How I research and learn –

My note –

How I do it – First, I was wondering about how statistical data and analysis was being conducted by the economics and business management branches of things where it concerns business –

https://cricketdiane.wordpress.com/2009/04/04/how-i-research-and-learn/

***

I had been working on this (above) and decided to take a break and eat something. While I was making some scrambled eggs and toast, it occurred to me that something could be gained by going this direction (in the midst of what I was studying in the MIT online courseware:)

wave propagation one dimensional array – Google search

1. [PDF]
Beam interactions in one-dimensional saturable
2.
waveguide arrays
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
Beam interactions in one-dimensional saturable waveguide arrays. Milutin Stepic’, …. As is well established, scalar wave propagation in a non- …
http://www.ippt.tu-clausthal.de/fileadmin/homes/agkip/reprints/p73.pdf – Similar pages
by M Stepic’ – 2006 – Cited by 1 – Related articles – All 6 versions
3.
Analysis of Wave Propagation in Optical Waveguide Arrays Using a …
wave propagation in an infinite array of one-dimensional optical waveguides has been proposed. The numerical results obtained for an AlGaAs waveguide array …
ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/10686/33799/01610063.pdf?arnumber=1610063 – Similar pages
by KZ Aghaie – 2005 – Related articles
4.
Growth of resistance with density of scatterers in one dimensional …
We study wave propagation in a one-dimensional disordered array of scattering potentials. We consider three different ensembles of scatterer configurations: …
http://www.springerlink.com/index/G787G01273L5V378.pdf – Similar pages
by BU Felderhof – 1986 – Related articles
5.
Proof of Heteroclinic Orbit in One-Dimensional Arrays of
1, Chaotic attractors and waves in a one-dimensional array of modified Chua’s circuits – Nekorkin, Kazantsev, et al. – 1996. 1, Leenaerts,’Wave Propagation …
citeseer.ist.psu.edu/46374.html – 19k – Cached – Similar pages
by D Cells – All 3 versions
6.
An invariant manifold approach for studying waves in a one …
We consider a one-dimensional linear spring-mass array coupled to a … Wave propagation ; Perturbation method ; Singularity ; One dimensional model ; …
cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2547168 – Similar pages
by IT GEORGIOU – 1996 – Cited by 1 – Related articles – All 2 versions
7.
one-dimensional array of active
travelling wave propagation in the chain and its dependence …… a one- dimensional array, pulses propagate throughout the grid showing similar properties …
http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/0143-0807/14/2/006/ej930206.pdf – Similar pages
by T Sobrino – 1993 – Cited by 10 – Related articles
8.
Abstracts
One-dimensional arrays of oscillators: Energy localization in thermal …. Effects of a quenched disorder on wave propagation in excitable media. …
http://www.qf.ub.es/d1/abstracts.html – 176k – Cached – Similar pages
9.
One-mode wave propagation through a periodic array of interface …
One-mode wave propagation through a periodic array of interface cracks: Explicit … Restricting the attention to one-dimensional (collinear) periodic …
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022247X07004246 – Similar pages
by E Scarpetta – 2008 – Related articles
10.
Wave propagation in one- and two-dimensional arrays of bistable …
Wave propagation in one- and two-dimensional arrays of bistable electronic elements. Authors: Cigna, David Thomas. Affiliation: OHIO UNIVERSITY …
adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT……..50C – Similar pages
by DT Cigna – 1999
11. [PDF]
Coexistence of excitability, Hopf and Turing modes in a one …
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
array, the system evolves into a Turing pattern whose peaks ….. Chua, ‘Travelling wave propagation in a one-dimensional fluctuating …
www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~chua/papers/Gomez-Gesteira95.pdf – Similar pages
by M Gomez-Gesteira – 1995 – Cited by 2 – Related articles

[AND]

** to find an answer as to why statistical analysis and construction becomes so different in the hands of business and monetary emphasis –

http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Sloan-School-of-Management/index.htm

Visit the MIT Sloan School of Management home page at:
http://mitsloan.mit.edu/

Find case studies, simulations, deep dives, and industry, business, and country overviews at:
https://mitsloan.mit.edu/mstir/Pages/default.aspx

Review the MIT Sloan School of Management curriculum at:
http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/resources/curriculum/index.htm#15
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****

From this list – I select two things –

Find case studies, simulations, deep dives, and industry, business, and country overviews at:
https://mitsloan.mit.edu/mstir/Pages/default.aspx
MIT Sloan Teaching Innovation Resources (MSTIR)

MIT Sloan

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MIT Sloan > MIT Sloan Teaching Innovation Resources (MSTIR)
What is  MIT Sloan Teaching Innovation Resources

MIT Sloan Teaching Innovation Resources (MSTIR) is a collection of teaching materials, including case studies, simulations, deep dives, and industry, business and country overviews that MIT Sloan provides as a free teaching resource open and available to the world. Similar to the course syllabi and materials found on MIT’s OpenCourseWare site, these materials carry a creative commons license allowing them to be downloaded, copied and distributed.

The various materials posted on this site have been developed by MIT Sloan faculty and students.  Although the collection covers a wide array of companies and organizations, industries, and geographies, it focuses on areas in which MIT Sloan’s innovative research and teaching are on the cutting edge and for which teaching materials are not as widely available as in more standard areas of management.  These areas currently include sustainability, industry evolution, and global entrepreneurship.

****

Industry Evolution

Industry evolution is the study of how industries begin, grow, mature and adapt to changing business environments.

[AND]

15.769
Operations Strategy
Spring 2003

http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Sloan-School-of-Management/15-769Operations-StrategySpring2003/CourseHome/index.htm

15.997 Advanced Corporate Risk Management
Spring 2007

http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Sloan-School-of-Management/15-997Spring-2007/CourseHome/index.htm

***

From the Operations Strategy portal –
Readings

1     Introduction to Operations Strategy

2     Process Concepts

Hammer, Michael. The Agenda. Crown Business, 2001. Chapters 1 and 5.

Hammer, Michael. Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate, Obliterate. Chap. 1 in The Reengineering Revolution, Harvard Business Review, July/August 1990.

3     Process Redesign Techniques

Pacific Bell, Siemens Rolm Communications, Bank of America. Order Management at Heatway Cases.

Hammer, Michael and Steven Stanton. The Reengineering Revolution. HarperBusiness, 1995. Chapters 1 and 7.

Hammer, Michael. The Agenda. Crown Business, 2001. Chapter 5.

4     Process Redesign Techniques (continued)

Pacific Bell, Siemens Rolm Communications, Bank of America. Order Management at Heatway Cases.

Hammer, Michael and Steven Stanton. The Reengineering Revolution. HarperBusiness, 1995. Chapters 1 and 7.

Hammer, Michael. The Agenda. Crown Business, 2001. Chapter 5.

5     Idea Marketplace

6     Process Identification and Modeling

Texas Instruments Process Model.

Hammer, Michael. The Agenda. Crown Business, 2001. Chapter 6.

7
Introduction to Clockspeed

Fine, Charles. Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage. Perseus Books, 1998. Chapters 1, 12, Epilog.
8     Supply Chain Dynamics/3-DCE

Fine, Charles. Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage. Perseus Books, 1998. Chapters 2-7.

9
Clockspeed Concepts (continued)

Fine, Charles. Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage. Perseus Books, 1998. Chapters 8-11.

10     Process Enterprises

Hammer, Michael and S. Stanton.  How Process Enterprises Really Work in The Agenda.  Harvard Business Review (November/December 1999).

Majchrzak, A., and Q. Wang. Breaking the Functional Mind-set in Process Organizations. Chapters 4 and 7 in The Agenda. Harvard Business Review (September/October 1996).

11     Leading Process Redesign

Hammer, Michael and Steven Stanton. The Reengineering Revolution. HarperBusiness, 1995. Chapters 3, 6, 8 and 10.

12     Process Redesign Methodology

Davenport, Reengineering a Business Process  in Hammer, Michael and Steven Stanton. The Reengineering Revolution. HarperBusiness, 1995. Chapters 2 and 4.

13      Process Implementation

Pacific Bell, Siemens Rolm Communications. Order Management at Heatway Cases.

Hammer, Michael and Steven Stanton. The Reengineering Revolution. HarperBusiness, 1995. Chapters 13, 14 and 17.

Hammer, Michael. The Agenda. Crown Business, 2001. Chapter 11.

14
Clockspeed Concepts (continued)

Read: Moving a Slow-Clockspeed Business into the Fast Lane: Strategic Sourcing Lessons from Value Chain Redesign in the Automotive Industry.

This is a version of the SMR 2002 paper on Value Chain Design.

15     Strategic Positioning

American Connector Company Case.

16      Operations Measurement & Improvement

TQM & Measurement Systems Case: Kaplan, Robert S. Texas Eastman Co. HBS Case No. 9-190-039. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1993.

17     Operations Measurement & Improvement (continued)

Gendron, Marie. Using the Balanced Scorecard. Boston: Harvard Management Update, October 1, 1997.

18      Supplier Relations

Hayes, Robert H. and Gita Mathur. Intel-Ped (A). HBS Case No. 9-693-056. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1994.

19     Capabilities Choice

Capabilities Management Case: Pisano, Gary P. Nucleon, Inc. HBS Case No. 9-692-041. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1994.

20       Product Process & Supply Chain Design

Pisano, Gary P. BMW: The 7-Series Project (A). HBS Case No. 9-692-083. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2002.

21       Standardizing Operations

Pisano, Gary P. and Sharon Rossi. ITT Automotive: Global Manufacturing Strategy – 1994. HBS Case No. 9-695-002. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2001.

22       Capabilities Strategy

Pisano, Gary P. CIBA Vision: The Daily Disposable Lens Project (A). HBS Case No. 9-696-100. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2002.

http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Sloan-School-of-Management/15-769Operations-StrategySpring2003/Readings/index.htm

**

my note –

And two from that list which seem worth checking, and maybe a third – in case I can’t find the other two or what I’m trying to find –

19                 Capabilities Choice

Capabilities Management Case: Pisano, Gary P. Nucleon, Inc. HBS Case No. 9-692-041. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1994.

7

Introduction to Clockspeed

Fine, Charles. Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage. Perseus Books, 1998. Chapters 1, 12, Epilog.

9                 Clockspeed Concepts (continued)                 Fine, Charles. Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage. Perseus Books, 1998. Chapters 8-11.

**

[AND]

Hammer, Michael. The Agenda. Crown Business, 2001. Chapter 11.

10                 Process Enterprises                 Hammer, Michael and S. Stanton.  How Process Enterprises Really Work in The Agenda.  Harvard Business Review (November/December 1999).

19                 Capabilities Choice

Capabilities Management Case: Pisano, Gary P. Nucleon, Inc. HBS Case No. 9-692-041. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1994.

[AND MAYBE]

22                 Capabilities Strategy

Pisano, Gary P. CIBA Vision: The Daily Disposable Lens Project (A). HBS Case No. 9-696-100. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2002.

http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Sloan-School-of-Management/15-769Operations-StrategySpring2003/Readings/index.htm

***

(Jump over to tab with Google search data array info and I select – )

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT……..50C

[which is an abstract, but look what it does – ] (its very exciting)


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Wave propagation in one- and two-dimensional arrays of bistable electronic elements
Cigna, David Thomas

Thesis (PhD). OHIO UNIVERSITY, Source DAI-B 60/03, p. 1140, Sep 1999, 73 pages.

Propagation is explored in one- and two-dimensional arrays diode resonator circuits operated in a biased bistable state. In a 32 element one-dimensional system, the constructive role of noise on signal transmission is established. It is shown that the system’s capability of reliable signal propagation is enhanced over a finite noise range. Wave propagation in a 256 element two-dimensional system is characterized in terms of wave speed as a function bias, coupling, and added noise. The ranges of parameters that allow reliable propagation are explored and the problems associated with operation outside of those ranges are addressed. Experimental evidence of noise sustained propagation of plane waves is presented. The effect of curvature on wave speed is examined with experimental results of circular wave speed as a function of radius presented. It is shown that as the circle expands the speed increases approaching that of a plane wave under the same conditions. Spiral waves are produced as further support of the curvature dependence of wave speed. Stable domains are observed and demonstrated over large ranges of coupling, bias, and noise. The stability of these domains is unexpected and unexplained.

[SI logo] [NASA logo] The ADS is Operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Grant NNX09AB39G

***

What I want is that –


Cigna, David Thomas
Thesis (PhD). OHIO UNIVERSITY, Source DAI-B 60/03, p. 1140, Sep 1999, 73 pages.

{and this – }

SAO/NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service

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Title:
Wave propagation in one- and two-dimensional arrays of bistable electronic elements
Authors:
Cigna, David Thomas
Affiliation:
OHIO UNIVERSITY

Publication:
Thesis (PhD). OHIO UNIVERSITY, Source DAI-B 60/03, p. 1140, Sep 1999, 73 pages.
Publication Date:
09/1999
Category:
Physics: Electricity and Magnetism, Engineering: Electronics and Electrical
Origin:
UMI
Abstract Copyright:
(c) 1999: UMI Company
Comment:
Publication Number: 9923663; Advisor: Hunt, Earle R.
Bibliographic Code:
1999PhDT……..50C
Abstract

Propagation is explored in one- and two-dimensional arrays diode resonator circuits operated in a biased bistable state. In a 32 element one-dimensional system, the constructive role of noise on signal transmission is established. It is shown that the system’s capability of reliable signal propagation is enhanced over a finite noise range. Wave propagation in a 256 element two-dimensional system is characterized in terms of wave speed as a function bias, coupling, and added noise. The ranges of parameters that allow reliable propagation are explored and the problems associated with operation outside of those ranges are addressed. Experimental evidence of noise sustained propagation of plane waves is presented. The effect of curvature on wave speed is examined with experimental results of circular wave speed as a function of radius presented. It is shown that as the circle expands the speed increases approaching that of a plane wave under the same conditions. Spiral waves are produced as further support of the curvature dependence of wave speed. Stable domains are observed and demonstrated over large ranges of coupling, bias, and noise. The stability of these domains is unexpected and unexplained.

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http://adsabs.harvard.edu//abs/1999PhDT……..50C

***

My note –

(then I flip back to https://mitsloan.mit.edu/mstir/Pages/default.aspx# – to see if I can find the comparative information through their thought system)

– a roll-over on industry, business, and overview shows that detailed information is available, but I don’t see how to get to it – so

It gives me these choices, none of which make sense to what I am trying to find, but – maybe –

These areas currently include sustainability, industry evolution, and global entrepreneurship.

https://mitsloan.mit.edu/mstir/Pages/default.aspx#

***
My note –
So, I jump back to choice number 2 from the previous Sloan Management School selection – (and take a quick look at the open notes about wave propagation in one dimension that shows a solution mentality that I’m looking for in the business modeling of statistical analysis to see if they match. pp. 1 and 5-6, also a quick look at the Regression Diagnostics, pg. 29 -30, and reanalysis pg. 28 – from statistical analysis in the business framewrk)

http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Materials-Science-and-Engineering/3-60Fall-2005/71621B3B-F89A-4522-AFB0-DF8D5E5D4B74/0/tensor2.pdf

http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Sloan-School-of-Management/15-075Applied-StatisticsSpring2003/EEF9C9C0-1AF7-4DD0-A6DE-C7566709CA2C/0/lec12_chap10.pdf

15.997 Advanced Corporate Risk Management
Spring 2007
Course Highlights
This course features a list of readings and a full set of assignments.
Course Description
This is a course on how corporations make use of the insights and tools of risk management. Most courses on derivatives, futures and options, and financial engineering are taught from the viewpoint of investment bankers and traders in the securities. This course is taught from the point of view of the manufacturing corporation, the utility, the software firm — any potential end-user of derivatives, but not the dealer. Among the topics we will discuss are how companies manage risk, instruments for hedging, liability management and organization, governance and control.

Staff
Instructors:
Dr. John Parsons
Anna Obizhaeva


Course Meeting Times
Lectures:
One session / week
3 hours / session
Level
Graduate

***

My note –

(I might be able to look up other work by these professors in their specialty which could help my understanding.) – I paste over to my open Word docs.

***

ADS Abstract Service
Author Information Form for Cigna, David Thomas

Entry in astroperson.lis
This link searches the list of astronomy persons originally collected by Chris Benn (La Palma, Spain) and Ralph Martin (Cambridge, UK). The ADS now maintains this list separately. You can fill out this Entry Form to submit a new entry for this database. Please use the Update form for updates of your information.
Entry in Homepage list
This link searches the StarHeads list of Homepages collected by André Heck at the CDS in Strasbourg, France.
Entry in HEPNames
This link searches HEPNames, a database of researchers in High-Energy physics maintained by the SPIRES project.
Author Query
This link executes a query to the ADS abstract service with the name of the selected author in the author field.

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/author_form?author=Cigna,+D&fullauthor=Cigna,%20David%20Thomas&charset=UTF-8&db_key=PHY

***

Readings
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This section includes a list of references for the course.

Readings table. TOPICS     READINGS
Role of Risk Management

Gordon-Walker, Anna.  A Feast of Futures.  Risk Magazine 19, no. 12 (2006): 46.

Tufano, Peter, and Cameron Poetzscher.  Aspen Technology, Inc.: Currency Hedging Review.  Harvard Business School Case. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. Case: 9-296-027, October 10, 1995.
Measuring Risk

Andren, Niclas, Hakan Jankensgard, and Lars Oxelheim.  Exposure-Based Cash-Flow-at-Risk: An Alternative to VaR for Industrial Companies.  Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 17, no. 3 (2005): 76-86.

Tufano, Peter, and Alberto Moel.  Bidding for Antamina.  Harvard Business School Case. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. Case: 9-297-054, February 3, 1997.
Pricing Risk     Luehrman, Timothy A., Peter Tufano, and Barbara D. Wall.  MW Petroleum Corp. (B)  Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. Case: 9-295-045, February 27, 1995.
Valuation and Capital Budgeting

Asset Buyers Gamble on Futures Strip.  Petroleum Intelligence Weekly, July 3, 2006.

Siegel, D., J. Smith, and J. Paddock.  Valuing Offshore Oil Properties with Option Pricing Models.  Midland Corporate Finance Journal 5 (1987): 22-30.

Bartholomew, Doug.  HP Reinvents, Slowly.  CFO.com, March 15, 2005.

Davis, Ann.  Tyson Foods Refines a Recipe by Energy Firms.  Wall Street Journal (December 1, 2006).

White, Gregory L.  Precious Commodity: How Ford’s Big Batch of Rare Metal Led to $1 Billion Write-Off.  Wall Street Journal, February 6, 2002.

Amram, Martha, Fanfu Li, and Cheryl A. Perkins.  How Kimberly-Clark Uses Real Options.  Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 18, no. 2 (2006): 40-47.

Patel, Navroz.  Piloting a Risk Revolution.  Risk Magazine 18, no. 5 (2005).
Asset Management     Brennan, Michael, and Eduardo Schwartz.  A New Approach to Evaluating Natural Resource Investments.  Midland Corporate Finance Journal 3, no. 1 (1985): 37-47.
Trading Operations

Eisenlohr, Emily.  Power Trading 101: The Most Important Things an Energy Company Has to Understand before Taking the Plunge into Power Trading.  Derivatives Strategy (December 1999).

Braas, Alberic, and Charles N. Bralver.  An Analysis of Trading Profits: How Most Trading Rooms Really Make Money.  Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 2, no. 4 (1990): 85-90.

Davidson, Clive.  Koch Takes Intelligent Risk to Heart.  Risk Magazine 17, no. 11 (2004): 52-54.

Campbell, Alexander.  Spreading the Word.  Risk Magazine 18, no. 8 (2005).

Banks Tap Jet, Logistics for New Revenue.  Petroleum Intelligence Weekly, November 6, 2006.

Culp, Christopher L., and Merton H. Miller.  Metallgesellschaft and the Economics of Synthetic Storage.  Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 7, no. 4 (1995): 62-76.

Mello, Antonio S., and John E. Parsons.  Maturity Structure of a Hedge Matters: Lessons from the Metallgesellschaft Debacle.  Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 8, no. 1 (1995): 106-121.
Liability Management

Merton, Robert C.  You Have More Capital Than You Think.  Harvard Business Review 83, no. 11 (2005): 84-94.

Analyzing Agricultural Inventories.  Standard and Poor’s RatingsDirect, November 10, 2000.

Mello, Antonio S., and John E. Parsons.  Natural Resource Projects: Debt Contracts that Increase Profits, Decrease Defaults.  e-lab, October 1989-March 1990.

Wood, Duncan.  Putting Energy into Credit.  Risk Magazine 18, no. 12 (2005): 58-60.
Strategic Hedging
Froot, Kenneth A., David S. Scharfstein, and Jeremy C. Stein.  A Framework for Risk Management.  Harvard Business Review 72, no. 6 (1994): 91-102.

Mello, Antonio S., and John E. Parsons.  Strategic Hedging.  Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 12, no. 3 (1999): 43-54.

Carter, David A., Daniel A. Rogers, and Betty J. Simkins.  Hedging and Value in the U.S. Airline Industry.  Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 18, no. 4 (2006): 21-33.

Gold, Russell.  Investment Forecast: On a Roller Coaster, One Energy Firm Tries Hedging Bets; Natural-Gas Giant Chesapeake Has Expanded Rapidly by Locking in its Revenue; Dangers of Guessing Wrong.  Wall Street Journal, November 6, 2006.

Tufano, Peter, Geoffrey Verter, and Markus F. Mullarkey.  Cephalon, Inc.  Harvard Business School Case. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. Case: 9-298-116, April 13, 1998.

References

Good textbooks to utilize as backup references are:

Amazon logo Brealey, Richard A., Stewart C. Myers, and Franklin Allen. Principles of Corporate Finance. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2006. ISBN: 0073130826.

Amazon logo Grinblatt, Mark, and Sheridan Titman. Financial Markets and Corporate Strategy. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2002. ISBN: 0072294337.

Amazon logo McDonald, Robert. Derivatives Markets. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 2005. ISBN: 032128030X.

