million people. Earthquakes are destructive mainly because of their unpredictable nature. It is impossible to say accurately when a quake will strike but a new theory could help save lives by preparing cities long in advance for an earthquake.
“We knew that Izmit was dangerous”
Prof Geoffrey King, Institut de Physique du Globe

The surface of the Earth is made up of large ‘tectonic’ plates. These plates are in slow but constant motion. When two plates push against each other friction generates a great deal of energy. For this reason earthquakes occur most frequently on tectonic fault lines, where two plates meet. However these fault lines run for thousands of kilometres; predicting exactly where a quake will occur is nearly impossible.

Stress lines

In 1992, Dr Ross Stein was monitoring a large earthquake in a town in California called Landers. Three hours later, there was another quake 67km away at Great Bear. Stein believed that this was not simply an aftershock, instead he theorised the event at Landers had set off the earthquake at Big Bear. Stein believes that when an earthquake occurs the stress that has built up along the fault, is in part, transferred along the fault line. It is this energy transfer that causes other quakes to occur hours, days or months after the original.

Stein’s team began to look for connections between the quakes in Landers and Big Bear. They had already been working on a computer model that could help them study the relationship between earthquakes. The data collected during the Landers/Big Bear quake had enabled them to create a model that could predict where the stress from Landers would have been transferred. When they looked at the result the calculations did indeed show that the stress from Landers would have been transferred along the fault to Big Bear. They then plotted all of the subsequent ‘aftershocks’ and discovered that almost all occurred within a high-risk area they called a ‘red zone’. This did not prove the theory of earthquake storms though. In order to do that the quakes would have to be triggered months or even years after the original earthquake.

Scientists from around the world were attracted by this new theory and there was one part of the world where it seemed from the available evidence that the earthquake storm theory might hold true.

Tremor trail

Prof Geoffrey King was fascinated by the cyclic behaviour of the North Anatolian fault in northern Turkey. Earthquakes in the region moved from east to west with a period of quiet at the end before the cycle began again. King used the same model that had been used to show the connection between the quakes in Landers and Big Bear. The first earthquake King looked at was in the northern city of Erzican in 1939. Using the available data on that quake he found that a town to the west called Tokat was in the red, danger zone. Tokat was indeed struck by a quake in 1942. The model seemed to be working. In 1967 Adapazari, also in a red zone, was hit. It looked like stress generated in one earthquake was being transferred to the west. These could not be aftershocks as they were separated by years, not hours.

As King continued to put data into the model he discovered that a city called Izmit seemed to be the next place that would be struck. With a population of 500,000 people King and other scientists knew they needed to make this discovery public knowledge.
“Buildings can be improved. Construction can be modified”
Prof Geoffrey King

Newspapers, science journals and other publications all printed this remarkable news. Unfortunately there was not enough interest from the local community. In August 1999 King was tragically proved right when a massively energetic earthquake lasting just 45 seconds killed 25,000 people. It was a bittersweet feeling for King. On one hand he was proved right, on the other he knew that many people had lost their lives who could have been saved. King also knew that there was a high chance of more earthquakes. So using the data acquired from the Izmit quake he began to work out where the next most likely earthquake site would be.

The answer would cause a great deal of concern. At the edge of the red zone lay the city of Istanbul, home to more than four million people. The city’s high population density puts its inhabitants at maximum risk. There is good news though; if the warning from King’s team is heeded then arrangements can be made to make Istanbul safer in the event of an earthquake, whenever it happens. For now though, only time will tell if King’s prediction will prove correct.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2003/earthquakestorms.shtml

***
Richard Hodges
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Richard Hodges OBE, FSA (born September 29, 1952) is a contemporary British archaeologist whose work primarily concerns trade and economics during the early part of the Middle Ages. He is a professor at the University of East Anglia. His earlier works include Dark Age Economics (1982), Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe (1983) and Light in the Dark Ages: The Rise and Fall of San Vincenzo Al Volturno (1997).

One of his more recent works, Towns and Trade in the Age of Charlemagne (2001), cited extensive archaeological evidence for a network of trade outposts called emporia that encircled the North Sea. These emporia rose and flourished between the 7th and 9th centuries, and varied from simple settlements of no more than a dock and several warehouses to complex settlements with gridded streets and permanent populations such as those found at Dorestad and Quentovic. After increased Viking activity in the later half of the 9th century, nearly all emporia were either absorbed into better-defended settlements nearby or abandoned. He has taught archaeology at University of Sheffield, the University of Siena (Italy), and the University of Copenhagen. From 1988-1995 he served as Director of the British School at Rome. He became head of the Prince of Wales’ Institute of Architecture in 1996.

In 2007, Hodges was appointed Director of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Hodges has excavated in Italy, at San Vincenzo al Volturno, and in Albania, at Butrint.

[edit] Publications

* 1981. The Hamwih Pottery: the local and imported wares from thirty years’ excavations in Southampton and their European context. London: Council for British Archaeology Research Report.
* 1982. Edited (with G. Barker) Archaeology and Italian Society. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
* 1982. Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Town and Trade. London/New York : Duckworth / St Martins Press (new edition 1989).
* 1983. Edited (with P. Davey) Ceramics and Trade. Sheffield: Department of Archaeology and Prehistory Sheffield University.
* 1983. (with D. Whitehouse). Mohammed Charlemagne and the origins of Europe: Archaeology and Pirenne thesis. London / Ithaca: Duckworth / Cornell (new edition 1989). Revised French edition published as Mahomet, Charlemagne et les origines de l’Europe Paris: Pierre Zech.
* 1985. Edited (with J. Mitchell) San Vincenzo al Volturno: the archaeology, art and territory of an early medieval monastery. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports
* 1988. Primitive and Peasant Markets. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
* 1988. Edited (with B. Hobley) The Rebirth of Towns in the West AD 700-1050. London: Council for British Archaeology Research Report.
* 1989. The Anglo-Saxon Achievement: Archaeology and the beginnings of English Society. London/Ithaca : Duckworth /Cornell.
* 1991. Early Medieval archaeology in Western Europe: its history and development. Bangor: Headstart History
* 1991. Wall-to-Wall History: The Story of Roystone Grange. London: Duckworth (Winner of British Archaeological book of the year 1992).
* 1991. Edited (with K. Smith) Recent Developments in the Archaeology of the Peak District. Sheffield: Department of Archaeology and Prehistory Sheffield University.
* 1993. Edited San Vincenzo al Volturno 1: the 1980-86 excavations. London: British School at Rome.
* 1995. Edited San Vincenzo al Volturno 2: the 1980-86 excavations part 2. London: British School at Rome
* 1995. (with J. Mitchell). La basilica di Giosue a San Vincenzo al Volturno. Montecassino: Edizione CEP. Revised English edition published in 1996 as The Abbey of Abbot Joshua at San Vincenzo al Volturno.
* 1996. Edited (with G. Brogiolo, S. Gelichi, R. Francovich & H. Steuer) Archaeology and History of the Middle Ages. XIII International Congress of Prehistoric & Protohistoric Sciences Forli.
* 1997. Light in the Dark Ages. The Rise and Fall of San Vincenzo al Volturno. London / Ithaca: Duckworth / Cornell University Press.
* 1998. Edited (with W. Bowden) The Sixth Century. Production, distribution and consumption. The Hague: E. J. Brill (Volume 2 in the European Science Foundation’s Transformation of the Roman World project).
* 2000. Towns and Trade in the Age Charlemagne. London: Duckworth.
* 2000. Visions of Rome. Thomas Ashby, Archaeologist. London: British School at Rome.
* 2003. (with Riccardo Francovich) Villa to Village. London: Duckworth.
* 2004. (with W. Bowden and K.Lako) Byzantine Butrint Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Hodges”
Categories: British archaeologists | Academics of the University of East Anglia | Academics of the University of Sheffield | 1952 births | Living people | University of Siena faculty | University of Pennsylvania faculty

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Hodges

**Note – I think this was the man on CNN yesterday (CNN Newsroom) that said there is some way to make old architectural buildings not fall apart. Something about making them restored to strength and flexible at the same time without destroying the historical value of the buildings in order to make them safe. – I didn’t hear all of it and couldn’t find it on the CNN site – try to find what he was talking about. He said the process came from someone that has been using it on the buildings (an archeologist / historical specialist?). Try to find it.

****
Berlusconi says no thankyou to international offers of help.

Also – [excerpt]

Two strong quakes, one registering 4.7 on the MMS scale and lasting for around a minute, shook buildings at 11:27 Tuesday (09:27 GMT) and resulted in shaky plaster and cornices collapsing in L’Aquila.

Seismologist Francesco Mele of the National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV) said there had been around 280 aftershocks since the main quake struck at 03:33 local time (01:33 GMT) on Monday, registering 6.2 on the scale.

The most violent aftershock, of 4.8 magnitude, occurred at 01:15 Tuesday (23:15 GMT Monday).

http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/news/2009-04-07_107343667.html

***

My note – What is the difference in an aftershock and an earthquake? Does it have a different signature or is it the direct result of how much time has elapsed between events?

**

» 2009-04-07 13:39
Quake: Italy getting wider
Expansion puts pressure on fault lines and causes tremors
(ANSA) – Rome, April 7 – Monday’s earthquake in the central region of Abruzzo was in part due to the fact that Italy is getting wider, a French expert said on Tuesday.

”Italy is getting wider by one millimeter a year and this is putting pressure on fault lines along the Apennine mountain chain,” seismologist Pascal Bernard said in an interview published in the French daily Liberation.

Italy’s greatest ‘hope’, he said, was that along the mountain chain there was not one or two major fault lines but ”a series of faults of no longer than 15km each maximum which are in some way interconnected”.

Bernard explained he used the term ‘hope’ because ”the magnitude of a quake is directly linked with the length of a fault when it slips. When the faults are longer than 1000km and up to 1,000km their can provoke ‘titanic’ earthquakes”. Bernard is employed at the Institute du Physique du Globe in Paris.

MONITORING BOOSTED ALONG MAIN APENNINE FAULT LINE.

Italy’s National Geophysics and Vulcanology Institute (INGV) is boosting the number of monitoring devices it has along the Apennine fault line believed to have caused the Monday’s earthquake.

”Today we expect to install another dozen or so devices, in addition to the ones we put in yesterday, to better monitor the aftershocks in relation to their time and magnitude,” INGV seismologist Claudio Chiarabba said on Tuesday.

”We will continue to install them over the coming days until we have up to 40 in place. These stations will allow us to monitor the full length of the fault and get a detailed map of its evolution,” he added. The monitoring stations will remain in place for as long as the seismic activity continues, probably for a month to a month and a half, Chiarabbia said. According to the INGV expert, while it is not easy to define the ‘geometry’ of a fault, it is important to do so because its characteristics, when compared to data from other earthquakes, will be useful in the future when trying to predict quakes.

http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/news/2009-04-07_107344912.html

****
“As soon as humanly possible – they need to get those people out of there. The geophysics group seems to be looking for the ‘storm cluster’ that fits the mathematical model which may preclude a much different, maybe larger seismic or geophysical event on the horizon.” They need to get those people out of there. It isn’t safe – the buildings need to be restructured, repaired and the area is entirely too unstable to stay there until that rebuilding is done properly.” – my note

***

Silvio Berlusconi threatens news blackout after reports of latest gaffes
A furious Silvio Berlusconi has threatened to take action against journalists for reporting his latest gaffes, involving the Queen and Germany’s Chancellor.

By Nick Squires in Rome
Last Updated: 8:43AM BST 06 Apr 2009

The Italian premier has accused newspapers and television stations of slandering him and damaging the country’s reputation by highlighting his alleged faux pas.

