Tara Peters, Michael Peterson
New York Times, United States – Oct 11, 2008
His father is a founder of the Blackstone Group, the investment firm in New York, and was the secretary of commerce under President Nixon. …

His mother is a psychologist who practices in New York. His father is a founder of the Blackstone Group, the investment firm in New York, and was the secretary of commerce under President Nixon.

The bridegroom’s stepmother, Joan Ganz Cooney, is a founder of Sesame Workshop in New York. His stepfather, Michael V. Carlisle, is a founding partner in Inkwell Management, a literary agency in New York.

The bridegroom was a widower.

The bridegroom, 38, is the president and a founder of GPX Enterprises, an investment firm in Philadelphia, and is the vice chairman of the foundation in New York bearing his father’s name.

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/12/fashion/weddings/12PETERS.html?ref=weddings

**********Barclays plans to tap the markets
Telegraph.co.uk, United Kingdom – Oct 10, 2008
The Treasury is also expected to appoint private equity firm Blackstone to advise on the detailed negotiations. It would join UBS and JP Morgan Cazenove, …
*********
Creative Financing Closes Deals in Tight Credit Market
Law.com (subscription), CA – Oct 9, 2008
12 acquisition of The Weather Channel Cos. by a consortium including NBC Universal and the credit affiliates of private equity firms Blackstone Group LP and …

*****Breakingviews.com When $85 Billion Just Isn’t Enough
New York Times, United States – Oct 9, 2008
AIG might collect another $10 billion selling things like a stake in the fund manager Blackstone and real estate like the Stowe Mountain Resort in Vermont. …AIG

Financial Crisis: HSBC details £750m plan to strengthen capital …
Telegraph.co.uk, United Kingdom – Oct 9, 2008
The Treasury may appoint private equity firm Blackstone to advise on the detailed negotiations. It would join UBS and JP Morgan Cazenove, which helped the …

Sovereign funds lay out code of conduct
The National, United Arab Emirates – Oct 13, 2008
China’s chat groups are filled with scorn for the China Investment Corporation’s purchase of a 9.9 per cent stake in the private equity firm Blackstone, …
Japan May Want to Buy Gold, Not Morgan Stanley
Bloomberg – Oct 13, 2008
How happy can China be with its multibillion-dollar investments in Blackstone Group LP and Morgan Stanley. Ditto for Singapore, which invested in Merrill …MS – MTU

Fund execs hopeful over bailout
Pensions & Investments, IL – Oct 12, 2008
… New York, founded this spring by Mr. Peterson, who is the senior chairman of The Blackstone Group and a former US commerce secretary. …

With cash scarce, some critics softening views on sovereign investors
FinancialWeek (subscription), NY – Oct 13, 2008
Reports have surfaced recently that funds from the Middle East, China and elsewhere had been burned by failed investments in Blackstone, Morgan Stanley and …

KKR Tries to Avoid Masonite Filing as Owner, Creditor (Update1)
Bloomberg – 17 hours ago
Buyout firms including New York’s Blackstone Group, which manages $25 billion in GSO Capital Partners, and Boston-based Bain Capital LLC, with $33 billion …KFN – EPA:MLACO

DIRECTV and The Weather Channel Provide America with New Severe …
WELT ONLINE, Germany – 14 hours ago
In September 2008, The Weather Channel Companies were purchased by a consortium made up of NBC Universal and the private equity firms The Blackstone Group …DTV

China wants US money; the rights and wrongs of bailouts
DealBreaker.Com, NY – 14 hours ago
It’s right because, to be fair, CIC really has no business applying for Treasury money just because it took a hit on Blackstone’s IPO a year or so ago …

US bank stocks surge as govt pumps in $250 bln
guardian.co.uk, UK – 11 hours ago
… system in terms of liquidity,  Stephen Schwarzman, chief executive of private equity firm Blackstone Group LP, said at a Dubai investor conference. …

Pimco Tapped to Manage Fed’s CPFF
Wall Street Journal – 4 hours ago
By BRIAN BLACKSTONE and MEENA THIRUVENGADAM WASHINGTON — Pimco, the world’s largest bond fund, will manage the commercial-paper assets for the Federal …

Transforming the ‘Blackstone Effect’ Into Buildings: Boston’s CBD …
MarketWatch – Sep 30, 2008
That constitutes a lot of potential value creation for Blackstone, which took possession of about 590 buildings and more than 105 million square feet of …

Long Pitchforks: How To Profit From The Coming Populist Backlash.
Clusterstock, NY – 13 hours ago
s James Dimon, Blackstone Group LP’s Stephen Schwarzman, BlackRock Inc.’s Larry Fink and Silver Lake’s Glenn Hutchins assemble for a panel session at the .

The Week America’s Economy Almost Died National Public Radio broadcast September 26, 2008.
Richard E. Salomon
Director
Boston Properties, Inc.
Boston ,  MA
Sector: FINANCIAL  /  REIT – Office

65 Years Old
Mr. Richard E. Salomon has been a director since November 12, 1998. He is President of Mecox Ventures, Inc., a private investment company. Mr. Salomon was President and Managing Director of the investment advisory firm, Spears, Benzak, Salomon & Farrell from 1982 until 2000. Mr. Salomon serves as Senior Advisor to Mr. David Rockefeller. He represented Rockefeller interests on the Executive Committee of Embarcadero Center from 1977 until 1998. He is a trustee of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Museum of Modern Art, The Rockefeller University, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Peterson Institute of International Economics. Mr. Salomon is also a member of the Investment Committee at the Council on Foreign Relations, the Rockefeller University, the Museum of Modern Art, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Peterson Institute of International Economics. He received a BA from Yale University in 1964 and an MBA from Columbia Business School in 1967.

Richard Salomon
News Wire Headlines
10.14.08   Sector Snap: REIT stocks down   AP
10.03.08   US office vacancy rate reaches 2-year high–report   Reuters
09.29.08   Sector Snap: REIT shares amid market sell-off   AP
09.29.08   Stock market bullies property company shares   Reuters
09.19.08   Boston Properties sets 68-cent dividend   AP
All News Wire Headlines >
Press Release Headlines
Seven Summits Research Releases Comments on QCOM, KSS, FDX, MBT, and BXP
10.08.08 – PRNewswire
Boston Properties To Release Third Quarter 2008 Financial Results On October 28, 2008
10.07.08 – PRNewswire
Boston Properties Announces Investor Conference
09.25.08 – PRNewswire
Boston Properties Declares Quarterly Dividend
09.17.08 – PRNewswire
Boston Properties to Participate in Merrill Lynch Global Real Estate Conference
09.15.08 – PRNewswire

Company: Boston Properties, Inc. (BXP)
Top Executives at Boston Properties, Inc.

Arthur S. Flashman     Vice President/Controller
Edward H. Linde     Founder/CEO/Director
Raymond A. Ritchey     Executive VP/Other Corporate Officer
Mortimer B. Zuckerman     Founder/Chairman of the Board/Director
Douglas T. Linde     President
E. Mitchell Norville     Executive VP/COO
Frank D. Burt     Senior VP/General Counsel
Michael E. LaBelle     CFO/Senior VP/Treasurer
Robert E. Pester     Other Corporate Officer/Senior VP, Divisional
Alan J. Patricof     Director
See All Executives and Directors at Boston Properties, Inc. >
See Org Chart for BXP >

Richard E. Salomon         BXP

http://people.forbes.com/profile/richard-e-salomon/12886
http://www.muckety.com/Richard-E-Salomon/2430.muckety

Richard E. Salomon

Council on Foreign Relations

Museum of Modern Art
Spears, Benzak, Salomon and Farrell

Boston Properties Inc.

Mecox Ventures
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

******Blackstone Alternative Asset Management Group *********
Rockefeller University
New York Public Library
Peterson Institute of International Economics
Mr. Salomon serves as Senior Advisor to Mr. David Rockefeller.

Mr. Salomon is managing partner of East End Advisors, LLC.
he was president and managing director of the investment advisory firm, Spears, Benzak, Salomon & Farrell from 1982 until 2000.
he is chairman of the advisory board of Blackstone Alternative Asset Management Group
He serves as the vice chairman of the board of trustees of Rockefeller University, and is chairman of its nominating and governance committee.

Mr. Salomon serves on the investment committees of the Museum of Modern Art and the Sloan Foundation. He is based in New York, NY.

WEDDINGS;Laura Landro, Richard Salomon – New York Times
Laura Landro, a senior editor at The Wall Street Journal in New York, was married Friday to Richard E. Salomon, the president of Spears, Benzak, …
query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C03E0DD1339F93BA25751C0A96095… – 25k –

Commercial paper, in the form of promissory notes issued by corporations, have existed since at least the 19th century. For instance, Marcus Goldman, founder of Goldman Sachs, got his start trading commercial paper in New York in 1869. [6]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_paper

At the end of 2007, more than 1,700 companies in the United States issue commercial paper. There was $1.788 trillion in total outstanding commercial paper. $839 billion was  asset backed  and $846 billion was not ($153 billion of this was issued by non-financial corporations, and $797 billion was issued by financial corporations).[5]

In the global money market, Commercial paper is an unsecured promissory note with a fixed maturity of one to 270 days. Commercial Paper is a money-market security issued (sold) by large banks and corporations to meet short term debt obligations (for example, payroll), and is only backed by an issuing bank or corporation’s promise to pay the face amount on the maturity date specified on the note.

***

Salomon Brothers
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Salomon Brothers Salomon Brothers
Type     Subsidiary of Citigroup
Founded     1910
Headquarters     New York, USA
Products     Investments

This article deals with Salomon Brothers.
Salomon Brothers was a Wall Street investment bank. Founded in 1910, it remained a partnership until the early 1980s, when it was acquired by the commodity trading firm then known as Phibro Corporation. This proved a  wag the dog  type merger as the parent company became first Phibro-Salomon and then Salomon Inc.[citation needed] and the commodity operations were sold. Eventually Salomon (NYSE:SB) was acquired by Travelers Group in 1998, and following the latter’s merger with Citicorp Salomon became part of Citigroup.
Contents
* 1 Period of Innovation
* 2 Treasury Bond Scandal
* 3 Liar’s Poker
* 4 Long Term Capital Management
* 5 References
* 6 External links

Period of Innovation

During its time of greatest prominence in the 1980s, Salomon became noted for its innovation in the bond market, creating the first mortgage-backed security. Later, it moved away from traditional investment banking (helping companies raise funds in the capital market and negotiating mergers and acquisitions) to almost exclusively proprietary trading (the buying and selling of stocks, bonds, options, etc. for the profit of the company).

Salomon had an expertise in fixed income trading, betting large amounts of money on certain swings in the bond market on a daily basis. The top bond traders called themselves  Big Swinging Dicks , and were the inspiration for the books The Bonfire of the Vanities and Liar’s Poker (see below).

During this period however the performance of the firm was not to the satisfaction of its upper management. The amount of money being made relative to the amount being invested was small, and the company’s traders were paid in a flawed way which was disconnected from their true profitability (fully accounting for both the amount of money they used and the risk they took). There were debates as to which direction the firm should head in, whether it should prune down its activities to focus on certain areas. For example, the commercial paper business (providing short term day to day financing for large companies), was apparently unprofitable, although some in the firm argued that it was a good activity because it kept the company in constant contact with other businesses’ key financial personnel. It was decided that the firm should try to imitate Drexel Burnham Lambert, using its investment bankers and its own money to urge companies to restructure or engage in leveraged buyouts which would result in financing business for Salomon Brothers. The first moves in this direction were for the firm to compete on the leveraged buyout of RJR Nabisco, followed by the leveraged buyout of Revco stores (which ended in failure).

Treasury Bond Scandal

In 1991, Salomon was caught submitting false bids to the U.S. Treasury by Deputy Assistant Secretary Mike Basham, in an attempt to purchase more Treasury bonds than permitted by one buyer between December 1990 and May 1991. It was fined 290 million dollars, the largest fine ever levied on an investment bank at the time, weakening it and eventually leading to its acquisition by Travelers Group. The scandal is covered extensively in the book Nightmare on Wallstreet.
After the acquisition, the parent company (Travelers Group, and later Citigroup) proved culturally averse to the volatile profits and losses caused by proprietary trading, instead preferring more slow and steady growth. Salomon suffered a $100 million loss when it incorrectly bet that MCI Communications would merge with Sprint instead of Worldcom. Subsequently, most of its proprietary trading business was disbanded.

For some time after the mergers the combined investment banking operations were known as Salomon Smith Barney, but reorganization has renamed this entity as Citigroup Global Markets Inc. The Salomon Brothers name, like the Smith Barney name, is now a division and service mark of Citigroup Global Markets.

Liar’s Poker

Salomon Brothers’ success and then decline in the 1980s is documented in Michael Lewis’ book, Liar’s Poker. Lewis went through Salomons’ training program and then became a bond salesman at Salomon Brothers in London. In the work, Lewis portrays the 1980s as an era where government deregulation allowed less-than-scrupulous people on Wall Street to take advantage of others’ ignorance, and thus grow extremely wealthy.

He traces the rise of Salomon Brothers through mortgage trading, when deregulation by the U.S. Congress suddenly allowed Savings and Loans managers to start selling mortgages as bonds. Lewie Ranieri, a Salomon Brothers’ employee, had created the only viable mortgage trading section, so when the law passed, it became a windfall for the firm. However, Lewis believed that Salomon Brothers became too complacent in their newly-found wealth and took to unwise expansion and massive displays of conspicuous consumption. When the rest of Wall Street wised up to the market, the firm lost its advantage.

Salomon Brothers’ bond arbitrage group was also the breeding ground for the core group of founders and traders (led by, along others, John Merriwether and Myron Scholes) for Long Term Capital Management, the hedge fund that notoriously blew up in 1998.[1]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_Brothers

* Citigroup’s Salomon Brothers Asset Management
* New York Book Distributors page on Wall Street Photographic Coffee Table Book

Citigroup
Brands:
Banamex • Citibank • Citicapital • CitiFinancial • Citigold • Citi Private Bank • Citigroup Venture Capital • Diners Club • Egg • Primerica • Salomon Brothers • Smith Barney • Quilter
Key people:
Vikram Pandit • Al-Waleed bin Talal • Robert Rubin • Sir Winfried Bischoff • Gary Crittenden • Sallie Krawcheck • William R. Rhodes • Lewis B. Kaden
Notable former executives:
Michael Bloomberg • Jamie Dimon • Ahmed Fahour • Stanley Fischer • Lewis Glucksman • Thomas W. Jones • Victor Menezes • Samuel Osgood • Chuck Prince • John Reed • James Stillman Rockefeller • William Rockefeller • Moses Taylor • Sandy Weill • Robert B. Willumstad • Walter B. Wriston
Corporate Directors:
Michael Armstrong • Alain Belda • George David • Kenneth T. Derr • John M. Deutch • Roberto Hernández Ramírez • Ann Jordan • Klaus Kleinfeld • Andrew N. Liveris • Dudley Mecum • Anne Mulcahy • Richard Parsons • Chuck Prince • Judith Rodin • Robert Rubin • Franklin A. Thomas • Sandy Weill
Local entities:
Australia • Canada • China • Hong Kong • Japan • Malaysia • Mexico • Singapore • Taiwan • Thailand
Annual revenue: $146.7 billion USD A Employees: 332,000 A Stock Symbol: NYSE: C and TYO: Citi
A Website: http://www.citigroup.com A Headquarters: 399 Park Avenue, New York City, New York 10043, United States

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_Brothers

Council on Foreign Relations
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Council on Foreign Relations
Formation     1921
Headquarters     New York, NY
Website     http://www.cfr.org

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (at Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Many believe it to be the most powerful private organization to influence United States foreign policy.[1] It publishes the bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs. It has an extensive website, featuring links to its think tank, The David Rockefeller Studies Program, other programs and projects, publications, history, biographies of notable directors and other board members, corporate members, and press releases.[2]

Economist John Kenneth Galbraith resigned in 1970, objecting to the Council’s policy of allowing government officials to conduct twice-a-year off-the-record briefings with business officials in its Corporation Service.[11]

Several of Rockefeller’s sons joined the council when they came of age; David Rockefeller joined the council as its youngest-ever director in 1949 and subsequently became chairman of the board from 1970 to 1985; today he serves as honorary chairman.[17] The major philanthropic organization he founded with his brothers in 1940, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, has also provided funding to the Council, from 1953 to at least 1980.[18]

Influence on foreign policy

Beginning in 1939 and lasting for five years, the Council achieved much greater prominence with government and the State Department when it established the strictly confidential War and Peace Studies, funded entirely by the Rockefeller Foundation.[20] The secrecy surrounding this group was such that the Council members (total at the time: 663) who were not involved in its deliberations were completely unaware of the study group’s existence.[20]

It was divided into four functional topic groups: economic and financial, security and armaments, territorial, and political. The security and armaments group was headed by Allen Welsh Dulles who later became a pivotal figure in the CIA’s predecessor, the OSS. It ultimately produced 682 memoranda for the State Department, marked classified and circulated among the appropriate government departments. As a historical judgment, its overall influence on actual government planning at the time is still said to remain unclear.[20]

In November 1979, while chairman of the CFR, David Rockefeller became embroiled in an international incident when he and Henry Kissinger, along with John J. McCloy and Rockefeller aides, persuaded President Jimmy Carter through the State Department to admit the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, into the US for hospital treatment for lymphoma. This action directly precipitated what is known as the Iran hostage crisis and placed Rockefeller under intense media scrutiny (particularly from The New York Times) for the first time in his public life.[22]

Membership

There are two types of membership: life, and term membership, which lasts for 5 years and is available to those between 30 and 36. Only U.S. citizens (native born or naturalised) and permanent residents who have applied for U.S. citizenship are eligible. A candidate for life membership must be nominated in writing by one Council member and seconded by a minimum of three others.[23]
Corporate membership (250 in total) is divided into  Basic ,  Premium  ($25,000+) and  President’s Circle  ($50,000+). All corporate executive members have opportunities to hear distinguished speakers, such as overseas presidents and prime ministers, chairmen and CEOs of multinational corporations, and U.S. officials and Congressmen. President and premium members are also entitled to other benefits, including attendance at small, private dinners or receptions with senior American officials and world leaders.[24]

Board of directors
OFFICE     NAME
Co-Chairman of the Board     Carla Anderson Hills
Co-Chairman of the Board     Robert Rubin
Vice Chairman     Richard E. Salomon
President     Richard N. Haass
Board of Directors
Director     Peter Ackerman
Director     Fouad Ajami
Director     Madeleine Albright
Director     Charlene Barshefsky
Director     Henry Bienen
Director     Stephen W. Bosworth
Director     Tom Brokaw
Director     Sylvia Mathews Burwell
Director     Frank J. Caufield
Director     Kenneth Duberstein
Director     Martin Feldstein
Director     Richard N. Foster
Director     Stephen Friedman
Director     Ann M. Fudge
Director     Helene D. Gayle
Director     Maurice R. Greenberg
Director     Richard Holbrooke
Director     Karen Elliott House
Director     Alberto Ibargüen
Director     Henry Kravis
Director     Jami Miscik
Director     Michael H. Moskow
Director     Joseph Nye
Director     Ronald L. Olson
Director     James W. Owen
Director     Colin Powell
Director     David Rubenstein
Director     Anne-Marie Slaughter
Director     Joan E. Spero
Director     Vin Weber
Director     Sherwin Noorian
Director     Christine Todd Whitman
Director     Fareed Zakaria

The Board of Directors of the Council on Foreign Relations is composed in total of thirty-six officers. Peter G. Peterson and David Rockefeller are Directors Emeriti (Chairman Emeritus and Honorary Chairman, respectively). It also has an International Advisory Board consisting of thirty-five distinguished individuals from across the world.[2][25]

Corporate Members

* ABC News
* Alcoa
* American Express
* AIG
* Bank of America
* Bloomberg L.P.
* Boeing
* BP
* CA, Inc.
* Chevron
* Citigroup
* Coca-Cola
* De Beers
* Deutsche Bank
* Duke Energy
* DVS Group
* ExxonMobil
* FedEx
* Ford Motor
* General Electric
* GlaxoSmithKline
* Google

* Goldman Sachs
* Halliburton
* Heinz
* Hess
* IBM
* JPMorgan Chase
* Kohlberg Kravis Roberts
* Lehman Brothers
* Lockheed Martin
* MasterCard
* McGraw-Hill
* McKinsey
* Merck
* Merrill Lynch
* Morgan Stanley
* Motorola
* NASDAQ
* News Corp
* Nike
* PepsiCo
* Pfizer

* Shell Oil
* Sony Corporation of America
* Tata Group
* Time Warner
* Total S.A.
* Toyota Motor North America
* UBS
* United Technologies
* United States Chamber of Commerce
* U.S. Trust Corporation
* Verizon
* Visa[26]

Notable current council members

* Angelina Jolie (UN Goodwill Ambassador)[27]

Notable historical members

* Graham Allison
* Robert Orville Anderson
* Les Aspin
* J. Bowyer Bell[28]
* W. Michael Blumenthal
* Harold Brown
* Zbigniew Brzezinski
* William P. Bundy
* George H. W. Bush
* Dick Cheney
* William S. Cohen
* Warren Christopher
* E. Gerald Corrigan
* William J. Crowe
* Kenneth W. Dam
* John W. Davis
* Norman Davis
* C. Douglas Dillon
* Thomas R. Donahue
* Lewis W. Douglas
* Elizabeth Drew
* Peggy Dulany
* Allen Welsh Dulles
* Dianne Feinstein
* Tom Foley
* Leslie H. Gelb
* David Gergen
* Louis V. Gerstner, Jr.
* Maurice R. Greenberg
* Alan Greenspan
* Chuck Hagel
* Najeeb E. Halaby
* W. Averell Harriman
* Theodore M. Hesburgh
* Carla A. Hills
* Stanley Hoffmann
* Richard Holbrooke
* James R. Houghton
* Charlayne Hunter-Gault
* Bobby Ray Inman
* Otto H. Kahn
* Nicholas Katzenbach
* Lane Kirkland
* Jeane Kirkpatrick
* Henry Kissinger
* Walter Lippmann
* Winston Lord
* Charles Mathias, Jr.
* John McCain
* John J. McCloy
* William J. McDonough
* Donald F. McHenry
* George J. Mitchell
* Bill Moyers
* Peter George Peterson
* Frank Polk
* John S. Reed
* Elliot L. Richardson
* Alice M. Rivlin
* David Rockefeller
* Jay Rockefeller
* Robert Roosa
* Elihu Root
* William D. Ruckelshaus
* Brent Scowcroft
* Donna E. Shalala
* George P. Shultz
* Theodore Sorensen
* George Soros
* Adlai E. Stevenson
* Strobe Talbott
* Peter Tarnoff
* Fred Thompson
* Garrick Utley
* Cyrus Vance
* Paul Volcker
* Paul M. Warburg
* Paul Warnke
* Clifton R. Wharton, Jr.
* Owen D. Young
* Robert Zoellick

Source: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996:Historical Roster of Directors and Officers[29]
List of chairmen and chairwomen

* Russell Cornell Leffingwell 1946-1953
* John J. McCloy 1953-1970

* David Rockefeller 1970-1985
* Peter George Peterson 1985-2007

* Carla A. Hills (co-chairman) 2007-
* Robert E. Rubin (co-chairman) 2007-

List of presidents
* John W. Davis 1921-1933
* George W. Wickersham 1933-1936
* Norman Davis 1936-1944
* Russell Cornell Leffingwell 1944-1946
* Allen Welsh Dulles 1946-1950

* Henry Merritt Wriston 1951-1964
* Grayson L. Kirk 1964-1971
* Bayless Manning 1971-1977
* Winston Lord 1977-1985
* John Temple Swing 1985-1986 (Pro tempore)

* Peter Tarnoff 1986-1993
* Alton Frye 1993
* Leslie Gelb 1993-2003
* Richard N. Haass 2003-

Source:The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996: Historical Roster of Directors and Officers[30]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_on_Foreign_Relations

Richard N. Haass
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Richard Haass)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the American diplomat..
Richard Haass

Richard Nathan Haass (born July 28, 1951, Brooklyn) has been president of the Council on Foreign Relations since July 2003, prior to which he was Director of Policy Planning for the United States Department of State and a close advisor to Secretary of State Colin Powell. The U.S. Senate approved Haass as a candidate for the position of ambassador and he has been US Coordinator for policy on the future of Afghanistan. He succeeded George J. Mitchell as the U.S. Special Envoy to Northern Ireland to help the peace process in Northern Ireland, for which he received the State Department’s Distinguished Service Award. At the end of 2003, Mitchell Reiss succeeded him as special envoy.

From 1989 to 1993, Haass was Special Assistant to United States President George H. W. Bush and National Security Council Senior Director for Near East and South Asian Affairs. In 1991, Haass received the Presidential Citizens Medal for helping to develop and explain U.S. policy during Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. Previously, he served in various posts in the Department of State (1981-85) and the Department of Defense (1979-80) and was a legislative aide in the U.S. Senate.

Haass’s other postings include Vice President and Director of Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution, the Sol M. Linowitz Visiting Professor of International Studies at Hamilton College, a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, a Lecturer in Public Policy at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government, and a research associate at the International Institute for Strategic Studies. A Rhodes Scholar, Haass obtained a B.A. from Oberlin College in 1973 and went on to earn both a Master of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy from Oxford University.

Haass is the author of 12 books, of which 11 deal with matters of foreign policy and one with management. He lives in New York City with his wife, Susan, and two children, Francesca and Sam.

Bibliography

* Beyond the INF Treaty (1988, ISBN 0-8191-6942-0)
* The Power to Persuade: How to Be Effective in Any Unruly Organization (1995, ISBN 0-395-73525-4)
o updated in 1999 as The Bureaucratic Entrepreneur: How to Be Effective in Any Unruly Organization (1999, ISBN 0-8157-3353-4)
* Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy (1998, ISBN 0-87609-212-1)
* The Reluctant Sheriff: The United States After the Cold War (1997, ISBN 0-87609-198-2)
* After the Tests: U.S. Policy Toward India and Pakistan (1999, ISBN 0-87609-236-9)
* Transatlantic Tensions: The United States, Europe, and Problem Countries (editor, 1999, ISBN 0-8157-3351-8)
* Intervention: The Use of American Military Force in the Post-Cold War World (1999, ISBN 0-87003-135-X)
* Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign Policy (2000, ISBN 0-8157-3355-0)
* The Opportunity: America’s Moment to Alter History’s Course (2006, ISBN 1-58648-453-2)

External links
* Richard N. Haass — biography from the U.S. State Department website.
* Richard Haass’s  Statesmen’s Debate  op/ed commentaries for Project Syndicate
* State sovereignty must be altered in globalized era; An Article written by Richard Haass on the age of globalization.

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_N._Haass
Categories: Directors of Policy Planning | Council on Foreign Relations | Oberlin College alumni | American diplomats | Politics of Northern Ireland | 1951 births | Living people | People from Brooklyn
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Haass

Council on Foreign Relations – solid line – current
Fortress Investment Group – solid line – current

National Security Council – broken line
US Department of State – broken line
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace – broken line
Brookings Institute – broken line
International Institute for Strategic Studies – broken line
Hamilton College – broken line

Richard N. Haass current relationships:
Council on Foreign Relations – president
Fortress Investment Group – director

Richard N. Haass past relationships:
Brookings Institution – VP
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace – senior associate
Hamilton College – visiting professor of international studies
International Institute for Strategic Studies – research associate
National Security Council – special assistant
U.S. Department of State – director of policy planning

http://www.muckety.com/Richard-N-Haass/2435.muckety

People related to Fortress Investment Group:
Daniel N. Bass – CFO
Peter L. Briger Jr. – director
Jesse V. Crews – managing director
Wesley R. Edens – chairman & CEO
Fredric B. Garonzik – director
** see below this entry **
Richard N. Haass – director
Douglas L. Jacobs – director
Robert I. Kauffman – director
Adam Levinson – major shareholder
Daniel H. Mudd – director
Randal A. Nardone – co-founder
Michael E. Novogratz – director
Joshua A. Pack – managing director
Howard Rubin – director
Takumi Shibata – director
Ali J. Siddiqui – principal
Other current Fortress Investment Group relationships:
Drawbridge Global Macro Fund – manager
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP – lobby firm
Washington Council Ernst & Young – lobby firm
Fortress Investment Group past relationships:
Erin Callan – led IPO
John Edwards – senior adviser
Neverland – holder of loan

http://www.muckety.com/Fortress-Investment-Group/5005499.muckety

Fredric B. Garonzik current relationships:
Brown University – trustee
Corporation of Brown University – member
Fortress Investment Group – director
Thomas J. Watson Institute for International Studies – overseer
Fredric B. Garonzik past relationships:
Goldman Sachs Group Inc. – general partner
http://www.muckety.com/Fredric-B-Garonzik/5826.muckety
Daniel N. Bass current relationships:
Fortress Investment Group – CFO
Daniel N. Bass past relationships:
Coopers & Lybrand LLP – senior associate
Deutsche Bank – managing director
http://www.muckety.com/Daniel-N-Bass/5786.muckety
Peter L. Briger Jr. current relationships:
Fortress Investment Group – director
Global Fund for Children – director
Hospital for Special Surgery – trustee
Peter L. Briger Jr. past relationships:
Goldman Sachs Group Inc. – partner

Peter L. Briger Jr. lives and/or works in
New York, NY
Peter L. Briger Jr. campaign contributions:
(Donations of $3,000 or more during 2007-2008 cycle)
Excelsior Committee – $5,000 on 4/16/2007
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee – $5,000 on 4/30/2008
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee – $5,000 on 6/13/2007
National Republican Senatorial Committee – $15,000 on 3/28/2008
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee – $17,000 on 6/27/2008
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee – $18,500 on 12/14/2007
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee – $5,000 on 5/30/2007
http://www.muckety.com/Peter-L-Briger-Jr/5973.muckety

Jesse V. Crews current relationships:
Darden School Foundation – trustee
Fortress Investment Group – managing director
http://www.muckety.com/Jesse-V-Crews/92272.muckety

Wesley R. Edens current relationships:
Aircastle Limited – chairman
Brookdale Senior Living, Inc. – chairman
Crown Castle International Corp. – director
Eurocastle Investment Limited – chairman
Fortress Brookdale Investment Fund LLC – chairman & CEO
Fortress Investment Group – chairman & CEO
Fortress Investment Trust II – chairman & CEO & trustee
Fortress Pinnacle Investment Fund LLC – chairman & CEO
Fortress Registered Investment Trust – chairman & CEO & trustee
GAGFAH S.A. – director
GateHouse Media – chairman
Mapeley Limited – chairman
Newcastle Investment Corp. – chairman & CEO
Penn National Gaming, Inc. – director
RIC Coinvestment Fund GP LLC – CEO
Wesley R. Edens past relationships:
BlackRock Financial Management Inc. – partner & managing director
Global Signal Inc. – CEO
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. – partner & managing director
http://www.muckety.com/Wesley-R-Edens/6049.muckety

Fredric B. Garonzik current relationships:
Brown University – trustee
Corporation of Brown University – member
Fortress Investment Group – director
Thomas J. Watson Institute for International Studies – overseer
Fredric B. Garonzik past relationships:
Goldman Sachs Group Inc. – general partner
http://www.muckety.com/Fredric-B-Garonzik/5826.muckety

Richard N. Haass current relationships:
Council on Foreign Relations – president
Fortress Investment Group – director
Richard N. Haass past relationships:
Brookings Institution – VP
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace – senior associate
Hamilton College – visiting professor of international studies
International Institute for Strategic Studies – research associate
National Security Council – special assistant
U.S. Department of State – director of policy planning
http://www.muckety.com/Richard-N-Haass/2435.muckety

Douglas L. Jacobs current relationships:
ACA Capital Holdings Inc. – director
Fortress Investment Group – director
Hanover Capital Mortgage Holdings Inc. – director
Douglas L. Jacobs past relationships:
FleetBoston Financial Group – EVP & treasurer
Global Signal Inc. – director
http://www.muckety.com/Douglas-L-Jacobs/5808.muckety

Robert I. Kauffman current relationships:
Fortress Investment Group – director
GAGFAH S.A. – chairman
Robert I. Kauffman past relationships:
BlackRock Financial Management Inc. – principal
Lehman Brothers International – executive director
UBS AG – managing director
http://www.muckety.com/Robert-I-Kauffman/5997.muckety

Adam Levinson current relationships:
CampInteractive – board member
Cornell University – graduate
Drawbridge Global Macro Fund – managing director and chief operating officer
Fortress Investment Group – major shareholder
Greater Pacific Capital – advisory board member
Adam Levinson past relationships:
Goldman Sachs Group Inc. – trader
Tudor Investment Group – fund manager
http://www.muckety.com/Adam-Levinson/142820.muckety

Daniel H. Mudd personal relations:
Robert B. Barnett – attorney
Other current Daniel H. Mudd relationships:
Center for the Study of the Presidency – trustee
Economic Club of Washington – member
Fortress Investment Group – director
Hampton University – director
Homes for Working Families – director
University of Virginia – director
Daniel H. Mudd past relationships:
Fannie Mae – president & CEO
GE Capital Japan – president & CEO
Local Initiatives Support Corporation – director
Ryder System Inc. – director
http://www.muckety.com/Daniel-H-Mudd/5785.muckety

Randal A. Nardone current relationships:
Eurocastle Investment Limited – director
Fortress Investment Group – co-founder
GAGFAH S.A. – director
Randal A. Nardone past relationships:
BlackRock Financial Management Inc. – principal
Thacher Proffitt & Wood – partner
UBS AG – managing director
http://www.muckety.com/Randal-A-Nardone/5980.muckety

People related to UBS AG:
John A. Fraser – chairman & CEO global asset management
Phil Gramm – vice chairman, investment bank, lobbyist
Stephan Haeringer – vice chairman
Peter Kurer – chairman
Martin Liechti – head of private banking for North American clients
Sergio Marchionne – vice chairman
Igor Olenicoff – client
Helmut Panke – director
Marcel Rohner – CEO
David Sidwell – director, group CEO
Lawrence A. Weinbach – director

Other current UBS AG relationships:
2008 Democratic National Convention host committee – donor
2008 Republican National Convention host committee – donor
Clear Channel Communications Inc. – stockholder
Financial Services Roundtable – member company
Managed Funds Association – member
Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations – investigating offshore investments
UBS Americas – division
U.S. Department of Justice – investigating tax issues

UBS AG past relationships:
Bradley Birkenfeld – banker
H. Rodgin Cohen – merger adviser
Robert I. Kauffman – managing director
Randal A. Nardone – managing director

Business sector:
national commercial banks
UBS AG financial information:
Securities and Exchange Commission filings
Stock quote and chart
http://www.muckety.com/UBS-AG/5001932.muckety

BlackRock Financial Management Inc. past relationships:
Wesley R. Edens – partner & managing director
Robert I. Kauffman – principal
Randal A. Nardone – principal
http://www.muckety.com/BlackRock-Financial-Management-Inc/5005432.muckety

Michael E. Novogratz current relationships:
Acumen Fund – board member
Fortress Investment Group – director
Third Way – trustee
Michael E. Novogratz past relationships:
Goldman Sachs Group Inc. – partner
http://www.muckety.com/Michael-E-Novogratz/5947.muckety

Joshua A. Pack current relationships:
Fortress Investment Group – managing director
http://www.muckety.com/Joshua-A-Pack/11682.muckety

Howard Rubin current relationships:
Capstead Mortgage Corporation – director
Deerfield Triarc Capital Corp. – director
Fortress Investment Group – director
GateHouse Media – director
Hebrew College – trustee
Howard Rubin past relationships:
Bear Stearns Companies Inc. – senior managing director
Global Signal Inc. – director
http://www.muckety.com/Howard-Rubin/5850.muckety

Takumi Shibata current relationships:
Fortress Investment Group – director
Nomura Holdings Inc. – division CEO
http://www.muckety.com/Takumi-Shibata/6027.muckety

Ali J. Siddiqui current relationships:
Acumen Fund – board member
Fortress Investment Group – principal
http://www.muckety.com/Ali-J-Siddiqui/144184.muckety

Margo N. Alexander  – board member
Diana Barrett – advisory council member
Carol Bellamy – advisory council member
Seth Berkley – advisory council member
Angela Glover Blackwell – board member
David Blood – advisory council member
C. Hunter Boll – board member
Louis Boorstin – advisory council member
William W. Bradley – advisory council member
Peter L. Briger – advisory council member
Tim Brown – advisory council member
Tim Brown – advisory council member
Niko Canner – advisory council member
Stuart P. Davidson – board member
Maria Eitel – advisory council member
Jed Emerson – advisory council member
Seth Godin – advisory council member
Peter Goldmark – advisory council member
Allen Grossman – advisory council member
Allen Hammond – advisory council member
Jill Iscol – advisory council member
David Keller – advisory council member
Charly Kleissner – advisory council member
Geraldine B. Laybourne – advisory council member
William E. Mayer – board member
Susan Meiselas – advisory council member
Catherine S. Muther – board member
Robert H. Niehaus – board member
Jacqueline Novogratz – CEO
Michael E. Novogratz – board member
Sally Osberg – advisory council member
Jan Piercy – advisory council member
Amy Robbins – advisory council member
Ali J. Siddiqui – board member
Gayle Smith – advisory council member
Andrea Soros – board member
Joseph E. Stiglitz – board member
Daniel R. Toole – advisory council member
Fareed Zakaria – advisory council member
Niklas Zennstrom – advisory council member
http://www.muckety.com/Acumen-Fund/5042889.muckety
http://www.acumenfund.org/
Acumen Fund
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Acumen Fund is a non-profit global venture fund targeting the four billion people living on less than $4 a day. Its aim is to help build financially sustainable and scalable organizations that deliver affordable critical goods and services that improve the lives of the poor. Jacqueline Novogratz is the founder and CEO of Acumen Fund.

Acumen Fund seeks to set the global standard for how to affect wide-reaching social change in poverty alleviation and private sector development by:

1. Identifying extraordinary social enterprises with innovative approaches to serving the world’s poor in the areas of health, water, and housing;
2. Supporting these enterprises to become financially sustainable and scalable with equity and debt financing and intensive support;
3. Creating the standard for measuring the social and financial returns of these investments and establishing a position of thought leadership based on these successes;
4. Building a global community of professionals (staff and Fellows), donors, institutional partners and social entrepreneurs capable of deploying financial, human and intellectual capital to solve some of the most intractable problems of poverty.

Since its incorporation in April 2001, Acumen Fund has begun to prove that it can mobilize large amounts of philanthropic capital and cost-effectively invest this money in enterprises that will both achieve high impact social change and return capital for future investments. As of June 30, 2008, Acumen Fund had approved $34m in investments in the following countries: India, Pakistan, Kenya, Tanzania, Egypt and South Africa.

The Acumen Fund has an Acumen Fund Fellows Program which selects young professionals each year and provides them with the chance to effect real social change through Acumen portfolio organizations in Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, India and Pakistan. The Fellows spend one year, starting in September, working with the Acumen team and local entrepreneurs.