Amazon logo Hull, John. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005. ISBN: 0131499084.

http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Sloan-School-of-Management/15-997Spring-2007/Readings/index.htm

****

Regression DiagnosticsResidual vs. observation number

http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Sloan-School-of-Management/15-075Applied-StatisticsSpring2003/EEF9C9C0-1AF7-4DD0-A6DE-C7566709CA2C/0/lec12_chap10.pdf

Regression Diagnostics – google search

*****

SSRN Abstract Database Search Results for
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance

110,988 Total downloads for all papers in this Publisher / Journal

Records 81 – 100 of 145 matches
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Electronic Paper eDocument is available from the SSRN eLibrary for free


Electronic Paper eDocument is available, fee may apply
Electronic Paper Investment of Banking: Past, Present, and Future

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 42-54, Winter 2007
Alan D. Morrison and William J. Wilhelm
affiliation not provided to SSRN and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Date Posted: February 8, 2008
Last Revised: February 8, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
19 downloads

Electronic Paper Risk Management and the Cost of Capital for Operating Assets
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 105-109, Fall 2006
Thomas J. O’Brien
University of Connecticut – Department of Finance
Date Posted: December 11, 2006
Last Revised: February 21, 2007
Accepted Paper Series
19 downloads

Electronic Paper The Ownership Structure, Governance, and Performance of French Companies
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 88-101, Winter 2007
Péter Harbula
Accor
Date Posted: February 8, 2008
Last Revised: February 18, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
19 downloads
Electronic Paper The Revolution in Active Investing: Creating Wealth and Better and Better Governance
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 25-41, Winter 2007
David Haarmeyer
Independent
Date Posted: February 8, 2008
Last Revised: June 4, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
19 downloads

Electronic Paper Explaining Differences in the Quality of Governance Among Companies: Evidence from Emerging Markets
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 16-24, Winter 2007
Art Durnev and E. Han Kim
affiliation not provided to SSRN and University of Michigan – Stephen M. Ross School of Business
Date Posted: February 8, 2008
Last Revised: February 8, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
17 downloads

Electronic Paper Financial Management Association Roundtable on Stock Market Pricing and Value-Based Management
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 56-81, Spring 2006
Tom Copeland , Bennett Stewart , Trevor S. Harris , Stephen F. O’Byrne , Justin Pettit , David Wessels and Don Chew and
CRA International , Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) – Sloan School of Management , Stern Stewart & Co. , Columbia Business School , Shareholder Value Advisors, Inc. , Booz & Company , University of Pennsylvania – Finance Department and Morgan Stanley Investment Management
Date Posted: January 24, 2007
Last Revised: January 26, 2007
Accepted Paper Series
17 downloads

Electronic Paper Leveraged Buyouts in the U.K. and Continental Europe: Retrospect and Prospect
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 38-55, Summer 2006
Mike Wright , Tomas Simons , Louise Scholes and Luc Renneboog
Nottingham University Business School , McKinsey & Co. Inc. – Amsterdam Office , University of Nottingham – Centre for Management Buyout Research (CMBOR) and Tilburg University – Department of Finance
Date Posted: October 5, 2006
Last Revised: November 28, 2006
Accepted Paper Series
17 downloads

Electronic Paper Measuring Free Cash Flows for Equity Valuation: Pitfalls and Possible Solutions
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 60-71, Spring 2007
Juliet Estridge and Barbara A. Lougee
affiliation not provided to SSRN and University of San Diego – School of Business Administration
Date Posted: October 26, 2007
Last Revised: October 26, 2007
Accepted Paper Series
17 downloads

Electronic Paper Microfinanceon the Road to Capital Markets

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 115-124, Winter 2007
Ian Callaghan , Henry Gonzalez , Diane Maurice and Christian Novak
affiliation not provided to SSRN , affiliation not provided to SSRN , affiliation not provided to SSRN and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Date Posted: February 8, 2008
Last Revised: February 8, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
17 downloads

Electronic Paper For Better Corporate Governance, the Shareholder Value Review

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 102-114, Winter 2007
Bartley J. Madden
Independent
Date Posted: February 8, 2008
Last Revised: February 8, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
16 downloads

Electronic Paper The Limits of Financial Globalization
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 8-15, Winter 2007
Rene M. Stulz
Ohio State University – Department of Finance
Date Posted: February 8, 2008
Last Revised: February 8, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
16 downloads

Electronic Paper Defeasing Legacy Costs

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 104-107, Winter 2006
Richard B. Berner and Michael Peskin
Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co. Inc. and Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co. Inc.
Date Posted: November 16, 2006
Last Revised: November 22, 2006
Accepted Paper Series
15 downloads

Electronic Paper Risk Allocation in Retirement Plans: A Better Solution

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 95-103, Winter 2006
Donald E. Fuerst
Mercer Human Resource Consulting
Date Posted: November 16, 2006
Last Revised: November 22, 2006
Accepted Paper Series
15 downloads

Electronic Paper The Employer’s Role in Reforming the U.S. Health Care System
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 108-116, Winter 2006
Kenneth L. Sperling
CIGNA
Date Posted: November 16, 2006
Last Revised: November 22, 2006
Accepted Paper Series
15 downloads

Electronic Paper Toward a New Corporate Reorganization Paradigm

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 4, pp. 8-15, Fall 2007
Donald S. Bernstein
Davis Polk & Wardwell
Date Posted: December 19, 2007
Last Revised: February 28, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
15 downloads

Electronic Paper Avoiding the Synergy Trap: Practical Guidance on M&A Decisions for CEOs and Boards
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 83?95, Summer 2006
Mark Sirower and Sumit Sahni
New York University – Department of Management and Organizational Behavior and Boston Consulting Group
Date Posted: February 10, 2007
Last Revised: February 12, 2007
Accepted Paper Series
14 downloads

Electronic Paper Hedging and Value in the U.S. Airline Industry

Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 21?33, Fall 2006
David Carter , Daniel A. Rogers and Betty J. Simkins
Oklahoma State University – Stillwater – Department of Finance , Portland State University – School of Business Administration and Oklahoma State University – Stillwater – Department of Finance
Date Posted: February 15, 2007
Last Revised: February 21, 2007
Accepted Paper Series
14 downloads

Electronic Paper Rail Companies: Prospects for Privatization and Consolidation
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 78-87, Spring 2007
James Runde
affiliation not provided to SSRN
Date Posted: October 26, 2007
Last Revised: October 26, 2007
Accepted Paper Series
13 downloads

Electronic Paper Sovereign Wealth Funds: A Growing Global Force in Corporate Finance
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 20, Issue 1, pp. 73-83, Winter 2008
Shams Butt , Anil Shivdasani , Carsten Stendevad and Ann Wyman
Citigroup, Inc. , University of North Carolina , affiliation not provided to SSRN and affiliation not provided to SSRN
Date Posted: April 2, 2008
Last Revised: January 20, 2009
Accepted Paper Series
12 downloads

Electronic Paper The State of U.S. Corporate Governance: An Interview with Chales Elson
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 74-80, Winter 2007
Charles M. Elson
University of Delaware – Weinberg Center for Corporate Governance
Date Posted: February 8, 2008
Last Revised: February 8, 2008
Accepted Paper Series
12 downloads

Records 81 – 100 of 145 matches
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from this Google Search –
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS258US258&q=Cigna%2C+David+Thomas.+Affiliation%3A+OHIO+UNIVERSITY&btnG=Search

****
And then, my wordpress entry locked up and my computer crashed – so after much fretting with it trying to get control of it – I started over.

just about the time I found what I was looking for, too.

Oh well. I had such a nifty cut and paste copy of the things I had found but noooo.

– cricketdiane

(and it is a lot harder to explain and follow along on a word doc and blog than it is to do it, that’s a fact. I also discovered that in order to use my word program to write an equation which has been impossible, I have to find my cd and reinstall the durn thing. Figures.)

o- and I’ve been writing the equations out by hand or printing them as I go along – well, till I ran out of ink and money to get some more. Now, I just write them out or save over.

****

Now, that I have this somewhat sorted out and every tab was closed when the computer had to be rebooted –

I’ve opened these while working through this post –

www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~chua/papers/Gomez-Gesteira95.pdf

**

https://mitsloan.mit.edu/MSTIR/IndustryEvolution/Pages/default.aspx

and

Pisano, Gary P. CIBA Vision: The Daily Disposable Lens Project (A). HBS Case No. 9-696-100. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2002. (Google search)

http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=Pisano%2C+Gary+P.+CIBA+Vision%3A+The+Daily+Disposable+Lens+Project+%28A%29.+HBS+Case+No.+9-696-100.+Boston%3A+Harvard+Business+School%2C+2002.

[Which yielded this:]


Topic: Organizational design

http://www.primisonline.com/cgi-bin/POL_casesByTopic.cgi?topic=Organizational%20design

10 Rules for Strategic Innovators: From Idea to Execution

18 pp. Taming the Elephant: How to Overcome the Forgetting Challenge
Author(s): Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris
Publication Date: 10/13/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 1564BC
Subjects: Market entry; Organizational design; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Continues the story of Corning Microarray Technologies (CMT), describes how Corning changed CMT’s organizational design, and explains how this reconstruction of a new and distinct organizational DNA accelerated progress. The authors then develop a framework that guides organizational choices to help a new company cope effectively with the forgetting challenge. May be used with: (1561BC) Why Strategic Innovators Need a Different Approach to Execution; (1562BC) Why Organizations, Like Elephants, Never Forget; (1565BC) Why Tensions Rise When NewCo Borrows from CoreCo; (1566BC) Turning Tension into a Productive Force; (1567BC) Why Learning From Experience is an Unnatural Act; (1569BC) How Being Bold, Competitive or Demanding Can Inhibit Learning; (1570BC) How Being Reasonable, Inspiring, or Diligent Can Inhibit Learning; (1572BC) Finding Gold with Theory-Focused Planning; (1573BC) The Ten Rules Explained.

Source: Harvard
Add View 24 pp. Turning Tension into a Productive Force
Author(s): Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris
Publication Date: 10/13/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 1566BC
Subjects: Conflicts of interest; Cooperative strategies; Organizational design
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: New York Times Digital is profitable and continues to grow because its organizational design allows forgetting and borrowing simultaneously. This chapter suggests specific roles and responsibilities for a senior executive responsible for ensuring the effectiveness of six types of operational links between NewCo and CoreCo. May be used with: (1561BC) Why Strategic Innovators Need a Different Approach to Execution; (1562BC) Why Organizations, Like Elephants, Never Forget; (1564BC) Taming the Elephant (How to Overcome the Forgetting Challenge); (1565BC) Why Tensions Rise When NewCo Borrows from CoreCo; (1567BC) Why Learning From Experience is an Unnatural Act; (1569BC) How Being Bold, Competitive or Demanding Can Inhibit Learning; (1570BC) How Being Reasonable, Inspiring, or Diligent Can Inhibit Learning; (1572BC) Finding Gold with Theory-Focused Planning; (1573BC) The Ten Rules Explained.

Source: Harvard
Add View 22 pp. Why Organizations, Like Elephants, Never Forget
Author(s): Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris
Publication Date: 10/13/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 1562BC
Subjects: Competencies; Market entry; Organizational design
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: In response to the explosive growth of the genomics field in 1998, Corning created a new division, Corning Microarray Technologies (CMT), to capitalize on this promising new market. This chapter focuses on the story of Corning Microarray Technologies and demonstrates how Corning’s initial choice to replicate its existing DNA for CMT made it difficult for CMT to overcome the forgetting challenge. May be used with: (1561BC) Why Strategic Innovators Need a Different Approach to Execution; (1564BC) Taming the Elephant (How to Overcome the Forgetting Challenge); (1565BC) Why Tensions Rise When NewCo Borrows from CoreCo; (1566BC) Turning Tension into a Productive Force; (1567BC) Why Learning From Experience is an Unnatural Act; (1569BC) How Being Bold, Competitive or Demanding Can Inhibit Learning; (1570BC) How Being Reasonable, Inspiring, or Diligent Can Inhibit Learning; (1572BC) Finding Gold with Theory-Focused Planning; (1573BC) The Ten Rules Explained.

Source: Harvard
A Day in the Life of a Professor in 1998
Add View 8 pp. Case
Applegate, Lynda M.; Bleak, Jared
Presents a fictional vision of a day in the life of a professor in 1998. Teaching Purpose: To explore the impact of the Internet on knowledge work.
HBS Number: 9-399-009 Type: Case (Library)
Publication Date: 7/8/98 Revision Date: 9/1/98
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: academic
Event Year Start: 1998 Event Year End: 1998
Subjects: Education; Information age; Internet; Knowledge management; Organizational design

Source: Harvard
A Fresh Look at Industry and Market Analysis
Add View 8 pp. Article
Slater, Stanley F.;Olson, Eric M.
Today’s strange, new business world needs an augme
HBS Number: BH068 Type: Business Horizons Article
Publication Date: 1/15/02
Subjects: Business policy, Competitive strategy, Corporate strategy, General management, Industry analysis, Organization, Organizational design.

Source: Harvard
A New Way to Manage Process Knowledge
Add View 4 pp. Article
Carr, Nicholas G.
A team of MIT researchers has created an electronic “process repository” that enables managers to easily explore different options for performing common tasks.
HBS Number: F99504 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 9/1/99
Subjects: Organization; Organizational design; Process analysis; Process flow

Source: Harvard
ABB’s Relays Business: Building and Managing a Global Matrix
Add View 23 pp. Case
Author(s): Bartlett, Christopher A.
Publication Date: 07/12/1993 Revision Date: 04/26/1999
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Describes the development and management of the relays business area (BA) in ABB’s global matrix organization. Focuses on three levels of management—corporate, BA, and operating company–and highlights the roles and responsibilities of individuals at each level as ABB creates a unique and highly successful organization structure and management process that enables it to integrate its disparate worldwide operations while maintaining a highly entrepreneurial front-line environment. Teaching Purpose: Illustrates the sophistication of the strategy-structure linkage that is needed as companies try to capture the advantages of global coordination while maintaining the need for flexible, responsive, and entrepreneurial front-line units. May be used with: (9-192-139) Asea Brown Boveri.
HBS Number: 9-394-016
Geographic Setting: Global Industry Setting: electric equipment
Company Size: large Gross Revenues: $30 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1989 Event Year End: 1992
Subjects: Business policy; Europe; International business; Multinational corporations; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-398-117), 11p, by Christopher A. Bartlett

Source: Harvard
ACTC Customer Service Department
Add View 9 pp. Case
Roberts, Michael J.
Focuses on the young general manager of a new cable TV system and on its customer service department. Jeanne LaFrance, the general manager, has an uneasy feeling about the way in which the department is being managed. She sees symptoms of what she suspects are serious problems. It takes too long for customer service reps to answer the phones, and many customers hang up before their calls are answered. There is little in the way of performance standards, measures, or controls. Yet there is not enough data in the case for students to resolve these issues. The objective is to develop a plan for learning about these problems. What are their hypotheses about the issues? What analysis would they need to do to address these issues? How would they get the data to do this?
HBS Number: 9-393-056 Type: Case (Gen Exp)
Publication Date: 12/11/1992 Revision Date: 6/18/1993
Geographic Setting: New England Industry Setting: cable TV
Company Size: start-up Number of Employees: 85
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 1992
Subjects: Customer service; Growth management; Operations research; Organizational design; Organizational problems; Telecommunications
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-898-256), 4p, by Michael J. Roberts

Source: Harvard
Adaptive Enterprise: Creating and Leading Sense-and-Respond Organizations
Add View 32 pp. Building Organizational Context: Designing an Adaptive Enterprise
Author(s): Haeckel, Stephan H.
Publication Date: 06/15/1999
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 7732BC
Subjects: Business models; Change management; Corporate culture; Corporate vision; Information economy; Organizational design
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Firm’s take the first step toward becoming adaptive because old models are no longer sufficient — not because making the transition from a traditional to a sense-and-respond organization is an easy one. By defining the purpose, boundaries, and structure of the adaptive system leaders are striving to create, they will establish the necessary foundation on which a sense-and-respond organization rests. This chapter looks at the three key elements of building a viable design: reason for being, governing principles, and high-level business design.

Source: Harvard
Add View 31 pp. Coordination: Keeping Track of Who Owes What to Whom—Commitment Management in Adaptive Organizations
Author(s): Haeckel, Stephan H.
Publication Date: 06/15/1999
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 7733BC
Subjects: Business models; Change management; Decentralization; Information management; Information systems; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Technology management
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Once leaders establish an adaptive organizational design, they must propagate and enforce it. Because the design may change frequently as the organization adapts, rapid and systematic dissemination of information about change is vital. This chapter describes a technology-based governance system that supports the creation and tracking of commitments among organizational capabilities, commitments to produce the outcomes required by high-level business design.

Source: Harvard
Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work
Add View 38 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2409BC
Subjects: Accountability; Customers; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy formulation; Strategy implementation; Vision
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: This chapter focuses on the important interplay of the four levers of organization design. Examples from three different organizations are used to discuss the effect of each design variable on the others. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Advanced Visual Systems
Add View 12 pp. Case
Lawler, William; Matsuno, Ken; Wylie, David
The new president is faced with bringing the company out of the doldrums. He must choose what vertical markets to pursue, what resources will be required, what organizational changes must be made, and what operational adjustments must be made better to meet the needs of current and future customers. Teaching Purpose: To understand the linkage between distribution strategies and organizational, operational, and financial resource allocation, and between product development and marketing.
HBS Number: BAB001 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 06/15/1999
Geographic Setting: Waltham, MA Industry Setting: software Number of Employees: 105 Gross Revenues: $18 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1997 Event Year End: 1997
Subjects: Distribution channels; Market segmentation; Marketing strategy; Organizational design; Product development; Resource allocation; Software industry; Strategic market planning
Publisher: Babson College

Source: Harvard
AES Honeycomb (A)
Add View 29 pp. Case
Paine, Lynn Sharp; Mavrinac, Sarah
Senior managers of the AES Corp., an independent power producer, must decide whether to drop the company’s emphasis on corporate values and revamp organizational controls as advised by investment analysts and outside counsel. The company is recovering from an incident of environmental fraud at one of its plants where an innovative decentralized “honeycomb” structure has been put in place. Some believe the structure is too decentralized and that lack of controls contributed to the incident. Teaching Purpose: Intended to illustrate an aspirations-driven approach to organizational integrity and to show the interdependence of values and organizational structure. Also invites discussion of the relationship of values, organizational performance, and shareholder gain.
HBS Number: 9-395-132 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 12/9/1994 Revision Date: 11/16/1995
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: independent power producer Number of Employees: 600 Gross Revenues: $400 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 1992
Subjects: Ethics; Management of crises; Organizational design
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-395-122), 2p, by Lynn Sharp Paine, Sarah Mavrinac; Teaching Note, (5-395-202), 20p, by Lynn Sharp Paine, Charles A. Nichols III

Source: Harvard
Affinity Plus (A)
Add View 22 pp. Case
Author(s): Campbell, Dennis; Tufano, Peter
Publication Date: 07/22/2008
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-209-026
Geographic Setting: United States Number of Employees: 254 Gross Revenues: $65 million
Event Year Start: 2003 Event Year End: 2003
Subjects: Control systems; Cooperatives; Finance; Financial management; Incentives; Organizational design
Academic Discipline: Finance
Product Description: The executive team at Affinity Plus Federal Credit Union has pushed the concept of members-first deeply throughout the organization, empowering employees to put member-owners’ interests ahead of either the organization‘s interests or their own interests. As a result of this focus, the credit union must determine what to do with its profitable indirect auto lending business, which some see as inconsistent with the strategic direction set by the management team.

Source: Harvard
Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design
Add View 18 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2404BC
Subjects: Accountability; Attention; Control systems; Creativity; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy alignment; Strategy formulation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: This chapter presents a framework for organization design, focusing on the four key elements that organizations must address in order to ensure the successful execution of strategy: customer definition, critical performance variables, creative tension, and commitment to others. May be used with: (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Allentown Materials Corp.: The Electronic Products Division (A)
Add View 19 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael
Publication Date: 07/24/1997 Revision Date: 12/11/1997
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Describes a division of Allentown Materials Corp. with financial and organizational problems. Conflict and lack of coordination exist between functional groups. Employees do not have a sense of direction and morale is low. The cause of these problems is found in a change in business environment followed by changes in organization and management. Teaching Purpose: Can be used for analysis of organization-environment relationships and action planning for change and environment. A rewritten version of an earlier case. May be used with: (9-498-024) Allentown Materials Corp.: The Electronic Products Division (B).
HBS Number: 9-498-023
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: glass & electronics Gross Revenues: $2 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 1992
Subjects: Business conditions; Employee morale; Implementation; Management of change; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational development; Technological change
Academic Discipline: Human resources management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-498-025), 5p, by Michael Beer; Teaching Note, (5-498-042), 26p, by Michael Beer

Source: Harvard
Allentown Materials Corp.: The Electronic Products Division (B)
Add View 14 pp. Case
Beer, Michael
Focuses on the recommendations and implementation strategy made by the organizational development group to address the division’s problems. A rewritten version of an earlier case. May be used with: (9-498-023) Allentown Materials Corp.: The Electronic Products Division (A).
HBS Number: 9-498-024 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 7/24/1997
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: glass & electronics Gross Revenues: $2 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1993 Event Year End: 1993
Subjects: Business conditions; Employee morale; Implementation; Management of change; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational development; Technological change
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-498-025), 5p, by Michael Beer; Teaching Note, (5-498-042), 26p, by Michael Beer

Source: Harvard
Andersen Consulting – EMEAI: Reorganization for Revitalization
Add View 20 pp. Case
Author(s): Nanda, Ashish; Yoshino, Michael Y.
Publication Date: 10/11/1995 Revision Date: 05/30/2006
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Vernon Ellis, managing partner of Andersen Consulting — Europe, Middle East, Africa, and India (AC — EMEAI), is considering how best to reorganize. AC — EMEAI has grown rapidly over the past five years to become Europe’s largest consulting operation. However, Ellis feels that the organization needs to be reconfigured if it has to continue on its trajectory of rapid growth. Each of the various alternatives that he is considering offers intriguing potential benefits but also carries considerable risks.
HBS Number: 9-396-007
Geographic Setting: Europe Industry Setting: Consulting Company Size: large Number of Employees: 10,000 Gross Revenues: $1.2 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 1994
Subjects: Business policy; Consulting; International business; Organizational change; Organizational design; Professionals; Services
Academic Discipline: General management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-899-035), 4p, by Ashish Nanda; Supplement, (9-396-375), 2p, by Ashish Nanda, Michael Y. Yoshino; Case Video, (9-397-501), 6 min, by Ashish Nanda, Michael Y. Yoshino; Case Video, (9-899-510), 13 min, by Ashish Nanda

Source: Harvard
Anheuser-Busch and the U.S. Brewing Industry
Add View 23 pp. Case
McGahan, Anita
Presents an analytical report on the company’s competitive position and on the industry structure in 1991. Used to show how a company can generate value through steady, incremental investment over a long period in a business model tailored to the industry context. Also illustrates the challenges of market leadership. Teaching Purpose: Shows how enormous value may be created in a business that grows systematically rather than through risky investment in a few large-scale projects.
HBS Number: 9-799-026 Type: Case (Library)
Publication Date: 9/6/1998
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: brewing Number of Employees: 20,000 Gross Revenues: $11 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1991 Event Year End: 1991
Subjects: Beverages; Competition; Family owned businesses; Growth strategy; Industry structure; Organizational design; Strategy formulation
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-799-027), 28p, by Anita McGahan; Supplement (Library), (9-700-056), 5p, by Anita McGahan

Source: Harvard
Appex Corp.
Add View 18 pp. Case
Author(s): Nohria, Nitin; Gladstone, Julie
Publication Date: 02/14/1991 Revision Date: 02/10/1992
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-491-082
Geographic Setting: Waltham, MA Industry Setting: Telephone industry Company Size: small Number of Employees: 172
Event Year Start: 1991 Event Year End: 1991
Subjects: Control systems; Entrepreneurial management; High technology products; Organizational change; Organizational design; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: Human resources management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-492-039), 13p, by Nitin Nohria
Product Description: 1990 Business Week named Appex Corp. the fastest growing high-technology company in the United States. Appex provided management information systems and intercarrier network services to cellular telephone companies. During its rapid growth, the company went through several structural changes. At first, there was essentially no structure and no control systems. The atmosphere at Appex eventually became chaotic. As the new CEO, Shikhar Ghosh realized that Appex needed some structure and bureaucracy. Once control was established, he reasoned, he could begin to break down the structure. Much of the structural change he implemented had advantages and disadvantages in terms of company culture and productivity. In 1991, Appex was acquired by EDS. Appex’s challenge now was to work out its own structure in the context of its role as a division of a large, bureaucratic organization.

Source: Harvard
Asda (A)
Add View 15 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael; Weber, James B.
Publication Date: 10/09/1997 Revision Date: 05/06/1998
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-498-005
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: Grocery stores; Retail industry Number of Employees: 70,000 Gross Revenues: $8 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1991 Event Year End: 1991
Subjects: Corporate culture; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Supermarkets
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-498-006), 3p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Supplement (Field), (9-498-008), 5p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-499-506), 31 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-499-507), 13 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-400-503), 14 min, by Asda; Case Video, DVD, (9-499-508), 31 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Teaching Note, (5-498-033), 19p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber
Product Description: In the mid-1980s, Asda was one of the most successful retail companies in the United Kingdom. By 1991, the chain of 200 grocery stores had a lack of direction, a demoralized workforce, declining profits, rising debt, collapsing stock price, and was facing bankruptcy. This case describes the company’s downfall and introduces Archie Norman, a young, highly talented chief executive, hired to restore the company. May be used with: (9-498-007) Asda (B).

Source: Harvard
Add View 16 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael; Weber, James B.
Publication Date: 10/09/1997 Revision Date: 05/06/1998
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 498005
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: Grocery stores; Retail industry Number of Employees: 70,000 Gross Revenues: $8 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1991 Event Year End: 1991
Subjects: Corporate culture; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Supermarkets
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-498-006), 3p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Supplement (Field), (9-498-008), 5p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-499-506), 31 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-499-507), 13 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (400503), 14 min, by Asda; Case Video, DVD, (9-499-508), 31 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, Streaming, (2795), 31 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Teaching Note, (5-498-033), 19p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber
Product Description: In the mid-1980s, Asda was one of the most successful retail companies in the United Kingdom. By 1991, the chain of 200 grocery stores had a lack of direction, a demoralized workforce, declining profits, rising debt, collapsing stock price, and was facing bankruptcy. This case describes the company’s downfall and introduces Archie Norman, a young, highly talented chief executive, hired to restore the company. May be used with: (9-498-007) Asda (B).

Source: Harvard
Asda (A1)
Add View 3 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael; Weber, James B.
Publication Date: 10/09/1997 Revision Date: 05/01/1998
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-498-006
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: Supermarkets
Subjects: Corporate culture; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Supermarkets
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Case Video, (9-499-506), 31 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-499-507), 13 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-400-503), 14 min, by Asda; Teaching Note, (5-498-033), 19p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-498-005) Asda (A).

Source: Harvard
Asda (B)
Add View 22 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael; Weber, James B.
Publication Date: 10/09/1997 Revision Date: 05/06/1998
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-498-007
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: Grocery stores; Retail industry Number of Employees: 70,000 Gross Revenues: $8 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1991 Event Year End: 1996
Subjects: Corporate culture; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Supermarkets
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Case Video, (9-499-506), 31 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-499-507), 13 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-400-503), 14 min, by Asda; Teaching Note, (5-498-033), 19p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber
Product Description: Describes Archie Norman’s efforts over a five-year period to turn around the company by regaining financial control, delivering management, creating experimental projects where individuals felt free to innovate, instituting a back-to-roots strategy that put customers first, and creating a culture characterized by high involvement of employees and fast innovation and implementation of new ideas. May be used with: (9-498-005) Asda (A).

