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Today, I’m working on how to cool air, move air for cooling and condition air without using traditional expensive air conditioning systems or how to use the traditional systems with non-traditional alternative energy systems to power them.

The first thing was to lookup on google using these terms -

New York poor impoverished fans heat air conditioners

which yielded this among the entries returned –

http://greenlivingideas.com/topics/alternative-energy/ny-winds-power-world-100-times

And it says this in the entry –

Scientists have discovered that New York City is a “prime location for exploiting high-altitude winds.”  In fact, a recent study by the Carnegie Institution and California State University found that globally, high-altitude winds like those over New York City could together meet the current energy needs of the world “100 times over”.  After studying 28 years of data, the scientists found the “highest wind power densities over Japan and eastern China, the eastern coast of the United States, southern Australia, and north-eastern Africa,” according to Cristina Archer, of the California State University, Chico.

(etc.)

Well, it actually returned the same website with something about Cairo and the use of recycled elements to act as solar water heaters and stuff, then I clicked on a link for the above entry. That was last night, the very last thing I did before getting off the computer and going to bed, after speaking with my daughter in New York taking care of herself and my grandbaby without any fan or air conditioner in the middle of a heat alert weather thing.

Then today, I made a google search first thing for –

non-electric air conditioning cooling airfan

which yielded this among the entries –

http://www.absak.com/library/non-electric-appliances

And it says these things in its text – with a lot of interesting links over on the right-hand side –

Alternative energy power systems can be designed to fulfill a great number of functions, from interior and exterior lighting or dedicated water pumping to whole-house power systems. However, there are some household power needs that are simply not well suited to alternative energy power. The largest electric power loads in most households are the hot water heater, refrigerators and freezers, electric clothing dryers and ovens, and air conditioning. In general, anything that heats or freezes using electric power is not an efficient addition to an alternative energy system.

(and)

Cooling Without Air Conditioning

While air conditioning isn’t as common in Alaska as it is in many southern climates, some homes and many RVs use traditional air conditioning systems. One energy efficient alternative to traditional air conditioning is an evaporative cooling system, often called a “swamp cooler.” Evaporative coolers are an excellent option for interior cooling in dry climates.

A swamp cooler works by drawing air in through a vented surface of the cooler box, where it flows through a water saturated pad and is blown into the household or RV ventilation system. The heat in the air is used to evaporate water in the cooling pad, leaving the air much cooler and slightly more humid than when it entered the cooler. Swamp coolers are so much more efficient than traditional air conditioning because the only electrical draw in the cooling system is the circulating fan and a small circulating pump. They also avoid the environmental hazards of freon.

Swamp coolers are available not only in household sizes, but also in portable 12 volt DC models ideal for cooling an RV cab while driving, or a sleeping area at night. However, a swamp cooler will be completely ineffective in a humid climate. If the incoming air is already saturated with humidity, no evaporation will occur, and warm wet air will be blown into the living area. Also, if the moisture in the cooling pads cannot evaporate, the pads themselves will begin to develop an unpleasant odor, which will also be blown into the living area.

Of course the simplest way to cool without using an air conditioning system is to use window fans during hot summer months. When combined with exterior window shades, simply maintaining good air circulation through the house or RV can make a major difference in comfort level.

(etc.)

It continues with a discussion of each high-energy-draw appliance including heating, refrigerators/freezers, clothes dryers, gas stoves and energy efficient appliances generally.
- my note


Wait, I saw something else last night before I went to bed and closed up my computer about when and how air conditioners were created and invented in the first place. Let me find that. I thought that every city had programs to make fans and small air conditioners available to people who could not afford them, but maybe New York doesn’t do that, especially with the trillions of dollars in real estate there and Wall Street financial services. With that much money floating through the city, there probably is nothing but attitude, rather than kindness and mercy for people not eating $500 meals.

- cricketdiane

***

It was this one from last night –

http://www.amazines.com/Air_Conditioner_related.html

with this –

An air conditioner (often referred to as AC) is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle. In construction, a complete system of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning is referred to as “HVAC“. Its purpose, in a building or an automobile, is to provide comfort during either hot or cold weather.

In 1758, Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley, professor of chemistry at Cambridge University, conducted an experiment to explore the principle of evaporation as a means to rapidly cool an object.

Franklin and Hadley confirmed that evaporation of highly volatile liquids such as alcohol and ether could be used to drive down the temperature of an object past the freezing point of water. They conducted their experiment with the bulb of a mercury thermometer as their object and with a bellows used to “quicken” the evaporation; they lowered the temperature of the thermometer bulb to 7&_160;°F (-14&_160;°C) while the ambient temperature was 65&_160;°F (18&_160;°C). Franklin noted that soon after they passed the freezing point of water (32°F) a thin film of ice formed on the surface of the thermometer’s bulb and that the ice mass was about a quarter inch thick when they stopped the experiment upon reaching 7&_160;°F (-14&_160;°C). Franklin concluded, “From this experiment, one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer’s day”.[1]

In 1820, British scientist and inventor Michael Faraday discovered that compressing and liquefying ammonia could chill air when the liquefied ammonia was allowed to evaporate.

In 1842, Florida physician John Gorrie used compressor technology to create ice, which he used to cool air for his patients in his hospital in Apalachicola, Florida.[2]

He hoped eventually to use his ice-making machine to regulate the temperature of buildings. He even envisioned centralized air conditioning that could cool entire cities. Though his prototype leaked and performed irregularly, Gorrie was granted a patent in 1851 for his ice-making machine.

His hopes for its success vanished soon afterward when his chief financial backer died; Gorrie did not get the money he needed to develop the machine. According to his biographer Vivian M. Sherlock, he blamed the “Ice King”, Frederic Tudor, for his failure, suspecting that Tudor had launched a smear campaign against his invention.

Dr. Gorrie died impoverished in 1855 and the idea of air conditioning faded away for 50 years.

Early commercial applications of air conditioning were manufactured to cool air for industrial processing rather than personal comfort. In 1902 the first modern electrical air conditioning was invented by Willis Haviland Carrier in Syracuse, New York. Designed to improve manufacturing process control in a printing plant, his invention controlled not only temperature but also humidity.

The low heat and humidity were to help maintain consistent paper dimensions and ink alignment. Later Carrier’s technology was applied to increase productivity in the workplace, and The Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America was formed to meet rising demand.

Over time air conditioning came to be used to improve comfort in homes and automobiles. Residential sales expanded dramatically in the 1950s.

http://www.amazines.com/Air_Conditioner_related.html

***

And on page two of the air conditioning entry it has these two (which appear to be the same more or less, but they are interesting – )

http://www.amazines.com/Air_Conditioner_related.html?catid=0&page=2&returnto=&searchStr=Air%20Conditioner&searchby=kw

Now you can stay cool with your own misting system in hot summers. Mist system are inexpensive than air conditioner. It also saves electricity because outdoor misting system runs with the help of garden hose. The main advantage of outdoor cooling system is that they cool your garden up to 22 degrees in summer. The patio misting system has two models: • In first model a pump is needed to pressurize and sends the water from pipes and water is sprayed from the nozzle which is evaporated in the air. The finer the water sprays from the nozzle, the coolness will spread faster on your patio. Th… (read more)

Mist cooling system helps you in reducing the heat on a hot day. Mist system is also recognized as fogging systems. Mist cooling cools the place in few minutes. There are many different ways to bring down the heat – misting fans, shade structure, patio misting system, pool cabana, shade sails and umbrellas. Misting fans : The mist fan creates moisture in the dry air which results in coolness. Portable misting fans are easy to carry around. The water misting fans literally sprinkles water which is evaporated in the air. Water misters’ fan is cheaper than the air conditioner and is easy to c… (read more)

***

And something was mentioned about an inverter air conditioner in some of the entries from China on the website above – so I’m looking it up now –

using google with the terms –

inverter air conditioner

http://www.google.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=inverter+air+conditioner

  1. Inverter (air conditioning) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The inverter tag found on some air conditioners signifies the ability of the unit to continuously regulate its thermal transfer flow by altering the speed
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverter_(air_conditioning)CachedSimilar

  2. What is an Inverter Air Conditioner?

    Oct 14, 2008 What Is An Inverter Ducted Air conditioning System? You have probably had sales people come into your home and start recommending Inverter
    ezinearticles.com/?What-is-an-Inverter-Air-Conditioner?&…CachedSimilar

***

The inverter tag found on some air conditioners signifies the ability of the unit to continuously regulate its thermal transfer flow by altering the speed of the compressor in response to cooling demand.

Traditional reverse-cycle air conditioners use a Compressor that is either working at maximum capacity or switched off in order to regulate the temperature of the room. A thermostat is used to measure the ambient air temperature and switch the compressor on when the ambient air temperature is too far from the desired temperature.