References

External links

* Acumen Fund website
* Acumen Fund blog

Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acumen_Fund
Categories: Non-profit organizations
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acumen_Fund

Other Fortress Investment Group Associations –
http://www.muckety.com/Fortress-Investment-Group/5005499.muckety

Other current Fortress Investment Group relationships:
Drawbridge Global Macro Fund – manager
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP – lobby firm
Washington Council Ernst & Young – lobby firm

Fortress Investment Group past relationships:
Erin Callan – led IPO
John Edwards – senior adviser
Neverland – holder of loan

People related to Drawbridge Global Macro Fund:
Adam Levinson – managing director and chief operating officer
Other current Drawbridge Global Macro Fund relationships:
Fortress Investment Group – manager
http://www.muckety.com/Drawbridge-Global-Macro-Fund/5032609.muckety

People related to Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP:
Thomas J. Allingham II – attorney
Stuart N. Alperin – attorney
Cyrus Amir-Mokri – partner
J. Ariail – attorney
Curtis H. Barnette – of counsel
Robert S. Bennett – partner
David S. Clancy – attorney
Anthony W. Clark – attorney
Lynn R. Coleman – attorney
James M. Douglas – attorney
Douglas W. Dunham – attorney
Joseph H. Flom – partner
William P. Frank – senior partner
Franklin M. Gittes – attorney
Shepard Goldfein – partner
Christopher J. Gunther – attorney
Helene L. Kaplan – of counsel
Mark N. Kaplan – of counsel
Stacy K. Kornblau – attorney
Paul J. Lockwood – attorney
Matthew J. Mallow – partner
Michael W. Mitchell – attorney
Alan C. Myers – attorney
Barnet Phillips IV – attorney
Melissa Salten Rothman – attorney
Ivan A. Schlager – partner
Neal R. Stoll – attorney
Christina M. Tchen – partner
Stephanie L. Teicher – attorney
Erica Ward – attorney
Robert E. Zimet – attorney
Other current Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP relationships:
A123 Systems – lobby firm
Alcatel-Lucent – lobby firm
American Council of Life Insurers – lobby firm
American Petroleum Institute – lobby firm
Current Group LLC – lobby firm
Entergy Corporation – lobby firm
Fortress Investment Group – lobby firm
Livingston Group – lobby firm
MeadWestvaco Corporation – lobby firm
News Corp. – lobby firm
Oaktree Capital Management, LLC – lobby firm
Oil Shale Exploration Co. – lobby firm
Safety-Kleen Holdco, Inc. – lobby firm
Tenant-In-Common Association – lobby firm
Toshiba Power Systems – lobby firm
United States Steel Corporation – lobby firm
Verizon Communications Inc. – lobby firm
Washington Council Ernst & Young – lobby firm
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP past relationships:
DaimlerChrysler AG – client
Peter Rundlet – attorney
J. Michael Schell – partner
Thomas C. Siekman – of counsel
Eliot Spitzer – associate

http://www.muckety.com/Skadden-Arps-Slate-Meagher-Flom-LLP/5001720.muckety

People related to Washington Council Ernst & Young:
Tara Bradshaw – principal
Nicholas P. Giordano – principal
Other current Washington Council Ernst & Young relationships:
Aetna Inc. – lobby firm
AK Steel Holding Corporation – lobby firm
American Bankers Association – lobby firm
American Staffing Association – lobby firm
Association of American Railroads – lobby firm
Biomass Investment Group, Inc. – lobby firm
Biotechnology Industry Organization – lobby firm
Carrix, Inc. – lobby firm
Center for International Education – lobby firm
Charles Schwab Corporation – lobby firm
Charter Brokerage – lobby firm
Cisco Systems, Inc. – lobby firm
Citigroup Inc. – lobby firm
Convexity Capital Management – lobby firm, lobby firm
Deere & Company – lobby firm
Directors Guild of America – lobby firm
Eaton Vance Corporation – lobby firm
Enterprise Foundation – lobby firm
Equipment Leasing and Finance Association – lobby firm
Exxon Mobil Corp. – lobby firm
Florida Crystals Corporation – lobby firm
Ford Motor Company – lobby firm
Fortress Investment Group – lobby firm
General Aviation Manufacturers Association – lobby firm
General Electric Company – lobby firm
Genworth Financial Inc. – lobby firm
Group Health Inc. – lobby firm
Health Care Service Corp. – lobby firm
Hereiu – lobby firm
Independent Sector – lobby firm
Johnson & Johnson – lobby firm
Local Initiatives Support Corporation – lobby firm
Lockheed Martin Corporation – lobby firm
McKesson Corporation – lobby firm
Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc. – lobby firm
Microsoft Corporation – lobby firm
Motion Picture Association of America – lobby firm
National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts – lobby firm
National Association of State & Local Equity Funds – lobby firm
National Biodiesel Board – lobby firm
National Business Aviation Association – lobby firm
National Hydropower Association – lobby firm
National Leased Housing Association – lobby firm
National Retail Federation – lobby firm
Pacific Capital Bancorp – lobby firm
Prudential Insurance Company of America – lobby firm
R&D Credit Coalition – lobby firm
Reed Elsevier Group plc – lobby firm
Reynolds American Inc. – lobby firm
Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association – lobby firm
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP – lobby firm
Solar Energy Industry Association – lobby firm
Tenant-In-Common Association – lobby firm
Transocean Sedeco Forex – lobby firm
U.S. Chamber of Commerce – lobby firm
USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance – lobby firm
Valdez, Lance & Associates – lobby firm
Verizon Communications Inc. – lobby firm
http://www.muckety.com/Washington-Council-Ernst-Young/5031799.muckety

Erin Callan current relationships:
Conde Nast Portfolio – described as most powerful woman on Wall Street, March 2008
Credit Suisse Group – managing director
Erin Callan past relationships:
15 Central Park West, New York – condo owner
Blackstone Group – led IPO
Fortress Investment Group – led IPO
Kenneth C. Griffin – adviser
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. – CFO
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP – attorney

Erin Callan lives and/or works in
New York, NY
Erin Callan campaign contributions:
(Donations of $3,000 or more during 2007-2008 cycle)
Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association PAC – $5,000 on 5/7/2008
http://www.muckety.com/Erin-Callan/20929.muckety

John Edwards personal relations:
Elizabeth Edwards – spouse
Wade Edwards – son
Other current John Edwards relationships:
Wade Edwards Foundation – trustee
John Edwards past relationships:
2008 John Edwards presidential campaign – candidate
Edwards & Kirby, LLP – partner
Fortress Investment Group – senior adviser
David Ginsberg – communications director
Rielle Hunter – lover
November Fund – attacked as harmful to businesses
U.S. Senate – senator
http://www.muckety.com/John-Edwards/4438.muckety

People related to Neverland:
Michael Jackson – owner
Other current Neverland relationships:
Colony Capital LLC – holds estate loan
Neverland past relationships:
Fortress Investment Group – holder of loan
http://www.muckety.com/Neverland/5029237.muckety

Fortress Investment Group
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Fortress Investment Group LLC Image:Fortress Investment Logo.gif
Type     Public
(NYSE: FIG)
Founded     1998
Headquarters     New York, NY
Key people     Wesley R. Edens, CEO & Chairman & cofounder
Robert Kauffman, President – Europe & Director & cofounder
Randal A. Nardone COO & director & cofounder
Industry     Private Equity, hedge funds, Real Estate and railroad-related assets
Products     Asset Management
Net income     ? $192.7 million USD (2005)[citation needed]
Employees     707 (2007)
Website     http://www.fortress.com

Fortress Investment Group (NYSE: FIG) is a New York, NY-based asset management firm which manages private equity, hedge funds, and real estate and railroad-related investments, with announced plans to move into casinos and horse racing. The company went public on February 9, 2007.[1]

History

Fortress Investment Group LLC was founded as a private equity firm in 1998 by Wesley R. Edens, a former partner at BlackRock Financial Management, Inc.; Robert Kauffman, a managing director of UBS; and Randal A. Nardone, also a managing director of UBS. Fortress quickly expanded into hedge funds, real estate-related investments and debt securities, run by Michael Novogratz and Pete Briger, both former partners at Goldman Sachs.

Fortress Investment Group’s investments grew rapidly, with its private equity funds netting 39.7% between 1999 and 2006.[2]

As of September 30, 2006, the most recent date for which figures were available before Fortress Investment Group’s IPO the firm held around $17.5 billion in private equity, around $9.4 billion in hedge funds and managed two publicly-traded investment companies:

* Newcastle Investment Corporation (NYSE: NCT),
* Eurocastle Investment Limited (Euronext AMS: ECT

In 2006, Fortress paid Sen. John Edwards, candidate for the 2008 Democratic Party nomination for president, and the 2004 nominee for vice president, $479,512 for his consulting services, a part-time job. [1] The November 19, 2007 edition of the Wall Street Journal reported Edwards had invested $16 Million in Fortress and Fortress had bought poor performing New Orleans mortgages with the intention of foreclosing on properties in the Hurricane Katrina affected area through affiliates. The charges were repeated in the November 25, 2007 edition of FoxNews’ Hannity’s America.

Fortress has returned several of its private equity investments to public trading, including Aircastle Ltd., Brookdale Senior Living Inc. and GateHouse Media.

On May 8, 2007, Florida East Coast Industries (FECI), parent company of Florida East Coast Railroad, announced that following a unanimous vote of the FECI Board of Directors, Fortress would acquire FECI in a transaction valued at $3.5 billion.[3]

On June 15, 2007 Fortress announced it would partner with Centerbridge Partners to acquire Penn National Gaming (NASDAQ: PENN), an operator of casinos and horse racing venues, for $6.1 billion. Penn National shareholders were to receive $67 cash for each share. It was announced on July 3rd, 2008, that Fortress had backed away from the agreement amid weakness in the economy and financial markets. Under the termination agreement, Penn National receives $1.475 billion, consisting of a break-up fee of $225 million and an interest-free $1.25 billion loan from Fortress, Centerbridge, Wachovia and Deutsche Bank. Fortress CEO Wesley Edens assumes a seat on the board of Penn National as part of the agreement. [4] [5]

Fortress Investment Group has backed a patent holding firm IP-Com. This firm is now suing Nokia for patent infringement for $17.77 billion.[citation needed]

References

1. ^  In a First, Hedge Fund Launches on NYSE  (in English), Associated Press via Washington Post (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
2. ^  Fortress Investment’s Shares Soar After Initial Sale  (in English), Bloomberg (2007-02-09). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
3. ^ Florida East Coast Industries (2007-05-08).  Florida East Coast Industries to Be Acquired By Funds Managed By Fortress Investment Group LLC in an All-Cash Transaction Valued at $3.5 Billion . Press release. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
4. ^ USA Today: Penn National Gaming agrees to $6.1B deal. Retrieved June 15, 2007
5. ^ Reuters: Penn National says takeover deal terminated. Retrieved July 10, 2008

External links
* Fortress Investment Group official web site
* Yahoo  – Fortress Investment Group Company Profile

v • d • e
Private equity and venture capital investment firms
Investment strategy
Buyout • Venture • Growth • Mezzanine • Secondaries

History
History of private equity and venture capital • Early history of private equity • Private equity in the 1980s • Private equity in the 1990s • Private equity in the 21st century
Investors
Institutional Investors • Pension funds • Insurance companies • Endowments • Fund of funds • High net worth individuals • Sovereign wealth funds
Private equity firms • Venture capital firms • Portfolio companies
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortress_Investment_Group
Categories: Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange | Investment management companies of the United States | Hedge funds | Companies established in 1998 | Private equity firms | Companies based in New York City
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortress_Investment_Group

William Bundy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

William Putnam  Bill  Bundy (September 24, 1917 – October 6, 2000) was a member of the CIA and foreign affairs advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. He had a key role in planning the Vietnam War. After leaving government service he became a historian.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Bundy

Directors of Central Intelligence and Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence

Sidney Souers A Hoyt Vandenberg A Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter A Walter B. Smith A Allen W. Dulles A John A. McCone A William Raborn A Richard Helms A James R. Schlesinger A William Colby A George H. W. Bush A Stansfield Turner A William J. Casey A William H. Webster A Robert Gates A R. James Woolsey, Jr. A John M. Deutch A George Tenet
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_Dulles
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Howard_Hunt

Barker also worked with CRP to get money into the Nixon campaign coffers off the books; it was via his bank account that twenty-five thousand dollars from Archer Daniels Midland Chief Executive Dwayne Andreas was obtained by CRP in violation of campaign finance laws.

Barker was said by some to be implicated in the JFK assassination, together with other Watergate figures like Frank Sturgis and E. Howard Hunt, after a Dallas police officer supposedly recognized him during the time of the Watergate scandal, however this theory is not widely held.

Frank Sturgis and Bernard Barker, 1960 (top) and 1972

In September 1971, Barker had begun his work for the Nixon administration when he was recruited by Hunt for obtaining background information on Daniel Ellsberg. Ellsberg was under watch for releasing what came to be known as the  Pentagon Papers , a series of articles featured in the New York Times in 1971 detailing administration secrets concerning the Vietnam War. Barker had been recruited along with Eugenio Martínez to help Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy break into the office of Dr. Lewis J. Fielding, Ellsberg’s psychiatrist. The mission’s purpose was to find discrediting information on Ellsberg. The mission was completed, but largely unsuccessful in finding any damaging information about Ellsberg. On March 2, 1974 Barker was indicted for the break-in. [1] He was released pending appeal after serving one year of a two-and-a-half to six-year sentence.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Barker

CIA officials and freelance agents such as William Harvey, Thomas G. Clines, Porter Goss, Gerry Patrick Hemming, E. Howard Hunt, David Sánchez Morales, Carl Elmer Jenkins, Bernard Barker, Barry Seal, Frank Sturgis, William Robert Plumlee ( Tosh  Plumlee), and William C. Bishop also joined the project.

Dulles went on to be successful with the CIA’s first attempts at removing foreign leaders by covert means. Notably, the elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh of Iran was deposed in 1953 (via Operation Ajax), and President Arbenz of Guatemala was removed in 1954. The Guatemalan coup was called Operation PBSUCCESS. Dulles was on the board of the United Fruit Company. Dulles saw these kind of clandestine activities as an essential part of the struggle against communism.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_Dulles

John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959.

He was also the older brother of Allen Welsh Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence under Eisenhower.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Foster_Dulles

Mortimer Zuckerman

Mortimer Benjamin  Mort  Zuckerman (born June 4, 1937[1], Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is a Canadian-born American magazine editor, publisher, and real estate billionaire. He is a naturalized citizen of the United States.

As of 2007, Mort Zuckerman was the 188th wealthiest American[2] as per Forbes. In 2006, he was ranked 382.[3] The increase was related to the sale in 2007 of 5 Times Square and 280 Park Avenue in New York, which together realized US$2.5 billion for his company, Boston Properties, Inc..[4]

He has been the publisher/owner of the New York Daily News since 1993 and, as of 2007, is the current Editor-in-Chief of U.S. News & World Report. He co-founded Boston Properties, Inc. in 1970. He is chairman of the board, and director.

After graduating, Zuckerman stayed on at Harvard Business School where he was an associate professor for nine years. He also taught at Yale University. He later spent seven years at the real estate firm Cabot, Cabot & Forbes, where he rose to the position of Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer[7].
While he still owned Atlantic Monthly, in 1984, Mortimer Zuckerman bought U.S. News & World Report, where he remains its Editor-in-Chief.

In addition to his publishing and real-estate interests, Zuckerman is also a frequent commentator on world affairs, both as an editorialist and on television. He occasionally appears on The McLaughlin Group and writes columns for U.S. News & World Report and the New York Daily News, usually taking positions consistent with American conservatism on political matters.

Zuckerman serves on the Board of Trustees of several educational and private institutions such as New York University, the Aspen Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, the Hole in the Wall Gang Fund and the Center for Communications. He is a member of the JPMorgan’s National Advisory Board, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. He worked as a president of the Board of Trustees of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mortimer_Zuckerman

Mortimer Zuckerman is the editor-in-chief of U.S.News & World Report. He is also chairman and copublisher of the New York Daily News and has substantial real-estate holdings, including properties in Boston, New York, Washington, and San Francisco.
http://www.usnews.com/sections/opinion/mzuckerman

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_Brothers

During its time of greatest prominence in the 1980s, Salomon became noted for its innovation in the bond market, creating the first mortgage-backed security. Later, it moved away from traditional investment banking (helping companies raise funds in the capital market and negotiating mergers and acquisitions) to almost exclusively proprietary trading (the buying and selling of stocks, bonds, options, etc. for the profit of the company).

Salomon had an expertise in fixed income trading, betting large amounts of money on certain swings in the bond market on a daily basis. The top bond traders called themselves  Big Swinging Dicks , and were the inspiration for the books The Bonfire of the Vanities and Liar’s Poker

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Bloomberg

they subsequently moved to Atherton Road, in Brookline, Massachusetts for the next two years, and finally settled in Medford, Massachusetts, a Boston suburb, where Bloomberg lived until after he graduated from college. His younger sister, Marjorie Tiven, is Commissioner of the New York City Commission for the United Nations, Consular Corps and Protocol

Bloomberg became a general partner at Salomon Brothers, where he headed equity trading and later, systems development. In 1981, he was fired from Salomon Brothers and given a $10 million severance package. Using this money, Bloomberg went on to set up a company named Innovative Market Systems. In 1982, Merrill Lynch became the new company’s first customer,

renamed Bloomberg L.P. in 1986. By 1987, it had installed 5000 terminals. Within a few years, ancillary products including Bloomberg Tradebook (a trading platform), the Bloomberg Messaging Service, and the Bloomberg newswire were launched. His company also began a radio network, which currently has its flagship station as 1130 WBBR-AM in New York City. He left the position of CEO to pursue a political career as the mayor of New York. He was replaced as CEO by Lex Fenwick.

Bloomberg, a lifelong member of the Democratic Party, decided to run for mayor as a member of the Republican Party ticket.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamie_Dimon
In March 2000 Dimon became CEO of Bank One, then the nation’s fifth largest bank.[2] He became president of J.P. Morgan Chase in mid-2004 when it acquired Bank One.

Jamie Dimon was born in New York
Later, he majored in psychology and economics at Tufts University, before earning an Master of Business Administration degree from Harvard Business School. Upon his graduation in 1982, Sandy Weill convinced him to turn down offers from Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley to join him as an assistant at American Express. Though Weill could not offer the same amount of money as the investment banks, Weill promised Dimon that he would have  fun.  In a power struggle, Weill left American Express in 1985, Dimon followed him, and the two took over Commercial Credit, a consumer finance company, from Control Data, which became the vehicle that Dimon and Weill would use to propel themselves to the top of the financial world. Through a series of unprecedented mergers and acquisitions, in 1998 Dimon and Weill were able to form the largest financial services conglomerate the world had ever seen, Citigroup. Although Weill was the one who made the deals, Dimon was the  whiz kid  who made the numbers work.[citations needed]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_B._Kaden
Lewis B. Kaden
Lewis B. Kaden is a Vice Chairman at Citigroup Inc. He has administrative responsibility for several corporate functions within Citigroup. He also manages the bank’s human resources, legal, and mergers-and-acquisitions group, as well as Citigroup’s Japanese operations.

He graduated from Harvard College and Harvard Law School. After he graduated from Harvard Law School, Mr. Kaden joined the legislative staff of Sen. Robert Kennedy. By age 26, he ranked as the top domestic-policy staff adviser to Mr. Kennedy during the senator’s four-month run for president, which ended with Mr. Kennedy’s assassination in 1968. In 1970, Kaden ran as an anti-war candidate in the Democratic primary for the House of Representatives in New Jersey’s 15th Congressional District.

Citigroup
Brands:
Banamex • Citibank • Citicapital • CitiFinancial • Citigold • Citi Private Bank • Citigroup Venture Capital • Diners Club • Egg • Primerica • Salomon Brothers • Smith Barney • Quilter
Key people:
Vikram Pandit • Al-Waleed bin Talal • Robert Rubin • Sir Winfried Bischoff • Gary Crittenden • Sallie Krawcheck • William R. Rhodes • Lewis B. Kaden
Notable former executives:
Michael Bloomberg • Jamie Dimon • Ahmed Fahour • Stanley Fischer • Lewis Glucksman • Thomas W. Jones • Victor Menezes • Samuel Osgood • Chuck Prince • John Reed • James Stillman Rockefeller • William Rockefeller • Moses Taylor • Sandy Weill • Robert B. Willumstad • Walter B. Wriston

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmed_Fahour

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanley_Fischer

Lewis L. Glucksman (December 22, 1925 — July 5, 2006) was a former Lehman Brothers trader and former chief executive officer of Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb Inc.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Glucksman

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_W._Jones

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Menezes

Charles O.  Chuck  Prince, III (born January 13, 1950) is a former chief executive officer (CEO) and chairman of Citigroup.[1][2] He succeeded Sandy Weill as the CEO of the firm in 2003, and as the Chairman of the Board in 2006.[2] On November 4th, 2007 he retired from both his CEO and chairman duties due to unexpectedly poor 3rd quarter performance, mainly due to CDO and MBS related losses.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Prince

John Shepard Reed (born 1939) is the former Chairman of the New York Stock Exchange. He previously served as Chairman and CEO of Citicorp, Citibank, and post-merger, Citigroup.
Reed is on the board of directors at Altria Group.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_S._Reed

James Stillman Rockefeller
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Olympic medal record
Competitor for  United States
Men’s Rowing
Gold     1924 Paris     Men’s eights

James Stillman Rockefeller (June 8, 1902 – August 10, 2004) was a member of the prominent U.S. Rockefeller family.

A paternal grandson of William Rockefeller, his maternal grandfather James Stillman and uncle James Alexander Stillman served as president of the National City Bank of New York, now Citibank. His father was William Goodsell Rockefeller and his mother Sarah Elizabeth Stillman.

He graduated from Yale University in 1924, where he was elected to the secret society Scroll and Key. That same year Rockefeller captained a crew of Yale teammates, winning a gold medal in rowing at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, France and appeared on the cover of Time magazine on July 7, 1924. (Dr. Benjamin Spock, who would later become a famous expert on child-care, was a member of the crew.)

On April 15, 1925, he married Nancy Carnegie, grand-niece of Andrew Carnegie. During World War II, Rockefeller served in the Airborne Command. He had four children : James Stillman Rockefeller, Jr. ,Nancy Sherlock Carnegie Rockefeller , Andrew Carnegie Rockefeller, and Georgia Stillman Rockefeller.

James Stillman Rockefeller joined the National City Bank in 1930 after working at Brown Brothers Harriman and served as president from 1952 to 1959 and chairman from 1959 to 1967. It was during his tenure that the bank merged with the smaller First National Bank and took the name The First National City Bank of New York.

(Under each of his successors, the bank’s name has changed: George Moore shortened it to  First National City Bank  and formed a holding company, First National City Corp.; under Walter Wriston these became  Citibank  and  Citicorp ; under John Reed the firm merged with Travelers Group to become Citigroup.

On August 5, 2004, Rockefeller suffered a stroke. His advance directives for medical care specified that he not be put on life support. He died at 4am on August 10, 2004, at the age of 102.

Rockefeller was survived by four children, fourteen grandchildren, thirty-seven great-grandchildren, and one great-great granddaughter.

(This page includes relations – descendants, etc.)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Stillman_Rockefeller

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Osgood

Citigroup

Citigroup Inc.
Type     Public (NYSE: C, TYO: 8710)
Founded     New York City, New York United States (1812)
Headquarters     Flag of the United States New York City, USA
Key people     Sir Win Bischoff, Chairman
Vikram Pandit, CEO
Gary Crittenden, CFO
Industry     Financial services
Products     Consumer Banking
Corporate Banking
Investment Banking
Global Wealth Management
Investment Research
Private Equity
Market cap     ? US$109 billion (2008)
Revenue     ? US$159.2 billion (2007)
Net income     ? US$3.62 billion (2007)
Total assets     ? US$2.10 trillion (2008)[1]
Total equity     ? US$113.6 billion (2007)
Employees     374,000 (2008)[2]
Website     http://www.citigroup.com/

Its single largest shareholder is Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal of Saudi Arabia, who has a 4.9% stake.[9]

As of December 11, 2007, Vikram Pandit is Citigroup’s current CEO, while Sir Win Bischoff the current chairman.[10]

The history begins with the City Bank of New York, which was chartered by New York State on June 16, 1812, with $2 million of capital. Serving a group of New York merchants, the bank opened for business on September 14 of that year, and Samuel Osgood was elected as the first President of the company.[17]

[ . . .]

Although presented as a merger, the deal was actually more like a stock swap, with Travelers Group purchasing the entirety of Citicorp shares for $70 billion, and issuing 2.5 new Citigroup shares for each Citicorp share. Through this mechanism, existing shareholders of each company owned about half of the new firm.[6] While the new company maintained Citicorp’s  Citi  brand in its name, it adopted Travelers’ distinctive  red umbrella  as the new corporate logo, which was used until 2007.

The chairmen of both parent companies, John Reed and Sandy Weill respectively, were announced as co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the new company, Citigroup, Inc.

The remaining provisions of the Glass-Steagall Act – enacted following the Great Depression – forbade banks to merge with insurance underwriters, and meant Citigroup had between two and five years to divest any prohibited assets. However, Weill stated at the time of the merger that they believed  that over that time the legislation will change…we have had enough discussions to believe this will not be a problem .[6] Indeed, the passing of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in November 1999 vindicated Reed and Weill’s views, opening the door to financial services conglomerates offering a mix of commercial banking, investment banking, insurance underwriting and brokerage.[20]

On April 11, 2007 Citigroup said it will eliminate 17,000 jobs, or about 5 percent of its workforce, in a broad restructuring designed to cut costs and bolster its long underperforming stock.[22]

On January 7, 2008 Citigroup announced that it is considering cutting 5 percent to 10 percent of its work force, which totals 327,000.[23]

In November 2007 it became public that the Citigroup is heavily involved in the Terra Securities scandal, which involved investments by eight municipalities of Norway in various hedge funds in the United States bond market.[39] The funds were sold by Terra Securities ASA to the municipalities, while the products were delivered by Citigroup. Terra Securities ASA filed for bankrupty November 28, 2007, the day after they received a letter[40] from The Financial Supervisory Authority of Norway announcing withdrawal of permissions to operate. The same letter also stated,  The Supervisory Authority contends that Citigroup’s presentation, as well as the presentation from Terra Securities ASA, appears insufficient and misleading because central elements like information about potential extra payments and the size of these are omitted.

Theft from customer accounts

On August 26, 2008 it was announced that Citigroup agreed to pay nearly $18 million in refunds and fines to settle accusations by California Attorney General Jerry Brown that it wrongly took funds from the accounts of credit card customers. Citigroup would pay $14 million of restitution to roughly 53,000 customers nationwide. A three-year investigation found that Citigroup from 1992 to 2003 used an improper computerized  sweep  feature to move positive balances from card accounts into the bank’s general fund, without telling cardholders.[41]

Brown said in a statement that Citigroup  knowingly stole from its customers, mostly poor people and the recently deceased, when it designed and implemented the sweeps…When a whistleblower uncovered the scam and brought it to his superiors, they buried the information and continued the illegal practice.  [41]

Political donations

Citigroup is the 16th largest political campaign contributor, out of all organizations, according to the Center for Responsive Politics. Members of the firm have donated over $23,033,490 from 1989-2006, 49% of which went to Democrats and 51% of which went to Republicans.[42]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_Brothers
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citigroup

The Blackstone Group
BX: NYSE; Financials/Investment Services
Company Information
The Blackstone Group L.P. is a global alternative asset manager and provider of financial advisory services. The Company is an independent alternative asset manager with assets under management of $102.43 billion, as of December 31, 2007. Its alternative asset management businesses include the management of corporate private equity funds, real estate funds, funds of hedge funds, mezzanine funds, senior debt vehicles, hedge funds and closed-end mutual funds. It also provides various financial advisory services, including corporate and mergers and acquisitions advisory, restructuring and reorganization advisory, and fund placement services. The Company operates in four business segments: Corporate Private Equity, Real Estate, Marketable Alternative Asset Management and Financial Advisory. On March 3, 2008, it acquired GSO Capital Partners LP (GSO) and certain of its affiliates. In August 2008, the Company announced the establishment of a new business group, Cleantech Energy Group.
The Blackstone Group
345 Park Avenue New York NY 10154
Phone: +1 (212) 583-5000
Fax: +1 (212) 583-5712

Web site
ARTICLES ABOUT THE BLACKSTONE GROUP
Citi Is Said to Be Near Deal to Sell $12.5 Billion of Loans
By MICHAEL J. DE LA MERCED and ERIC DASH; ANDREW ROSS SORKIN CONTRIBUTED REPORTING.

Betting that the long-frozen credit markets are starting to thaw, Apollo Management, TPG Capital and the Blackstone Group have agreed in principle to buy about $12.5 billion of loans from Citigroup.
April 9, 2008
Market Leader
Market Leader
INTERVIEW BY DEBORAH SOLOMON

The former Treasury secretary talks about how the Bush administration mismanaged the crisis in financial markets, his relationship to Dick Cheney and what happened to Bear Stearns.
March 30, 2008
Blackstone’s Chief Received $350 Million in Pay in 2007
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Hedging

Credit default swaps can be used to manage credit risk without necessitating the sale of the underlying cash bond. Owners of a corporate bond can protect themselves from default risk by purchasing a credit default swap on that reference entity.
For example, a pension fund owns $10 million worth of a five-year bond issued by Risky Corporation. In order to manage the risk of losing money if Risky Corporation defaults on its debt, the pension fund buys a CDS from Derivative Bank in a notional amount of $10 million that trades at 200 basis points. In return for this credit protection, the pension fund pays 2% of 10 million ($200,000) in quarterly installments of $50,000 to Derivative Bank. If Risky Corporation does not default on its bond payments, the pension fund makes quarterly payments to Derivative Bank for 5 years and receives its $10 million loan back after 5 years from the Risky Corporation. Though the protection payments reduce investment returns for the pension fund, its risk of loss due to Risky Corporation defaulting on the bond is eliminated. (However, the fund still faces counterparty risk if Derivative Bank becomes insolvent and cannot honor the CDS contract). If Risky Corporation defaults on its debt 3 years into the CDS contract, the pension fund would stop paying the quarterly premium, and Derivative Bank would ensure that the pension fund is refunded for its loss of $10 million (either by taking physical delivery of the defaulted bond for $10 million or by cash settling the difference between par and recovery value of the bond). Another scenario would be if Risky Corporation’s credit profile improved dramatically or it is acquired by a stronger company after 3 years, the pension fund could effectively cancel or reduce its original CDS position by selling the remaining two years of credit protection in the market.

Speculation

Credit default swaps give a speculator a way to profit from changes in a company’s credit quality. A protection seller in a credit default swap effectively has an unfunded exposure to the underlying cash bond or reference entity, with a value equal to the notional amount of the CDS contract.

For example, if a company has been having problems, it may be possible to buy the company’s outstanding debt (usually bonds) at a discounted price. If the company has $1 million worth of bonds outstanding, it might be possible to buy the debt for $900,000 from another party if that party is concerned that the company will not repay its debt. If the company does in fact repay the debt, you would receive the entire $1 million and make a profit of $100,000. Alternatively, one could enter into a credit default swap with the other investor, by selling credit protection and receiving a premium of $100,000. If the company does not default, one would make a profit of $100,000 without having invested anything.

It is also possible to buy and sell credit default swaps that are outstanding. Like the bonds themselves, the cost to purchase the swap from another party may fluctuate as the perceived credit quality of the underlying company changes. Swap prices typically decline when creditworthiness improves, and rise when it worsens. But these pricing differences are amplified compared to bonds. Therefore someone who believes that a company’s credit quality would change could potentially profit much more from investing in swaps than in the underlying bonds, although encountering a greater loss potential.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_default_swap

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/23/business/23how.html?_r=1&oref=slogin

What Created This Monster?
By NELSON D. SCHWARTZ and JULIE CRESWELL
Published: March 23, 2008

LIKE Noah building his ark as thunderheads gathered, Bill Gross has spent the last two years anticipating the flood that swamped Bear Stearns about 10 days ago. As manager of the world’s biggest bond fund and custodian of nearly a trillion dollars in assets, Mr. Gross amassed a cash hoard of $50 billion in case trading partners suddenly demanded payment from his firm, Pimco.

Alan Greenspan, the former chairman of the Federal Reserve. He played a pivotal role in the regulation of derivatives products and oversight of the increasingly complex mortgage market.

“The problem has been spreading its wings and taking in markets very far afield from mortgages,” says Alan S. Blinder, former vice chairman of the Federal Reserve and now an economics professor at Princeton. “It’s a failure at a lot of levels. It’s hard to find a piece of the system that actually worked well in the lead-up to the bust.”

TWO months before he resigned as chief executive of Citigroup last year amid nearly $20 billion in write-downs, Charles O. Prince III sat down in Washington with Representative Barney Frank, the chairman of the House Financial Services Committee. Among the topics they discussed were investment vehicles that allowed Citigroup and other banks to keep billions of dollars in potential liabilities off of their balance sheets — and away from the scrutiny of investors and analysts.

“Why aren’t they on your balance sheet?” asked Mr. Frank, Democrat of Massachusetts. The congressman recalled that Mr. Prince said doing so would have put Citigroup at a disadvantage with Wall Street investment banks that were more loosely regulated and were allowed to take far greater risks. (A spokeswoman for Mr. Prince confirmed the conversation.)

In fact, Washington has long followed the financial industry’s lead in supporting deregulation, even as newly minted but little-understood products like derivatives proliferated.

During the late 1990s, Wall Street fought bitterly against any attempt to regulate the emerging derivatives market, recalls Michael Greenberger, a former senior regulator at the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Although the Long-Term Capital debacle in 1998 alerted regulators and bankers alike to the dangers of big bets with borrowed money, a rescue effort engineered by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York prevented the damage from spreading.

Speaking in Boca Raton, Fla., in March 1999, Alan Greenspan, then the Fed chairman, told the Futures Industry Association, a Wall Street trade group, that “these instruments enhance the ability to differentiate risk and allocate it to those investors most able and willing to take it.”

Although Mr. Greenspan acknowledged that the “possibility of increased systemic risk does appear to be an issue that requires fuller understanding,” he argued that new regulations “would be a major mistake.”

“In reality,” Mr. Greenberger added, “it spread a virus through the economy because these products are so opaque and hard to value.” A representative for Mr. Greenspan said he was preparing to travel and could not comment.

A milestone in the deregulation effort came in the fall of 2000, when a lame-duck session of Congress passed a little-noticed piece of legislation called the Commodity Futures Modernization Act. The bill effectively kept much of the market for derivatives and other exotic instruments off-limits to agencies that regulate more conventional assets like stocks, bonds and futures contracts.

Supported by Phil Gramm, then a Republican senator from Texas and chairman of the Senate Banking Committee, the legislation was a 262-page amendment to a far larger appropriations bill. It was signed into law by President Bill Clinton that December.

Mr. Gramm, now the vice chairman of UBS, the Swiss investment banking giant, was unavailable for comment. (UBS has recently seen its fortunes hammered by ill-considered derivative investments.)

[ . . .]

Still others say the primary reason the Fed moved so quickly was to divert an even bigger crisis: a meltdown in an arcane yet huge market known as credit default swaps. Like C.D.O.’s, which few outside of Wall Street had ever heard about before last summer, the credit default swaps market is conducted entirely behind the scenes and is not regulated.

Nonetheless, the market’s growth has exploded exponentially since Long-Term Capital almost went under. Today, the outstanding value of the swaps stands at more than $45.5 trillion, up from $900 billion in 2001. The contracts act like insurance policies designed to cover losses to banks and bondholders when companies fail to pay their debts. It’s a market that also remains largely untested.

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/23/business/23how.html?pagewanted=6&_r

William Philip Gramm (born July 8, 1942, in Fort Benning, Georgia, USA) is an American politician who served as a Democratic Congressman (1978–1983), a Republican Congressman (1983–1985) and a Republican Senator from Texas (1985–2002).

Later in his Senate career, Gramm spearheaded efforts to pass banking deregulation laws, including the landmark Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in 1999, which removed Depression-era laws separating banking, insurance and brokerage activities. Between 1995 and 2000, Gramm was the chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs.

Gramm is a vice-chairman of UBS Investment Bank, a financial services company based in Switzerland.

Involvement in  Enron Loophole  legislation

Gramm was one of five co-sponsors of the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000[8]. One provision of the bill was referred to as the  Enron loophole  because the House Agriculture Committee drafted it and it was later applied to Enron. Some critics blame the provision for permitting the Enron scandal to occur.[9]. Gramm’s wife, Wendy Lee Gramm, was on the board of directors of Enron when it famously collapsed, giving the legislation its moniker, and she was named in many of the subsequently settled lawsuits.

Gramm’s relationship to the 2006 subprime mortgage crisis and 2008 global economic crisis

Some economists believe that 1999 legislation led by Gramm (and signed into law by President Clinton), is partially to blame for leading to the 2006 subprime mortgage crisis and 2008 global economic crisis.[10]. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act is perhaps most well-known for repealing much of the Glass-Steagall Act, which had regulated the financial services industry.

2008 Nobel Laureate in Economics Paul Krugman has called Gramm  the high priest of deregulation  and has listed him as the number two person responsible for the economic crisis of 2008 behind only Alan Greenspan.[11]

Gramm was co-chair of John McCain’s presidential campaign[12] and his most senior economic adviser[13] from the summer of 2007[14] until July 18, 2008.[12]

In a July 9, 2008 interview on McCain’s economic plans, Gramm explained the nation was not in a recession, stating,  You’ve heard of mental depression; this is a mental recession.  He added,  We have sort of become a nation of whiners, you just hear this constant whining, complaining about a loss of competitiveness, America in decline. [15]

In 1973 Gramm invested in three soft-core pornographic films promoted by his brother-in-law, George Caton. Only the third,  White House Madness  – a soft-core pornographic political satire set in the White House during the Nixon administration – was actually produced. The film flopped and Gramm lost his $7,500 investment.[21] Gramm is not given production credit on the film’s IMDB page.[22]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil_Gramm

Amalgamated Copper Company Scam

Rockefeller, along with Henry Rogers, devised a deceptive scheme which made them a profit of $36 million. First, they purchased Anaconda Properties from Marcus Daly for $39 million, with the understanding that the check was to be deposited in the bank and remain there for a definite time (National City Bank was run by Rockefeller’s friends). Rogers and Rockefeller then set up a paper organization known as the Amalgamated Copper Company, with their own clerks as dummy directors, saying the company was worth $75 million.

They then had the Amalgamated Copper Company buy Anaconda from them for $75 million in capital stock, which was conveniently printed for the purpose. Then, they borrowed $39 million from the bank using Amalgamated Copper as collateral. They paid back Daly for Anaconda and sold $75 million worth of stock in Amalgamated Copper to the public. They paid back the bank’s $39 million and had a profit of $36 million in cash. So, by deceiving Daly, the bank, and the public, Rockefeller and Rogers had made Amalgamated Copper a $36 million profit before the company was even operating.[citations needed]
Rockefeller joined in forming the Amalgamated Copper Company, a holding company that intended to control the copper industry. Amalgamated controlled the mines of Butte, Montana, and later became the Anaconda Copper Company.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Rockefeller

Sanford I. Weill (born March 16, 1933), commonly known as Sandy Weill is an American banker, financier and philanthropist. He is a former chief executive officer and chairman of Citigroup Inc. He served in those positions until October 1, 2003 and April 18, 2006 respectively.

Weill received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Government from Cornell University in 1955 and got his first job on Wall Street: a runner for Bear Stearns.

While working at Bear Stearns, Weill was a neighbor of Arthur Carter who was working at Lehman Brothers. In 1956, he became a licensed broker at Bear Stearns. Rather than making phone calls or personal visits to solicit clients, Weill found he was far more comfortable sitting at his desk, poring through companies’ financial statements and disclosures made to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. For weeks his only client was his mother, Etta, until Joan persuaded an ex-boyfriend to open a brokerage account.

In 2001, Sanford I. Weill became a Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Class A Directors are Board Members who are elected by Member Banks (of the Federal Reserve System) to represent the interests of Member Banks. (See article on Federal Reserve Bank Board Membership).

In 2002 the company was hit by the wave of  scandals  that followed the stock market downturn of 2002. Chuck Prince replaced Mr. Weill as the CEO of Citigroup on October 1, 2003.

In 2003 Citigroup repurchased $300 million worth of shares from Mr. Weill. It was reported among the $1.967 billion of  treasury stock acquired  in the Citigroup consolidated statement of changes in stockholders’ equity.

He is a billionaire, with a net worth estimated to be $1.9 billion by Forbes Magazine (2007). As of April 2006 he held 16,518,365 shares of Citigroup, Inc. and another 3,109,173 unexercised options.

He served as a Cornell Trustee for many years, and in 1998 he endowed Cornell’s medical school, now known as the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College and Graduate School of Medical Sciences.
He is also currently the Chairman of the Carnegie Hall Board of Directors

In 1993 he reacquired his old Shearson brokerage (now Shearson Lehman) from American Express for $1.2 billion. By the end of the year, he had completely taken over Travelers Corp in a $4 billion stock deal and officially began calling his corporation Travelers Group Inc. In 1996 he added to his holdings, at a cost of $4 billion, the property and casualty operations of Aetna Life & Casualty. In September 1997 Weill acquired Salomon Inc., the parent company of Salomon Brothers Inc. for over $9 billion in stock.

In April 1998 Travelers Group announced an agreement to undertake the $76 billion merger between Travelers and Citicorp, and the merger was completed on October 8, 1998. The possibility remained that the merger would run into problems connected with federal law. Ever since the Glass-Steagall Act banking and insurance businesses had been kept separate. Weill and Reed bet that Congress would soon pass legislation overturning those regulations, which Weill, Reed and a number of businesspeople considered not in their interest. To speed up the process, they recruited ex-President Gerald Ford (Republican) to the Board of Directors and Robert Rubin (Secretary of Treasury during Democratic Clinton Administration) whom Weill was close to. With both Democrats and Republican on their side, the law was taken down in less than 2 years. (Many European countries, for instance, had already torn down the firewall between banking and insurance.) During a two-to-five-year grace period allowed by law, Citigroup could conduct business in its merged form; should that period have elapsed without a change in the law, Citigroup would have had to spin off its insurance businesses.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanford_I._Weill

Robert B. Willumstad

Robert B. Willumstad is a former Chairman and CEO of the American International Group (AIG).

Under Sanford I. Weill, Willumstad helped to steer the 1998 merger of Travelers Group and Citicorp. From 2000 to 2003, he was the Chairman and CEO of Citigroup’s Global Consumer Group. He was named President of Citigroup in 2002, and assumed the post of Chief Operating Officer in 2003, while continuing to serve as CEO and President of Citibank North America.[1] Some suggested that he had been passed over for CEO in favour of Charles Prince, despite being in charge of Citi’s largest business.[2][3]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_B._Willumstad

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_B._Wriston

C Michael Armstong (born 18 October 1938, in Detroit, Michigan) is the former AT&T chairman and CEO, who tried to reestablish AT&T as an end-to-end carrier. Unfortunately, due to the dot.com bust and various other issues, he was forced to break the group up in 2001. He resigned in 2002 and was succeeded by AT&T President David Dorman.