Source: Harvard
Asda (C)
Add View 5 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael; Weber, James B.
Publication Date: 10/09/1997 Revision Date: 05/01/1998
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-498-008
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: Supermarkets
Subjects: Corporate culture; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Supermarkets
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Case Video, (9-499-506), 31 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-499-507), 13 min, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber; Case Video, (9-400-503), 14 min, by Asda; Teaching Note, (5-498-033), 19p, by Michael Beer, James B. Weber
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-498-005) Asda (A).

Source: Harvard
Assessing Your Organization’s Capabilities: Resources, Processes, and Priorities
Add View 16 pp. Case
Author(s): Christensen, Clayton M.; Kaufman, Stephen P.
Publication Date: 09/13/2006
Product Type: Module Note
HBS Number: 9-607-014
Subjects: Capabilities; Change management; Innovation; Organizational architecture; Organizational design; Performance management; Resource allocation; Teams
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: Summarizes a model that helps managers determine what sorts of initiatives an organization is capable and incapable of managing successfully. The factors that affect what an organizational unit can and cannot accomplish can be grouped as resources, processes, and the priorities embedded in the business model. Demonstrates what kinds of changes are required in an organization and team structure for each different type of innovation.

Source: Harvard
Add View 16 pp. Case
Author(s): Christensen, Clayton M.; Kaufman, Stephen P.
Publication Date: 09/13/2006 Revision Date: 08/21/2008
Product Type: Module Note
HBS Number: 607014
Subjects: Capabilities; Change management; Innovation; Organizational architecture; Organizational design; Resource allocation; Teams
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: Summarizes a model that helps managers determine what sorts of initiatives an organization is capable and incapable of managing successfully. The factors that affect what an organizational unit can and cannot accomplish can be grouped as resources, processes, and the priorities embedded in the business model. Demonstrates what kinds of changes are required in an organization and team structure for each different type of innovation.

Source: Harvard
AT&T Resource Link: Revisioning the Managerial Workforce
Add View 18 pp. Case
Bradach, Jeffrey L.; Sackley, Nicole
Resource Link is an in-house temporary firm, supplying managers and technical workers to the 26 business units of AT&T on a contract basis. The challenge facing Resource Link is to grow, since an increasing number of managers are eager to use variable workers to staff their businesses. A decision facing Resource Link is whether to bring outsiders into the pool or to continue to rely on AT&T employees who choose this way of working. Teaching Purpose: To discuss the changing social contract linking individuals and firms; to discuss strategies for staffing firms in highly competitive and changing circumstances.
HBS Number: 9-497-004 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 10/7/1996 Revision Date: 1/7/1997
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: telecommunications Number of Employees: 1,000 Gross Revenues: $80 million revenues
Subjects: Careers & career planning; Human resources management; MIS; Organizational design; Personnel management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-497-064), 12p, by Jeffrey L. Bradach

Source: Harvard
AT&T China (A)
Add View 24 pp. Case
Author(s): Roberts, D. John; Li, Eric; Li, Gabriel
Publication Date: 02/01/1998 Revision Date: 07/01/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
Publisher: Stanford University
HBS Number: SM30A
Geographic Setting: China Industry Setting: Telecommunications industry Number of Employees: 312,000 Gross Revenues: $65 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1993 Event Year End: 1993
Subjects: International business; International trade; Organizational design; Strategy formulation; Telecommunications
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (SM30B), 4p, by D. John Roberts, Eric Li, Gabriel Li; Supplement (Field), (SM30C), 3p, by D. John Roberts, Gabriel Li
Product Description: An agreement signed in 1993 allowed AT&T to re-enter the Chinese telecommunications equipment market. Bill Warwick, the CEO of AT&T China, faces three interrelated challenges in building a business there. The first is how to compete with established, lower-cost rivals in a market with fierce price competition. Second is how to achieve coordination among AT&T’s very independent business units to serve the Chinese market. Third is what role to take in the debate about linking renewal of China‘s most-favored-nation status to its human rights record. In the background is the issue of whether AT&T ought to be in China.

Source: Harvard
AT&T China (B)
Add View 4 pp. Case
Author(s): Roberts, D. John; Li, Eric; Li, Gabriel
Publication Date: 02/01/1998 Revision Date: 07/01/2007
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Publisher: Stanford University
HBS Number: SM30B
Geographic Setting: China Industry Setting: Telecommunications industry
Subjects: International business; International trade; Organizational design; Strategy formulation; Telecommunications
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (SM30A) AT&T China (A).

Source: Harvard
AT&T China (C)
Add View 3 pp. Case
Author(s): Roberts, D. John; Li, Gabriel
Publication Date: 02/01/1998 Revision Date: 07/01/2007
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Publisher: Stanford University
HBS Number: SM30C
Geographic Setting: China Industry Setting: Telecommunications industry
Subjects: International business; International trade; Organizational design; Strategy formulation; Telecommunications
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (SM30A) AT&T China (A).

Source: Harvard
Becton Dickinson: Managing the Global Enterprise—1996
Add View 19 pp. Case
Rosenzweig, Philip M.
Becton Dickinson, a U.S.-based maker of medical and diagnostic devices, has been organized into a mixed structure of U.S.-based divisions and country/region organizations. In 1995, three businesses shifted to become worldwide divisions, forcing a reexamination of the relationship between product and geographic units. Teaching Purpose: To examine the organizational challenges of managing a global enterprise.
HBS Number: 9-396-420 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 6/18/96
Geographic Setting: Global Industry Setting: medical devices Gross Revenues: $2.7 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1996 Event Year End: 1996
Subjects: Medical supplies; Multinational corporations; Organizational design; Organizational structure

Source: Harvard
Benchmark Capital Europe: Bringing Silicon Valley Venture Capital to the Continent
Add View 19 pp. Case
Author(s): Glynn, John; Spitzer, Joshua
Publication Date: 09/07/2006 Revision Date: 11/09/2008
Product Type: Case (Field)
Publisher: Stanford University
HBS Number: E218
Geographic Setting: Europe; Silicon Valley Industry Setting: Venture capital firms
Subjects: Capital markets; Entrepreneurship; Equity financing; Foreign investment; International entrepreneurial finance; Organizational design; Venture capital
Academic Discipline: Finance
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (E218TN), 7p, by John Glynn, Joshua Spitzer
Product Description: Explores the founding of the Benchmark Capital’s European partnership. Examines the similarities and differences between venture investing in the U.S. and in Europe, while aiming to shed light in general on successful venture capital investing. Bruce Dunlevie, a founding partner of Benchmark Capital and the driving force behind creating a European partnership, is the protagonist

Source: Harvard
Beyond Theory Y
Add View 10 pp. Article
Morse, John J.; Lorsch, Jay W.
Douglas McGregor’s “Theory Y” fails to explain worker motivation under all circumstances. Recent studies show that there is not one best organizational approach, and that the best approach is one fitted to the nature of the work to be done. The “Contingency Theory” states that an individual‘s central need is to achieve a sense of competence. Competence is most likely to be fulfilled when there is a fit between task and organization. In this situation, competence continues after the achievement of initial goals.
HBS Number: 70307 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 5/1/1970
Subjects: Motivation; Organizational design; Performance effectiveness

Source: Harvard
Beyond Toyota: How to Root Out Waste and Pursue Perfection
Add View 13 pp. Article
Author(s): Womack, James P.; Jones, Daniel T.
Publication Date: 09/01/1996
Product Type: Harvard Business Review Article
HBS Number: 96511
Subjects: Continuous improvement; Operations management; Order processing; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Process analysis; Reengineering
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Product Description: Many managers have grasped the power of individual lean techniques — such as just-in-time deliveries and kaizen, or continuous improvement — pioneered by Toyota and other Japanese companies. However, they have stumbled in trying to put them all together into a coherent business system. In an effort to show managers how they can create a powerful whole, the authors studied 50 lean companies in a variety of industries around the world. The companies included Toyota, Porsche, and Pratt & Whitney. On the basis of their study, the authors identified five critical steps that they believe will be useful to all managers interested in applying lean thinking. Lantech, a small manufacturer of stretch-wrapping machines in Louisville, Kentucky, provides an example of how a company can make the leap.

Source: Harvard
Black Magic and the America’s Cup: The Victory
Add View 25 pp. Case
Enright, Michael J.; Capriles, Andres
Chronicles New Zealand’s participation in successive America‘s Cup regattas, culminating in its decisive 1995 victory. Allows for discussion of how an organization from a small nation can beat the world’s best in a technologically, organizationally, and managerially demanding and complex undertaking. The discussion can be broadened to include what firms can learn about success in international competition from New Zealand’s victory. Teaching Purpose: Explores the roles of nation-specific and organization-specific advantages in determining success in international competition.
HBS Number: 9-796-187 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 6/21/1996
Geographic Setting: New Zealand Industry Setting: yacht racing Number of Employees: 50
Event Year Start: 1995 Event Year End: 1995
Subjects: Australia; Management styles; National competitiveness; Organizational design; Sports
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Library), (9-796-144), 2p, by Michael J. Enright

Source: Harvard
Brigham and Women’s Hospital: Shapiro Cardiovascular Center
Add View 28 pp. Case
Author(s): Porter, Michael E.; Huckman, Robert S.; Friese, Jeremy L.
Publication Date: 06/17/2008
Product Type: Color Case
HBS Number: 9-608-175
Geographic Setting: Massachusetts; United States Industry Setting: Health services; Hospital industry Number of Employees: 12,000 Gross Revenues: $2.1 billion
Event Year Start: 2007 Event Year End: 2007
Subjects: Health care policy; Integration planning; Operations management; Organizational design; Organizational management; Strategy
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Product Description: Considers the situation facing Gary Gottlieb, president of Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH), prior to the opening of BWH‘s integrated cardiovascular center. This case allows students to develop an appreciation of the strategic, financial, organizational, clinical, and physical aspects of integrating health care delivery around specific categories of disease. It provides an opportunity to evaluate BWH’s approach to integration along all of these dimensions and to identify the nature of the tradeoffs that hospitals — specifically, academic medical centers — face as they attempt to create disease-specific models of integrated care. Finally, students have the opportunity to evaluate the degree to which integrated models of care can be developed within academic medical centers.

Source: Harvard
Buck & Pulleyn
Add View 12 pp. Case
Barnes, Louis B.
A woman CEO believes that industry and organizational conditions require that a reengineering/restructuring job be done on her company. However, she wants to gain maximum commitment and buy-in. She does this by setting up employee task forces and teams, but these are only the beginning of new efforts that must be made. Teaching Purpose: To help students see the problems and possibilities involved in the major restructuring of an organization.
HBS Number: 9-494-126 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 4/12/1994 Revision Date: 1/5/1995
Geographic Setting: Rochester, NY Industry Setting: advertising
Company Size: small Number of Employees: 54 Gross Revenues: $26 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 1994
Subjects: Advertising; Employee compensation; Leadership; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Reengineering; Women

Source: Harvard
Buck & Pulleyn’s Team Management
Add View 9 pp. Case
Barnes, Louis B.
In 1993, the firm began to move from a traditional hierarchical structure to client-focused teams. The case describes the process and some consequences of this restructuring. Performance seems to be improving, but some employees preferred the structure certainty and client variety of the old days. How does management deal with these issues? Teaching Purpose: Team management has become very popular, but transitions from traditional structures to teams are not easy. The discussion will center on how to deal with these issues.
HBS Number: 9-497-007 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 7/17/1996
Geographic Setting: Rochester, NY Industry Setting: advertising
Company Size: small Number of Employees: 70 Gross Revenues: $26 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1996 Event Year End: 1996
Subjects: Advertising; Group behavior; Organizational change; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Participatory management

Source: Harvard
Building a Company on Internet Time: Lessons from Netscape
Add View 22 pp. Article
Yoffie, David B.; Cusumano, Michael A.
The Internet has created new demands on start-up companies: How do you grow an organization faster than ever before? This article draws lessons from Netscape, the fastest-growing software company in history. Netscape executives did fou
HBS Number: CMR147 Type: CMR Article
Publication Date: 4/1/1999
Subjects: Corporate strategy; Growth management; Internet; Organizational design; Software
Publisher: California Management Review

Source: Harvard
Caja Espana: Managing the Branches to Sell (A)
Add View 14 pp. Case
Author(s): Martinez-Jerez, F. Asis; De Albornoz, Rosario M.
Publication Date: 11/10/2003 Revision Date: 03/24/2008
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 104044
Geographic Setting: Spain Industry Setting: Banking industry Number of Employees: 2,700 Gross Revenues: 200 million eurodollars
Event Year Start: 2003 Event Year End: 2003
Subjects: Branches; Commercial banking; Incentives; Organizational design; Performance measurement; Sales management; Transfer pricing
Academic Discipline: Accounting & control
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (105012), 1p, by F. Asis Martinez-Jerez, Rosario M. de Albornoz ; Teaching Note, (105020), 16p, by F. Asis Martinez-Jerez
Product Description: Juan Luis Rojas, commercial planning manager of a Caja de Ahorros (savings bank), faces the challenge of motivating the branches to sell more long-term mortgages and ponders whether to use transfer prices to achieve his objective.

Source: Harvard
Capturing the Value That a COO Can Bring
Add View 6 pp. Article
Author(s): Nathan Bennett; Stephen A. Miles
Publication Date: 01/03/2007
Product Type: Article
Ivey ID: 9B07TB04
Subjects: Organizational design; Organizational structure
Major Disciplines: General Management
Product Description: Most managers would admit that the COO plays a critical role in an organization and is highly visible within it. These coauthors have identified four conditions or “rights” that boards and organizations must satisfy to make the COO’s role work and add value. They describe these rights in this article and what to do and not to do to make them work.

Source: Ivey
Champion International
Add View 26 pp. Case
Beer, Michael; Weber, James B.
Richard Olson, a long-tenured employee, was named CEO of Champion in 1996. Champion had been conducting an organizational transformation since the early 1980s that could be considered successful on most operational and social measures. However, due to industry dynamics, success on the financial side has been harder to achieve. The change effort has focused on the creation of a high-performance organization through the use of self-managing teams at all levels of the organization. Teaching Purpose: Provides the opportunity to examine an organizational transformation effort over a 15-year period and judge its success.
HBS Number: 9-499-019 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 7/13/1998 Revision Date: 3/28/2000
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: paper & forest products Number of Employees: 24,000 Gross Revenues: $6 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1981 Event Year End: 1997
Subjects: Forest products; Management of change; Manufacturing; Organizational change; Organizational design; Paper industry; Teams

Source: Harvard
CHRISTINA GOLD LEADING CHANGE AT WESTERN UNION
Add View 15 pp. Case
Author(s): Konrad A; Mitchell J
Publication Date: 1/13/2006
Product Type: Case
Ivey ID: 9B06M007
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: Personal Services Size: Large organization
Year of Event: 2003 Level of Difficulty: Undergraduate/MBA
Subjects: Corporate Structure; Organizational Change; Organizational Design; Globalization
Functional Area: General Management
Product Description: The chief executive officer of Western Union had just begun implementing a new organization structure. Changing the structure set out a clear message of Gold’s desire to change the company‘s mindset to a new more global culture. Already the CEO wasfinding that leaders in the United States were reluctant to give up control of product lines. At the regional level, she had keen leaders in place who wanted to push out the responsibility within their own regions and move towards a decentralizedplan. While the CEO supported this notion in principle, she wanted to ensure that the right leaders could be placed in decentralized offices in order to execute on the six strategic pillars that she had laid out for the organization. One thing wascertain – the CEO had made it clear that no revenue decreases would be forgiven amidst the change. Many considerations had arisen: What pace of change should she take? How would she deal with resistance to change? How could she ensure that the newstructure would support Western Union’s global expansion?

Source: Ivey
Add View 13 pp. Teaching Note
Ivey Number: 8B06M07
For use with 9B06M007

Source: Ivey
CIBA Vision: The Daily Disposable Lens Project (A)
Add View 19 pp. Case
Pisano, Gary P.
Examines CIBA Vision’s decision of whether to launch a major new R&D initiative to develop a low cost, daily disposable contact lens, and how to organize such a project should they proceed. One group of executives favors setting up a small, autonomous project team organizationally and geographically isolated from the company‘s existing R&D operations. This approach will enable focus, but poses serious issues concerning future integration. Teaching Purpose: Can be used to explore approaches to product development and operations in a global environment as well as approaches to building new organizational capabilities.
HBS Number: 9-696-100 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 3/26/1996 Revision Date: 9/3/1996
Geographic Setting: Global Industry Setting: contact lenses Gross Revenues: SFr 750 m.
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 1992
Subjects: Manufacturing strategy; Medical supplies; Organizational design; Product development

Source: Harvard
Clouds on the Horizon: IQSoft Ltd
Add View 18 pp. Case
Author(s): Christopher M. Scherpereel, Northern Arizona University
Publication Date: Fall 2004
Geographic Setting: Budapest, Hungary
Industry Setting: Information technology
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 1995
Description: This case is set in the emerging markets of Central Europe, shortly after the fall of communism. IQSoft Ltd Hungary is a small information technology firm spun off from the government operated Computer Technology Coordination Institute (CTCI), an institute that controlled all information technology activity in Hungary during communist rule. With very little capital, IQSoft Ltd found itself competing in the same market with some of the largest, most powerful, multinational companies in the world. The directors of IQSoft Ltd. realized that their organization had evolved to meet the survival needs of the company, but the question was: would the organization meet its future needs? Was this the time to start a strategic change process? Balint Domolki (managing director), Julia Sipka (commercial director), and Tamas Langer (technical director), met to discuss whether the evolution of IQSoft Ltd would sustain the company’s future success.
Courses: Management strategy; Information systems
Subjects: International business; Management of change; Organizational design; Technology product management

Source: The CASE Association
Communities of Practice: The Organizational Frontier
Add View 12 pp. Article
Wenger, Etienne C.; Snyder, William M.
A new organizational form is emerging in companies that run on knowledge: the community of practice. And for this expanding universe of companies, communities of practice promise to radically galvanize knowledge sharing, learning, and
HBS Number: R00110 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 1/1/2000
Subjects: Organizational design; Organizational development; Organizational learning; Organizational structure; Teams; Virtual communities

Source: Harvard
Compagnie Lyonnaise de Transport (A)
Add View 17 pp. Case
Author(s): Roberts, Michael J.; Tushman, Michael L.
Publication Date: 05/07/2001 Revision Date: 05/02/2007
Product Type: Case (Gen Exp)
HBS Number: 9-401-040
Geographic Setting: Lyon Industry Setting: Transportation industry Number of Employees: 1,000 Gross Revenues: $2.4 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 2000 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Decentralization; Interdepartmental relations; Line & staff management; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Transfer pricing; Transportation
Academic Discipline: Human resources management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Gen Exp), (9-401-041), 1p, by Michael J. Roberts, Michael L. Tushman
Product Description: Describes the issues surrounding the funding of a centralized research service that supports two related divisions. The company has a very decentralized and financially driven culture, and the centralized service is used unequally, setting up a conflict. A rewritten version of an earlier case.

Source: Harvard
Compagnie Lyonnaise de Transport (B)
Add View 1 pp. Case
Author(s): Roberts, Michael J.; Tushman, Michael L.
Publication Date: 05/07/2001 Revision Date: 05/09/2006
Product Type: Supplement (Gen Exp)
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. A rewritten version of an earlier supplement. Must be used with: (9-401-040) Compagnie Lyonnaise de Transport (A).
HBS Number: 9-401-041
Geographic Setting: France
Subjects: Decentralization; Interdepartmental relations; Line & staff management; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Transfer pricing; Transportation
Academic Discipline: Human resources management

Source: Harvard
Corbin-Pacific
Add View 20 pp. Case
Davis, John
Reviews the history of Mike Corbin’s entrepreneurial career and describes in detail the successful organization he has created. Explores his management philosophy and leadership. Explores the usefulness of continuing family involvement in this business. Teaching Purpose: For students to ponder and debate the usefulness of family ownership of a business.
HBS Number: 9-800-022 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 7/16/1999
Geographic Setting: California Industry Setting: motorcycle accessories Number of Employees: 154 Gross Revenues: $15 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1999 Event Year End: 1999
Subjects: Entrepreneurship; Estate planning; Family owned businesses; Leadership; Organizational design

Source: Harvard
Corning Glass Works: The Electronic Products Division (A)
Add View 19 pp. Case
Beer, Michael
Describes a division of Corning Glass Works that finds itself with deep financial and organizational problems. Severe conflict and lack of coordination exist between functional groups. Employees do not have a sense of direction and morale is low. Provides sufficient data to determine that the cause of these problems is a change in business environment that had been followed by change in organization and management. Can be used for analysis of organization-environment relationships and action planning for change and environment. May be used with: (9-477-073) Corning Glass Works: The Electronic Products Division (B).
HBS Number: 9-477-024 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 7/1/1976 Revision Date: 4/26/1983
Geographic Setting: Corning, NY Industry Setting: glass
Company Size: Fortune 500
Event Year Start: 1968 Event Year End: 1968
Subjects: Business conditions; Employee morale; Implementation; Management of change; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational development; Technological change
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-481-088), 31p, by Michael Beer

Source: Harvard
Creating and Testing Workplace Strategy
Add View 20 pp. Article
Author(s): Kampschroer, Kevin; Heerwagen, Judith; Powell, Kevin
Publication Date: 02/01/2007
Product Type: CMR Article
Publisher: California Management Review
HBS Number: CMR361
Subjects: Facilities; Facilities planning; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Performance measurement; Work environments; Working conditions
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Product Description: The growing demand for new approaches to support the changing nature of work and organizational structure has spawned innovations from both manufacturers and space designers. The result is a multitude of new concepts and designs, but little data on how well and under what circumstances these innovations are effective. New products, technologies, and concepts are frequently implemented without knowledge of their impact on work, much less their value to high level organizational goals. The measurement most commonly used is still cost, or even less sensibly, square feet. To remedy this shortcoming, the U.S. General Service Administration’s Public Buildings Service assembled an interagency research team and recognized academic and private sector leaders to identify “best practice” workplace strategies and the research tools holding the most promise for evaluating their impact. They evaluated the linkages among organizational performance (Business), the physical attributes of the workspace (Building), and the changes in work processes, perceptions, and attitudes that result from changes to this physical space (Behavior). Provides an overview of the GSA program and preliminary results from two pilot projects.

Source: Harvard
Crunch
Add View 23 pp. Case
Author(s): Marshall, Paul W.; Dann, Jeremy
Publication Date: 03/19/1999 Revision Date: 07/26/1999
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Entrepreneur Doug Levine runs a fitness company with an incredibly powerful brand. His company leverages the brand to expand, both in terms of facilities and lines of business. But he may need to make significant organizational changes in order to continue the growth. Teaching Purpose: To illustrate the steps necessary to transition from an entrepreneurial, small company to a professionally managed, medium-sized one.
HBS Number: 9-899-233
Geographic Setting: New York Industry Setting: fitness
Company Size: small Gross Revenues: $20 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1997 Event Year End: 1999
Subjects: Acquisitions; Brands; Business growth; Entrepreneurs; Facilities planning; Organizational design; Services
Academic Discipline: Entrepreneurship
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-800-146), 15p, by Paul W. Marshall, Jeremy Dann

Source: Harvard
Customer Focus at Neiman Marcus: “We Report to the Client”
Add View 43 pp. Case
Author(s): Dewar, Robert D.
Publication Date: 01/01/2006
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: KEL145
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: Consumer products; retail industry
Subjects: Brands; Competitive strategy; Corporate culture; Customer service; Human resources management; Organizational design
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Describes the winning formula at Neiman Marcus that has made it the No. 1 luxury retailer in the United States in terms of sales per square foot and profitability. Highlights Neiman Marcus’ efforts to define who its customers are and are not and to achieve superior focus on its customers by aligning location, price, service, and merchandise to fulfill these customers‘ every need. Describes ways in which Neiman Marcus prevents typical silo behavior between merchandising and selling and how it ensures that the right merchandise gets to the right customer, despite the challenge of doing this in 36 micromarkets. Learning Objective: To show how a company integrates two strong high-performance functions—merchandising and sales—to get the right merchandise to each customer in more than 30 diverse selling locations while consistently providing exceptional customer service.