He said he was considering taking “hard measures” against reporters, without specifying what that might entail.

Related Articles

*
Berlusconi’s top 10 gaffes
*

On Saturday Mr Berlusconi was accused of snubbing German Chancellor Angela Merkel by turning his back on her and talking on his mobile telephone as Nato leaders gathered for a group photograph on a bridge spanning the Rhine.

As Mrs Merkel waited to receive heads of state on a red carpet, the Italian premier wandered off with his mobile telephone pinned to his ear.

Mr Berlusconi later insisted he had been talking to his Turkish counterpart, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, in an attempt to convince him to drop Ankara’s objections to Danish leader Anders Fogh Rasmussen being named Nato secretary general.

It was the second gaffe in almost as many days. At the G20 summit on Thursday in London, Mr Berlusconi boisterously shouted a greeting to US President Barack Obama during a photo shoot, apparently earning a rebuke from the Queen, who turned round in apparent annoyance and said: “Why does he have to shout?”

An exasperated and angry Mr Berlusconi said he was fed up with the way the media treated him and threatened a news blackout. “I will no longer talk to you. I am working for Italy while you work against it. I will no longer give news conferences.”

He later added: “Enough with this. Go to the devil! This is slander towards me and disinformation to newspaper readers.

“I don’t want to say that I’m calling for direct and tough action towards certain newspapers and members of the press. But frankly I’m tempted. One shouldn’t behave like this,” said Mr Berlusconi.

“The Italian press, with their stories of my gaffes, harm the reputation of Italy. The story of my gaffe with Queen Elizabeth is absurd. And now the same thing with Mrs Merkel. I said to her ‘I’m talking to Erdogan’ and she said ‘Go ahead, go ahead’.

“The Italian press seems to have no other objective than to say that I made bad impressions or gaffes.”

The president of an Italian journalists’ union, Roberto Natale, described Mr Berlusconi’s remarks as “words of an unprecedented seriousness”.

The National Press Federation’s secretary, Franco Siddi, said: “When journalists report on the basis of observed facts, they are doing their duty. They cannot be accused of disloyalty or, worse than that, slander.”

An Italian political analyst, Nando Pagnoncelli, said that while Mr Berlusconi may be regarded as an embarrassment by his political opponents, his clowning and sense of humour is well received by his right-wing supporters.

His antics “raise eyebrows in the public opinion of the Left, (but) they are endearing to the Right,” Mr Pagnoncelli told La Repubblica newspaper.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/5110631/Silvio-Berlusconi-threatens-news-blackout-after-reports-of-latest-gaffes.html

***
Italian earthquake – one day on

by Hans Jaap Melissen and Pieternel Gruppen*

07-04-2009
Hans Jaap Melissen reports from Italy

RNW reporter Hans Jaap Melissen reports from Italy, the day after the earth shook.

***

In the aftermath of the earthquake that struck the Italian region of Abruzzo on 6 April, many locals spent the first night in tents, hotels and even in their cars. As tents were erected for the 17,000 people who were made homeless, the search for survivors continued. With dozens still missing, the death toll now stands at more than 175.

aardbeving-italie-240.jpgWalking around the centre of l’Aquila, the town worst hit by the earthquake, the atmosphere is strangely tranquil, rendered almost eery by the clothes still hanging out to dry on washing lines.

But there’s also a palpable sense of fear. Minor aftershocks can still be felt. People are afraid to sleep indoors. Some, indeed, stayed outside all night, wrapped only in blankets. Others slept in their cars. Tent camps have also been set up for people who no longer have homes to go back to.

At present, there are still not enough tents available for everyone who needs them. Parents and children are being given priority. All being well, more tents will arrive today- Tuesday – enough to give everyone a place to stay tonight.

Moving on
Throughout the night, rescue workers have been combing the rubble in search of survivors. In one place, the search effort has just led to the discovery of the bodies of two dead women. The rescue workers then move on, they have given up hope of finding survivors at this particular spot.

Italy-quake-info.jpgDespite such disappointments, rescue workers did manage to pull around 100 survivors from the rubble in the course of the night. Their efforts were often greeted with applause.

The earth shook with a force that registered between 5.8 and 6.3 on the Richter scale. Not a particularly powerful earthquake but its impact has been devastating in this mountainous region and its – often ancient – villages and towns. Disaster struck in the early hours of Monday morning, as the residents slept. One says:
“I was fast asleep when the earthquake began. I tried to hold onto something but all the cupboards were falling down around me.”

The rescue operation now appears to be running smoothly, with many bulldozers working on the ground and helicopters circling above. Meanwhile, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi has set aside 30 million euros to help the stricken region.

International help
Although the Italians say they do not need international help for the time being, rescue teams elswhere are on stand-by to leave for Italy if necessary.

The Netherlands’ Urban Search and Rescue Team, for example, can leap into action at a moment’s notice to assist in disasters of this kind. Rob Brons, national head of USAR.NL, understands why the Italians have not made a direct appeal for international aid.

“If all the aid on offer were actually to be deployed, you’d have far too many people and far too much equipment in a relatively small area. The last thing you need is a bunch of rescue workers stuck in a traffic jam.”

Nonetheless, Rob Brons is ready to respond if the call comes. He is optimistic about the chances of people being found alive over the next ten days. ”
You can compare it with a game of Mikado. In an earthquake like this, some buildings remains standing while others cave in. The chance that there are people still alive in the hollows of a collapsed building is realistic.”

Tags: Abruzzo, earthquakes, Italian earthquake, Italy, L’Aquila, Silvio Berlusconi

http://www.radionetherlands.nl/currentaffairs/region/europe/090407mc-earthquake-italy

***
my note – to following story:

I was trying to find the offers of international aid that have been made. Here and there, I see a sentence about one country or another having made offers to send help of whatever they need. And apparently there is some way to restore those old buildings to make them strong and flexible which has been used elsewhere. It would be good to tell people about that so earthquake zone structures can be made safe from here on out everywhere it is needed. Thankyou.

***

EARTHQUAKE: FRANCESCHINI, GOVERNMENT ACCEPTS FOREIGN AID

(AGI) – Rome, 7 Apr. – Dario Franceschini, the head of the Democratic Party is asking the cabinet to accept international aid. ”The PD line towards the dramatic situation in the Abruzzo is right,” Franceschini confirmed, ”there shouldn’t be any controversy in this state of emergency, since we should be uniting the forces of the country. And once again, as shown by the extraordinary work of the men from the Civil Protection, the Firemen and policemen and the volunteers, Italy is showing that in the most difficult situations it is giving the best of itself.

It is important for the country to be united at this time, since there are still lives to be saved below the ruins, there are people who have lost their homes and need a roof over their heads, food and medical assistance.” ”However, the government is carefully judging whether the offers of help from other countries should be accepted with urgency or not, since these countries have offered to make people from their own Civil Protection available.

There would be no harm in this: in the past Italy too has sent its own men to deal with the earthquake emergency in Turkey, the fires in Spain and the floods in Germany. In the meantime, as we announced yesterday, the PD has offered to make its own means and volunteers available to the men from the regional Civil Protection. There are already about 15 camp cookers ready to send to the earthquake-hit zone, which were previously used at party meetings in Umbria, Tuscany and Emilia.”

http://www.agi.it/italy/news/200904071337-pol-ren0026-art.html

****

STUPRI: VIOLENZA CAPODANNO, IMPUTATO CHIEDE ABBREVIATO
Stampa Stampa Invia questo articolo Invia questo articolo

(AGI) – Roma, 7 apr. – Ha scelto di essere giudicato con il rito abbreviato Davide Franceschini, il 23enne fornaio di Fiumicino, accusato di aver violentato una ragazza di 25 anni a Capodanno durante la festa organizzata alla Nuova Fiera di Roma. La richiesta, consegnata al pm Vincenzo Barba, e’ stata depositata oggi dall’avvocato Francesco Bergamini. Chiedendo l’abbreviato, Franceschini, che e’ accusato di violenza sessuale, lesioni personali gravi (quelle fisiche) e gravissime (quelle psicologiche), potra’ beneficiare, in caso di condanna, dello sconto di un terzo della pena e, soprattutto, fare in modo che il processo si svolga in una udienza a porte chiuse.
Barba, nei giorni scorsi, aveva sollecitato il rito immediato (che consente di saltare l’udienza preliminare), ritenendo che tutti gli elementi acquisiti durante le indagini (la confessione dell’aggressione, gli esiti di alcune consulenze tecniche e il racconto della persona offesa) fossero piu’ che sufficienti per celebrare un processo pubblico. Il dibattimento avrebbe preso il via il 10 giugno prossimo davanti ai giudici dell’ottava sezione penale. Adesso, invece, tutto e’ saltato con la richiesta di rito alternativo: sara’ il gup, nei prossimi giorni, a fissare l’udienza di Franceschini.

http://www.agi.it/ultime-notizie-page/200904071520-cro-rom1115-art.html

***
EARTHQUAKE: BERLUSCONI, THANKS BUT NO TO FOREIGN ASSISTANCE
Print Print Send this article Send this article

(AGI) – Rome, 7 Apr. – Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi has said: ”We are able to respond to the needs on our own, we are a proud nation”. His words were in response to the opposition’s requests for Italy to accept assistance from aboard for the earthquake emergency. ”We would like to thank all the countries for their solidarity,” the PM said, ”but we ask them not to send any aid. We are able to respond to the needs on our own, we are a proud and healthy nation. We would like to thank them but we can manage on our own”.

http://www.agi.it/italy/news/200904071433-pol-ren0029-art.html

***

From Times Online
April 7, 2009
Italy earthquake: girls pulled out alive, but toll rises and aftershocks hit L’Aquila

Richard Owen in L’Aquila and Lucy Bannerman in Rome

Rescue workers continued to search for the missing in the Abruzzo earthquake after a night of powerful aftershocks and torrential rain, with the death toll reaching 179.

Two girls were pulled alive from the rubble overnight, rescue workers said. But 34 people have been listed as still unaccounted for by distraught relatives. Thousands of residents have been evacuated to tent cities set up in sports fields, and 800 farm bed and breakfast establishments have offered refuge to the homeless.

Outlying villages such as Onna and Castelnuovo have also been devastated, and hospitals in the area have appealed for help from doctors and nurses throughout Italy.

The earthquake struck shortly after 330 am on Monday night and registered 6.3 on the Richter scale. It was the worst earthquake to hit Italy since 2002, when 30 people, most of them children, were killed in a school collapse in the South.

“I found a scene of devastation – a jewel of medieval Italy has collapsed”
Richard Owen in L’Aquila

Times Archive

* 1915: Victims of the earthquake in the Abruzzi

* Earthquake between Rome and Aquila

* Italian towns in ruins

Related Links

* Italy quake: British rugby player helps rescue

* Nothing to see but devastation in L’Aquila after earthquake

* Why Italy’s geology puts it at risk of quakes

Multimedia

* IN PICTURES: Italy earthquake

* VIDEO: survivors’ tales

The quake brought down whole blocks of buildings the medieval city of L’Aquila and the surrounding area, jolting residents from their sleep.

This morning as the rain cleared and the sun rose, a stream of ambulances and civil protection units continued to roar through L’Aquila, which has become a deserted ghost town, as firefighters with dogs continued to work to reach people trapped in fallen buildings, including a university dormitory. Many of those evacuated had endured a wet, cold night, adding to the misery of the disaster.