He is also the former CEO of Hughes Electronics, and Comcast Corporation. He worked for IBM from 1961 to 1992. He has been a Director of Citigroup from 1989 to present. Armstrong is a member of the Alfalfa Club and the Council on Foreign Relations. He received his BS in Business at Miami University in 1961.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._Michael_Armstrong

Stephen A. Schwarzman
(Chairman) & (CEO)
Peter G. Peterson
(Senior Chairman)
Peter George Peterson

Peterson’s official portrait as Commerce Secretary

Peter George Peterson (born June 5, 1926) is an American businessman, investment banker, fiscal conservative, author, and politician whose most prominent political position was as United States Secretary of Commerce from February 29, 1972 to February 1, 1973. He was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations until retiring on June 30, 2007, after being named chairman emeritus. He is the Senior Chairman of the private equity firm, the Blackstone Group. In 2007, he was ranked 165th on the  Forbes 400 Richest Americans  with a net worth of $2.5 Billion.

In 1969, Peterson was invited by philanthropist John D. Rockefeller 3rd, CFR Chairman John J. McCloy, and former Treasury Secretary Douglas Dillon to chair a Commission on Foundations and Private Philanthropy, which became known as the Peterson Commission. Among its recommendations adopted by the government were that foundations be required annually to disburse a minimum proportion of their funds.
In 1971, Peterson was named Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs by U.S. President Richard Nixon. In 1972, he became the Secretary of Commerce, a position he held for one year. At that time he also assumed the Chairmanship of President Nixon’s National Commission on Productivity and was appointed U.S. Chairman of the U.S.–Soviet Commercial Commission.

Peterson was Chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers (1973–1977) and Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb Inc. (1977–1984).

In 1985, he co-founded the prominent private equity and investment management firm, the Blackstone Group, for which his current position is Senior Chairman.
In February 1994, President Bill Clinton named Peterson as a member of the Bi-Partisan Commission on Entitlement and Tax Reform co-chaired by Senators Bob Kerrey and John Danforth.

Peterson also serves as Co-Chair of The Conference Board Commission on Public Trust and Private Enterprises (Co-Chaired by John Snow).

Peterson has been Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations since 1985, when he took over from David Rockefeller. He also serves as Trustee of the Rockefeller family’s Japan Society and the Museum of Modern Art, and was previously on the board of Rockefeller Center Properties, Inc..

He is founding Chairman of the Peterson Institute for International Economics (formerly the Institute for International Economics, renamed in his honour in 2006), and a Trustee of the Committee for Economic Development. He was also Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York between 2000 and 2004.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_George_Peterson

Stephen Allen Schwarzman (born February 14, 1947 is a billionaire American businessman and investor and the chairman and co-founder of the Blackstone Group private-equity firm.

Schwarzman attended the Abington School District in suburban Philadelphia and graduated from Abington Senior High School. He attended Yale University during the same period as George W. Bush, one year behind him (both were in the Skull and Bones society[1][2]) and graduated in 1969. He then went on to Harvard Business School and graduated in 1972.

Schwarzman began his career in financial services at the investment bank Lehman Brothers, where he reached the rank of managing director at age 31. He eventually became the head of Lehman Brothers’ global mergers and acquisitions team. In 1985, Schwarzman and his partner Peter Peterson started Blackstone, which originally focused on mergers and acquisitions. [3]

On 13 February, 2007, Schwarzman celebrated his 60th birthday at the Armory on Park Avenue. Guests included Colin Powell, Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg, and Cardinal Edward M. Egan of New York

On June 6 2007, several financial news websites said that Schwarzman earned about $400 million (well over a million dollars per day) in fiscal 2006, and he is said to be worth over $7.7 billion in Blackstone Group stock.[7] This revelation was the first announcement of earnings by Blackstone, a result of an SEC filing. He received $800 million for the Blackstone IPO.

In 2007, Schwarzman was listed among Time Magazine’s 100 Most Influential People in The World.[citation needed]

Schwarzman has served as an adjunct professor at the Yale School of Management and is Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_A._Schwarzman

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackstone_Group

Blackstone Group
Type     Public
(NYSE: BX)
Founded     1985
Founder     Peter G. Peterson
Stephen A. Schwarzman
Headquarters     New York, NY, USA
Area served     Worldwide

Key people     Stephen A. Schwarzman
(Chairman) & (CEO)
Peter G. Peterson
(Senior Chairman)
Industry     Financial Services
Products     Private Equity
Investment management
Market cap     US$ 3.74 billion (2008)[1]
Revenue     ? US$ 3.050 billion (2007)
Operating income     ? US$ 285 million (2007)
Net income     ? US$ 1.623 billion (2007)
Total assets     ? US$ 13.174 billion (2007)
Total equity     ? US$ 4.226 billion (2007)
Employees     1,020 (2008)
Website     The Blackstone Group

Among the most prestigious private equity and investment management firms in the world,The Blackstone Group’ (NYSE: BX) is a company that provides private equity, financial advisory, and investment management services. The firm is based in New York City, with offices in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, London, Hamburg, Paris, Mumbai, Tokyo and Hong Kong. One of the world’s largest private equity firms,[2] it is part of the migration of companies from public to private hands — a total of some US$370 billion in deals in the United States in 2006.

Blackstone Group L.P. was founded in 1985 by Peter G. Peterson and Stephen A. Schwarzman with $400,000 in seed capital.[3]

Blackstone holds more than 13,000,000 square feet (1,200,000 m2) of real estate in Boston, New York, San Francisco and Washington, DC.

Financial advisory services

* Corporate and mergers and acquisitions advisory – clients include Microsoft, Procter & Gamble, Verizon, Comcast, Sony and AIG.[citation needed]
* Restructuring and reorganization advisory – clients include Xerox, Enron, Bally Total Fitness and Global Crossing.[citation needed]
* Fund placement advisory group

Marketable alternative asset management

Blackstone offers private equity, real estate, and hedge funds, first used only for internal investments, but now open to clients.[citation needed]

* Funds of hedge funds
* Mezzanine funds
* Senior debt vehicles
* Proprietary hedge funds
* Closed-end mutual funds

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BlackRock

BlackRock Inc BlackRock Corporate Logo
Type     Public (NYSE: BLK)
Founded     1988
Headquarters     New York, USA
Key people     Laurence D. Fink, CEO
Industry     Investment management
Products     Asset management
Revenue     US $4.845 billion (2007)[1]
Operating income     US $1.559 billion (2007)[1]
Employees     Approximately 6,000
Website     http://www.blackrock.com
Corporate headquarters in New York
Corporate headquarters in New York

BlackRock Inc. (NYSE: BLK) is a major American investment management firm. As of December 31, 2007, BlackRock’s assets under management totaled $1.357 trillion[1] across fixed income, liquidity, equity, alternative investment and real estate strategies.

In 1988, BlackRock was founded as the Financial Management Group within the private equity firm Blackstone Group. Larry Fink, BlackRock’s founder and CEO, had joined Blackstone in 1988 as a partner, along with Ralph Schlosstein, former White House aide under the Carter administration, and Robert Kapito and Sue Wagner.

Before joining Blackstone, Fink was a managing director at First Boston, where he pioneered the mortgage-backed securities market in the United States.

In 1992, Fink, Schlosstein and Co separated from the Blackstone Group under the name BlackRock and aggressively re-invented it as an independent asset-management company. In 1995, PNC Financial Services Group purchased BlackRock and in 1999, assets under management had grown to $165 billion and the firm decided to go public.
Key people

* Laurence D. Fink – Chairman & CEO
* Robert S. Kapito – President
* Charles Hallac – Head of BlackRock Solutions (Vice Chairman)
* Paul L. Audet – Vice Chairman, Head of Cash Management and Global Real Estate

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BlackRock

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurence_D._Fink

Laurence D. Fink (born November 2, 1952) is the Chairman & Chief Executive Officer of BlackRock Inc. Popularly known as Larry, he started his career at First Boston upon graduating from the University of California, Los Angeles. Larry earned an MBA at the UCLA Anderson School of Management (then known simply as the UCLA Graduate School of Management) in 1976. After moving on to heading First Boston’s Bond Department, Larry was instrumental in the creation and evolution of the mortgage-backed security market in the United States.

In 1989, Larry and some friends went out on their own to start BlackRock, an investment management firm that today manages in excess of $1.3 trillion.

shortly thereafter a deal was unveiled in which Merrill Lynch would merge its money management business under BlackRock, resulting in a firm managing nearly $1.3 trillion in assets.

Laurence D. Fink, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of BlackRock, is Chairman of the Executive and Leadership Committees, Chair of Corporate Council, and Co-Chair of the Global Client committee.

Larry Fink also serves on the Board of Trustees of New York University.

He is also Co-Chairman of the NYU Hospitals Center Board of Trustees, Chairman of the Development/Trustee Stewardship Committee and Chairman of the Finance Committee.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurence_D._Fink

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_S._Kapito

Robert S. Kapito, a recognized industry leader in portfolio management, Kapito is President and a cofounder of BlackRock, Inc., an investment management firm in New York, NY.

Kapito received his BS in Economics from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania and an MBA from Harvard Business School. Prior to founding BlackRock, he served as VP of First Boston Corporation’s Mortgage Products Group.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Hallac

Charles Hallac is a Managing Director at BlackRock, Inc and Head of the BlackRock Solutions platform within BlackRock.

BlackRock, Inc. Company Profile
BlackRock has some $1.4 trillion in assets under management, making it one of the world’s largest money managers. BlackRock specializes in fixed-income products and money market instruments for mostly institutional clients worldwide. Clients include pension plans, insurance companies, mutual funds, endowments, foundations, and charities. With some 70 offices worldwide, the group also provides risk management services, manages hedge funds, and oversees the operations of publicly traded real estate investment trust Anthracite Capital. Merrill Lynch owns just under half of the company, which continues to be led by BlackRock founder and CEO Laurence Fink.
Headlines for BlackRock, Inc.

Bank of New York Named TARP Custodian
at TheStreet.com – 54 minutes ago

http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/59/59863.html

PNC’s partially-owned (35%) BlackRock subsidiary is one of the U.S.’s largest publicly traded asset management firms.

PNC Financial Services (NYSE: PNC) is a U.S.-based financial services corporation, with assets (as of December 31, 2006) of $101.8 billion. PNC operations include a regional banking franchise operating primarily in eight states and the District of Columbia, specialized financial businesses serving companies and government entities, and leading asset management and processing businesses. PNC is America’s 11th largest bank by deposits[1] and is the third largest bank off-premise ATM provider in the country.[2]

PNC Financial Services Group
Type     Public (NYSE: PNC)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PNC_Financial_Services_Group

James  Jim  E. Rohr (born October 18, 1948) is Chairman and CEO of PNC Financial Services Group (best known as PNC Bank). Rohr has served as CEO since May 2000 and as Chairman since May 2001[1].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Rohr
59 Years Old
James E. Rohr, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of PNC. Directorships in Other Public Companies: Allegheny Technologies Incorporated; BlackRock, Inc.; Equitable Resources Inc.
Forbes Rankings
97th on the Forbes Executive Pay in 2008
Equitable Resources – 1,969th on the Forbes Global 2000 in 2008
BlackRock – 613rd on the Forbes Global 2000 in 2008
Allegheny Technologies Forbes 400 Best Big Companies in 2008
PNC Financial Services – 311st on the Forbes Global 2000 in 2008

Director ,  Allegheny Technologies Incorporated
Pittsburgh ,  PA
Sector: BASIC MATERIALS  /  Industrial Metals & Minerals

Director ,  BlackRock, Incorporated
New York ,  NY
Sector: FINANCIAL  /  Investment Brokerage – Regional

Director ,  Equitable Resources, Inc.
Pittsburgh ,  PA
Sector: UTILITIES  /  Gas Utilities

http://people.forbes.com/profile/james-e-rohr/3011

Gerken, R. Jay
Brief Biography

R. Jay Gerken is Managing Director of Legg Mason & Co., LLC; President and Chief Executive Officer of LMPFA and Citi Fund Management Inc. ( CFM ); President and Chief Executive Officer of certain mutual funds associated with the Manager or its affiliates; formerly, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Travelers Investment Adviser, Inc. ( TIA ) (2002-2005).
http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/officerProfile?symbol=MHY.N&officerId=831638

FORM N-Q
QUARTERLY SCHEDULE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS OF REGISTERED

MANAGEMENT INVESTMENT COMPANY

Investment Company Act file number 811-02667

Salomon Brothers Capital Fund Inc

(Exact name of registrant as specified in charter)
125 Broad Street, New York, NY 10004

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)

Robert I. Frenkel, Esq.

Legg Mason & Co., LLC

300 First Stamford Place

Stamford, CT 06902

(Name and address of agent for service)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 1-800-725-6666

Date of fiscal year end: December 31

Date of reporting period: September 30, 2006

ITEM 1.     SCHEDULE OF INVESTMENTS

SALOMON BROTHERS
CAPITAL FUND INC

FORM N-Q

SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

SALOMON BROTHERS CAPITAL FUND INC

Schedule of Investments (unaudited)            September 30, 2006
Salomon Brothers Capital Fund Inc

By           /s/    R. JAY GERKEN
R. Jay Gerken
Chief Executive Officer
Date:  November 29, 2006
http://www.secinfo.com/d14D5a.v7dwv.htm#1stPage

Officers & Directors Detail
Western Asset Worldwide Income Fund Inc (New York Stock Exchange)
Sector: Financials . Industry: Investment Trusts A View SBW on other exchanges
As of 14 Oct 2008

Gerken, R. Jay
Brief Biography

R. Jay Gerken has been Chairman, CEO, President and Director of the Fund., and has been Managing Director of Legg Mason, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Smith Barney Fund Management LLC ( SBFM ) and Citi Fund Management Inc. ( CFM ); President and Chief Executive Officer of certain mutual funds associated with Legg Mason; formerly Portfolio Manager of Smith Barney Allocation Series Inc. (1996–2001) Chairman of the Board, Trustee and Director of 133 funds associated with LMPFA or its affiliates

Reuters.com:
http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/officerProfile?symbol=SBW.N&officerId=1132902

Officers & Directors Detail
Western Asset Managed High Income Fund (New York Stock Exchange)
Sector: Financials . Industry: Investment Trusts A View MHY on other exchanges
As of 14 Oct 2008

http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/officerProfile?symbol=MHY.N&officerId=831638
About The Blackstone Group L.P.

The Blackstone Group, a private investment bank with offices in New York and
London, was founded in 1985 by its Chairman, Peter G. Peterson, and its
President and CEO, Stephen A. Schwarzman. Blackstone’s Real Estate Group has
raised three funds representing approximately $3 billion in total equity. The
group has made around 100 separate investments in hotels and other commercial
properties with a total transaction value of about $11 billion. In addition
to real estate, The Blackstone Group’s core businesses include Mergers and
Acquisitions Advisory, Restructuring and Reorganization Advisory, Private
Equity Investing, Private Mezzanine Investing, and Liquid Alternative Asset
Investing.
———————————————————-

So the two guys that founded Blackstone, one of them was at this time the
chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Peterson)
http://www.iie.com/institute/peterson-bio.cfm
Peter G. Peterson

Peter G. Peterson is senior chairman and co-founder of The Blackstone Group. He is founding chairman of the Institute for International Economics, chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations, and founding president of The Concord Coalition. Mr. Peterson was the co-chair of The Conference Board Commission on Public Trust and Private Enterprises (co-chaired by John Snow, former secretary of the treasury). He was also chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York from (2000–04), chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers (1973–77), later chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb Inc. (1977–84), and chairman and CEO of Bell and Howell Corporation (1963–71).
In 1971 President Richard Nixon named Mr. Peterson assistant to the president for international economic affairs. He was named secretary of commerce in 1972 and assumed the chairmanship of the National Commission on Productivity and was appointed US chairman of the US-Soviet Commercial Commission. Mr. Peterson was chairman of the US Council of the International Chamber of Commerce in 1978–79. President Ford appointed him chairman of the Quadrennial Commission on Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Salaries in 1976, and in 1994 President Clinton named him as a member of the Bipartisan Commission on Entitlement and Tax Reform.

http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-28446975_ITM
Blackstone Acquires Debt On 7 World Trade Center.
Business Editors

NEW YORK–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Oct. 17, 2000

Blackstone Real Estate Advisors, the global real estate investment and
management arm of The Blackstone Group, L.P., announced today that it has
purchased, from Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, the participating
mortgage secured by 7 World Trade Center, a commercial office complex
controlled by real estate developer Larry Silverstein.

Located in downtown Manhattan, 7 World Trade Center is a 47 story, Class A,
office tower containing 2 million square feet of office space. The property,
which is 100% occupied, houses some of Manhattan’s premier companies
including Salomon Smith Barney, Hartford Fire Insurance, American Express and
the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

The mortgage contains certain features which allow Blackstone, as the lender,
to share in the improvement in performance of the asset over time through its
maturity in 2006. Average rents in the building are currently $45 per square
foot, reflecting a significant discount to current market rents. Additional
terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

Steve Galiotos, a Managing Director of The Blackstone Group, said, “Rising
rental rates coupled with the lack of available office space in downtown
Manhattan, made 7 World Trade Center an attractive investment opportunity for
Blackstone. We are pleased to be a lender to Larry Silverstein, a seasoned
real estate veteran, on one of Manhattan’s trophy properties.” 7 World Trade
Center is the second investment made by Blackstone in a Silverstein office
building. In April 2000, Blackstone formed a joint venture with Larry
Silverstein and Walton Street Capital to own and operate the Equitable
Building at 120 Broadway in downtown Manhattan.

***

Intelligent and offbeat, Buffett was obsessed with money-making from childhood. His parents (particularly his stockbroker/political father) were demanding but instilled in him self-reliance and honesty. As an undergraduate at Wharton, Buffett knew as much about economics as his teacher did — but at Columbia Business School he met Professor Ben Graham, whose investment philosophy he adopted and then improved on with his own particular genius. ‘Buffett’ masterfully traces its subject’s life: his enormously successful partnership, his early, inspired investments in American Express and Geico, his companionship and investment with Katherine Graham of the Washington Post, his role in the Capital Cities purchase of ABC, his unique relationship with his wife and his mistress, his rescue of the scandal-ridden Saolomon Brothers. Lowenstein paints Buffett as the antithesis of the reckless mentality that fueled the financial debacle on Wall Street at the end of the 1980s, and shows him to be a man of lifelong reach for stability and security. In outlining the character traits and financial philosophy that made Buffett the country’s richest man, ‘Buffett’ presents a landmark portrait of a uniquely American life.

http://www.amazon.com/review/R35VEU3IP4NI0H?ASIN=0385484917&nodeID=

Name      Executive Position
Alan J. Patricof     Director at Boston Properties, Inc.
Arthur S. Flashman     Vice President/Controller at Boston Properties, Inc.
Bryan J. Koop     Other Corporate Officer/Senior VP, Divisional at Boston Properties, Inc.
Carol B. Einiger     Director at Boston Properties, Inc.
David A. Twardock     Director at Boston Properties, Inc.
Douglas T. Linde     President at Boston Properties, Inc.
E. Mitchell Norville     Executive VP/COO at Boston Properties, Inc.
Edward H. Linde     Founder/CEO/Director at Boston Properties, Inc.
Frank D. Burt     Senior VP/General Counsel at Boston Properties, Inc.
Lawrence S. Bacow     Director at Boston Properties, Inc.
Martin Turchin     Director at Boston Properties, Inc.
Michael E. LaBelle     CFO/Senior VP/Treasurer at Boston Properties, Inc.
Mitchell S. Landis     Other Corporate Officer/Senior VP, Divisional at Boston Properties, Inc.
Mortimer B. Zuckerman     Founder/Chairman of the Board/Director at Boston Properties, Inc.
Peter D. Johnston     Other Corporate Officer/Senior VP, Divisional at Boston Properties, Inc.
Raymond A. Ritchey     Executive VP/Other Corporate Officer at Boston Properties, Inc.
Richard E. Salomon     Director at Boston Properties, Inc.
Robert E. Pester     Other Corporate Officer/Senior VP, Divisional at Boston Properties, Inc.
Robert E. Selsam     Other Corporate Officer/Senior VP, Divisional at Boston Properties, Inc.
Zoë Baird     Director at Boston Properties, Inc.

http://people.forbes.com/search?ticker=BXP

Name      Executive Position
Ann Marie Petach     CFO at BlackRock, Incorporated
Barbara G. Novick     Vice Chairman/Other Corporate Officer at BlackRock, Incorporated
Bennett W. Golub     Managing Director/Other Corporate Officer at BlackRock, Incorporated
Charles S. Hallac     Vice Chairman/Other Corporate Officer at BlackRock, Incorporated
David H. Komansky     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Dennis D. Dammerman     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Deryck Maughan     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Gregory J. Fleming     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
James E. Rohr     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
James Grosfeld     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
John A. Thain     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Joseph Feliciani     Managing Director/Chief Accounting Officer at BlackRock, Incorporated
Kenneth B. Dunn     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Laurence D. Fink     CEO/Chairman of the Board/Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Linda Gosden Robinson     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Mathis Cabiallavetta     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Murry S. Gerber     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
Paul L. Audet     Managing Director/Vice Chairman, Divisional at BlackRock, Incorporated
Peter Fisher     Other Corporate Officer at BlackRock, Incorporated
Robert C. Doll     Director/Other Executive Officer/Vice Chairman at BlackRock, Incorporated
Robert P. Connolly     Managing Director/General Counsel at BlackRock, Incorporated
Robert S. Kapito     Director/President at BlackRock, Incorporated
Robert W. Fairbairn     Vice Chairman/Chairman of the Board, Geographical at BlackRock, Incorporated
Scott M. Amero     Other Executive Officer/Vice Chairman at BlackRock, Incorporated
Steven E. Buller     Other Corporate Officer at BlackRock, Incorporated
Name      Executive Position
Susan L. Wagner     COO/Vice Chairman at BlackRock, Incorporated
Thomas H. O’Brien     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
William O. Albertini     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated
William S. Demchak     Director at BlackRock, Incorporated

http://people.forbes.com/search?name=&ticker=BLK

Name      Executive Position
Hamilton E. James     COO/Director/President at The Blackstone Group L.P.
J. Tomilson Hill     Director/Vice Chairman at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Jay O. Light     Director at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Joan Solotar     Other Corporate Officer at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Laurence A. Tosi     CFO at The Blackstone Group L.P.
M. Brian Mulroney     Director at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Michael A. Puglisi     Other Corporate Officer at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Peter G. Peterson     Director/Other Corporate Officer/Founder at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Richard H. Jenrette     Director at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Robert L. Friedman     Other Executive Officer at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Stephen A. Schwarzman     CEO/Chairman of the Board/Director/Founder at The Blackstone Group L.P.
Sylvia F. Moss     Other Corporate Officer at The Blackstone Group L.P.
William G. Parrett     Director at The Blackstone Group L.P.
http://people.forbes.com/search?name=&ticker=BX

Salomon v. Salomon & Co.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Salomon v. Salomon & Co
House of Lords
Date decided:     1897
Full case name:     Salomon v Salomon & Company
Citations:     [1897] AC 22 (H.L)
Judges sitting:     Lord Halsbury, Lord Herschell and Lord Macnaghten
Cases cited:     None
Legislation cited:     Company Act 1862
Case history
Prior actions:     None
Subsequent actions:     None
Keywords
Corporation, Separate Legal Entity, Agency

Salomon v. Salomon & Co. Ltd (1896), [1897] A.C. 22 (H.L.) is a foundational decision of the House of Lords in the area of company law. The effect of the Lords’ unanimous ruling was to firmly uphold the doctrine of corporate personality, as set out in the Companies Act 1862.
Contents

* 1 Background
* 2 The appeal
* 3 The Lords
* 4 Post-Salomon developments
* 5 Criticism of the decision
* 6 See also
* 7 External links

Background

Aron Salomon was a successful leather merchant who specialized in manufacturing leather boots. For many years he ran his business as a sole proprietor. By 1892, his sons had become interested in taking part in the business. Salomon decided to incorporate his business as a Limited company, Salomon & Co. Ltd.

At the time the legal requirement for incorporation was that at least seven persons subscribe as members of a company i.e. as shareholders. The shareholders were Mr. Salomon, his wife, daughter and four sons. Two of his sons became directors; Mr. Salomon himself was managing director. Mr. Salomon owned 20,001 of the company’s 20,007 shares – the remaining six were shared individually between the other six shareholders. Mr. Salomon sold his business to the new corporation for almost £39,000, of which £10,000 was a debt to him. He was thus simultaneously the company’s principal shareholder and its principal creditor.
When the company went into liquidation, the liquidator argued that the debentures used by Mr. Salomon as security for the debt were invalid, on the grounds of fraud. The judge, Vaughan Williams J. accepted this argument, ruling that since Mr. Salomon had created the company solely to transfer his business to it, the company was in reality his agent and he as principal was liable for debts to unsecured creditors.

The appeal

The Court of Appeal also ruled against Mr. Salomon, though on the grounds that Mr. Salomon had abused the privileges of incorporation and limited liability, which the Legislature had intended only to confer on  independent bona fide shareholders, who had a mind and will of their own and were not mere puppets . The Lords Justices of Appeal variously described the company as a myth and a fiction and said that the incorporation of the business by Mr. Salomon had been a mere scheme to enable him to carry on as before but with limited liability.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_v._Salomon_%26_Co.

Salomon Group
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(December 2007)
Salomon Group Image:Salomon logo.gif
Type     Subsidiary of Amer Sports
Founded     1947
Headquarters     Annecy, France
Key people     millaud
Industry     Snowsports, Hiking
Revenue     683 Million   (2004)
Employees     2,800 (2004)
Website     salomonsports.com

The Salomon Group (also just known as  Salomon ) is a sports equipment manufacturing company that originated in Annecy, France. The company was started in 1947 by François Salomon and his wife and child. In 1997 it became part of the Adidas group. On 2 May 2005, Adidas-Salomon announced that it had agreed to sell the Salomon Group for  485 million to Amer Sports of Finland. The transaction was completed on October 20, 2005.
Contents

* 1 Company Information
o 1.1 Market
o 1.2 Design
* 2 Skiing
* 3 References
* 4 External links

Company Information

Salomon currently does not have a global CEO and Roger Talermo is the CEO of Amer. Salomon’s North American headquarters is in Ogden, Utah.

Other companies owned by the Salomon brand include:

* Bonfire
* Mavic
* Cliché Skateboards
* Arc’teryx

Market

Salomon produces products for various sports markets, including trail running, hiking, skiing, and snowboarding in over 40 countries on five continents. They used to manufacture Inline skates, transferring technologies from their ski boot range, but have not released any products in recent years (possibly due to an infringement judgement[1]).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_Group
Salomon is a surname, and may refer to:

* Ben L. Salomon (1914-1944), Medal of Honor recipient, U.S. Army; Battle of Saipan
* Dieter Salomon (born 1960), mayor of Freiburg, Germany
* Edward Salomon (1828-1909), governor of Wisconsin
* Edward S. Salomon (1836-1913), civil war general and governor of the Washington Territory
* Erich Salomon, photographer
* Ernst von Salomon, ex-Freikorps member, German writer and one of the assassins of Walther Rathenau.
* Franz Pfeffer von Salomon, ex-Freikorps member, leader of the SA from 1926 to 1930
* Frederick C. Salomon (1826-1897), civil war general
* Johann Peter Salomon (1745-1815), composer and impresario
* Julius Salomon, Danish historian and archivist
* Lysius Salomon (1815-1888), President of Haiti from 1879 to 1888
* Richard G. Salomon (1884-1966), historian of eastern European medieval history.
* Rick Salomon
* Siegfried Salomon (1885-1962), a Danish composer
Categories: Surnames | Jewish surnames

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salomon_(surname)

Arthur, Herbert and Percy Salomon and plus a clerk, Benjamin Levy, to continue their father’s business of money brokerage

The History of
Salomon Brothers Inc.

Salomon Brothers & Co. was formed in January, 1910 as a partnership of three brothers (Arthur, Herbert and Percy) plus a clerk, Benjamin Levy, to continue their father’s business of money brokerage. The firm was long on ambition but short on capital, and in April of that year had to merge with Martin Hutzler & Co. because the latter had a seat on the New York Stock Exchange, which Salomon Brothers could not afford.

But the principal activity of the firm was issuing and trading bonds, whose importance during the early part of the century eclipsed that of equities in the raising of new capital funds. The issuers were American railroads and other corporations as well as foreign governments. The United States Government was absent from the capital markets because its expenditures were modest and it had no deficit. The firm’s clients were financial institutions and trusts who were generally required to invest only in bonds. Starting first with bankers’ acceptances, the firm moved into rail equipment trust certificates, tax anticipation notes, federal land bank notes, and foreign currency obligations. It became one of the first primary dealers in government paper, and in 1922 it moved its headquarters to 60 Wall Street, with branch offices in Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Minneapolis and Cleveland.

There were numerous big bond firms with lots of capital, but none ventured as far as Salomon to the extent of its market making. Salomon always made a market in everything it sold and was the one firm where a bid for a debt instrument could be obtained. By the 1950s bond offerings were considered unsalable if Salomon would not touch them. Being outside of Wall Street’s establishment, the firm broke the  capital strike  in 1935 with an offering of first mortgage bonds for Swift & Co. The boycott had been created by the issuing houses as a protest to Joseph Kennedy’s tough new SEC regulations. Most public offerings were turned into private placements. Salomon went ahead anyway and earned grudging respect from the other houses. Still it needed more origination business and in 1962 it teamed up with Merrill Lynch, Lehman Brothers and Blyth & Co. to form  the Fearsome Foursome  to get more competitive bidding opportunities. In the mid-1960s it began to transfer its institutional relationships to stocks as well as bonds and became a major player in block trading.

For decades the historical syndicates were considered to be absolutely sacrosanct. Once a firm was in a particular syndicate as a major, it was a major for life. Dillon Read and Kuhn Loeb were in a special bracket that excluded others who felt they were more capable. The landmark issue that broke all historical ties came in 1979 when IBM Corporation replaced its traditional lead manager, Morgan Stanley, with Salomon Brothers and Merrill Lynch. Morgan Stanley was in part responsible because of its policy not to have co-managers or to appear in tombstones unless it was first. In one stroke the IBM deal simply said that companies were free to choose their own investment bankers and not be dominated by historical circumstances. John Gutfreund is credited with laying the groundwork. During the 1960s, he would call up the major firms such as Dillon Read in the midst of a large debt offering and simply buy a major portion of the transaction. The bonds were sold and g4radually major corporations realized the tremendous placing capacity of Salomon.

Barely noticed in the 1950s, Salomon was instrumental in helping to save New York City from bankruptcy in 1975 and the Chrysler Corporation in 1980. The latter’s deficit exceeded $1 billion in 1979 and it had run out of all available funds. Salomon coordinated a rescue plan that included unprecedented federal loan guarantees of $1.5 billion.

From 1981 until 1986, it had a stormy marriage with Phibro Corp. (née Philipp Brothers) which ended in divorce. Salomon Brothers was always a loose federation of independent traders and salesmen, cooperating more like a medieval guild than a structured corporation.

In 1970 the firm moved to One New York Plaza and created the largest private trading floor in the world, commonly referred to as  the room.  The Hutzler name was dropped that year when the firm reverted to its original Salomon Brothers. It opened offices in London in 1971 and Tokyo in 1980 so that it now maintains round-the-clock trading activities with a portfolio of approximately $11 billion, adhering to one of Arthur Salomon’s principal tenets, to stand prepared to repurchase whatever it sold.

In 1997, the firm combined with Smith Barney Inc.

Read about Salomon Smith Barney, Inc.
http://www.nybookdistributors.com/wall_street/feature/salomon.html
Salomon Grandson Receives 18 Months In Student Shooting

By JAMES FERON, SPECIAL TO THE NEW YORK TIMES
Published: April 28, 1988

LEAD: Arthur K. Salomon, a retired investment banker and a grandson of one of the founders of the Salomon Brothers investment-banking firm, was sentenced today to 18 months in prison for shooting a 19-year-old motorist on the Hutchinson River Parkway last June.

Arthur K. Salomon, a retired investment banker and a grandson of one of the founders of the Salomon Brothers investment-banking firm, was sentenced today to 18 months in prison for shooting a 19-year-old motorist on the Hutchinson River Parkway last June.

The victim, Gianluca M. Cotugno of Larchmont, was shot in the stomach but has since recovered. The incident occurred at the Weaver Street exit in Scarsdale, where both cars stopped after Mr. Cotugno, an Iona College student, had flashed his lights as he tried to pass Mr. Salomon on the two-lane roadway.

Mr. Salomon, 53 years old, originally pleaded not guilty to attempted murder, but agreed last month to plead guilty to first-degree assault. Justice Nicholas Colabella of State Supreme Court said today that he was imposing the mandatory minimum sentence required under the law for that crime.

”I’d prefer not to have mandatory minimum sentences,” the judge said, ”although it is justified under all the circumstances in this case.”

He reminded Mr. Salomon that Mr. Cotugno ”could be dead” as a result of the shooting, ”which missed vital organs by centimeters.” ‘Mental’ Prison

Mr. Salomon said he had been in a ”mental” prison since the shooting. ”My sympathy goes out to the family” of Mr. Cotugno, he said, adding ”I do not expect them to forgive me.”

Mr. Cotugno, who is suing Mr. Salomon for $20 million in damages, did not appear in court. His lawyer, C. Stephen Heard Jr., said the business student returned to Iona last fall but dropped out ”when he found he had trouble concentrating.”

Mr. Salomon had said he believed the young man was about to attack him during the confrontation, although he conceded that he did not see Mr. Cotugno carrying a weapon.

The judge granted a request by Mr. Salomon’s lawyers that he be permitted to surrender at the Westchester County jail, rather than in court, thus avoiding his being handcuffed before television cameras, which were used for the first time in a Westchester courtroom.

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE5DD1238F93BA15757C0A96E948260

William Salomon – Percy’s son – from 1960 onward lead Salomon Brothers

Salomon Brothers Archives;  Robert Sobel, Salomon Brothers 1910 – 1985:  Advancing to Leadership, Salomon Brothers, 1986.

http://books.google.com/books?id=2PJICBnrpDgC&pg=PA404&lpg=PA404&dq=Herbert+Salomon&source=web&ots=8VnJbG7Wxe&sig=3ERXILe57xmi1dbzDR8k7olKvCQ&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA405,M1

Council on Foreign Relations, The Harold Pratt House, 58 East 68th Street, New York NY 10021, Tel: 212-434-9400, Fax: 212-861-1789.
Membership Roster. 2004.

The Council on Foreign Relations has been the most powerful private organization in U.S. foreign policy since it began in 1921. While priding itself on non-partisanship and on recent efforts to recruit minorities, women, and youth (under 35), CFR’s 4,200 members mainly reflect the resources needed by the ruling class to maintain their power. Don’t call them if you want to join; they call you. And don’t wait for a call unless you have big money, national security expertise, CIA experience, a political constituency, or clout with the media. CFR publishes the prestigious journal  Foreign Affairs  as well as a number of books and reports. Another major activity is to organize closed meetings for their members with assorted world leaders. Everyone feels free to share views and information about current world events, primarily because CFR has strict confidentiality rules and keeps its records locked up for 25 years.

To save disk space, the several membership rosters in NameBase were entered to avoid redundancy. Citations to membership rosters prior to 2004 (1985, 1992, 1995, 1997 and 2001) were deleted if the name also appears on the 2004 roster.

http://www.namebase.org/sources/gX.html

Company History:
Salomon Inc.

Type: Public Company
Address: Seven World Trade Center, New York, New York 10048, U.S.A.
Telephone: (212) 783-7000
Fax: (212) 783-2110
Employees: 9,077
Total Assets: $172.73 billion
Stock Exchanges: New York
Incorporated: 1981
SIC: 6211 Security Brokers & Dealers; 5171 Petroleum Bulk Stations & Terminals; 2911 Petroleum Refining; 6719 Holding Companies Nec

Salomon Inc. is a diversified trading and financial services holding company led by its flagship subsidiary, Salomon Brothers Inc., one of Wall Street’s leading securities houses and a worldwide operator through its offices in London, Tokyo, and Hong Kong. The parent company also engages in commodities trading and petroleum refining through its subsidiaries Phibro Energy USA, Inc., Phibro Division of Salomon Inc., and Phibro Energy Production, Inc., a joint venture with Russia. This slightly unusual combination of businesses is the result of the 1981 purchase of Salomon Brothers, then a private partnership, by the commodities company Phibro Corporation. The resulting company was named Phibro-Salomon until 1986, when the firm assumed the name Salomon Inc.

Salomon Brothers may not be Wall Street’s most famous name, but this reflects more than anything else the firm’s long and continued absence from the retail end of the securities business. Institutional investors and companies in search of an underwriter don’t need pithy advertising slogans to catch their attention. Throughout its history, Salomon has worked primarily in the two businesses it knows best–wholesale securities trading and underwriting–and used them to rise from modest beginnings to a position of prominence in the financial community by the 1970s. The firm continued to prosper until a 1991 scandal involving U.S. treasury bonds tarnished the company’s reputation and its aftermath threatened to relegate Salomon to second-tier status on Wall Street.

Salomon Brothers was founded in New York City in 1910 when Arthur, Herbert, and Percy Salomon broke away from their father Ferdinand’s money-brokerage operation and went into business for themselves. They took with them a $5,000 stake and their father’s clerk, Ben Levy, and opened a small office on Broadway near Wall Street. Later that year, they became Salomon Brothers & Hutzler when they brought broker Morton Hutzler into the firm for the sake of his seat on the New York Stock Exchange.

During its infancy, Salomon concentrated on money brokerage, an obscure Wall Street specialty that consisted of arranging loans for securities brokers and trading bonds for institutional clients. The partners branched out into underwriting in 1915 by participating in a $15 million offering of short-term Argentine notes. But expansion of its underwriting activities was limited: underwriting was dominated at the time by a select group of old-line firms. Reputation and connections were essential to building a clientele, and the Salomons had neither.

Salomon Brothers’ big break came when the United States entered World War I. The Liberty Loan Act of 1917 unleashed a flood of government securities that needed someone to take them to market; since social connections were not necessary to getting business, Salomon entered the lucrative government-bond market. The firm’s expansion continued through the boom years of the 1920s. By 1930, Salomon had opened branches in Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Minneapolis, and Cleveland and employed a staff of more than 30 traders and salespeople.

The 1920s are remembered most for the big bull market in stocks, but Salomon entered the equities business tentatively, even then dealing only wholesale. As a result, the firm made little money in the bull market, but also escaped serious damage in the market crash in 1929. Arthur Salomon, in fact, had decreed in 1927 that all of his company’s margin accounts be terminated.

The eldest and most forceful personality among the three Salomons, Arthur was without question the firm’s dominant partner. A shrewd player of the financial game and a hard worker who held few interests beyond Wall Street, he became known, according to Salomon historian Robert Sobel,  as one of the very few individuals who could see J. P. Morgan without an appointment.  His death in 1928 left a power vacuum that was not filled until his nephew William became managing partner 35 years later.

In addition to coping with the Great Depression, Salomon had to deal with an internal struggle in the 1930s centering around Herbert, who considered himself Arthur’s natural heir. Herbert was the youngest brother, but Percy was too retiring by nature to assume leadership. Herbert, however, lacked Arthur’s savoir-faire and failed to earn the confidence of many partners, who found a reluctant leader for their opposition in Ben Levy. The general slump in the bond market increased tensions within the firm, squeezing its profits and forcing it to lay off traders.

The one bright spot in the decade for Salomon came at the end of the capital strike of 1933-35, when the establishment investment banks protested the Roosevelt administration’s formation of the Securities and Exchange Commission by refusing to bring new issues to market. In 1935 both the government and the banks were looking for a face-saving end to the moratorium, but Salomon, still an outsider, decided to end it on its own by underwriting a bond issue for Swift & Company, the meat packer. This was the first new debt issue to come to market under the new SEC rules and, though it brought the Salomon name into the spotlight, it caused resentment among the old-line underwriters that would last into the 1950s.

The firm concentrated on government bonds during World War II but did not find them as great a boon as in 1917. After the war, Salomon’s power vacuum persisted and the firm lacked strategic direction as a result. Nonetheless, individual departments prospered when left to their own devices. In 1951 Herbert died and Rudolf Smutny became the dominant figure in the firm, becoming senior partner in 1955. Smutny’s abrasive manner and questionable business decisions led to his ouster the next year. Percy Salomon’s son William, aided by Ben Levy, spearheaded the coup.

William’s coming of age in the family business solved the leadership problem that had existed since Arthur’s death. William gradually accumulated influence at the firm in the years after Smutny’s departure and was named managing partner in 1963. He guided Salomon through a massive expansion marked not by rapid diversification but by an aggressive, no-guts-no-glory approach to fields in which it was already established. According to journalist Paul Hoffman, William once boasted,  We’ll bid for almost anything, and we take many baths.