An alternate way to meet the varying cooling demand is to have the ability to vary the capacity of the compressor or as its technically called “Modulate” the capacity. An air conditioner compressor has two components, a mechanical part – the actual compressor and the electrical part – the motor to drive the compressor. Either of the components can be used to “modulate” the capacity. In Digital Scroll compressors – the mechanical Scrolls of the compression mechanism is controlled to “modulate” and the electric motor runs at constant speed. The other method is to control the speed of the compressors by various means.

Air conditioners bearing the inverter tag use a variable-frequency drive to control the speed of the motor and thus the compressor. The variable-frequency drive uses a rectifier to convert the incoming AC current to DC and then uses pulse-width modulation of the DC current within an inverter to produce AC current of a desired frequency. The AC current is used to drive a brushless motor or an induction motor. As the speed of a brushless motor is synchronized to the frequency of the AC current, it is thus possible to build a compressor that can be run at different speeds. Similarly, the voltage and frequency can be varied as needed to run an induction motor at different speeds. A microcontroller can then sample the current ambient air temperature and adjust the speed of the compressor appropriately. All this electronics of course does add to the complexity and comes at a cost, significant being the conversion losses from AC to DC and then back to AC which can be as high as 4 – 6 % for each conversion step.

(from)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverter_%28air_conditioning%29

***

My Note -

I’ve noticed that there are heat waves and the problems associated with high temperatures across the country, not only in New York, but Atlanta as well and certainly out in the Gulf Coast areas where cleanup is being done and in the overseas war theaters of Afghanistan and elsewhere. There seems to be a need for personal cooling systems that could be used on a person outdoors and inside cooling systems that are less expensive and could use alternative energy choices.

Hmmmm……

There was an Australian neck bandana that provided cooling – what was that called? And, there are some clothing options which protect from the heat that I’ve seen used in desert races and for people who are allergic to the sunshine.

But that still doesn’t answer the basic question about home and sleeping environments, especially those who can’t afford hundreds of dollars to buy a traditional air conditioner – nor have the money to fund running it once they have it.

Back a few hundred years ago, there were systems built into homes and rooms that supported cooling which are no longer in use. These included high ceilings that took the hot air upside into the room, leaving the cooler air near the floor living areas and tall windows commonly across several walls where a cross-flow of air could be constructed simply by opening the right windows.

Because I live on a top floor apartment/condo, and have an attic access – in the summertime, not only do I have the sun coming in to heat the living space – I can also open the attic stairs and allow the heat to move upside into the attic space, leaving the cool air down place in the living areas.

I haven’t seen my daughter’s living space, but I’m guessing she has one or two front windows on one side and nothing else to remedy the air temperature. The other thing I’ve noted is that we all have severe air pollution coming from our cities and cars that infiltrate every system including air conditioning filters that are used in the systems now.

To put hepa filters and finer filters on these systems, forces the compressor to struggle and hinders the air flow while still allowing much of the very fine material and submicron materials to move through the system and nearly all chemicals coming from the outside or inside environment to move freely through the system unabated.

The same thing is happening with many of the face mask respirator systems in use out in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere for protection from chemicals and chemical fumes. These hinder the air flow and force the heart and lungs to pump harder to receive the air that is available going through the filters.

It needs a group of very serious solutions that work. And homes, businesses, community facilities and commercial buildings no longer built to passively cool the occupants, not made for air flow, not built for comfort in and of themselves to help the systems added for air cooling, heating and safe high quality breathable air – need to be updated to accommodate these things.

- cricketdiane

hmmmmm…….

***

At the bottom of the wikipedia entry listed above for inverter air conditioner – I clicked on the bottom category link –

cooling technology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Cooling_technology

And also I wanted to find the UV protective, cooling clothing catalog I have sitting around this house somewhere ( my apartment / condo / house – same thing). But, what was it called? Hmmmm……

I think it was this –

Solaray UV protective clothing

So I’m putting that into the search window on my browser, what will it get? Although, I’m not entirely sure that was the name –

it yields this –

okay – no

I’m taking “solaray” off the search term and using this –

UV protective clothing

That was it – over on the paid group sidebar – Solumbra

http://www.sunprecautions.com/shop.asp

http://imaginecolorservice.ipaperus.com/SunPre/SunPrecautions/

Yes, that is the real deal – I don’t know what the others are . . .

It uses the words –

sun precautions

That would explain why I wasn’t finding it (and using the wrong name – which must be from something else.) –

Akos Konya – recommendation says (on its first page) -

“This was the first year I competed in the Badwater Ultramarathon, and I’m proud to say, I finished second. I think Solumbra played a big part in that. I wore it during the 135-mile race that starts in Death Valley where temperatures can approach 130(degrees) — hot enough to melt the soles of your shoes. Solumbra kept me comfortable and sun protected the whole time. At first I wasn’t sure about running clothed head-to-foot, but now think it’s the only way to go.”

This page offers choices based on activity – but I didn’t see the cooling bandana – the other things are right, though – especially those for extreme heat.

Ultra Ventilated Active Wear
Designed for extreme sport or heat, each garment works like a non-stop fan—scooping in air through carefully engineered mesh panels.

(and)

Ventilated Active Wear
Designed for improved comfort in summer heat and humidity and during sport or strenuous activity.

(from)
http://www.sunprecautions.com/shop_activity.asp

***

I noticed something on the page of the wikipedia entry category –

cooling technology

this one –

[+] Coolants (4 C, 33 P)
so I’m going there next – then I’ll try to look up the bandana thing

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Coolants

[×] Refrigerants (56 P)
[+] Sodium (2 C, 10 P, 1 F)
Hmmmm…..

Coolant

Antifreeze

Carbon dioxide

Cutting fluid

Dry ice

Nitrogen

Slush hydrogen

Purified water

Fusible alloy

Field’s metal

Fluorinert

(and others)

***

okay so – which one?

this one first -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coolant

A coolant is a fluid which flows through a device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. An ideal coolant has high thermal capacity, low viscosity, is low-cost, non-toxic, and chemically inert, neither causing nor promoting corrosion of the cooling system. Some applications also require the coolant to be an electrical insulator.

While the term coolant is commonly used in automotive, residential and commercial temperature-control applications, in industrial processing, heat transfer fluid is one technical term more often used, in high temperature as well as low temperature manufacturing applications[1].

The coolant can either keep its phase and stay liquid or gaseous, or can undergo a phase change, with the latent heat adding to the cooling efficiency. The latter, when used to achieve low temperatures, is more commonly known as refrigerant.

***

(also)

Gases

Air is a common form of a coolant. Air cooling uses either convective airflow (passive cooling), or a forced circulation using fans.

Hydrogen is used as a high-performance gaseous coolant. Its thermal conductivity is higher than of all gases, it has high specific heat capacity, and low density and therefore low viscosity, which is an advantage for rotary machines susceptible to windage losses. Hydrogen-cooled turbogenerators are currently the most common electrical generators in large power plants.

Inert gases are frequently used as coolants in gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Helium is the most favored coolant due to its low tendency to absorb neutrons and become radioactive. Nitrogen and carbon dioxide are frequently used as well.

Sulfur hexafluoride is used for cooling and insulating of some high-voltage power systems (circuit breakers, switches, some transformers, etc.).

Steam can be used where high specific heat capacity is required in gaseous form and the corrosive properties of hot water are accounted for.

Liquids

The most common coolant is water. Its high heat capacity and low cost makes it a suitable heat-transfer medium. It is usually used with additives, like corrosion inhibitors and antifreezes. Antifreeze, a solution of a suitable organic chemical (most often ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, or propylene glycol) in water, is used when the water-based coolant has to withstand temperatures below 0 °C, or when its boiling point has to be raised. Betaine is a similar coolant, with the exception that it is made from pure plant juice, and is therefore not toxic or difficult to dispose of ecologically.[2]

Very pure deionized water, due to its relatively low electrical conductivity, is used to cool some electrical equipment, often high-power transmitters and high-power vacuum tubes.

Heavy water is used in some nuclear reactors; it also serves as a neutron moderator.

Polyalkylene Glycol or PAG’s are used as high temperature, thermally stable heat transfer fluids exhibiting strong resistance to oxidation. Modern PAG’s can also be non-toxic and non-hazardous.[3]

Cutting fluid is a coolant that also serves as a lubricant for metal-shaping machine tools.

Oils are used for applications where water is unsuitable. With higher boiling points than water, oils can be raised to considerably higher temperatures (above 100 degrees Celsius) without introducing high pressures within the container or loop system in question[4].