Some 10,000 to 15,000 buildings were either damaged or destroyed, officials said. The mayor of L’Aquila, Massimo Cialente, said about 100,000 people were homeless. Damage to monuments was reported as far away as Rome, where cracks appeared at the third century Baths built by the Emperor Caracalla,

Italy’s national police chief, Antonio Manganelli, said several arrests have been made for looting. He said those picked up were “caught while they were stealing from abandoned houses. It’s sad.”

The Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi declared a state of emergency, allowing him to allocate central government funds to deal with the disaster, and he cancelled a visit to Russia so he could deal with the crisis.

At the hospital Guido Marini, a 23 year old student of electronic engineering, who was being treated for shock and injuries to his hands and legs, said he had spent three hours under the rubble next to the body of his dead flatmate in the centre of L’Aquila before being dug out by neighbours using their bare hands.

“I shouted and shouted” he said. “Thank God they heard me. My mobile phone was nearby and I could hear it ringing but I couldn’t reach it”.

In Piazza Sant’ Andrea in the historic centre Davide De Angelis, 64, was embracing his wife Anna Laura in tears as rescue workers dug in the debris of his house.

“They have found four people alive, but my brother is still under there, and so are my sister in law, my granddaughter and her boyfriend” he said in despair.”

As 5,000 aid workers scoured the disaster zone, a row broke out over whether the earthquake could have been foretold. An Italian scientist claimed that he had predicted a major tremor around L’Aquila weeks ago and accused public health chiefs of ignoring his warnings.

Giampaolo Giuiliani, of the national physics laboratory in the nearby Gran Sasso mountain range, said that he had been reported to the police for “spreading panic” among the population after he predicted a major tremor. Mr Guiliani believes that seismic activity can be linked to phases of the Moon and the Earth’s alignment to Venus. “My prediction unfortunately proved correct,” he said.

Government officials dismissed his findings and experts said that there was no scientific basis for the prediction. Enzo Boschi, president of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, said: “Every time there is an earthquake there are people who claim to have predicted it. It is not possible to predict earthquakes.”

But he added that the real problem was a failure to take proper precautions, despite a history of tremors. “We have earthquakes but then we forget and do nothing. It’s not in our culture to take precautions or build in an appropriate way in areas where there could be strong earthquakes.”

Local people said that seismic activity had increased recently. The first tremors were felt in mid-January and continued at regular intervals, creating mounting alarm in the area. One woman whose home collapsed said that there was a severe jolt a week ago. Another woman described the quake as “the apocalypse — our house collapsed”. She added: “For three months there have been regular tremors and they’ve been getting stronger.”

Mr Berlusconi said: “The message to people is not to stay in damaged buildings and houses. We particularly invite them to take their children and families and to see whether they can go somewhere else and perhaps stay with friends or relatives for a few days. Nobody can say for certain that there is not going to be another earthquake in the next few hours and days.”

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6049480.ece

Guys, your facts straight – Mr Giuliani said that he has observed over the past ten years a substantial increase in the concentration of Radon in the preceding hours before earthquakes. Although his claim is unproven, it is substantially more scientific sounding than what you attribute to him.

Marco, London,

***
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/seismicity/

World Seismicity Maps

***
2009-04-07 15:32
Quake: 15 missing
207 dead, 100 ‘in serious condition’
(ANSA) – L’Aquila, April 7 – Rescue teams are searching for 15 missing people in the ruins of this 13th-century city hit by an earthquake Monday, Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi said.

The premier said ”just under 1,000 people have been injured, of whom 500 have been taken to hospital and 100 are in a serious condition”.

The 6.2 magnitude quake at 03:30 Italian time Monday killed 207 people.

Some 150 people had been rescued from the rubble and efforts were continuing by more than 7,000 fire teams and hundreds of volunteers from all over Italy.

http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/news/2009-04-07_107347291.html

***
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/seismicity/europe.php

World Seismicity Maps
Europe

****
12. 1915-05-01 05:00 47. 155. 8.0 Kurile Islands
16. 1918-09-07 17:16 45.5 151.5 8.2 Kuril Islands
47. 1958-11-06 22:58 44.329 148.623 8.3 Kuril Islands
50. 1963-10-13 05:17 44.9 149.6 8.5 Kuril Islands
55. 1969-08-11 21:27 43.478 147.815 8.2 Kuril Islands

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/eqarchives/year/mag8/magnitude8_1900_date.php

80. 2006-11-15 11:14 46.592 153.226 8.3 Kuril Islands
81. 2007-01-13 04:23:21 46.243 154.524 8.1 East of the Kuril Islands

MAP 6.9 2009/04/07 04:23:34 46.088 151.498 34.0 KURIL ISLANDS
(JUST HAPPENED – above)
MAP 4.6 2009/04/07 09:15:01 46.233 151.731 58.6 KURIL ISLANDS

MAP 4.5 2009/04/07 05:29:46 46.331 151.897 35.0 KURIL ISLANDS

(Today)

**

MAP 5.1 2009/04/07 13:29:51 -7.077 129.550 98.4 KEPULAUAN BABAR, INDONESIA

MAP 4.9 2009/04/07 09:26:31 42.336 13.360 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY

MAP 4.6 2009/04/07 09:15:01 46.233 151.731 58.6 KURIL ISLANDS

MAP 4.5 2009/04/07 05:29:46 46.331 151.897 35.0 KURIL ISLANDS

MAP 6.9 2009/04/07 04:23:34 46.088 151.498 34.0 KURIL ISLANDS

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/quakes_all.php

***
World Earthquake Information by Country/Region

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/index.php?regionID=14

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/italy/gshap.php

Italy

http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/gshap/

World

Dolomite –
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references (ideally, using inline citations). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2007)
For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation).
Dolomite
General
Category Carbonate mineral
Chemical formula CaMg(CO3)2
Identification
Color white, gray to pink
Crystal habit tabular crystals, often with curved faces, also columnar, stalactitic, granular, massive.
Crystal system trigonal – rhombohedral, bar3
Twinning common as simple contact twins
Cleavage rhombohedral cleavage (3 planes)
Fracture brittle – conchoidal
Mohs Scale hardness 3.5 to 4
Luster vitreous to pearly
Refractive index n? = 1.679–1.681 n? = 1.500
Optical Properties Uniaxial (-)
Birefringence ? = 0.179–0.181
Streak white
Specific gravity 2.84–2.86
Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HCl unless powdered.
Other Characteristics May fluoresce white to pink under UV; triboluminescent.
References [1][2][3][4]
Dolomite from Morocco.
Dolomite.

Dolomite (pronounced /?d?l?ma?t/) is the name of a sedimentary carbonate rock and a mineral, both composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2 found in crystals.

Dolomite rock (also dolostone) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone, or in old U.S. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. Dolomite was first described in 1791 as the rock by the French naturalist and geologist, Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) for exposures in the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy.
Contents

* 1 Properties
* 2 Formation
* 3 Uses
* 4 See also
* 5 References

Properties

The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. It forms white, gray to pink, commonly curved crystals, although it is usually massive. It has physical properties similar to those of the mineral calcite, but does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid unless it is scratched or in powdered form. The Mohs hardness is 3.5 to 4 and the specific gravity is 2.85. Refractive index values are n? = 1.679 – 1.681 and n? = 1.500. Crystal twinning is common. A solid solution series exists between dolomite and iron rich ankerite. Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color noted in the image above. A series with the manganese rich kutnohorite may exist. Lead and zinc also substitute in the structure for magnesium.

Formation
Dolomite bedrock underneath a Bristlecone Pine, White Mountains, California.

Vast deposits are present in the geological record, but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. However, laboratory synthesis of stoichiometric dolomite has been carried out only at temperatures of greater than 100 degrees Celsius, conditions typical of burial in sedimentary basins—even though much dolomite in the rock record appears to have formed in low-temperature conditions. The high temperature is likely to speed up the movement of calcium and magnesium ions so that they can find their places in the ordered structure within a reasonable amount of time. This suggests that the lack of dolomite that is being formed today is likely due to kinematic factors.

Modern dolomite does occur as a precipitating mineral in specialized environments on the surface of the earth today. In the 1950s and 60s, dolomite was found to be forming in highly saline lakes in the Coorong region of South Australia. Dolomite crystals also occur in deep-sea sediments, where organic matter content is high. This dolomite is termed “organogenic” dolomite.

Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobic conditions in supersaturated saline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil, namely, Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho. One interesting reported case was the formation of dolomite in the kidneys of a Dalmatian dog. This was believed to be due to chemical processes triggered by bacteria. Dolomite has been speculated to develop under these conditions with the help of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This joins other research in pointing out many new interesting links between large-scale geology and small-scale microbiology (see geomicrobiology).

The actual role of bacteria in the low-temperature formation of dolomite remains to be demonstrated. The specific mechanism of dolomitization, involving sulfate-reducing bacteria, has not yet been demonstrated.[5]

Dolomite appears to form in many different types of environment and can have varying structural, textural and chemical characteristics. Some researchers have stated “there are dolomites and dolomites”, meaning that there may not be one single mechanism by which dolomite can form. Much modern dolomite differs significantly from the bulk of the dolomite found in the rock record, leading researchers to speculate that environments where dolomite formed in the geologic past differ significantly from those where it forms today.

Reproducible laboratory syntheses of dolomite (and magnesite) leads first to the initial precipitation of a metastable “precursor” (such as magnesium calcite), to be changed gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and reprecipitation. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coined Ostwald’s step rule.

For a very long time scientists had difficulties synthesizing dolomite. However, in a 1999 study, through a processes of dissolution alternating with the intervals of precipitation measurable levels of dolomite were synthesized at low temperatures and pressures.[6]

Dolimitization of calcite also occurs at certain depts of coral atolls where water is undersaturated in calcium carbonate but saturated in dolomite. Convection created by tides and sea currents enchance this change. Hydrothermal currents created by volcanoes under the atoll may also play an important role.

Uses

Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate and as a source of magnesium oxide. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock, and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits of base metals (that is, readily oxidized metals) such as lead, zinc, and copper. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly, dolomite is sometime used in its place as a flux (impurity remover) for the smelting of iron and steel. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass (flat glass)

In horticulture, dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes to lower their acidity (“sweeten” them). Home and container gardening are common examples of this use.

In nutrition, dolomite is sold sometimes as a dietary supplement on the assumption that it should make a good simultaneous source of the two important elemental nutrients calcium and magnesium. However, laboratory experiments conducted at the University of Alberta demonstrate that dolomite is practically insoluble in stomach acid and is eliminated from the body before significant magnesium or calcium can be absorbed.[citation needed]. Dolomites from Mississippi Valley-Type ore regions such as the Old Lead Belt and New Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri United States often include significant levels of lead and other toxic elements.[citation needed]

See also

* List of minerals
* Evaporite

References

1. ^ Deer, W. A., R. A. Howie and J. Zussman (1966) An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals, Longman, pp. 489–493. ISBN 0-582-44210-9.
2. ^ http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/dolomite.pdf Handbook of Mineralogy
3. ^ http://webmineral.com/data/Dolomite.shtml Webmineral
4. ^ http://www.mindat.org/min-1304.html Mindat data
5. ^ http://www.the-conference.com/JConfAbs/5/1038.pdf Role of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria During Microbial Dolomite Precipitation as Deduced from Culture Experiments
6. ^ Deelman, J.C. (1999): “Low-temperature nucleation of magnesite and dolomite”, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, Jg.1999, pp.289–302.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolomite”
Categories: Sedimentary rocks | Calcium minerals | Magnesium minerals | Carbonate minerals | Limestone | Dolomite group

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolomite

***

L’Aquila earthquake: Fault lines leave Italy prone to tremors
Carved up by two major fault lines, Italy has gained a reputation as one of the most earthquake prone countries in Europe.