In 1960 the firm moved to shore up a major weakness by starting its own research department, hiring economist Sidney Homer away from Scudder, Stevens & Clark to head it. Two years later, Homer was joined by Henry Kaufman, whose extraordinary ability to forecast interest rates would earn him the nickname  Dr. Gloom  on Wall Street.

In 1962 Salomon pulled a major coup by underwriting an AT&T offering worth $218 million, even though the financial markets were paralyzed at the time by the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also in the autumn of that year, the firm formed, with Blyth, Merrill Lynch, and Lehman Brothers, a group that became known as  the fearsome foursome.  This association tried to break the establishment firms’ stranglehold on the underwriting business by putting together syndicates that sought to outbid them on major utility-bond issues throughout the decade. Between 1962 and 1964, Salomon more than tripled its underwriting business, from $276 million to $873 million.

Salomon finally began to diversify its activities in the mid-1960s when, aided by the new computer technology on Wall Street, it expanded its block-trading activity on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1965 the firm bought seats on exchanges in Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore and on the Pacific Stock Exchange in Los Angeles. Salomon took advantage of an opportunity created by depressed stock prices in 1969 to expand its merger-and-acquisition activity, forging, among others, the Pepsi-ICI merger and Esmark’s acquisition of Playtex. In 1971 the firm opened its first overseas office, in London, and the next year another in Hong Kong; in 1980 it opened a third in Tokyo.

In 1970 the firm finally dropped Morton Hutzler’s name (Hutzler had retired in 1929) to mark a new era in Salomon’s history. In 1971 the SEC began the process of deregulating brokerage commissions. Fees earned on the largest block trades were the first to be cut loose. Salomon responded by slashing its commission rate 50 percent. When rate structures ended in April 1972, Salomon and archrival Goldman, Sachs led the way in conducting the first major block trades. Soon, however, sluggish stock market conditions made block trading less lucrative, and in 1973 Salomon posted its first money-losing year since 1956.

In 1975 the firm participated in one of the year’s major stories when New York City found itself unable to meet its financial obligations and appealed to the state and federal governments for aid. William Simon, a former Salomon partner who was treasury secretary in the Ford administration at the time, said that Washington might organize a  punitive  bailout package to discourage other cities from doing the same in the future. New York state, for its part, formed the Municipal Assistance Corporation (MAC) to generate funds for the city. Salomon, along with Morgan Guaranty Trust, led the syndicate that marketed MAC debt offerings. Salomon also helped underwrite two more major bailouts before the decade was through, for the Government Employee Insurance Company in 1976 and Chrysler Corporation in 1979.

Having transformed Salomon into the second-largest underwriter and the largest private brokerage house in the United States, William Salomon retired in 1978 and was succeeded as CEO by John Gutfreund. Described by Business Week as  shrewd, supremely intelligent, cosmopolitan yet street-fighter tough  and as a member of Manhattan high society who would  host extravagant parties straight out of The Great Gatsby,  Gutfreund had studied literature at Oberlin College and considered teaching English before joining Salomon in 1953. He became a partner in 1963 at the age of 34 and became William Salomon’s heir apparent when Simon left to join the federal government in 1972.

Under Gutfreund, Salomon participated in the leveraged-buyout boom of the 1980s, including Xerox’s acquisition of Crum & Foster, Texaco’s controversial acquisition of Getty Oil, and the mergers between Santa Fe Industries and Southern Pacific and Gulf Oil and Standard Oil of California. The firm was also retained as an adviser by AT&T when the telecommunications giant underwent the largest corporate breakup in United States history. However, the core of Salomon’s business remained underwriting and bond trading, as it had been for seven decades. By 1985 Salomon’s underwriting business generated 22 percent of all the money raised by American corporations through new issues, while Salomon’s high-volume, low-margin approach to the bond business had made it the largest dealer of U.S. government securities.

A seminal event in Salomon’s history occurred in 1981, when the company was acquired by Phibro Corporation, a commodities firm. The new entity was known as Phibro-Salomon Inc. until 1986, when Salomon gained control and changed the name of the parent company to Salomon Inc. The merger gave Phibro the diversification it desired and gave Salomon the operating capital it needed for further expansion. But many partners were not pleased by the prospect of becoming salaried employees whose profits would belong to Phibro management and not themselves. William Salomon also expressed displeasure that retired partners received nothing out of the merger deal while general partners like Gutfreund and merger-and-acquisition specialist J. Ira Harris received bonuses of over $10 million.  I would have thought that those of us who had been here 40 years deserved to share in the gain,  he told Business Week. He and his successor rarely spoke after the merger.

The flight of individual investors that followed the stock market crash of 1987 did not hit Salomon as hard as it did retail-oriented houses like PaineWebber and Merrill Lynch. In fact, it closed out the year as the largest underwriter in the country, and the second-largest in the world after sponsoring $40.3 billion worth of new issues. But Salomon had also announced significant retrenchment plans prior to the crash and laid off 800 employees. Changes in the tax laws and rising interest rates in the first half of 1987 caused a slump in the bond market, seriously affecting Salomon’s main business, and competition from Japanese firms further cut into profits. Although the firm could boast of co-managing Conrail’s $1.7 billion stock offering (the largest initial public stock offering in history), it also lost $79 million in a post-crash underwriting for British Petroleum and was nearly left with a $100 million loss when Southland Corporation decided to postpone a junk-bond offering in November of that year.

To cope with the slow securities markets, many Wall Street firms turned to merchant banking and junk bonds for revenue. Thanks in part to lower stock prices, mergers and acquisitions increased in 1988. But Salomon, which had always specialized in trading and was plagued by weakness in its merchant-banking division (Salomon’s reputation was tarnished by its involvement with two leveraged buyout failures–TVX in 1987 and Revco in 1988) was slow to diversify, and its financial performance suffered. Its underwriting business also suffered, and in 1988 Merrill Lynch overtook Salomon as the nation’s top underwriter. Gutfreund came under substantial external and internal criticism for a lack of strategic direction, causing financial journalists to refer to him as  embattled  throughout 1988 and into 1989. Key personnel began to leave, and rumors circulated that Salomon would take itself private or be taken over. One bright spot, however, was its office in Japan, which was headed by Derek C. Maughan. Salomon’s Tokyo office was, according to Business Week,  Tokyo’s largest and most successful foreign brokerage.  Given Japan’s notoriously clubby business atmosphere, Salomon’s success was particularly impressive.

Although it had missed out on the junk bond heyday of the 1980s, Salomon began to succeed in this arena in the early 1990s after the collapse of junk bond pioneer Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. in February 1990. Drexel’s demise left a hole in the secondary market for junk bonds which Salomon was quick to fill. The firm hired several prominent former employees of Drexel, and then purchased for $1 million a critical Drexel junk bond database which contained important information on more than 3,000 issues. These moves enabled Salomon to quickly become a leader in the junk bond market; by March 1991 it had built a $1 billion trading inventory in junk bonds, an impressive increase from its December 1990 level of $400 million. It managed or co-managed such major underwritings as the refinancing of $1.5 billion in RJR Nabisco debt. This expansion of its junk bond business helped Salomon post record pretax earnings of $500 million in the first quarter of 1991, on revenues of $1.2 billion.

The very next quarter, however, saw the beginning of a major scandal that nearly brought Salomon to the same end as Drexel. Treasury rules for auctions of U.S. issues of notes and bonds stipulated that no one purchaser could bid for more than 35 percent of the entire auction offering. Salomon, however, could–and often did–bid for itself, up to 35 percent, and as a broker for one or more clients, up to 35 percent for each client. Salomon circumvented these rules in the May 1991 auction of two-year Treasury notes by submitting false bids in the names of two of its clients, in addition to a 35-percent bid in its own name. When these submissions won the auction, Salomon then entered into its computer fake  sales  from its clients to Salomon. As a result, Salomon controlled $10.6 billion of the total $11.3 billion auction, putting it in a very strong position to squeeze dealers who had taken positions in the when-issued market for the May auction. Salomon could consequently charge higher-than-expected prices to these dealers and make huge profits. Martin Mayer claimed in Nightmare on Wall Street that this is precisely what happened.

In part because one of the two Salomon clients whose name the firm used in the May auction submitted a legitimate bid of its own which raised its total bid over 35 percent, the Treasury initiated an investigation. After the probe uncovered in detail what happened in May, found previous instances of similar false bids, and discovered that top officials at Salomon–including Gutfreund–had been told of one of the earlier infractions but had done nothing about it, major changes rippled through the company. In August the famed investor Warren E. Buffett, who was Salomon’s largest shareholder with a $700 million stake, took over as Salomon CEO and chairman from Gutfreund, who resigned, as did Thomas Strauss, president of Salomon Inc.; John Meriwether, vice-chairman and supervisor of all of Salomon’s proprietary bond trading; and Donald Feuerstein, the firm’s general counsel. Paul Mozer, the head government bonds trader and the person who made the false bids, and Thomas Murphy, Mozer’s assistant, were fired. Had Buffett not stepped in to take over, observers have speculated that Salomon would have gone under.
Eventually, the following year, the Securities and Exchange Commission imposed $290 million in fines and damages on Salomon for violations of securities laws, the second-largest such fine ever, behind only a $600 million judgment against Drexel. The company was also suspended from its position as primary dealer at treasury auctions for a two-month period. Buffett staved off more severe penalties by fully revealing the company’s actions and taking steps to prevent recurrences. Buffett also propped up the financial structure of the company–damaged by the difficulty in gaining credit following the revelation of the scandal–by selling some of Salomon’s assets. Also in 1992, Buffett installed Maughan, the former head of Salomon’s Tokyo office, as chairman of Salomon Brothers and Robert E. Denham, his long-time attorney, as chairman of Salomon Inc. Buffett remained on the Salomon board of directors and continued to be substantially involved in the company’s operation.

The new management had seemed to weather the scandal’s aftermath on the basis of two impressive years during which the company returned to its roots in securities trading to great success. In 1992 Salomon posted $550 million in net income on $1.06 billion in pretax earnings, and in 1993 $827 million on $1.47 billion in pretax earnings. The 1994 results–a $399 million net loss on a pretax loss of $831 million–however, pointed to several weaknesses at Salomon and pressure from an increasingly competitive market. Business Week contended that Salomon suffered from weak management at the hands of Maughan, who had never been a trader. Key personnel left Salomon because of a new compensation plan implemented in 1993 that cut traders’ bonuses for the benefit of shareholders. Perhaps most importantly, Salomon management had failed to define a clear vision for the company’s future. As a result, industry observers, who predicted a mid-1990s shakeout on Wall Street based on an overabundance of traders and underwriters, speculated that Salomon would need to remake itself again in order to survive another crisis–the possibilities included an emphasis on investment banking, a return to a primarily fixed-income trading orientation, or a merger with or acquisition by a commercial bank. It seemed unlikely that Salomon would ever return to its position near the top of Wall Street that it held during the 1980s.

Principal Subsidiaries

Phibro Division of Salomon Inc.; Phibro Energy Production, Inc.; Phibro Energy USA, Inc.; Salomon Brothers Inc.

Further Reading
Hoffman, Paul, The Dealmakers: Inside the World of Investment Banking, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1984, 230 p.

Lenzner, Robert,  The Secrets of Salomon,  Forbes, November 23, 1992, pp. 123-27.

Lewis, Michael, Liar’s Poker: Rising through the Wreckage on Wall Street, New York: W. W. Norton, 1989, 249 p.

Mayer, Martin, Nightmare on Wall Street: Salomon Brothers and the Corruption of the Marketplace, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993, 272 p.

Salomon Brothers: Battling Back,  Economist, November 21, 1992, p. 90.

Schifrin, Matthew,  Solly’s Revenge,  Forbes, June 10, 1991, pp. 38-39.

Sobel, Robert, Salomon Brothers 1910-1985: Advancing to Leadership, New York: Salomon Brothers Inc., 1986, 240 p.

Spiro, Leah Nathans,  The Man Who’s Filling Meriwether’s Loafers at Solly,  Business Week, August 29, 1994, p. 61.

——,  Turmoil at Salomon: Huge Losses and a Talent Drain Have It Reeling,  Business Week, May 1, 1995, pp. 144-51.

——, and Richard A. Melcher,  Rescuing Salomon Was One Thing, but Running It … ,  Business Week, February 17, 1992, pp. 120-21.

Taking Arms against a Sea of Troubles,  Euromoney, March 1992, pp. 42-48.

— Updated by David E. Salamie
http://www.answers.com/topic/salomon-2

tlp333 @ 2008-10-12 11:09:09
Description:     The late honorary chairman of Citigroup lived here. He was former managing partner at Salomon Brothers, Inc. before it became part of Citigroup. The 4.08-acre property on Meadow Lane is set to hit the market with a pricetag of $38 million because his wife Virginia passed away last month, according to Newsday. The 6,000 square foot house, built in 1992, has 6 bedrooms and 8 baths, with a gunite pool. Annual taxes are $43,595.
More Info:     weblogs.newsday.com
Location:     Southampton, New York (NY), United States (US)
@ 40.85878300, -72.42333400

http://virtualglobetrotting.com/map/57720/

Salomon Brothers
The timeline below represents the history of this business until it became a part of the Citigroup family.

* 1910 – 1929
* 1940 – 1960
* 1970 – 1975
* 1978 – 1980
* 1990 – 1997
* 1998

1910

With $5,000 in savings and a small family loan, Arthur, Herbert and Percy Salomon leave their father’s firm and start their own business, Salomon Brothers, at 80 Broadway in New York City.

Salomon joins forces with Morton Hutzler, an established firm with a seat on the New York Stock Exchange. Salomon Brothers & Hutzler is born.

Salomon Brothers & Hutzler registers with the Treasury and becomes one of the first primary dealers in U.S. government securities.
1929

The U.S. stock market crashes and Salomon Brothers & Hutzler weathers the storm for two reasons:

* The firm holds only a small position in the stock market.
* Salomon Brothers refuses to carry margin accounts, which ultimately lead to the downfall of many investors.

Salomon Brothers further benefits when banks turn to bonds as a  safe haven  after the crash.
1940s

In the United States, the government raises funds for World War II through Treasury auctions. This substantially increases the government bond business and the role played by Salomon and other investment houses specializing in these securities.

By the end of World War II, Salomon Brothers & Hutzler has grown substantially.
The 1950s and 1960s

Through the vision and guidance of William  Billy  Salomon, son of one of the founding brothers, Salomon Brothers expands and automates its back office and operation. Salomon’s use of technology equips the firm to handle increased volume, as well as better serve the ever-changing needs of its customers.

November 1963: Billy Salomon becomes the first managing partner of the firm.
Salomon’s investment in research, technology and talent continues into the 1960s, leading to recognition within the financial community.
1970

Salomon Brothers & Hutzler moves from 60 Wall Street to One New York Plaza, and the firm’s name is officially shortened to Salomon Brothers.

The firm opens a London office and, soon after that, offices in Hong Kong and Tokyo.
1975

New York City is on the verge of financial collapse. To resolve the crisis, the Municipal Assistance Corporation (christened  Big Mac  by the press) is formed. It issues bonds to pay off holders of city obligations while generating much-needed revenues.

The initial underwriting is for $1 billion, making it the largest municipal issuance in history. Salomon Brothers is selected to manage the offerings from the investment banking side.
1978

John Gutfreund is named successor to Billy Salomon.
1980s

Throughout the 1980s, Salomon Brothers expands its role as an innovator within the financial industry. The highlights of this decade include:

* Introduction of Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs).
* The merger of Salomon Brothers with Philip Brothers – a marriage of  Salomon-ingenuity  and  Philip-cash  that gives Salomon Brothers leverage to make great headway into global investment banking, mortgage-backed securities, as well as other areas of opportunity.
* The first public offering of  CARS  – a security backed by automobile loans.
* Introduction of Salomon Brothers Broad Investment Grade Bond Index ( BIG ).
* Launch of the Salomon Brothers World Bond Index – a valuable tool used to measure returns of both single and multicurrency portfolios.
* The deregulation of the capital markets within the United Kingdom, marking the beginning of unprecedented opportunities for firms prepared to make the most of them. Ultimately, Salomon joins the London Stock Exchange and becomes a primary dealer there.
* The development of Sophisticated Analytical Applications, including Yield Book, a powerful fixed-income analytics system that provides Salomon Brothers with a competitive advantage in the area of bond portfolio analysis.

The 1990s

Deryck C. Maughan, former head of Tokyo operations, is named Chief Operating Officer in 1991. Warren Buffet, a director and the largest shareholder, is named Chairman and CEO in 1991, and Maughan becomes Chairman and CEO in 1992.

The firm’s commitment to computer technology and infrastructure takes a dramatic leap forward in the early part of the decade.

Salomon Brothers relocates all its support operations to Tampa, Florida, where it builds a 130,000-square-foot facility, housing state-of-the-art computer, electrical and telecommunications systems.
1997

November 26: Smith Barney, a wholly owned subsidiary of Travelers Group, merges with Salomon Inc. to form Salomon Smith Barney. The firm combines the fundamental strengths of two leaders in the financial community whose vast experience, breadth of resources and global intellectual capital positions it to be a market leader in the next millennium.
1998

October 8: Travelers Group and Citicorp merge to form Citigroup Inc., a global leader in financial services.
citigroup.com

LegacyStory of Citi VideoCitigroup IncGlobal PresenceCorporate TreeBank Handlowy HistoryCitibank HistoryEuropean Bank HistoryCalifornia Bank HistoryBanamex HistorySalomon Brothers HistorySchroder & Co HistorySmith BarneyThe AssociatesPrimerica
Citi’s History

http://www.citigroup.com/citi/corporate/history/salomon.htm

The 1990s

Deryck C. Maughan, former head of Tokyo operations, is named Chief Operating Officer in 1991. Warren Buffet, a director and the largest shareholder, is named Chairman and CEO in 1991, and Maughan becomes Chairman and CEO in 1992.

The firm’s commitment to computer technology and infrastructure takes a dramatic leap forward in the early part of the decade.

Salomon Brothers relocates all its support operations to Tampa, Florida, where it builds a 130,000-square-foot facility, housing state-of-the-art computer, electrical and telecommunications systems.
1997

November 26: Smith Barney, a wholly owned subsidiary of Travelers Group, merges with Salomon Inc. to form Salomon Smith Barney. The firm combines the fundamental strengths of two leaders in the financial community whose vast experience, breadth of resources and global intellectual capital positions it to be a market leader in the next millennium.

1998

October 8: Travelers Group and Citicorp merge to form Citigroup Inc., a global leader in financial services.

1978

John Gutfreund is named successor to Billy Salomon.
1980s

Throughout the 1980s, Salomon Brothers expands its role as an innovator within the financial industry. The highlights of this decade include:

* Introduction of Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs).
* The merger of Salomon Brothers with Philip Brothers – a marriage of  Salomon-ingenuity  and  Philip-cash  that gives Salomon Brothers leverage to make great headway into global investment banking, mortgage-backed securities, as well as other areas of opportunity.
* The first public offering of  CARS  – a security backed by automobile loans.
* Introduction of Salomon Brothers Broad Investment Grade Bond Index ( BIG ).
* Launch of the Salomon Brothers World Bond Index – a valuable tool used to measure returns of both single and multicurrency portfolios.
* The deregulation of the capital markets within the United Kingdom, marking the beginning of unprecedented opportunities for firms prepared to make the most of them. Ultimately, Salomon joins the London Stock Exchange and becomes a primary dealer there.
* The development of Sophisticated Analytical Applications, including Yield Book, a powerful fixed-income analytics system that provides Salomon Brothers with a competitive advantage in the area of bond portfolio analysis.

1970

Salomon Brothers & Hutzler moves from 60 Wall Street to One New York Plaza, and the firm’s name is officially shortened to Salomon Brothers.

The firm opens a London office and, soon after that, offices in Hong Kong and Tokyo.
1975

New York City is on the verge of financial collapse. To resolve the crisis, the Municipal Assistance Corporation (christened  Big Mac  by the press) is formed. It issues bonds to pay off holders of city obligations while generating much-needed revenues.

The initial underwriting is for $1 billion, making it the largest municipal issuance in history. Salomon Brothers is selected to manage the offerings from the investment banking side.

1940s

In the United States, the government raises funds for World War II through Treasury auctions. This substantially increases the government bond business and the role played by Salomon and other investment houses specializing in these securities.

By the end of World War II, Salomon Brothers & Hutzler has grown substantially.
The 1950s and 1960s

Through the vision and guidance of William  Billy  Salomon, son of one of the founding brothers, Salomon Brothers expands and automates its back office and operation. Salomon’s use of technology equips the firm to handle increased volume, as well as better serve the ever-changing needs of its customers.

November 1963: Billy Salomon becomes the first managing partner of the firm.

Salomon’s investment in research, technology and talent continues into the 1960s, leading to recognition within the financial community.

1910

With $5,000 in savings and a small family loan, Arthur, Herbert and Percy Salomon leave their father’s firm and start their own business, Salomon Brothers, at 80 Broadway in New York City.

Salomon joins forces with Morton Hutzler, an established firm with a seat on the New York Stock Exchange. Salomon Brothers & Hutzler is born.

Salomon Brothers & Hutzler registers with the Treasury and becomes one of the first primary dealers in U.S. government securities.
1929

The U.S. stock market crashes and Salomon Brothers & Hutzler weathers the storm for two reasons:

* The firm holds only a small position in the stock market.
* Salomon Brothers refuses to carry margin accounts, which ultimately lead to the downfall of many investors.

Salomon Brothers further benefits when banks turn to bonds as a  safe haven  after the crash.

http://www.citigroup.com/citi/corporate/history/salomon.htm

William R Salomon
SALOMON WILLIAM R. Council on Foreign Relations. Membership Roster. 2004. pages cited
http://www.namebase.org/xrut/William-R-Salomon.html

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Salomon Brothers Fund Announces Election of William R. Hutchinson …
Salomon Brothers Fund Inc, which is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol  SBF,  today announced that William R. Hutchinson has…
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Merger: The Exclusive Inside Story of the Bendix-Martin Marietta … – Google Books Result
by Peter F. Hartz – 1999 – Business & Economics – 418 pages
Are you replacing Salomon Brothers?  Wasserstein asked. … Bill Agee knew that being asked to come in and supplement Salomon Brothers was heady stuff for …
books.google.com/books?isbn=1893122336…

Salomon Sale
Monday, Jan. 16, 1928

A century and a half ago the ladies of France, their skirts shining like inverted sprays of silver in the light of many candles, looked over their fans at a crumbling world and at gentlemen who took snuff, with elaborate and effeminate gesture, from small, silver boxes. In the rooms where they danced or laughed or whispered were chairs, tapestried in stiff silk, little frivolous statues, the infinitely suave and polished paintings of Watteau or Jean Honore Fragonard. Last week, in Manhattan, snuff boxes, chairs, desks, paintings, tapestries, busts, the wide golden branches in which tall candles had once burned brightly, were offered for sale at the American Art Galleries. These—877 pieces which had formed the collection of the late Mrs. William Salomon, wife of famed Banker William Salomon—were considered to comprise, with few exceptions,* the finest such collection in the world.
More Related

* How We Became the United States of France
* No Gloating in France on Finance Crisis
* Booing the Marsellaise: A French Soccer Scandal

The sale lasted for four days. The first three were spent in auctioning off the smaller, the less valuable pieces. A rich woman purchased a pair of Irish silver sauce-boats for $2,500; other collectors bought in card-tables, marble clocks, lamps, figurines, inkstands, door knockers, small sofas and chairs, portraits of French ladies whose furtive, lovely faces looked down with gay bewilderment at the solemn faces of antique dealers and U. S. ladies of fashion. On the fourth day of the sale the finest pieces were brought on the platform; the buyers, in their excitement, kept crossing their knees or powdering their noses.

So aroused were the buyers by the fourth day’s display that they furnished almost $500,000 for the remaining pieces in the Salomon Collection; in the first three days they had paid altogether a little less than $200,000. Mrs. Elisha Walker, Manhattan social bigwig, successfully proffered $44,000 for six tapestried chairs and a sofa that had been made, a long time ago, for Queen Marie Antoinette of France. A little Watteau, which showed a pale libidinous god making love to a plump nymph, went to a dealer for $12,500. A portrait by Fragonard of the Chevalier de Billaut,  in gay attire, seated in a chair,  drew $24,000 from P. W. French & Co. P. W. French & Co. also paid the highest price—$28,000—that was offered for any single item. This secured them a bust of Madame de Wailly, wife of Charles de Wailly, court architect to the last king of France. A lady with long thick curls, a sullen mouth and a thick nose, her oblique but unmistakable disdain was not softened by the compliment.

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,731339,00.html

Salomon Brothers Fund Announces Election of William R. Hutchinson as Director.
Publication: PR Newswire
Publication Date: 30-JUL-03

Article Excerpt
Salomon Brothers Fund Inc, which is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol  SBF,  today announced that William R. Hutchinson has been elected an independent director of the Fund.

Mr. Hutchinson is President of WR Hutchinson & Associates, Inc., and formerly Group Vice &……
http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4045590/Salomon-Brothers-Fund-Announces-Election.html

Lewis Glucksman
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lewis L. Glucksman (December 22, 1925 — July 5, 2006) was a former Lehman Brothers trader and former chief executive officer of Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb Inc.
Contents

* 1 Life
o 1.1 Education
o 1.2 Career
o 1.3 Ireland and philanthropy
o 1.4 Death
* 2 References
* 3 External links

Life

Glucksman was born into a second generation Hungarian-Jewish family that lived on the upper west side of Manhattan New York City. He served as a teenage volunteer with the US Navy in World War II.

Education

Glucksman graduated from the College of William and Mary and later earned a Master’s degree in business administration from New York University. The National University of Ireland granted him an honorary Ph.D. in 2002.

Career

Glucksman had a distinguished career on Wall Street. He joined the staff of privately held Lehman Brothers in 1963, a firm with a 130-year history. After rising from head of sales and trading at Lehman to co-CEO, Glucksman, described then as  gruff and tough  beat Pete Peterson, a former United States Secretary of Commerce for control of the then-closely held firm in 1983, a battle documented in the 1986 book Greed and Glory on Wall Street by Ken Auletta.

Shortly after Glucksman took control, however, the firm experienced a sharp drop in profits. That resulted in a forced sale by Lehman’s partners to American Express in 1984. American Express paid $380 million for the firm.

Glucksman joined Primerica Financial Services after Citigroup Inc. founder Sanford Weill acquired the company in 1988.

He also served as Commissioner of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

Ireland and philanthropy

He travelled to Ireland frequently in his role as a trustee of New York University to promote academic relationships between Irish academia and NYU. He established a home in Cobh, County Cork in 1984 with his wife Loretta Brennan Glucksman and lived there from 1999.

Glucksman directed much of his philanthrophy towards projects of benefit to the promotion of culture in Ireland. These included the transfer of the Coastal and Marine Research Centre from UCC to waterfront premises at Cork Harbour; his patronage of the Lewis Glucksman Gallery at UCC and the Glucksman Chair of Literature and the Glucksman Library and Reading Room at the University of Limerick; his support for the Millennium Wing of the National Gallery of Ireland; his 1993 founding of Glucksman Ireland House at New York University as a centre of Irish culture, language, literature and music; and his participation in The Ireland Funds.

The Glucksman Institute for Research in Securities Markets (formed at NYU Stern) is endowed by a grant from Lewis Glucksman, Stern MBA ‘1951. It offers faculty and student grants to support research on equities, bonds, futures, options, and other financial instruments and on the markets where they are traded.

Death

Glucksman died at his home in Cobh in 2006, aged 80. He is survived by his wife.

References

* (2006, July 7). Lewis Glucksman, 80; Lehman Bros. Trader Rose to Chief Executive. The Los Angeles Times

External links

* Lehman Brothers
* Glucksman Institute for Research in Securities Markets
* The Ireland Funds
* The Ireland Funds : Coastal and Marine Research Centre
* University College Cork
* University of Limerick
* National Gallery of Ireland
* The Glucksman Gallery
* Glucksman Ireland House, New York University

Citigroup
Brands:
Banamex • Citibank • Citicapital • CitiFinancial • Citigold • Citi Private Bank • Citigroup Venture Capital • Diners Club • Egg • Primerica • Salomon Brothers • Smith Barney • Quilter
Key people:
Vikram Pandit • Al-Waleed bin Talal • Robert Rubin • Sir Winfried Bischoff • Gary Crittenden • Sallie Krawcheck • William R. Rhodes • Lewis B. Kaden
Notable former executives:
Michael Bloomberg • Jamie Dimon • Ahmed Fahour • Stanley Fischer • Lewis Glucksman • Thomas W. Jones • Victor Menezes • Samuel Osgood • Chuck Prince • John Reed • James Stillman Rockefeller • William Rockefeller • Moses Taylor • Sandy Weill • Robert B. Willumstad • Walter B. Wriston
Corporate Directors:
Michael Armstrong • Alain Belda • George David • Kenneth T. Derr • John M. Deutch • Roberto Hernández Ramírez • Ann Jordan • Klaus Kleinfeld • Andrew N. Liveris • Dudley Mecum • Anne Mulcahy • Richard Parsons • Chuck Prince • Judith Rodin • Robert Rubin • Franklin A. Thomas • Sandy Weill
Local entities:
Australia • Canada • China • Hong Kong • Japan • Malaysia • Mexico • Singapore • Taiwan • Thailand
Annual revenue: $146.7 billion USD A Employees: 332,000 A Stock Symbol: NYSE: C and TYO: Citi
A Website: http://www.citigroup.com A Headquarters: 399 Park Avenue, New York City, New York 10043, United States
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Glucksman
Categories: American bankers | Citigroup people | American philanthropists | American businesspeople | Ireland Funds | People from New York City | College of William and Mary alumni | American Jews | 1925 births | 2006 deaths
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Glucksman

http://books.google.com/books?id=dIT4cjRNpygC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=William+Billy+Salomon&source=web&ots=jVaEcIjm7J&sig=4slUmwapa7toRzG55A3iJYFG130&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA53,M1

What Goes Up
By Eric J. Weiner
TOO FAR, TOO FAST; Salomon Brothers’ John Gutfreund

TOO FAR, TOO FAST; Salomon Brothers’ John Gutfreund
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE5D81E3DF933A25752C0A96E948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1

By JAMES STERNGOLD; JAMES STERNGOLD IS A NEW YORK TIMES BUSINESS REPORTER.
Published: January 10, 1988

LAST MONTH, JOHN H. GUTFREUND, the chairman and chief executive of Salomon Brothers, Wall Street’s largest investment banking house, completed the grueling task of fixing the annual bonuses for his senior managers. There was a lot of bad news to be passed around, including that of his own compensation. He told his executives he would take a $2 million pay cut.

Last year, the most tumultuous of Salomon’s 78 years in business, the concern became a glaring corporate victim of Wall Street’s extended mad rush to expand. In 1985, its peak year, the company brought in $760 million in pretax profits, more than the entire securities industry earned in 1978. Riding the crest, John Gutfreund planned to take Salomon out of its longtime offices at One New York Plaza, in lower Manhattan, and erect what was to have been the city’s most glittery new office tower as its headquarters, uptown, on Columbus Circle. The project was abandoned last month.

The excesses of the last five years caught up with all of the investment world last fall, of course. Once-proud E.F. Hutton was put up for auction and sold to Shearson Lehman Brothers; some 6,000 of its employees are expected to be dismissed. Several others have initiated major cutbacks. But no firm’s problems are more emblematic of the era drawing to a close than those of the giant Salomon, whose decline was evident even before the stock market crashed.

”The world changed in some fundamental ways, and most of us were not on top of it,” Gutfreund admits. ”We were dragged into the modern world.”

In September, after months of dwindling profits, Salomon was forced to fend off a potential takeover bid from a cosmetics company. And though it was not disclosed at the time, John Gutfreund was so affronted by the prospect of working for what he considered a hostile interloper – Revlon Inc. – that he informed Salomon’s board of directors he was prepared to resign and expected most of Salomon’s senior management to depart with him.

Just two weeks later, seeking urgently to cut expenses and recoup needed capital, Salomon, the nation’s largest underwriter of municipal securities, suddenly dropped out of the municipal business. At the same time, its commercial paper division, which dealt in short-term corporate securities, was shut down as well, leaving major customers, such as the International Business Machines Corporation and Mobil Oil, to find another broker to raise their short-term capital.

Then Black Monday arrived. When the stock market plunged 508 points on Oct. 19, Salomon lost $75 million in after-tax earnings for the month.

Gutfreund had no choice; bonuses of top executives were slashed. At his own suggestion, the 58-year-old chairman, who earned $3.2 million in 1986, took no bonus at all. He received his $300,000 annual salary, plus $800,000 of cash deferred from 1984. But in lieu of a bonus, he received 300,000 options for Salomon stock, exercisable at $18.125, the closing price on the day they were awarded. The options represented optimism; they are worthless unless Gutfreund can boost the company’s earnings and its share price.

The confidence is characteristic of a man whose tactics in taking advantage of the bull markets of the 1980’s brought him the title ”The King of Wall Street,” when he was featured on the cover of Business Week magazine. Beginning in 1978, when he assumed control of Salomon Brothers as managing partner, Gutfreund pursued a strategy of aggressive expansion, both in the services Salomon provided for its customers, and in the role of the firm in the global marketplace. Ten years ago, Salomon was a privately held house with $208.7 million in capital, specializing in bond trading. Under Gutfreund’s stewardship, the firm became publicly owned, created a mortgage securities division, expanded into mergers and acquisitions, built its foreign currency exchange operation and opened offices in Tokyo, Zurich and Frankfurt. By 1987, its capital – the actual store of funds with which the company operates – reached $3.4 billion, and it had become investment banker to America’s largest corporations. During the same period, many houses on Wall Street grew rapidly and suffered for it; Salomon’s dominance, however, made its fall most dramatic.

Gutfreund takes responsibility for many of Salomon’s woes. But in the wake of the recent calamities, his is a businessman’s repentance, tempered by renewed determination. ”I don’t have many regrets,” he says. ”I regret mistakes, particularly those that damage other people, and we’ve all made some of those. But I’m not sad about change. It’s part of my job.” EVEN IN THE HARD-EDGED EN-vironment of Wall Street, silver-haired, portly John Gutfreund (pronounced GOOD-friend) stands out as an imposing figure. Supremely self-confident, intellectual, ferociously competitive, he is a throwback to the days on Wall Street when partnerships reigned and the personality of one man could dominate a firm. ”There are a lot of people here, I mean senior people, who measure their day by whether John smiles at them,” says one senior executive.

Salomon is, above all, a trading house. Its primary business has always been in buying and selling a range of stocks and bonds, hoping for a profit on each transaction. Originally, this was about all the firm did, before it gained entree to the more lucrative world of securities underwriting – the business of issuing and selling new securities for companies wishing to raise capital. (Salomon’s clients are institutions and corporations; it does not have a retail-branch system that deals with individuals.) For decades, there had been a two-tier order on the Street. On top were an elite group of firms – Morgan Stanley and First Boston, for instance – who had longstanding connections with America’s largest industrial companies and arranged most of their financing. Beneath them were a range of securities houses, Salomon Brothers among them, catering to the needs of smaller companies and trading the securities underwritten by the more prestigious firms.

By the 1960’s, however, major corporations realized they could save money by encouraging competition for their business. And firms that had been relegated to securities trading found that their practiced skills at pricing stocks and bonds enabled them to woo corporate clients effectively. Gambling with greater confidence on thinner profit margins, they undercut their more prestigious rivals. This allowed Salomon Brothers to vault into the first ranks of Wall Street underwriters. It made Salomon’s syndicate department, which organizes underwritings, into a powerful entity within the firm. The head of that department was John Gutfreund.

Gutfreund talks easily about politics and global economics, sometimes in an affected British accent. About business, he will field even the most critical question sharply, but he bristles with his trademark impatience when he’s confronted. Surprisingly, he shies away from talking about himself, though when he finally does, it is in a direct and plain-spoken fashion.

He grew up in the suburbs of New York City, a young man with an interest in drama and a leaning toward liberal politics. His father, the owner of a prosperous trucking company, was a golfing buddy of William (Billy) Salomon, the son of one of the founders of the firm that bore his name. Gutfreund graduated from Oberlin College, in Ohio, in 1951, with a degree in English, and considered teaching literature. But after two years in the Army, he joined Salomon Brothers, at Billy Salomon’s invitation, as a trainee in the statistical department. He moved quickly into trading municipal securities. Twenty-five years later, Billy Salomon named Gutfreund to succeed him as head of the firm.

Today, Gutfreund and his second wife, Susan, a former flight attendant, live in palatial quarters on Fifth Avenue, with their 2-year-old son John Peter. In fact, Gutfreund has undergone a transformation since he was married in February 1981. He and his wife have become prominent figures in New York society, something the old John Gutfreund shunned.

”When I made John heir apparent, he was the most conservative person in the partnership, no question,” says Billy Salomon. ”Frugal is an understatement. If you turned in an expense account and you had taken a client to Caravelle for dinner or something, John would ask you if it was really necessary. I thought that was a good example for the boys.”

Though Gutfreund’s appearance is polished, he is most at ease on the trading floor, peeling off crude expletives with the traders who work for him. His office – a tiny one, by Wall Street standards – functions principally as a retreat for private chats or interviews and a place to store his cigars, kept in an antique chest. There is no desk, just a polished-wood table with some photos of his family and a romantic drawing of his wife, her face surrounded by a cloud of wavy hair. Above it on the wall is a small photo of Abraham Lincoln.

He spends most of his time at a large desk, overseeing one end of Salomon’s gymnasium-sized bond trading room, probably the most accessible chairman of any concern on Wall Street. The nitty-gritty of dealmaking, waging war with the weapons of quarters and eighths of a point, remains John Gutfreund’s delight.

In October, for instance, co-underwriting a huge offering of shares in British Petroleum, Salomon took a $70 million shellacking when the deal was torpedoed by the stock market crash. Along with its co-underwriters, Salomon had guaranteed the offering would be completed at the equivalent of 330 pence per share. After Black Monday, the share price fell by 20 percent, leaving the underwriters to make up the difference. But even that painful episode had a bright side for Gutfreund. With a deft bit of financial footwork, selling chunks of shares at times when the market seemed receptive, Salomon managed to diminish its potential loss and free the capital for other endeavors.

”I got great pleasure from being involved in that,” he says. ”Salomon is a trading house and I was a trader. It was fascinating to talk to Vic Cohn [ the head of Salomon’s syndicate department ] about his strategy on what looked like it could have been an $80 million loss. To hold the shares? Sell them back to the market? How did we diminish our liability? It was just fascinating.” BEGUN TWO DECADES AGO, THE shift from what is known as ”relationship banking,” in which a corporation gives most of its business to an investment banker it has known for years, to ”transactional banking,” in which investment houses compete for clients on a deal-by-deal basis, accelerated in the deregulated markets of the 1970’s and 80’s. In the race to win deals, profit margins were continually driven lower, and the only way for investment banks to make up for the decline was to increase their volume and to find new businesses, at home and abroad, where profit margins were higher.

Early in his tenure, Gutfreund recognized that the trend toward transactional banking, coupled with the explosive growth in the financial markets, would require investment houses to build greater stores of capital; more and more, the ability to compete was being defined by financial heft. In 1981, seeking a larger and more permanent source of capital, Gutfreund agreed to sell Salomon for $554 million to Philipp Brothers, then one of the world’s largest commodities traders. Gutfreund became chairman of the Salomon Brothers subsidiary and co-chief executive (along with the Philipp Brothers chairman, David Tendler) of the newly formed holding company, Phibro-Salomon Inc.

The deal was worked out in total secrecy over a matter of weeks, then was revealed as a virtual fait accompli to Salomon’s stunned partners. It was a pivotal and still-controversial move, particularly shocking because Gutfreund had previously declared his opposition to abandoning the partnership structure and assuming a corporate one. And though all the partners became rich in the bargain, for one, at least, the experience was embittering. Billy Salomon, not having been informed of the deal until after it was finished, was furious. And he had reason to be. He received less than a $10 million share in the transaction, compared with more than $30 million for Gutfreund.
It quickly became clear that the sale had its pluses and minuses. First, Gutfreund had sold cheap. Salomon received a price equal to slightly less than twice the firm’s book value – the capital its partners had invested in it. The same year, by comparison, Prudential Insurance paid more than twice book for Bache, and Shearson Loeb Rhodes received 3.4 times book from American Express. Still, the access to Phibro’s huge capital resources enabled Salomon to deal in larger volume, take larger risks and operate on lower profit margins.

Meanwhile, the commodities markets went through a convulsion. With the success of the Federal Reserve’s battle against inflation in the early 1980’s, the price of everything from gold to crude oil tumbled, and Phibro’s profits followed. In 1983, Phibro’s traders earned $307 million before taxes; Salomon’s earned $463 million, and they began clamoring for control over the combined company, to which they felt their financial muscle entitled them.

The stage was set for the coup. Gutfreund, who by then had mastered the art of corporate warfare, waited for his rival to make a mistake.

In mid-1984, sensing that the arrangement between the concerns was unraveling, David Tendler attempted to buy back the commodities business from the combined company. He could not find financing, however, and the proposal died.