Source: Harvard
Daimler Chrysler Commercial Vehicles Division
Add View 26 pp. Case
Author(s): Hannan, Michael; Podolny, Joel; Roberts, John
Publication Date: 09/01/1999 Revision Date: 06/01/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
Publisher: Stanford University
HBS Number: IB27
Industry Setting: Automotive industry Number of Employees: 416,501 Gross Revenues: $152,446 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1998 Event Year End: 1998
Subjects: Globalization; Market structure; Operations management; Organizational design; Product management; Reorganization
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: On Monday, November 16, 1998, the day before Daimler-Benz would officially merge with Chrysler, Dr. Kurt Lauk, head of Daimler-Benz’ commercial vehicles division (CVD) reflected on the organizational changes he had directed over the course of the previous two years to make CVD more competitive in an era of industry-wide globalization. To unite an extremely decentralized organizational structure at Daimler, Lauk initiated a worldwide reorganization and the integration of the company‘s manufacturing operations. He encouraged individual units within CVD to look for collaborative opportunities that would enable the division to realize global scale economies. Although Lauk promoted a global perspective within CVD, he believed that the business units could compete effectively only if they were allowed considerable autonomy to respond to their own unique market conditions. Lauk was proud of the achievements resulting from these directives. However, pressing concerns overshadowed his satisfaction. Although the CVD was profitable overall, its Power Train Unit continued to lose money. In addition, Lauk was concerned about Daimler’s progress in building adequate distribution channels in the Asian region. Finally, Lauk considered the impact of the merger with Chrysler on CVD and the general uncertainty concerning how a more centralized or

Source: Harvard
Deaconess-Glover Hospital (A)
Add View 24 pp. Case
Author(s): Spear, Steven J.; Kenagy, John
Publication Date: 07/19/2000 Revision Date: 08/25/2005
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-601-022
Geographic Setting: Boston, MA Industry Setting: Health care industry Number of Employees: 200 Gross Revenues: $24 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1999 Event Year End: 1999
Subjects: Health care; Health organizations management; Operations management; Organizational change; Organizational design; Service management
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-601-023), 5p, by Steven J. Spear, John Kenagy; Supplement (Field), (9-601-025), 1p, by Steven J. Spear; Supplement (Field), (9-601-026), 5p, by Steven J. Spear; Supplement (Field), (9-601-027), 3p, by Steven J. Spear; Teaching Note, (5-602-075), 55p, by Steven J. Spear
Product Description: Chronicles the initial efforts to teach a health care organization to manage itself according to the principles of the Toyota Production System (TPS). Describes the decision and dilemmas that arose from the implementation experiment. Builds on Bowen and Spear’s earlier research in industrial settings. They found that TPS is an integrated approach to designing, doing, and improving the work of individual people and of groups of people working collaboratively to produce and deliver goods, services, and information. The Deaconess-Glover Hospital project tested the efficacy of the TPS in a nonindustrial setting (i.e., health care) and also offered insight into how to convert an organization, managed by its existing management system to one managed by TPS principles. This case provides background on Deaconess-Glover Hospital and on the TPS teacher, John Kenagy. Describes how Kenagy observed the work at the hospital to understand the system. Given how Kenagy gathered data and based on what he directly observed,

Source: Harvard
Deaconess-Glover Hospital (B)
Add View 5 pp. Case
Author(s): Spear, Steven J.; Kenagy, John
Publication Date: 07/20/2000 Revision Date: 08/23/2005
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-601-022) Deaconess-Glover Hospital (A).
HBS Number: 9-601-023
Industry Setting: Health care industry
Subjects: Health care; Health organizations management; Operations management; Organizational change; Organizational design; Service management
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-602-075), 55p, by Steven J. Spear

Source: Harvard
Deaconess-Glover Hospital (C)
Add View 12 pp. Case
Author(s): Spear, Steven J.
Publication Date: 09/26/2001 Revision Date: 08/23/2005
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: For nearly three months, John Carter, a vascular surgeon by training, had been studying a variety of clinical processes at Deaconess-Glover Hospital in Needham, Mass. Carter was looking for an opportunity to test the applicability of Toyota Production System “Rules-in-Use” in the health care context. After several weeks of increasing focus, he had found a particular process — medication administration — to test his ideas. He had just suggested to John Dalton and Julie Bonenfant, the hospital’s president and vice president, that they create a learning unit or model line within one of the nursing wards to begin conducting experiments. Dalton and Bonenfant received his modest proposal negatively. They complained that his proposal seemed remarkably unambitious, yet, paradoxically, they complained that creating a dedicated learning unit within the larger nursing ward would be infeasible. Carter struggled to explain how they could react simultaneously with such seemingly contradictory sentiments. May be used with: (9-601-020) Madison Avenue: Digital Media Services (A); (9-601-022) Deaconess-Glover Hospital (A); (9-601-186) Process Improvement Template; (99509) Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System.
HBS Number: 9-602-028
Geographic Setting: Needham, MA Industry Setting: Health care industry Gross Revenues: $25 million revenues
Event Year Start: 2000 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Health care; Health organizations management; Operations management; Organizational change; Organizational design; Service management
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-602-075), 55p, by Steven J. Spear

Source: Harvard
Deaconess-Glover Hospital (D)
Add View 1 pp. Case
Author(s): Spear, Steven J.
Publication Date: 06/29/2001 Revision Date: 08/23/2005
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-601-022) Deaconess-Glover Hospital (A).
HBS Number: 9-601-025
Industry Setting: Health care industry
Subjects: Health care; Health organizations management; Operations management; Organizational change; Organizational design; Service management
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-602-075), 55p, by Steven J. Spear

Source: Harvard
Deaconess-Glover Hospital (E)
Add View 5 pp. Case
Author(s): Spear, Steven J.
Publication Date: 06/29/2001 Revision Date: 08/23/2005
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-601-022) Deaconess-Glover Hospital (A).
HBS Number: 9-601-026
Industry Setting: Health care industry
Subjects: Health care; Health organizations management; Operations management; Organizational change; Organizational design; Service management
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-602-075), 55p, by Steven J. Spear

Source: Harvard
Deaconess-Glover Hospital (F)
Add View 3 pp. Case
Author(s): Spear, Steven J.
Publication Date: 06/29/2001 Revision Date: 08/23/2005
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-601-022) Deaconess-Glover Hospital (A).
HBS Number: 9-601-027
Industry Setting: Health care industry
Subjects: Health care; Health organizations management; Operations management; Organizational change; Organizational design; Service management
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-602-075), 55p, by Steven J. Spear

Source: Harvard
Designing High-Performance Jobs
Add View 20 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert L.
Publication Date: 07/01/2005
Product Type: Harvard Business Review Article
HBS Number: R0507D
Industry Setting: Discount retail; Investment banking; Medical equipment & device industry; Software industry
Subjects: Accountability; Control; Employee development; Employee empowerment; Failures; Influence; Job analysis; Organizational design; Performance effectiveness; Performance measurement; Resource allocation; Tradeoff analysis
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: Tales of great strategies derailed by poor execution are all too common. That’s because some organizations are designed to fail. For a company to achieve its potential, each employee‘s supply of organizational resources should equal the demand, and the same balance must apply to every business unit and to the company as a whole. To carry out his or her job, each employee has to know the answers to four basic questions: What resources do I control to accomplish my tasks? What measures will be used to evaluate my performance? Whom do I need to interact with and influence to achieve my goals? And how much support can I expect when I reach out to others for help? The questions correspond to what the author calls the four basic spans of a job — control, accountability, influence, and support. Each span can be adjusted so that it is narrow or wide or somewhere in between. If you get the settings right, you can design a job in which a talented individual can successfully execute on your company’s strategy. If you get the settings wrong, it will be difficult for an employee to be effective. The first step is to set the span of control to reflect the resources allocated to each position and unit that plays an important role in delivering customer value. This setting, like the others, is determined by how the business creates value for customers and differenti

Source: Harvard
Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy
Add View 39 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2410BC
Subjects: Accountability; Control systems; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy formulation; Strategy implementation; Vision
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: In this chapter, the author brings the analysis down to the ground level — the level of individual people and business units — to test whether different designs are capable of implementing strategy successfully. May be used with: (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work.

Source: Harvard
Designing Services That Deliver
Add View 9 pp. Article
Shostack, G. Lynn
The root of most service problems is a lack of systematic design and control. The use of a blueprint can help a service developer not only to identify problems ahead of time but also to see the potential for new market opportunities. A service company that relies on ad hoc management is not equipped to react quickly to market needs and opportunities.
HBS Number: 84115 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 1/1/1984
Subjects: Customer relations; Operations management; Organizational design; Services

Source: Harvard
Developing Leaders
Add View 17 pp. Case
Author(s): Groysberg, Boris; Cowen, Amanda
Publication Date: 11/14/2006 Revision Date: 05/24/2007
Product Type: Note
HBS Number: 9-407-015
Subjects: Human resources management; Leadership development; Management training; Organizational design; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: Provides an overview of leadership development for the manager charged with developing a single individual or corporate leadership program. Introduces a framework for understanding the components of developmental experiences and then applies it to a range of experiences, including: formal and informal feedback, training, job assignments, and mentoring. Concludes with a discussion of the leadership development process — in particular, the need to factor in organizational context and individual differences when selecting and sequencing developmental experiences.

Source: Harvard
Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals
Add View 42 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2406BC
Subjects: Accountability; Control systems; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Performance measurement; Resistance; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: This chapter introduces the second of the four Cs of organization design-critical performance variables — and examines how accountability and resistance factor in to designing an organization that creates value. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
DIENA
Add View 20 pp. Case
Author(s): Simons, Robert L.; Reinbergs, Indra A.
Publication Date: 09/07/2001 Revision Date: 11/20/2001
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Requires students to draw a new organization structure diagram for a rapidly evolving business. A/S DIENA is a newspaper publisher founded during Latvia’s 1990/91 struggle for independence from the USSR with a clear social mission to support democracy. With the help of Swedish investors, over the 1990s the entrepreneurial business survives the ups and downs of the transition economy to build a leading national newspaper. In 1997, seeking new sources of growth, A/S DIENA expands outside the Latvian capital to set up the Regional Press Group, a decentralized network of community newspapers emphasizing employee ownership and a separation of roles between editors and publishers. By 2001, however, the community newspaper market is shrinking, the Regional Press Group is not yet profitable, and a Western-style profit planning system is met with some resistance by former state employees. The decision point focuses on how to redesign the Regional Press Group and its interactions with the national newspaper and the other business units of A/S DIENA.
HBS Number: 9-102-001
Geographic Setting: Riga, Latvia Industry Setting: newspaper/media Number of Employees: 1,300 Gross Revenues: $24 million revenues
Event Year Start: 2001 Event Year End: 2001
Subjects: Accounting & control; Business & society; Decentralization; Eastern Europe; Newspapers; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Social enterprise
Academic Discipline: Accounting & control
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-103-006), 21p, by Robert L. Simons, Indra A. Reinbergs

Source: Harvard
Digital Equipment Corporation: Self-Managed Teams in Accounting
Add View 24 pp. Cases A and B
Charles S. Osborn, Barbara Cofsky Barbara Cofsky, the manager of DEC’s Eastern Massachusetts Financial Management Center, has worked to develop self-managed teams among her direct reports. Now, because of a sweeping reorganization, the Eastern Mass Center will be closed. Cofsky wants to encourage Digital‘s management to use teams more widely, so she reassesses her organization. Do self-managed teams improve upon hierarchies? Should she fight to help team concepts survive the reorganization? What are her options?
Source: North American Case Research Association, Case Research Journal, Summer/Fall 1995, Vol. 15, Issues 3 & 4, Copyright 1995.
Courses: Accounting Information Systems; Organizational Behavior; Quality Management
Topics:

Source: NACRA
Dynamic Capabilities at IBM: Driving Strategy into Action
Add View 24 pp. Article
Author(s): Harreld, J. Bruce; O’Reilly, Charles A, III; Tushman, Michael L.
Publication Date: 08/01/2007
Product Type: CMR Article
Publisher: California Management Review
HBS Number: CMR370
Industry Setting: Computer industry; Consulting
Subjects: Consulting; Corporate strategy; Organizational change; Organizational design
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: In the past 15 years, IBM has undergone a remarkable transformation from a struggling seller of hardware to a successful broad range solutions provider. Underlying this change is a story of foresighted strategy and disciplined execution — of connecting knowing to doing. In strategic terms, the IBM transformation illustrates the ideas behind dynamic capabilities, showing how the company has been able to sense changes in the marketplace and to seize these opportunities by reconfiguring existing assets and competencies. We review the literature on dynamic capabilities and, using IBM as an example, show how their strategy process permits them both to explore new markets and technologies (e.g., life sciences, pervasive computing) as well as to exploit mature products and markets (e.g., mainframe computers, middleware).

Source: Harvard
EnClean: Malcolm Waddell’s Story (A)
Add View 25 pp. Case
Collis, David J.; Johnson, Elizabeth
Describes, in the words of its co-founder, the history of EnClean, an industrial and environmental services company, from its origins in 1984. The company grew rapidly and diversified into new businesses and new geographies both through acquisition and internally. It went public in 1989 but then suffered major losses in 1992 and 1993. The founder must now decide how to respond to a secret board ultimatum. Teaching Purpose: Enables students to evaluate and critique the development of a corporate strategy, to analyze the requirements in growing a multi-business operation, and to develop a plan of action for restructuring the company.
HBS Number: 9-794-115 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 3/23/1994 Revision Date: 4/3/1995
Geographic Setting: Texas Industry Setting: industrial & environmental services Number of Employees: 1,750 Gross Revenues: $107 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1984 Event Year End: 1993
Subjects: Corporate strategy; Diversification; Environmental protection; Growth strategy; MIS; Organizational design
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-795-071), 18p, by David J. Collis; Case Video, (9-796-508), 6 min, by David J. Collis

Source: Harvard
Enspire Learning
Add View 23 pp. Case
Source: Harvard
Erik Peterson (A)
Add View 19 pp. Case
Author(s): Gabarro, John J.
Publication Date: 11/17/1993 Revision Date: 07/17/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-494-005
Geographic Setting: New England Industry Setting: Telephone industry
Subjects: Interpersonal relations; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Subsidiaries; Superior & subordinate
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-494-006), 1p, by John J. Gabarro; Supplement (Field), (9-494-007), 3p, by John J. Gabarro; Supplement (Field), (9-494-008), 3p, by John J. Gabarro; Supplement (Field), (9-494-009), 1p, by John J. Gabarro; Teaching Note, (5-496-046), 10p, by John J. Gabarro, Judith Maas
Product Description: Describes the problems facing a recent MBA graduate in his job as general manager of a mobile cellular company owned by a parent corporation. Raises issues of corporate divisional relationships and the difficulties facing an inexperienced manager who seems to be receiving little support. A redisguised version of an earlier case. May be used with: (9-494-113) Richard Jenkins.

Source: Harvard
Add View 18 pp. Case
Author(s): Gabarro, John J.
Publication Date: 11/17/1993 Revision Date: 10/13/1995
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 494005
Geographic Setting: New England Industry Setting: Telephone industry
Subjects: Interpersonal relations; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Subsidiaries; Superior & subordinate
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (494006), 1p, by John J. Gabarro; Supplement (Field), (494007), 3p, by John J. Gabarro; Supplement (Field), (494008), 3p, by John J. Gabarro; Supplement (Field), (494009), 1p, by John J. Gabarro; Teaching Note, (496046), 10p, by John J. Gabarro, Judith Maas
Product Description: Describes the problems facing a recent MBA graduate in his job as general manager of a mobile cellular company owned by a parent corporation. Raises issues of corporate divisional relationships and the difficulties facing an inexperienced manager who seems to be receiving little support. A redisguised version of an earlier case. May be used with: (494113) Richard Jenkins.

Source: Harvard
Erik Peterson (B)
Add View 1 pp. Case
Author(s): Gabarro, John J.
Publication Date: 11/17/1993
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Product Description: This one-paragraph case adds to the data presented in the (A) case. A redisguised version of an earlier case. Must be used with: (9-494-005) Erik Peterson (A).
HBS Number: 9-494-006
Subjects: Communications industry; Entertainment industry; Interpersonal relations; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Subsidiaries; Superior & subordinate
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-496-046), 10p, by John J. Gabarro, Judith Maas

Source: Harvard
Erik Peterson (C)
Add View 3 pp. Case
Author(s): Gabarro, John J.
Publication Date: 11/17/1993
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Product Description: Describes the outcome of Erik Peterson’s one-day meeting with his superior and the events of the subsequent day‘s meeting with the president and vice president of operations of the parent company. Students should have read the (A) and (B) cases. The (C) case may be assigned with the (D) case. A redisguised version of an earlier case. Must be used with: (9-494-005) Erik Peterson (A).
HBS Number: 9-494-007
Subjects: Communications industry; Entertainment industry; Interpersonal relations; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Subsidiaries; Superior & subordinate
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-496-046), 10p, by John J. Gabarro, Judith Maas

Source: Harvard
Erik Peterson (D)
Add View 3 pp. Case
Author(s): Gabarro, John J.
Publication Date: 10/29/1993 Revision Date: 12/18/1998
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-494-008
Industry Setting: Communications industry; Entertainment industry
Subjects: Interpersonal relations; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Subsidiaries; Superior & subordinate
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-496-046), 10p, by John J. Gabarro, Judith Maas
Product Description: Implicitly raises the question of what Peterson should do to extricate himself from his difficulties. Should he consider resignation, go directly to the company’s president to seek relief, or clarify the situation within the company? A redisguised version of an earlier case. Must be used with: (9-494-005) Erik Peterson (A).

Source: Harvard
Erik Peterson (E)
Add View 1 pp. Case
Author(s): Gabarro, John J.
Publication Date: 11/17/1993 Revision Date: 03/07/1994
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
Product Description: Presents the final outcome of the events. The William Jurgens case presents a description from the corporation president’s point of view of the series of events (as reported in the Erik Peterson (A), (B), (C), and (D) cases). The Jurgens case can be assigned with Erik Peterson (E) to give a broader perspective on Olafson‘s behavior and problems. This case can be handed out during class discussion of the (D) case. A redisguised version of an earlier case. Must be used with: (9-494-005) Erik Peterson (A).
HBS Number: 9-494-009
Subjects: Communications industry; Entertainment industry; Interpersonal relations; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Subsidiaries; Superior & subordinate
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-496-046), 10p, by John J. Gabarro, Judith Maas

Source: Harvard
Ernst & Young United Kingdom (A)
Add View 24 pp. Case
Author(s): Gabarro, John J.; Graff, Samantha K.
Publication Date: 06/06/1995 Revision Date: 06/23/1995
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Intended to be a robust example of the challenges encountered during the early stages of a large-scale organizational transformation effort in a professional service firm. Describes a massive change program initiated and led by the new managing partner along with a small group of firm leaders. The first half outlines the conceptual phase, the process of obtaining firm-wide “buy-in” to the idea of change, and the launching of 10 change initiatives. The second half explores three challenges identified by the change leaderhsip that they intended to address in the coming year. The first concerned the organization of the London office (which accounted for over half of the firm’s revenues and professionals). The second was growing dissatisfaction among the firm‘s non-partner senior managers. The third problem was the increasingly frequent feedback that many people were overwhelmed by the number of change initiatives or were confused by how the initiatives related to one another. May be used with: (9-496-010) Ernst & Young United Kingdom (B).
HBS Number: 9-495-061
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: accounting Number of Employees: 6,500 Gross Revenues: $500 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 1994
Subjects: Leadership; Management of change; Management of professionals; Organizational change; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Reorganization; United Kingdom
Academic Discipline: Human resources management

Source: Harvard
Ernst & Young United Kingdom (A) (Abridged)
Add View 19 pp. Case
Gabarro, John J.; Graff, Samantha K.
Intended to be a robust example of the challenges encountered during the early stages of a large-scale organizational transformation effort in a professional service firm. Describes a massive change program initiated and led by the new
HBS Number: 9-496-049 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 3/15/1996
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: accounting Number of Employees: 6,000 Gross Revenues: $525 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1993 Event Year End: 1995
Subjects: Leadership; Management of change; Management of professionals; Organizational change; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Reorganization; United Kingdom

Source: Harvard
Ernst & Young United Kingdom (B)
Add View 19 pp. Case
Gabarro, John J.; Graff, Samantha K.
Discusses progress made by mid-1995 on the three challenges identified by the change leadership at the end of 1993. First, it describes the decision-making process that resulted in a general consensus to reorganize the huge London office, and it highlights certain psychological, logistical, and strategic challenges of implementing this change. Second, it addresses action plans taken to increase the satisfaction of the firm’s nonpartner senior managers. Third, it explores continued efforts of the change leadership to communicate and clarify its vision. Teaching Purpose: Provides a continued opportunity to critique a large-scale organizational transformation effort. May be used with Ernst & Young United Kingdom (A).
HBS Number: 9-496-010 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 11/20/1995
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: accounting Number of Employees: 6,500 Gross Revenues: $500 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1995 Event Year End: 1995
Subjects: Leadership; Management of change; Management of professionals; Organizational change; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Reorganization; United Kingdom

Source: Harvard
Fabricare, Inc.
Add View 11 pp. Case
John Dunkelberg, R. Charles Moyer The owner/manager of a building maintenance firm wasn’t satisfied with his market share and suspected growth would be easier in another city. A similar company was available in a nearby town, and an MBA classmate might join him as a partner. The owner/manager wondered how to value the other firm and the combined enterprise, how to finance the acquisition, and how to set up an appropriate managerial structure? 1994
Source: North American Case Research Association, Case Research Journal, Fall 1994, Vol. 14, Issue 4.
Courses: Business Policy/Strategy; Finance
Topics:

Source: NACRA
Family Feud: Andersen vs. Andersen (A)
Add View 22 pp. Case
Author(s): Nanda, Ashish; Landry, Scot
Publication Date: 11/17/1999 Revision Date: 02/16/2002
Product Type: Case (Library)
Product Description: Traces the history and development of consulting within Andersen and the history of the schism between Arthur Andersen and Andersen Consulting. Ends with the two units seeking external arbitration of their dispute. Teaching Purpose: To study the internal tensions of management of a multidisciplinary professional services firm. May be used with: (9-800-210) Family Feud: Andersen vs. Andersen (B).
HBS Number: 9-800-064
Geographic Setting: Global Industry Setting: consulting, accounting, professional services
Company Size: large Number of Employees: 90,000 Gross Revenues: $14 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1989 Event Year End: 1999
Subjects: Business policy; Consulting; Corporate governance; Management of professionals; Organizational design; Professional services
Academic Discipline: Service management

Source: Harvard
Family Feud: Andersen vs. Andersen (B)
Add View 8 pp. Case
Nanda, Ashish; Landry, Scot
Arbitration proceedings have been initiated between Andersen Consulting and Arthur Andersen. The case details developments during 1999 and 2000, as the arbitration nears a decision. Teaching Purpose: To study the break-up process of a multidisciplinary professional services firm. May be used with: (9-800-064) Family Feud: Andersen vs. Andersen (A).
HBS Number: 9-800-210 Type: Case (Library)
Publication Date: 4/10/2000 Revision Date: 7/17/2000
Geographic Setting: Global Industry Setting: consulting
Company Size: large Number of Employees: 100,000 Gross Revenues: $20 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1999 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Business policy; Consulting; Corporate governance; Management of professionals; Organizational design; Professional services

Source: Harvard
Fast-Cycle Capability for Competitive Power
Add View 10 pp. Article
Bower, Joseph L.; Hout, Thomas M.
Today time is a source of competitive advantage. Through new organization practices and design, companies can take time out of operations and provide customers with better products and services and lower costs. Fast-cycle companies: 1) organize as much work as possible around small, self-managing, multifunctional teams; 2) track cycle times for individual activities and for the delivery system as a whole; and 3) build learning loops to inform everyone about customers, competitors, and the company’s operations.
HBS Number: 88602 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 11/1/1988
Subjects: Corporate strategy; Organizational design

Source: Harvard
Frost, Inc. (B)
Add View 4 pp. Case
Chew, W. Bruce; Kennedy, Theresa Kay-Aba
Describes the changes made to Frost, Inc. to exploit CNC technology. The focus is on the impact in each functional area. May be used with Frost, Inc. (A).
HBS Number: 9-692-006 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 11/21/1991
Geographic Setting: Michigan Industry Setting: material handling components
Company Size: small Gross Revenues: $12 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1981 Event Year End: 1983
Subjects: Manufacturing strategy; Organizational change; Organizational design; Robots; Technological change
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-692-007), 4p, by W. Bruce Chew, Theresa Kay-Aba Kennedy; Teaching Note, (5-693-070), 12p, by W. Bruce Chew

Source: Harvard
ghSMART & Co., 2006: Pioneering in Professional Services
Add View 16 pp. Case
Author(s): Wasserman, Noam ; Haque, Ashraf
Publication Date: 07/18/2008
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 809024
Geographic Setting: Illinois Industry Setting: Professional services Number of Employees: 20 Gross Revenues: $8 million
Event Year Start: 1995 Event Year End: 2006
Subjects: Corporate governance; Entrepreneurship; Incentives; Leadership; Motivation; Organizational design; Private equity
Academic Discipline: Entrepreneurship
Product Description: Geoff Smart, founder and CEO of ghSMART & Co., wanted to build ghSMART into the #1 management-assessment firm for CEOs and investors. However, he had just received two pieces of very bad news: the demise of an existing project and the loss of a $1 million engagement he thought was already sold. The news raised difficult questions about how Geoff had structured his firm and had designed its governance and incentive systems. May be used with: (809025) ghSMART(-er) & Co., 2008: Pioneering in Professional Services.