By John Bingham
Last Updated: 12:18PM BST 06 Apr 2009
L’Aquila earthquake: Fault lines leave Italy prone to tremors
A student’s home has been destroyed by the earthquake in L’Aquila, Italy Photo: EPA

Close to the point at which two of the world’s major tectonic plates meet, its landscape and history have been defined by its geology.

An estimated 20 million people live at risk from earthquakes in the country which is also home to some of the most active volcanoes in Europe.

Related Articles

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Roman baths and Abruzzo churches damaged in earthquake
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Italy earthquake: death toll up to 207, as anger grows
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Italian earthquake: race for survivors as deaths hit 228
*
L’Aquila dogged by earthquakes through 800 year history

Small quakes can occur almost anywhere, including Britain. A minor tremor felt in parts of Herefordshire and Worcestershire last year did little more than rattle crockery.

But the most deadly quakes are concentrated on or close to the boundaries between tectonic plates which divide Earth’s crust.

Currents in the molten rock under the surface cause plates to move around.

As they converge, one is usually drawn slowly underneath the other but they often slide past each other sideways.

When this happens plates can become stuck, building up pressure over time as they are pushed in separate directions.

Eventually the pressure becomes too much and they move apart violently as an earthquake.

The Eurasian and African plates meet along a line which runs through North Africa and crosses the Mediterranean near southern Italy and Greece.

As a result two main cracks – or fault lines – cut across the Italian peninsula, one running north-south along the spine of the Apennine mountains and another crossing east-west south of Rome and north of Naples.

L’Aquila sits in a valley in the central Apennines north of Rome and is built on a basin of sediments which has attracted geological interest in the past.

It was hit by earthquakes repeatedly in its history including one in 1703 which flattened the centre.

In 2002, 30 people including 27 children were killed when an earthquake destroyed a school in the tiny medieval village of San Giuliano di Puglia in south central Italy.

In November 1980 more than 2,500 people died with 30,000 displaced when a quake hit the Irpiona region near Naples.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/5113465/LAquila-earthquake-Fault-lines-leave-Italy-prone-to-tremors.html

Italy earthquake: Aerial photographs of L’Aquila and Onna

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/worldnews/5119770/Italy-earthquake-Aerial-photographs-of-LAquila-and-Onna.html

***

This satellite image provided by GeoEye Satellite Image and taken at about noon local time on Monday by GeoEyes IKONOS satellite shows Onna shortly after the earthquake struck
Picture: AP/GeoEye

Onna_1380304i.jpg

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/worldnews/5119770/Italy-earthquake-Aerial-photographs-of-LAquila-and-Onna.html?image=10

**

A view from helicopter shows the village of Onna after the quake
Picture: EPA
Onna-damage_1380303i.jpg

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/worldnews/5119770/Italy-earthquake-Aerial-photographs-of-LAquila-and-Onna.html?image=11

***

Italian earthquakes: timeline
Italy’s precarious position on two fault lines makes it one of the most volatile earthquake areas in Europe.

By Caroline Gammell
Last Updated: 5:54PM BST 06 Apr 2009
Italian earthquake destroys thousands of buildings in L’Aquila
The earthquake destroyed thousands of buildings in L’Aquila

Only hours before the early morning disaster, a 4.6-magnitude earthquake struck near the port of Ravenna in Italy’s north-central region.

No one was injured, but it was yet another tremor in a country which has suffered years of quake destruction.

Related Articles

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*
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*
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*
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Italian earthquake: Thousands spend the night in shelters
*
Italian earthquake: Death toll rises to 207

:: In October 2002, 27 children died when an earthquake measuring 5.9 hit their school in the remote village of San Giuliano di Puglia, in the southern region of Molise.

The children, aged seven and eight, died alongside a teacher and two elderly people. Around 400 houses in the village – 80 per cent – had to be destroyed because they were unsafe.

:: In September 2002, an earthquake measuring 6.0 hit Sicily, leaving two people dead from heart attacks.

:: In July 2001, British woman Hashmita Chudasama, from Leicester, died after she was buried in a landslide caused by an earthquake in the Alto Adige mountain region near the village of Gargazzone Italian Alps.

The tremor measuring 5.2 on the Richter scale dislodged thousands of tons of mud and boulders.

:: In September 1997, a magnitude 5.5 quake in the Umbria region killed 10 people and devastated medieval buildings and churches, including the Basilica of St Francis in Assisi.

A further quake measuring 5.1 hit Umbria days later caused yet more damage.

:: In December 1990, 17 people died and 200 were injured after a tremor measuring 4.7 on the Richter Scale hit eastern Sicily, damaging Baroque buildings in the region.

:: In November 1980, a 6.9 quake killed 2,735 people, injured more than 7,500 and displaced 30,000 when it struck the Irpiona region near Naples.

:: In May 1976, an earthquake measuring 6.5 hit Friuli in the north east of Italy, killing 976 people and leaving 70,000 others homeless.

:: In July 1930, nearly 1,400 people died when a tremor measuring 6.5 on the Richter scale struck the region of Irpinia in southern Italy.

:: In January 1915, one of the strongest earthquakes to hit the region – measuring 7.0 – devastated Avezzano in central Italy and killed 32,600 people.

:: In December 1908, the town of Messina in Sicily was reduced to rubble when a 7.2 magnitude earthquake killed 82,000 people. The quake was followed by a tidal wave.

:: In September 1905, the Calabria region was decimated by a 7.9 earthquake which killed 5,000 people and destroyed 25 villages.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/5114427/Italian-earthquakes-timeline.html

***

2009-04-07 17:05
Quake: Italy may accept U. S. help
Obama offers funds for churches and heritage sites


(ANSA) – L’Aquila, April 7 – Italy may accept help from the United States following the L’Aquila earthquake, Premier Silvio Berlusconi said Tuesday.

After initially turning down offers of help that have poured in from abroad, Berlusconi appeared to change his mind after receiving ”a long phone call” from US President Barack Obama as he toured temporary camps set up to house those who had lost their homes in the disaster.

”If the United States wants to give a tangible sign of its solidarity with Italy it could take on the responsibility of rebuilding heritage sites and churches,” Berlusconi said.

”We would be very happy to have this support”.

The premier said Obama had said this was ”an excellent idea” and would discuss it when the two leaders meet in Washington on a date yet to be set.

Berlusconi said another alternative would be for the US to help rebuild ”a small district of a town or a suburb” so that it could say ”this was done with our contribution”.

Many historic buildings and churches in L’Aquila were destroyed or damaged in Monday’s earthquake, including the apse of the Abruzzo city’s largest Romanesque church, the 13th-century Basilica di Santa Maria di Collemaggio, and the cupola of the 17th-century Anime Sante church designed by Giuseppe Valadier.

Photo: Obama.

http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/news/2009-04-07_107349417.html

***

http://en.comuni-italiani.it/070/011/mappa.html

Other towns maps and satellite photos: Provvidenti, Ripabottoni, Morrone del Sannio, Guardialfiera, Montorio nei Frentani, Bonefro, Larino, Montelongo, Lupara, Sant’Elia a Pianisi, Castellino del Biferno, San Giuliano di Puglia, Monacilioni, Campolieto, Castelbottaccio, Colletorto, Santa Croce di Magliano, Macchia Valfortore, Pietracatella, Petrella Tifernina, Palata, Acquaviva Collecroce

City of Casacalenda (CB): Molise Region – Italy. Physical, Geographical and Satellite maps, online street and road map for travel. Find location, address and route. Digital local map

***
3.
MODELLING METHODS
o.-
Different numerical methods have been adopted for simulating strong ground
motion in the Molise area. For bedrock simulations, twoo.- hybrid stochastic-
deterministic methods were used: the Deterministic-Stochastic Method of Pacor et al.
[2005] (hereafter referred to as DSM), and the Hybrid Integral-Composite k-squared
source model by Gallovic and Brokesova [2007] (hereafter referred to as HIC). These
simulation techniques take into account finite fault effects considering a radial
rupture propagation with constant rupture velocity and heterogeneous final slip
distribution. Seismic waves are propagated through a crustal 1D velocity model.
Spectral attenuation model is also taken into account. Both methods allow effective
simulations although specifying only a relatively small number of input parameters,
representing average properties of seismic source and waves propagation.
The DSM is a modification of the stochastic point source simulation method of Boore
[2003], accounting for finite fault effects by a simplified formulation of the isochron
theory [Bernard and Madariaga, 1984; Spudich and Frazer, 1984].
Schematically, the synthesis of a time series consists of:
A) Computation of the Deterministic Acceleration Envelope (DAE) of shear
waves radiated from an extended fault.
B) Generation of the white noise time-sequence.
C) Windowing of the noise sequence with the DAE.
D) Transformation to the frequency-domain.
E) Introduction of the point-source-like reference spectrum, that takes into
account of finite fault properties of the source.
F) Transformation back to the time domain.
Application of steps from A) to D) implies that the resulting acceleration time series
involves stochastic properties of the adopted Gaussian white noise and deterministic
properties of the acceleration envelopes and point-source-like reference spectra
(obtained by means of the kinematic finite-fault source modelling). The method
simulates only direct shear waves.
The HIC method combines the low-frequency and the high-frequency source
modelling in order to obtain broad band time series based on the same hypothesis of
slip distribution on the fault. In this model the faulting process is decomposed into
slipping on individual, formal, overlapping subsources of various sizes, distributed
randomly along the fault. A subsources database is first built, including the
subsources’ positions on the fault, their dimensions, mean slips (and consequently
seismic moments) and corner frequencies. Subsource dimensions are taken as integer
fractions of fault’s length and width. Scaling properties of the subsources are the
same as used by Zeng et al. [1994]. Their number-size distribution obeys a power law
with fractal dimension D=2 and their mean slips are proportional to their dimensions
(so-called constant stress-drop scaling). The subsources scaling implies that the
subsources compose k-square slip distribution [Andrews, 1980]. Note that although
such a decomposition is inherent to the composite approaches, in the employed
hybrid model the same set of subsources is used both in the integral (low-frequency)