The mopping-up operation went swiftly. Gutfreund, arguing that his Salomon Brothers unit was producing most of the company’s profits, lobbied the board of the holding company to be named sole chief executive officer. When he succeeded, Tendler resigned. Within a year, the Philipp Brothers trading unit was slashed to a third of its size. The name of the holding company was changed from Phibro-Salomon to Salomon Inc.

”I was never out to consciously usurp Tendler’s power or run a commodities company,” Gutfreund says. ”Unfortunately, it became my job to do that. Tendler played a weak hand. When you do that and you lose, you’re out.”

WHAT FOLLOWED WERE GUTFREUND’S best years. Salomon became the undisputed leader in a number of low margin-high volume businesses, such as the underwriting of corporate bonds and trading in government securities and large blocks of stock. At a time when all of the major Wall Street firms, as well as the major American commercial banks, were moving aggressively abroad, Salomon, too, added staff in Europe and Asia and committed capital to businesses overseas. It was an era of seemingly uninhibited growth, fueled by bull runs in the stock and bond markets.

In 1986, however, Salomon’s expenses shot up an astounding 40 percent, and it was clear that not only had the company grown too big, too fast, but it had grown chaotically. Until earlier this year, for example, Salomon did not even have a chief financial officer to monitor its nearly $20 billion in daily transactions. Operations were being duplicated in different parts of the organization.

”Central control was lacking,” Gutfreund concedes. ”The business has gotten beyond my simple abilities.”
In the fall of 1986, Gutfreund formed an Office of the Chairman; he remained chairman, but promoted a new generation of managers to share with him important responsibilities. His selections made it clear that he had lost confidence in some of his senior managers, and the shifts unsettled Salomon’s executive ranks.

The three men Gutfreund named to join him were Thomas W. Strauss, who became president; William J. Voute, who was named vice chairman, and Lewis S. Ranieri, also named a vice chairman, but who himself would be forced out within a year. Left out was, among others, Salomon’s highly respected economist and internal conscience, Henry Kaufman, vice chairman of Salomon Inc. Kaufman quit the board of Salomon Inc., though he remained head of its prestigious research department until he resigned from the company last month.

Gutfreund takes the blame for the weak management structure; his greatest failure, he says, was in not being quick enough to move out older managers, a fault many within Salomon Brothers acknowledge. ”I’m too paternalistic,” he says. ”My problem is that I am too deliberate on people issues.”

The best example of this was the painful restructuring Salomon initiated last year. Backed into a corner by tumbling profits, Gutfreund tried to reduce expenses with judicious cutbacks. But by early October, he realized that fine-tuning would never be enough.

When, as a result, Salomon shut down its municipal securities department, which raised capital for state and city governments, and its commercial paper division, it astonished the entire industry. Salomon Brothers had been the leading concern on Wall Street in municipal finance. It was the business in which Gutfreund himself had gotten his start (and in which his son Owen currently works at Lazard Freres). Recalling his proudest moments at Salomon, Gutfreund lists the company’s part in rescuing New York City and the state of Massachusetts from fiscal emergencies.

The cutbacks included 800 layoffs. ”It was emotionally unsettling,” Gutfreund says. ”But in the short term it was more attractive to gain those cost benefits. In an ideal world, I would have downgraded rather than excised.”

Other firms have made similar moves. Kidder, Peabody, for instance, has all but dismantled its municipal securities department. Paine Webber just about gave away its commercial paper business to Citibank late last year. But in the municipal business, at least, many on Wall Street feel that Salomon was to blame for the industrywide setback.

”Salomon had a conscious policy to drive other people from the business by cutting out the management fees on deals; they drove the margins into the ground so nobody made money,” says Sherman R. Lewis, a vice chairman of Shearson Lehman Brothers.

”The reality,” says one senior executive at Salomon Brothers, echoing a widely held view there, ”is that we are paying for problems that we failed to get a handle on earlier. The munis area was very poorly managed. We all knew that. It never made as much money as it should have. It was a people problem. And John can be very slow to make people decisions.”
THE MOST CALAMITOUS series of events in Salomon Brothers’ history began on Saturday morning, Sept. 19, when John Gutfreund received a telephone call at his apartment from his friend Martin Lipton, a senior partner at Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz, the law firm that represents Salomon Brothers. Lipton had jolting news: Felix G. Rohatyn, a partner at Lazard Freres, had called him to say that the Minerals and Resources Company, known as Minorco, had found a buyer for the 14 percent stake it held in Salomon.

Gutfreund had known since April that Minorco, a Bermuda-based holding company controlled by South Africa’s Anglo-American mining empire, wanted out of its position in order to invest the capital in the mining business. Gutfreund, in fact, had initially been receptive to a proposal by Rohatyn that Minorco sell the block to a major Japanese bank or insurance company. But at the last minute Gutfreund turned down the proposal, leaving a perturbed Minorco hanging. It was an error he would regret.

On Wednesday, Sept. 23, Gutfreund went to Lipton’s midtown office, where he met with Rohatyn and Henry R. Slack, Minorco’s president, and learned the identity of the proposed buyer of the stock. It was Revlon Inc., the cosmetics manufacturer that had been acquired two years earlier, in a bitter takeover battle, by the corporate raider Ronald O. Perelman. Although the investment was described as passive, Perelman wanted not only Minorco’s 14 percent block; he said he might seek to raise his stake to as much as 25 percent.

The implication was clear: Salomon, a brawny, fearless competitor in the global financial markets, had become the quarry of a corporate raider. Minorco’s was the largest stake in Salomon, a fulcrum that could be used to tilt its strategy and key decisions.

”I was embarrassed for John,” says Lipton. ”John sees Salomon as occupying a very special place in the financial system, and that could have been wrecked. From that moment on, it was crystal clear to John that the continuation of the firm was in jeopardy.”

That Salomon had been targeted at all was painful to Gutfreund. The company had become vulnerable because of weaknesses that its rapid expansion and a cooling in the markets had exposed.

Its stock price, like those of most other brokerage companies, had been depressed for nearly a year. Expenses had continued to outpace revenue growth, with the staff having swelled to a peak of 6,800, from 2,300 in 1981. The firm is expected to report post-tax earnings of about $100 million for 1987, a remarkably steep drop from $332 million the previous year, and the peak of $557 million in 1985.

But there was an unmistakable irony to the Perelman bid as well. Salomon had been late in entering the lucrative field of financing takeovers with the sale of low quality, high yielding ”junk” bonds. That is just the kind of hostile bid for which Perelman is known.

A year earlier, after a divisive internal quarrel, Gutfreund had finally given Salomon’s investment bankers the go-ahead to pursue the takeover business, even though he remained ambivalent. Now the concern found itself on the receiving end of a bid, part of whose logic, Perelman had explained, was that his skills in this area could be tapped to boost Salomon’s business.

”I was shocked,” Gutfreund says. ”Perelman was just a name to me, but I felt that the structure of Salomon Brothers, in terms of our relationships with clients, their trust and confidence, would not do well with our having a bond with someone deemed to be a corporate raider.”

Forced into action, Gutfreund needed to find a friendly buyer, a white knight, and he decided to call on his old friend Warren E. Buffett, the chairman of Berkshire Hathaway Inc. Buffett is an investor with a reputation for shrewdly picking off stocks cheaply. In fact, noting the depressed level of Salomon’s stock over the summer, he had already proposed to Gutfreund that he’d be interested in buying a piece of the company if its stock price sank low enough.

Gutfreund immediately entered into negotiations. Over the next week, he worked out a deal in which Salomon would buy the Minorco block for $809 million; Salomon would then sell a 12 percent stake for $700 million to Berkshire Hathaway, in the form of a new issue of preferred stock. Remarkably sweet terms for Buffett: Salomon would be left with a $109 million dent in its capital and an annual bill of $63 million for the dividends on Buffett’s stock.

On Saturday night, Sept. 26, Gutfreund met with Perelman at the swank Hotel Plaza Athenee, on Manhattan’s Upper East Side.

He had walked to the Plaza Athenee accompanied by Lipton, who did not stay for the talk. Gutfreund, though cordial, repeated what he had told Perelman once already: that an investment by Revlon in Salomon would not be appropriate or welcomed. Perelman reminded him that he could be very stubborn. A threat was in the air.

Gutfreund returned to Lipton’s apartment angry; two diet sodas, he complained to Lipton, had cost nearly $10. A few minutes later he concluded the deal with Minorco. On Sunday morning, he and Buffett finalized their agreement, which left one last hurdle. The board of the holding company, Salomon Inc., had to approve the transaction.

Just after 5 P.M. on Monday, Sept. 28, Gutfreund stepped into the Salomon board room. In his calm, breathy baritone, he said he would resign as chairman and chief executive if the deal he had arranged was rejected in favor of Revlon’s competing bid.

He was seconded by the firm’s other top executives, including Tommy Strauss, who added that many others would follow suit. It had gotten that bad; the firm was teetering.

”I never stated it as a threat,” Gutfreund says. ”I was stating a fact.”

After two hours of deliberations, the Salomon Inc. board decided to accept the deal with Buffett.

But there was little time for Gutfreund to savor the triumph. The second week in October, Salomon announced its restructuring and the layoffs.

A week later, the stock market plunged, and Salomon was hit, like most of its competitors, with staggering losses. In addition to the $70 million British Petroleum fiasco, the crash also undermined a $1.5 billion junk bond offering that Salomon was planning to co-underwrite to finance a buyout of the Southland Corporation, the owner of the 7-Eleven convenience store chain. The deal had been intended to show that Salomon was now a force in junk bonds.

Finally, in December, Gutfreund announced that Salomon was abandoning the construction of its controversial new headquarters. The withdrawal would force a $51 million after-tax write-off. ”We pulled back on a move that was no longer appropriate,” Gutfreund says, typically resolute. ”It’s like a piece of bad inventory. You get out of it, you get on with it.” But there was equivalent damage in symbolic terms. The tower was to have represented the company’s eminence; Salomon’s withdrawal was widely viewed as an embarrassment.

”We had an incredible run,” said Tommy Strauss, Salomon’s president, shortly after the plan was shelved. ”Those were just great years we had. Then this.”

AT THE END OF 1986, the numbers of people we had doing things did not make sense,” John Gutfreund says. ”Only when I really examined these things did I realize how off track we were. I came to my senses cumulatively.”

For Gutfreund, the experience of the last year has obviously been chastening. A man who once spoke ambitiously about Salomon’s global expansion, now speaks of a world of limits. But the man who had been the architect of the ideal money machine for the first half of the 1980’s is ready now, he says, to get on with the task of reinventing America’s largest investment banking house.

Salomon has already begun to retrench internationally, and in the future, Gutfreund says, the company will stop trying to become a major factor in a number of foreign stock markets. He names Italy, Sweden and Australia: ”We won’t be so arrogant as to think we can become a factor in their indigenous markets. We had been seduced into thinking we could do that.”

Domestically, Gutfreund says, Salomon will turn away from its previous aim of being all things to its institutional customers. One reason for this is that investment banks are facing increased competition from commercial banks, which have been edging inexorably into the securities field. In the coming year, he will seriously consider selling businesses not directly related to its core operations of underwriting and trading securities. This would include the Philipp Brothers and Phibro Energy commodity trading subsidiaries, Salomon’s former owners.
”One of the things we’re going to look at very hard is to reaffirm relationship banking,” he says, a startling reversal of philosophy. Rankings, which meant everything to the big-league sluggers of the first half of this decade, he goes on, will mean little.

”We’ll operate in businesses that are cost effective. Is being No. 1 in all of the markets something we can or want to do now? We will always want to be, but we have to consider what would be more profitable. I can see us coming back to the top in profits, but we won’t be No. 1 in all of the markets.”

Profits, stock price. Gutfreund now knows he is vulnerable. But, as his willingness to forgo his guaranteed bonus indicates, he is also betting on the future:

”I can say we’re better than half way to where we want to be. Maybe 75 percent. It doesn’t look right yet because we just came through a real shock, the shock of 1987. But we’re doing the important things.”

There are those who are unconvinced. Henry Kaufman feels that Salomon has shifted permanently from its central mission of helping provide capital for America’s largest corporations, a course, he says, that will keep the company from rebounding. Kaufman particularly resented Salomon’s push into merchant banking, the business of arranging and financing corporate takeovers, and having resigned last month to start his own investment consulting firm, he rails against what he perceived to be the deaf ear turned to his cautionary exhortations.

”It is always oh so pleasant to expand,” Kaufman says. ”It expresses virility, drive, the profit motive. But it is so difficult to consolidate, to reassess where you want to be. True, you do have to take advantage of some of the fluff that comes along, the new businesses where there are substantial profits. But you cannot veer from your main course.”

Within the company, however, support for Gutfreund remains. For the last six years, ever since the merger with Phibro, Salomon’s executives have been net sellers of stock in their own company. But on Oct. 19, as the stock market spun out of control, Gutfreund bought 100,000 shares of Salomon stock. Since then, another 180 Salomon employees have bought 1.2 million of the company’s shares. In a world in which money talks, the message is clear.

”That’s the best vote you can get, I think,” Gutfreund says.

INVITATIONS TO THE GUTFREUNDS ARE DELIVERED by hand, and arrive pinned with a yellow rose. Presents come by the same route, usually in monogrammed shopping bags topped with monogrammed black and white ribbons.

Such personal touches are the invention of Susan Gutfreund, the 40-year-old hostess whose rapid rise has been the talk of New York society. Often clad in clothes by Givenchy, she is pretty and blond and exudes a warm, personable manner. Yet her lavish apartments and extravagant parties delight some of her guests and repel others. ”Susan’s wanted to make the big time and she’s done it better than anyone I know,” says the fashion publicist Eleanor Lambert. ”Susan’s bright and she’s developed a personal style for herself,” declares the designer Bill Blass. Her look is thoroughly American.”

American perhaps, but with a European touch. She loves cold houses, she says, because she was born in a 15th-century thatch-roofed house in England. (Her father, Louis J. Kaposta, a retired Air Force pilot, says she was born in Chicago, and grew up ”all over the place.”) She’s a frequent visitor to Paris – so frequent that the Gutfreunds recently bought a portion of an old mansion on the Left Bank in Paris.

Those who have seen the Paris flat say it is in superb taste. But the Gutfreunds astonished the French by putting in an immense eat-in kitchen. They reportedly shocked neighbors even more when they teamed up with the couturier Givenchy and the industrialist Jacques Bemberg, who also live in the house, to put in a $1 million underground parking garage so their cars wouldn’t have to be left in the courtyard overnight.

Mrs. Gutfreund is fastidious about all areas of her life. She went to great pains to have a small refrigerator installed in the bathroom of her former apartment in the River House, in New York, because after bathing she likes her perfume to be chilled. But that was a minor detail compared to the extensive renovation elsewhere in the apartment. The modern architects Richard S. Weinstein and Wayne Berg created a contemporary setting featuring a dramatic swirling staircase. Mrs. Gutfreund also hired MAC II, the well-known New York interior-design firm, who filled the grand living room with a Robert Adam carpet and French furniture. The convergence of stark modernism and the 18th century appalled the architects, but it was striking nonetheless.
Decorating is Mrs. Gutfreund’s passion. So is shopping for antiques. Three years ago, when the Gutfreunds moved from the River House to a large Fifth Avenue apartment, they hired the French decorator Henri Samuel. Everyone who has seen the new place extols the decorator’s work, especially the recently formed collection of antiques. Whenever you admire anything, Mrs. Gutfreund replies: ”Thank you. I’ve had it for ages.”

Tales of her parties abound. In the early days of her marriage to John Gutfreund (her first husband was a wealthy Texan who met her on a flight when she was an airline stewardess), she gave a lot of theme parties. One she remembers well was ”a Proustian evening.” Elaborate gilt candelabra adorned each table, and bouquets of herbs were tied to the back of each chair. In recent years, however, Mrs. Gutfreund has taken to entertaining less because she believes times have changed. ”Smaller tables are much more fun,” she says. ”I also find that people like honest home-style cooking.” Her style now is to hold Sunday night suppers offering a Texan menu of fried chicken and monkey bread that she says she cooks herself.

Still, those evenings of fantasy she held in years past are remembered among the purveyors of New York’s social history. In fact, many insist Tom Wolfe was thinking of the Gutfreunds when he created the Bavardages, the nouveau-riche couple whose party is so vividly depicted in ”The Bonfire of the Vanities.” Wolfe denies the comparison, but he’s not the only novelist whose name comes up when Mrs. Gutfreund is the topic. ”She’s right from Trollope or

Wharton,” says Eleanore Lambert. ”It’s such an interesting phenomenon. Every 30 years, one hears of people like her. She’s her own invention.”

Whether fact or fiction, there is a mythic quality about Mrs. Gutfreund’s life.

To her, it still seems like make-believe. When she’s asked about the last eight years, since she moved to New York and met her husband at a small dinner party, her eyes grow wide. ”New York is wonderful,” she says.

”It’s like living in a fairy tale.” – CAROL VOGEL
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE5D81E3DF933A25752C0A96E948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=9

Hospital for Special Surgery Gala – 2006
2006
VOL. 8 ISSUE 7
HSS Gala Honors Surgeon-in-Chief Emeritus
Russell F.Warren, M.D., and Raises $2.1 Million –
Highest Level of Support in Event History.
More than 900 friends and
family of HSS gathered at
Pier Sixty, Chelsea Piers
for the 23rd Annual Tribute
Dinner. $2.1 million was
raised – the most in the
history of the event.
Tom A. Bernstein,
president, Chelsea Piers
Management, and co-chair
of the Dinner, welcomed
everyone, and HSS
Surgeon-in-Chief Thomas
P. Sculco, M.D., served as
toastmaster for the evening. Additional co-chairs included Jeff Bewkes,
president and COO of Time Warner, Steve Schwarzman, head of The
Blackstone Group, and HSS Trustee William “Billy” Salomon. HSS
Trustee Mrs. Emil Mosbacher, Jr. served as Dinner Committee Chair.
Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg presented the 2006 Tribute Award to
Roland W. Betts for his outstanding contributions to New York City, and in
recognition of his business, philanthropic and civic endeavors. Mr. Betts
is co-founder and chairman of Chelsea Piers, L.P., which developed and
operates the Chelsea Piers Sports and Entertainment complex. Mr. Betts
is also co-founder and president of Silver Screen Management, Inc. For
nine years, Mr. Betts was lead owner of the Texas Rangers Baseball Club.
Among his many accolades, Mr. Betts is a Senior Fellow of the Yale
Corporation and is a trustee of numerous organizations, including the
American Museum of Natural History, Memorial Sloan-Kettering
Cancer Center, Columbia University Law School and the National Park
Foundation. Mr. Betts has recently been appointed as Trustee and
Treasurer of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.
Richard E. Salomon
Born: c. 1942
Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Business
Party Affiliation: Republican

Nationality: United States
Executive summary: Chairman of Mecox Ventures

Senior Advisor to David Rockefeller.

Father: Richard B. Salomon
Mother: Edna Barnes Salomon
Brother: Robert, Salomon
Brother: Ralph Salomon
Wife: (div.)
Wife: Laura Landro (Senior Editor, Wall Street Journal, b. 1955, m. 16-Feb-1996)

University: BA, Yale University (1964)
University: MBA, Columbia University (1967)
Administrator: Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees, Rockefeller University
Administrator: Chairman, Nominating & Governance Committee, Rockefeller University

Mecox Ventures Chairman
Spears, Benzak, Salomon & Farrell President & Managing Director (1982-2000)
Blackstone Group Chairman, Advisory Board
Member of the Board of Boston Properties (1998-)
Council on Foreign Relations Vice Chairman, Board of Directors
Museum of Modern Art Trustee, Investment Commitee
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Trustee, Investment Commitee
Bush-Cheney ’04
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee
Friends of Giuliani Exploratory Committee
George W. Bush for President
John McCain 2008
New York Public Library Trustee
Obama for America
Embarcadero Center Executive Committee (1977-98)

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Charles of the Ritz
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Charles of the Ritz is a cosmetics brand known today for its line of perfume fragrances.
Contents

* 1 Foreground
* 2 History
* 3 Expansion
* 4 E.R. Squibb ownership
* 5 Yves Saint Laurent to Revlon ownership
* 6 End of Charles of the Ritz

Foreground

In 1916, coiffeur Charles Jundt took over the Manhattan beauty salon of the New York City Ritz (later the Ritz-Carlton) hotel. He founded his own cosmetics company in 1919, and in 1926, began marketing beauty products under the name  Charles of the Ritz . Perfume was added to this line in 1927. Below is a list of the house fragrances, and their year of launch.
Fragrance name     Year of launch
A     1927
B     1927
c     1927
Jean Nate     1935
Spur     1937
Tingle     1938
Summertime     1939
Wintertime     1940
Love Potion     1941
Spring Rain     1941
Flower Show     1942
Jester     1944
Sea Shell     1944
Soignee     1944
Water Sprite     1944
An English Garden     1945
Damask     1945
Little Women     1945
Ritual     1945
Baby Pink     1947
Directoire     1948
French Provincial     1949
Floreal     1950
Country Wedding     1951
Ishah     1954
Simone Mounir     1957
Ritz (Classic)     1972
Charles of the Ritz     1977
Enjoli     1978
Charivari     1978
Aston     1979
Senchal     1981
Forever Krystle     1984
Carrington     1984
Xi’a Xi’ang     1987

History

In 1932, at the age of 24, Richard B. Salomon was named president of Charles of the Ritz, Inc. Twenty years later, he was elected chairman and chief executive officer of Lanvin-Charles of the Ritz, by then a $60- million firm. Mr Salomon was an internationally known businessman, philanthropist and humanitarian who served as chancellor of Brown University from 1979-88.

In 1935, Charles of the Ritz launched the highly successful Jean Nate line of body splashes and fragrance. They also later acquired the cosmetics company Alexandra de Markoff.

Charles of the Ritz expanded distribution from upscale salons into upper-end department stores like Saks Fifth Avenue and Neiman Marcus. In the early 1950′, he was said to have mocked Estee Lauder and her practice of free samples and gifts with purchase, saying  you will never go anywhere in this industry.

Expansion

In 1963, Ritz acquired 80% of the house of Yves Saint Laurent. Ritz launched an entire line of skincare and makeup under the Yves Saint Laurent Beaute brand.

In 1964 Charles of the Ritz merged with the Lanvin group. It was from then on known as Lanvin-Charles of the Ritz.

In 1969 the legendary makeup artist Way Bandy joined Charles of the Ritz as the salon director of makeup.

E.R. Squibb ownership

In 1972, Mr Salomon retired, and the company was acquired by pharmaceutical company E.R. Squibb, with a market value of $100 million.

In 1977, Yves Saint Laurent Beaute launched Opium.

In 1978, Ritz introduced a new women’s fragrance, Enjoli, designed (as noted in its popular television commercials) as  the eight hour perfume for the 24-hour woman ; the commercial’s theme song was a remake of Peggy Lee’s 1963 hit song I’m A Woman. In 1984 Charles of the Ritz launched the immensely successful fragrances based on American television drama Dynasty characters Forever Krystle and Carrington.

Yves Saint Laurent to Revlon ownership

In 1986, Squibb sold the entire division back to Yves Saint Laurent for $500 million, who invested heavily in a new men’s frangrance called Jazz. Jazz was not particularly successful, and, coupled with the October 1987 market crash, Yves Saint Laurent sold Charles of the Ritz Incorporated (excluding Yves Saint Laurent Beaute) to Revlon in 1987. Revlon, still reeling from its unsuccessful takeover attempt of Gilette in 1983, declared they were interested in several acquisitions, and along with Charles of the Ritz, they bought Max Factor, Almay, Halston, Borghese, and Germaine Monteil.

Revlon could not manage the brand and it began to slip in image and prestige. In 1991 they launched a line called Express, aimed at a more savvy customer. The brand became associated with lower-end stores like JC Penney and maintained a focus on the  mature  customer. After several years of unsuccessful revival attempts, (including an endorsement deal with Kathie Lee Gifford for their Timeless line of products), and facing massive debt, Revlon put (among many others) the line for sale, but had no takers. Analysts suggested the very name – Charles of the Ritz – lacked consumer recognition.

[edit] End of Charles of the Ritz

Revlon finally shut down Charles of the Ritz in 2002. Many of the former Ritz fragrances, such as Enjoli, are still sold today under the Revlon name.
This article about a fashion brand, house, corporation or company is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_of_the_Ritz
Categories: Fashion company stubs • Companies established in 1919 • Companies established in 1926 • Cosmetics companies of the United States • Companies based in New York City • History of cosmetics
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Richard B. Salomon, 82, Dies; Ex-Head of Cosmetics Concern

By ERIC PACE
Published: July 22, 1994

Richard B. Salomon, a philanthropist and former chairman and chief executive of Lanvin-Charles of the Ritz, died yesterday at Stamford Hospital in Stamford, Conn. He was 82 and lived in Stamford.

The cause was complications from pneumonia, his son Richard said, and he had had chronic lung disease for several years.

At his death, Mr. Salomon was on several committees of the New York Public Library and a member of the boards of Lincoln Center and Brown University, of which he was an alumnus and benefactor. In giving him a leadership award in 1977, the Brown alumni association said Mr. Salomon had devoted himself to Brown’s welfare  to a conspicuous degree, but without ostentation.

From 1979 to 1988 Mr. Salomon was chairman of Brown’s board of trustees; he held the same position from 1977 to 1981 at the New York Public Library, where he was also a benefactor. President at 24
The rejuvenation of the library was in great part due to his leadership, advice and counsel,  Marshall Rose, the library’s chairman, said.

Mr. Salomon was 24 when he was named president of Charles of the Ritz, a cosmetics and perfume concern owned at that time by his uncle.

In 1964 he became chairman and chief executive of Lanvin-Charles of the Ritz, also a cosmetics and perfume concern. The products that it distributed included Lanvin, Hermes, Dior and Yves St. Laurent perfumes. Lanvin-Charles of the Ritz was formed through a merger of Charles of the Ritz and Lanvin Parfum.

He resigned as chief executive of Lanvin-Charles of the Ritz in 1972, the year after it was acquired by E. R. Squibb and Company, but he continued as chairman for some years afterward. From 1971 to 1983, he was a member of the Squibb board of directors and of that board’s executive committee.

Mr. Salomon was born in Manhattan, the son of Emanuel Salomon, a Belgian who was raised in France, and the former Mignon Eckstein.

He received a bachelor’s degree from Brown in 1932 after spending his junior year studying in Paris and Nancy, France. In later years, he said his fluency in French contributed to his success in the business world.

Over the years, Mr. Salomon served on the boards of WNET, the PBS station in New York; the Stamford Hospital; the Fashion Institute of Technology; the French-American Cultural Society for Educational Aid, and the Connecticut Ethics Commission, and other organizations.
Among the other recipients of his largesse were the Institute of East- West Security Studies in Manhattan.

The other honors he was awarded by Brown included an honorary degree in 1972. In 1993, he was elected to the National Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Besides his son Richard, of Greenwich, Conn., he is survived by his wife of 55 years, Edna Barnes Salomon; two other sons, Robert, of Woodside, Calif., and Ralph, of Katonah, N.Y., and 12 grandchildren.

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9900E6D9153EF931A15754C0A962958260

Wall Street Journal. Who’s Who and What’s What on Wall Street. New York: Ballantine Books, 1998. 531 pages.
As we stand poised on the brink of the next century, Wall Street has never been more turbulent or exciting.  So says the front flap of the dust cover. We may also be poised on the brink of global financial meltdown, a situation which many of those named in this book created with nonproductive speculation and profiteering. Once you overlook WSJ’s bubbly style sheet ( elite investment bank,   bold bet,   capitalize on advancing technology ) and realize that they’re merely describing a huge casino, this book becomes a useful depository of information on the Wall Street rogues’ gallery of top players. Their ethics are depressingly easy to decipher: the most good is demonstrated by the highest profit — but if you’re caught, you get your sticky fingers slapped, and a one-point penalty.

Included are thumbnail  personality profiles  of over 800 officers, directors, and leading stars of major Wall Street firms. These range from an entire page for some of the CEOs, to as little as a single sentence about previous employment for the lesser lights. The firms are Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, Salomon Smith Barney, PaineWebber, Prudential Securities, Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, Goldman Sachs, Credit Suisse First Boston, J.P. Morgan, Bankers Trust New York, New York Stock Exchange, Nasdaq, and two chapters on the regulators: the SEC and the Federal Reserve.
ISBN 0-345-41483-7
http://www.namebase.org/sources/bQ.html

Paid Notice: Deaths
SALOMON, EDNA BARNES

Published: October 23, 2001

SALOMON-Edna Barnes. The New York Public Library deeply mourns the passing of its beloved friend and benefactor, Edna Barnes Salomon. The wife of the Library’s esteemed Chairman Emeritus, the late Richard B. Salomon, and mother of current Library Trustee Richard E. Salomon, Mrs. Salomon was herself a longstanding Library Conservator and member of the President’s Council. She and her family have been among the most dedicated advocates and most generous supporters in The New York Public Library’s modern history. Their devotion and philanthropy have resulted in a significant strengthening of the Library’s endowment, a major expansion of its exhibitions and public programs, and sustained growth of the collections of its Science, Industry and Business Library. We are very proud that one of the Library’s major exhibition spaces, the Edna Barnes Salomon Gallery, honors her name and her memory. We extend our heartfelt condolences to her sons, Richard, Robert, and Ralph, and the entire Salomon family. Samuel C. Butler, Chairman Paul LeClerc, President Mrs. Vincent Astor, Honorary Chairman Andrew Heiskell, Elizabeth Rohatyn, Marshall Rose, Chairmen Emeriti

SALOMON-Edna. The Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc. deeply mourns the passing of Mrs. Richard B. Salomon, a member of the New York Philharmonic’s Board of Directors and a tireless supporter of the Orchestra. Elected to the Philharmonic’s Board in 1985, Mrs. Salomon was an enthusiastic participant in all Philharmonic activities and served with distinction on the Board’s Education Committee. The Philharmonic is grateful for her generosity in establishing the Edna Barnes Salomon Educational Fund, which supports artistic excellence in young musicians. In recognition of her great generosity and many years of loyal service, Mrs. Salomon was elected an Honorary Board Member in 1992. Together with her husband, the late Richard B. Salomon, she will be remembered as a generous benefactor to many. Her devotion to the New York Philharmonic will long continue to enrich our lives. We extend our heartfelt condolences to her sons Richard, a longtime Philharmonic director, Robert, and Ralph. Kurt Masur, Music Director Members of the Orchestra Paul B. Guenther, Chairman Zarin Mehta, Executive Director

SALOMON-Edna Barnes. The Rockefeller University community is deeply saddened by the loss of our esteemed friend Edna Barnes Salomon. Mother of Rockefeller University Trustee Richard E. Salomon and widow of late Rockefeller Council member Richard B. Salomon, she will be remembered for her longtime friendship with the University and her interest in and support of its work. Her generosity of spirit was also evident in her special commitment to the New York Public Library, a commitment from which the entire New York City community will long benefit. She will be greatly missed, and we extend our condolences to her son Rick and her entire family. Arnold J. Levine, President Richard B. Fisher, Chairman Board of Trustees, and David Rockefeller, Honorary Chairman and Life Trustee, Board of Trustees

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9504e6da1731f930a15753c1a9679c8b63

Merger
By Peter F. Hartz
http://books.google.com/books?id=1AR4U-W1RLkC&pg=PA169&lpg=PA169&dq=William+Salomon&source=web&ots=eFHROf_hLf&sig=7J2e3krnFl2S8cCj902XrCLmF-s&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA170,M1

M&A Virtual Data Rooms     Download our Free Guide to doing Better M&A Due Diligence online.     DataSiteDeal.com
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Nader, Ralph and Taylor, William. The Big Boys: Power and Position in American Business. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986. 571 pages.
Ralph Nader is still a liberal, which makes it amazing that he still does good research. If he were to concentrate his commitment, skills, and resources on issues involving the national security state, they’d have to shut him down. But as it is, America’s foremost consumer advocate believes that the system merely needs some fine tuning and rational tax policies, based on an enlightened appreciation of capitalism’s long-term interests. There are no inevitable conflicts of interest in Nader’s repertoire.

This book, based on exhaustive research and copiously documented, provides portraits of nine corporate executives, each in separate chapters: David Roderick (U.S. Steel), Roger Smith (General Motors), Paul Oreffice (Dow Chemical), Felix Rohatyn (investment banker), Charls Walker (tax lobbyist), Whitney MacMillan (Cargill), Thomas Jones (Northrop), William McGowan (MCI), and William Norris (Control Data). The chapter on Cargill is fascinating, both for what it reveals and what it couldn’t. Privately-held Cargill is the world’s largest grain trader, one of the largest flour millers, and its second-largest meatpacker. Extracting information from them is next to impossible. A year after Nader started, a Cargill vice president still didn’t believe that Nader’s sleuths had managed to include some former Cargill employees among the 175 people they interviewed.
ISBN 0-394-53338-0

http://www.namebase.org/sources/aD.html

Obituary

Edna Barnes Salomon, wife of former Chancellor Richard B. Salomon ’32, died in her sleep on Oct. 19.

She was born in 1914 in Jersey City, N.J., and attended Syracuse University. She served on the boards of the New York Philharmonic and the Film Society of Lincoln Center and as the co-director of the Richard and Edna Salomon Foundation.

She was deeply dedicated to Brown. At a testimonial dinner in honor of the Salomons on May 5, 1989, the night before the dedication of the Richard and Edna Salomon Center for Teaching, President Swearer said:  Edna is the quiet one of this dynamic duo. She is Dick’s chief confidante. She has also sat through dozens of football games, usually in a cold rain, watching Dick suffer apoplexy at the unusual brand of football played by this University   At the same event President Gregorian said:  Mrs. Salomon inspired Mr. Salomon.

Mrs. Salomon is survived by three sons and twelve grandchildren, five of whom are Brown alumni.

The memorial will be a private family service.

http://www.brown.edu/Administration/George_Street_Journal/vol26/26GSJ09i.html

EDGAR Pro
About EDGAR Online

The following is an excerpt from a DEF 14A SEC Filing, filed by HEADWAY CORPORATE RESOURC … on 4/30/2001.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF MANAGEMENT AND PRINCIPAL STOCKHOLDERS
Principal Stockholders

The following table sets forth as March 31, 2001 the number and percentage of the outstanding shares of Common Stock that, according to the information supplied to Headway, were beneficially owned by each person who, to the knowledge of Headway, is the beneficial owner of more than 5% of the outstanding Common Stock. Except as otherwise indicated, the persons named in the table have sole voting and dispositive power with respect to all shares beneficially owned, subject to community property laws where applicable.

Amount and Nature of
Beneficial Ownership
——————————-
Common   Options, Warrants     Percent
Shares      And Rights (1)    of Class (2)

Gary S. Goldstein                  1,877,005         355,000            19.8%
850 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10022

G. Chris Andersen (3)                669,165          20,000             6.3%
1330 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10019

GarMark  Partners, L.P. (4)              -0-       2,414,486            18.1%
1325 Avenue of the Americas
26th Floor
New York, NY 10019

Moore Global Investments, Ltd. (5)       -0-         896,057             7.6%
Remington Investment Strategies, L.P.
c/o Moore Capital

1251 Avenue of the Americas, 53rd Floor

New York, NY 10020

(1) These figures represent options and warrants that are vested or will vest within 60 days from the date as of which information is presented in the table.

(2) These figures represent the percentage of ownership of the named individuals assuming each of them alone has exercised his or her options, warrants, or conversion rights, and percentage ownership of all officers and directors of a group assuming all such purchase or conversion rights held by such individuals are exercised.

(3) The figure for Mr. Andersen includes 137,594 shares held by the G. Chris Andersen Family Foundation, of which Mr. Andersen is a trustee.

(4) GarMark Partners, L.P., is the holder of Series F Convertible Preferred Stock of Headway, which is convertible to the 2,389,486 shares of Common Stock, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. E Garrett Bewkes, III, and Mark Solow are the Managing Members of GarMark Associates L.L.C., the general partner of GarMark Partners, L.P., and, therefore, these persons may be deemed to have shared voting and investment control with respect to such shares. Mr. Bewkes serves as a non-employee director of Headway, for which he is entitled to receive annually 5,000 options to purchase Common Stock. Mr. Bewkes has elected to have all such options issued to GarMark Partners, L.P., so the figure in the table includes the options.

(5) Moore Capital Management, Inc. ( MCM ), is the discretionary investment manager of Moore Global Investments, Ltd., a Bahamian corporation ( MGI ). MGI is the holder of Series F Convertible Preferred Stock of Headway, which is convertible to 734,767 shares of Common Stock, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. Moore Capital Advisors, LLC ( MCA ), is the discretionary investment manager and general partner of Remington Investment Strategies, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership ( RIS ). RIS is the holder of Series F Convertible Preferred Stock of Headway, which is convertible to 161,290 shares of Common Stock, subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. Louis M. Bacon is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, director, and controlling equity owner of both MCM and MCA. Accordingly, Mr. Bacon and MCM, and Mr. Bacon and MCA may be deemed to have shared voting and investment control with respect to the shares held by MGI and RIS.

Management

The table on the following page sets forth as of March 31, 2001 the number and percentage of the outstanding shares of Common Stock which, according to the information supplied to Headway, were beneficially owned by (i) each person who is currently a director of Headway, (ii) each Named Executive Officer (as defined below), and (iii) all current directors and executive officers of Headway as a group. Except as otherwise indicated, the persons named in the table have sole voting and dispositive power with respect to all shares beneficially owned, subject to community property laws where applicable.

Amount and Nature of
Beneficial Ownership
——————————-
Common    Options, Warrants    Percent
Shares      And Rights (1)    of Class(2)

Gary S. Goldstein                 1,877,005          355,000          19.8%

Barry S. Roseman                    383,629          150,000           4.8%

G. Chris Andersen                   669,165           20,000           6.3%

E. Garrett Bewkes,III (3)               -0-        2,414,486          18.1%

Ehud D. Laska                        79,580          140,000           2.0%
Richard B. Salomon                   49,965           20,000           0.6%

Jamie Schwartz                          -0-           65,000           0.6%

All Executive officers and        3,059,344        3,164,486          44.2%
Directors as a Group (7 Persons)
____________________________________________

(1) These figures represent options and warrants that are vested or will vest within 60 days from the date as of which information is presented in the table.

(2) These figures represent the percentage of ownership of the named individuals assuming each of them alone has exercised his or her options, warrants, or conversion rights, and percentage ownership of all officers and directors of a group assuming all such purchase or conversion rights held by such individuals are exercised.

(3) The figure for options, warrants and rights includes the shares of GarMark Partners, L.P., because of the relationships described in Note (4) to the table for Principal Stockholders.

DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Directors and Officers

The table on the following page sets forth the names, ages,
and positions with Headway for each of the directors and officers
of Headway.  The Board of Directors is divided into three
classes, and only one class of directors is elected at each
annual meeting of stockholders.  The table indicates the class of
which each director is a member and the year in which his term
expires based on the class.
Name                      Age      Positions (1)             Term Ends

Gary S. Goldstein         46   Chairman, Chief Executive      Class 1
Officer and Director             2002

Barry S. Roseman          48   President, Chief Operating     Class 1
and Financial Officer and        2002
Treasurer, Director

G. Chris Andersen         63   Director                       Class 3
2003

E. Garrett Bewkes, III(2) 50   Director                       Class 2

Ehud D. Laska (2)         51   Director                       Class 2
2001

Richard B. Salomon        53   Director                       Class 3

Jamie Schwartz            33   Executive Vice President, Chief   N/A
Operating Officer of HCSS
and Secretary
___________________________________________

(1) All executive officers are elected by the Board and hold office until the next Annual Meeting of stockholders and until their successors are elected and qualify.

(2) E. Garrett Bewkes, III and Ehud D. Laska are members of Class 2 of the Board of Directors, and have been nominated by the Board for re-election at the Annual Meeting. See  PROPOSAL NO. 1 — ELECTION OF DIRECTORS , above.

The following is information on the business experience of each director and officer.

Gary S. Goldstein has served in a number of executive positions with Headway and its predecessors over the past fourteen years, including, Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer. He is currently a director and executive officer of each of Headway’s subsidiary corporations. Mr. Goldstein has extensive experience in human resource recruitment within all areas of the financial services industry. Prior to entering the recruitment industry, Mr. Goldstein was on the audit and consulting staffs of Arthur Andersen & Co., in New York. Mr. Goldstein is an active member of the Young Presidents’ Organization, Inc., and serves on its Metro Division Board of Directors. He is also an active member of The Brookings Council
of the Brookings Institution, The Presidents Association of the American Management Association, and is listed in Who’s Who in Finance and Industry.

Barry S. Roseman oversees all operation of Headway and its subsidiaries. He joined Headway as its Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer in January 1992, and became President in September 1996. In August 1999, he took over the role of Chief Financial Officer. He is currently a director and executive officer of each of Headway’s subsidiary corporations. For nine years prior to 1992, Mr. Roseman was employed at FCB/Leber Katz Partners, Inc., a division of True North Communications, Inc., in various positions; most recently as Senior Vice President Director of Agency Operations.