  • Mineral oils serve as both coolants and lubricants in many mechanical gears. Castor oil is also used. Due to their high boiling points, mineral oils are used in portable electric radiator-style space heaters in residential applications, and in closed-loop systems for industrial process heating and cooling.
  • Silicone oils are favored for their wide range of operating temperatures. However their high cost limits their applications.
  • Fluorocarbon oils are used for the same reasons.
  • Transformer oil is used for cooling and additional electric insulation of high-power electric transformers.

Fuels are frequently used as coolants for engines. A cold fuel flows over some parts of the engine, absorbing its waste heat and being preheated before combustion. Kerosene and other jet fuels frequently serve in this role in aviation engines.

Freons were frequently used for immersive cooling of e.g. electronics.

Refrigerants are coolants used for reaching low temperatures by undergoing phase change between liquid and gas. Halomethanes were frequently used, most often R-12 and R-22, but due to environmental concerns are being phased out, often with liquified propane or other haloalkanes like R-134a. Anhydrous ammonia is frequently used in large commercial systems, and sulfur dioxide was used in early mechanical refrigerators. Carbon dioxide (R-744) is used as a working fluid in climate control systems for cars, residential air conditioning, commercial refrigeration, and vending machines.

Heat pipes are a special application of refrigerants.

Molten metals and salts

Liquid fusible alloys can be used as coolants in applications where high temperature stability is required, e.g. some fast breeder nuclear reactors. Sodium or sodium-potassium alloy NaK are frequently used; in special cases lithium can be employed. Another liquid metal used as a coolant is lead, in e.g. lead cooled fast reactors, or a lead-bismuth alloy. Some early fast neutron reactors used mercury.

For very high temperature applications, e.g. molten salt reactors or very high temperature reactors, molten salts can be used as coolants. One of the possible combinations is the mix of sodium fluoride and sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaF-NaBF4). Other choices are FLiBe and FLiNaK.

Liquid gases

Liquified gases are used as coolants for cryogenic applications, including cryo-electron microscopy, overclocking of computer processors, applications using superconductors, or extremely sensitive sensors and very low-noise amplifiers.

Liquid nitrogen, which boils at about -196 °C (77K), is the most common and least expensive coolant in use. Liquid air is used to a lesser extent, due to its liquid oxygen content which makes it prone to cause fire or explosions when in contact with combustible materials (see oxyliquits).

Lower temperatures can be reached using liquified neon which boils at about -246 °C. The lowest temperatures, used for the most powerful superconducting magnets, are reached using liquid helium.

Liquid hydrogen at -250 to -265 °C can also be used as a coolant. In the Reaction Engines Scimitar and the Reaction Engines SABRE hypersonic aircraft engines liquid hydrogen is used as a coolant in the precooler to cool down the air in the intake. At Mach 5, the intake can reach as high as 1000 °C so a precooler is needed to avoid melting of the engine parts. Liquid hydrogen is also used both as a fuel and as a coolant to cool nozzles and combustion chambers of rocket engines.

Nanofluids

An emerging and new class of coolants are nanofluids which comprise of a carrier liquid, such as water, dispersed with tiny nano-scale particles known as nanoparticles. Purpose-designed nanoparticles of e.g. CuO, alumina, titanium dioxide, carbon nanotubes, silica, or metals (e.g. copper, or silver nanorods) dispersed into the carrier liquid the enhances the heat transfer capabilities of the resulting coolant compared to the carrier liquid alone.[5] The enhancement can be theoretically as high as 350%. The experiments however did not prove so high thermal conductivity improvements, but found significant increase of the critical heat flux of the coolants.[6]

Some significant improvements are achievable; e.g. silver nanorods of 55±12 nm diameter and 12.8 µm average length at 0.5 vol.% increased the thermal conductivity of water by 68%, and 0.5 vol.% of silver nanorods increased thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol based coolant by 98%.[7]

Alumina nanoparticles at 0.1% can increase the critical heat flux of water by as much as 70%; the particles form rough porous surface on the cooled object, which encourages formation of new bubbles, and their hydrophilic nature then helps pushing them away, hindering the formation of the steam layer.[8]

Solids

In some applications, solid materials are used as coolants. The materials require high energy to vaporize; this energy is then carried away by the vaporized gases. This approach is common in spaceflight, for ablative atmospheric reentry shields and for cooling of rocket engine nozzles. The same approach is also used for fire protection of structures, where ablative coating is applied.

Dry ice and water ice can be also used as coolants, when in direct contact with the structure being cooled.

Sublimation of water ice was used for cooling the space suits of astronauts in the Project Apollo.

External links

References

(from)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coolant

***

R744 - CO2 cooling system diagram - from R744 company website

R744 - CO2 cooling system diagram - from R744 company website

(from)

http://www.r744.com/products.types.php?Id=2

Evaporator

Accumulator

Expansion Devices

Internal Heat Exchanger

Sealings

Compressor

Sensors

Valves

Fluid Transport

Gas Cooler

Leak Detectors

Service Station

All Components
There are 105 components in the system.

http://www.r744.com/products.components.php

ooh toys – wowsa

***

My Note –

Stopped a little while to hear President Obama and President Medvedev speak which was historic and absolutely wonderful. Now, let’s see how that goes at the G-20 this weekend as finalizing touches are added with the other participants.

- cricketdiane

***

I’m putting in a google search for this – (and maybe for personal cooling devices to see what is there) –

cooling clothes clothing bandana

Also this one – and I looked up the wikipedia entry for sun protective clothing to see what it has -

http://greenlivingideas.com/topics/alternative-energy/glittersized-solar-panels-100-times-silicon-generates-electricity

As a preschool teacher, glitter is part of my world. These tiny, shiny flecks are loved by little children, yet are detested for the problem their tiny size makes clean-up. Solar energy used to have the opposite problem: the large size of photovoltaic panels needed to produce energy was considered prohibitive for many applications.  Such concerns are no longer, as scientists have successfully developed “tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic cells that could revolutionize the way solar energy is collected and used.”

Photo by Mykl RoventineImagine glitter-sized solar panels!Imagine glitter-sized solar panels!

Developed at Sandia National Laboratories in Washington, DC, researchers believe the glitter solar panels could be applied to our clothing and accessories.

The tiny cells could turn a person into a walking solar battery charger if they were fastened to flexible substrates molded around unusual shapes, such as clothing…

Sandia lead investigator Greg Nielson said the research team has identified more than 20 benefits of scale for its microphotovoltaic cells. These include new applications, improved performance, potential for reduced costs and higher efficiencies.

“Eventually units could be mass-produced and wrapped around unusual shapes for building-integrated solar, tents and maybe even clothing,” he said. This would make it possible for hunters, hikers or military personnel in the field to recharge batteries for phones, cameras and other electronic devices as they walk or rest.

Although I am not sure I want solar panels in my clothing, no matter what the size, it is exciting to think of the versatile applications of this tiny sized PV cell.

Another exciting development regarding these glitter-sized solar cells is that they use “100 times less silicon” to generate the same amount of electricity as conventional cells.  Silicon shortages have long been a concern of the solar industry, but relief is in site.  The Christian Science Monitor explains:

Quartz, the raw material for solar panels, is one of the most abundant minerals on earth. But for years, the solar industry has faced a bottleneck in processing quartz into polysilicon, a principal material used in most solar panels. The problem stalled a steady decline in prices for solar panels.

Now the silicon shortage may be coming to an end, predict some solar analysts, thanks to new factories coming online.

If true, the price for solar panel modules could start falling by as much as a third by 2010, says Travis Bradford, president of the Prometheus Institute for Sustainable Development in Cambridge, Mass. That’s good news for an industry that remains one of the most expensive power sources.

Although this shortage has eased up in recent years, using less silicon to generate the same amount of energy is a positive move from a conservation viewpoint.  All that glitters may not be gold, but it may produce energy from the sun!

(from)

http://greenlivingideas.com/topics/alternative-energy/glittersized-solar-panels-100-times-silicon-generates-electricity

***

and this one -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_protective_clothing

Sun protective clothing is clothing specifically designed for sun protection and is produced from a fabric rated for its level of ultraviolet (UV) protection. A novel weave structure and denier (related to thread count per inch) may produce sun protective properties. In addition, some textiles and fabrics employed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacity.

Not only limited to UV-inhibiting textile use, sun protective clothing may also adhere to specific design parameters – including styling appropriate to full coverage of the skin most susceptible to UV damage. Long sleeves, full collars, and full-length trousers and skirts are common styles for clothing as a sun protective measure.

A number of fabrics and textiles in common use today need no further UV-blocking enhancement based on their inherent fiber structure, density of weave, and dye components – especially darker colors and indigo dyes. Good examples of these fabrics contain full percentages and/or blends of heavy weight natural fibers like cotton, linen and hemp or light-weight synthetics such as polyester, nylon, lycra and polypropylene. Natural or synthetic indigo dyed denim, twill weaves and canvas are also good examples. However, a significant disadvantage is the heat retention caused by heavier weight and darker colored fabrics.