Deliverable 7 – Task 3 – MOLISE – VALIDATION SHAKING CENARIOS
13

and composite (high-frequency) calculations. More specifically, in the low-frequency
range, the computation is performed according to the well-known representation
theorem. We discretize the fault densely enough to evaluate the representation
integral correctly up to a certain frequency. The static slip at a point is given by the
sum of static slips of all the subsources from the database that contain the point
(assuming a k-squared slip distribution on each individual subsource). The rupture
time is given by the distance of the point from the nucleation point assuming
constant rupture velocity. The slip function is assumed to be a smoothed ramp with
constant rise time. As regards the high-frequency range, the subsources from the
database are treated as individual point sources with Brune’s source time function
[Brune, 1970]. Their seismic moments and corner frequencies are obtained directly
from the database. The rupture time is given by the time the rupture needs to reach
the subsource’s center (assuming the same constant velocity as for the integral
approach). In the cross-over frequency range we apply weighted averaging of the
integral and composite parts of the spectrum. Let us emphasize that this approach
provides particular frequency dependent directivity effect: while at low frequencies
the wavefield is coherent due to evaluation of the representation integral, at high
frequencies the wave-field contributions sum incoherently due to the random
subsources positions and, therefore, the directivity effect vanishes. Moreover,
following paper by Satoh [2002], in which the author shows that the radiation pattern
vanishes at high frequencies, we simulate the vanishing radiation pattern by
considering random variations of the focal mechanism ( 90̊ for strike, dip and rake)
prescribed for the individual point sources in the composite part of the computation.
As such, the method can be combined with any technique yielding Green’s functions.
In this paper we utilize the discrete wave-numbers method [Bouchon, 1981]. For
more detailed explanation of the hybrid modeling technique see Gallovic and
Brokesova [2006].
An additional simulation technique (the Empirical Green Function method) was also
employed in order to simulate the ground motion at sites where weak motion
records were obtained during the 2002 sequence. Both method and results are
presented in Deliverable D2
http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:t7lWUpbnXnQJ:www.earth-prints.org/bitstream/2122/3251/1/Deliverable_S3T3_D7.pdf+casacalenda+fault+lines&cd=10&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Figure 7. NS component acceleration time series recorded during the October 31, 2002 Molise
earthquake at stations with hypocentral distance < 60 km. Stations LSN (Lesina), SNN
(Sannicandro) and SSV (San Severo) are located eastward to the epicentre, stations CMM
(Castiglione Messer Marino), GLD (Gildone) and VSE (Vasto Europa) are located westward.
Table 4. Acceleration data of the October 31 and November 1, 2002, Molise (Southern Italy)
earthquakes. Soil: site geology according to the National Seismic Survey of Italy (SSN)
classification; I: instrument type (A=analog, D=digital); R: hypocentral distance according to
Chiarabba et al., [2005]; pga [NS] and pga [EW] : corrected peak ground accelerations of North-
South and East-West components, respectively; k and u(
k
: mean diminution parameter and its
standard deviation, respectively, estimated from horizontal components of recordings of the two
October-November main shocks.
Bedrock scenarios for extended areas were produced using GMPE (scenarios of level
0) and extended-fault high frequency simulations (scenarios of level I) for both the
October 31 and November 1, 2002 events. Bedrock scenarios at specified sites located
in the epicentral area (BNF, SGI, CLT, SCM and RPB) were produced by broad-band
simulations (scenarios of level II).
After filtering between 1 and 12 Hz, the time series obtained at sites BNF, SGI, CLT
Code
AVZ
CHT
CMM
GLD
GSA
GSG
LSN
NOR
ORC
SCV
SSV
SNN
VSE

Station name
Avezzano
Chieti
Castiglione M. Marino
Gildone
Gran Sasso Assergi
Gran Sasso Laboratorio
Lesina
Norcia
Ortucchio
S. Marco dei Cavoti
San Severo
Sannicandro Garganico
Vasto Europa
The October 31 (10:32 UTC) and November 1 (15:08 UTC), 2002, earthquakes
(Mw=5.8 and Mw=5.7, respectively) struck the Molise area region killing young
human lives in a school collapse and causing moderate damage in an area
comprising 29 municipalities [Maffei and Bazzurro, 2004; Nuti et al., 2004]. Main
shocks sources were located at about 20 km depth, on a deep seismogenic structure
underlying the Apulia Platform [Valensise et al., 2004]. Seismicity was detected at
corresponding depths by a temporary seismic network, installed soon after the first
main event [Chiarabba et al., 2005]. More than 1900 aftershocks, located with errors
lower than 0.5 km, revealed an east-west-trending nearly vertical buried structure
extending from 10 to 25 km depth composed of two 15 km long main segments. For
this twin earthquake, two different couples of seismogenic sources were proposed.

Pp. 3 (also see diagrams pp.4 of fault system in question)

http://www.earth-prints.org/bitstream/2122/3251/1/Deliverable_S3T3_D7.pdf

Deliverable_S3T3_D7.pdf
title of saved version – 011- Econ – History – April 07 – 2009

***
Apulia Carbonate Platform
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Gargano Peninsula)

The Apulia Carbonate Platform in Apulia, Italy was a major palaeogeographic element of the southern margin of the Mesozoic Tethys Ocean. It is one of the so-called peri-Adriatic platforms, which are comparable to the Bahama Banks in their carbonate facies, shape, size, and subsidence rate and, also, in the internal architecture.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

The Apulia Platform, which is part of the stable and relatively undeformed foreland of the Apennine thrust belt, is bounded on both sides by basinal deposits; westward the margin is buried under the Apennine thrust sheets, to the east the adjacent paleogeographic domains are the vast Ionian Basin to the south and the Umbria-Marche Basin to the north. To the west, the Apulia Platform plunges downfaulted underneath the terrigenous sediments of the Apennine foredeep; to the southeast, the Jurassic–Early Cretaceous margin lies 20–30 km offshore from the present Apulia coastline.[8][9]

Gargano Promontory

The Gargano Promontory is an area of the Apulia Platform.[10] The Gargano Promontory and the Maiella Mountain, which now is part of the external Apennine thrust belt,[3] are the only areas where the transition from platform facies to basin facies is exposed on land. In the Gargano area this transition has been investigated extensively in the last decade.[11][12][13].[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] Since the mid-1960s AGIP geologists and the Italian Geological Survey[19][20][21] recognized that the western part of the promontory is part of the shallow-water Apulia Platform, whereas the eastern part is characterized by slope and basinal deposits.

The backbone of the Gargano Promontory consists of a thick pile (3000–3500 m) of Jurassic and Cretaceous shallow-water carbonates. A small outcrop of Upper Triassic evaporite (Anidriti di Burano) and black limestone is present on the northern seashore (Punta delle Pietre Nere). These rocks have been encountered also by wells Gargano-1 (G.1 – Conoco) and Foresta Umbra-1 (F.U. – AGIP). The outcropping succession comprises Upper Jurassic to Eocene carbonate rocks representing platform-to-basin settings.[20][12][15]. Minor scattered outcrops of Miocene sediments, unconformably overlying the Cretaceous and Jurassic platform, are present in many parts of the promontory, mainly along the lowland border zones (Cagnano Varano, Sannicandro, Apricena, Manfredonia), and also one site inland near San Giovanni Rotondo.[21]

On the basis of physical stratigraphic relationships and of the presence of evident bounding surfaces, the Jurassic-Eocene succession can be subdivided into six major packages of sediments, which can be classified as second-order depositional sequences.[5] The lower three sequences (Callovian to Albian) are represented by the entire spectrum of sediments from platform to slope and basin, and the younger ones (Cenomanian to Lutetian) largely by slope and basin deposits.

Probably the most typical and significant feature of the Gargano slope and basin setting is the presence of huge megabreccia bodies which, in terms of sequence stratigraphic terminology, can be interpreted as typical lowstand wedges.[22]

Notes

1. ^ D’Argenio B. (1976). Le piattaforme carbonatiche periadriatiche. Una rassegna di problemi nel quadro geodinamico mesozoico dell’area mediterranea. Società Geologica Italiana, Memorie 13 (1974): 137–159.
2. ^ Eberli (1991)
3. ^ a b Eberli G.P., Bernoulli D., Sanders D., Vecsei A. (1993). From aggradation to progradation: the Maiella Platform, Abruzzi, Italy. In: Simo T., Scott R.W., Masse J.P. (eds). Cretaceous Carbonate Platforms: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 56, pp. 213–232.
4. ^ Morsilli M. (1998). Stratigrafia e sedimentologia del margine della Piattaforma Apula nel Gargano (Giurassico superiore-Cretaceo inferiore). Tesi di Dottorato di Ricerca, Università di Bologna, 203 pp. Librerie Nazionali di Roma e Firenze.
5. ^ a b Bosellini A., Morsilli M., Neri C. (1999). Long-term event stratigraphy of the Apulia Platform margin: Upper Jurassic to Eocene, Gargano, southern Italy. Journal of Sedimentary Research 69: 1241–1252. Tulsa.
6. ^ Bosellini A., Morsilli M., Neri C. (2000). The eastern margin of the Apulia Platform: the Gargano transect. Excursion guide-book. In: A. Bosellini, M. Morsilli & C. Neri (eds). “Quantitative Models on Cretaceous Carbonate”, S.E.P.M Cretaceous Resource Events and Rhythms, WG4 meeting, field trip guide book, 46 pp. Vieste.
7. ^ Bosellini A., Morsilli M. (2001). Il Promontorio del Gargano: cenni di geologia e itinerari geologici. Quaderni del Parco Nazionale del Gargano, 48 pp., Foggia.
8. ^ De Dominicis and Mazzoldi (1989)
9. ^ De Alteriis and Aiello (1993)
10. ^ Conti M.A., Morsilli M., Nicosia U., Sacchi E., Savino V., Wagensommer A., Di Maggio L., Gianolla P. (2005). Jurassic Dinosaur Footprints from Southern Italy: Footprints as Indicators of Constraints in Paleogeographic Interpretation. Palaios 20 (6): 534–550.
11. ^ a b Luperto Sinni and Masse (1987)
12. ^ a b c Masse and Luperto Sinni (1989)
13. ^ a b Bosellini and Ferioli (1988)
14. ^ Bosellini A., Neri C., Luciani V. (1993). Guida ai carbonati cretaceo-eocenici di scarpata e bacino del Gargano (Italia meridionale). Università di Ferrara, Annali: Sezione Scienze della Terra, supplemento 4: 1–77.
15. ^ a b Bosellini A., Neri C., Luciani V. (1993). Platform margin collapses and sequence stratigraphic organization of carbonate slopes: Cretaceous-Eocene, Gargano Promontory, southern Italy. Terra Nova 5: 282–297.
16. ^ Bosellini et al. (1994)
17. ^ Bosellini A., Morsilli M. (1997). A Lower Cretaceous drowning unconformity on the eastern flank of the Apulia Platform (Gargano Promontory, southern Italy). Cretaceous Research 18: 51–61. Belfast.
18. ^ Morsilli M., Bosellini, A. (1997). Carbonate facies zonation of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Apulia Platform margin (Gargano Promontory, southern Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 103: 193–206.
19. ^ Pavan and Pirini (1966)
20. ^ a b Martinis and Pavan (1967)
21. ^ a b Cremonini et al. (1971)
22. ^ Sarg (1988)

References

* Bracco Gartner G., Morsilli M., Schlager W., Bosellini A. (2002). Toe-of-slope of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in outcrop, seismic model and offshore seismic data (Apulia, Italy). International Journal of Earth Science (Geologische Rundschau) 91: 315–330. Berlin.

* Luciani V., Cobianchi M., Jenkyns H.C. (2004). Albian high-resolution biostratigraphy and isotope stratigraphy: The Coppa della Nuvola pelagic succession of the Gargano Promontory (Southern Italy). Eclogae geol. Helv. 97: 77–92. Basel.

* Morsilli M., de Cosmo P.D., Luciani V., Bosellini A. (2003). Late Santonian partial drowning of the Apulia Carbonate Platform (Gargano Promontory, southern Italy): new data for paleogeographic reconstructions. 22nd I.A.S. Regional Meeting. Opatija, Croatia. Abstract Book, 135.

* Morsilli M., Rusciadelli G., Bosellini A. (2004). The Apulia carbonate platform-margin and slope, Late Jurassic to Eocene of the Maiella Mt. and Gargano Promontory: physical stratigraphy and architecture. Field Trip Guide Book – P18. 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy; 44 pp. A.P.A.T, Roma.

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apulia_Carbonate_Platform&#8221;
Categories: Geography of Apulia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gargano_Peninsula

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The Monti Dauni (also known as Subappennino Dauno or Monti della Daunia) area a mountain chain in in southern Italy, constituting the eastern appendix of the Campanian Apennines. They occupy the eastern fringe of Capitanata and the border of Apulia with Molise, and take their name from the ancient Dauni Italic tribe.