Source: Harvard
ghSMART(-er) & Co., 2008: Pioneering in Professional Services
Add View 4 pp. Case
Author(s): Wasserman, Noam ; Haque, Ashraf
Publication Date: 07/18/2008
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 809025
Geographic Setting: Illinois Industry Setting: Professional services Number of Employees: 20 Gross Revenues: $8 million
Event Year Start: 1995 Event Year End: 2006
Subjects: Corporate governance; Entrepreneurship; Incentives; Leadership; Motivation; Organizational design; Private equity
Academic Discipline: Entrepreneurship
Product Description: Geoff Smart, founder and CEO of ghSMART & Co., wanted to build ghSMART into the #1 management-assessment firm for CEOs and investors. However, he had just received two pieces of very bad news: the demise of an existing project and the loss of a $1 million engagement he thought was already sold. The news raised difficult questions about how Geoff had structured his firm and had designed its governance and incentive systems. May be used with: (809024) ghSMART & Co., 2006: Pioneering in Professional Services.

Source: Harvard
Greeley Hard Copy: Portable Scanner Initiative (A)
Add View 15 pp. Case
Author(s): Tushman, Michael L.; Radov, Daniel B.
Publication Date: 07/03/2000
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Hewlett-Packard’s Greeley Hard Copy Division is the market leader in the production of desktop flatbed scanners for personal computers. The division has been working to develop a portable scanner product for the past five years with mixed results. The new general manager, Phil Faraci, faces mounting pressures in the flatbed scanner markets, but is also presented with a new technology that has the potential to be a breakthrough for portable scanners. Faraci must decide whether or not to pursue the new portable technology, and if so, how to structure the organization to make product development successful where it has failed in the past.
HBS Number: 9-401-003
Geographic Setting: Greeley, CO Industry Setting: computer peripherals
Company Size: Fortune 500 Number of Employees: 1,000 Gross Revenues: $1 billion revenues
Subjects: Ambidextrous organizations; Computer industry; Innovation; Leadership; Organizational design; Product development; Technological change
Academic Discipline: Human resources management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-401-004), 8p, by Michael L. Tushman, Daniel B. Radov; Supplement (Field), (9-401-005), 3p, by Michael L. Tushman, Daniel B. Radov

Source: Harvard
How Process Enterprises Really Work
Add View 16 pp. Article
Author(s): Hammer, Michael; Stanton, Steven
Publication Date: 11/01/1999
Product Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Product Description: Many companies have succeeded in reengineering their core processes, combining related activities from different departments and cutting out ones that don’t add value. Few, though, have aligned their organizations with their processes. The result is a form of cognitive dissonance as the new, integrated processes pull people in one direction and the old, fragmented management structures pull them in another. That‘s not the way it has to be. In recent years, forward-thinking companies like IBM, Texas Instruments, and Duke Power have begun to make the leap from process redesign to process management. They’ve appointed some of their best managers to be process owners, giving them real authority over work and budgets. They’ve shifted the focus of their measurement and compensation systems from unit goals to process goals. They’ve changed the way they assign and train employees, emphasizing whole processes rather than narrow tasks. They’ve thought carefully about the strategic trade-offs between adopting uniform processes and allowing different units to do things their own way. And they’ve made subtle but fundamental cultural changes, stressing teamwork and customers over turf and hierarchy. These companies are emerging from all those changes as true process enterprises — businesses whose management structures are in harmony, rather than at war, with their core processes. And their organizations are becoming much more flexible, adaptive, and responsive as a result.
HBS Number: 99607
Subjects: Business processes; Management philosophy; Organization; Organizational change; Organizational design; Organizational management; Organizational structure; Process analysis; Process flow
Academic Discipline: Human resources management

Source: Harvard
Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy
Add View 44 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2407BC
Subjects: Communication in organizations; Creativity; Influence; Networks; Organizational design; Organizational learning; Performance management; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: In this chapter, the author explains how to manage creative tension — one of the four Cs of organization design — to facilitate the required levels of interunit communication, learning, and adaptation that support the implementation and evolution of strategy. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Ito Yokado
Add View 26 pp. Case
Salmon, Walter J.; Furukawa, Kosei; Wylie, David
Describes the means by which management has empowered the sales clerks and part time employees of this chain of 131 department stores. They are responsible for all sales and inventory management. This empowerment has led to fewer stockouts, higher sales, lower inventory levels, less inventory loss, higher profits, higher quality, and higher commitment levels on the part of employees. Also describes how their innovative management has overcome inefficiencies in the Japanese distribution system.
HBS Number: 9-589-116 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 06/19/1989 Revision Date: 07/14/1994
Geographic Setting: Japan Industry Setting: retailing
Company Size: large Gross Revenues: $16 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1989 Event Year End: 1989
Subjects: Department stores; International marketing; Japan; Marketing implementation; Marketing information systems; Merchandising; Organizational design; Retailing
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-592-001), 6p, by Walter J. Salmon, David Wylie

Source: Harvard
Jacques Kemp: “Towards Performance Excellence”
Add View 21 pp. Case
Author(s): Rod E. White; Andreas Schotter
Publication Date: 1/9/2007 Revision Date: 12/11/2007
Product Type: Case
Ivey ID: 9B06M084
Geographic Setting: Asia Industry Setting: Insurance and Pension Funds Size: Large
Year of Event: 2006 Level of Difficulty: 4 — Undergraduate/MBA
Subjects: International management; Organizational design; Organizational structure
Major Disciplines: General Management; International
Product Description: Over the past two years, ING Insurance Asia/Pacific had successfully implemented a new organizational and operational framework called Towards Performance Excellence (TPE), which was developed with inputs from functional heads, senior management and staff at the business unit level. TPE detailed and organized everything ING Asia/Pacific needed to execute its strategy effectively. TPE divided ING’s business processes into six core categories: portfolio, marketing, organizational, operational, reputation and financial. Each category included aspects of execution known as “drivers,” which required managers to identify specific objectives and key performance indicators (KPIs) for each driver or sub-driver. The case includes many original exhibits and is ideally taught as the follow up case of the ING Insurance Asia/Pacific, Ivey product #9B06M083 or as a standalone case, which illustrates a real example of regional versus local organizational management.

Source: Ivey
Joel Klein and Leadership in the NYC Public Schools
Add View 21 pp. Case
Author(s): Marquis, Chris; Larson, Abby; Guthrie, Doug; Arum, Richard
Publication Date: 06/29/2007 Revision Date: 01/28/2008
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-407-065
Geographic Setting: New York, NY Industry Setting: Public school K-12 Number of Employees: 120,000 Gross Revenues: $14 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 2002 Event Year End: 2005
Subjects: Leadership development; Management training; Organizational design; Public schools; Social enterprise
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: Reviews the work of the New York City School Chancellor Joel Klein and his attempt to create a Leadership Academy in order to better train principals to lead New York City public schools. Assesses what leadership skills and strategies are necessary for Klein to create a new cohort of effective site-based leaders for New York City Public Schools and further, what methodology Klein and the Leadership Academy establish to accomplish this task. The key question involves Klein’s attempt to assess whether an institution dedicated to training better administrators can serve as the key component of a larger effort to improve the performance of the New York City public school system; on a more micro basis is the question of whether the Leadership Academy itself and its program to train principals has been effective in the context of the larger problems the school system faces. If so, will the principals trained be able to be successfully integrated and effectively utilized as organizational elements capable of leading site efforts necessary to improve New York City public school system performance?

Source: Harvard
Ken Hakuta: AllHerb.com
Add View 24 pp. Case
Amabile, Teresa; Tempest, Nicole
Ken Hakuta had been an entrepreneur all his life. Having started a number of consumer-oriented ventures, he became well-known as “Dr. Fad,” the initiator of the “Wacky Wallwalker” toy craze in the 1980s. Wishing to strike out in an exciting new direction in 1998, he capitalized on his long-standing interest in herbal medicine to found AllHerb.com, the first e-commerce company devoted solely to herbal remedy products and information. Teaching Purpose: To give students a close look at the founding of an e-commerce company, and the challenges facing an experienced entrepreneur who wants to establish an organization unlike any other he has started previously.
HBS Number: 9-899-250 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 3/29/1999 Revision Date: 2/4/2000
Geographic Setting: Maryland Industry Setting: e-commerce
Subjects: California Research Center; Consumer goods; Creativity; Electronic commerce; Entrepreneurship; Medical supplies; Organizational design

Source: Harvard
Kyocera Corp.: The Amoeba Management System
Add View 12 pp. Case
Cooper, Robin
Describes Kyocera’s unusual approach to profit centers. The firm‘s basic units of operation are profit centers called “amoebas,” which are sales or manufacturing units with full responsibility for their planning, decision making, and administration. Amoebas are expected to find ways to improve production and lower costs, reflecting the belief of Kyocera’s founder that profits are generated during the manufacturing process.
HBS Number: 9-195-064 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 8/25/1994
Geographic Setting: Japan Industry Setting: semiconductors, electronics
Event Year Start: 1990 Event Year End: 1993
Subjects: Cost accounting; Japan; Organizational design; Profit centers; Transfer pricing
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-195-065), 6p, by Robin Cooper

Source: Harvard
Leadership Development at Goldman Sachs
Add View 23 pp. Case
Author(s): Groysberg, Boris; Snook, Scott; Lane, David
Publication Date: 11/03/2005 Revision Date: 03/22/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-406-002
Geographic Setting: New York, NY Industry Setting: Investment banking; Professional services Number of Employees: 15,000 Gross Revenues: $13 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1999 Event Year End: 1999
Subjects: Growth strategy; Human resources management; Leadership development; Management development; Management training; Organizational design; Persuasion
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: In November 1999, 11 of Goldman Sachs’ finest gathered to put the final touches on a revolutionary leadership development plan. Following Goldman‘s explosive growth during the 1990s and its eventual IPO in 1999, a diverse group of leaders from across the firm were selected to “assess the future training and development needs of Goldman Sachs, with a particular focus on the need for a more systematic and effective approach to developing managing directors.” After six months of brainstorming, holding discussions with Goldman Sachs colleagues, interviewing experts, and benchmarking best practices, it was finally time to present their findings to the management committee. The briefing contained an integrated leader development plan with concrete recommendations on how to resolve several critical design issues, including: location, faculty, content, format, method, target audience, governance, and sponsorship. No one sitting on the management committee had relied on a formal leadership program to reach the top. How skeptical might they be? How do you convince hard-nosed bankers to leave their desks and invest precious time focusing on what many perceived as “soft” issues?

Source: Harvard
Leslie Brinkman at Versutia Capital
Add View 13 pp. Case
Author(s): Kaplan, Rob; Battilana, Julie
Publication Date: 06/13/2007 Revision Date: 07/25/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-407-089
Geographic Setting: New York, NY Industry Setting: Hedge funds industry Number of Employees: 12 Gross Revenues: $62 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 2005
Subjects: Hedge funds; Interpersonal roles; Leadership; Organizational design; Performance management; Teams
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: Leslie Brinkman is the founder and CEO of a hedge fund, Versutia Capital. Leslie spent late 2002 and early 2003 assembling her team and launched the fund in early 2003. While the firm performed well during 2003 and 2004 (both in terms of returns and new assets), in 2005 the results began to suffer. Describes the process of designing the firm, the resulting team dynamics, the strains on the staff and the impact of Leslie’s management style on the performance of her team. In the spring of 2005, Leslie must decide whether to re-design the firm and/or change her management style in order to address the performance issues that Versutia Capital is facing.

Source: Harvard
Levers of Organization Design: How Managers Use Accountability Systems for Greater Performance and Commitment
Add View 38 pp. Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Three Practical Examples of How to Do It
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2409BC
Subjects: Accountability; Customers; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy formulation; Strategy implementation; Vision
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: This chapter focuses on the important interplay of the four levers of organization design. Examples from three different organizations are used to discuss the effect of each design variable on the others. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Add View 18 pp. Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2404BC
Subjects: Accountability; Attention; Control systems; Creativity; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy alignment; Strategy formulation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: This chapter presents a framework for organization design, focusing on the four key elements that organizations must address in order to ensure the successful execution of strategy: customer definition, critical performance variables, creative tension, and commitment to others. May be used with: (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Add View 39 pp. Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2410BC
Subjects: Accountability; Control systems; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy formulation; Strategy implementation; Vision
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: In this chapter, the author brings the analysis down to the ground level — the level of individual people and business units — to test whether different designs are capable of implementing strategy successfully. May be used with: (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work.

Source: Harvard
Add View 42 pp. Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2406BC
Subjects: Accountability; Control systems; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Performance measurement; Resistance; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: This chapter introduces the second of the four Cs of organization design-critical performance variables — and examines how accountability and resistance factor in to designing an organization that creates value. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Add View 44 pp. Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2407BC
Subjects: Accountability; Control systems; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Performance measurement; Resistance; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: This chapter introduces the second of the four Cs of organization design-critical performance variables — and examines how accountability and resistance factor in to designing an organization that creates value. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Add View 37 pp. Shared Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2408BC
Subjects: Corporate culture; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Performance management; Resistance; Strategy implementation; Vision
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Two critical tasks of senior managers are determining how individuals should act within their organization and then creating the necessary conditions for them to act in the desired way. This chapter focuses on the last of the four Cs of organization design: analyzing the level of commitment to others that is needed to support organizational strategy. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Add View 18 pp. The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-Offs
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2403BC
Subjects: Accountability; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy execution; Strategy formulation; Vision
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: To be fully effective, all managers must understand the implications of the organization design choices on their business units. This chapter makes the case for the development of a new theory of organization design by reviewing the tensions that today’s managers must navigate to succeed in designing or redesigning organizations for enduring performance. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Add View 52 pp. Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2405BC
Subjects: Accountability; Customers; Financial management; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Performance management; Strategy alignment; Strategy formulation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Grouping work units according to specific criteria is one of the most vexing problems of organization design. This chapter offers an approach to solve the organization structure problem by analyzing the first of the four Cs of organization design: customer definition. May be used with: (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
MacTemps: Building Commitment in the Interim Workforce
Add View 20 pp. Case
Bradach, Jeffrey L.; Sackley, Nicole
MacTemps is a provider of temporary workers skilled in computer graphics and database management. Unlike many temporary agencies that treat temps as a commodity, MacTemps has attempted to build relationships with temps through offering benefits and training. This case explores the pros and cons of this strategy by presenting data on the underlying economics of the arrangement and the characteristics of the temp force. Teaching Purpose: To discuss the economics of contingent work arrangements, strategies for building relationships with workers/temps, strategies for staffing firms in highly competitive environments, and the changing social contract between people and organizations.
HBS Number: 9-497-005 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 10/7/1996 Revision Date: 1/6/1997
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: staffing Number of Employees: 130 Gross Revenues: $56 million revenues
Subjects: Careers & career planning; Human resources management; MIS; Organizational design; Personnel management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-497-065), 15p, by Jeffrey L. Bradach

Source: Harvard
Management Levels at Staples (A): Company and Organization
Add View 10 pp. Case
Author(s): Garvin, David A.; Levesque, Lynne C.
Publication Date: 08/11/2006 Revision Date: 05/24/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-307-037
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: Office equipment; Office supplies industry Number of Employees: 68,533 Gross Revenues: $16.1 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 2006 Event Year End: 2006
Subjects: Business processes; Leadership; Managerial skills; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Policy implementation; Retail stores; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-307-038), 13p, by David A. Garvin, Lynne C. Levesque; Supplement (Field), (9-307-039), 13p, by David A. Garvin, Lynne C. Levesque; Supplement (Field), (9-307-040), 14p, by David A. Garvin, Lynne C. Levesque; Supplement (Field), (9-307-041), 10p, by David A. Garvin, Lynne C. Levesque; Supplement (Field), (9-307-042), 6p, by David A. Garvin, Lynne C. Levesque
Product Description: One of six cases that describe the roles and responsibilities of managers at each of the hierarchical levels of management within the U.S. Stores business unit of Staples, the world’s largest office supply company. Together, the cases form a complete integrated package. Explores five distinct jobs — store manager, district manager, regional vice-president, division senior vice-president, and president of the U.S. Stories business units — and, for each level, describes the key management tasks, planning, decision-making, and leadership processes and critical choices that lead to superior execution and operational performance. Provides background information on Staples‘ organization and strategy.

Source: Harvard
Management Levels at Staples (B): General Manager
Add View 13 pp. Case
Author(s): Garvin, David A.; Levesque, Lynne C.
Publication Date: 08/11/2006 Revision Date: 05/30/2007
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-307-038
Subjects: Business processes; Leadership; Managerial skills; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Policy implementation; Retail stores; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: An abstract is not available for this product. Must be used with: (9-307-037) Management Levels at Staples (A): Company and Organization.

Source: Harvard
Management Levels at Staples (C): District Manager
Add View 13 pp. Case
Author(s): Garvin, David A.; Levesque, Lynne C.
Publication Date: 08/11/2006 Revision Date: 06/01/2007
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-307-039
Subjects: Business processes; Leadership; Managerial skills; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Policy implementation; Retail stores; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: An abstract is not available for this product. Must be used with: (9-307-037) Management Levels at Staples (A): Company and Organization.

Source: Harvard
Management Levels at Staples (D): Regional Vice President
Add View 14 pp. Case
Author(s): Garvin, David A.; Levesque, Lynne C.
Publication Date: 08/11/2006 Revision Date: 05/30/2007
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-307-040
Subjects: Business processes; Leadership; Managerial skills; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Policy implementation; Retail stores; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: An abstract is not available for this product. Must be used with: (9-307-037) Management Levels at Staples (A): Company and Organization.

Source: Harvard
Management Levels at Staples (E): Senior Vice President
Add View 10 pp. Case
Author(s): Garvin, David A.; Levesque, Lynne C.
Publication Date: 08/11/2006 Revision Date: 06/01/2007
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-307-041
Subjects: Business processes; Leadership; Managerial skills; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Policy implementation; Retail stores; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: An abstract is not available for this product. Must be used with: (9-307-037) Management Levels at Staples (A): Company and Organization.

Source: Harvard
Management Levels at Staples (F): President, U.S. Stores
Add View 6 pp. Case
Author(s): Garvin, David A.; Levesque, Lynne C.
Publication Date: 08/11/2006 Revision Date: 05/30/2007
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-307-042
Subjects: Business processes; Leadership; Managerial skills; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Policy implementation; Retail stores; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: An abstract is not available for this product. Must be used with: (9-307-037) Management Levels at Staples (A): Company and Organization.

Source: Harvard
Managing in an Information Age: IT Challenges and Opportunities
Add View 20 pp. Case
Source: Harvard
Managing National Intelligence (A): Before 9/11
Add View 31 pp. Case
Author(s): Rivkin, Jan W.; Roberto, Michael A.; Ferlins, Erika M.
Publication Date: 04/08/2006 Revision Date: 07/12/2006
Product Type: Case (Library)
HBS Number: 9-706-463
Geographic Setting: Global Industry Setting: Government & regulatory
Event Year Start: 2001 Event Year End: 2001
Subjects: Ambiguity; Crisis management; Differentiation; Government agencies; Integration; Intelligence; Organizational design; Strategy; Terrorism
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: Examines the management of national intelligence prior to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Describes the actions taken by a variety of government agencies, including the FBI, the CIA, the FAA, and the Department of Defense, to detect and deter such attacks.

Source: Harvard
Managing Your Team
Add View 22 pp. Case
Author(s): Hill, Linda A.
Publication Date: 03/05/1994 Revision Date: 03/28/1995
Product Type: Note
Product Description: Designed as an overview note for the Managing Your Team module of the MBA second year elective course Power and Influence. Identifies some criteria for evaluating team effectiveness and outlines in detail the key areas of responsibility of team managers: managing the team’s boundary, and managing the team itself (including designing the team and facilitating the team‘s process). Also contains a brief appendix on managing transnational teams as well as substantial bibliographic references for further reading.
HBS Number: 9-494-081
Subjects: Corporate culture; Group behavior; Managerial skills; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Power & influence; Teams
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership

Source: Harvard
Many Faces of Multi-Firm Alliances: Lessons for Managers
Add View 18 pp. Article
Author(s): Hwang, Peter; Burgers, Willem P.
Publication Date: 04/01/1997
Product Type: CMR Article
Publisher: California Management Review
HBS Number: CMR084
Subjects: Game theory; Joint ventures; Organizational design; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: Negotiations
Product Description: One of the most notable business trends in recent years has been the surge in alliance formation. Globalization, escalating R&D expenses, shortening product life cycles, and convergence of technologies are often cited as important factors that contribute to this phenomenon. This article develops a framework for multi-firm alliances. Multi-firm alliances can be classified on the basis of distinct payoff structures, leading to critical differences in their predicted development and final result. This article presents four multi-firm alliance game scenarios to describe the dynamics that underlie the interactions among firms and provides industry examples. It offers a number of lessons to help managers improve their ability to manage multi-firm alliance relationships.

Source: Harvard
Marie Trellu-Kane at Unis-Cite (A)
Add View 15 pp. Case
Author(s): Anteby, Michel; Battilana, Julie; Pache, Anne-Claire
Publication Date: 06/13/2007 Revision Date: 08/14/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-407-106
Geographic Setting: France Number of Employees: 215
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 2005
Subjects: Alignment; Growth; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Social enterprise
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: Marie Trellu-Kane is trying to decide how Unis-Cite should respond to French President Jacques Chirac’s announcement in 2005 of a new national voluntary civil service program. Since 1994, Trellu-Kane and her co-founders had been creating and overseeing a civil service program called Unis-Cite, in which youth, particularly from the disadvantaged immigrant population, volunteered nine months of their time to work on community projects. Based in Paris, France, Unis-Cite had begun to expand to other areas. With the announcement that the government would provide funding to mobilize thousands of youth volunteers, Trellu-Kane needed to decide how Unis-Cite would proceed.

Source: Harvard
Add View 15 pp. Case
Author(s): Anteby, Michel; Battilana, Julie; Pache, Anne-Claire
Publication Date: 06/13/2007 Revision Date: 12/08/2008
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 407106
Geographic Setting: France Number of Employees: 215
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 2005
Subjects: Alignment; Growth; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Social enterprise
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (408083), 16p, by Michel Anteby, Julie Battilana
Product Description: Marie Trellu-Kane is trying to decide how Unis-Cite should respond to French President Jacques Chirac’s announcement in 2005 of a new national voluntary civil service program. Since 1994, Trellu-Kane and her co-founders had been creating and overseeing a civil service program called Unis-Cite, in which youth, particularly from the disadvantaged immigrant population, volunteered nine months of their time to work on community projects. Based in Paris, France, Unis-Cite had begun to expand to other areas. With the announcement that the government would provide funding to mobilize thousands of youth volunteers, Trellu-Kane needed to decide how Unis-Cite would proceed.

Source: Harvard
Marketing at Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz
Add View 8 pp. Case
Lorsch, Jay W.; Graff, Samantha K.
Describes the history and the unique operating principles of the most successful corporate law firm in the country. Closes with a lengthy quotation by Martin Lipton, who is one of the firm’s founding partners and who is described in an American Lawyer article as the “Elvis Presley of the M&A field.” Lipton reflects on certain activities that the firm carries out aimed at building its reputation. Whether or not these activities constitute marketing is left an open question. Teaching Purpose: Intended for any professional service firm audience. Provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between marketing and total firm strategy in professional service firms.
HBS Number: 9-496-037 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 11/29/1995
Geographic Setting: New York Industry Setting: law Number of Employees: 500 Gross Revenues: $100 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1995 Event Year End: 1995
Subjects: Marketing strategy; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Professionals

Source: Harvard
Marketing in a Silo World: The New CMO Challenge
Add View 14 pp. Case
Author(s): Aaker, David A.
Publication Date: 11/01/2008
Product Type: Case (Field)
Publisher: California Management Review
HBS Number: CMR415
Subjects: Communication; Leadership; Marketing management; Marketing strategy; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational problems; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: A silo is a metaphor for an organizational unit that has its own management team and lacks the motivation or desire to work with or even communicate with other organizational units. Organizations have a collection of silos that include product silos (business units defined by product or service offerings) and country silos (geographic silos defined by countries or regions). Today, communication and brand building involve a variety of fast-changing modalities that do not lend themselves to the silo world. Customers are demanding silo-spanning offerings and services. There is just too much at stake to allow silo interests to inhibit or prevent the effort toward achieving brand and marketing synergies across the organization. Recognizing that autonomous silo organizations are no longer a viable option, there are a host of firms that are developing, expanding, or energizing the corporate Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) position and creating or enhancing the supporting central marketing group. Efforts by a CMO and his or her team to gain credibility, traction, and influence represents a formidable task in the face of silo indifference or resistance. This article examines how silo barriers to the creation of great marketing and marketing organizations can be reduced or eliminated, leading to stronger offerings and brands and effective synergistic marketing strategies and programs.