G. Chris Andersen became a director of Headway in June 1995. He is one of the founders of Andersen, Weinroth & Co., L.P., a merchant banking firm, which commenced operations in January 1996. For over five years prior to 1996, Mr. Andersen served as the Vice Chairman of PaineWebber Incorporated. Mr. Andersen also serves as a director of four other public companies, Sunshine Mining and Refining Company, TEREX Corporation, GP Strategies, and Compost America.

E. Garrett Bewkes, III, became a director of Headway in March 1998 pursuant to the terms of the new financing obtained by Headway in that month. From November 1995 to the present he has served as a Managing Member of GarMark Associates L.L.C. He was a member of the Management Committee of Investcorp International, Inc., from March 1994 to November 1995, where he headed the North American Investment Group. Mr. Bewkes was with Bear Stearns and Co. Inc. for nine years prior to March 1994, most recently as Vice Chairman and Co-Head of Investment Banking.

Ehud D. Laska was appointed a director of Headway in August 1993. He is the Chairman of Coleman and Company Securities, Inc., a member firm of the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. Mr. Laska is also a founding partner and President of InterBank Capital Group, LLC. Through these firms, Mr. Laska specializes in building up companies through same industry consolidation and acquisitions. From August 1994 to February 1996, Mr. Laska served as a managing director at the investment banking firm of Continuum Capital, Inc. While serving as a Managing Director with Tallwood Associates, Inc., a boutique investment banking firm, from May 1992 to August 1994, Mr. Laska founded the Private Equity Finance Group, which merged with Continuum Capital, Inc. in August 1994.

Richard B. Salomon became a director of Headway in June 1995. He has been engaged in the private practice of law for the past five years, during which period he has been a partner in the law firm of Salans Hertzfeld Heilbronn Christy & Viener, counsel to Headway. Mr. Salomon’s practice is primarily in the areas of real estate and corporate law. He currently serves as a director of Tweedy Browne Fund, Inc., a mutual fund based in New York City.

Jamie Schwartz was appointed Chief Operating Officer of Headway Corporate Staffing Services and Secretary in June 2000. Prior to this, he served as the National Vice President of Headway Corporate Staffing Services. He was hired by Irene Cohen Temps in December 1993, which was acquired by Headway Corporate Resources in December 1996 as Director of Technology. He has a BA in Economics from the University of Rochester and his MBA in Operations and Finance from the William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration.

Section 16(a) Filing Compliance

Section 16(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 requires officers and Directors of Headway and persons who own more than ten percent of a registered class of Headway’s equity securities to file reports of ownership and changes in their ownership on Forms 3, 4, and 5 with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and forward copies of such filings to Headway. Based on the copies of filings received by Headway, during the most recent fiscal year the directors, officers, and beneficial owners of more than ten percent of the equity securities of Headway registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act have filed on a timely basis all required Forms 3, 4, and 5 and any amendments thereto.

Board Meetings and Committees/Compensation

In 2000 the Board of Directors had four committees. The Executive Compensation Committee considers salary and benefit matters for the executive officers and key personnel of Headway. The members of the Executive Compensation Committee in 2000 were G. Chris Andersen, E. Garrett Bewkes, III, and Ehud D. Laska. The Finance Committee assists the Board in areas of financing proposals, budgeting, and acquisitions. Members of the Finance Committee in 2000 included Gary S. Goldstein, Barry S. Roseman, G. Chris Andersen, E. Garrett Bewkes, III, and Ehud D. Laska. The Audit Committee is responsible for financial reporting matters, internal controls, and compliance with financial polices of Headway, and meets with Headway’s auditors when appropriate. The members of the Audit Committee in 2000 were Richard B. Salomon, E. Garrett Bewkes, III, and G. Chris Andersen. The Governance Committee makes recommendations to the Board regarding appropriate governance policies and practices, as well as Board and committee membership candidates. Members of the Governance Committee in 2000 included Richard B. Salomon, Ehud Laska and E. Garrett Bewkes, III.

The Board of Directors met six times during the past fiscal year. All directors attended at least 75% of the meetings of the Board of Directors. The Executive Compensation Committee met five times in 2000, and all director members of the committee attended at least 75% of the meetings. The Finance Committee met once during 2000 and four director members attended the meeting. The Audit Committee met once during 2000 and two director members attended the meeting. The Governance Committee met two times in 2000, and all director members of that committee attended at least 50% of the meetings.

Non-employee directors receive $2,500 for each meeting of the Board of Directors attended, $500 for each committee meeting attended, which is held on a day other than a day when a Board of Directors meeting is also held, and reimbursement for travel expenses. In September of each year, non-employee directors receive options to purchase 5,000 shares of Headway’s Common Stock exercisable over a period of ten years at an exercise price equal to the fair market value of Headway’s Common Stock on the date of issuance. Non-employee directors also receive at the time they are first elected or appointed to the board of directors options to purchase 10,000 shares of Headway’s Common Stock exercisable over a period of ten years at an exercise price equal to the fair market value of Headway’s Common Stock on the date of issuance.

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http://sec.edgar-online.com/2001/04/30/0001013176-01-500009/Section4.asp
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BLACKSTONE RICHARD           0001329094     06/01/06
BLACKSTONE ROBIN           0001310446     12/03/04
BLACKSTONE SECURITIES INC /BD           0000911473     11/09/94
BLACKSTONE SECURITIES LTD /BD           0000215251     08/24/81
BLACKSTONE SERS CUSTOMIZED COMMODITIES FUND LP           0001416871     10/30/07
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BLACKSTONE STABLE ALPHA CUSTOMIZED FUND L P           0001212899     10/29/04
BLACKSTONE STRATEGIC ALLIANCE FUND L P           0001398895     08/23/07
BLACKSTONE STRATEGIC ALLIANCE FUND LP           0001408279     07/30/07
BLACKSTONE STRATEGIC ALLIANCE OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001398850     08/23/07
BLACKSTONE STRATEGIC EQUITY FUND L P           0001366785     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE STRATEGIC EQUITY OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001415701     11/30/07
BLACKSTONE TE CREDIT LIQUIDITY FEEDER FUND LP           0001419805     11/29/07
BLACKSTONE TECHNOLOGY GROUP INC           0001112573     04/13/01
BLACKSTONE TG CAPITAL PARTNERS IV L.P.           0001352702     08/16/06
BLACKSTONE TG CAPITAL PARTNERS IV-B L.P.           0001352704     08/16/06
BLACKSTONE TOPAZ FUND LP           0001416883     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE VALLEY ELECTRIC CO           0000012473     02/14/00
BLACKSTONE VALLEY SURGICARE ACQUISITION L P           0001386856     09/09/08
BLACKSTONE VANDERBILT AVE OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001367659     11/29/07
BLACKSTONE YORK AVE OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001367661     11/30/07
HOWLAND CAPITAL MANAGEMENT INC /ADV           0000012469     05/12/08

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BLACKSTONE REAL ESTATE PARTNERS EUROPE III LP           0001431593     04/04/08
BLACKSTONE REAL ESTATE PARTNERS II LP           0001027492     11/08/96
BLACKSTONE REAL ESTATE PARTNERS II TE 1 LP           0001027474     11/08/96
BLACKSTONE REAL ESTATE PARTNERS II TE 2 LP           0001027491     11/08/96
BLACKSTONE REAL ESTATE PARTNERS III L P           0001073687     11/05/98
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BLACKSTONE REAL ESTATE PARTNERS III TE 2 L P           0001073685     11/05/98
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BLACKSTONE REAL ESTATE PARTNERS INTERNATIONAL I D LP           0001135752     02/27/01
BLACKSTONE REAL ESTATE PARTNERS INTERNATIONAL II LP           0001338023     11/04/05
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BLACKSTONE PARTNERS INVESTMENT FUND LP           0001212803     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE PARTNERS NON-TAXABLE OFFSHORE OVERLAY FUND III…           0001415644     12/04/07
BLACKSTONE PARTNERS OFFSHORE FEEDER FUND LTD           0001415642     11/30/07
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BLACKSTONE LAKE MINERALS INC.     BLLK     0001312402     10/07/08
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BLACKSTONE FINANCIAL GROUP INC           0001341107     02/12/08
BLACKSTONE FIRESTONE PRINCIPAL TRANSACTION PARTNERS CAYMA…           0001391590     03/02/07
BLACKSTONE FIRESTONE TRANSACTION PARTICIPATION PARTNERS C…           0001391843     03/02/07
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BLACKSTONE FUND SERVICES INDIA PRIVATE LTD           0001348124     03/22/06
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BLACKSTONE GROUP HOLDINGS LLC           0001355642     03/22/06
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BLACKSTONE HOLDINGS III GP L.L.C.           0001404076     06/28/07
BLACKSTONE HOLDINGS III L.P.           0001404073     06/28/07
BLACKSTONE HOLDINGS LTD/WA           0001078838     02/05/99
BLACKSTONE HOTEL ASSOCIATES LTD & WASHINGTON           0000824117     01/25/88
BLACKSTONE HYDRO ASSOCIATES           0000709970     11/10/82
BLACKSTONE INTERNATINAL FUND LP           0001141749     06/01/01
BLACKSTONE INVESTMENT CORP           0000758270     06/28/85
BLACKSTONE INVESTMENT PARTNERS           0000940756     02/13/95
BLACKSTONE KAILIX ADVISORS L.L.C.           0001387226     08/14/08
BLACKSTONE KAILIX FUND LP           0001407742     05/28/08
BLACKSTONE KAILIX LV FUND LP           0001424523     01/18/08
Company         Ticker       CIK        Latest Filing        All Filings
BLACKSTONE DISTRESSED SECURITIES OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001348936     04/24/08
BLACKSTONE DL MEZZANINE PARTNERS LP           0001289050     04/30/04
BLACKSTONE EMERGING MARKETS FUND LP           0001384696     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE EMERGING MARKETS OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001384818     01/08/07
BLACKSTONE EMPLOYEE FUND L P           0001293463     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE ENERGY CORP BD /BD           0000726616     08/29/83
BLACKSTONE ENTERTAINMENT GROUP INC /NY           0001048238     10/17/97
BLACKSTONE EQUITY LOW NET EXPOSURE FUND L P           0001366784     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE EVENT DRIVEN FUND LP           0001038085     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE FAMILY COMMUNICATIONS PARTNERSHIP (CAYMAN) L.P.           0001326323     03/30/07
BLACKSTONE FAMILY INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP CAYMAN III LP           0001250484     07/07/03
BLACKSTONE FAMILY INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP CAYMAN IV-A LP           0001273171     05/22/07
BLACKSTONE FAMILY INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP II LP           0001070841     12/08/03
BLACKSTONE FAMILY INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP III LP           0001222595     06/15/07
BLACKSTONE FAMILY INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP IV-A LP           0001277408     06/04/07
BLACKSTONE FAMILY INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP V L.P.           0001368612     07/10/06
BLACKSTONE FAMILY INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP V-A L.P.           0001368611     07/10/06
BLACKSTONE FCH CAPITAL PARTNERS IV L.P.           0001310608     09/20/05
BLACKSTONE FI CAPITAL PARTNERS CAYMAN LP           0001250482     07/07/03
BLACKSTONE FI COMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATES (CAYMAN) LTD           0001344491     03/30/07
BLACKSTONE FI MEZZANINE PARTNERS (CAYMAN) LP           0001289052     04/30/04
BLACKSTONE FI OFFSHORE CAPITAL PARTNERS CAYMAN LP           0001250483     07/07/03
BLACKSTONE FIFTH AVE OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001208073     11/29/07
BLACKSTONE FIFTH AVENUE FUND LP           0001278716     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE FINANCIAL GROUP HOLDINGS INC           0001426902     02/12/08

Company         Ticker       CIK        Latest Filing        All Filings
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS II MERCHANT BANKING FUND ET AL           0000932692     02/14/00
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS II MERCHANT BANKING FUND LP           0001070839     12/18/03
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS III MERCHANT BANKING FUND LP           0001042890     05/04/05
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS IV LP           0001162988     06/04/07
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS IV-A LP           0001277407     06/04/07
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS V L P           0001343206     08/14/08
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS VI – EXECUTIVE FUND LP           0001443499     08/20/08
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS VI LP           0001443881     08/26/08
BLACKSTONE CCC CAPITAL PARTNERS LP           0001076985     06/15/07
BLACKSTONE CCC OFFSHORE CAPITAL PARTNERS LP           0001222594     06/15/07
BLACKSTONE CCI CAPITAL PARTNERS LP           0001056161     07/23/99
BLACKSTONE CHEMICAL COINVEST PARTNERS (CAYMAN) L.P.           0001314706     05/22/07
BLACKSTONE COLUMBUS AVENUE FUND LP           0001203245     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE COLUMBUS AVENUE OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001306581     10/21/04
BLACKSTONE COMMODITIES FUND LP           0001385540     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE COMMUNICATIONS ADVISORS I LLC /ADV           0001115579     02/12/01
BLACKSTONE COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATES (CAYMAN) …           0001344489     03/30/07
BLACKSTONE COMMUNICATIONS PARTNERS I LP           0001120004     07/17/00
BLACKSTONE CORPORATE OPPORTUNITIES MASTER FUND LP           0001416722     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES FUND LP           0001384815     10/30/07
BLACKSTONE CUSTOMIZED LOW VOLATILITY OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001305113     10/05/04
BLACKSTONE DISTRESSED OPPORTUNITIES FUND LP           0001201290     10/25/02
BLACKSTONE DISTRESSED OPPORTUNITIES OFFSHORE FUND LTD           0001208074     04/09/04
BLACKSTONE DISTRESSED SECURITIES ADVISORS LP           0001364319     03/04/08
BLACKSTONE DISTRESSED SECURITIES FUND LP           0001348937     04/24/08
Company         Ticker       CIK        Latest Filing        All Filings
BLACK STONE ACQUISITIONS PARTNERS II L P           0001285851     10/21/04
BLACK STONE ACQUISITIONS PARTNERS II-B L P           0001306607     10/21/04
BLACK STONE ACQUISITIONS PARTNERS L P           0001306608
BLACK STONE INTERESTS LLC           0001072228     04/14/05
BLACK STONE INTERESTS LLC           0001167657
BLACK STONE IVORY ACQUISITIONS PARTNERS L P           0001285850     04/01/04
BLACK STONE MINERALS CO LP           0001072125     02/21/02
BLACK STONE NATURAL RESOURCES III LP           0001423018     04/21/08
BLACK STONE NATURAL RESOURCES III-B LP           0001432869     04/21/08
BLACK STONE OVERLINE ACQUISITION L P           0001285848     04/01/04
BLACKROCK INCOME TRUST INC     BKT     0000832327     10/07/08
BLACKSTONE ADVISORY SERVICES L.P.           0000792326     03/26/08
BLACKSTONE ALTERNATIVE ASSET MANAGEMENT LP /ADV           0001019677     01/22/04
BLACKSTONE APARTMENTS ASSOCIATES LTD           0000828516     01/21/88
BLACKSTONE ARBITRAGE MANAGEMENT LP/NY           0000860667     02/15/90
BLACKSTONE ASIA ADVISORS LLC           0001348123     03/22/06
BLACKSTONE AUTOMOTIVE CO INVEST CAPITAL PARTNERS LP           0001223882     06/04/07
BLACKSTONE BEVERAGES INC           0000881527     04/29/93
BLACKSTONE BRIDGE ADVISORS LP           0001303065     09/22/04
BLACKSTONE BUILDING CO           0001062644     05/20/98
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS (CAYMAN) LTD 1           0001314267     05/22/07
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS (CAYMAN) LTD 2           0001314268     05/22/07
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS (CAYMAN) LTD 3           0001314269     05/22/07
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS CAYMAN IV LP           0001273169     05/22/07
BLACKSTONE CAPITAL PARTNERS CAYMAN IV- A LP           0001273170     05/22/07

http://pro.edgar-online.com/ExpandedSearch.aspx?site=c5cb6470-fe0a-4302-b0ca-9e40ae7db5c5&&from=all&name=Blackstone*

NBER profile: Richard B. Berner.
Publication: NBER Reporter
Date: Monday, December 22 2003
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Richard B. Berner, a Managing Director and Chief U.S. Economist at Morgan Stanley, represents the National Association for Business Economics (NABE) on the NBER’s Board of Directors. He is a Past President and a Fellow of NABE, as well as a winner of their forecasting award.

Berner received his bachelor’s degree from Harvard College and his Ph.D. from the Universit3T of Pennsylvania. Before joining Morgan Stanley in 1999, he was Executive Vice President and Chief Economist at Mellon Bank, and a member of Mellon’s Senior Management Committee. Prior to that, he served as a Principal and Senior Economist for Morgan Stanley, as a Director and Senior Economist for Salomon Brothers, as Economist for Morgan Guaranty Trust Company, and as Director of the Washington office of Wharton Econo-metrics. He also served for seven years on the research staff of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Berner is a member of the Economic Advisory Panel of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and of the Advisory Committee of the Bureau of Economic Analysis. He lives in Rye, New York, with his wife Bonnie. They have two children, Matt and Laura, who are respectively a junior and a freshman at Princeton University. In his free time, he enjoys golf and aspires to a single-digit handicap.

http://www.allbusiness.com/management/752906-1.html

Richard B. Berner

Dick Berner is a Managing Director and Chief US Economist. He is responsible for directing the firm’s forecasting and analysis of the US economy and financial markets. Before joining Morgan Stanley in 1999, Dick was Executive Vice President and Chief Economist at Mellon Bank Corporation and a member of Mellon Bank’s Senior Management Committee. Previously, he served as a Principal and Senior Economist for Morgan Stanley, as a Director and Senior Economist for Salomon Brothers, as Economist for Morgan Guaranty Trust Company, and as Director of the Washington, DC, office of Wharton Econometrics. Dick also served as Economist for the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, where he co-directed the Fed’s model-based forecasting efforts.

Dick holds a bachelor’s degree from Harvard College and a doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania. Dick is a member of the Economic Advisory Panel of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, a member of the Panel of Economic Advisers of the Congressional Budget Office, a member of the Board of Directors of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and a member of the Advisory Committee of the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Department of Commerce. He served as an associate for the Counterparty Risk Management Policy Group II. He is a Past President and Fellow of the National Association for Business Economics.

http://pier.econ.upenn.edu/AboutUs/AdvisoryBoard/Berner.htm
Penn Institute for Economic Research

Perfectibilists: The 18th Century Bavarian Order of the Illuminati by Terry Melanson
The 2005 Trilateral Commission Membership List

May 2005
*Executive Committee
David Rockefeller     Founder and Honorary Chairman
Thomas S. Foley     North American Chairman
Allan E. Gotlieb     North American Deputy Chairman
Lorenzo H. Zambrano     North American Deputy Chairman
Paul A. Volcker     North American Honorary Chairman
Michael J. O’Neil     North American Director
Peter Sutherland     European Chairman
Hervé De Carmoy     European Deputy Chairman
Andrzej Olechowski     European Deputy Chairman
Georges Berthoin     European Honorary Chairman
Otto Graf Lambsdorff     European Honorary Chairman
Paul Révay     European Director
Yotaro Kobayashi     Pacific Asia Chairman
Kim Kyung-Won     Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman
Shijuro Ogata     Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman
Tadashi Yamamoto     Pacific Asia Director
European Group

* Paul Adams, Chief Executive, British American Tobacco, London
* Urban Ahlin, Member of the Swedish Parliament and Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Stockholm
* Krister Ahlström, Vice Chairman, Stora Enso and Fortum; former Chairman, Finnish Employers Confederation; former Chairman, Ahlström Corp., Helsinki
* Edmond Alphandéry, Chairman, Caisse Nationale de Prévoyance, Paris; former Chairman, Electricité de France (EDF); former Minister of the Economy and Finance
* Bodil Nyboe Andersen, Chairperson of the Board of Governors, Danmarks Nationalbank, Copenhagen
* Jacques Andréani, Ambassadeur de France; former Ambassador to the United States
* *Stelios Argyros, Chairman and Managing Director, Preveza Mills, Athens; former Member of the European Parliament; Chairman of the Board, STET Hellas; former Vice President of UNICE, Brussels; former President and Chairman of the Board of the Federation of Greek Industries, Athens
* Jerzy Baczynski, Editor-in-Chief, Polityka, Warsaw
* Estela Barbot, Vice President, AGA, Porto; Vice President of the Board, AEP — Portuguese Business Association; Consul of Guatemala, Lisbon
* François Bayrou, Member of the French National Assembly; President of the UDF Party; former Minister, Paris
* *Erik Belfrage, Senior Vice President, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken; Director, Investor AB, Stockholm
* *Georges Berthoin, International Honorary Chairman, European Movement; Honorary Chairman, The Jean Monnet Association; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission, Paris
* Nicolas Beytout, Editor, Le Figaro, Paris ; former Editor, Les Echos, Paris
* Carl Bildt, Chairman, Nordic Venture Network and Senior Adviser, IT Provider, Stockholm; former Member of the Swedish Parliament, Chairman of the Moderate Party and Prime Minister of Sweden; former European Union High Representative in Bosnia-Herzegovina & UN Special Envoy to the Balkans
* Lord Black of Crossharbour, Member of the House of Lords, London
* Ana Patricia Botin, Chairman, Banesto, Madrid; Member of the Board & of the Executive Committee, Banco Santander Central Hispano
* Jean-Louis Bourlanges, Member of the European Parliament (ALDE Group/UDF) and Chairman, Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, Brussels; former President of the European Movement in France, Paris
* *Jorge Braga de Macedo, President, Tropical Research Institute, Lisbon; Special Advisor to the Secretary General, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris; Professor of Economics, Nova University at Lisbon; Chairman, Forum Portugal Global; former Minister of Finance
* Rolf-E. Breuer, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main; President, Association of German Banks (BDB), Berlin
* Lord Brittan of Spennithorne, Vice Chairman, UBS Investment Bank, London; former Vice President, European Commission
* Robin Buchanan, Senior Partner, Bain & Company, London
* *François Bujon de l’Estang, Ambassadeur de France; Chairman, Citigroup France, Paris; former Ambassador to the United States
* Sven Burmester, Writer and Explorer, Denmark; former Representative, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Beijing; former World Bank Deputy Secretary and Representative in Cairo
* Richard Burrows, Joint Managing Director, Pernod Ricard, Paris; Chairman and Chief Executive, Irish Distillers, Dublin; Deputy Governor of the Bank of Ireland; former President, IBEC (The Irish Business and Employers Confederation)
* *Hervé de Carmoy, Chairman, Almatis, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Partner, Rhône Group, New York & Paris; Honorary Chairman, Banque Industrielle et Mobilière Privée, Paris; former Chief Executive, Société Générale de Belgique
* Antonio Carrapatoso, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Vodafone Portugal, Lisbon; Member of the Board of Directors, Vodafone Spain & Vodacom
* Salvatore Carrubba, Culture Alderman, Municipality of Milan; former Managing Editor, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milan
* Henri de Castries, Chairman of the Management Board and Chief Executive Officer, AXA, Paris
* Luc Coene, Minister of State; Deputy Governor, National Bank of Belgium, Brussels
* Sir Ronald Cohen, Chairman, Apax Partners, London
* Vittorio Colao, Chief Executive Officer, RCS MediaGroup, Milan; former Managing Director, Vodafone Omnitel
* Bertrand Collomb, Chairman, Lafarge, Paris; Chairman, World Business Council for Sustainable Development
* *Richard Conroy, Chairman, Conroy Diamonds & Gold, Dublin; Member of Senate, Republic of Ireland
* Eckhard Cordes, Member of the Board, DaimlerChrysler, Stuttgart
* Alfonso Cortina, Chairman, Repsol-YPF Foundation & former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Repsol-YPF, Madrid
* Michel David-Weill, Chairman, Lazard LLC, worldwide; Managing Director and Président du Collège d’Associés-Gérants, Lazard Frères S.A.S., Paris; Deputy Chairman, Lazard Brothers & Co., Limited, London
* Baron Paul De Keersmaeker, Chairman of the Board of Domo, Corgo, Foundation Europalia International and the Canada Europe Round Table, Brussels; Honorary Chairman Interbrew, KBC, Nestlé Belgilux; former Member of the Belgian and European Parliaments and of the Belgian Government
* *Vladimir Dlouhy, Senior Advisor, ABB; International Advisor, Goldman Sachs; former Czechoslovak Minister of Economy; former Czech Minister of Industry & Trade, Prague
* Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, President of the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge Freemasons, England and has served Grand Master of the Order of St Michael and St George
* *Bill Emmott, Editor, The Economist, London
* Thomas Enders, Executive Vice President, Member of the Board of Management & Head of the Defence and Security Systems Division, EADS, Munich
* Pedro Miguel Echenique, Professor of Physics, University of the Basque Country; former Basque Minister of Education, San Sebastian
* Laurent Fabius, Member of the French National Assembly and of the Foreign Affairs Committee; former Prime Minister & Minister of the Economy & Finance, Paris
* Oscar Fanjul, Honorary Chairman, Repsol YPF; Vice Chairman, Omega Capital, Madrid
* Grete Faremo, Former Executive Vice President, Storebrand; former Norwegian Minister of Development Cooperation, Minister of Justice and Minister of Oil and Energy, Oslo
* *Nemesio Fernandez-Cuesta, Executive Director of Upstream, Repsol-YPF; former Chairman, Prensa Española, Madrid
* *Nemesio Fernandez-Cuesta, Corporate Director of Shared Services, Repsol-YPF; former Chairman, Prensa Española, Madrid
* Jürgen Fitschen, Member of the Group Executive Committee, Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main
* Klaus-Dieter Frankenberger, Foreign Editor, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Frankfurt am Main
* Hugh Friel, Chief Executive, Kerry Group, Dublin
* Lykke Friis, Head of European Department, Federation of Danish Industries, Copenhagen
* *Michael Fuchs, Member of the German Bundestag, Berlin; former President, National Federation of German Wholesale & Export Traders
* Lord Garel-Jones, Managing Director, UBS Investment Bank, London; Member of the House of Lords; former Minister of State at the Foreign Office (European Affairs)
* Antonio Garrigues Walker, Chairman, Garrigues Abogados y Asesores Tributarios, Madrid
* Lord Gilbert, Member of the House of Lords; former Minister for Defence, London
* Prince Phillip of Greece, member, House of Lords, London
* Mario Greco, Managing Director, RAS, Milan
* General The Lord Guthrie, Director, N M Rothschild & Sons, London; Member of the House of Lords; former Chief of the Defence Staff, London
* Grand Duke William John Hagan II, Former Chairman, New Obelisk Press; Grand Master of the Order of Ormus, London
* Sirkka Hämäläinen, Former Member of the Executive Board, European Central Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Governor, Bank of Finland
* Grand Duke Karl Habsburg, Member of European Parliament
* *Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Member of the European Parliament; former Estonian Foreign Minister and Member of the Parliament; former Ambassador to the United States, Canada and Mexico
* Alfonso Iozzo, Managing Director, San Paolo IMI Group, Turin
* *Mugur Isarescu, Governor, National Bank of Romania, Bucharest; former Prime Minister
* *Max Jakobson, Independent Consultant and Senior Columnist, Helsinki; former Finnish Ambassador to the United Nations; former Chairman of the Finnish Council of Economic Organizations
* *Baron Daniel Janssen, Chairman of the Board, Solvay, Brussels
* Zsigmond Jarai, President, National Bank of Hungary, Budapest
* Trinidad Jiménez, International Relations Secretary of the Socialist Party (PSOE) & Member of the Federal Executive Committee, Madrid
* *Béla Kadar, Member of the Hungarian Academy, Budapest; Member of the Monetary Council of the National Bank; President of the Hungarian Economic Association; Former Ambassador of Hungary to the O.E.C.D., Paris; former Hungarian Minister of International Economic Relations and Member of Parliament
* Karl Kaiser, Visiting Scholar, Weatherhead Center for International Studies, Harvard University, USA; Senior Scholar and former Otto-Wolff Director, Research Institute of the German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP), Berlin; Professor Emeritus of Political Sciences, University of Bonn
* Robert Kassai, General Vice President, The National Association of Craftmen’ s Corporations, Budapest
* *Lord Kerr, Member of the House of Lords; Director of Rio Tinto, Shell, and the Scottish American Investment Trust, London; former Secretary General, European Convention, Brussels; former Permanent Under-Secretary of State and Head of the Diplomatic Service, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London; former British Ambassador to the United States
* Denis Kessler, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Scor, Paris; former Chairman, French Insurance Association (FFSA); Former Executive Vice-Chairman, MEDEF-Mouvement des Entreprises de France (French Employers’ Confederation)
* Jiri Kunert, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Zivnostenska banka; President of the Czech Association of Banks, Prague
* *Count Otto Lambsdorff, Partner, Wessing Lawyers, Düsseldorf; Chairman, Friedrich Naumann Foundation, Berlin; former Member of German Bundestag; Honorary Chairman, Free Democratic Party; former Federal Minister of Economy; former President of the Liberal International; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission, Paris
* Emilio Lamo de Espinosa, Director, Elcano Royal Institute of International and Strategic Studies; Professor of Sociology at the Universidad Complutense, Madrid
* Kurt Lauk, Member of the European Parliament (EPP Group-CDU); Chairman, Globe Capital Partners, Stuttgart; President, Economic Council of the CDU Party, Berlin; Former Member of the Board, DaimlerChrysler, Stuttgart
* Anne Lauvergeon, Chairperson of the Executive Board, Areva; Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer, Cogema, Paris
* Pierre Lellouche, Member of the French National Assembly and of the Foreign Affairs Committee, Paris; Chairman of the French Delegation to NATO’s Parliamentary Assembly
* Enrico Letta, Member of the European Parliament (ALDE Group), Brussels; Secretary General, AREL; Vice President, Aspen Institute; former Minister of European Affairs, Industry, and of Industry and International Trade, Rome
* André Leysen, Honorary Chairman, Gevaert, Antwerp; Honorary Chairman, Agfa-Gevaert Group
* Marianne Lie, Director General, Norwegian Shipowner’s Association, Oslo
* Count Maurice Lippens, Chairman, Fortis, Brussels
* Helge Lund, Chief Executive Officer of the Norwegian Oil Company, Statoil, Oslo
* *Cees Maas, Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer of the ING Group, Amsterdam; former Treasurer of the Dutch Government
* Peter Mandelson, Member of the European Commission (Trade), Brussels; former Member of the British Parliament; former Secretary of State to Northern Ireland and for Trade and Industry
* Abel Matutes, Chairman, Empresas Matutes, Ibiza; former Member of the European Commission, Brussels; former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Madrid
* Francis Maude, Member of the British Parliament; Director, Benfield Group; former Shadow Foreign Secretary, London
* Edgar Meister, Member of the Board, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt-am-Main; Chairman, the Banking Supervisory Subcommittee of the European Monetary Institute (EMI); Chairman, the Banking Supervision Committee of the European System of the Central Banks (ESCB)
* Vasco de Mello, Vice Chairman, José de Mello SGPS, Lisbon
* Joao de Menezes Ferreira, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ECO-SOROS, Lisbon; former Member of the Portuguese Parliament
* Peter Mitterbauer, Honorary President, The Federation of Austrian Industry, Vienna; President and Chief Executive Officer, MIBA, Laakirchen
* Mario Monti, President and Professor Emeritus, Bocconi University, Milan; Chairman of BRUEGEL and of ECAS, Brussels; former Member of the European Commission (Competition Policy)
* Dominique Moïsi, Special Advisor to the Director General of the French Institute for International Relations (IFRI), Paris
* Sir Mark Moody-Stuart, Chairman, Anglo American; former Chairman, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, London
* Klaus Murmann, Honorary Chairman, Confederation of German Employers’ Associations (BDA), Berlin; Chairman, Sauer Holding, Neumünster
* Heinrich Neisser, President, Politische Akademie, Vienna; Professor of Political Studies at Innsbruck University; former Member of Austrian Parliament and Second President of the National Assembly
* Harald Norvik, Chairman and Partner, ECON Management; former President and Chief Executive, Statoil, Oslo
* Arend Oetker, Chairman, German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP); Vice Chairman, Federation of German Industries; Chairman, Atlantik-Brücke (Atlantic Bridge); Managing Director, Dr. Arend Oetker Holding, Berlin
* *Andrzej Olechowski, Leader, Civic Platform; Former Chairman, Bank Handlowy; former Minister of Foreign Affairs and of Finance, Warsaw
* Richard Olver, Chairman, BAE Systems, London
* Janusz Palikot, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Polmos Lublin; Vice President, Polish Confederation of Private Employers; Co-owner, Publishing House slowo/obraz terytoria; Member of the Board of Directors, Polish Business Council, Warsaw
* Dimitry Panitza, Founding Chairman, The Free and Democratic Bulgaria Foundation; Founder and Chairman, The Bulgarian School of Politics, Sofia
* Lucas Papademos, Vice President, European Central Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Governor of the Bank of Greece
* Schelto Patijn, Member of the Supervisory Board of the Schiphol Group and Amsterdam RAI; former Mayor of the City of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
* Lord Patten of Barnes, Chancellor of the University of Oxford; Co-Chairman, International Crisis Group, Brussels; former Member of the European Commission (External Relations), Brussels; former Governor of Hong Kong; former Member of the British Cabinet, London
* Heinrich von Pierer, Chairman of the Board, Siemens, Munich
* Josep Piqué, Chairman of the Popular Party of Catalunya, Barcelona; Member of the Parliament of Catalunya; Member of the Spanish Senate; former Minister of Foreign Affairs
* Benoît Potier, Chairman of the Management Board, L’Air Liquide, Paris
* Alessandro Profumo, Chief Executive Officer, UniCredito Italiano, Milan
* Henri Proglio, Chairman, Veolia Environnement, Paris
* Luigi Ramponi, Member of Parliament; Chairman of the Defence Committee of the Chamber of Deputies, Rome; former Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff (Italian Army)
* Wanda Rapaczynska, President of the Management Board, Agora, Warsaw
* Heinz Riesenhuber, Member of the German Bundestag; former Federal Minister of Research and Technology, Berlin
* Gianfelice Rocca, Chairman, Techint Group of Companies, Milan; Vice President, Confindustria
* H. Onno Ruding, Chairman, Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels; Retired Vice Chairman, Citibank; former Dutch Minister of Finance
* Renato Ruggiero, Vice Chairman, Citigroup European Investment Bank, Zurich; former Italian Foreign Minister and Director General of WTO
* Anthony Ruys, Chairman of the Executive Board, Heineken, Amsterdam
* Jacques Santer, Former Member of the European Parliament; former President of the European Commission; former Prime Minister of Luxembourg
* Prince Rafael of Savoy, Business Person, Lisbon
* *Silvio Scaglia, Chairman and Founcer, e.Biscom, Milan; former Managing Director, Omnitel
* Paolo Scaroni, Chief Executive Officer, ENEL, Rome
* *Guido Schmidt-Chiari, Chairman, Constantia Group; former Chairman, Creditanstalt Bankverein, Vienna
* Henning Schulte-Noelle, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Allianz, Munich
* Prince Charles of Schwarzenberg, Founder and Director, Nadace Bohemiae, Prague; former Chancellor to President Havel; former President of the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights
* Miguel Sebastian, Chairman of the Economic Bureau of the Prime Minister of Spain; Professor of Economics at the Universidad Complutense, Madrid
* *Carlo Secchi, Professor of European Economic Policy, Bocconi University, Milan; former Member of the Italian Senate and of the European Parliament
* *Tøger Seidenfaden, Editor-in-Chief, Politiken, Copenhagen
* Maurizio Sella, Chairman, Banca Sella, Biella; Chairman, Association of Italian Banks (A.B.I.), Rome; Chairman, Finanziaria Bansel
* Stefano Silvestri, President, Institute for International Affairs (IAI), Rome; Commentator, Il Sole 24 Ore; former Under Secretary of State for Defence, Italy
* Lord Simon of Highbury, Member of the House of Lords; Advisory Director of Unilever, Morgan Stanley Europe and LEK; former Minister for Trade & Competitiveness in Europe; former Chairman of BP, London
* Nicholas Soames, Member of the British Parliament, London
* Hermann Otto Solms, Vice President of the German Bundestag, Berlin
* Sir Martin Sorrell, Chief Executive Officer, WPP Group, London
* Myles Staunton, Former Member of the Irish Senate & of the Dail; Consultant, Westport, Co. Mayo
* *Thorvald Stoltenberg, President, Norwegian Red Cross, Oslo; former Co-Chairman (UN) of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on Former Yugoslavia; former Foreign Minister of Norway; former UN High Commissioner for Refugees
* *Petar Stoyanov, President, Centre for Political Dialogue, Sofia; former President of Bulgaria
* Peter Straarup, Chairman of the Executive Board, Danske Bank, Copenhagen; Chairman, the Danish Bankers Association
* *Peter Sutherland, Chairman, BP p.l.c. ; Chairman, Goldman Sachs International; former Director General, GATT/WTO; former Member of the European Commission; former Attorney General of Ireland
* Björn Svedberg, Former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Ericsson, Stockholm; former President and Group Chief Executive, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
* Péter Székely, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Transelektro, Budapest; President, Confederation of Hungarian Employers’ Organisations for International Co-operation (CEHIC); Vice President, Confederation of Hungarian Employers and Industrialists
* Pavel Telicka, Partner, BXL-Consulting, Prague
* Jean-Philippe Thierry, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, AGF (Assurances Générales de France), Paris
* Marco Tronchetti Provera, Chairman, Telecom Italia; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pirelli & C., Milan
* Elsbeth Tronstad, Director of Information, ABB, Oslo
* Loukas Tsoukalis, Jean Monnet Professor of European Integration, University of Athens; President of the Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP); Visiting Professor at the College of Europe
* Mario Vargas Llosa, Writer and Member of the Royal Spanish Academy, Madrid
* *George Vassiliou, Head of the Negotiating Team for the Accession of Cyprus to the European Union; former President of the Republic of Cyprus; Former Member of Parliament and Leader of United Democrats, Nicosia
* Franco Venturini, Foreign Correspondent, Corriere della Sera, Rome
* Friedrich Verzetnitsch, Member of Austrian Parliament; President, Austrian Federation of Trade Unions, Vienna; President, European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)
* *Marko Voljc, General Manager of Central Europe Directorate, KBC Bank Insurance Holding, Brussels; former Chief Executive Officer, Nova Ljubljanska Banka, Ljubljana
* Alexandr Vondra, Managing Director of the Prague Office, Dutko Group Companies; former Czech Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs
* Joris Voorhoeve, Member of the Council of State; former Member of the Dutch Parliament; former Minister of Defence, The Hague
* Panagis Vourloumis, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hellenic Telecommunications Organization (O.T.E.), Athens
* Marcus Wallenberg, President and Chief Executive Officer, Investor AB, Stockholm
* Prince Charles of Wales, Duke of Cornwall of the House of Windsor, London
* *Serge Weinberg, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Weinberg Investissements; former Chairman of the Management Board, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute; former President, Institute of International and Strategic Studies (IRIS), Paris
* Heinrich Weiss, Chairman, SMS, Düsseldorf
* Nout Wellink, President, Dutch Central Bank, Amsterdam
* Arne Wessberg, Director General, YLE (Finnish Broadcasting Company) and Director General, YLE Group (YLE and Digits Oy), Helsinki; President, European Broadcasting Union (EBU)
* *Norbert Wieczorek, former Member of the German Bundestag & Deputy Chairman of the SPD Parliamentary Group, Berlin
* Hans Wijers, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Akzo Nobel, Arnhem
* Otto Wolff von Amerongen, Honorary Chairman, East Committee of the German Industry; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Otto Wolff Industrieberatung und Beteiligung, Cologne
* *Emilio Ybarra, former Chairman, Banco Bilbao-Vizcaya, Madrid

Former Members in Public Service

* Marek Belka, Prime Minister, Warsaw; former Ambassador-at-Large and Chairman, Council for International Coordination, Coalition Provisional Authority, Baghdad
* John Bruton, European Union Ambassador & Head, Delegation of the European Commission to the United States
* Patrick Devedjian, Minister for Industry, France
* Lene Espersen, Minister of Justice, Denmark
* Pedro Solbes, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Economy and Finances, Spain
* Harri Tiido, Ambassador of Estonia and Head of the Estonian Mission to NATO, Brussels
* Karsten Voigt, Coordinator for German-American Cooperation, Federal Foreign Ministry, Germany