They are bounded northwards by the Fortore valley, eastwards by the Tavoliere delle Puglie, southwards by the upper Ofanto valley. The chain is formed by sandstone terrains, and is the source of a series of small streams which flow through the Tavoliere into the Adriatic Sea. The highest peak is the Monte Cornacchia, at 1,152 m.

Historically, the Monti Dauni area has suffered a substantial depopulation in the last decades, due to their relative isolation. They include 21 comuni, all in the province of Foggia, which form two mountain communities (Comunità Montana dei Monti Dauni Settentrionali , with seat at Casalnuovo Monterotaro, and the Comunità Montana dei Monti Dauni Meridionali, at Bovino).

Highest peaks
Mount Altitude
Monte Cornacchia 1,152 m
Monte Saraceno 1,145 m
Monte Crispignano 1,105 m
Toppo Pescara 1,078 m
Monte Sidone 1,061 m
Monte Vento 1,056 m
Monte Pagliarone 1,030 m
Monte Tre Titoli 1,030 m
Monte San Vito 1,015 m
Monte Stillo 1,010 m
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Categories: Mountains of Apulia | Apennines

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Category:Apennines
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pages in category “Apennines”

The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
A

* Monte Alfeo
* Alpe della Luna
* Apennine Mountains
* Aspromonte
* Aurunci Mountains

B

* Baita

C

* Calderone glacier
* Castelluccio (Norcia)
* Corno Grande

E

* Monti Ernici

F

* Monte Forato
* Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona, Campigna National Park

F cont.

* Mount Fumaiolo

L

* Monti della Laga

M

* Madonie
* Majella
* Matese
* Monte Carmo
* Monte Falterona
* Monte Prado
* Monte Terminillo
* Montevergine
* Monti Ausoni
* Monti Dauni
* Monti Lattari

M cont.

* Monti Lepini
* Monti della Tolfa

P

* Pania della Croce
* Pietra di Bismantova
* Monte Pisanino
* Pratomagno
* Monti Prenestini

S

* Monte Sagro
* Sibillini Mounts
* Monte Sillara
* Monti Simbruini
* Monte Sirente

T

* Monte Tambura

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Categories: Mountain ranges of Italy

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Montevergine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Sanctuary of Montevergine.

The Montevergine, also known as Partenio or Monti di Avella, is a limestone massif in Campania, central Italy, part of the Apennine chain. It is located near Avellino, in the comune of Mercogliano. It has slopes covered by chestnut and beech trees, up to some 1,480 m over the sea level.

Under the peak, at some 1,270 m, is the Sanctuary of Montevergine, which attract numerous pilgrims. It was consecreated in 1124 near the ruins of a temple of Cybele. The new basilica, built in 1961, is home to a Byzantine icon of the 13th century. The abbey palace was designed by Domenico Antonio Vaccaro, and has a an octagonal plan. The Sanctuary is the cathedral of the Territorial Abbey of Montevergine.
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Categories: Mountains of Campania | Apennines | Buildings and structures in Campania

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montevergine
250px-Santuario_Montevergine_2.JPG

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This is about the Italian mountain range. There is also a lunar mountain range named the Montes Apenninus.

The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Greek: ?????????; Latin: Appenninus — in both cases used in the plural; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching c. 1,200 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming the backbone of the country. The range characteristically consists of limestone and related sedimentary strata believed to have been uplifted near the end of the Cretaceous era when the African plate began to gently collide with the eastern part of the European plate. The same tectonic episode also formed the Alps. The Apennines strata are of particular significance in oceanic anoxic events studies, having triggered off a three-decades-long series of research when a meter thick band of black shale matched core sample from the Pacific ocean signaling a worldwide event.

The name may be derived from the Latin root “penne”, meaning a quill or feather, also the source of the word “pinnacle”. Thus, is it may be linked etymologically to the English Pennines. The term Apennines was originally applied to the northern portion of the chain, from the Maritime Alps to Ancona. Polybius is probably the first writer who applied it to the whole chain, making, indeed, no distinction between the Apennines and the Maritime Alps, and extending the former name as far as Marseilles. Other Classical authors do not differentiate the various parts of the chain, but use the name as a general name for the whole.

The mountains lend their name to the Apennine peninsula, which forms the major part of Italy. The mountains are mostly green and wooded, although one side of the highest peak, Corno Grande (2,912 m), is partially covered by the southernmost glacier in Europe. The eastern slopes down to the Adriatic Sea are steep, while the western slopes form a plain on which most of peninsular Italy’s historic cities are located. The total length is some 1,000 km and the maximum width 80/140 km.

Abruzzo National Park
Countries Italy, San Marino
Highest point Corno Grande (Big Horn)
– elevation 2,912 m (9,554 ft)
– coordinates [show location on an interactive map] 42̊28?9?N 13̊33?57?E? / ?42.46917̊N 13.56583̊E? / 42.46917; 13.56583
Length 1,200 km (746 mi)
Width 250 km (155 mi)
Period Cretaceous

Contents

* 1 Divisions
o 1.1 Northern Apennines
+ 1.1.1 Ligurian Apennines
+ 1.1.2 Tuscan-Emilian Apennines
+ 1.1.3 Umbrian Apennines
o 1.2 Central Apennines
o 1.3 Southern Apennines
* 2 Character
* 3 Geology
* 4 Mountains
* 5 See also
* 6 References

Divisions

Modern geographers divide the range into three parts: northern, central and southern. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System physiographic division.

Northern Apennines

The northern Apennines are generally distinguished (though there is no real solution of continuity) from the Maritime Alps at the Bocchetta dell’ Altare, some 8 km west of Savona on the high road to Turin. They again are divided into three parts: the Ligurian, Tuscan and Umbrian Apennines.

Ligurian Apennines

The Ligurian Apennines extend as far as the La Cisa pass in the upper valley of the Magra above Spezia; at first they follow the curve of the Gulf of Genoa, and then run east-south-east parallel to the coast. On the north and north-east lie the broad plains of Piedmont and Lombardy, traversed by the Po, the chief tributaries of which from the Ligurian Apennines are the Scrivia, Trebbia and Taro. The Tanaro (Tanarus), though largely fed by tributaries from the Ligurian Apennines, itself rises in the Maritime Alps, while the rivers on the south and south-west of the range are short and unimportant. The south side of the range rises steeply from the sea, leaving practically no coast strip: its slopes are sheltered and therefore fertile and highly cultivated, and the coast towns form the favourite winter resorts of the Italian Riviera.

The highest point (Monte Maggiorasca) reaches 1,799 m. The range is crossed by several railways – the line from Savona to Turin (with a branch at Ceva for Acqui), that from Genoa to Ovada and Acquit, the main lines from Genoa to Novi Ligure, the junction for Turin and Milan (both of which pass under the Monte dei Giovi, the ancient Mons Loventius, by which the ancient Via Postumia ran from Genua to Dertona), and that from Spezia to Parma under the pass of La Cisa. (This pass was also traversed by a nameless Roman road). All these traverse the ridge by long tunnels – that on the new line from Genoa to Ronco Scrivia is upwards of 8 km in length.

Tuscan-Emilian Apennines
Emilia Romagna, painting by Frans Koppelaar.

The Tuscan Apennines extend from the pass of La Cisa to the sources of the Tiber. The main chain continues to run in an east-south-east direction, but traverses the peninsula, the west coast meanwhile turning almost due south. From the northern slopes many rivers and streams run north and north-north-east into the Po, the Secchia and Panaro being among the most important, while farther east most of the rivers are tributaries of the Reno.

Other small streams, e.g. the Ronco and Montone, which flow into the sea together east of Ravenna, were also tributaries of the Po; and the Savio and the Rubicon seem to be the only streams from this side of the Tuscan Apennines that ran directly into the sea in Roman days. From the south-west side of the main range the Arno and Serchio run into the Mediterranean. This section of the Apennines is crossed by three railways, from Lunigiana to Parma, from Pistoia to Bologna and from Prato to Bologna, and by several good high roads, of which the direct road from Florence to Bologna over the Futa pass is of Roman origin; and certain places in it are favourite summer resorts. The highest peaks of the chain are Monte Cimone (2,156 m) and Monte Cusna (2,121 m). The so-called Alpi Apuane, a detached chain south-west of the valley of the Serchio, rise to a maximum height of 1,946 m. They contain the famous marble quarries of Carrara. The greater part of Tuscany, however, is taken up by lower hills, which form no part of the Apennines, being divided from the main chain by the valleys of the Arno, Chiana and Paglia, Towards the west they are rich in minerals and chemicals, which the Apennines proper do not produce.

Umbrian Apennines

The Umbrian Apennines extend from the sources of the Tiber to (or perhaps rather beyond) the pass of Scheggia near Cagli, where the ancient Via Flaminia crosses the range. The highest point is the Monte Catria (1,701 m). The chief river is the Tiber itself: the others, among which the Foglia (Pisaurus), Metauro and Esino (This river (anc. Aesis) was the boundary of Italy proper in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC) may be mentioned, run north-east into the Adriatic, which is some 50 km from the highest points of the chain. This portion of the range is crossed near its southern termination by a railway from Foligno to Ancona (which at Fabriano has a branch to Macerata and Civitanova Marche, on the Adriatic coast railway), which may perhaps be conveniently regarded as its boundary. (The Monte Conero, to the south of Ancona, was originally an island of the Pliocene sea.) By some geographers, indeed, it is treated as a part of the central Apennines.
Gran Sasso and Campo Imperatore
Majella

Central Apennines

The central Apennines are the most extensive portion of the chain, and stretch as far as the valley of the Sangro (Sangrus). To the north are the Monti Sibillini, the highest point of which is the Monte Vettore (2,476 m). Farther south three parallel chains may be traced, the westernmost of which (the Monti Sabini) culminates to the south in the Monte Viglio (2,156 m), the central chain in the Monte Terminillo (2,217 m), and farther south in the Monte Velino (2,486), and the eastern in the Gran Sasso d’Italia (2,912 m), the highest summit of the Apennines, and the Majella group (Monte Amaro, 2,793 m).

Between the western and central ranges are the plain of Rieti, the valley of the Salto, and the Lago Fucino; while between the central and eastern ranges are the valleys of Aquila and Sulmona. The chief rivers on the west are the Nera, with its tributaries the Velino and Salto, and the Aniene, both of which fall into the Tiber. On the east there is at first a succession of small rivers which flow into the Adriatic, from which the highest points of the chain are some 20 km distant, such as the Potenza, Chienti, Tenna, Tronto, Tordino, Vomano an others. The Pescara, which receives the Aterno from the north-west and the Gizio from the south-east, is more important; and so is the Sangro.

The central Apennines are crossed by the railway from Rome to Castelammare Adriatico via Avezzano and Sulmona: the railway from Orte to Terni (and thence to Foligno) follows the Nera valley; while from Terni a line ascends to the plain of Rieti, and thence crosses the central chain to Aquila, whence it follows the valley of the Aterno to Sulmona. In ancient times the Via Salaria, Via Caecilia and Via Valeria-Claudia all ran from Rome to the Adriatic coast. The volcanic mountains of the province of Rome are separated from the Apennines by the Tiber valley, and the Monti Lepini, or Volscian mountains, by the valleys of the Sacco and Liri.

Southern Apennines
The Mount Pollino

In the southern Apennines, to the south of the Sangro valley, the three parallel chains are broken up into smaller groups; among them may be named the Matese, the highest point of which is the Monte Miletto (2,050 m). The chief rivers on the south-west are the Liri or Garigliano with its tributary the Sacco, the Volturno, Sebeto, Sarno, on the north the Trigno, Biferno and Fortore.