Source: Harvard
Mass Customization at Hewlett-Packard: The Power of Postponement
Add View 8 pp. Article
Feitzinger, Edward; Lee, Hau
In many mass markets, companies are facing a predicament: customers are demanding not only ever faster order fulfillment but also highly customized products and services. The authors show how the Hewlett-Packard Co. and others have proved that one indeed can deliver customized products quickly and at a low cost. The key to mass-customizing effectively is postponing the task of differentiating a product for a specific customer until the latest possible point in the supply network. Instead of taking a piecemeal approach, companies must rethink and integrate the designs of their products, the processes used to make and deliver those products, and the configuration of their entire supply network. By adopting such a comprehensive approach, they can operate at maximum efficiency and quickly meet customers’ orders with minimum amount of inventory.
HBS Number: 97101 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 1/1/1997
Subjects: Cost benefit analysis; Customer service; Manufacturing strategy; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Product design

Source: Harvard
MCI Vision (A)
Add View 24 pp. Case
Cespedes, Frank V.; Goode, Laura
This case series focuses on divisional marketing and sales efforts concerning Vision, a new telecommunication product intended for the small business marketplace. Vision represents both a significant opportunity, and different field ma
HBS Number: 9-592-083 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 02/10/1992 Revision Date: 12/11/1992
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: telecommunications
Company Size: large Gross Revenues: $7 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1990 Event Year End: 1991
Subjects: Marketing implementation; Marketing management; Marketing strategy; Organizational design; Product management; Sales management; Telecommunications
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-592-084), 3p, by Frank V. Cespedes, Laura Goode; Supplement (Field), (9-592-085), 2p, by Frank V. Cespedes, Laura Goode; Teaching Note, (5-593-066), 18p, by Frank V. Cespedes

Source: Harvard
MCI Vision (A) (Condensed)
Add View 21 pp. Case
Cespedes, Frank V.
Concerns the development, introduction, and first-year sales performance of Vision, a telecommunications service aimed at small- and medium-sized businesses. Introduced in 1990, Vision surpassed goals in that year, but was significantly below target in the first quarter of 1991. A divisional vice president must analyze the situation and recommend appropriate actions. Teaching Purpose: Concerns core product management decisions in a changing industry context and at a company with few formal processes in place for managing product portfolio decisions or corporate-field interactions. Illustrates the costs and benefits of interproduct competition for shared development and selling resources, and also raises issues about the factors involved in moving from price-based to value-added marketing programs.
HBS Number: 9-594-057 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 10/27/1993 Revision Date: 02/17/1995
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: telecommunications
Company Size: large Number of Employees: 22,000 Gross Revenues: $7 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1990 Event Year End: 1991
Subjects: Marketing implementation; Marketing management; Marketing strategy; Organizational design; Product management; Sales management; Telecommunications
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-593-066), 18p, by Frank V. Cespedes

Source: Harvard
Meeting the Challenge of Corporate Entrepreneurship (HBR OnPoint Enhanced Edition)
Add View 20 pp. Article
Author(s): Garvin, David A.; Levesque, Lynne C.
Publication Date: 10/01/2006
Product Type: HBR OnPoint Article
HBS Number: 1462
Subjects: Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Learning; Organizational design; Organizational learning; Organizational structure; Resource allocation; Strategy formulation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: To be competitive, companies must grow innovative new businesses. Corporate entrepreneurship, however, isn’t easy. New ventures face innumerable barriers and seldom mesh smoothly with well-established systems, processes, and cultures. Nonetheless, success requires a balance of old and new organizational traits — and unless companies keep those opposing forces in equilibrium, their new businesses will flounder. The authors describe the challenges companies face when they pursue new businesses, as well as the usual problematic responses to those challenges. Such companies, they say, must perform three balancing acts: 1) Develop strategy by trial and error, which includes narrowing potential choices, learning from small samples, using prototypes to test business models, tracking progress through nonfinancial measures, and knowing how and when to pull the plug on a new venture; 2) Find the best combination of old and new operational processes by staffing new ventures with “mature turks, ” changing veterans‘ thinking, knowing which capabilities to develop and which to acquire, and having old and new businesses share responsibility for operating decisions; 3. Strike the right balance of integration and autonomy by assigning both corporate and operating sponsors to new ventures, establishing criteria for handoffs to existing divisions, and using creative organizational structures. The authors provide a detailed look at IBM’s Emerging Business Opportunity system, which manages all these balancing acts simultaneously.

Source: Harvard
Microsoft Office: Finding the Suite Spot
Add View 22 pp. Case
Thomke, Stefan; Sinofsky, Steven Jay
Describes a key decision-making process within Microsoft’s Office products division. At a time when the PC software business has a great deal of uncertainty, Microsoft‘s management has to make a key decision regarding the future of software suites. A strengthening of suite development as a common platform would require significant organizational, process, and strategic alignments that may weaken the individual software divisions. Focuses on: 1) software development, with an emphasis on multi-applications suites; 2) different models of product innovation (common platform versus individual elements); 3) managerial challenges in aligning processes and the organization of several independent development units.
HBS Number: 9-699-046 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 11/19/1998 Revision Date: 2/10/1999
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: software Gross Revenues: $4.65 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 1994
Subjects: Organizational change; Organizational design; Product design; Product development; Software; Software industry
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-699-136), 16p, by Stefan Thomke, Ashok Nimgade

Source: Harvard
Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A)
Add View 27 pp. Case
Author(s): Eccles, Robert G.; Edmondson, Amy C.; Srivastava, Mona
Publication Date: 02/17/2009
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-609-044
Geographic Setting: India Industry Setting: Professional services Number of Employees: 25-40 Gross Revenues: $800,000
Event Year Start: 2005 Event Year End: 2009
Subjects: Entrepreneurship; Family-owned businesses; Innovation; Organizational design; Social enterprise; Sustainability; Teams
Academic Discipline: Social enterprise & ethics
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-609-064), 3p, by Robert G. Eccles, Amy C. Edmondson, Mona Srivastava; Supplement (Field), (9-609-086), 1p, by Robert G. Eccles, Amy C. Edmondson, Mona Srivastava
Product Description: Describes an architecture firm founded and run by a husband and wife team, Sharukh and Renu Mistry, that emphasizes “green” building. The firm presents an unusual mix of projects — spanning the spectrum from larger corporate projects to small private homes. The mix also includes more profitable work and projects deliberately selected for social good, including the design of orphanage communities for SOS Childrens International and other non-profit organizations. The mix engages teams of young architects in different kinds of learning opportunities, and allows them to manage these projects with an unusually high level of independence. The firm’s founders are dedicated to being both very client-oriented and environmentally responsible. This can lead to some difficult choices and the case illustrates one example. The firm has been commissioned by SOS to design homes for some villages destroyed in the December 24, 2004 tsunami. The preferred design is thatch roofs which is in keeping with the local environment. However, the villagers want a more functional (and more expensive) reinforced cement concrete roof. Sharukh must decide wh

Source: Harvard
Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (B)
Add View 3 pp. Case
Author(s): Eccles, Robert G.; Edmondson, Amy C.; Srivastava, Mona
Publication Date: 02/17/2009
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-609-064
Subjects: Entrepreneurship; Family-owned businesses; Innovation; Organizational design; Professional services; Social enterprise; Sustainability; Teams
Academic Discipline: Social enterprise & ethics
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-609-086), 1p, by Robert G. Eccles, Amy C. Edmondson, Mona Srivastava
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-609-044) Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A).

Source: Harvard
Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (C)
Add View 1 pp. Case
Author(s): Eccles, Robert G.; Edmondson, Amy C.; Srivastava, Mona
Publication Date: 02/17/2009
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-609-086
Subjects: Entrepreneurship; Family-owned businesses; Innovation; Organizational design; Professional services; Social enterprise; Sustainability; Teams
Academic Discipline: Social enterprise & ethics
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-609-044) Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (A); (9-609-064) Mistry Architects: Innovating for Sustainability (B).

Source: Harvard
Networked Incubators: Hothouses of the New Economy
Add View 11 pp. Article
Hansen, Morten T.; Chesbrough, Henry W.; Nohria, Nitin; Sull, Donald
Business incubators such as Hotbank, CMGI, and Idealab! are a booming industry. Offering office space, funding, and basic services to start-ups, these organizations have become the hottest way to nurture and grow fledgling businesses.
HBS Number: R00507 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 9/1/2000
Subjects: Entrepreneurial management; Entrepreneurs; Entrepreneurship; Incubators; Internet; New economy; Organizational design; Organizational management; Organizational structure

Source: Harvard
Nokia Corp.: Innovation and Efficiency in a High-Growth Global Firm
Add View 38 pp. Case
Author(s): Roberts, John; Doornik, Katherine
Publication Date: 02/28/2001 Revision Date: 07/01/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
Publisher: Stanford University
HBS Number: IB23
Geographic Setting: Espoo Industry Setting: Telecommunications industry Number of Employees: 51,177 Gross Revenues: $19,954 million revenues
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Globalization; Internet; Organizational design; Telecommunications
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: Nokia Corp. is a global telecommunications company that, in eight years, went from a near-bankrupt conglomerate to a global leader in mobile telephony, delivering almost 30% annual compound growth in revenues during 1992-2000, while shedding businesses that had accounted for almost 90% of its 1998 shares. By spring 2000, Nokia had the highest margins in the mobile phone industry, a negative debt-equity ratio, the most valuable non-U.S. brand in the world, Europe’s highest market capitalization, a presence in 140 countries, and unique corporate structures, processes, and culture that gave it the feel of “a small company soul in a big corporate body.” Along with growth in size and diversity, however, came growth in complexity. Nokia had to develop multiple businesses and technologies (while dealing with the great technological uncertainties that were inherent in the convergence of mobile telephony and the Internet). It also had to manage a growing network of alliances and a number of acquisitions, mostly in the United States. This case provides the background to the issues Nokia faces as it considers how to meet these challenges while maintaining its unique company values and way of working that made it possible to execute efficiently while continuing to innovate.

Source: Harvard
Note on How Organizations Can be Structured
Add View 6 pp. Case
Author(s): Mills, D. Quinn; Friesen, Gary Bruce
Publication Date: 12/13/1989
Product Type: Note
Product Description: Describes four basic organizational forms—hierarchy, division, matrix, and cluster. Diagrams of each are included. Their strengths and weaknesses under different business environment conditions are detailed. There is a table comparing the forms on several key organizational dimensions and a second table that describes key management practices in each form.
HBS Number: 9-490-040
Subjects: Human resources management; Organizational design; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: Human resources management

Source: Harvard
Note on Organization Structure
Add View 19 pp. Case
Author(s): Nohria, Nitin
Publication Date: 02/19/1991 Revision Date: 06/30/1995
Product Type: Note
Product Description: Provides the reader with a basic understanding of organization structure. The first section provides a brief history of the main ideas pertaining to organization structure. The second section outlines some of the concepts and factors that must be taken into account while designing organization structure. Some of the prototypical forms of organization structure and their strengths and weaknesses are described in the third section. Finally, some emerging trends in how organizations are structured are discussed in the last section.
HBS Number: 9-491-083
Subjects: Organizational design; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: Human resources management

Source: Harvard
Organigraphs: Drawing How Companies Really Work
Add View 12 pp. Article
Mintzberg, Henry; Van der Heyden, Ludo
Walk into any organization and you will get a snapshot of the company in action—people and products moving every which way. But ask for a picture of the company and you will be given the org chart, with its orderly little boxes showin
HBS Number: 99506 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 9/1/99
Subjects: Corporate strategy; Organization; Organizational design; Organizational structure

Source: Harvard
Organization Design: Fashion or Fit?
Added View 16 pp. Article
Mintzberg, Henry
The characteristics of organizations fall into one of five natural configurations, each a combination of certain elements of structure and situation. The five configurations are the simple structure, machine bureaucracy, professional bureaucracy, divisionalized form, and adhocracy. These five configurations serve as an effective tool in diagnosing the problems of organizational design.
HBS Number: 81106 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 1/1/1981
Subjects: Organizational design; Organizational problems

Source: Harvard
Organizational Alignment: The 7-S Model
Add View 11 pp. Case
Author(s): Bradach, Jeffrey L.
Publication Date: 11/12/1996 Revision Date: 11/19/1996
Product Type: Note
Product Description: Presents the 7-S framework. This framework offers managers a tool for diagnosing problems in their organizations and for proposing corrective courses of action. May be used with cases that deal with organizational alignment. May be used with: (9-303-007) The Nature Conservancy.
HBS Number: 9-497-045
Subjects: Organizational design; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: Human resources management

Source: Harvard
Organizing for Worldwide Effectiveness: The Transnational Solution
Added View 21 pp. Article
Author(s): Bartlett, Christopher A.; Ghoshal, Sumantra
Publication Date: 10/01/1988
Product Type: CMR Article
Publisher: California Management Review
HBS Number: CMR019
Subjects: International business; International operations; Organization; Organizational design; Organizational management
Academic Discipline: Business & government
Product Description: To be competitive in an increasingly complex international environment, companies with worldwide operations must achieve global coordination and national flexibility simultaneously. Traditional organizational forms, however, have tended to provide one or the other attribute. The authors illustrate this point through the experience of two major competitors in consumer electronics: Philips, a classic “multinational ” company whose decentralized federation structure is well-suited to facilitating national flexibility, and Matsushita, a “global ” company with a centralized hub configuration that provides it with great efficiency. The authors then describe an emerging model — the “transnational ” organization whose structure is based on an integrated network of worldwide operations. The transnational firm requires both effective corporate management that does not impede national flexibility and efficient country management that does not prevent global coordination.

Source: Harvard
ORGANIZING FROM SCRATCH: THE LEARNING LAB DENMARK EXPERIENCE
Add View 16 pp. Case A
Author(s): Claus Rerup; John Lafkas
Publication Date: 4/11/2006 Revision Date: 8/21/2006
Product Type: Case
Ivey ID: 9B06C006
Geographic Setting: Denmark Industry Setting: Educational Services Size: Small
Year of Event: 2004 Level of Difficulty: 4 – Undergraduate/MBA
Subjects: Leadership; Visioning; Organizational Design; Entrepreneurial Business Growth
Major Disciplines: Human Resource Management; Entrepreneurship; International
Product Description: Learning Lab Denmark, a research and development institute, encountered many of the difficulties typically experienced by start-ups, especially obstacles that involve developing a set of routines for getting things done. In other respe

Source: Ivey
Add View 8 pp. Case B
Author(s): Claus Rerup; John Lafkas
Publication Date: 4/11/2006 Revision Date: 8/16/2006
Product Type: Case
Ivey ID: 9B06C007
Geographic Setting: Denmark Industry Setting: Educational Services Size: Small
Year of Event: 2004 Level of Difficulty: 4 – Undergraduate/MBA
Subjects: Leadership; Visioning; Organizational Design; Entrepreneurial Business Growth
Major Disciplines: Human Resource Management; Entrepreneurship; International
Product Description: This supplement to Organizing From Scratch: The Learning Lab Denmark Experience (A), product 9B06C006, identifies several of the consortia’s achievements, notes some findings from LLD‘s self-evaluation report and discusses significant

Source: Ivey
Add View 18 pp. Teaching Note
Author(s): Claus Rerup; John Lafkas
Ivey Number: 8B06C06
Subjects: Leadership; Visioning; Organizational Design; Entrepreneurial Business Growth
Product Description: Teaching Note for 9B06C006 and 9B06C007.

Source: Ivey
Organizing Knowledge
Add View 23 pp. Article
Author(s): Brown, John Seely; Duguid, Paul
Publication Date: 04/01/1998
Product Type: CMR Article
Publisher: California Management Review
HBS Number: CMR110
Subjects: Communication strategy; Knowledge management; Organizational design; Organizational structure
Academic Discipline: Management of information systems
Product Description: Countering claims that cyberspace will bring the end of organizations in general and of the firm in particular, this article points to the role organizations play in fostering the production and synergistic development of knowledge. Formal organizations help turn the partial, situated insights of individuals and communities into robust, organizational knowledge. To organize knowledge in this way requires acknowledging the boundaries inevitably erected within organizations through the division of labor and the division of knowledge. Infrastructure for organizing knowledge must overcome these boundaries. Assuming that knowledge is a frictionless commodity possessed by individuals makes communications technologies and social organization curious antagonists. This article argues instead for compatible organizational and technological architectures that respond to and enhance the social production of knowledge.

Source: Harvard
Otis Pacific Asia Operations (A): National Challenges
Add View 23 pp. Case
Author(s): Yoshino, Michael Y.; Malnight, Thomas W.
Publication Date: 08/28/1992
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Describes the elevator market and Otis’s competitive position in four markets: Hong Kong, Malaysia, India, and Japan. The student is asked to evaluate the strategic and competitive challenges in each market, especially in light of strong Japanese competition across the region. Designed to give students appreciation of operating in the heterogeneous Asian environment in highly competitive markets.
HBS Number: 9-393-009
Geographic Setting: Asia Industry Setting: elevators
Company Size: Fortune 500 Gross Revenues: $2 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 1992
Subjects: Asia; International business; Management of change; Organizational design; Strategy formulation; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management

Source: Harvard
Otis Pacific Asia Operations (B): Regionalization
Add View 17 pp. Case
Author(s): Yoshino, Michael Y.; Malnight, Thomas W.
Publication Date: 08/28/1992 Revision Date: 02/14/1995
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Describes Otis’s effort to build a regional organization linking its previously autonomous opportunities across the Pacific Asia region. Describes changes being made in several key functions, including manufacturing, marketing, engineering, and finance. Presents major challenges being faced as the company tries to move toward a coordinated regional organization. Designed to examine issues associated with building an integrated organization in a highly competitive environment.
HBS Number: 9-393-010
Geographic Setting: Asia Industry Setting: elevators
Company Size: Fortune 500 Gross Revenues: $2 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 1992
Subjects: Asia; International business; Management of change; Organizational design; Strategy formulation; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management

Source: Harvard
Ownership Structure in Professional Service Firms: Partnership vs. Public Corporation
Add View 9 pp. Case
Author(s): Nanda, Ashish; Prusiner, Lauren
Publication Date: 10/02/2004 Revision Date: 07/10/2006
Product Type: Note
HBS Number: 9-905-038
Industry Setting: Professional services
Subjects: Acquisitions; Capital structure; Leadership; Organizational design; Partnerships; Professionals
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: This case reviews the relative merits of partnership and public ownership structures in professional services firms. It also evaluates the various rationales for converting partnership professional services firms to publicly owned firms. Finally, the case highlights the leadership challenges associated with making conversions from partnership to public structure successful.

Source: Harvard
Patching: Restitching Business Portfolios in Dynamic Markets
Add View 12 pp. Article
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.; Brown, Shona L.
In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this la
HBS Number: 99303 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 5/1/1999
Subjects: Corporate strategy; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Reorganization; Strategy formulation; Strategy implementation

Source: Harvard
People Express (A)
Add View 25 pp. Case
Author(s): Schlesinger, Leonard A.; Whitestone, Debr
Publication Date: 04/18/1983 Revision Date: 10/25/2000
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Describes the start up, strategy, organizational design, and operations over the first eighteen months of the airline. Focuses on the creative use of human resources as an integral part of the business strategy.
HBS Number: 9-483-103
Geographic Setting: New Jersey Industry Setting: airline
Company Size: start-up Gross Revenues: $100 million assets
Event Year Start: 1982 Event Year End: 1983
Subjects: Airlines; Development stage enterprises; Human resources management; Organizational design; Services
Academic Discipline: Human resources management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Library), (9-487-043), 3p, by D. Quinn Mills, Gary Bruce Friesen; Supplement (Library), (9-487-044), 2p, by D. Quinn Mills, Gary Bruce Friesen; Supplement (Library), (9-487-054), 6p, by Charles C. Heckscher; Supplement (Library), (9-489-022), 6p, by D. Quinn Mills, Gary Bruce Friesen; Teaching Note, (5-485-112), 8p, by Leonard A. Schlesinger, Debra Whitestone; Teaching Note, (5-486-004), 5p, by Jeffrey A. Sonnenfeld, Cynthia A. Ingols; Case Video, (9-885-515), 15 min, by Leonard A. Schlesinger; Case Video, (9-885-516), 35 min, by Leonard A. Schlesinger

Source: Harvard
People Express Airlines: Rise and Decline
Added View 23 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael
Publication Date: 03/01/1990 Revision Date: 09/14/1993
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Describes the innovative approach to organizing and managing employees by People Express and describes the company’s eventual demise. This material can be used to inform about leading edge human resource management practices and to raise questions about what went wrong. Why did People Express succeed in its early years and why did it ultimately fail?
HBS Number: 9-490-012
Geographic Setting: Unspecified Industry Setting: airline
Subjects: Airlines; Corporate culture; Human resources management; Leadership; Organizational design; Organizational development; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Human resources management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-491-080), 5p, by Michael Beer, Gary Loveman; Case Video, (9-890-507), 15 min, by Michael Beer, Philip Holland; Case Video, (9-890-508), 20 min, by Michael Beer, Philip Holland

Source: Harvard
Pine Street Initiative at Goldman Sachs
Add View 38 pp. Case
Author(s): Groysberg, Boris; Snook, Scott; Lane, David
Publication Date: 11/14/2006
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-407-053
Geographic Setting: New York, NY Industry Setting: Investment banking; Professional services Number of Employees: 21,000 Gross Revenues: $20 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 2005 Event Year End: 2005
Subjects: Growth strategy; Human resources management; Leadership development; Management development; Management training; Organizational design
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: Almost five years had passed since Goldman Sachs launched its innovative leadership development initiative called Pine Street. Focused primarily on developing Goldman’s most senior managers, Pine Street had evolved significantly since its inception in November of 1999. Looking forward, there were a number of challenges. How would Pine Street remain valued in a culture where what you did yesterday doesn‘t matter much? The question every day is “What will you do for me today?” Early in May 2005, members of the Pine Street Board of Directors gathered for their quarterly meeting to address the dimensions of this challenge: First, its curriculum had to maintain the interest of an increasingly demanding internal clientele. Second, program content had to keep pace with the constantly changing requirements of a rapidly shifting competitive and regulator landscape. Third, Pine Street itself had to pursue creative ways of renewing its structure and people without compromising either its mission or its unique culture. Fourth, Pine Street had to retain the continued support of Goldman Sachs’ senior leadership. Finally, as program offerings grew, so did fundamental questions of identity: After five years of evolutionary growth, what did the Pine Street brand mean to Goldman Sachs?

Source: Harvard
Planning with People in Mind
Add View 10 pp. Article
Mills, D. Quinn
Many American companies have begun to plan for their professional, managerial, and technical personnel. The most critical element is management’s appreciation for the ways in which its human resource decisions affect the company‘s ability to achieve its business plans—and vice versa. Designing and strengthening work programs, assessing the corporate culture, and modifying or reinforcing it from the top are among the ways human resource planners target performance objectives.
HBS Number: 85414 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 7/1/1985
Subjects: Corporate culture; Human resources management; Organizational design; Planning

Source: Harvard
Problems of Matrix Organizations
Add View 11 pp. Article
Davis, Stanley M.; Lawrence, Paul R.
A study of a number of companies employing some form of matrix reveals nine pathologies to which the matrix design is particularly vulnerable, along with prevention and treatment methods. Often there is a mistaken belief that matrix management is the same as group decision making, and there are tendencies toward anarchy and power struggles. The layering of a matrix can frequently result from the dynamics of power rather than from the logic of design, and there is a tendency for matrixes to sink to group and division levels.
HBS Number: 78303 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 5/1/1978
Subjects: Matrix organization; Organizational design

Source: Harvard
Procter & Gamble: Organization 2005 (A)
Add View 25 pp. Case
Author(s): Piskorski, Mikolaj Jan; Spadini, Alessandro L.
Publication Date: 11/20/2006
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-707-401
Industry Setting: Consumer products Number of Employees: 100,000 Gross Revenues: $40 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 2000 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Corporate strategy; Decentralization; Diversified companies; Matrix organization; Organizational change; Organizational design; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-707-402), 11p, by Mikolaj Jan Piskorski, Alessandro L. Spadini
Product Description: In response to a huge crisis in 2000, the new CEO of Procter & Gamble has to decide whether to continue with an unusual organizational design or to revert to the old matrix organization. Describes all the organizational designs used by Procter & Gamble from the 1920s onward, including geographic, product, and matrix architectures. Market development organizations, global business units, and global business services unit, each of which is heavily interdependent with the others and none of which has a clear decision-making advantage, comprise the unusual organizational design. Examination of the different organizational designs, trade-offs associated with each organizational architecture as well as the accompanying implementation problems.