North American Group

* Madeleine K. Albright, Principal, The Albright Group LLC, Washington, DC; former U.S. Secretary of State
* Graham Allison, Director, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
* Rona Ambrose, Member of Parliament, Ottawa, ON
* G. Allen Andreas, Chairman and Chief Executive, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL
* Michael H. Armacost, Shorenstein Distinguished Fellow, Asia/Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, Hillsborough, CA; former President, The Brookings Institution; former U.S. Ambassador to Japan; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
* C. Michael Armstrong, Chairman, Comcast Corporation, Philadelphia, PA
* *Charlene Barshefsky, Senior International Partner, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, Washington, DC; former U.S. Trade Representative
* Alan R. Batkin, Vice Chairman, Kissinger Associates, New York, NY
* Maurizio Bevilacqua, Member of Parliament, Ottawa, ON
* Doug Bereuter, President, The Asia Foundation, San Francisco, CA; former Member, U.S. House of Representatives
* *C. Fred Bergsten, Director, Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs
* Catherine Bertini, Under-Secretary-General for Management, United Nations, New York, NY
* Dennis C. Blair, USN (Ret.), President, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA; former Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command
* Herminio Blanco Mendoza, Private Office of Herminio Blanco, Mexico City, NL; former Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Development
* Geoffrey T. Boisi, former Vice Chairman, JPMorgan Chase, New York, NY
* Stephen W. Bosworth, Dean, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, Medford, MA; former U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Korea
* David G. Bradley, Chairman, Atlantic Media Company, Washington, DC
* Harold Brown, Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC; General Partner, Warburg Pincus & Company, New York, NY; former U.S. Secretary of Defense
* *Zbigniew Brzezinski, Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC; Robert Osgood Professor of American Foreign Affairs, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; former U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
* George H.W. Bush, Former President, The United States of America, Texas
* Louis C. Camilleri, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Altria Group, Inc., New York, NY
* Gerhard Casper, President Emeritus, Stanford University, Stanford
* Lynne V. Cheney, Former Chairman, the National Endowment for the Humanities, Washington D.C.
* William Jefferson Clinton, Former President of the United States
* William T. Coleman III, Founder, Chairman, and Chief Executive Officer, Cassatt Corporation;
* Founder, former Chairman and CEO and Member, Board of Directors, BEA Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA
* William T. Coleman, Jr., Senior Partner and the Senior Counselor, O’Melveny & Myers, Washington, DC; former U.S. Secretary of Transportation
* Timothy C. Collins, Senior Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, Ripplewood Holdings, New York, NY
* E. Gerald Corrigan, Managing Director, Goldman, Sachs & Co., New York, NY; former President, Federal Reserve Bank of New York
* Michael J. Critelli, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pitney Bowes Inc., Stamford, CT
* Gerald L. Curtis, Burgess Professor of Politcial Science and Visiting Professor, Graduate Research Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo
* Douglas Daft, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Coca Cola Company, Atlanta, GA
* Dennis D. Dammerman, Vice Chairman and Executive Officer, General Electric Company, Fairfield, CT
* Lynn Davis, Senior Political Scientist, The RAND Corporation, Arlington, VA; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security
* Lodewijk J. R. de Vink, Chairman, Global Health Care Partners, Peapack, NJ; former Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Warner-Lambert Company
* Arthur A. DeFehr, President and Chief Executive Officer, Palliser Furniture, Winnipeg, MB
* André Desmarais, President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, Power Corporation of Canada, Montréal, QC; Deputy Chairman, Power Financial Corporation
* Jamie Dimon, President and Chief Operating Officer, JPMorgan Chase, New York, NY
* Peter C. Dobell, Founding Director, Parliamentary Centre, Ottawa, ON
* Wendy K. Dobson, Professor and Director, Institute for International Business, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; former Canadian Associate Deputy Minister of Finance
* Kenneth M. Duberstein, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Duberstein Group, Washington, DC
* Robert Eckert, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mattel, Inc., El Segundo, CA
* Jessica P. Einhorn, Dean, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC; former Managing Director for Finance and Resource Mobilization, World Bank
* Jeffrey Epstein, President, J. Epstein & Company, Inc., New York, NY; President, N.A. Property, Inc.
* Dianne Feinstein, Member (D-CA), U.S. Senate
* Sandra Feldman, President Emeritus, American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC
* Martin S. Feldstein, George F. Baker Professor of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; President and Chief Executive Officer, National Bureau of Economic Research; former U.S.Chairman, President’s Council of Economic Advisors
* Stanley Fischer, President, Citigroup International and Vice Chairman, Citgroup, New York, NY; former First Deputy Managing Director, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
* Richard W. Fisher, President and Chief Executive Officer, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Dallas, TX; former U.S. Deputy Trade Representative
* *Thomas S. Foley, Partner, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld, Washington, DC; former U.S. Ambassador to Japan; former Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives; North American Chairman, Trilateral Commission
* Francis Fukuyama, Bernard L. Schwartz Professor International Political Economy, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC
* Dionisio Garza Medina, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, ALFA, Garza Garcia, NL
* Richard A. Gephardt, former Member (D-MO), U.S. House of Representatives
* David Gergen, Professor of Public Service, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; Editor-at-Large, U.S. News and World Report
* Peter C. Godsoe, Chairman of Fairmont Hotels & Resorts; Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Scotiabank, Toronto, ON
* *Allan E. Gotlieb, Senior Advisor, Stikeman Elliott, Toronto, ON; Chairman, Sotheby’s, Canada; former Canadian Ambassador to the United States; North American Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission
* Donald E. Graham, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Washington Post Company, Washington, DC
* Jeffrey W. Greenberg, Private Investor, New York, NY; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Marsh & McLennan Companies
* Maurice R. Greenberg, Chairman, American International Group, Inc., New York, NY
* Richard N. Haass, President, Council on Foreign Relations, New York, NY; former Director, Policy Planning, U. S. Department of State; former Director of Foreign Policy Studies, The Brookings Institution
* William A. Haseltine, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Haseltine Associates, Washington, DC;
* President, William A. Haseltine Foundation for Medical Sciences and the Arts; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Human Genome Sciences, Inc., Rockville, MD
* Charles B. Heck, Senior Adviser and former North American Director, Trilateral Commission, New Canaan, CT
* *Carla A. Hills, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hills & Company, International Consultants, Washington, DC; former U.S. Trade Representative; former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
* Richard Holbrooke, Vice Chairman, Perseus LLC, New York, NY; Counselor, Council on Foreign Relations; former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations; former Vice Chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston Corporation; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs; and former U.S. Ambassador to Germany
* Karen Elliott House, Senior Vice President, Dow Jones & Company, and Publisher, The Wall Street Journal, New York, NY
* James A. Johnson, Vice Chairman, Perseus LLC, Washington, DC; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)
* Alejandro Junco de la Vega, President and Director, Grupo Reforma, Monterrery, NL
* Robert Kagan, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC
* Charles R. Kaye, Co-President, Warburg Pincus LLC, New York, NY
* Henry A. Kissinger, Chairman, Kissinger Associates, Inc., New York, NY; former U.S. Secretary of State; former U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
* Michael Klein, Chief Executive Officer, Global Banking, Citigroup Inc.; Vice Chairman, Citibank International PLC; New York, NY
* Enrique Krauze, General Director, Editorial Clio Libros y Videos, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, DF
* Jim Leach, Member (R-IA), U.S. House of Representatives
* Gerald M. Levin, Chief Executive Officer Emeritus, AOL Time Warner, Inc., New York, NY
* Winston Lord, Co-Chairman of Overseeers and former Co-Chairman of the Board, International Rescue Committee, New York, NY; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs; former U.S. Ambassador to China
* E. Peter Lougheed, Senior Partner, Bennett Jones, Barristers & Solicitors, Calgary, AB; former Premier of Alberta
* Roy MacLaren, former Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom; former Canadian Minister of International Trade; Toronto, ON
* John A. MacNaughton, former President and Chief Executive Officer, Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, Toronto, ON
* Antonio Madero, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, San Luis Corporacion, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, DF
* *Sir Deryck C. Maughan, former Vice Chairman, Citigroup, New York, NY
* Jay Mazur, President Emeritus, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees); Vice Chairman, Amalgamated Bank of New York; and President, ILGWU’s 21st Century Heritage Foundation, New York, NY
* Hugh L. McColl, Jr., Chairman, McColl Brothers Lockwood, Charlotte, NC; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Bank of America Corporation
* Henry A. McKinnell, President and Chief Executive Officer, Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY
* Marc H. Morial, President and Chief Executive Officer, National Urban League, New York, NY; former Mayor, New Orleans, LA
* Anne M. Mulcahy, Chairman and CEO, Xerox Corporation, Stamford, CT
* Brian Mulroney, Senior Partner, Ogilvy Renault, Barristers and Solicitors, Montréal, QC; former Prime Minister of Canada
* *Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Distinguished Service Professor at Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs
* David J. O’Reilly, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ChevronTexaco Corp., San Ramon, CA
* Richard N. Perle, Resident Fellow, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC; member and former Chairman, Defense Policy Board, U.S. Department of Defense; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy
* Thomas R. Pickering, Senior Vice President, International Relations, The Boeing Company, Vienna, VA; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs; former U.S. Ambassador to the Russian Federation, India, Israel, El Salvador, Nigeria, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and the United Nations
* Franklin D. Raines, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Fannie Mae (Federal National Mortgage Association), Washington, DC; former Director, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Office of the President
* Joseph W. Ralston, USAF (Ret)., Vice Chairman, The Cohen Group, Washington, DC; former Commander, U.S. European Command, and Supreme Allied Commander NATO; former Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Department of Defense
* Charles B. Rangel, Member (D-NY), U.S. House of Representatives
* Hartley Richardson, President and Chief Executive Officer, James Richardson & Sons, Ltd., Winnipeg, MB
* Joseph E. Robert, Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive Office, J.E. Robert Companies, McLean, VA
* John D. Rockefeller IV, Member (D-WV), U.S. Senate
* Kenneth Rogoff, Professor of Economics and Director, Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Chief Economist and Director, Research Department, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
* David M. Rubenstein, Co-founder and Managing Director, The Carlyle Group, Washington, DC
* Luis Rubio, President, Center of Research for Development (CIDAC), Mexico City, DF
* Arthur F. Ryan, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Prudential Financial, Inc., Newark, NJ
* Jaime Serra, Chairman, SAI Consulting, Mexico City, DF; former Mexican Minister of Trade and Industry
* Anne-Marie Slaughter, Dean, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
* Gordon Smith, Director, Centre for Global Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC; Chairman, Board of Governors, International Development Research Centre; former Canadian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Personal Representative of the Prime Minister to the Economic Summit
* Donald R. Sobey, Chairman Emeritus, Empire Company Ltd., Stellarton, NS
* George Soros, Chairman, Soros Fund Management LLC, New York, NY; Chairman, The Open Society Institute
* Ronald D. Southern, Chairman, ATCO Group, Calgary, AB
* James B. Steinberg, Vice President and Director of the Foreign Policy Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former U.S. Deputy National Security Advisor
* Barbara Stymiest, Chief Operating Officer, RBC Financial Group, Toronto, ON
* Lawrence H. Summers, President, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
* John J. Sweeney, President, AFL-CIO, Washington, DC
* Strobe Talbott, President, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State
* Luis Tellez, Managing Director, The Carlyle Group, Mexico City, DF; former Executive Vice President, Sociedad de Fomento Industrial (DESC); former Mexican Minister of Energy
* John Thain, Chief Executive Officer, New York Stock Exchange, Inc.; former President and Co-Chief Operating Officer, Goldman Sachs & Co., New York, NY
* G. Richard Thoman, Managing Partner, Corporate Perspectives and Adjunct Professor, Columbia University, New York, NY; formerly President and CEO, Xerox Corporation; formerly CFO and Nº 2 officer, IBM Corporation
* *Paul A. Volcker, former Chairman, Wolfensohn & Co., Inc., New York; Frederick H. Schultz Professor Emeritus, International Economic Policy, Princeton University; former Chairman, Board of Governors, U.S. Federal Reserve System; Honorary North American Chairman and former North American Chairman, Trilateral Commission
* William H. Webster, Senior Partner, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP, Washington, DC; former U.S. Director of Central Intelligence; former Director, U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation; former Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
* Fareed Zakaria, Editor, Newsweek International, New York, NY
* *Lorenzo H. Zambrano, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, CEMEX, Monterrey, NL; North American Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission
* Ernesto Zedillo, Director, Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Yale University, New Haven, CT; former President of Mexico
* Mortimer B. Zuckerman, Chairman and Editor-in-Chief, U.S. News & World Report, New York, NY
* Robert S. McNamara, Lifetime Trustee, Trilateral Commission, Washington, DC; former President, World Bank; former U.S. Secretary of Defense; former President, Ford Motor Company
* David Rockefeller, Founder, Honorary Chairman, and Lifetime Trustee, Trilateral Commission, New York, NY

Former Members In Public Service

* Richard B. Cheney, Vice President of the United States
* Paula J. Dobriansky, U.S. Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs
* Bill Graham, Canadian Minister of National Defence
* William J. McDonough, Chairman, Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
* Paul Wolfowitz, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense
* Robert B. Zoellick, U.S. Deputy Secretary of State

Pacific Asian Group

* Ali Alatas, Advisor and Special Envoy of the President of the Republic of Indonesia; former Indonesian Minister for Foreign Affairs; Jakarta
* Narongchai Akrasanee, Chairman, Seranee Holdings Co., Ltd., Bangkok
* Philip Burdon, former Chairman, Asia 2000 Foundation; New Zealand Chairman, APEC; former New Zealand Minister of Trade Negotiations; Wellington
* Fujio Cho, President, Toyota Motor Corporation
* Cho Suck-Rai, Chairman, Hyosung Corporation, Seoul
* Chung Mong-Joon, Member, Korean National Assembly; Vice President, Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA); Seoul
* Barry Desker, Director, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore
* Takashi Ejiri, Attorney at Law, Asahi Koma Law Office
* Jesus P. Estanislao, President and CEO, Institute of Corporate Directors/Institute of Solidarity in Asia; former Philippine Minister of Finance; Manila
* Hugh Fletcher, Director, Fletcher Building, Ltd.; former Chief Executive Officer, Fletcher Challenge; Auckland
* Hiroaki Fujii, Advisor and former President, The Japan Foundation; former Japanese Ambassador to the United Kingdom
* Shinji Fukukawa, Executive Advisor, Dentsu Inc.
* Yoichi Funabashi, Chief Diplomatic Correspondent and Columnist, The Asahi Shimbun
* Carrillo Gantner, Vice President, Myer Foundation; Melbourne
* Ross Garnaut, Head, Department of Economics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra
* *Toyoo Gyohten, President, Institute for International Monetary Affairs; Senior Advisor, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd.
* Han Sung-Joo, President, Seoul Forum for International Affairs; former Korean Minister of Foreign Affairs; former Korean Ambassador to the United States; Seoul
* *Stuart Harris, Professor of International Relations, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University; former Australian Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, Canberra
* Tan Sri Dato’ Azman Hashim, Chairman, AmBank Group, Kuala Lumpur
* John R. Hewson, Member, Advisory Council, ABN AMRO Australia
* Earnest M. Higa, President and CEO, Higa Industries
* Shintaro Hori, Managing Partner, Bain & Company Japan, Inc.
* Murray Horn, Managing Director, Institutional Banking, ANZ Banking Group, Ltd.; former Parliament Secretary, New Zealand Treasury; Auckland
* Hyun Hong-Choo, Senior Partner, Kim & Chang, Seoul; former Korean Ambassador to the United Nations and to the United States; Seoul
* Hyun Jae-Hyun, Chairman, Tong Yang Group, Seoul
* Shin’ichi Ichimura, Counselor, International Centre for the Study of East Asian Development, Kitakyushu
* Nobuyuki Idei, Chairman and Group CEO, Sony Corporation
* Takeo Inokuchi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Company, Ltd.
* Noriyuki Inoue, Chairman and CEO, Daikin Industries, Ltd.
* Rokuro Ishikawa, Chairman, Kajima Corporation
* Motoo Kaji, Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo
* Koji Kakizawa, former Member, Japanese House of Representatives; former Minister for Foreign Affairs
* Kasem Kasemsri, Chairman, Natural Park Public Co., Ltd., Bangkok.; former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand;
* Koichi Kato, Member, Japanese House of Representatives; former Secretary-General, Liberal Democratic Party
* Trevor Kennedy, Chairman, Oil Search, Ltd.; Chairman, Cypress Lakes Group, Ltd.; Sydney
* K. Kesavapany, Director, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore
* Kim Kihwan, International Advisor, Goldman Sachs, Seoul; former Korean Ambassador-at-Large for Economic Affairs
* *Kim Kyung-Won, Adviser, Kim & Chang Law Office, Seoul; President Emeritus, Seoul Forum for International Affairs; former Korean Ambassador to the United States and the United Nations; Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission; Seoul
* Kakutaro Kitashiro, Chairman of the Board, IBM Japan, Ltd.; Chairman, Japan Association of Corporate Executives
* Shoichiro Kobayashi, Advisor, Kansai Electric Power Company, Ltd.
* *Yotaro Kobayashi, Chairman of the Board, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.; Pacific Asia Chairman, Trilateral Commission
* Akira Kojima, Chairman, Japan Center for Economic Research ( JCER )
* Koo John, Chairman, LS Cable Ltd.; Chairman, LS Industrial Systems Co.; Seoul
* Kenji Kosaka, Member, Japanese House of Representatives
* *Lee Hong-Koo, Chairman, Seoul Forum for International Affairs, Seoul; former Korean Prime Minister; former Korean Ambassador to the United Kingdom and the United States
* Lee In-ho, former President, Korea Foundation; former Korean Ambassador to Finland and Russia; Seoul
* Lee Jay Y., Vice President, Samsung Electronics, Seoul
* Lee Kyungsook Choi, President, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul
* Adrianto Machribie, Chairman, PT Freeport Indonesia, Jakarta
* *Minoru Makihara, Senior Corporate Advisor, Mitsubishi Corporation
* Hiroshi Mikitani, Chairman, President and CEO, Rakuten, Inc.
* Yoshihiko Miyauchi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ORIX Corporation
* Isamu Miyazaki, Special Advisor, Daiwa Institute of Research, Ltd.; former Director-General of the Japanese Economic Planning Agency
* *Kiichi Miyazawa, former Prime Minister of Japan; former Finance Minister; former Member, House of Representatives
* Yuzaburo Mogi, President and Chief Executive Officer, Kikkoman Corporation
* Mike Moore, former Director-General of the World Trade Organization; former Prime Minister of New Zealand; Member, Privy Council; Geneva
* Moriyuki Motono, President, Foreign Affairs Society; former Japanese Ambassador to France
* Jiro Murase, Managing Partner, Bingham McCutchen Murase, New York
* *Minoru Murofushi, Counselor, ITOCHU Corporation
* Masao Nakamura, President and Chief Executive Officer, NTT Docomo Inc.
* Masashi Nishihara, President, National Defense Academy
* Taizo Nishimuro, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Toshiba Corporation
* Roberto F. de Ocampo, President, Asian Institute of Management; Former Secretary of Finance, Manila
* Toshiaki Ogasawara, Chairman and Publisher, The Japan Times Ltd.; Chairman, Nifco Inc.
* Sadako Ogata, President, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA); former United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
* *Shijuro Ogata, former Deputy Governor, Japan Development Bank; former Deputy Governor for International Relations, Bank of Japan; Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission
* Sozaburo Okamatsu, Chairman, Research Institute of Economy, Trade & Industry (RIETI)
* *Yoshio Okawara, President, Institute for International Policy Studies; former Japanese Ambassador to the United States
* Yoichi Okita, Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
* Ariyoshi Okumura, Chairman, Lotus Corporate Advisory, Inc.
* Anand Panyarachun, Chairman, Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI); former Prime Minister of Thailand; Bangkok
* Ryu Jin Roy, Chairman and CEO, Poongsan Corp., Seoul
* Eisuke Sakakibara, Professor, Keio University; former Japanese Vice Minister of Finance for International Affairs
* Sakong Il, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Institute for Global Economics; former Korean Minister of Finance; Seoul
* Yukio Satoh, President, The Japan Institute of International Affairs; former Japanese Ambassador to the United Nations
* Sachio Semmoto, Chief Executive Officer, eAccess, Ltd.
* Masahide Shibusawa, President, Shibusawa Ei’ichi Memorial Foundation
* Seiichi Shimada, President and Chief Executive Officer, Nihon Unisys, Ltd.
* Yasuhisa Shiozaki, Member, Japanese House of Representatives; former Parliamentary Vice Minister for Finance
* Arifin Siregar, International Advisor, Goldman Sachs & Co.; former Ambassador of Indonesia to the United States; Jakarta
* Tan Sri Dr. Noordin Sopiee, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Institute of Strategic and International Studies, Kuala Lumpur
* Suh Kyung-Bae, President and CEO, Amore Pacific Corp., Seoul
* Tsuyoshi Takagi, President, The Japanese Foundation of Textile, Chemical, Food, Commercial, Service and General Workers’ Unions (UI ZENSEN)
* Keizo Takemi, Member, Japanese House of Councillors; former State Secretary for Foreign Affairs
* Akihiko Tanaka, Director, Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo
* Naoki Tanaka, President, The 21st Century Public Policy Institute
* Sunjoto Tanudjaja, President and Chief Executive Officer, PT Great River International, Jakarta
* Teh Kok Peng, President, GIC Special Investments Private Ltd., Singapore
* Shuji Tomita, Senior Executive Vice President, NTT Communications Corporation
* Kiyoshi Tsugawa, Executive Advisor & Member of Japan Advisory Board, Lehman Brothers Japan, Inc.; Chairman, ARAMARK ASIA
* Junichi Ujiie, Chairman and CEO, Nomura Holdings, Inc.
* Sarasin Viraphol, Executive Vice President, Charoen Pokphand Co., Ltd.; former Deputy Permanent Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Thailand; Bangkok
* Cesar E. A. Virata, Director, Corporate Vice Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation (RCBC); former Prime Minister of Philippines; Manila
* *Jusuf Wanandi, Co-founder and Member of the Board of Trustees, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta
* Etsuya Washio, President, National Federation of Workers and Consumers Insurance Cooperatives (ZENROSAI): former President, Japanese Trade Union Confederation (RENGO)
* Koji Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Japan Center for International Exchange; former Japanese Ambassador to Russia
* Osamu Watanabe, Chairman, Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO)
* Taizo Yakushiji, Executive Member, Council for Science and Technology Policy of the Cabinet Office of Japan; Executive Research Director, Institute for International Policy Studies
* Tadashi Yamamoto, President, Japan Center for International Exchange; Pacific Asia Director, Trilateral Commission
* Noriyuki Yonemura, Counselor, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.

Note: Those without city names are Japanese Members. Korean names are shown with surname first.
Former Members in Public Service

* Hong Seok-Hyun, Korean Ambassador to the United States
* Masaharu Ikuta, Director General, Postal Services Corporation.
* Yoriko Kawaguchi, Special Advisor to the Prime Minister of Japan
* Hisashi Owada, Judge, International Court of Justice
* Takeshi Kondo, President, Japan Highway Public Corporation (Nihon Doro Kodan)
* Richard B. Cheney, Vice-President, the United States of America

Participants From Other Areas:  Triennium Participants

* Abdlatif Al-Hamad, Director General and Chairman, Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development; former Kuwait Minister of Finance and Planning
* André Azoulay, Adviser to H.M. King Mohammed VI, Rabat, Morocco
* Domingo F. Cavallo, President, Accion por la Republica, Buenos Aires; former Economy Minister of Argentina
* Morris Chang, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Taipei
* Hüsnü Dogan, General Coordinator, Nurol Holding, Ankara; former Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Development Foundation of Turkey; former Minister of Defence
* Jacob A. Frenkel, Vice Chairman, American International Group, Inc. and Chairman, AIG’s Global Economic Strategies Group, New York, NY; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, G-30; former Chairman, Merrill Lynch International; former Governor, Bank of Israel; former Economic Counselor and Director of Research, IMF; former Chairman, Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank; former David Rockefeller Professor of Economics, University of Chicago
* Victor K. Fung, Chairman, Li & Fung, Hong Kong
* Frene Ginwala, Speaker of the National Assembly, Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, Cape Town
* H.R.H. Prince El Hassan bin Talal, President, The Club of Rome; Moderator of the World Conference on Religion and Peace; Chairman, Arab Thought Forum, Amman, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
* Serhiy Holovaty, Member of the Supreme Rada; President of the Ukrainian Legal Foundation; former Minister of Justice, Kiev, Ukraine
* Enrique V. Iglesias, President, Inter-American Development Bank; former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Uruguay
* Wang Jun, Chairman, China International Trust & Investment Corp., China
* Sergei Karaganov, Deputy Director, Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences; Chairman of the Presidium of the Council on Defense and Foreign Policy, Moscow, Russian Federation
* Jeffrey L.S. Koo, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Chinatrust Financial Holding Co., Taipei
* Richard Li, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pacific Century Group Holdings Ltd., Hong Kong
* Itamar Rabinovich, President, Tel Aviv University, Israel; former Ambassador to the United States
* Rüsdü Saracoglu, President of the Finance Group, Koç Holding; Chairman, Makro Consulting, Istanbul; former State Minister and Member of the Turkish Parliament; former Governor of the Central Bank of Turkey
* Roberto Egydio Setubal, Director President, Banco Itaú S.A., Brazil
* Stan Shih, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Acer Group, Taipei
* Gordon Wu, Chairman and Managing Director, Hopewell Holdings Ltd., Hong Kong
* Grigory A. Yavlinsky, former Member of the State Duma; Leader of the “Yabloko” Parliamentary Group; Chairman of the Center for Economic and Political Research, Moscow, Russian Federation
* Yu Xintian, President, Shanghai Institute for International Studies, Shanghai
* Yuan Ming, Director, Institute of International Relations, Peking University, Peking
* Zhang Yunling, Director, Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), Beijing
* Wang Jisi, Director, Institute for American Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), Beijing

http://www.conspiracyarchive.com/NWO/Trilateral_Members.htm

A Financial History of the United States, 2002
By Jerry W. Markham – pg 50 – 51 – about corruption in handling stocks and commodities, 1911
http://books.google.com/books?id=YRjmQLOscGoC&pg=PA50&lpg=PA50&dq=%22William+Salomon%22&source=web&ots=U1iJ5D5uvP&sig=-VZ_OigLezy7gsQqiGdfIigPh8M&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result

( also page 59 – 61 about stocks and recession 1912 )

This encyclopedic work chronicles the growth and expansion of banking, securities, and insurance since the colonial period. The author traces the origins of American finance to the older societies of Europe and North Africa,…
(pg 356 – 360)

“Between 1945 and 1962, assets held by institutions increased from $88 billion to $430 billion. By 1961, institutions owned some 80% percent of outstanding corporate bonds. This did not tell the whole story. In 1963, over 40 percent of corporate stock issues and 50 percent of corporate bonds were being privately placed with institutions. This growth in institutional ownership accelerated even more over the next several years. In 1969, the National Bureau of Economic Research conducted a study for the SEC on institutional investors. Its report noted that the percentage of ownership of equity securities by financial institutions had increased from about 24 percent in 1952 to over 40 by 1970. The mix of institutional traders was changing. By the middle of the 1960s, the personal trust departments of banks and trust companies no longer accounted for the majority of security holdings by institutions. The holdings of insurance companies, investment companies, and pension funds were outstripping the trust departments.

Insurance Companies

The largest institutional investors were the life insurance companies. Their assets tripled between 1945 and 1960. By 1965, the assets of life insurance companies totaled almost $160 billion, invested largely in mortgages, corporate bonds and government securities. New York still limited the common stock holdings of the life insurance companies to 5 percent of their total assets in 1960. The states were creating insurance guaranty funds in 1969 in order to cut off a proposal for a federal program of insurance to protect policyholders in the event of an insurance company’s insolvency.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=YRjmQLOscGoC&pg=PA50&lpg=PA50&dq=%22William+Salomon%22&source=web&ots=U1iJ5D5uvP&sig=-VZ_OigLezy7gsQqiGdfIigPh8M&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPA356,M1
***
***

Trilateral Commission

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About the Organization

The Trilateral Commission was formed in 1973 by private citizens of Japan, Europe (European Union countries), and North America (United States and Canada) to foster closer cooperation among these core democratic industrialized areas of the world with shared leadership responsibilities in the wider international system. Originally established for three years, our work has been renewed for successive triennia (three-year periods), most recently for a triennium to be completed in 2009.

When the first triennium of the Trilateral Commission was launched in 1973, the most immediate purpose was to draw together—at a time of considerable friction among governments—the highest level unofficial group possible to look together at the key common problems facing our three areas. At a deeper level, there was a sense that the United States was no longer in such a singular leadership position as it had been in earlier post-World War II years, and that a more shared form of leadership—including Europe and Japan in particular—would be needed for the international system to navigate successfully the major challenges of the coming years.

Two strong convictions guide our thinking for the 2006-2009 triennium. First, the Trilateral Commission remains as important as ever in helping our countries fulfill their shared leadership responsibilities in the wider international system and, second, its framework needs to be widened to reflect broader changes in the world. Thus, the Japan Group has become a Pacific Asian Group, and Mexican members have been added to the North American Group. The European Group continues to widen in line with the enlargement of the EU. We are also continuing in this triennium our practice of inviting a number of participants from other key areas.

The “growing interdependence” that so impressed the founders of the Trilateral Commission in the early 1970s is deepening into “globalization.” The need for shared thinking and leadership by the Trilateral countries, who (along with the principal international organizations) remain the primary anchors of the wider international system, has not diminished but, if anything, intensified. At the same time, their leadership must change to take into account the dramatic transformation of the international system. As relations with other countries become more mature—and power more diffuse—the leadership tasks of the original Trilateral countries need to be carried out with others to an increasing extent.

The members of the Trilateral Commission are about 350 distinguished leaders in business, media, academia, public service (excluding current national Cabinet Ministers), labor unions, and other non-governmental organizations from the three regions. The regional Chairmen, Deputy Chairmen, and Directors constitute the leadership of the Trilateral Commission, along with an Executive Committee including about 40 other members.

The annual meeting of Trilateral Commission members rotates among the three regions. It was held in Washington in 2008 and Brussels in 2007. The 2009 plenary will be held in Tokyo. The agendas for these meetings have addressed a wide range of issues, an indication of how broadly we see the partnership among our countries. Presentations from these meetings have been published in the Commission’s (Trialogue) series and/or posted under Recent Activity on this web site.

The project work of the Trilateral Commission generally involves teams of authors from our three regions working together for a year or so on draft reports which are discussed in draft form in the annual meeting and then published. The authors typically consult with many others in the course of their work. The task force reports (Triangle Papers) to the Trilateral Commission have covered a wide range of topics.

The regional groups within the Trilateral Commission carry on some activities of their own. The European Group, with its secretariat based in Paris, has an annual weekend meeting each fall. The North American Group, with its secretariat based in Washington D.C. began North American regional meetings in 2002 and occasionally gathers with a special speaker for a dinner or luncheon event. The new Pacific Asian Group, with its secretariat based in Tokyo, began regional meetings in 2000. Each region carries on its own fund-raising to provide the financial support needed for the Trilateral Commission’s work.

Annual meetings | Project Work | North American Group | European Group | Pacific Asian Group | Frequently Asked Questions

http://www.trilateral.org/about.htm

Trilateral Commission

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Membership

When the Trilateral Commission was first launched, the plan was for an equal number of members from each of the three regions. The numbers soon began to grow, and ceilings were imposed about 1980. These ceilings have been raised somewhat since then as new countries came to be represented in the groups. The European group, which includes members from Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Cyprus, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, now has a ceiling of 160 members. The ceiling for the North American group is 120, including 20 Canadian members, 13 Mexican members and 87 U.S. members. In 2000, the Japanese group of 85 members expanded to become a Pacific Asian group of 96 members, and includes 57 members from Japan, 15 members from Korea, 8 from Australia and New Zealand, 16 from the original five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand). The new Pacific Asian group also includes participants from the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.

To help preserve the Commission’s unofficial character, members who take up positions in their national administration give up Trilateral Commission membership. New members are chosen on a national basis. The procedures used for rotation off and for invitation of new members vary from national group to national group. Three chairmen (one from each region), deputy chairmen, and directors constitute the leadership of the Trilateral Commission, along with an Executive Committee including 36 other members. The current full membership list is available by e-mail or by contacting any of the regional offices.
Chairmen, Deputy Chairmen and Directors

North American Chairman: JOSEPH S. NYE, JR.
University Distinguished Service Professor and former Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Chair, National Intelligence Council and former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs

European Chairman: PETER SUTHERLAND
Chairman, BP p.l.c., London; Chairman, Goldman Sachs International; Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for Migrations; former Director General, GATT/WTO, Geneva; former Member of the European Commission; former Attorney General of Ireland

Pacific Asian Chairman: YOTARO KOBAYASHI
Chief Corporate Advisor, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd., Tokyo

North American Deputy Chairman: ALLAN E. GOTLIEB
Senior Adviser, Bennett Jones LLP, Toronto, ON; Chairman, Sotheby’s, Canada; former Canadian Ambassador to the United States

North American Deputy Chairman: LORENZO ZAMBRANO
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, CEMEX, Monterrey, NL, Mexico

European Deputy Chairman: HERVE DE CARMOY
Chairman, Almatis, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Partner, Rhône Group, New York & Paris; Honorary Chairman, Banque Industrielle et Mobilière Privée, Paris; former Chief Executive, Société Générale de Belgique

European Deputy Chairman: ANDRZEJ OLECHOWSKI
Founder, Civic Platform; former Chairman, Bank Handlowy; former Minister of Foreign Affairs and of Finance, Warsaw

Pacific Asian Deputy Chairman: HAN SUNG-JOO
President, Korea University, Seoul; former Korean Minister for Foreign Affairs; former Korean Ambassador to the United States

Pacific Asian Deputy Chairman: SHIJURO OGATA
Former Deputy Governor, Japan Development Bank; former Deputy Governor for International Relations, Bank of Japan

North American Director: MICHAEL J. O’NEIL
European Director: PAUL RÉVAY
Pacific Asia Director: TADASHI YAMAMOTO

Former North American Chairmen:
THOMAS S. FOLEY (2001-2008)
PAUL A. VOLCKER (1991-2001) Honorary North American Chairman
DAVID ROCKEFELLER (1977-91) Founder and Honorary North American Chairman
GERARD C. SMITH (1973-77)

Former European Chairmen:
OTTO GRAF LAMBSDORFF (1992-2001) Honorary European Chairman
GEORGES BERTHOIN (1976-92) Honorary European Chairman
MAX KOHNSTAMM (1973-76)

Former Japanese Chairmen:
KIICHI MIYAZAWA, Acting Chairman (1993-97)
AKIO MORITA (1992-93)
ISAMU YAMASHITA (1985-92)
TAKESHI WATANABE (1973-85)

Executive Committee

Erik Belfrage, Senior Vice President, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken; Director, Investor AB, Stockholm
C. Fred Bergsten, Director, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington DC; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs
Georges Berthoin, International Honorary Chairman, European Movement; Honorary Chairman, The Jean Monnet Association; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission
Jorge Braga de Macedo, President, Tropical Research Institute, Lisbon; Professor of Economics, Nova University at Lisbon; Chairman, Forum Portugal Global; former Minister of Finance
Zbigniew Brzezinski, Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington DC; Robert Osgood Professor of American Foreign Affairs, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; former Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
François Bujon de l’Estang, Ambassadeur de France; Chairman, Citigroup France, Paris; former Ambassador to the United States
Richard Conroy, Chairman, Conroy Diamonds & Gold, Dublin; Member of Senate, Republic of Ireland
Vladimir Dlouhy, Senior Advisor, ABB; International Advisor, Goldman Sachs; former Czechoslovak Minister of Economy; former Czech Minister of Industry & Trade, Prague
Bill Emmott, former Editor, The Economist, London
Nemesio Fernandez-Cuesta, Executive Director of Upstream, Repsol-YPF; former Chairman, Prensa Española, Madrid
Michael Fuchs, Member of the German Bundestag; former President, National Federation of German Wholesale & Foreign Trade, Berlin
Antonio Garrigues Walker, Chairman, Garrigues Abogados y Asesores Tributarios, Madrid
Toyoo Gyohten, President, The Institute for International Monetary Affairs; Senior Advisor, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, UFJ, Ltd., Tokyo
Stuart Harris, Professor of International Relations, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University; former Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, Canberra
Carla A. Hills, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hills & Company, Washington, DC; former U.S. Trade Representative; former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Karen Elliott House, Writer, Princeton, NJ; Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Senior Vice President, Dow Jones & Company, and Publisher, The Wall Street Journal
Mugur Isarescu, Governor, National Bank of Romania, Bucharest; former Prime Minister of Romania
Baron Daniel Janssen, Honorary Chairman, Solvay, Brussels
Béla Kadar, Member of the Hungarian Academy, Budapest; Member of the Monetary Council of the National Bank; President of the Hungarian Economic Association; former Ambassador of Hungary to the O.E.C.D., Paris; former Hungarian Minister of International Economic Relations and Member of Parliament
Lord Kerr of Kinlochard, Deputy Chairman and Senior Independent Non-Executive Director of Royal Dutch Shell; Member of the House of Lords; Director of Rio Tinto, the Scottish American Investment Trust, London; former Secretary General, European Convention, Brussels; former Permanent Under-Secretary of State and Head of the Diplomatic Service, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London; former British Ambassador to the United States
Sixten Korkman, Managing Director, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA) and Finnish Business and Policy Forum (EVA), Helsinki
Count Otto Lambsdorff, Partner, Wessing Lawyers, Düsseldorf; Chairman, Friedrich Naumann Foundation, Berlin; former Member of German Bundestag; Honorary Chairman, Free Democratic Party; former Federal Minister of Economy; former President of the Liberal International; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission, Paris
Lee Hong-Koo, Chairman, Seoul Forum for International Affairs; former Prime Minister of Korea; former Korean Ambassador to the United Kingdom and the United States
Marianne Lie, Director General, Norwegian Shipowners Association, Oslo
Cees Maas, Honorary Vice Chairman of the ING Group and former Chief Financial Officer, Amsterdam; former Treasurer of the Dutch Government
Roy MacLaren, former Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom; former Canadian Minister of International Trade; Toronto, ON
Minoru Makihara, Senior Corporate Advisor, Mitsubishi Corporation, Tokyo
Sir Deryck C. Maughan, Managing Director and Chairman, KKR Asia, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co., New York, NY; former Vice Chairman, Citigroup
Minoru Murofushi, Counselor, ITOCHU Corporation, Tokyo
Indra K. Nooyi, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo, Inc., Purchase, NY
Yoshio Okawara, President, Institute for International Policy Studies, Tokyo; former Japanese Ambassador to the United States
Susan Rice, Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies and Global Economy and Development Programs, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs; former Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for African Affairs, National Security Council
Luis Rubio, President, Center of Research for Development (CIDAC), Mexico City, DF
Silvio Scaglia, Founder, Chairman and Financial Backer of Babelgum, London; Chairman, S.M.S. Finance S.A., Luxembourg
Guido Schmidt-Chiari, Chairman, Supervisory Board, Constantia Group; former Chairman, Creditanstalt Bankverein, Vienna
Carlo Secchi, Professor of European Economic Policy and former Rector, Bocconi University; Vice President, ISPI, Milan; former Member of the Italian Senate and of the European Parliament
Tøger Seidenfaden, Editor-in-Chief, Politiken, Copenhagen
Petar Stoyanov, former President of the Republic of Bulgaria; Member of the Bulgarian Parliament; Chairman, Parliamentary Group of United Democratic Forces; Chairman, Union of Democratic Forces; Sofia
Harri Tiido, Undersecretary for Political Affairs, Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallinn; former Ambassador of Estonia and Head of the Estonian Mission to NATO, Brussels
George Vassiliou, former Head of the Negotiating Team for the Accession of Cyprus to the European Union; former President of the Republic of Cyprus, former Member of Parliament and Leader of United Democrats; Nicosia
Paul Volcker, former Chairman, Wolfensohn & Co., Inc., New York; Frederick H. Schultz Professor Emeritus, International Economic Policy, Princeton University; former Chairman, Board of Governors, U.S. Federal Reserve System; Honorary North American Chairman and former North American Chairman, The Trilateral Commission
Marko Voljc, Chief Executive Officer, K & H Bank, Budapest; former General Manager of Central Europe Directorate, KBC Bank Insurance Holding, Brussels; former Chief Executive Officer, Nova Ljubljanska Banka, Ljubljana
Panagis Vourloumis, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hellenic Tellecommunications Organization (O.T.E.), Athens
Jusuf Wanandi, Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees; Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta
Serge Weinberg, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Accor; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Weinberg Capital Partners; former Chairman Management Board, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute; former President, Institute of International and Strategic Studies (IRIS), Paris
Heinrich Weiss, Chairman, SMS, Düsseldorf; former Chairman, Federation of German Industries, Berlin

The full membership list is available by e-mail or by contacting any of the regional offices.

http://www.trilateral.org/memb.htm

Blackrock Alternative Advisors current relationships:
National Venture Capital Association – member
People related to BlackRock Closed End Mutual Funds:
Kathleen Foley Feldstein – director
BlackRock Financial Management Inc. past relationships:
Wesley R. Edens – partner & managing director
Robert I. Kauffman – principal
Randal A. Nardone – principal
People related to BlackRock Funds:
Stuart E. Eizenstat – trustee
People related to BlackRock HPB Management:
Howard P. Berkowitz – managing director
People related to BlackRock, Inc.:
William O. Albertini – director
Keith T. Anderson – vice chairman
Paul L. Audet – managing director & CFO
Mathis Cabiallavetta – director
Dan Charles Chamby – investment manager
Robert P. Connolly – managing director & general counsel
Dennis D. Dammerman – director
William S. Demchak – director
Robert C. Doll – vice chairman
Kenneth B. Dunn – director
Robert Fairbairn – vice chairman
Laurence D. Fink – chairman & CEO
Gregory J. Fleming – director
Murry S. Gerber – director
Bennett W. Golub – managing director
James Grosfeld – director
Charles S. Hallac – vice chairman
Robert S. Kapito – president
David H. Komansky – director
Deryck Maughan – director
Barbara G. Novick – vice chairman
Thomas H. O’Brien – director
Linda Gosden Robinson – director
James E. Rohr – director
John A. Thain – director
Susan L. Wagner – vice chairman
Paul K. Weidman – consultant
Other current BlackRock, Inc. relationships:
Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc. – part-owner
BlackRock, Inc. past relationships:
PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. – subsidiary
Ralph L. Schlosstein – president
People related to BlackRock Mutual Funds:
Robert M. Hernandez – chairman
Cynthia A. Montgomery – director
Business sector:
investment advice
BlackRock, Inc. financial information:
Securities and Exchange Commission filings

http://www.muckety.com/Query?name=blackrock&SearchResult=5041238&SearchResult=5005431&SearchResult=5005432&SearchResult=5005433&SearchResult=5014215&SearchResult=5000244&SearchResult=5020547&graph=MucketyMap

Blackstone Group, Blackstone Alternative Asset Management Group, Blackstone Real Estate Advisors
People related to Blackstone Alternative Asset Management Group:
Richard E. Salomon – advisory board chairman
People related to Blackstone Group:
David S. Blitzer – senior managing director
Michael S. Chae – senior managing director
Chinh E. Chu – senior managing director
Tim R. Coleman – banker
James Fields – senior managing director
David I. Foley – senior managing director
Robert L. Friedman – senior managing director
Jill A. Greenthal – senior adviser
J. Tomilson Hill – vice chairman
Reed E. Hundt – adviser
Paul C. Schorr IV – managing partner
Hamilton E. James – president
Matthew Kabaker – principal
Garnett L. Keith Jr. – investor
Thomas S. Middleton – senior managing director
M. Brian Mulroney – director
Laurence J. Nath – banker
Arthur B. Newman – investment banker
William S. Oglesby – senior managing director
Paul H. O’Neill – special adviser
William G. Parrett – director
Peter G. Peterson – chairman & co-founder
James A. Quella – senior managing director
Robert D. Reid – managing director
Stephen A. Schwarzman – chairman & CEO & co-founder
James K. Sebenius – VP
Neil P. Simpkins – senior managing director
Ron Sommer – international advisory board member
John J. Studzinski – senior managing director
David M. Tolley – principal
Other current Blackstone Group relationships:
American International Group, Inc. – helping in subsidiary sales
GSO Capital Partners – acquirer
Hilton Hotels Corporation – acquirer
Ogilvy Government Relations – lobby firm
Travelport –
Wolf Block Public Strategies LLC – lobby firm
Blackstone Group past relationships:
Roger C. Altman – partner
Erin Callan – led IPO
DaimlerChrysler AG – Chrysler Group – joint bidder
Jeffrey E. Garten – managing director
Glenn H. Hutchins – general partner
Charles H. Noski – senior adviser
Bret Pearlman – senior managing director
David A. Stockman – partner
People related to Blackstone Real Estate Advisors:
Jonathan D. Gray – senior managing director

http://www.muckety.com/Query?name=blackstone&SearchResult=5002531&SearchResult=5000245&SearchResult=5042671&graph=MucketyMap

2008 Bilderberg conference
People related to 2008 Bilderberg conference:
Josef Ackermann – participant
Fouad Ajami – participant
Keith B. Alexander – participant
Roger C. Altman – participant
Ben S. Bernanke – participant
Timothy C. Collins – participant
Chester A. Crocker – participant
Tom Daschle – participant
Thomas E. Donilon – participant
N. Murray Edwards – participant
Martha J. Farah – participant
Martin S. Feldstein – participant
Paul Gigot – participant
Donald E. Graham – participant
Richard C. Holbrooke – participant
Allan B. Hubbard – participant
Kenneth M. Jacobs – participant
James A. Johnson – participant
Charles P. Rose Jr. – participant
Harold E. Ford Jr. – participant
Henry M. Paulson Jr. – participant
Paul Desmarais Jr. – participant
Vernon E. Jordan Jr. – participant
Henry A. Kissinger – participant
Klaus Kleinfeld – participant
Henry R. Kravis – participant
Marie-Josee Kravis – participant
Jessica Tuchman Mathews – participant
William J. McDonough – participant
Craig J. Mundie – participant
Frank H. Pearl – participant
Richard N. Perle – participant
Condoleezza Rice – participant
David Rockefeller – participant
Dennis B. Ross – participant
Barnett R. Rubin – participant
Mark Sanford – participant
Eric E. Schmidt – participant
George P. Shultz – participant
Lawrence H. Summers – participant
Peter A. Thiel – participant
Sanam Vakil – participant
Jacob Wallenberg – participant
John Vincent Weber – participant
James D. Wolfensohn – participant
Paul Wolfowitz – participant

http://www.muckety.com/2008-Bilderberg-conference/5030330.muckety

THE BILDERBERG SECRET MEETING FOR 2004

For over 50 years now the wealthiest family in the world has called together the most influential people in the world for a secrete meeting.  Almost every year for 50 years now, the Bilderberg’s have not only gathered together into one place the other wealthiest people in the world and/or powerful people in politics, finance, business, newsmedia, or special interest groups, but they have also paid the entire bill for these meeting.  This bill is estimated to be in the millions of dollars for the travel, hotels, and meals.