As sun protective clothing is usually meant to be worn during warm and humid temperatures, some UV-blocking textiles and clothing may be designed with ventilated weaves, moisture wicking and antibacterial properties to assist in cooling and breathability.

History

Sun protective clothing was originally popularized (but not exclusively used) in Australia as an option or adjunct to sunscreen lotions and sunblock creams. Sun protective clothing and UV protective fabrics in Australia now follow a lab-testing procedure regulated by a federal agency: ARPANSA. This standard was established in 1996 after work by Australian swimwear companies. The British standard was established in 1998. The NRPB (National Radiological Protection Board) forms the basis of the British Standards Institute standard. Using the Australian method as a model, the USA standard was formally established in 2001, and now employs a more stringent testing protocol: This method includes fabric longevity, abrasion/wear and washability. (To date, the focus for sun protection is swimwear, appropriate hats, shade devices and sunglasses for children.) UPF testing is now very widely used on clothing used for outdoor activities.

The original UPF rating system was enhanced in the United States by the ASTM (American Standards and Testing Methods) Committee D13:65 at the behest of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to qualify and standardize the emerging sun protective clothing and textile industry. The UPF rating system may eventually be adopted by interested apparel and domestic textile/fabric manufacturers in the industry at large as a “value added” program strategic to complement consumer safety and consumer awareness.

Fabric

Factors that affect the level of sun protection provided by a fabric, in approximate order of importance, include weave, color, weight, stretch, and wetness. In addition, UV absorbers may be added at various points in the manufacturing process to enhance UV protection levels.

There is some indication that washing fabrics in detergents containing fabric brighteners, which absorb UV radiation, might increase their protective capability. Studies at the University of Alberta also suggest that darker colored fabrics can offer more protection than lighter colored fabrics.[1]

UPF rating

A relatively new rating designation for sun protective textiles and clothing is UPF (Ultraviolet Protection Factor). Unlike SPF (Sun Protection Factor) that measures only UVB, UPF measures both UVA and UVB.

Developed in 1998 by Committee RA106, the testing standard for sun protective fabrics in the United States is the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Test Method 183. This method is based on the original guidelines established in Australia in 1994.

Summary UPF Testing Protocol

AATCC 183 method defines the UPF rating for a fabric/textile as the ratio of UV measured without the protection of the fabric (compared to) with protection of the fabric. For example, a fabric rated UPF 30 means that if 30 units of UV fall on the fabric only 1 unit will pass through. A UPF 30 fabric that blocks or absorbs 29 out of 30 units of UV is therefore blocking 96.7% UV. UPF tests are normally conducted in a laboratory with a spectrophotometer or a spectroradiometer.

AATCC 183 should be used in conjunction with other related standards including American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 6544 and ASTM D 6603. ASTM D 6544 specifies simulating the life cycle of a fabric so that a UPF test can be done at the end of a fabric’s life cycle – which is when most fabrics provide the most reduced level of UV protection. ASTM D 6603 is a consumer format recommended for visible hangtag and care labelling of sun protective clothing and textiles. A manufacturer may publish a test result to a maximum of UPF 50+.

While there is some correlation between the amount of visible light that passes through a fabric and the amount of UV that passes the same fabric, it is not a strong relationship. Based on some of the new-technology fibers and textiles designed for the sole purpose of UV blocking, it is not always possible to gain a good understanding of the UV protection level of a fabric simply by holding it up and examining how much visible light passes through the fabric.

Sun protective clothing and textile/fabric manufacturers are currently a self-regulating industry in North America, prescribed by the AATCC and ASTM methods of testing.

***

and the google search on -

cooling clothes clothing bandana

I clicked over to this one to see what it is –

http://www.constructiongear.com/summer-gear.html

And then clicked on this in the middle of the page –

Stay cool on those hot summer days with Miracool heat relief products. Miracool products are ideal for construction workers or for anyone out in the heat. Whether your in the sun or working indoors, MiraCool helps you keep your cool.

What is all the hype about MiraCool products? Find out at our Construction Gear Guru Blog.

which goes to this page (blog) that explains their product lines – very nifty -

Beat the Heat with MiraCool

February 24, 2009 by Krystal Lane

How do you keep cool at work during the warm months? Carry water, take a few breaks, or keep a hand held fan around? Those are great ideas, but there is an additional method of staying cool at work. Personal cooling products by MiraCool.

MiraCool Reversible Hat

What are MiraCool products? They are a line of water-activated cooling accessories that can be worn anywhere – work, play, indoors or out. Encased within each stay cool product are super-absorbent polymer crystals. The crystals work by soaking them in water then remaining plump and hydrated for up two full days. MiraCool products work by the crystals retain the coolness of the water and work in combination with the evaporation process against the skin to keep you cool and comfortable.

MiraCool Hard Hat

I am telling all of you MiraCool products are amazing! The selection of products offered includes cooling bandanas, hats, cooling vests, hard hat pads. All stay cool gear contains super-absorbent polymer crystals for fast cooling. MiraCool products are so easy to use without the need for refrigeration or ice. To make the product cold, simply place it in cold water for 10-20 minutes and off you go.

Not only are MiraCool products are perfect for work, but for every activity in your life. They go everywhere you go that is hot including hanging out at the beach, playing sports, and doing yard work. Check out the complete selection of MiraCool products. Beat the heat and stay cool!

Posted in Construction Gear Guru Blog | Tagged , | 2 Comments

(from)

http://geargurublog.com/2009/02/24/beat-the-heat-with-miracool/

http://www.constructiongear.com/summer-gear.html

Miracool Bandanas

List price: $2.99
Our price: $2.95

When heat stress takes its toll on workers it not only affects their overall productivity, it affects their overall safety as well. This bandana incorporates MiraCool crystals which are securely encased inside the bandana. The crystals can hold up to 1000 times their weight in cool refreshing water. Simply soak in cold water for 10-20 minutes and these neck/body refreshing items will provide relief from the heat. Will stay hydrated for several days.

***

Alrighty then – try another one -

Tuff Rhino – have some of the miracool bandanas and let me see what else -

http://www.tuffrhino.com/Cooling_Apparel_and_Products_s/43.htm

Here’s something interesting from the military cooling apparel page -

Techniche Phase Change Cooling Military Helmet Insert

Retail Price $19.99

Tuffrhino Price $16.49

The Techniche Phase Change Cooling Military Helmet Insert provides simple and effective heat stress relief. The reusable attachment affixes directly to underside of helmet. The Phase Change Cooling Insert maintains a comfortable 58 degress Farenheit.

(and this one)

Army Vest – Techniche Evaporative & Phase Change Cooling Military Vest

Retail Price $213.99

Tuffrhino Price $176.99

This uniquely designed cooling vest uses a combination of evaporative cooling material with our specially designed Military Phase Change Cooling Inserts for maximum cooling time. Designed to work with the Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest (OTV), the unique “Buddy Swap” design provides for easy changing of inserts in the field. The hybrid cooling solution offers ultimate relief: Evaporative Cooling fabric provides 5 – 10 hours of cooling relief per soaking and the Phase Change Cooling Inserts maintain a comfortable 58 degree Farenheit (14 degree C) for up to three hours. With 10,000’s of units in operational use it is a proven tool of the US Military. Available in M, L, XL, 2XL and includes one set of Phase Change Cooling Military Vest Inserts. Military Vest Insert Sets Product code HS3047.

I found these under this title link -

Military Cooling Apparel

Next, I’m trying this one –

Cool Zone Tech
You are here: Home > Stuff to Keep You Cool > Cool Zone Tech

Choose a sub category:

Aluminized High Temp Vest

Hat Coolers


Provests

Ritetemp

Sport Seats

Value Vests

Vehicle Seats

Gain The Advantage! The original patented controlled – temperature technology originally designed for Black Hawk helicopter pilots.TECHNOLOGY

Originally designed for Black Hawk Helicopter Pilots, Cool Zones amazing controlled temperature technology keeps you cool and outperforms the competition in fit, form and function.

Cool Zone is The original and patented controlled – temperature phase change technology.

Tested and used by Law Enforcement, the Military, Fire and Rescue and Indutrial Work Sites all over the world.

Cool Zones proprietary formula cooling packs offer:

  • Controlled temperature up tp 4 hours
  • Recharge in minutes in a refrigerator, freezer, cooler or air-conditioned room
  • Maintains normal body temperatures
  • Effective cooling in temperatures of up to 130 degrees and 95 percent humidity
  • Exceptional blunt-force impact protection
  • Years of reuse
  • High strength puncture reistance
  • 3-year limited warranty

(from)
http://www.tuffrhino.com/Cool_Zone_Tech_s/784.htm

***

okey dokey – maybe better than frozen peas stuck under a shirt – but hmmmm…..

there must be some other choices besides clothing and heavy vests with little pouches in them of polymer crystals – although 58 degrees for three hours, not bad. Doesn’t look like anyone could sleep in it though and not very appropriate for little bitty kids under a year old. Maybe as a seat liner for a car chair possibly.