Source: Harvard
Add View 23 pp. Case
Author(s): Piskorski, Mikolaj Jan; Spadini, Alessandro L.
Publication Date: 01/23/2007 Revision Date: 10/04/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-707-519
Industry Setting: Consumer products Number of Employees: 100,000 Gross Revenues: $40 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 2000 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Corporate strategy; Decentralization; Diversified companies; Matrix organization; Organizational change; Organizational design; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-707-402), 11p, by Mikolaj Jan Piskorski, Alessandro L. Spadini; Teaching Note, (5-708-450), 40p, by Mikolaj Jan Piskorski
Product Description: In response to a huge crisis in 2000, the new CEO of Procter & Gamble has to decide whether to continue with an unusual organizational design or to revert to the old matrix organization. Describes all the organizational designs used by Procter & Gamble from the 1920s onward, including geographic, product, and matrix architectures. Market development organizations, global business units, and global business services unit, each of which is heavily interdependent with the others and none of which has a clear decision-making advantage, comprise the unusual organizational design. Examination of the different organizational designs, trade-offs associated with each organizational architecture as well as the accompanying implementation problems.

Source: Harvard
Procter & Gamble: Organization 2005 (B)
Add View 11 pp. Case
Author(s): Piskorski, Mikolaj Jan; Spadini, Alessandro L.
Publication Date: 11/20/2006 Revision Date: 11/16/2007
Product Type: Supplement (Field)
HBS Number: 9-707-402
Subjects: Corporate strategy; Decentralization; Diversified companies; Matrix organization; Organizational change; Organizational design; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-708-450), 40p, by Mikolaj Jan Piskorski
Product Description: An abstract is not available for this product. Must be used with: (9-707-519) Procter & Gamble: Organization 2005 (A).

Source: Harvard
PROCTER & GAMBLE CANADA (A): THE FEBREZE DECISION
Add View 6 pp. Case
White RE; Mark K
Procter & Gamble reorganized its operations and created Global Business Units with Market Development Organizations (MDO) to augment the brand strategy work. This reorganization supported changes in culture that included reasonable risk taking. Themarketing director of Procter & Gamble Canada was evaluating the potential success of launching a new product, Febreze, by using volume analysis resources available to her. The results indicated that Febreze would be a relatively small businessopportunity, but the model could not take into account the various new MDO marketing tools that were not yet available. To justify the cost of launching the product, revenues would have to be significantly more than the volume model predicted.While trying to adjust to the new culture, she had to evaluate the risks associated with launching the product not knowing if the new tools would generate the additional volumes needed, and the risk of losing the competitive edge if she postponed thelaunch. A 30-minute video, product 7B00M005, is also available. The second case in this series, Procter & Gamble Canada (B): The Canadian MDO (product 9B00M006) discusses the strategy behind the changes and the implications to the Canadian group.
Ivey Number: 9B00M005
Publication Date: 25/01/2001
Geographic Setting: Canada Industry Setting: Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries
Company Size: Large organization
Event Year Start: 1999
Subjects: Reorganization, Organizational Design, Strategic Planning, Strategy Development
Functional Area: General Management

Source: Ivey
PROCTER & GAMBLE CANADA (B): THE CANADIAN MDO
Add View 6 pp. Case
White RE; Mark K
Organization 2005, the latest initiative by Procter & Gamble (P&G) worldwide, was put in place to help double revenue growth between 2000 and 2005. The reorganization aligned the company so that planning and managing the lines of business were doneon a global basis. The company’s culture, its structure and how work would be done were three key items that would be impacted by the changes. The newly appointed president of P&G Canada reflected on the strategy behind the changes, theimplications of the organizational change, and the message he wanted to deliver as he prepared to address the Canadian employees. A 30-minute video is also available. The first case in this series, Procter & Gamble Canada (A): The Febreze Decision (product 9B00M005) discusses the challenges faced by the marketing director of P&G Canada while launching a new product during these changes.
Ivey Number: 9B00M006
Publication Date: 25/01/2001
Geographic Setting: Canada Industry Setting: Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries
Company Size: Large organization
Event Year Start: 1999
Subjects: Reorganization, Organizational Design, Strategic Planning, Strategy Development
Functional Area: General Management

Source: Ivey
Procter & Gamble: Improving Consumer Value Through Process Redesign
Add View 20 pp. Case
Author(s): McKenney, James L.; Clark, Theodore H.
Publication Date: 03/31/1995
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Traces the evolution of P&G’s development of ECR: A series of trials; a conscious effort to distribute diapers on the basis of product movement; a conscious effort to move to a new means of distribution across all lines; a first cut at a new system; and finally, the development of the existing mix of integrated IT systems linking the value chain from factory to shelf. Teaching Purpose: Explores: 1) Issues in creating dramatically new means of doing business with IT. 2) The importance of organizational change and taking a system-wide point of view.
HBS Number: 9-195-126
Geographic Setting: Cincinnati, OH Industry Setting: grocery products
Company Size: Fortune 500 Gross Revenues: $30 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1993 Event Year End: 1993
Subjects: Information technology; Logistics; Organizational design; Process analysis; Vertical integration
Academic Discipline: Management of information systems
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-396-083), 3p, by F. Warren McFarlan

Source: Harvard
Promise-Based Management: The Essence of Execution
Add View 16 pp. Article
Author(s): Sull, Donald N.; Spinosa, Charles
Publication Date: 04/01/2007
Product Type: Harvard Business Review Article
HBS Number: R0704E
Subjects: Customer satisfaction; Management communication; Managerial behavior; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Stakeholders; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: Critical initiatives stall for a variety of reasons — employee disengagement, a lack of coordination between functions, complex organizational structures that obscure accountability, and so on. To overcome such obstacles, managers must fundamentally rethink how work gets done. Most of the challenges stem from broken or poorly crafted commitments. That’s because every company is, at its heart, a dynamic network of promises made between employees and colleagues, customers, outsourcing partners, or other stakeholders. Executives can overcome many problems in the short term and foster productive, reliable workforces for the long term by practicing what the authors call “promise-based management,” which involves cultivating and coordinating commitments in a systematic way. Good promises share five qualities: They are public, active, voluntary, explicit, and mission based. To develop and execute an effective promise, the “provider” and the “customer” in the deal should go through three phases of conversation. The first, achieving a meeting of minds, entails exploring the fundamental questions of coordinated effort: What do you mean? Do you understand what I mean? What should I do? What will you do? Who else should we talk to? In the next phase, making it happen, the provider executes on the promise. In the final phase, closing the loop, the customer publicly declares that the provider has either delivered the goods or failed to do so. Leaders must weave and manage their webs of promise

Source: Harvard
Putting the Organization on Wheels: Workplace Design at SEI
Add View 17 pp. Article
Author(s): West, Alfred P., Jr.; Wind, Yoram (Jerry)
Publication Date: 02/01/2007
Product Type: CMR Article
Publisher: California Management Review
HBS Number: CMR362
Subjects: Creativity; Facilities; Facilities planning; Innovation; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Work environments; Working conditions
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Product Description: To create an environment to embody a culture of flexibility, egalitarianism, teamwork, and entrepreneurship, SEI Investments built a distinctive headquarters. The offices are open and desks are on wheels, making it easy for teams to interact and quickly reorganize. The walls are lined with an extensive collection of contemporary art to invite creativity and debate. Building an environment that embodies its culture has helped SEI achieve rapid financial growth and facilitated business model innovation. Examines some of the lessons from this bold experiment in how physical structure can follow strategy.

Source: Harvard
Realizing the Promise of E-Business: Developing and Leveraging Electronic Partnering Options
Add View 26 pp. Article
Author(s): Chatterjee, Debabroto; Segars, Albert H.; Watson, Richard T.
Publication Date: 08/01/2006
Product Type: CMR Article
Publisher: California Management Review
HBS Number: CMR345
Industry Setting: E-commerce; IT industry
Subjects: Business to business; Electronic commerce; Internet; Organizational design; Partnerships; Supply chain
Academic Discipline: Management of information systems
Product Description: The advent of superior connectivity and integration technologies is paving the way for flexible electronic partnering options. Such flexibility is essential if a company wants to attract a large number of partners (with varying connectivity needs and preferences) to its supply chain network. This article conceptualizes 12 electronic partnering options. It then discusses the various types of sensemaking and conversion challenges that companies encounter in developing this critical electronic business (e-business) capability and proposes a multi-pronged approach to effectively deal with them. This approach involves four distinct but synergistic campaigns of digitization — strategic congruency, organizational design, technology infrastructure, and relational campaigns. The utility of this approach is illustrated by examples of successful business-to-business (B2B) digitization initiatives.

Source: Harvard
Reverse Engineering Google’s Innovation Machine
Add View 16 pp. Article
Author(s): Iyer, Bala; Davenport, Thomas H.
Publication Date: 04/01/2008
Product Type: Harvard Business Review Article
HBS Number: R0804C
Industry Setting: Internet & online services industries
Subjects: Corporate culture; Creativity; Data management; Experimentation; Innovation; Organizational design; Process innovation
Academic Discipline: General management
Product Description: Even among internet companies, Google stands out as an enterprise designed with the explicit goal of succeeding at rapid, profuse innovation. Much of what the company does is rooted in its legendary IT infrastructure, but technology and strategy at Google are inseparable and mutually permeable — making it hard to say whether technology is the DNA of its strategy or the other way around. Whichever it is, Iyer and Davenport, of Babson College, believe Google may well be the internet-era heir to such companies as General Electric and IBM as an exemplar of management practice. Google has spent billions of dollars creating its internet-based operating platform and developing proprietary technology that allows the company to rapidly develop and roll out new services of its own or its partners’ devising. As owner and operator of its innovation “ecosystem,” Google can control the platform‘s evolution and claim a disproportionate percentage of the value created within it. Because every transaction is performed through the platform, the company has perfect, continuous awareness of, and access to, the by-product information and is the hub of all germinal revenue streams. In addition to technology explicitly designed and built for innovation, Google has a well-considered organizational and cultural strategy that helps the company attract the most talented people in the land — and keep them working hard. For instance, Google budgets innovation into job descriptions, eliminates friction from development pr

Source: Harvard
Richard Jenkins
Add View 4 pp. Case
Author(s): Gabarro, John J.; Burtis, Andrew
Publication Date: 02/28/1994 Revision Date: 07/17/2007
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-494-113
Geographic Setting: New England Industry Setting: Telephone industry Company Size: small Number of Employees: 51
Subjects: Interpersonal relations; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Subsidiaries; Superior & subordinate
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-496-046), 10p, by John J. Gabarro, Judith Maas
Product Description: Written from the point of view of Richard Jenkins, the president of CelluComm. Presents his reflections on the series of events leading to the firing of one of CelluComm’s general managers, Erik Peterson. A rewritten version of an earlier case. May be used with: (9-494-005) Erik Peterson (A).

Source: Harvard
SCORE! Educational Centers (A)
Add View 27 pp. Case
Burton, M. Diane; Bradach, Jeffrey L.; Atkins, Naomi
Describes the start-up, strategy, organizational design, and operations of SCORE! Educational Centers, an after-school tutoring enterprise. Alan Tripp, founder and CEO, is faced with growing organizational stresses and a looming venture capital deadline. Examines Tripp’s leadership, management style, and strategy. Focuses on the steps Tripp takes to build the company into a viable organization. Teaching Purpose: Allows for discussion of organizational alignment. May be used with: (9-499-059) SCORE! Educational Centers (D).
HBS Number: 9-499-056 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 3/18/1999 Revision Date: 8/2/1999
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: supplemental education/learning center Number of Employees: 200
Event Year Start: 1992 Event Year End: 1995
Subjects: California Research Center; Education; Entrepreneurship; Leadership; Management styles; Managerial skills; Organizational behavior; Organizational design
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-499-057), 1p, by M. Diane Burton, Jeffrey L. Bradach, Naomi Atkins; Supplement (Field), (9-499-058), 1p, by M. Diane Burton, Jeffrey L. Bradach, Naomi Atkins; Supplement (Field), (9-499-060), 3p, by M. Diane Burton, Naomi Atkins; Teaching Note, (5-400-009), 26p, by M. Diane Burton, Stephanie Woerner; Case Video, (9-400-504), 21 min, by M. Diane Burton

Source: Harvard
SCORE! Educational Centers (D)
Add View 22 pp. Case
Burton, M. Diane; Bradach, Jeffrey L.; Atkins, Naomi
Describes Rob Waldron’s actions upon assuming leadership of SCORE! Educational Centers, an after-school tutoring enterprise. Examines the issue of acquiring and growing a small, self-owned company into a professional organization. Focuses on the steps Waldron takes to address a growing employee morale problem. Concludes as Waldron must decide whether or not to alter the company‘s recruiting strategy. May be used with: (9-499-056) SCORE! Educational Centers (A).
HBS Number: 9-499-059 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 3/18/1999 Revision Date: 8/2/1999
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: supplemental education/learning center Number of Employees: 200
Event Year Start: 1996 Event Year End: 1998
Subjects: California Research Center; Education; Entrepreneurship; Leadership; Management styles; Managerial skills; Organizational behavior; Organizational design
Supplementary Materials: Case Video, (9-400-504), 21 min, by M. Diane Burton; Supplement (Field), (9-499-060), 3p, by M. Diane Burton, Naomi Atkins; Teaching Note, (5-400-009), 26p, by M. Diane Burton, Stephanie Woerner

Source: Harvard
Sedalia Engine Plant (A)
Add View 24 pp. Case
Beer, Michael; Spector, Bert A.
The new plant manager must deal with the problems and potentials contained in this highly participatory management style plant.
HBS Number: 9-481-148 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 3/1/1981 Revision Date: 4/27/1993
Geographic Setting: Sedalia, MN Industry Setting: diesel engine production Number of Employees: 900
Event Year Start: 1974 Event Year End: 1979
Subjects: Employee empowerment; Human resources management; Industrial goods; Job satisfaction; Labor relations; Machinery; Organizational design; Participatory management; Plant management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-485-020), 18p, by Michael Beer, Bert A. Spector; Teaching Note, (5-683-034), 6p, by Kim B. Clark; Case Video, (9-884-522), 20 min, by Michael Beer, Bert A. Spector

Source: Harvard
Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy
Add View 37 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2408BC
Subjects: Corporate culture; Leadership; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Performance management; Resistance; Strategy implementation; Vision
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Two critical tasks of senior managers are determining how individuals should act within their organization and then creating the necessary conditions for them to act in the desired way. This chapter focuses on the last of the four Cs of organization design: analyzing the level of commitment to others that is needed to support organizational strategy. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
Simon Salvage Company: A Family-Owned Business
Add View 15 pp. Case
Author(s): Kathleen Gurley, Assad Tavakoli
Publication Date: 2007
Subjects: Small Business; Organizational Design
Description: Martin and Paul Simon, co-owners of Simon Salvage Company, inherited the family business a few years ago. Since their father’s death the two brothers have not been able to resolve their roles in the company resulting in a lack of clear leadership. Martin who has worked in the company his entire career is frustrated with his inability to get Paul to agree on operational improvements. Martin engaged an MBA team to analyze the business and make recommendations hoping that Paul would be more receptive to an objective opinion. The MBA team identified the lack of integration across the company‘s three facilities as one of the major problems and recommended improvements in inventory management and production scheduling systems as well as a change in the organizational structure. The MBA team was clear that the root cause of the company’s declining profits was the brothers’ dysfunctional relationship and recommended several steps the brothers could take to resolve the leadership dilemma. After the team’s presentation, Martin ponders the team’s recommendations and evaluates their feasibility. Martin and Paul are to meet the next day to make decisions about the future of the company.

Source: NACRA
Add View 19 pp. Teaching Note
Source: NACRA
SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division
Add View 19 pp. Case
Beer, Michael; Tushman, Michael L.
Describes a division of SMA with financial and organizational problems. Conflict and lack of coordination exist between functional groups. Employees do not have a sense of direction and morale is low. The cause of these problems is found in a change in business environment followed by change in organization and management. Teaching Purpose: Can be used for analysis of organization-environment relationships and action planning for change and environment. A rewritten version of an earlier case.
HBS Number: 9-400-034 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 7/20/1999
Geographic Setting: Switzerland Industry Setting: electronic manufacturing Number of Employees: 1,200 Gross Revenues: SFr 134 million
Event Year Start: 1990 Event Year End: 1990
Subjects: Business conditions; Implementation; Management of change; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational development; Switzerland

Source: Harvard
SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (A)
Add View 19 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael; Tushman, Michael L.
Publication Date: 05/10/2000 Revision Date: 12/15/2005
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: The Micro-Electronic Products Division of SMA has financial and organizational problems. Conflict and lack of coordination exist between functional groups. Employees do not have a sense of direction and morale is low. The cause of these problems is found in a change in business environment followed by change in organization and management. A rewritten version of an earlier case. May be used with: (9-400-085) SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (B).
HBS Number: 9-400-084
Geographic Setting: Switzerland Industry Setting: Electronics industry Number of Employees: 1,200
Event Year Start: 1990 Event Year End: 1990
Subjects: Business conditions; Change management; Electronics; Employee morale; Implementation; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational development
Academic Discipline: Human resources management

Source: Harvard
SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (B)
Add View 14 pp. Case
Author(s): Beer, Michael; Tushman, Michael L.
Publication Date: 05/10/2000 Revision Date: 11/14/2005
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Focuses on the recommendations and implementation strategy suggested by the organizational development group for the division’s problems. A rewritten version of an earlier case. May be used with: (9-400-084) SMA: Micro-Electronic Products Division (A).
HBS Number: 9-400-085
Geographic Setting: Switzerland Industry Setting: Electronics industry Number of Employees: 1,200
Event Year Start: 1999 Event Year End: 1999
Subjects: Business conditions; Change management; Electronics; Employee morale; Implementation; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational development
Academic Discipline: Human resources management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-400-086), 5p, by Michael Beer, Michael L. Tushman

Source: Harvard
Space Data Corp.
Add View 29 pp. Case
Author(s): MacCormack, Alan; Wynn, Jay
Publication Date: 01/18/2002 Revision Date: 04/09/2002
Product Type: Color Case
HBS Number: 602121
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: Telecommunications industry Company Size: start-up Number of Employees: 20
Event Year Start: 1995 Event Year End: 2001
Subjects: Entrepreneurship; High technology products; Innovation; Market selection; Organizational design; Product development; Technology; Telecommunications
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Supplementary Materials: Miscellaneous Educational Material, (602803), 11 min, by Alan MacCormack; Teaching Note, (602149), 37p, by Alan MacCormack
Product Description: Space Data Corp. plans to partner with the U.S. National Weather Service to place transceivers on weather balloons and thereby create a national mobile communications network. The company is in the late development stages and is planning to launch a regional test that will demonstrate its ability to provide paging and messaging. It intends to sell its service to existing mobile carriers, such as Skytel and Verizon, rather than directly to end users. This case illustrates how Space Data has applied flexible business processes throughout its initial market research and technology development to create a system that can make optimal use of its limited resources and respond rapidly to changing conditions. As the case concludes, the executive team at Space Data faces three opportunities, each with very different costs and benefits for the company. It can proceed with a regional test of paging and messaging as planned, leap forward to develop a more complex but potentially more lucrative voice service (forgoing a regional test), or make a transition to the small but financially stable telemetry market. Includes color exhibits.

Source: Harvard
STAR 2003
Add View 13 pp. Case
Author(s): Piper, Thomas R.
Publication Date: 11/20/2003 Revision Date: 07/24/2006
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-204-014
Geographic Setting: Asia Industry Setting: Broadcasting industry; Media Number of Employees: 1,000 Gross Revenues: $440 million revenues
Event Year Start: 2001 Event Year End: 2003
Subjects: Decentralization; Executives; Organizational change; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Restructuring
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: A shift in strategy from broadcasting standardized programs throughout its footprint to localized programming necessitates a review of STAR’s organizational structure. Growing complexity and a need for local responsiveness point toward adoption of a country-based organizational structure. The question arises concerning the systems that must be in place if headquarters is truly to decentralize decision rights. The case also raises the issue of the need for senior executives at corporate to redefine their roles. May be used with: (95211) Control in an Age of Empowerment; (98308) Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow.

Source: Harvard
Strategic Sales Management: A Boardroom Issue
Add View 23 pp. Case
Author(s): Shapiro, Benson P.; Slywotzky, Adrian J.;
Publication Date: 11/29/1994 Revision Date: 05/06/1998
Product Type: Note
Product Description: Explains why sales management has become an increasingly important and complex topic for top managers. Demonstrates the financial impact of a superior salesforce and then describes a way to gain superiority. The focus is on a salesforce that is responsive to customer needs and competing imperatives. Organization and management receive careful attention. Teaching Purpose: Designed to help executives and MBAs understand the importance of a strategic sales management perspective and how to achieve superior salesforce performance.
HBS Number: 9-595-018
Subjects: Marketing implementation; Organizational design; Sales management; Sales organization; Sales strategy
Academic Discipline: Marketing

Source: Harvard
Strike in Space
Add View 16 pp. Case
Author(s): McCaskey, Michael B.; Balbaky, E. Mary Lou
Publication Date: 07/01/1980 Revision Date: 11/01/1981
Product Type: Case (Library)
Product Description: A three-man skylab crew, after repeatedly unsuccessful attempts to influence Houston Mission Control to slow down the work pace, turns off radio communication and refuses to talk. Questions for the class: What leads up to this break? How does one repair it?
HBS Number: 9-481-008
Geographic Setting: Houston, TX Industry Setting: aerospace
Event Year Start: 1973 Event Year End: 1973
Subjects: Aerospace industry; Organizational design; Professionals; Project management; Public policy
Academic Discipline: Human resources management

Source: Harvard
Taco Bell, Inc.—1983-94
Add View 17 pp. Case
Author(s): Applegate, Lynda M.; Schlesinger, Leonard
Publication Date: 05/02/1998 Revision Date: 10/24/2001
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Details the actions of John Martin, newly-named CEO, as he leads Taco Bell through a decade of incremental and radical changes. By the end of the case, total system sales within Taco Bell, a Mexican style fast-food restaurant chain and a division of PepsiCo, have grown from $700 million in 1983 to $3.9 billion in 1994, and the company is managing over 10,000 eat-in restaurants and a wide variety of other retail sites around the world. Teaching Purpose: To illustrate the process of organization and industry transformation. To discuss the characteristics of the high-performance, information-age organization.
HBS Number: 9-398-129
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: fast food
Company Size: large Gross Revenues: $3.9 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1983 Event Year End: 1994
Subjects: Fast food industry; Information age; Information technology; Organizational design; Restaurants; Service management; Strategy implementation
Academic Discipline: General management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-399-096), 13p, by Lynda M. Applegate

Source: Harvard
TALBOT UNIVERSITY: THE SUPPLY DEPARTMENT
Add View 14 pp. Case
Dietz J; Erskine JA; Leenders MR
Budget pressures were forcing Talbot University’s supply department to reduce its costs. While the workload remained high, the department head wondered how to reorganize the department and the work processes so that the work could be done within areduced budget. Working towards a solution, he needed to apply principles of organization design to improve the efficiency of the department and then develop an action plan for the required organizational changes.
Ivey Number: 9B00C024
Publication Date: 5/2/2001 Revision Date: 7/11/2001
Geographic Setting: Canada Industry Setting: Educational Services
Company Size: Large organization
Event Year Start: 2000
Subjects: Organizational Change, Organizational Design, Organizational Structure
Functional Area: Human Resource Management

Source: Ivey
Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs
Add View 18 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2403BC
Subjects: Accountability; Organizational behavior; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Strategy execution; Strategy formulation; Vision
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: To be fully effective, all managers must understand the implications of the organization design choices on their business units. This chapter makes the case for the development of a new theory of organization design by reviewing the tensions that today’s managers must navigate to succeed in designing or redesigning organizations for enduring performance. May be used with: (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2405BC) Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
The Atchison Corp. (A)
Add View 4 pp. Case
Author(s): Bower, Joseph L.
Publication Date: 08/23/2000 Revision Date: 12/19/2002
Product Type: Case (Gen Exp)
Product Description: A new general manager uses a profit-center based system to shake up an old line company. He then faces the task of placating a board member upset by the human consequences. Teaching Purpose: To introduce the tools of change from a general management perspective. A rewritten version of an earlier case.
HBS Number: 9-301-020
Geographic Setting: United States Industry Setting: consumer products Gross Revenues: $2 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1995 Event Year End: 1995
Subjects: Incentives; Management of change; Organizational change; Organizational design; Profit centers
Academic Discipline: General management
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Gen Exp), (9-301-021), 2p, by Joseph L. Bower; Supplement (Gen Exp), (9-301-022), 2p, by Joseph L. Bower

