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As the Vienna Declaration and Programme of
Action of June 1993 states, democracy, development,
and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
are interdependent and mutually reinforcing.
The sufficient development of human rights and
democratic foundations is directly tied to the creation
of a peaceful and prosperous society and therefore to
the peace and security of international society.
In the UN, the importance of the area of human
rights was reconfirmed at the World Summit held in
September 2005 as part of a movement towards the
mainstreaming of human rights. In March 2006, the
General Assembly decided to establish the Human
Rights Council in replacement of the Commission on
Human Rights as a subsidiary organ of the General
Assembly. The Human Rights Council consists of 47
member states, and Japan is serving as a member of
the Council until May of 2008, having been selected
in the elections held in May 2006.
In the realm of promoting democracy, Japan contributed
US$10 million to the United Nations
Democracy Fund (UNDEF) in March 2007, insofar as
it would promote Japan’s diplomatic policy of emphasizing
fundamental values. In addition, Representative
of the Government of Japan Tatsuo Arima attended
the Community of Democracies Fourth Ministerial
Conference in Mali in November, stating that based
on Japan’s experiences, democracy is critical for
engendering peace and prosperity. He introduced
Japan’s efforts to support democracy that respect the
ownership of the recipient countries.
Japan will strengthen its diplomacy in a comprehensive
manner for enhancing human rights and
democracy through the development of human rights
and democratic foundations by means of development
assistance. It will do this by establishing mutual
linkages between its efforts related to human rights
and democracy in the multilateral fora, such as in the
UN, and in bilateral efforts, conducted through


The establishment of the “rule of law” in the
international community brings stability to relations
between nations and is extremely important for the
peaceful settlement of conflicts. As part of its diplomatic
policy, Japan emphasizes the promotion of the
rule of law in the international community and has
been actively engaged in various efforts for this end.
The prevalence of the rule of law in the internation25
Japan’s Foreign Policy in Major Diplomatic Fields CHAPTER 3
al community contributes to effective coordination
and smooth negotiations with other countries.

[ . . .]

actively to the codification of international law in various
international fora, such as the International Law
Commission (ILC), which has a Japanese member,
and is playing a major role in the creation of global
rules across a broad range of fields. More specifically,
Japan is proactively engaged in the World Trade
Organization (WTO) Doha Round negotiations in the
field of economy as well as the establishment of a
framework beyond 2012 to address the climate
change issue.
As for the aspect of peaceful settlement of disputes,
Japan has long valued the role of international
judicial institutions such as the International Court of
Justice (ICJ) and has strongly supported the activities
of these bodies, including through contribution of
human resources. Japan is also making efforts toward
active utilization of international tribunals in its diplomacy,
such as its applications at the International
Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) in July for
the prompt release of Japanese fishing vessels seized
by Russia. Japan invited Judge Rosalyn Higgins, the
President of the ICJ, in April and Judge Rüdiger
Wolfrum, the President of the ITLOS in November,
and through the exchanges with members of the
Japanese Diet and eminent persons, aimed to deepen
understanding both in Japan and in the international
community of the roles of these judicial organs as
well as Japan’s efforts in this policy area. Japan
became a member of the International Criminal Court
(ICC) in October, and a Japanese candidate was elected
as a judge shortly after. Work on a review of the
Rome Statute of the ICC is under progress, and in the
future it is expected that Japan will make further contributions
through this work to the development of
international criminal and humanitarian law.
In addition, Japan continues to strengthen its support
for the development and improvement of legal
systems in developing countries.


Since the establishment of the International
Cooperation Bureau of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
in August 2006, the government of Japan has worked
to reinforce the strategic nature of its international
cooperation and enhance the effectiveness of its
implementation under a new framework.
Specifically, the International Cooperation
Planning Headquarters within the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs now sets forth policies for extending
assistance for each region, sector, or issue, in keeping
with basic strategies of overseas economic cooperation
deliberated by the Overseas Economic
Cooperation Council under the chairmanship of the
Prime Minister, and taking into account directions of
an overall diplomatic policy. In 2007 the
Headquarters formulated for the first time a set of
“Priority Policy and Regional Priority Issues for
International Cooperation.” This set out the following
five areas as priorities in promoting international
cooperation: (i) to address environmental issues and
climate change (utilizing economic cooperation
towards the establishment of a framework beyond
2012 based on “Cool Earth 50”); (ii) to realize economic
growth in developing countries and economic
prosperity in Japan (improving the trade and investment
climate, promoting economic partnerships,
securing natural resources and energy); (iii) to consolidate
democracy and assist market-oriented economic
reforms within the context of Japan’s expanding
diplomatic horizons, placing emphasis on universal
values (assisting in legal and judicial system
development frameworks, supporting human
resource development, placing an emphasis on
human rights, etc.); (iv) peacebuilding and the fight
against terrorism; and (v) ensuring human security
(contributing to the achievement of the Millennium
Development Goals, etc.). In addition, the Advisory
Council on International Cooperation was launched in
March in order to reflect into public policy the views
of well-informed persons having depth of knowledge
about international cooperation.


3. Efforts to Enhance Prosperity in Japan and the International Community

In 2007, the global economy saw a growing presence
of China, India, Russia and other emerging
economies amidst an expansion in trade and investment
as globalization advances. It also experienced a
greater uncertainty due to the turmoil in the financial
markets stemming from the sub-prime mortgage loan
problem in the US and drastic increase in crude oil
price. As for the Japanese economy, the corporate
sector enjoyed a sustained economic growth as the
economy continued to rebound, but it is necessary to
pay due attention to risk factors in the trends of the
global economy. Under these circumstances, Japan
has developed comprehensive policies to promote the
sustainable growth both for the Japanese and the
global economies, by setting up the pillars of the following
major issues.

Economic Security

Japan is dependent on imports for not only fundamental
resources and products for a stable economy
and society such as crude oil, natural gas, coal, and
other energy resources, mineral resources, fishery
resources, and agricultural products, but also many
other resources. Moreover, the price of crude oil that
had hovered between US$10 and US$30 throughout
the 1990s, began a continuous sharp climb in around

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