Going back to the google search for –

cooling clothes clothing bandana

This one is interesting –

http://www.safetyrescuegear.com/Heat_Stress_Clothing_Heat_Stress_Clothing_s/412.htm

Our patented Air Cooling Vest may be connected to any clean compressed air source and worn under protective clothing. It weighs only 11/2 lbs. Is durable and breathable. One size fits 130-225 lbs. Air Consumption: 5-15 cfm at 100 psi.

The air vest is designed to afford cooling to personnel in circumstances where air conditioning is not feasible. The vest connects to any existing clean compressed air source. The patented engineered jets cool the air, keeping the wearer continuously doused with refrigerated air. The airflow enhances the body’s natural evaporative cooling. The airflow additionally keeps the grit, dust and fibers out, while keeping the wearer dry.

CONSTRUCTION:
• Durable and rugged construction
• Breathable nylon material.
• Nylon belt keeps vest secure.
• Plastic buckle.
• Standard ¼” Snap Tite quick-disconnect coupler.
• Can be worn under protective clothing
• Standard size can fit body weight 130-250 lbs.
• Lightweight ( 1.5lbs)

PERFORMANCE:
• Vest will consume 5.5 CFM @ 60psi
(depending on use)
• Exchanges air seven times a minute
• Quiet operation
• Recommended for environments up to 120° F

ACCESSORIES:
P/N: 8400-50 50 foot air source hose
P/N: 8400-100 100 foot air source hose

Our Price: USD  $265.00

http://www.safetyrescuegear.com/Cooling_Vest_Cooling_Vest_cooling_vests_p/8400.htm

***

This one (above) is nifty – but it is a “bring your own air compressor” system. Still, it is pretty nifty and rated for environments up to 120 degrees. And, its pricey too. Might as well buy an air conditioner and carry it around, although that wouldn’t look like a beige vest with its little black belt. hmmm…….

***

I think it would be good to look up –

heat exchanger

and do a google search for -

personal cooling systems

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=personal+cooling+systems&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=

***

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exchanger

A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact.[1] They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).

There are two primary classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrangement. In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends. The counter current design is most efficient, in that it can transfer the most heat from the heat (transfer) medium. See countercurrent exchange. In a cross-flow heat exchanger, the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.

For efficiency, heat exchangers are designed to maximize the surface area of the wall between the two fluids, while minimizing resistance to fluid flow through the exchanger. The exchanger’s performance can also be affected by the addition of fins or corrugations in one or both directions, which increase surface area and may channel fluid flow or induce turbulence.

The driving temperature across the heat transfer surface varies with position, but an appropriate mean temperature can be defined. In most simple systems this is the log mean temperature difference (LMTD). Sometimes direct knowledge of the LMTD is not available and the NTU method is used.

Types of heat exchangers

Shell and tube heat exchanger

A Shell and Tube heat exchanger

Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc. Shell and Tube heat exchangers are typically used for high pressure applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260°C).[2] This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape.
There are several thermal design features that are to be taken into account when designing the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers. These include:

  • Tube diameter: Using a small tube diameter makes the heat exchanger both economical and compact. However, it is more likely for the heat exchanger to foul up faster and the small size makes mechanical cleaning of the fouling difficult. To prevail over the fouling and cleaning problems, larger tube diameters can be used. Thus to determine the tube diameter, the available space, cost and the fouling nature of the fluids must be considered.
  • Tube thickness: The thickness of the wall of the tubes is usually determined to ensure:
    • There is enough room for corrosion
    • That flow-induced vibration has resistance
    • Axial strength
    • Availability of spare parts
    • Hoop strength (to withstand internal tube pressure)
    • Buckling strength (to withstand overpressure in the shell)
  • Tube length: heat exchangers are usually cheaper when they have a smaller shell diameter and a long tube length. Thus, typically there is an aim to make the heat exchanger as long as physically possible whilst not exceeding production capabilities. However, there are many limitations for this, including the space available at the site where it is going to be used and the need to ensure that there are tubes available in lengths that are twice the required length (so that the tubes can be withdrawn and replaced). Also, it has to be remembered that long, thin tubes are difficult to take out and replace.
  • Tube pitch: when designing the tubes, it is practical to ensure that the tube pitch (i.e., the centre-centre distance of adjoining tubes) is not less than 1.25 times the tubes’ outside diameter. A larger tube pitch leads to a larger overall shell diameter which leads to a more expensive heat exchanger.
  • Tube corrugation: this type of tubes, mainly used for the inner tubes, increases the turbulence of the fluids and the effect is very important in the heat transfer giving a better performance.
  • Tube Layout: refers to how tubes are positioned within the shell. There are four main types of tube layout, which are, triangular (30°), rotated triangular (60°), square (90°) and rotated square (45°). The triangular patterns are employed to give greater heat transfer as they force the fluid to flow in a more turbulent fashion around the piping. Square patterns are employed where high fouling is experienced and cleaning is more regular.
  • Baffle Design: baffles are used in shell and tube heat exchangers to direct fluid across the tube bundle. They run perpendicularly to the shell and hold the bundle, preventing the tubes from sagging over a long length. They can also prevent the tubes from vibrating. The most common type of baffle is the segmental baffle. The semicircular segmental baffles are oriented at 180 degrees to the adjacent baffles forcing the fluid to flow upward and downwards between the tube bundle. Baffle spacing is of large thermodynamic concern when designing shell and tube heat exchangers. Baffles must be spaced with consideration for the conversion of pressure drop and heat transfer. For thermo economic optimization it is suggested that the baffles be spaced no closer than 20% of the shell’s inner diameter. Having baffles spaced too closely causes a greater pressure drop because of flow redirection. Consequently having the baffles spaced too far apart means that there may be cooler spots in the corners between baffles. It is also important to ensure the baffles are spaced close enough that the tubes do not sag. The other main type of baffle is the disc and donut baffle which consists of two concentric baffles, the outer wider baffle looks like a donut, whilst the inner baffle is shaped as a disk. This type of baffle forces the fluid to pass around each side of the disk then through the donut baffle generating a different type of fluid flow.

Conceptual diagram of a plate and frame heat exchanger.

A single plate heat exchanger

Plate heat exchanger

Main article: Plate heat exchanger

Another type of heat exchanger is the plate heat exchanger. One is composed of multiple, thin, slightly-separated plates that have very large surface areas and fluid flow passages for heat transfer. This stacked-plate arrangement can be more effective, in a given space, than the shell and tube heat exchanger. Advances in gasket and brazing technology have made the plate-type heat exchanger increasingly practical. In HVAC applications, large heat exchangers of this type are called plate-and-frame; when used in open loops, these heat exchangers are normally of the gasketed type to allow periodic disassembly, cleaning, and inspection. There are many types of permanently-bonded plate heat exchangers, such as dip-brazed and vacuum-brazed plate varieties, and they are often specified for closed-loop applications such as refrigeration. Plate heat exchangers also differ in the types of plates that are used, and in the configurations of those plates. Some plates may be stamped with “chevron” or other patterns, where others may have machined fins and/or grooves.

Adiabatic wheel heat exchanger

A fourth type of heat exchanger uses an intermediate fluid or solid store to hold heat, which is then moved to the other side of the heat exchanger to be released. Two examples of this are adiabatic wheels, which consist of a large wheel with fine threads rotating through the hot and cold fluids, and fluid heat exchangers.

Plate fin heat exchanger

This type of heat exchanger uses “sandwiched” passages containing fins to increase the effectivity of the unit. The designs include crossflow and counterflow coupled with various fin configurations such as straight fins, offset fins and wavy fins.

Plate and fin heat exchangers are usually made of aluminium alloys which provide higher heat transfer efficiency. The material enables the system to operate at a lower temperature and reduce the weight of the equipment. Plate and fin heat exchangers are mostly used for low temperature services such as natural gas, helium and oxygen liquefaction plants, air separation plants and transport industries such as motor and aircraft engines.

Advantages of plate and fin heat exchangers:

  • High heat transfer efficiency especially in gas treatment
  • Larger heat transfer area
  • Approximately 5 times lighter in weight than that of shell and tube heat exchanger
  • Able to withstand high pressure

Disadvantages of plate and fin heat exchangers:

  • Might cause clogging as the pathways are very narrow
  • Difficult to clean the pathways

Fluid heat exchangers

This is a heat exchanger with a gas passing upwards through a shower of fluid (often water), and the fluid is then taken elsewhere before being cooled. This is commonly used for cooling gases whilst also removing certain impurities, thus solving two problems at once. It is widely used in espresso machines as an energy-saving method of cooling super-heated water to be used in the extraction of espresso.