Source: Harvard
The Atchison Corp. (B)
Add View 2 pp. Case
Author(s): Bower, Joseph L.
Publication Date: 08/23/2000
Product Type: Supplement (Gen Exp)
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. A rewritten version of an earlier supplement. Must be used with: (9-301-020) The Atchison Corp. (A).
HBS Number: 9-301-021
Subjects: Incentives; Management of change; Organizational change; Organizational design; Profit centers
Academic Discipline: General management

Source: Harvard
The Atchison Corp. (C)
Add View 2 pp. Case
Author(s): Bower, Joseph L.
Publication Date: 08/23/2000
Product Type: Supplement (Gen Exp)
Product Description: Supplements the (A) case. A rewritten version of an earlier supplement. Must be used with: (9-301-020) The Atchison Corp. (A).
HBS Number: 9-301-022
Subjects: Incentives; Management of change; Organizational change; Organizational design; Profit centers
Academic Discipline: General management

Source: Harvard
The Attack on Pay
Add View 9 pp. Article
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss
Traditional compensation systems that value status instead of contribution do not reward the entrepreneurial activity U.S. companies need. They’re also unfair, costly, and inefficient. Now U.S. employers are changing their pay practices to forge better links between compensation and performance. Traditional ideas about hierarchy come into question every time one of these changes is made, so attacks on pay that look like fine-tuning are actually revolutionary in what they portend for organizational design.
HBS Number: 87209 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 3/1/1987
Subjects: Executive compensation; Organizational design

Source: Harvard
The Four Faces of Mass Customization
Add View 16 pp. Article
Gilmore, James; Pine, B. Joseph, II
Virtually all executives today recognize the need to provide outstanding service to customers. Focusing on the customer, however, is both an imperative and a potential curse. Companies around the world have embraced mass customization in an attempt to avoid pitfalls. But many managers have discovered that mass customization itself can produce unnecessary cost and complexity. They are realizing that they did not examine thoroughly enough what kind of customization their customers would value before they plunged ahead. In this article, the authors provide a framework to help managers determine the type of customization they should pursue.
HBS Number: 97103 Type: Harvard Business Review Article
Publication Date: 1/1/1997
Subjects: Customer service; Marketing strategy; Operations management; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Product design; Service management

Source: Harvard
The Multiunit Enterprise
Add View 16 pp. Article
Author(s): Garvin, David A.; Levesque, Lynne C.
Publication Date: 06/01/2008
Product Type: Harvard Business Review Article
HBS Number: R0806G
Subjects: Managers; Organizational design
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Product Description: A multiunit enterprise is a geographically dispersed organization built from standard units (stores, restaurants, or branches) that are aggregated into larger geographic groupings (districts, regions, and divisions). Although this organizational structure has become the norm in several industries, it has received little attention from academics and consultants. Garvin and Levesque set out to fill that gap in management thinking with their research. The authors closely studied the office supply company Staples for two years and then collected data from 12 other multiunit enterprises. In this article, they discuss the unique problems that such corporations face, describe how managers tackle those challenges, and offer lessons that will help all types of organizations execute strategy. In a multiunit enterprise, four tiers of management constitute the field organization: store, district, regional, and divisional heads. All these managers are responsible for meeting targets set by corporate headquarters and implementing strategy. To do so, they adhere to five principles of organizational design. First, the field organization’s different tiers have overlapping responsibilities; together they create a multilayered net to catch any problems that arise. Second, managers at all levels serve as integrators, coordinating diverse activities and optimizing the efforts of the whole organization rather than its parts. Third, higher-level managers filter data from headquarters to frontline managers, who otherwise might feel overwhelmed by a constant stream of initiatives. Fourth, regional and divisional heads in particular act as translators, defining in concrete term

Source: Harvard
Ticonderoga Public Utilities
Add View 9 pp. Case
Charlotte S. Stephens, William N. Ledbetter Anticipating continuing deregulation of the public utility industry, the president of Ticonderoga sees a need for organization-wide change. He looks to the chief information officer to begin the change process by reorganizing the Information Resource Organization (IRO) for the TPU holding company and its subsidiaries, some of whose presidents oppose the restructuring.
Source: North American Case Research Association, Case Research Journal, Summer 1993, Vol. 13, Issue 3. Copyright 1993.
Courses: Computer Information Systems
Topics:

Source: NACRA
Transformation at Ernst & Young, United Kingdom
Add View 16 pp. Case
Gabarro, John J.; Graff, Samantha K.
Describes a major organizational transformation process at Ernst & Young, United Kingdom, and the events leading up to the first deal since its introduction. Raises questions of leadership, organizational design, and organizational change.
HBS Number: 9-498-049 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 1/5/1998
Geographic Setting: United Kingdom Industry Setting: accounting Number of Employees: 6,000 Gross Revenues: $500 million revenues
Subjects: Business services; Leadership; Management of change; Management of professionals; Organizational change; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Reorganization; United Kingdom

Source: Harvard
Unit Structure: Defining a Primary Customer as a Basis for Organizational Architecture
Add View 52 pp. Article
Author(s): Simons, Robert
Publication Date: 06/16/2005
Product Type: HBS Press Chapter
HBS Number: 2405BC
Subjects: Accountability; Customers; Financial management; Organizational design; Organizational structure; Performance management; Strategy alignment; Strategy formulation
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Product Description: Grouping work units according to specific criteria is one of the most vexing problems of organization design. This chapter offers an approach to solve the organization structure problem by analyzing the first of the four Cs of organization design: customer definition. May be used with: (2403BC) The Tensions of Organization Design: Optimizing Trade-offs; (2404BC) Aligning Span of Attention: The Goal of Organization Design; (2406BC) Diagnostic Control Systems: Determining Critical Performance Variables to Support Strategic Goals; (2407BC) Interactive Networks: Determining the Right Degree of Creative Tension to Support Business Strategy; (2408BC) Share Responsibilities: Managing Human Behavior to Advance Organizational Strategy; (2409BC) Adjusting the Levers: Three Examples: Levers of Organization Design at Work; (2410BC) Designing Organizations for Performance: The Alignment of Design and Strategy.

Source: Harvard
USA TODAY: Pursuing the Network Strategy (A)
Add View 18 pp. Case
Author(s): Tushman, Michael L.; Roberts, Michael J.; Kiron, David
Publication Date: 07/11/2001 Revision Date: 09/19/2005
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Describes the evolution of USA TODAY Online, the electronic version of the newspaper, within the organizational structure of the newspaper. Describes the tensions and issues that develop and the pressure from the Online division to be spun off. At the same time, CEO Tom Curley sees a greater strategic need for integration. Poses the question of what degree or type of strategic integration is required, what degree of organizational integration this implies, and how it can be achieved.
HBS Number: 9-402-010
Geographic Setting: Virginia Industry Setting: Newspaper Number of Employees: 3,000 Gross Revenues: $700 million revenues
Event Year Start: 2000 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Leadership; Newspapers; Organizational change; Organizational design; Teams
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-402-011), 5p, by Michael L. Tushman, Michael J. Roberts, David Kiron; Teaching Note, (5-802-229), 5p, by Michael J. Roberts, Michael L. Tushman

Source: Harvard
Vermeer Technologies (A): A Company Is Born
Add View 10 pp. Case
Author(s): Nanda, Ashish; Mahmood, Takia
Publication Date: 02/20/1997 Revision Date: 07/02/1997
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Charles Ferguson has just heard from a venture capital (VC) consortium that it is willing to finance Vermeer Technologies, a company he has co-founded for developing Internet software. The funds are sorely needed, but the VCs have imposed some onerous conditions, including a request that Vermeer’s first CEO be an outsider. Teaching Purpose: Identifies several tasks that need to be performed before a business idea can be realized as a business entity. Highlights the process of early product definition and the key role of employee selection in building an organization. May be used with: (9-397-080) Vermeer Technologies (B): Realizing the Dream; (9-397-081) Vermeer Technologies (C): Negotiating the Future; (9-397-082) Vermeer Technologies (D): Making Transitions; (9-397-085) Vermeer Technologies (E): New Beginning; (9-397-110) Vermeer Technologies (F): FrontPage 97.
HBS Number: 9-397-078
Geographic Setting: Cambridge, MA Industry Setting: computer software
Company Size: start-up Number of Employees: 10
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 1994
Subjects: Acquisitions; Business policy; Entrepreneurship; Organizational design; Personnel selection; Software; Venture capital
Academic Discipline: Entrepreneurship
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-397-079), 3p, by Ashish Nanda, Takia Mahmood; Case Video, (9-899-505), 15 min, by Ashish Nanda

Source: Harvard
Vermeer Technologies (A1): Hiring the CEO
Add View 3 pp. Case
Nanda, Ashish; Mahmood, Takia
Supplements the (A) case. Must be used with: (9-397-078) Vermeer Technologies (A): A Company Is Born.
HBS Number: 9-397-079 Type: Supplement (Field)
Publication Date: 2/20/1997 Revision Date: 7/2/1997
Subjects: Acquisitions; Business policy; Entrepreneurship; Organizational design; Personnel selection; Software; Venture capital

Source: Harvard
Vermeer Technologies (B): Realizing the Dream
Add View 10 pp. Case
Author(s): Nanda, Ashish; Levenson, Georgia
Publication Date: 05/27/1997 Revision Date: 07/02/1997
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: The Vermeer team works day and night to develop its software offering, unforeseen difficulties and internal tensions notwithstanding. In less than a year, the product is ready. The Vermeer team waits anxiously for the market to pronounce its verdict. Teaching Purpose: Exposes students to the intensity of the compressed development process characteristic of start-up companies, especially in the Internet business, in which speed is of the essence. May be used with: (9-397-078) Vermeer Technologies (A): A Company Is Born; (9-397-081) Vermeer Technologies (C): Negotiating the Future; (9-397-082) Vermeer Technologies (D): Making Transitions; (9-397-085) Vermeer Technologies (E): New Beginning; (9-397-110) Vermeer Technologies (F): FrontPage 97.
HBS Number: 9-397-080
Geographic Setting: Cambridge, MA Industry Setting: computer software
Company Size: start-up Number of Employees: 10
Event Year Start: 1994 Event Year End: 1994
Subjects: Acquisitions; Business policy; Entrepreneurship; Organizational design; Personnel selection; Software; Venture capital
Academic Discipline: Entrepreneurship
Supplementary Materials: Case Video, (9-899-506), 12 min, by Ashish Nanda; Case Video, (9-899-507), 23 min, by Ashish Nanda

Source: Harvard
Vermeer Technologies (C): Negotiating the Future
Add View 6 pp. Case
Author(s): Nanda, Ashish; Levenson, Georgia
Publication Date: 05/27/1997 Revision Date: 07/02/1997
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: The success of the Vermeer software offering suddenly transforms the start-up into a sought after company. After arduous negotiations, Vermeer management is faced with the choice of continuing as an independent company or being acquired by Microsoft or Netscape. Teaching Purpose: Requires students to make a critical decision, thus helping them understand the process of strategic decision making. A detailed description of Vermeer management’s approach during acquisition negotiations helps students reflect on negotiations strategy. May be used with: (9-397-078) Vermeer Technologies (A): A Company Is Born; (9-397-080) Vermeer Technologies (B): Realizing the Dream; (9-397-082) Vermeer Technologies (D): Making Transitions; (9-397-085) Vermeer Technologies (E): New Beginning; (9-397-110) Vermeer Technologies (F): FrontPage 97.
HBS Number: 9-397-081
Geographic Setting: Cambridge, MA/Redmond, WA Industry Setting: computer software
Event Year Start: 1995 Event Year End: 1995
Subjects: Acquisitions; Business policy; Entrepreneurship; Organizational design; Personnel selection; Software; Venture capital
Academic Discipline: Entrepreneurship
Supplementary Materials: Case Video, (9-899-507), 23 min, by Ashish Nanda; Teaching Note, (5-600-152), 13p, by Steven C. Wheelwright

Source: Harvard
Vermeer Technologies (D): Making Transitions
Add View 11 pp. Case
Author(s): Nanda, Ashish; Levenson, Georgia
Publication Date: 05/27/1997 Revision Date: 07/02/1997
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: Microsoft has acquired Vermeer, and Vermeer executives are both excited and concerned as they prepare to move to Redmond. Even though the acquisition has been financially rewarding, the Vermeer engineers worry how well they will adapt to their new home. Meanwhile, Chris Peters, their new boss, is trying to ensure a smooth integration of the Vermeer team into the Microsoft organization. Teaching Purpose: Allows students to examine the opportunities for value creation that effective acquisition integration offers as well as the risk of value destruction that ineffective integration can lead to. By critiquing the Microsoft-Vermeer acquisition process, the students come to appreciate the complexity of the process. May be used with: (9-397-078) Vermeer Technologies (A): A Company Is Born; (9-397-080) Vermeer Technologies (B): Realizing the Dream; (9-397-081) Vermeer Technologies (C): Negotiating the Future; (9-397-085) Vermeer Technologies (E): New Beginning; (9-397-110) Vermeer Technologies (F): FrontPage 97.
HBS Number: 9-397-082
Geographic Setting: Redmond, WA Industry Setting: computer software
Event Year Start: 1996 Event Year End: 1996
Subjects: Acquisitions; Business policy; Entrepreneurship; Organizational design; Personnel selection; Software; Venture capital
Academic Discipline: Entrepreneurship
Supplementary Materials: Case Video, (9-899-508), 8 min, by Ashish Nanda; Teaching Note, (5-600-152), 13p, by Steven C. Wheelwright

Source: Harvard
Vermeer Technologies (E): New Beginning
Add View 11 pp. Case
Author(s): Nanda, Ashish; Levenson, Georgia
Publication Date: 05/27/1997 Revision Date: 07/02/1997
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: The Vermeer team is pleasantly surprised by the benefits and hospitality that their new surroundings offer. Their happiness is tempered, however, by discomfort with some elements of the “Microsoft Way.” As the Vermeer engineers embark on a punishing schedule for the next release of their product, the Microsoft executives wonder whether the Vermeer team will be able to deliver on its promise. Teaching Purpose: Along with the (D) case, explores the complexity and promise of acquisition integration. By delineating the ‘’Microsoft Way,’‘ the case also highlights how this extremely successful company has tried to simultaneously achieve scale and speed, and efficiency and entrepreneurship in its operations. May be used with: (9-397-078) Vermeer Technologies (A): A Company Is Born; (9-397-080) Vermeer Technologies (B): Realizing the Dream; (9-397-081) Vermeer Technologies (C): Negotiating the Future; (9-397-082) Vermeer Technologies (D): Making Transitions; (9-397-110) Vermeer Technologies (F): FrontPage 97.
HBS Number: 9-397-085
Geographic Setting: Redmond, WA Industry Setting: computer software
Event Year Start: 1996 Event Year End: 1996
Subjects: Acquisitions; Business policy; Entrepreneurship; Organizational design; Personnel selection; Software; Venture capital
Academic Discipline: Entrepreneurship
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-600-152), 13p, by Steven C. Wheelwright

Source: Harvard
Vermeer Technologies (F): FrontPage 97
Add View 7 pp. Case
Nanda, Ashish; Levenson, Georgia
Vermeer engineers work at the breakneck pace of “Internet time” to develop the next version of their software product, winning accolades from Microsoft management. Even before this version ships, however, they are faced with another pu
HBS Number: 9-397-110 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 5/27/1997 Revision Date: 7/2/1997
Geographic Setting: Redmond, WA Industry Setting: computer software
Event Year Start: 1996 Event Year End: 1996
Subjects: Acquisitions; Business policy; Entrepreneurship; Organizational design; Personnel selection; Software; Venture capital
Supplementary Materials: Supplement (Field), (9-397-121), 1p, by Ashish Nanda, Georgia Levenson

Source: Harvard
Vermeer Technologies (G): Epilogue
Add View 1 pp. Case
Nanda, Ashish; Levenson, Georgia
Supplements the (F) case. Must be used with: (9-397-110) Vermeer Technologies (F): FrontPage 97.
HBS Number: 9-397-121 Type: Supplement (Field)
Publication Date: 5/19/1997 Revision Date: 7/2/1997
Geographic Setting: Redmond, WA Industry Setting: computer software Gross Revenues: 1996
Event Year Start: 1996
Subjects: Acquisitions; Business policy; Entrepreneurship; Organizational design; Personnel selection; Software; Venture capital

Source: Harvard
Volantis
Add View 27 pp. Case
Author(s): Barnett, William P.; Harkey, Mike
Publication Date: 05/15/2006
Product Type: Case (Field)
Publisher: Stanford University
HBS Number: E224
Geographic Setting: Seattle, WA; United Kingdom Industry Setting: Telecommunications industry Number of Employees: 130 Gross Revenues: $15 million revenues
Event Year Start: 2000 Event Year End: 2006
Subjects: Organizational design; Organizational structure; Technological change; Telecommunications; Venture capital
Academic Discipline: Competitive strategy
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (E224TN), 5p, by William P. Barnett, Mike Harkey
Product Description: Tracks the development of telecommunications software provider Volantis from its launch in 2000 to March 2006. The company’s investors and founders had mistimed its market opportunity and, by March 2006, had spent more than five years waiting for mass adoption of mobile data services. Its core product — a so-called intelligent content adapter — was directed at solving the telecommunications industry‘s most complex challenges. However, the company was losing over $400,000 per month, and it needed to act quickly with an updated organization plan to capitalize on its new business opportunities. One opportunity would leverage the company’s core infrastructure, but would require considerable investment and resources. A second opportunity risked threatening its current operating model. In either case, Volantis was fortunate to have the luxury of such compelling prospects, after so many other wireless solutions companies had long since disappeared.

Source: Harvard
Vyaderm Pharmaceuticals
Added View 15 pp. Case
Author(s): Simons, Robert L.; Reinbergs, Indra A.
Publication Date: 10/04/2000 Revision Date: 01/18/2001
Product Type: Case (Field)
Product Description: In 1999, the new CEO of Vyaderm Pharmaceuticals introduces an Economic Value Added (EVA) program to focus the company on long-term shareholder value. The EVA program consists of three elements: EVA centers (business units), EVA drivers (operational practices that improve EVA results), and an EVA-based incentive program for bonus-eligible managers. Over the next two years, the implementation of the program runs into several stumbling blocks, including resistance from regional managers, who push for “line of sight” EVA drivers; the difficulty of managing a large number of EVA centers; and unexpected bonus adjustments due to poor EVA performance. The decision point focuses on the competitive situation in a business unit where the sudden exit of a competitor produces an unexpected one-time ‘’windfall’‘ in earnings. Vyaderm’s top managers struggle with the question of whether to adjust the EVA results to prevent demoralizing managers in future years when EVA results are likely to decline. Teaching Purpose: Requires students to calculate EVA bonus payouts.
HBS Number: 9-101-019
Geographic Setting: Seattle, WA Industry Setting: pharmaceuticals Number of Employees: 17,500 Gross Revenues: $2.7 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 2000 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Bonuses; Control systems; EVA; Executive compensation; Incentives; Organizational design; Performance measurement; Pharmaceuticals
Academic Discipline: Accounting & control
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-101-043), 16p, by Robert L. Simons, Indra A. Reinbergs

Source: Harvard
Weber Shandwick: The Client Relationship Leader Program
Add View 23 pp. Case
Author(s): Eccles, Robert G.; Herman, Kerry
Publication Date: 02/04/2008 Revision Date: 01/12/2009
Product Type: Case
HBS Number: 408077
Gross Revenues: $300 million
Event Year Start: 2007 Event Year End: 2007
Subjects: Influence; Management accounting; Management teams; Organizational design; Performance measurement; Portfolio management; Technology
Academic Discipline: Organizational behavior & leadership
Product Description: In 2002 Weber Shandwick, a leading global public relations agency, instituted a Client Relationship Leader (CRL) Program for its top 32 global accounts. The purpose of the program is to ensure that all of the firm’s resources across geographies, practice areas, and specialty areas are coordinated and effectively delivered to Weber Shandwick‘s most important clients. Each of these clients is assigned a “Client Relationship Leader” and the case discusses the skills and abilities that are needed to be successful in this role in a very complex multidimensional organizational structure. There are two basic types of CRLs: hunters whose job is growing accounts with a lot of potential and farmers whose job is to maintain strong and broad-based relationships. CRLs must walk a fine line between being close to the client, even considered part of their team, and not being too close by “going native” and ignoring their responsibilities as Weber Shandwick employees. Unlike office managers, who are measured based on the bottom line, CRLs are measured on top-line growth. Another objective of the CRL program is to enable Weber Shandwick to differentiate itself in a highly competitive environment where it is very difficult for PR firms and their holding company media conglomerate parents to do so. The public relations industry in the broadest sense has undergone a tremendous amount of consolidation through acquisitions over the past 20 y

Source: Harvard
Why Creating a Learning Organization Will Lead the High Tech Firm to Succeed
Add View 9 pp. Article
Author(s): Denis Couillard
Publication Date: 08/10/2007
Product Type: Article
Ivey ID: 9B07TD01
Subjects: Knowledge management; Organizational design
Major Disciplines: General Management
Product Description: If organizational structure follows form, the organization that learns well functions well. More precisely, the organization that enables knowledge to flow and be shared at all levels is the organization that performs best. This author describes why learning organizations have the capability to read the market and innovate in ways that lead to success.

Source: Ivey
Wright Airline Services Information Systems Organization
Add View 25 pp. Case
Neil W. Jacobs, Jason S. Schweizer The newly promoted manager of Information Systems (IS) faces user dissatisfaction with service levels and frustration within his department over its inability to meet user expectations. Through user surveys, interviews with executives and users, and meetings with IS staff, the manager seeks the appropriate actions to make the Information Systems Organization a first-class department. 1994
Source: North American Case Research Association, Case Research Journal, Fall 1993, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Courses: Operations Management; Organizational Behavior
Topics:

Source: NACRA
YPF S.A.: Shaping a New Culture
Add View 19 pp. Case
Donnellon, Anne
Examines the organizational changes and human resource strategies implemented to create an entrepreneurial culture within the formerly state-owned oil company. After a local entrepreneur radically downsized and reorganized the company,
HBS Number: BAB014 Type: Case (Field)
Publication Date: 9/30/1999
Geographic Setting: Argentina Industry Setting: oil & gas Number of Employees: 10,000 Gross Revenues: $6.1 billion revenues
Event Year Start: 1997 Event Year End: 1998
Subjects: Corporate culture; Human resources management; Organizational design; Petroleum; South America
Publisher: Babson College

Source: Harvard
Zaplet, Inc. (A)
Add View 28 pp. Case
Author(s): DeLacey, Brian J.; Leonard-Barton, Dorothy
Publication Date: 04/13/2001 Revision Date: 07/12/2001
Product Type: Case (Field)
HBS Number: 9-601-165
Geographic Setting: Redwood City, CA Industry Setting: High technology Company Size: start-up Number of Employees: 100
Event Year Start: 1998 Event Year End: 2000
Subjects: Entrepreneurial management; Entrepreneurship; High technology; Innovation; Organizational design; Organizational learning; Product development; Product positioning; Software
Academic Discipline: Operations management
Supplementary Materials: Teaching Note, (5-602-090), 7p, by Brian J. DeLacey, Dorothy Leonard-Barton
Product Description: Start-up Zaplet, Inc., has radical software, prestigious venture capital funding, and a multitude of business opportunities. New CEO Alan Baratz must select a strategy and redesign the organization to deliver. This case describes the roles and philosophies of the founders and the Kleiner, Perkins venture capitalist in building the company, the creation of the options for various business applications, and the process of selecting a business focus. Issues include the role of experimentation in selecting a market for new technology, the influence of venture capital, the importance of recruiting key employees, transitions for founders, and matching organizational form to strategy. The key decision is how to further focus the company.

Source: Harvard
Zetor Tractors
Add View 13 pp. Case A
Karen L. Newman, Stanley D. Nollen After the “Velvet Revolution,” the Czech Republic faced the task of privatizing its state-owned enterprises, and the companies faced the task of coping with an environment where customers decided what to buy. Zetor, a Czech manufacturer of tractors and bearings, has lost half its sales, its biggest export customer, its distribution channels, and its financing. The Managing Director reorganizes and forms an alliance with John Deere, but it is uncertain whether Zetor will survive as an independent company.
Source: North American Case Research Association, Case Research Journal, Winter 1995, Vol. 15, Issue 1. Copyright 1995.
Courses: Business Policy/Strategy; International Business; Organizational Behavior
Topics:

Source: NACRA

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