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What strikes me most about this – is the seemingly infinitesimal scale of the nuclear changes that are occurring which yield radioactive decay that is so dangerous and the massive scale of the materials containing it – in contaminated water such at Fukushima right now and in spent fuel rods, containment ponds holding them and sitting at nuclear waste and containment facilities. It is hard to conceive both those things at all, let alone to realize the on-going and long term impacts of them.

In considering solutions, they must be both massive in their application, do-able and work simultaneously at both extremes of the scale to be effective. The things that make these materials radioactive are occurring at such a minute level and yet the mass of materials are mind-boggling in their entirety.

- cricketdiane

I had read this article – although there are a number of them lately with more and more insistent calls for help from a greater community to render solutions -

Fukushima operator pleads for international help as radiation crisis deepens

Published time: August 22, 2013 22:21

http://rt.com/news/fukushima-international-iaea-leak-866/

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The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) hosts one of the world’s largest collections of information on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

https://twitter.com/INISsecretariat

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Obviously Boron is used as a way to control radioactive decay so I looked it up first.

Did a search on google for boron nuclear neutralization -

Checked these -

Dairy Farmers Fight Radiation with Boron

June 14, 2011

An open letter from organic dairy farmers in Hawaii explains how to reduce radiation in milk and vegetables (etc.)

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/06/14/dairy-farmers-fight-radiation-with-boron.aspx

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This one has quite and interesting list including the sources of these approaches -

Nuclear Waste Neutralization Technologies

The text of Porringa’s brief descriptions of nine alternative, peer-reviewed techniques as candidates for the global clean-up of nuclear waste is copied below. (in the article at the link below) -

http://newparadigmdigest.com/5723/nuclear-waste-neutralization-technologies/

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Nuclear Experts: One century before Japan tries to deal with Fukushima’s melted cores? — “More likely what’s left of reactors will be left in situ for 100 years or more” (VIDEO)

Published: August 15th, 2013 at 7:27 am ET
By

Beyond the Cloud’ Yanaoshi 3.11, June 3, 2013 – French nuclear engineer Gérard Aleton (at 3:30 in): When a nuclear power plant is built [...] workers can access all building parts, including the tank — But dismantling is another story. […] There’s no longer a conventional access to those parts of the building. No human can enter those tanks and radioactive areas. (etc.)

http://enenews.com/nuclear-experts-one-century-before-japan-deals-with-fukushimas-melted-cores-more-likely-whats-left-of-reactors-will-be-left-in-situ-for-100-years-or-more-video

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Although a site for a water treatment company – some interesting basic info about boron – and about boron’s solubility in water, where it is found, etc.

http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/boron/boron-and-water.htm

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This has a little about the types of boron used in nuclear plants to control the reactions – (from a company specializing in those compounds) -

http://www.ceradyne.com/uploads/Brochures/NuclrPPChem_ENGCH~f.pdf

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A list of items to be reported to the IAEA – interesting -

http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/SV/Invo/annex3/annex3_e.pdf

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Extraction of Boron -

Branched Polymeric Media: Boron-Chelating Resins from
Hyperbranched Polyethylenimine

http://www.wag.caltech.edu/publications/sup/pdf/990.pdf

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America’s ongoing problem with nuclear waste materials cleanup and containment -

Hanford Nuclear Waste Cleanup Plant May Be Too Dangerous

Safety issues make plans to clean up a mess left over from the construction of the U.S. nuclear arsenal uncertain

May 9, 2013, Scientific American

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=hanford-nuclear-cleanup-problems

(Definitely read all three pages of that one and the comments – amazing and insightful.)

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Chapter 16 Nuclear Reactor Chemistry

http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ch374/ch418518/Chapter%2016%20Nuclear%20Reactor%20Chemistry.pdf

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A little heady – but great to read anyway -

Best reference list to get a better grasp on the subject too – will probably go look up some of those -

Hidden and Intermediate states of Nucleons

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Hidden%20and%20intermediate%20states%20of%20nucleons.pdf

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That was among several that came from here which are very interesting on the subject of containment, possible options for the fouled up radioactive mess including Fukushima et al. -

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/

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That list contained this written material from the link below it – the explanation is sort of basic and after reading a bit of it – went to wikipedia to look up radio-nuclides to see some of the half-life spans of these elements -

Alpha Particle Radioactivity Decay
An alpha particle is an ionized helium nucleus. It consists of two neutrons and two protons bound together. The measured electric charge is 9.58 x 10-10 esu (electrostatic units) or about twice the basic electronic charge. The mass is that of the helium nucleus which is 4.003 amu (atomic mass units).
Examples of alpha particle radioactivity decay are given in Table 1-1.
Alpha decays occur naturally in the uranium, actinium, and thorium radioactivity decay series. The decay process can be described by using the Bohr-like model that was used above to describe neutron and proton particle decay. Here the alpha decay process is assumed to be triggered by decay of one of the neutrons in the parent atom to produce a proton the can cause electrostatic ejection of the alpha particle from the atom. (pg.10)

http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Radioactivity%20physics.pdf

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Radionuclide (wikipedia)

A radionuclide, or a radioactive nuclide, is an atom with an unstable nucleus, characterized by excess energy available to be imparted either to a newly created radiation particle within the nucleus or via internal conversion.

During this process, the radionuclide is said to undergo radioactive decay, resulting in the emission of gamma ray(s) and/or subatomic particles such as alpha or beta particles.[1]

These emissions constitute ionizing radiation. Radionuclides occur naturally, or can be produced artificially.

Radionuclides are often referred to by chemists and physicists as radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes.

Isotope Activity Half-life Radiation types Energies (KeV)
Caesium-137 3256 TBq/Kg (88 Ci/g) 30.1 years Gamma & beta G: 32, 661.6 B: 511.6, 1173.2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radionuclide

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Just because it is interesting -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novouralsk

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There was an article about the re-manufacture of nuclear waste into a more stable and manageable material from India and its engineering geniuses but I will have to check my other computer for it or find it again.

That, and thinking about the coconut trees on the Pacific Islands where the nuclear tests were done that literally were found to have taken these radioactive materials from the soil and sand and rainwater, then processed them through their plant chemistry to have cleaned them from the soil. The isotopes were found in the coconut milk however. But, it lends the question – what, in that plant allowed it to do that? Hkmmm…

Just thinking about it.

There look to be a lot of technologies which suggest answers and some research done already on the question of getting this nuclear waste contained and something done with it to make it safe, but all of those things suggested and researched can’t be done on the massive scale that accidents like Fukushima require. 300 tons of contaminated radioactive water going out of a leak – is a massive lot especially if it is happening to that volume each day – no matter where it goes. The sea can’t process that in our lifetimes – can it? The ground and rivers can’t – can they? It looks like any technological answer would require a much bigger test than any lab could offer before even being used on the actual event despite the fact that it is currently continuing to unfold much to everyone’s detriment.

Hmmm – needs a better answer.

I was just wandering through some info about it tonight and thought to post it here. – cricketdiane

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I’m adding this to check later at the library – found by google search for – wolfram radioactive decay

Table of Radioactive Isotopes

Edgardo Browne

A convenient source of radiation data which incorporates the changes dictated by present-day science and computer technology, presented with a high degree of uniformity, completeness, and consistency in both the data and appendices. Includes tables of adopted properties for all radiations emitted by nuclei, which were derived from experimental data plus reliable calculations, along with adopted properties based on statistical analyses of existing experimental data alone. Other derived adopted properties (e.g. average photon energies per disintegration) are calculated when strong user demand is anticipated. Over 260 drawings accompany the text.