Waste heat recovery units

A Waste Heat Recovery Unit (WHRU) is a heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream while transferring it to a working medium, typically water or oils. The hot gas stream can be the exhaust gas from a gas turbine or a diesel engine or a waste gas from industry or refinery.

Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger

Another type of heat exchanger is called “(dynamic) scraped surface heat exchanger“. This is mainly used for heating or cooling with high-viscosity products, crystallization processes, evaporation and high-fouling applications. Long running times are achieved due to the continuous scraping of the surface, thus avoiding fouling and achieving a sustainable heat transfer rate during the process.

The formula used for this will be Q=A*U*LMTD, whereby Q= heat transfer rate.

Phase-change heat exchangers

Typical kettle reboiler used for industrial distillation towers

Typical water-cooled surface condenser

In addition to heating up or cooling down fluids in just a single phase, heat exchangers can be used either to heat a liquid to evaporate (or boil) it or used as condensers to cool a vapor and condense it to a liquid. In chemical plants and refineries, reboilers used to heat incoming feed for distillation towers are often heat exchangers.[3][4]

Distillation set-ups typically use condensers to condense distillate vapors back into liquid.

Power plants which have steam-driven turbines commonly use heat exchangers to boil water into steam. Heat exchangers or similar units for producing steam from water are often called boilers or steam generators.

In the nuclear power plants called pressurized water reactors, special large heat exchangers which pass heat from the primary (reactor plant) system to the secondary (steam plant) system, producing steam from water in the process, are called steam generators. All fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants using steam-driven turbines have surface condensers to convert the exhaust steam from the turbines into condensate (water) for re-use.[5][6]

To conserve energy and cooling capacity in chemical and other plants, regenerative heat exchangers can be used to transfer heat from one stream that needs to be cooled to another stream that needs to be heated, such as distillate cooling and reboiler feed pre-heating.

This term can also refer to heat exchangers that contain a material within their structure that has a change of phase. This is usually a solid to liquid phase due to the small volume difference between these states. This change of phase effectively acts as a buffer because it occurs at a constant temperature but still allows for the heat exchanger to accept additional heat. One example where this has been investigated is for use in high power aircraft electronics.

Direct contact heat exchangers

Direct contact heat exchangers involve heat transfer between hot and cold streams of two phases in the absence of a separating wall.[7] Thus such heat exchangers can be classified as:

  • Gas – liquid
  • Immiscible liquid – liquid
  • Solid-liquid or solid – gas

Most direct contact heat exchangers fall under the Gas- Liquid category, where heat is transferred between a gas and liquid in the form of drops, films or sprays. [2]

Such types of heat exchangers are used predominantly in air conditioning, humidification, water cooling and condensing plants.[8]

(etc.)

and this one to check later -

Micro heat exchanger

***

And, this one could be worth checking – (from the google search above for personal cooling systems) –

http://www.coolshirt.net/

How does the shirt/poncho work?
A:
Cool Shirt® contains more than 45 feet of medical grade capillary tubing securely stitched on the front and back of the shirt. The Resposable Poncho is made from material containing a network of channels that the cooled water flows through. They are both connected to a compact cooling unit via insulated hose with quick, dry disconnects. The cooling unit contains ice, water and an internal pump that supplies cool water to the Cool Shirt® as it covers up to 40% of the body.

How long will it keep the user cool?
A:
It depends on what type of ice is used (block, crushed or cubed). All of the systems will cool for a longer period of time if BLOCK ice is used rather than crushed or cubed ice. Using block ice, the systems will cool for about 6-7 hours.

How does the system operate?
A:
The system connects to any standard outlet via a UL-approved 110V Adaptor or can be connected to a 12V battery.

How do you assemble the system for use?
A:
Attach the hoses to the cooling unit and the shirt to the hoses. Be sure the quick, dry disconnect fittings are fully seated by listening for an audible “click”. Add a gallon of water to the cooling unit. Add ice to the top of the cooler. The Cool Shirt® system is now ready for use. The system connects to any standard outlet via a UL-approved 110V Adaptor or to a 12V battery.

How do you adjust the temperature of the shirt or poncho?
A:
The Temperature Controller is located on the insulated hose near the shirt/poncho. Simply adjust the roller on the controller to control flow and temperature on the shirt/poncho.

How can I tell that the shirt is working?
A:
The shirt is designed to cool the user, not make them cold. The system is designed to maintain a comfortable temperature. As it is worn, the user can become very comfortable with the shirt or poncho and become unaware of the cooling it is actually providing. If unsure, the easiest way to see that it is working properly is to shut the system off. In less than two minutes, you will have the answer.

What are the maintenance requirements?
A:
Cool Shirt®:

*
The Cool Shirt® can be hand or machine-washed and hung to quickly drip-dry or can be dried in a dryer using a laundry bag.

Resposable Poncho:

*
The Resposable Poncho can be washed in the same manner and hung to drip dry. It can withstand several washings before requiring replacement. However, it is not necessary to wash the poncho unless desired.

Cooling Unit and Hoses:

*
Interior: With each use, add 2 ounces of Maintenance Additive (MA-16) in the cooling unit with the ice and water while the unit is being used. This will keep the pump, hoses and shirt lines clear of the buildup that occurs naturally in water-circulation systems. Wipe out cooling unit after each use.
*
Exterior: When deemed necessary, wipe cooling unit, cart and hoses down with warm soapy water (preferably antibacterial). Maintain the outside of these parts just as you would maintain any other equipment used in your environment.

How long does the cooling last?
A:
This depends on the size of users, the number of users connected to the system and the temperature settings. Expect many hours of use before adding ice.

How are the Cool Shirt® and the Resposable Poncho stored?
A:
Hang the shirt or poncho on a large hanger. Coil the insulated hoses and store in the cooling unit or lay flat. Do not hang the hoses as this may damage them.

Is the system electrically safe?
A:
Yes. The pump is double-insulated and is available as a 12 Volt system or with a UL-approved 110 adaptor. See specifications on adaptor.

http://www.coolshirt.net/faq.html

***

this has a picture -

http://www.coolshirt.net/football-single-system.html

very pricey – looks like it works, though (my note)

Made of 100% durable cotton with over 45 feet of soft resilient tubing, the shirt is machine washable…just put it with the rest of the uniforms.

Football Single-person System (F-D110-24-100C) $579.00
Football Dual-person System (F-D110-24-200C) $759.00

(and)

the Cool Shirt Cool Air System – with a helmet

Our Cool Shirt (Cool Suit) Cool Air Systems are a favorite among those drivers that do not use a Cool Shirt®. Air from the car’s external intake is enhanced via a 135 or 235CFM blower and pushed thru the cooling unit, sending cooled, clean HEPA-4 filtered air to the driver’s helmet. The cooling unit is available in two sizes, depending on your needs: 24qt and a more compact 12qt fit smaller spaces. Helmet not included.

http://www.coolshirt.net/racing-cool-air-system.html

Cool Air Complete 12qt (CAS-12-C) $399.00
Cool Air Complete 24qt (CAS-24-C) $399.00

Hmmm………

***

I’m going to check another listing from the google search –

this was among the paid ads on the side – but very nifty –

http://www.tripplite.com/en/products/model.cfm?txtModelID=4462&gclid=CNve4PTYuaICFQu0sgodtEN46A

Model: SRCOOL12K

120V, Self-Contained Portable Air Conditioning Unit

  • 12,000 BTU of cooling power (over twice the cooling capacity of nearest competitor)
  • Uses environmentally friendly R410a refrigerant. (Contains zero ozone depleting R22 refrigerant which has been banned by the U.S. EPA in new equipment after January 1, 2010)
  • No water collection tank required. A built in evaporator expels condensate into the exhaust air stream meaning no drain tube, drain pan or water collection tank that needs to be emptied every few hours
  • Cold air output can be precisely directed through a 71″ flexible tube to the ‘hot spot’ for better, faster cooling. (Standard louvered insert is also included for general room cooling.)
  • Compact, portable, self-contained design; ideal for IT, industrial, commercial and similar applications

(from)

http://www.tripplite.com/en/products/model.cfm?txtModelID=4462&gclid=CNve4PTYuaICFQu0sgodtEN46A

$950.00MSRP**

Tripp Lite's SRCOOL12K is a next-generation air conditioner designed for supplemental area cooling, emergency cooling and off-hour cooling applications. The SRCOOL12K uses environmentally friendly R410a refridgeran

Tripp Lite's SRCOOL12K is a next-generation air conditioner designed for supplemental area cooling, emergency cooling and off-hour cooling applications. The SRCOOL12K uses environmentally friendly R410a refridgeran

Tripp Lite’s SRCOOL12K is a next-generation air conditioner designed for supplemental area cooling, emergency cooling and off-hour cooling applications. The SRCOOL12K uses environmentally friendly R410a refridgerant, which complies with EPA standards for 2010 and beyond, and is accepted worldwide. It contains zero, ozone depleting R22 refridgerant that has been banned by the EPS for new equipment manufactured after January 1, 2010.  Depending on the humidity level in the room, collection tanks could require emptying several times per day.