The promontory of Monte Gargano, on the east, is completely isolated, and so are the Campanian volcanic arc near Naples. The district is traversed from north-west to south-east by the railway from Sulmona to Benevento and on to Avellino, and from south-west to northeast by the railways from Caianello via Isernia to Campobasso and Termoli, from Caserta to Benevento and Foggia, and from Nocera and Avellino to Rocchetta S. Antonio, the junction for Foggia, Spinazzola (for Barletta, Bari, and Taranto) and Potenza. Roman roads followed the same lines as the railways: the Via Appia ran from Capua to Benevento, whence the older road went to Venosa and Taranto and so to Brindisi, while the Via Traiana ran nearly to Foggia and thence to Bari.

The valley of the Ofanto, which runs into the Adriatic close to Barletta, marks the northern termination of the first range of the Lucanian Apennines (now Basilicata), which runs from east to west, while south of the valleys of the Sele (on the west) and Basento (on the east) – which form the line followed by the railway from Battipaglia via Potenza to Metaponto – the second range begins to run due north and south as far as the plain of Sibari. The highest point is the Monte Pollino (2,248 m). The chief rivers are the Sele – joined by the Negro and Calore – on the west, and the Bradano, Basento, Agri, Sinni on the east, which flow into the gulf of Taranto; to the south of the last-named river there are only unimportant streams flowing into the sea east and west, inasmuch as here the width of the peninsula diminishes to some 60 km.

The railway running south from Sicignano to Lagonegro, ascending the valley of the Negro, is planned to extend to Cosenza, along the line followed by the ancient Via Popilia, which beyond Cosenza reached the west coast at Terina and thence followed it to Reggio. The Via Herculia, a branch of the Via Traiana, ran from Aequum Tuticum to the ancient Nerulum. At the narrowest point the plain of Sibari, through which the rivers Coscile and Crati flow to the sea, occurs on the east coast, extending halfway across the peninsula. Here the limestone Apennines proper cease and the granite mountains of Calabria begin.

The first group extends as far as the isthmus formed by the gulfs of S. Eufemia and Squillace; it is known as the Sila, and the highest point reached is 1,928 m (the Botte Donato). The forests which covered it in ancient times supplied the Greeks and Sicilians with timber for shipbuilding. The railway from S. Eufemia to Catanzaro and Catanzaro Marina crosses the isthmus, and an ancient road may have run from Squillace to Monteleone. The second group extends to the south end of the Italian peninsula, culminating in the Aspromonte (1,956 m) to the east of Reggio di Calabria. In both groups the rivers are quite unimportant.

Character

The Apennines are to some extent clothed with forests, though these were probably more extensive in classical times (Pliny mentions especially pine, oak and beech woods, Hist. Nat. xvi. 177); they have indeed been greatly reduced in comparatively modern times by indiscriminate timber-felling, and though serious attempts at reforestation have been made by the government, much remains to be done.

They also furnish considerable summer pastures, especially in the Abruzzi: Pliny (Hist. Nat. xi. 240) praises the cheese of the Apennines. In the forests wolves were frequent, and still are found, the flocks being protected against them by large sheep-dogs; bears, however, which were known in Roman times, have almost entirely disappeared. Nor are the wild goats called rotae, spoken of by Marcus Terentius Varro (Rerum rusticarum II. i. 5), which may have been either chamois or steinbock, to be found.

Brigandage appears to have been prevalent in Roman times in the more remote parts of the Apennines, as it was until recently: an inscription found near the Furlo pass was set up in AD 246 by an evocatus Augusti (a member of a picked corps) on special police duty with a detachment of twenty men from the Ravenna fleet.

Snow lies on the highest peaks of the Apennines for almost the whole year. The range produces no minerals, but there are a considerable number of good mineral springs, some of which are thermal (such as Bagni di Lucca, Montecatini, Monsummano, Porretta, Telese), while others are cool (such as Nocera, Sangemini, Cinciano), the water of which is both drunk on the spot and sold as table water elsewhere.

Geology
The particular shape of the Pietra di Bismantova

The Apennines are an ancient continuation of the Alpine chain, but are now mostly representative of a large accretionary wedge located ahead of what appears to be a shifting subduction zone in which the African Plate is descending beneath the Eurasian Plate. Research is intense and ongoing, but a clear picture of what is actually occurring, not just in the Apennines, but throughout the Mediterranean basin remains to be explained.

The zone of the Brianconnais may be followed as far as the Gulf of Genoa, but scarcely beyond, unless it is represented by the Trias and older beds of the Apuan Alps. The inner zone of crystalline and schistose rocks which forms the main chain of the Alps, is absent in the Apennines except towards the southern end.

The Apennines, indeed, consist almost entirely of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds, like the outer zones of the Alps. Remnants of a former inner zone of more ancient rocks may be seen in the Apuan Alps, in the islands off the Tuscan coast; in the Catena Metallifera, Cape Circeo and the island of Zannone, as well as in the Calabrian peninsula. These remnants lie at a comparatively low level, and excepting the Apuan Alps and the Calabrian peninsula do not now form any part of the Apennine chain.

But that in Tertiary times there was a high interior zone of crystalline rocks is indicated by the character of the Eocene beds in the southern Apennines. These are formed to a large extent of thick conglomerates which are full of pebbles and boulders of granite and schist. Many of the boulders are of considerable size and they are often still angular. There is now no crystalline region from which they could reach their present position; and this and other considerations have led the followers of Eduard Suess to conclude that even in Tertiary times a large land mass consisting of ancient rocks occupied the space which is now covered by the southern portion of the Tyrrhenian Sea.

This old land mass has been called Tyrrhenis, and probably extended from Sicily into Latium and as far west as Sardinia. On the Italian border of this land there was raised a mountain chain with an inner crystalline zone and an outer zone of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds. Subsequent faulting has caused the subsidence of the greater part of Tyrrhenis, including nearly the whole of the inner zone of the mountain chain, and has left only the outer zones standing as the present Apennines.

Be this as it may, the Apennines, excepting in Calabria, are formed chiefly of Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene beds. In the south the deposits, from the Trias to the middle Eocene, consist mainly of limestones, and were laid down, with a few slight interruptions, upon a quietly subsiding seafloor. In the later part of the Eocene period began the folding which gave rise to the existing chain. The sea grew shallow, the deposits became conglomeratic and shaly, volcanic eruptions began, and the present folds of the Apennines were initiated.

The folding and consequent elevation went on until the close of the Miocene period when a considerable subsidence took place and the Pliocene sea overspread the lower portions of the range. Subsequent elevation, without folding, has raised these Pliocene deposits to a considerable height – in some cases over 1,000 m and they now lie almost undisturbed upon the older folded beds. This last elevation led to the formation of numerous lakes which are now filled up by Pleistocene deposits. Both volcanic eruptions and movements of elevation and depression continue to the present day on the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea.

In the northern Apennines the elevation of the sea floor appears to have begun at an earlier period, for the Upper Cretaceous of that part of the chain consists largely of sandstones and conglomerates. In Calabria the chain consists chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks; it is the Mesozoic and Tertiary zone which has here been sunk beneath the sea. Similar rocks are found beneath the Trias farther north, in some of the valleys of Basilicata.

Glaciers no longer exist in the Apennines, but Post-Pliocene moraines have been observed in Basilicata.

Mountains

The Apennines traverse Italy in a direction from about north-north-west to south-south-east, almost precisely parallel to that of the coast of the Adriatic from Rimini to Pescara.

Major mountains in the range include:
Name Height
Corno Grande 2,912 m
Monte Nerone 1,525 m
Monte Catria 1,701 m
Monte Maggio 1,853 m
Monte Pennino 1,560 m
Monte Sibilla 2,173 m
Monte Vettore 2,476 m
Pizzo di Sevo 2,419 m
Monte Terminillo 2,217 m
Monte Velino 2,486 m

See also

* Geology of Italy

References

* de Lorenzo, G. (1896). “Studi di geologia nell’Appennino Meridionale”. Atti della Reale Accademia di Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche (Naples) VIII (7).
* Sacco, F. (1893-1899). “L’Appennino settentrionale”. Bollettino della Società geologica Italiana.
* This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Sister project Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Apennine Mountains

Coordinates: [show location on an interactive map] 43̊16?54?N 12̊34?55?E? / ?43.28167̊N 12.58194̊E? / 43.28167; 12.58194

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Categories: Physical geography | Apennines | Physiographic provinces

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256px-Parco_Nazionale_d’Abruzzo,_Lazio_e_Molise.jpg
256px-Italia_fisica_appennini.png
200px-Frans_Koppelaar_-_Landscape_near_Bologna.jpg
180px-Gran_Sasso_in_clouds.JPG
180px-Majella001.jpg
220px-Monte_Pollino_(2.248_m)_e_serra_Dolcedorme_(2.267_m)._Salendo_su_serra_del_Prete_(2.181_m).JPG
300px-Pietra_di_bismantova_castelnovo_monti.jpg

Central Apennines

The central Apennines are the most extensive portion of the chain, and stretch as far as the valley of the Sangro (Sangrus). To the north are the Monti Sibillini, the highest point of which is the Monte Vettore (2,476 m). Farther south three parallel chains may be traced, the westernmost of which (the Monti Sabini) culminates to the south in the Monte Viglio (2,156 m), the central chain in the Monte Terminillo (2,217 m), and farther south in the Monte Velino (2,486), and the eastern in the Gran Sasso d’Italia (2,912 m), the highest summit of the Apennines, and the Majella group (Monte Amaro, 2,793 m).

Between the western and central ranges are the plain of Rieti, the valley of the Salto, and the Lago Fucino; while between the central and eastern ranges are the valleys of Aquila and Sulmona. The chief rivers on the west are the Nera, with its tributaries the Velino and Salto, and the Aniene, both of which fall into the Tiber. On the east there is at first a succession of small rivers which flow into the Adriatic, from which the highest points of the chain are some 20 km distant, such as the Potenza, Chienti, Tenna, Tronto, Tordino, Vomano an others. The Pescara, which receives the Aterno from the north-west and the Gizio from the south-east, is more important; and so is the Sangro.

The central Apennines are crossed by the railway from Rome to Castelammare Adriatico via Avezzano and Sulmona: the railway from Orte to Terni (and thence to Foligno) follows the Nera valley; while from Terni a line ascends to the plain of Rieti, and thence crosses the central chain to Aquila, whence it follows the valley of the Aterno to Sulmona. In ancient times the Via Salaria, Via Caecilia and Via Valeria-Claudia all ran from Rome to the Adriatic coast. The volcanic mountains of the province of Rome are separated from the Apennines by the Tiber valley, and the Monti Lepini, or Volscian mountains, by the valleys of the Sacco and Liri.

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Italy

Seismicity Map

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/italy/seismicity.php
italy.gif

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Corno Grande is part of the Gran Sasso massif, and is the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains and the highest on the Italian Peninsula, at 2,912 m above sea level.

Its northern corrie holds Europe’s southernmost glacier, Calderone glacier (Ghiacciaio del Calderone).

The first recorded ascent of Corno Grande was made in 1573 by the Bolognese captain Francesco De Marchi together with Francesco Di Domenico.

The usual route of ascent is via the western ridge, although a number of other routes exist including one that ascends the southern face.
Corno Grande from the south, showing the normal route contouring across the face of the mountain to the left and the more direct ascent route zigzagging towards the face.