The 50th anniversary conference of what is called the  Bilderberg group  was hosted at the Grand Hotel des Iles Borromees in Italy and ended Sunday, June 6, 2004.  By the way, at the same time that Bush was also in Italy visiting the Holy Father, whatever that means.

Since 1953, the Bilderberg group has convened these secret meeting of government, business, academic and journalistic representatives and claim that they are just social and to just get to know one another.  It is no secret that the Bilderberg’s promote a globalist agenda and believe that national sovereignty is antiquated and regressive.

You do not have to be a conspiracy theorist to see that this is the most influential organization on the planet. You can find web sites that talk about the Bilderberg’s being the founders of the Illuminate, worshipers of Satan, controllers of the leaders of the top 6 governments of the world, controllers of the World Bank, and the world monetary funds, etc.   But I would like to just look at the obvious and practical aspects of these meetings.

Up until the 16th Century most of the power of the world was in the hands of the Kings, Lords and the Church.  There were a few rich merchants but they were always in fear of the political power of the world who had the armies and could at any time confiscate all their money for any reason whatsoever, simply because they had the power of the armies.  Money was not power unless used to get more of the real power, the sword.

When some freedom to make money independent of the Monarchies and the Church came about with the advent of the industrial revolution and the new republics, these self made millionaires faced one problem.  Who could they protect their money from crazy governments who would just come and take it away from them?   This turned out to have some truth to it as in the case of Hitler.  This is also true regarding tax rates that in some countries tax the rich 75% and the poor at 15%.

At some point in history these self made millionaires got together to figure out how they could protect their money from  governments .  The simple answer is to use their money to put into power those who would not come after their money.  This does not seem unreasonable, since you and I use our money to put into power those who will protect our interests.

At some point, however, this can get out of hand, since power corrupts and when the most powerful people in the world put their thinking together in a secret meeting, they then control the world more surely than even the Emperor of the Roman Empire did.  In terms of politics it is said that they created the idea of a balance of power within nations so that no one country became so strong that it could take control away from them.  It is said that they even financed the overthrow of Russia by Lenin to get rid of the Monarchy and then the Monarchies of 22 other European countries from 1910 to 1922.  It is also claimed that they are the power behind the Masons, and every president of the United States for the last 150 years has been a mason except Ronald Reagon, who died last Saturday at the age of 93.  All of this is said on many web sites, simply by typing in the word  Bilderberg  on search programs.

Just common sense tells you that these multi-millionaires use money to make more money.  What would have been their problems years ago making them work together regarding the making of money.  Suppose one of them decided to buy a hundred million dollars of Euros to drive the Euro up and then to sell it when it was high, taking a huge profit in just a few hours or days.  His only worry is that another multi-millionaire would be selling at the same time causing him to loose money.   If the multi-millionaires worked against each other they would be fighting a money war, and this is not logical.  To avoid this the 20 most wealthy people in the world decided to meet in secrete each and every year to work together to make money.  When I say wealthy I mean so wealthy that they make Bill Gates look like a poor man.  Why then are they not listed as the most wealthy people in the world?  Because non of these 20 or maybe 22 people want anyone to know just how much wealth they have or where they have it.

Since most of these people live in England and have most of their money in Pounds, a question has to be asked.  Why is the pounds so strong against the Euro or the Dollar?  England is not a major economic power.  England does not have a large gross national product like America, Europe, China or even India.  What makes the Pound hold up so strong year after year.  Now consider that in these early meetings 50 years ago they agree to work together instead of working against each other.  If 10 or 20 of these people buy one stock or one section of the money market and drive the price up one percent in an hour and then sell one hour later (using buyers all over the world to hide the fact of only a few doing it) they could make hundreds of millions in a single hour and no risk at all.

Of course to control money and politics you must also control the press, but if you control only half the press, you control the thinking of most people in the world.  Then you might want to control the education systems, the science labs, the who knows what else, to do what?  Power and more power and so much power that you have no worries that some day someone else will have more power than you.  This is what makes this demonic even if the accusations of being Illuminate are not true.  Illuminate are the worshipers of Satan, the god of the material world, being one of two equal gods, one of the things we see and one of the things we do not see.  This is the thinking of the Iluminate who choose the god of the physical world.

Not a word of what is said at Bilderberg meetings can be breathed outside. No reporters are invited in and while confidential minutes of meetings are taken, names are not noted, conference venues are kept secret and the group does not even have a website.

There’s absolutely nothing in it,  argues the UK’s Lord Denis Healey, one of the four founders of Bilderberg.  We never sought to reach a consensus on the big issues at Bilderberg,  he told the BBC.  It’s simply a place for discussion.

But British journalist Jon Ronson, who is the author of a book on Bilderberg, had this to say:  I’m a sort of semi-conspiracy theorist when it comes to Bilderberg because I think they wouldn’t go to that much trouble of having this incredibly expensive international conference every year and they’d go to all this trouble to keep themselves out of the press and be really secret and invite the world’s most powerful people if it was just a chat and a game of golf, which is basically what they say it is. So I do think they have some impact on world affairs.

I leave it to your imagination what power these people have now over the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, The United Nations, The Federal Reserve Bank, the natural resources of countries like Brazil and Argentina (water, gas, electricity, etc.), and the laws being passed in these countries.  I leave it to your imagination because these are the people who were at this secret meeting in Italy this year.

Here is the partial guest list of the current meeting obtained by WorldNetDaily – which includes Senators John Edwards, D-N.C. and Jon Corzine, D-N.J., Henry Kissinger, Richard Perle, Melinda Gates (wife of Bill Gates), David Rockefeller, Timothy F. Geithner, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Donald Graham, chairman and CEO of the Washington Post Company, and even Ralph Reed, former head of the Christian Coalition: N – Auser, Svein – CEO, DnB NOR ASA; D – Ackermann, Josef – Chairman, Group Executive Committee, Deutsche Bank AG; I – Ambrosetti, Alfredo – Chairman, Abbrosetti Group; TR – Babacan, Ali – Minister of Economic Affairs; P – Balsemao, Francisco Pinto – Chairman and CEO, IMPRESA, SGPS, Former Prime Minister; ISR – Barnavie, Elie – Department of General History, Tel-Aviv University; I – Benedetti, Rodolfo De – CEO, CIR; I – Bernabe, Franco – Vice Chairman, Rothschild Europe; F – Beytout, Nicolas – Editor In Chief, Les Echos; INT – Bolkestein, Frits – Commissioner for the Internal Market, European Commission, former leader of Dutch right wing Liberal Party VVD; USA – Boot, Max – Neoconservative, Council on foreign Relations, Features Editor, Wall Street Journal; CH – Borel, Daniel – Chairman, Logitech International S.A.; I – Bortoli, Ferrucio de – CEO, RCS Libri; S – Brock, Gunnar – CEO, Atlas Copco AB; GB – Browne, John – Group Chief Executive, BP plc; NL – Burgmans, Antony – Chairman, Unilever NV; F – Camus, Phillipe – CEO, European Aeronautic Defence and Space NV; I – Caracciolo, Lucio – Director, Limes Geopolitical Review; F – Castries, Henri de – Chairman, AXA Insurance; E – Cebrian, Juan Luis – CEO, PRISA (Spanish language media company), former Chairman, International Press Institute; TR – Cemal, Hasan – Senior Columnist, Milliyet Newspaper; GB – Clarke, Kenneth – Member of Parliament (Con.), Deputy Chairman, British American Tobacco; USA – Collins, Timothy C – MD and CEO, Ripplewood Holdings LLC, Yale School of Management, Trilateral Commission; USA – Corzine, Jon S. – Senator (D, New Jersey), Chairman and CEO, Goldman Sachs; CH – Couchepin, Pascal – Former Swiss President, Head of Home affairs Dept.; GR – David, George A. – Chairman, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company SA; B – Dehaene, Jean-Luc – Former Prime Minister, Mayor of Vilvoorde; TR – Dervis, Kemal – Member of Parliament, former senior World bank official; GR – Diamantopoulou, Anna – Member of Parliament, former European Commissioner for Social Affairs; USA – Donilon, Thomas L – Vice-President, Fannie Mae, Council on Foreign Relations; I – Draghi, Mario – Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Goldman Sachs; USA – Edwards, John – Senator (D. North Carolina), Democratic Presidential Candidate; DK – Eldrup, Anders – Chairman, DONG gas company (becoming privatised) A/S; DK – Federspiel, Ulrik – Ambassador to the USA; USA – Feith, Douglas J. – Undersecretary for Policy, Department of Defense; I – Galateri, Gabriele – Chairman, Mediobanca; USA – Gates, Melinda F. – Co-Founder, Gates Foundation, wife of Bill Gates; USA – Geithner, Timothy F. – President, Federal Reserve Bank of New York; I – Giavazzi, Francesco – Professor of Economics, Bocconi University; adviser, world bank and European Central bank; IRL – Gleeson, Dermot – Chairman Allied Irish Bank Group (currently being investigated for personal and corporate tax evasion); USA – Graham, Donald E. – Chairman and CEO, Washington Post Company; USA – Haas, Richard N. – President, Council on Foreign Relations, former Director of Policy and Planning staff, State Department; NL – Halberstadt, Victor – Professor of Economics, Leiden University; B – Hansen, Jean-Pierre – Chairman, Suez Tractabel SA; S – Heikensten, Lars – Governor, Swedish Central Bank; USA – Holbrooke, Richard C – Vice Chairman, Perseus, former Director, Council on Foreign Relations, former Assistant Secretary of State; USA – Hubbard, Allen B – President E&A Industries; USA – Issacson, Walter – President and CEO, Aspen Institute; USA – Janow, Merit L. – Professor, International Economic Law and International Affairs, Columbia University; USA – Jordan, Vernon E. Senior Managing Director, Lazard Freres & Co LLC; USA – Kagan, Robert – Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; GB – Kerr, John – Director, Shell, Rio Tinto, Scottish American Investment Trust; USA – Kissinger Henry A. – Chairman, Kissinger Associates Inc.; TR – Koc, Mustafa V. – Chairman, Koc Holdings AS; NL – Koenders, Bert (AG) – Member of Parliament, president, Parliamentary Network of the World Bank; USA – Kovner, Bruce – Chairman Caxton Associates LLC, Chairman, American Enterprise Institute; USA – Kravis, Henry R. – Founding Partner, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co., acquisitions financier; USA – Kravis, Marie Josee – Senoir Fellow, Hudson Institute Inc.; FIN – Lehtomaki, Paula – Minister of Foreigh Trade and Development; FIN – Lipponen, Paavo – Speaker of Parliament; CHN – Long, Yongtu – Secretary General, Boao forum for Asia; P – Lopes, Pedro M. Santana – Mayor of Lisbon; USA – Luti, William J. – Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs; CDN – Lynch, Kevin G. – Deputy Minister, Department of Finance; USA – Mathews, Jessica T. – President, Carnegie Endowment for International War Peace; USA – McDonough, William J. – Chairman and CEO, Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, former president, Federal Reserve Bank of New York; CDN – McKenna, Frank – Counsel, McInnes Cooper, former premier of New Brunswick; I – Merlini, Cesare – Executive Vice Chairman, Council for the United States and Italy, Council on Foreign Relations, former director, Italian Institute for International Affairs; F – Montbrial, Thierry de – President, French Institute of International Relations; INT – Monti, Mario – Competition Commissioner, European Commission; USA – Mundie, Craig J. – Chief Technical Officer, Advanced Strategies and Policies, Microsoft Corporation; N – Myklebust, Egil – Chairman, Scandinavian Airline System (SAS); D – Naas, Matthias – Deputy Editor, Die Zeit; NL – Netherlands, HM Queen Beatrix; GB – Neville-Jones, Pauline – Chairman, QuinetiQ (UK privatized military research/services company), governor of the BBC, Chairman Information Assurance Advisory Council, formar Chairman Joint Intelligence Committee, former Managing Director NatWest Markets; USA – Nooyi, Indra K. – President and CEO, PepsiCo Inc.; PL – Olechowski, Andrzej – Leader, Civic Platform; FIN – Ollila, Jorma – Chairman, Nokia Corporation; INT – Padoa-Schioppa, Tommaso – Director, European Central Bank; CY – Pantelides, Leonidas – Ambassador to Greece; I – Passera, Corrado – CEO, Banca Intesa SpA; USA – Perle, Richard N. – Resident Fellow, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, former Likud policy adviser, former chair Defence Policy Board, former co-chairman, Hollinger Digital; B – Phillipe, HRH Prince; USA – Reed, Ralph E. – President, Century Strategies; CDN – Reisman, Heather – President and CEO, Indigo Books and Music Inc.; I – Riotta, Gianni – Editorialist, Corriere della Serra; USA – Rockefeller, David – Member JP Morgan International Council, Chairman, Council of the Americas; E – Riodriguez Inearte, Matias – Vice Chairman, Grupo Santander; USA – Ross, Dennis B – Director, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy; D – Sandschneider, Eberhard – Director, Research Institute, German Society for Foreign Policy; I – Scaroni, Paolo – CEO, Enel SpA; D – Schilly, Otto – Minister of the Interior; USA – Schnabel, Rockwell A. – Ambassador to the EU; A – Scholten, Rudolf – Director, Oesterreichische Kontrollbank AG; D – Schrempp, Jurgen E. – Chairman, DaimlerChrysler AG; E – Serra Rexach, Eduardo – Head, Real Institute Elcano; RUS – Shevtsova, Lilia – Senior Associate. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; PL – Sikora, Slawomir – President and CEO, Citibank Handlowy; I – Siniscalo, Domenico – Director General Ministry of the Economy; P – Socrates, Jose – Member of Parliament; USA – Strmecki, Marin J. – Smith Richardson Foundation; B – Struye de Swielande, Dominique – Permanant repressentative of Belguim, NATO; IRL – Sutherland, Peter D. – Chairman, Goldman Sachs International, Chairman, BP plc; USA – Thornton, John L. – Chairman, Brookings Institution, Professor, Tsinghua University; I – Tremonti, Giulio – Minister of Economy and Finance; INT – Trichet, Jean-Claude – President, European Central Bank; I – Tronchetti Provera, Marco – Chairman and CEO, Pirelli SpA; N – Underdal, Arild – Rector, University of Oslo; CH – Vasella, Daniel L. – Chairman and CEO, Novartis AG; NL – Veer, Jeroen van der – Chairman, Committee of Managing Directors, Royal Dutch/Shell; GB – Verwaayen, Ben J. M. – CEO, British Telecom; former director, Lucent Technologies; I – Visco, Ignazio – Foriegn Affairs Manager, Banca D’Italia; INT – Vitorino, Antonio M. – Justice and Home Affairs Commissioner, European Union; INT – Vries, Gijs M. de – EU Counter Terrorism Co-ordinator; S – Wallenberg, Jacob – Chairman, SEB investments (including biotech); Chairman, W Capital Management AB; D – Weber, Jurgen – Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Deutche Lufthansa AG; GB/USA – Weinberg, Peter – CEO, Goldman Sachs International; NL – Wijers, Hans – Chairman, AkzoNobel NV; D – Wissmann, Matthias – Member of Parliament; GB – Wolf, Martin H. – Associate Editor/Economic Commentator, The Financial Times; INT/USA – Wolfenson, James D. – President, The World Bank; RUS – Yavlinsky, Grigory A. – Member of Parliament; USA – Yergin, Daniel – Chairman, Cambridge Energy Research Associates; D – Zumwinkel, Llaus – Chairman, Deutche Post Worldnet AG.

http://www.unitypublishing.com/Newsletter/Bilderburg.htm
2004 List of participants

Bilderberg Group
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Bilderberg Group, Bilderberg conference, or Bilderberg Club is an unofficial annual invitation-only conference of around 130 guests, most of whom are persons of influence in the fields of business, media and politics.

The elite group meets annually at luxury hotels or resorts throughout the world — normally in Europe — and once every four years in the United States or Canada. It has an office in Leiden in the Netherlands.[1] The 2007 conference took place from May 31 to June 3 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Istanbul, Turkey.[2] The 2008 conference took place in Chantilly, Virginia, United States [3] .[4]
Contents

* 1 Origin and purpose
* 2 Attendees
* 3 Mainstream criticism
* 4 Conspiracy theories
* 5 Meetings
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links

Origin and purpose
Hotel de Bilderberg

The original Bilderberg conference was held at the Hotel de Bilderberg, near Arnhem in The Netherlands, from May 29 to May 31, 1954. The meeting was initiated by several people, including Joseph Retinger, concerned about the growth of anti-Americanism in Western Europe, who proposed an international conference at which leaders from European countries and the United States would be brought together with the aim of promoting understanding between the cultures of United States of America and Western Europe.[5]

Retinger approached Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, who agreed to promote the idea, together with Belgian Prime Minister Paul Van Zeeland, and the head of Unilever at that time, the Dutchman Paul Rijkens. Bernhard in turn contacted Walter Bedell Smith, then head of the CIA, who asked Eisenhower adviser C. D. Jackson to deal with the suggestion.[6] The guest list was to be drawn up by inviting two attendees from each nation, one each to represent conservative and liberal points of view.[7]

The success of the meeting led the organizers to arrange an annual conference. A permanent Steering Committee was established, with Retinger appointed as permanent secretary. As well as organizing the conference, the steering committee also maintained a register of attendee names and contact details, with the aim of creating an informal network of individuals who could call upon one another in a private capacity. Conferences were held in France, Germany, and Denmark over the following three years. In 1957, the first U.S. conference was held in St. Simons, Georgia, with $30,000 from the Ford Foundation. The foundation supplied additional funding of $48,000 in 1959, and $60,000 in 1963.[6]

Dutch economist Ernst van der Beugel took over as permanent secretary in 1960, upon the death of Retinger. Prince Bernhard continued to serve as the meeting’s chairman until 1976, the year of his involvement in the Lockheed affair. There was no conference that year, but meetings resumed in 1977 under Alec Douglas-Home, the former British Prime Minister. He was followed in turn by Walter Scheel, ex-President of West Germany, Eric Roll, former head of SG Warburg and Lord Carrington, former Secretary-General of NATO.[8]

Attendees

Main article: List of Bilderberg attendees

Attendees of Bilderberg include central bankers, defense experts, mass media press barons, government ministers, prime ministers, royalty, international financiers and political leaders from Europe and North America.

Some of the Western world’s leading financiers and foreign policy strategists attend Bilderberg. Donald Rumsfeld is an active Bilderberger, as is Peter Sutherland from Ireland, a former European Union commissioner and chairman of Goldman Sachs and of British Petroleum. Rumsfeld and Sutherland served together in 2000 on the board of the Swedish/Swiss engineering company ABB. Former U.S. Deputy Defense Secretary and former World Bank head Paul Wolfowitz is also a member. The group’s current chairman is Etienne Davignon, the Belgian businessman and politician.

Mainstream criticism

Critics claim the Bilderberg Group promotes the careers of politicians whose views are representative of the interests of multinational corporations, at the expense of democracy.[9] Journalists who have been invited to attend the Bilderberg Conference as observers have discounted these claims, calling the conference  not much different from a seminar or a conference organized by an upscale NGO [10] with  nothing different except for the influence of the participants. [11]

Conspiracy theories

The group’s secrecy and its connections to power elites encourages speculation and mistrust by groups or individuals that believe that the group is part of a conspiracy to create a New World Order. This is further encouraged by the frequent use of the term ‘New World Order’ by its members when referring to their ultimate goal of world integration. The group is frequently accused of secretive and nefarious world plots by groups such as the John Birch Society.[12] This thinking has progressively found acceptance within both elements of the populist movement and fringe politics. [13] According to investigative journalist Chip Berlet, the prominent origins of Bilderberger conspiracy theories can be traced to activist Phyllis Schlafly. [14]

Radio host Alex Jones claims the group intends to dissolve the sovereignty of the United States and other countries into a supra-national structure similar to the European Union. This accusation is also linked with others claiming plans for a merger of Canada with United States, hoping Canadian influence will be calming to American society and foreign policy. See the North American Union.

From  The Hunt for Red Menace:   The views on intractable godless communism expressed by [Fred] Schwarz were central themes in three other bestselling books which were used to mobilize support for the 1964 Goldwater campaign. The best known was Phyllis Schlafly’s A Choice, Not an Echo which suggested a conspiracy theory in which the Republican Party was secretly controlled by elitist intellectuals dominated by members of the Bilderberger group, whose policies would pave the way for global communist conquest. Schlafly’s husband Fred had been a lecturer at Schwartz’s local Christian anti-communism Crusade conferences.  [15]

Jonathan Duffy, writing in BBC News Online Magazine states  In the void created by such aloofness, an extraordinary conspiracy theory has grown up around the group that alleges the fate of the world is largely decided by Bilderberg. [16]

Denis Healey, a Bilderberg founder and former British Chancellor of the Exchequer, decries such theories. He was quoted by BBC News as saying  There’s absolutely nothing in it. We never sought to reach a consensus on the big issues at Bilderberg. It’s simply a place for discussion. [16]

Some popular media references to the group are in Fredrick Forsyth’s novel  The Icon  where the group decides to undermine a nationalist Russian leader loosely modeled on Vladimir Putin (among others).

Meetings

* 1954 (May 29-31) at the Hotel de Bilderberg in Oosterbeek, Netherlands
* 1955 (March 18-20) at the Hotellerie Du Bas-Breau in Barbizon, France
* 1955 (September 23-25) at the Grand Hotel Sonnenbichl in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany
* 1956 (May 11-13) at the Hotel Store Kro in Fredensborg, Denmark
* 1957 (February 15-17) at the King and Prince Hotel in St. Simons Island, Georgia, USA
* 1957 (October 4-6) at the Grand Hotel Palazzo della Fonte in Fiuggi, Italy
* 1958 (September 13-15) at the The Palace Hotel in Buxton, United Kingdom
* 1959 (September 18-20) at the Çinar Hotel in Yes,ilköy, Istanbul, Turkey
* 1960 (May 28-29) at the Palace Hotel in Bürgenstock, Nidwalden, Switzerland
* 1961 (April 21-23) at the Manoir St. Castin in Lac-Beauport, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
* 1962 (May 18-20) at the Grand Hotel Saltsjöbaden in Saltsjöbaden, Sweden
* 1963 (May 29-31) in Cannes, France
* 1964 (March 20-22) in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA
* 1965 (April 2-4) at the Villa d’Este in Cernobbio, Italy
* 1966 (March 25-27) at the Nassauer Hof Hotel Wiesbaden in Wiesbaden, West Germany
* 1967 (March 31-April 2) in Cambridge, United Kingdom
* 1968 (April 26-28) in Mont Tremblant, Quebec, Canada
* 1969 (May 9-11) at the Hotel Marienlyst in Helsingør, Denmark
* 1970 (April 17-19) at the Grand Hotel Quellenhof in Bad Ragaz, Switzerland
* 1971 (April 23-25) at the Woodstock Inn in Woodstock, Vermont, USA
* 1972 (April 21-23) at the La Reserve di Knokke-Heist in Knokke, Belgium
* 1973 (May 11-13) at the Grand Hotel Saltsjöbaden in Saltsjöbaden, Sweden
* 1974 (April 19-21) at the Hotel Mont d’Arbois in Megeve, France
* 1975 (April 22-24) at the Golden Dolphin Hotel in Çes,me, I.zmir, Turkey
* 1976 no conference. The 1976 Bilderberg conference was planned for April at The Homestead in Hot Springs, Virginia, USA. Due to the ongoing Lockheed scandal involving Prince Bernhard at the time, it had to be cancelled.
* 1977 (April 22-24) at the Paramount Imperial Hotel in Torquay, United Kingdom
* 1978 (April 21-23) at the Chauncey Conference Center in Princeton, New Jersey, United States
* 1979 (April 27-29) at the Grand Hotel Sauerhof in Baden bei Wien, Austria
* 1980 (April 18-20) at the Dorint Sofitel Quellenhof Aachen in Aachen, West Germany
* 1981 (May 15-17) at the Palace Hotel in Bürgenstock, Nidwalden, Switzerland
* 1982 (May 14-16) at the Rica Park Hotel Sandefjord in Sandefjord, Norway
* 1983 (May 13-15) at the Château Montebello in Montebello, Quebec, Canada[17]
* 1984 (May 11-13) at the Grand Hotel Saltsjöbaden in Saltsjöbaden, Sweden
* 1985 (May 10-12) at the Doral Arrowwood Hotel in Rye Brook, New York, United States
* 1986 (April 25-27) at the Gleneagles Hotel in Gleneagles, Auchterarder, United Kingdom
* 1987 (April 24-26) at the Villa d’Este in Cernobbio, Italy
* 1988 (June 3-5) at the Interalpen-Hotel Tyrol in Telfs-Buchen, Austria
* 1989 (May 12-14) at the Gran Hotel de La Toja in Isla de La Toja, Spain
* 1990 (May 11-13) at the Harrison Conference Center in Glen Cove, New York, United States
* 1991 (June 6-9) at the Steigenberger Badischer Hof Hotel, Schlosshotel Bühlerhöhe in Bühl (Baden) in Baden-Baden, Germany
* 1992 (May 21-24) at the Royal Club Evian Hotel, Ermitage Hotel in Évian-les-Bains, France
* 1993 (April 22-25) at the Nafsika Astir Palace Hotel in Vouliagmeni, Greece
* 1994 (June 2-5) at the Kalastajatorppa Hotel in Helsinki, Finland
* 1995 (June 8-11) at the Palace Hotel in Bürgenstock, Nidwalden, Switzerland
* 1996 (May 30-June 2) at the CIBC Leadership Centre aka The Kingbridge Centre in King City, Ontario, Canada
* 1997 (June 12-15) at the Pine Isle resort in Lake Lanier, Georgia, United States
* 1998 (May 14-17) at the Turnberry Hotel in Turnberry, United Kingdom
* 1999 (June 3-6) at the Caesar Park Hotel Penha Longa in Sintra, Portugal
* 2000 (June 1-4) at the Chateau Du Lac Hotel in Genval, Brussels, Belgium
* 2001 (May 24-27) at the Hotel Stenungsbaden in Stenungsund, Sweden
* 2002 (May 30-June 2) at the Westfields Marriott in Chantilly, Virginia, United States
* 2003 (May 15-18) at the Trianon Palace Hotel in Versailles, France
* 2004 (June 3-6) at the Grand Hotel des Iles Borromees in Stresa, Italy
* 2005 (May 5-8) at the Dorint Sofitel Seehotel Überfahrt in Rottach-Egern, Germany[18]
* 2006 (June 8-11) at the Brookstreet Hotel in Kanata, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada[19] See picture of meeting location at time of meeting.
* 2007 (May 31 – June 3) at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel,[2] in S,is,li, Istanbul, Turkey.[20]
* 2008 (June 5-8) at the Westfields Marriott in Chantilly, Virginia, United States[3]
[4]

See also

* Trilateral Commission
* Council on Foreign Relations

References

1. ^ The masters of the universe, Asia Times, May 22 2003, accessed on August 18 2007
2. ^ a b What was discussed at Bilderberg?, Turkish Daily News, June 5 2007, accessed on August 18 2007
3. ^ a b  Balkenende to Meet Bush in Washington . NIS News Bulletin (2008). Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
4. ^ a b  Bilderberg Announces 2008 Conference . BusinessWire (2008). Retrieved on 2008-06-07.
5. ^ Hatch, Alden (1962).  The Hôtel de Bilderberg , H.R.H.Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An authorized biography. London: Harrap. ISBN B0000CLLN4.
6. ^ a b Valerie Aubourg (June 2003). Organizing Atlanticism: the Bilderberg Group and the Atlantic Institute 1952-63.
7. ^ Hatch, Alden (1962).  The Hôtel de Bilderberg , H.R.H.Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An authorized biography. London: Harrap. ISBN B0000CLLN4.  The idea was to get two people from each country who would give the conservative and liberal slant
8. ^ Rockefeller, David (2002). Memoirs. Random House, p.412. ISBN 0-679-40588-7.
9. ^  Inside the secretive Bilderberg Group , BBC. Retrieved on 2008-03-26.
10. ^ Why are we scared of Bilderberg? – Turkish Daily News Jun 01, 2007
11. ^ What was discussed at Bilderberg? – Turkish Daily News Jun 05, 2007
12. ^ John Birch Society: “the Bilderberg” http://www.publiceye.org/rightwoo/rwooz9-04.html
13. ^ [RIGHT WOOS LEFT http://www.publiceye.org/rightwoo/rwooz9.html#P8_45
14. ^ Origins of the Bilderberger conspiracy http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Bilderberg
15. ^ Origins of the Bilderberger conspiracy http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Bilderberg
16. ^ a b Jonathan Duffy (2004-06-03).  Bilderberg: The ultimate conspiracy theory . BBC News.
17. ^ High-security fences surround resort town in preparation for summit, Edmonton Journal, August 18 2007, accessed on August 19 2007
18. ^  Asia Times Online :: Asian News, Business and Economy. . Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
19. ^ Panetta, Alexander (2006).  Secretive Bilderbergers meet . http://www.thestar.com. Toronto Star Newspapers Limited. Retrieved on 2006-06-12.
20. ^ Bilderberg 2007 – Towards a One World Empire?, Nexus Magazine, Volume 14, Number 5 (August – September 2007), accessed on August 18 2007

* Ronson, Jon (2001). THEM: Adventures with Extremists. London: Picador. ISBN 0-330-37546-6.
* Eringer, Robert (1980). The Global Manipulators. Bristol, England: Pentacle Books. ISBN 0906850046.

External links

Note: the Bilderberg Group does not have a website.[1]

*  Inside the secretive Bilderberg Group , BBC News (2005-09-29). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
*  Elite power brokers meet in secret , BBC News (2003-05-15). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.  BBC News 15 May 2003
* Robert Eringer writing about Bilderberg, Carroll Quigley
* Extract from the official Bilderberg report on the Fiuggi Conference 4-6 October 1957
* Paper by Sociology Professor (LMU) Mike Peters:  The Bilderberg Group and the Project for European Unification  from Lobster: The Journal of Parapolitics
* Free Press International: Bilderberg video and info
* Guardian article on the group – an excerpt from Jon Ronson’s book Them
* CTV.ca – Shadowy group meets amid secrecy in Ottawa
* Minutes from the 1999 Bilderberg meeting from SchNEWS website
* List of recent mainstream news articles and Bilderberg conspiracy gossip
* Historical information on the Bilderberg Group-mentions original location of 1976 meeting
* The world’s most powerful secret society – 1998 article from Punch magazine

v • d • e
Conspiracy theories
Core topics
Conspiracy (civil) A Conspiracy (crime) A Conspiracy (political) A Cabal A List of conspiracy theories A Conspiracy fiction A Conspiracy thriller
New World Order theories
Bilderberg Group A Bohemian Grove A Skull and Bones A Trilateral Commission A Freemasons A Illuminati A Black helicopters A ODESSA A The Protocols of the Elders of Zion A Judaeo-Masonic-Marxist plot A Eurabia A North American Union
False Flag theories
Sinking of the RMS Lusitania (1915) A Reichstag Fire (1933) A Operation Gladio A USS Liberty incident (1967) A Pan Am Flight 103 (1988) A Russian apartment bombing (1993) A World Trade Center bombing (1993) A Oklahoma City bombing (1995) A Port Arthur Massacre (1996) A TWA Flight 800 (1996)  A 9/11 conspiracy theories (2001) A Madrid Train Bombing (2004) A London Bombings (2005)
Assassination theories
Eric V of Denmark (1286) A Abraham Lincoln (1865) A Franz Ferdinand (1914) A Phar Lap (1932) A Marilyn Monroe (1962) A John F Kennedy (1963) A Malcolm X (1965) A Robert F Kennedy (1968) A Martin Luther King Jr. (1968) A Pope John Paul I (1978) A Yitzhak Rabin (1995) A Diana, Princess of Wales (1997) A David Kelly (2003) A Alexander Litvinenko (2006) A Benazir Bhutto (2007)
UFO theory
Alien Abduction A Roswell Incident (1947) A Mantell Incident (1948) A Area 51
Other theories
Soviet Space Program (1957-66) A Paul McCartney’s death (1966) A Apollo Moon Landing hoax (1969) A Elvis Presley’s survival (1977) A Mind Control A AIDS origins A AIDS reappraisal A CIA drug trafficking A New Coke (1985) A Waco Siege (1993) A SARS (2003) A Reptilian humanoid A Global Warming
Verified Conspiracies
Dreyfus affair (1894) A Gleiwitz incident (1939) A Watergate (1972) A Project MKULTRA (1975) A Operation Mockingbird A Operation Northwoods A Iran-Contra Affair
Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilderberg_Group
Categories: Conspiracy theories | International nongovernmental organizations | International business | Globalization | Secret societies | Bilderberg Group

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilderberg_Group

Verified Conspiracies
Dreyfus affair (1894) A Gleiwitz incident (1939) A Watergate (1972) A Project MKULTRA (1975) A Operation Mockingbird A Operation Northwoods A Iran-Contra Affair

To add on this list –
A new verified conspiracy –

That our US and Global economies are screwed and we the people, wherever we may live are also screwed because of some conspiring to profit at the expense of every last one of us.

And, it isn’t a little bubble, like we were told by nearly every expert that the news and government paraded in front of us.

And, it isn’t a market adjustment nor a little correction in the way it was explained last year or earlier this year or in fact, ever.

And, it isn’t going to be pretty.

– Cricket Diane C  Sparky  Phillips, 10-16-08, USA

Oh, and by the way – for all the meeting that has been done by our government and business leaders at the Bilderberg Conference, Trilateral Commission and Council on Foreign Relations, Economic Summits and others – it would seem they could’ve done a damn sight better job than this when economic disaster came.

***

Credit default swaps give a speculator a way to profit from changes in a company’s credit quality. A protection seller in a credit default swap effectively has an unfunded exposure to the underlying cash bond or reference entity, with a value equal to the notional amount of the CDS contract.

For example, if a company has been having problems, it may be possible to buy the company’s outstanding debt (usually bonds) at a discounted price. If the company has $1 million worth of bonds outstanding, it might be possible to buy the debt for $900,000 from another party if that party is concerned that the company will not repay its debt. If the company does in fact repay the debt, you would receive the entire $1 million and make a profit of $100,000. Alternatively, one could enter into a credit default swap with the other investor, by selling credit protection and receiving a premium of $100,000. If the company does not default, one would make a profit of $100,000 without having invested anything.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_default_swap

***

Now, that is the stuff of truly twisted thinking conspiring to make money from nothing.

So, we know that the credit default swaps are a load of bull.

And, we know there is a real problem in our economies around the world, especially in the US.

And, we know that we were lied to about it.

And, we know government statistics that would indicate the problem were manipulated intentionally.

And, we know there are hundreds of billions of dollars that have been made by doing things as they were done in stock markets, in banking, in investments, in governments, in personal fortunes.

So, what happens when five people go in a grocery store to rob it?

That grocery story didn’t get up and rob itself – did it?  Or get itself robbed – now, did it?

Didn’t those five people conspire to go steal from that grocery store? Didn’t they intend to profit and advantage themselves at the cost of everyone else?

How is it any different when they’ve stolen the entire  grocery store  of our economy blind and torn up what they didn’t steal while they were doing it?

It looks pretty intentional, to me.

And, no – I don’t think a bunch of jerks with short-sighted goals of advantage and benefit for themselves were capable of instituting nor instigating this huge far-reaching crisis when they met together anywhere.

I think that they were wining and dining, seeking personal advantages, came to the talks and table to gain personal advantages and benefits, served themselves a good time, made friends and virtually ignored any of the valuable and helpful information that was made available to them there.

– cricketdiane

posted on wordpress – 10-16-08 – 5:10 a.m.ET-US

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