The SRCOOL12K has a built-in evaporator that expels the condensed water through the exhaust duct, so there is no need for a drain tube, drain pan or water collection tank. Efficient, compact, self-contained and portable, the 120V, 60 Hz SRCOOL12K is ideal for use in data centers, server and wiring closets, IT environments, home and small business offices, conference rooms, warehouses, entertainment centers or other venues with heat-sensitive equipment, particularly in areas that facility air conditioning can’t reach. The SRCOOL12K not only adjusts ambient room temperatures, but can also dehumidify and filter the air, providing better air quality for enhanced equipment performance with minimal noise and power consumption.

Designed for quick, simple installation, the SRCOOL12K plugs into a standard 5-15R outlet with no adapter required. Both a standard louvered vent (for general room cooling) and a directional ducted cooling vent (to direct cold air where most needed) are provided. A directional exhaust duct safely removes hot air from the room.

The SRCOOL12K meets the needs of the most demanding applications with 12,000 BTU of cooling power. A built-in timer enables the unit to be programmed for unattended startup and shutdown. Controls and displays are conveniently mounted on the top panel. An included window/drop ceiling kit provides multiple installation options.

Key Features

  • 12,000 BTU of cooling power (over twice the cooling capacity of nearest competitor)
  • Uses environmentally friendly R410a refrigerant. (Contains zero ozone depleting R22 refrigerant which has been banned by the U.S. EPA in new equipment after January 1, 2010)
  • No water collection tank required. A built in evaporator expels condensate into the exhaust air stream meaning no drain tube, drain pan or water collection tank that needs to be emptied every few hours
  • Cold air output can be precisely directed through a 71″ flexible tube to the ‘hot spot’ for better, faster cooling. (Standard louvered insert is also included for general room cooling.)
  • Compact, portable, self-contained design; ideal for IT, industrial, commercial and similar applications
  • Quick and easy installation. Plugs into a standard 5-15R outlet; no adapter required
  • Window/drop ceiling installation kit is included for extracting heat.
  • Cools in confined spaces where facility air conditioning can’t reach
  • Dehumidifies and filters air to promote more efficient equipment performance
  • Built-in timer for automatic unattended startup and shutdown
  • Quiet operation with minimal power consumption
  • Convenient top-mounted controls and displays
  • 120V AC input, 60 Hz frequency compatibility

Typical Applications

  • Supplemental cooling for confined areas where the facility HVAC is inadequate or doesn’t reach at all.

Package Includes

  • SRCOOL12K cooling unit
  • Louvered front vent
  • Directional front vent
  • Cold Air directional delivery tube
  • Hot exhaust air removal tube
  • Dropped ceiling or window heat ventilation kit.
  • Warranty information
  • Instruction manual

***

I really, really like this one. Too expensive but very nifty – need to get about five of them.

This one looks pretty good but it is another $399.00 thing.

http://www.beyondbeds.com/index.asp?PageAction=Custom&ID=152

ChiliPad™ Radiant Cooling
And Heating Mattress Pad
The Chili Pad™ is a revolutionary heating and cooling system designed to regulate the surface temperature of your mattress so that you can achieve a perfect night’s sleep. Utilizing advanced semi-conductor technology, the Chili Pad™ allows you to control the temperature of your sleeping surface at the touch of a button. Designed to fit all standard and extra thick mattresses, this unique 200 thread count, poly/cotton mattress pad uses soft, medical grade silicon tubing filled with water to heat or cool the surface of the bed to your desired temperature of between 46 -118 degrees Fahrenheit.

Saves You Money On Energy Costs.
The Chili Pad™ is a versatile system that allows you to cool or heat your bed according to your individual preference. Unlike an electric blanket, which produces a magnetic field during usage, the ChiliPad™ system creates a safe, balanced temperature below, instead of above the body, without the use of electric coils. Instead of raising and lowering your thermostat and/or air conditioner throughout the night, the Chili Pad’s wireless remote can be instantly adjusted from your bed to save you money on your energy costs. Available in both single and dual climate zone models, the ChiliPad™ allows couples to adjust each side of the bed to their individual temperature preference.

How Does The Chili Pad work?
The technology utilized by the ChiliPad™ is similar to that of semiconductor technology designed to cool computers. Water constantly flowing in and out of a single connection point in the control system can be cooled or warmed in one degree increments to create a stable surface temperature. The ChiliPad™ fits all standard mattresses, just like an ordinary mattress pad, and the silicon tubes are removable for easy laundering and maintenance. The control unit, operates under 45 decibels, and conveniently fits under the bed. The ChiliPad’s wireless remote is easy to operate and initial set up is simple. The revolutionary, innovative Chili Pad™ is the ideal way to reduce your energy costs while increasing the quality of your sleep.

(found it on this page with their other goodies for cooling sleep areas.)

http://www.beyondbeds.com/index.asp?PageAction=Custom&ID=151&source=Personal_Cooling_Google&gclid=COLRuL3duaICFR1iswodF3Z14w

(and this one)

Functions as a Personal Radiator to Absorb and Dissipate Body Heat Back Into the Air.
Slip a cooling Chillow Plus® insert into your pillowcase to sleep soundly and comfortably all night long. Designed with SoothSoft technology, this versatile cooling device requires no refrigeration and functions as a personal radiator to absorb and dissipate your body heat back into the air while you sleep. This safe, non-toxic product is activated by water to produce a dry and natural cooling effect that can be applied to a number of ailments, from headaches, to sunburns, hot flashes and night sweats . No more flipping your pillow on hot nights. The Chillow Plus® will keep working for hours, so you can sleep soundly without interruption.

Your Price:
$34.95

http://www.beyondbeds.com/index.asp?PageAction=Custom&ID=150

***

This one does say it offers cooling to bring the pillow to room temperature, so if the room temperature is 95 degrees or maybe even higher in the summer time without any air conditioning or fans, then probably that wouldn’t help very much, but I don’t know. These are interesting designs however.

- cricketdiane

***

I’m going back to the micro heat exhanger entry suggested on wikipedia -

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micro_heat_exchanger

Micro heat exchangers, Micro-scale heat exchangers, or microstructured heat exchangers are heat exchangers in which (at least one) fluid flows in lateral confinements with typical dimensions below 1 mm. The most typical such confinement are microchannels, channels with a hydraulic diameter below 1 mm.

Classification of micro heat exchangers

Just like “conventional” or “macro scale” heat exchangers, micro heat exchangers have either one or two fluidic passages. In the case of one passage, heat is transferred to the fluid [7] from electrically powered heater cartridges, or removed from the fluid by electrically powered elements like Peltier chillers. In the case of two fluidic passages[7], micro heat exchangers are usually classified by the orientation of the fluid passages to another as “cross flow” or “counter flow” devices. If a chemical reaction is conducted inside a micro heat exchanger, the latter is also called a microreactor.

Short introduction to Micro Heat Exchangers (by Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe)

***

Now, I’m going to look up this one from the entry above –

Peltier chillers

which goes to this page about thermoelectric effect –

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_effect

very interesting – and nifty -

This page is about the thermoelectric effect as a physical phenomenon. For applications of the thermoelectric effect, see thermoelectric materials, thermoelectric generator, and thermoelectric cooling.

The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa. A thermoelectric device creates a voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference (known as the Peltier effect). At atomic scale (specifically, charge carriers), an applied temperature gradient causes charged carriers in the material, whether they are electrons or electron holes, to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side, similar to a classical gas that expands when heated; hence, the thermally induced current.

This effect can be used to generate electricity, to measure temperature, to cool objects, or to heat them or cook them. Because the direction of heating and cooling is determined by the sign of the applied voltage, thermoelectric devices make very convenient temperature controllers.

Traditionally, the term thermoelectric effect or thermoelectricity encompasses three separately identified effects, the Seebeck effect, the Peltier effect, and the Thomson effect. In many textbooks, thermoelectric effect may also be called the Peltier–Seebeck effect. This separation derives from the independent discoveries of French physicist Jean Charles Athanase Peltier and Estonian-German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck. Joule heating, the heat that is generated whenever a voltage is applied across a resistive material, is somewhat related, though it is not generally termed a thermoelectric effect (and it is usually regarded as being a loss mechanism due to non-ideality in thermoelectric devices). The Peltier–Seebeck and Thomson effects can in principle be thermodynamically reversible,[1] whereas Joule heating is not.