Elevation 2,912 m (9,554 ft)
Location Abruzzo, Italy
Range Apennines
Prominence 2,476 m
Coordinates [show location on an interactive map] 42̊28?9?N 13̊33?57?E? / ?42.46917̊N 13.56583̊E? / 42.46917; 13.56583Coordinates: [show location on an interactive map] 42̊28?9?N 13̊33?57?E? / ?42.46917̊N 13.56583̊E? / 42.46917; 13.56583
First ascent August 19, 1573 by Francesco De Marchi
Easiest route Hike
Listing Ultra
Translation Great Horn (Italian)

Ultra prominent peaks of Europe
Scandinavia
Galdhøpiggen • Kebnekaise • Jiehkkevárri • Snøhetta • Store Lenangstind • Sarektjåhkkå — On islands: Beerenberg • Hvannadalshnúkur • Newtontoppen • Novaya Zemlya HP
Western Europe
Spain: Mulhacén • Aneto • Torre de Cerredo • Almanzor — Massif Central: Puy de Sancy
Atlantic islands
Canaries: Teide • Roque de los Muchachos • P de la Nueves • Malpaso — Azores: Pico • Madeira: Ruivo
Alps
Mont Blanc • Großglockner • Finsteraarhorn • Wildspitze • Bernina • Hochkönig • Dufourspitze (Monte Rosa) • Hoher Dachstein • Marmolada • Viso • Triglav • Barre des Écrins • Säntis • Ortler • Baldo • Gran Paradiso • Coca • Cima Dodici • Dents du Midi • Chamechaude • Zugspitze • Antelao • Pointe d’Arcalod • Grintovec • Großer Priel • Grigna Settentrionale • Bondone • Presanella • Birnhorn • Col Nudo • Pointe Percée • Montasch • Polinik • Tödi • Birkkarspitze • Wilder Kaiser • Grande Tête de l’Obiou • Cima Tosa • Hochtor • Grimming • Grand Combin • Tournette • Zirbitzkogel • Kesch
Italy
Corno Grande • Amaro • Serra Dolcedorme • Montalto • Cimone
Eastern Europe
Carpathians: Gerlachovský štít • Parângu Mare • Moldoveanu • Peleaga — Crimea: Roman-Kosh — Urals: Narodnaya
Balkans
Musala • Olympus • Taygetus • Korab • Jezercë • Athos • Kyllini • Ossa • Nemerçkë • Vihren • Pangaion Hills • Kaimakchalan • Smolikas • Giona • Jakupica • Kendrevices • Radomir • Parnassus • Botev • Cikes • Velamares • Baba • Psili Korifi
Mediterranean islands
Corsica: Cinto — Sardinia: Punta La Marmora — Sicily: Etna — Greek Islands: Dhirfis • Ainos • Fengari • Ida • Pakhnes • Dikti — Cyprus: Olympus
Caucasus
Elbrus • Bazardüzü • Kazbek • Tebulosmta • Aragats • Dykh-Tau • Dyultydag • Kapudzhukh Lerr • Gora Addala Shukgelmezr • Gora Shan • Shahdagh

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corno_Grande
285px-Il_Gran_Sasso_d’Italia,_il_paretone_nord.JPG
280px-Corno_Grande_with_paths.jpg
250px-Italy_location_map.svg.png

***

Earthquake List for Map of Europe Region

Update time = Wed Apr 8 03:00:05 UTC 2009

Here is a list of the earthquakes located by the USGS and contributing networks for the Map of Europe Region. Most recent events are at the top. (Some early events may be obscured by later ones on the map.) Click on the date portion of an earthquake record in the list below for more information.
MAG UTC DATE-TIME
y/m/d h:m:s LAT
deg LON
deg DEPTH
km Region
MAP 4.6 2009/04/07 21:34:32 42.487 13.397 5.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 5.6 2009/04/07 17:47:38 42.349 13.405 13.1 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.5 2009/04/07 17:32:56 32.961 47.815 42.4 IRAN-IRAQ BORDER REGION
MAP 5.0 2009/04/07 15:18:41 37.620 -17.441 8.3 AZORES-CAPE ST. VINCENT RIDGE
MAP 4.9 2009/04/07 09:26:30 42.336 13.360 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.9 2009/04/06 23:15:37 42.467 13.392 2.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.3 2009/04/06 07:17:13 42.448 13.363 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.4 2009/04/06 03:56:48 42.387 13.322 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.6 2009/04/06 02:37:04 42.366 13.340 10.1 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 6.3 2009/04/06 01:32:39 42.334 13.334 8.8 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.0 2009/04/05 20:48:57 42.400 13.409 10.0 CENTRAL ITALY
MAP 4.6 2009/04/05 20:20:52 44.355 11.979 6.4 NORTHERN ITALY
MAP 4.5 2009/04/04 07:02:46 71.815 -1.272 10.0 JAN MAYEN ISLAND REGION

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/region/Europe_eqs.php

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/region/Europe.php

from Times Online aerial photos - L'Aquila Italy earthquake

from Times Online aerial photos - L'Aquila Italy earthquake

Embassies were meanwhile checking if any foreign nationals were involved in the quake.

2009-04-06 15:01
Quake: World sends condolences
Russia and Greece among countries who offer aid
(ANSA) – Rome, April 6 – Condolences and offers of help arrived in Italy Monday from around the world following the L’Aquila earthquake that killed at …

2009-04-06 15:34
Quake: 1, 500 injured, premier says
Tents for 20, 000 people set up amid fears of further quakes
(ANSA) – L’Aquila, April 6 – Premier Silvio Berlusconi said Monday that around 1,500 people were injured in the L’Aquila earthquake that killed at leas …

http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/english.html

***

2009-04-06 15:01
Quake: World sends condolences
Russia and Greece among countries who offer aid

(ANSA) – Rome, April 6 – Condolences and offers of help arrived in Italy Monday from around the world following the L’Aquila earthquake that killed at least 92 people.

The European Union, the United States, Russia, Germany, France, Greece, Israel, Poland and Afghanistan were among countries who immediately contacted the Italian government following the tragedy.

United States President Barack Obama sent his condolences to the families hit by the quake as he arrived for an official visit in Turkey, while Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said he was ”deeply shocked” by the news of the quake and offered to send aid.

The European Commission said it was ready to send assistance immediately if requested by Italy.

An EC spokesperson said the European Civil Protection Department’s Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) was ready to provide tents and support for those who lost their homes in the disaster, while Italy may be eligible for emergency aid from the European Solidarity Fund, available in the event of emergencies when damage is greater than three billion euros or 0.6% of GDP.

Polish Premier Donald Tusk said the Polish people were ”united in sorrow” with the families of the victims as well as those who had lost their homes in the quake.

Afghan President Hamid Karzai said he was ”profoundly saddened” by the tragedy.

Turkey’s equivalent of the Red Cross, the Red Crescent, also said it was available to send humanitarian aid to the stricken area.
Agostino Miozzo, director of Italy’s civil protection department, said for the moment Italy did ”not need help from other countries”.

Embassies were meanwhile checking if any foreign nationals were involved in the quake.

http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/news/2009-04-06_106340169.html

***
2009-04-06 15:34
Quake: 1, 500 injured, premier says
Tents for 20, 000 people set up amid fears of further quakes
(ANSA) – L’Aquila, April 6 – Premier Silvio Berlusconi said Monday that around 1,500 people were injured in the L’Aquila earthquake that killed at least 92.

”At the moment 4,000 rescuers are at work and concentrating on extracting people from the rubble,” said Berlusconi, who cancelled a trip to Moscow to travel to L’Aquila where he surveyed the damage from a helicopter.

The premier said a camp with 2,000 tents, each capable of housing 8-10 people, was currently being set up in the city for those who had lost their homes in the disaster, while around 4,000 beds in hotels in the area had also been reserved for survivors.

”The camp should be ready be tonight,” Berlusconi told journalists at a press conference, during which another small quake was felt.

”The fundamental thing I want to say is that nobody will be left alone,” he said.

The premier appealed to survivors not to remain in damaged houses.

”Nobody can tell if there will be further quakes in the next few hours or days,” he said.

Photo: Berlusconi.

http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/news/2009-04-06_106340835.html

***

11.11 EDT am – on CNN (34) on scene report which stated that the new buildings that collapsed shouldn’t have collapsed and were not up to code (that will have to be looked into.)

My note – it shouldn’t have happened. Those buildings shouldn’t have been built that way.
See notes – handwritten.

***
http://www.cnn.com/feedback/forms/form5.html?92
form for comment on CNN newsroom

***

My note – the above couple things came from yesterday – the announcement was made a little while ago that 235 people have been lost to the earthquake damage and there was a mention today that the most seriously injured people have been taken by helicopter out of the area – I think it was on CNN Intnl. Also more tents have come, and there was a story about Onno that included a charitable group involved that had brought blankets, sleeping bags and volunteers in along with some generators that are coming to the area to help keep it warm and provide electricity.

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Maps/region/Europe.php

***

http://www.ireport.com/search/ireports?q=earthquake+italy

Search Results
iReports iReporters

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Hundreds have been confirmed dead after a powerful 6.3-magnitude earthquake hit the city of L’Aquila, 75 miles from Rome, Italy , on Monday. In the aftermath, authorities are searching for survivors and a state of emergency has been declared. Did you feel th e earthquake? Have you witnessed destruction there where you live? Do you know someone affected by the quake? Share your story

Posted by:

hhanks

14 hours ago

On CNN
6 comments // (12 ratings) // viewed 4,996 times

Rome, Italy
UPDATE:   THE RED CROSS OF ITALY IS ACTIVELY WORKING AND TAKING DONATIONS.   http://www.globalgiving.com  IS ALSO TAKING DONATIONS FOR THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE LOST THEIR HOMES. The earthquake that struck the Abruzzo region last night sent shockwaves even as far as Rome, Napoli and Tuscany.  In Rome we felt it at about 3:30 in the morning.   When it happened, I took

Posted by:

alisonv

1 day ago

0 comments // (1 rating) // viewed 670 times
Italy Earthquake – L’Aquila, Aburzzo, Italia

Posted by:

ItalyQuake

1 day ago

0 comments // (1 rating) // viewed 673 times
Italy Earthquake – L’Aquila, Abruzzo, Italia

Posted by:

ItalyQuake

1 day ago

0 comments // (1 rating) // viewed 1,719 times
Italy Earthquake – L’Aquila, Abruzzo, Italia

Posted by:

ItalyQuake

1 day ago

5 comments // (5 ratings) // viewed 295 times
a 6.3 magnitude earthquake hit the middle part of ITALY, if you need more info put your TV on or check it on the web thanks

Posted by:

larena

1 day ago

1 comment // (1 rating) // viewed 216 times

California

Posted by:

DigitalInkLA

1 day ago

0 comments // (0 ratings) // viewed 165 times
A powerful earthquake in mountainous central Italy knocked down whole blocks of buildings early Monday as residents slept, killing more than 70 people in the country’s deadliest quake in nearly … . The U.S. Geological Survey said the big quake was magnitude 6.3, but Italy‘s National Institute … quake to hit central Italy was a 5.4-magnitude temblor that struck the south-central Molise region

Posted by:

WindsWalker

1 day ago

7 comments // (6 ratings) // viewed 32 times
My heart truly goes out to the victims families in Italy‘s 6.3 earthquake. We must have love for our fellow man, take this some time to reflect and grief alone with them through their crisis.   Let’s show our viewer’s we have feelings, show we care in our action’s.  I personally … in this devastating day. Pray for earthquake victims families, pray for them to be able to get through

Posted by:

butterfly1

1 day ago

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