(and then here – although the above entry has a bunch more good stuff – )

Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials. A Peltier cooler, heater, or thermoelectric heat pump is a solid-state active heat pump which transfers heat from one side of the device to the other side against the temperature gradient (from cold to hot), with consumption of electrical energy. Such an instrument is also called a Peltier device, Peltier heat pump, solid state refrigerator, or thermoelectric cooler (TEC).[1] Because heating can be achieved more easily and economically by many other methods, Peltier devices are mostly used for cooling. However, when a single device is to be used for both heating and cooling, a Peltier device may be desirable. Simply connecting it to a DC voltage will cause one side to cool, while the other side warms. The effectiveness of the pump at moving the heat away from the cold side is dependent upon the amount of current provided and how well the heat can be removed from the hot side.

A Peltier cooler is the opposite of a thermoelectric generator. In a Peltier cooler, electric power is used to generate a temperature difference between the two sides of the device; while in a thermoelectric generator, a temperature difference between the two sides is used to generate electric power. The operation of both is closely related (both are manifestations of the thermoelectric effect), and therefore the devices are generally constructed from similar materials using similar designs.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_cooling

***

I might go back to the Chillow Pillow now – and think a bit – well, back to the personal cooling google search above –

Amazon.com: Sharper Image Personal Cooling System 3.0: Sports

When it’s blazingly hot, don’t you dread leaving the air-conditioned comfort of your home? Maybe you’ve tried an ice-soaked towel around your neck but
http://www.amazon.com › … › Sports MedicineCooling & Misting Systems

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Sharper Image Personal Cooling System 3.0

Sharper Image Personal Cooling System 3.0

(says its currently unavailable – but maybe I’ll look it up elsewhere.) these are some other things on this page -

Handy Cooler – World’s first Evaporative Personal Air Cooler…

PORTABLE AIR CONDITIONER (YOUR PERSONAL COOLING SYSTEM!)
Buy new: $29.99
1 Used & new from $29.99

(and)

Body Cooling Cold Pack Cooling Systems
Buy new: $208.00
1 Used & new from $208.00

Cool Care Comfort System Chillow Pak- Original Chillow & ChillowPlus
Buy new: $69.95
1 Used & new from $69.95

Misty Mate Deluxe Personal Mist Air Cooler

****

USB + AA Solar Panel Charger

My Note –

So, okay – the icepacks are frozen, a fan is stuck in front of them, blows across them and then its all better. How about that? With a boxfan – that would be about $35.00. Hmmmmm………….

- cricketdiane

***

Okay – I’ll keep looking a bit.

HO 100870  Personal Air Conditioner

Personal Air ConditionerNever fight over the thermostat again. When you’re hot, just turn on this personal air cooling unit and cool your personal space. This portable air conditioner will be the only room air conditioner you need! Your Personal Air Conditioner points 1,000 BTUs directly at you while you work, sleep, watch TV, read, or relax. No need to vent. Just plug in and chill out. 23″H x 14″W x 9″D.

If you’re interested in our Personal Air Conditioner, you might be interested in: Air Conditioners | Air Purifiers | Cooling Fans | Air Filters | Dehumidifiers

HO 100889  Portable Evaporative Cooler

Versatile, lightweight, and super efficient, this portable evaporative air cooler uses endothermic reaction to evaporate heat from the air. Lowers surrounding air up to 15-25°. Like a cool breeze off of a body of water, natural evaporation cools without chemicals to harm the environment. This 60 watt cooler is economical, consuming hot air, not energy. Features three speed options, a timer, and sleep mode. Remote control and casters let you operate anywhere. 32″ tall.

HO 100861  Remote Control Triple Cooling Zone Fan

Don’t let its slim good looks fool you. This Remote Control Triple Cooling Zone Fan packs plenty of power. You can use one, two, or all three built-in fans, plus choose from three wind speeds and three wind modes. Features a built-in timer, oscillation option, and touch controls. 44″ tall.

Well, those are from Sharper Image and range from $299 for the first one, $189 for the middle one and $99 for the third one. Hmmmm…….
From this page -
http://www.sharperimage.com/shop.axd/Search?keywords=portable+evaporative+air+conditioner&x=24&y=11

***

Well, keep looking – but I’m thinking of waterfalls and the way it is so cool wherever they are (standing at the bottom of the falls) – no matter what the air temperature in general, those places are so cool. And usually after it rains, the air is cooler – but not always. And hot, wet air is definitely not a good thing, unless it is intentional for a short period of time in a sauna specifically for that purpose.

The Personal Cooling System
When it’s hot out, there’s nothing like getting squirted with some water or walking into a place with the AC on full blast. Whenever those sources of cooling aren’t available, you’re pretty much sore out of luck; well, unless you’ve got your Personal Cooling System handy!

It looks a bit strange, and you’ll certainly get a few stares when wearing this thing out in public, but the benefits definitely outweigh the cons: a few hours of coolness.

The cooler goes around your neck, almost like a necklace. The actual cooling is done by a patented miniature evaporation based cooling system. The quiet motor inside drives the tiny fan which, in turn, produces the end product, the coolness.

After pouring a bit of water into the reservoir, the cooler provides you with up to four hours of relief. In case you need more time out of the cooler, a mini 2-oz water bottle is included for filling up on the go.

The motor needs to get power from somewhere, and it’s not solar, so you’ll need one AA battery in the cooler in addition to the water.

There are two styles of the Personal Cooling System, sleek silver and bizarrely blue which is see through!

Living in a climate where the weather is constantly hot and humid can get pretty tiring, and having something like the Personal Cooling System around for hikes or other outdoor activities would be a good idea. The Personal Cooling System, version 3.0 at that, can be yours for only $30.

Product Page

http://www.coolest-gadgets.com/20061006/the-personal-cooling-system-30/

***

Here’s one for a three speed fan that fits on a drum kit for musicians –

http://www.blowitfans.com/

Hmmmm……

I would look silly walking to Kroger a mile from here with a drum kit traipsing along so I could have a fan. I don’t know how daughter and granddaughter would feel about it. They’d probably like it just fine. It is very nifty.

- cricketdiane

***

I think I’ll go back to the heat exchanger stuff –

Oh wait – here’s one more –

Cooling Vest Product Line
Cool Sport’s line of body cooling vests are designed to keep your body’s core temperature within safe levels during physical exertion within high-heat environments. We have four primary designs; the Cool Vest Lite, the Cool Vest Classic, the Cool Vest Deluxe and the Motor Sport Cool Vest. Each of these vest models have their own design for comfortable wear without any restriction of movement. With our new (phase change material technology) cooling packs, our vests maintain a comfortable, safe and constant 62º F temperature against the body.

Long-Lasting Cooling Effect:
The Cooling Vests have been proven effective for up to 2.5 hours. Keep in mind that effectiveness is a variable of ambient temperatures, workload and physiology, so yours may vary.

Easy to Recharge:
Unlike conventional ice and gel packs which take hours to freeze in a freezer, one of the most exciting features of the 62º F. phase change material technology Cool Packs are their ability to recharge in ice water within 20 minutes! The Cool Packs may also be recharged within a refrigerator or freezer and may be stored there without damage to the packs, until ready for use. You can keep a spare set of charged, individual Cool Packs on hand, in a portable cooler for quick and easy changeovers, with minimal downtime!

Safe:
CoolPacks are nontoxic as well as non-flammable. NOTE: Discontinue using cool pack and garment if the packs leak or are ruptured (call for replacements). Do not use the cool vest near sparks, hot objects or open flame without approved protective clothing over top.

What’s New?:
CoolSport is now capable (on a case-by-case basis) of offering (for all commercial, personal, medical and sports) customizing options for our line of cooling garments, including a wide assortment of colors, patterns (such as camouflage patterns) as well as flame and electrical arc resistant fabrics! Customized options may carry an additional charge. E-mail or fax CoolSport for more details and information. NEW!: See CoolSport’s newest additions to our line of cooling products — The Cooling Accessories page with the Head/Neck Band, Cool Pad and the Wheel Chair Cool Pad!

For More Information:
For more information, browse the rest of this website, or call CoolSport today with your requests at
310-618-1590. Fax Coolsport at (401) 712-5545. You can e-mail CoolSport at coolsport@prodigy.net

Write CoolSport at:

CoolSport, Inc.
1820 W. Carson St. Suite #202, PMB 328
Torrance, CA 90501-3297

(from)

http://www.coolsport.net/index2.html

***

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